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Sample records for specific brain functions

  1. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves

    PubMed Central

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call ‘connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory–inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation–inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness. PMID:26792267

  2. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    PubMed Central

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide variety of cognitive processes? For nearly two centuries, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain—from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky and Fodor—have jousted with the proponents of distributed cognitive and neural processing—from Flourens to Lashley to McClelland and Rumelhart. I argue here that research using functional MRI is beginning to answer this long-standing question with new clarity and precision by indicating that at least a few specific aspects of cognition are implemented in brain regions that are highly specialized for that process alone. Cortical regions have been identified that are specialized not only for basic sensory and motor processes but also for the high-level perceptual analysis of faces, places, bodies, visually presented words, and even for the very abstract cognitive function of thinking about another person’s thoughts. I further consider the as-yet unanswered questions of how much of the mind and brain are made up of these functionally specialized components and how they arise developmentally. PMID:20484679

  3. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  4. Electro-acupuncture at different acupoints modulating the relative specific brain functional network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yin; Liu, Hesheng; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Kehua; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Objective: The specific brain effects of acupoint are important scientific concern in acupuncture. However, previous acupuncture fMRI studies focused on acupoints in muscle layer on the limb. Therefore, researches on acupoints within connective tissue at trunk are warranted. Material and Methods: Brain effects of acupuncture on abdomen at acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were tested using fMRI on 21 healthy volunteers. The data acquisition was performed at resting state, during needle retention, electroacupuncture (EA) and post-EA resting state. Needling sensations were rated after every electroacupuncture (EA) procedure. The needling sensations and the brain functional activity and connectivity were compared between CV4 and CV12 using SPSS, SPM2 and the local and remote connectivity maps. Results and conclusion: EA at CV4 and CV12 induced apparent deactivation effects in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network. The default mode of the brain was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The functional brain network was significantly changed post EA. However, the minor differences existed between these two acupoints. The results demonstrated similarity between functional brain network mode of acupuncture modulation and functional circuits of emotional and cognitive regulation. Acupuncture may produce analgesia, anti-anxiety and anti-depression via the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN).

  5. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K.; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures. PMID:21885736

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of riboflavin specific transport system in rat brain capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin is an important water soluble vitamin (B2) required for metabolic reactions, normal cellular growth, differentiation and function. Mammalian brain cells cannot synthesize riboflavin and must import from systemic circulation. However, the uptake mechanism, cellular translocation and intracellular trafficking of riboflavin in brain capillary endothelial cells are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the existence of riboflavin-specific transport system and delineate the uptake and intracellular regulation of riboflavin in immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBE4). The uptake of [3H]-Riboflavin is sodium, temperature and energy dependent but pH independent. [3H]-Riboflavin uptake is saturable with Km and Vmax values of 19 ± 3 µM and 0.235 ± 0.012 picomoles/min/mg protein, respectively. The uptake process is inhibited by unlabelled structural analogs (lumiflavin, lumichrome) but not by structurally unrelated vitamins. Ca++/calmodulin and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are found to play an important role in the intracellular regulation of [3H]-Riboflavin. Apical and baso-lateral uptake of [3H]-Riboflavin clearly indicate that riboflavin specific transport system is predominantly localized on the apical side of RBE4 cells. A 628 bp band corresponding to riboflavin transporter is revealed in RT-PCR analysis. These findings, for the first time report the existence of a specialized and high affinity transport system for riboflavin in RBE4 cells. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle limiting drug transport inside the brain as it regulates drug permeation from systemic circulation. This transporter can be utilized for targeted delivery in enhancing brain permeation of highly potent drugs on systemic administration. PMID:22683359

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of riboflavin specific transport system in rat brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-08-15

    Riboflavin is an important water soluble vitamin (B2) required for metabolic reactions, normal cellular growth, differentiation and function. Mammalian brain cells cannot synthesize riboflavin and must import from systemic circulation. However, the uptake mechanism, cellular translocation and intracellular trafficking of riboflavin in brain capillary endothelial cells are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the existence of a riboflavin-specific transport system and delineate the uptake and intracellular regulation of riboflavin in immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBE4). The uptake of [3H]-riboflavin is sodium, temperature and energy dependent but pH independent. [3H]-Riboflavin uptake is saturable with K(m) and V(max) values of 19 ± 3 μM and 0.235 ± 0.012 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The uptake process is inhibited by unlabelled structural analogs (lumiflavin, lumichrome) but not by structurally unrelated vitamins. Ca(++)/calmodulin and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are found to play an important role in the intracellular regulation of [3H]-riboflavin. Apical and baso-lateral uptake of [3H]-riboflavin clearly indicates that a riboflavin specific transport system is predominantly localized on the apical side of RBE4 cells. A 628 bp band corresponding to a riboflavin transporter is revealed in RT-PCR analysis. These findings, for the first time report the existence of a specialized and high affinity transport system for riboflavin in RBE4 cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle limiting drug transport inside the brain as it regulates drug permeation from systemic circulation. This transporter can be utilized for targeted delivery in enhancing brain permeation of highly potent drugs on systemic administration. PMID:22683359

  8. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure

    PubMed Central

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641

  9. Co-localisation of abnormal brain structure and function in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior frontal cortex and decreased in the right caudate nucleus and superior temporal cortex bilaterally. The unaffected siblings also showed reduced grey matter in the caudate nucleus relative to controls. In an auditory covert naming task, the SLI group showed reduced activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, right putamen, and in the superior temporal cortex bilaterally. Despite spatially coincident structural and functional abnormalities in frontal and temporal areas, the relationships between structure and function in these regions were different. These findings suggest multiple structural and functional abnormalities in SLI that are differently associated with receptive and expressive language processing. PMID:22137677

  10. Electrical brain stimulation improves cognitive performance by modulating functional connectivity and task-specific activation.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Antonenko, Daria; Lindenberg, Robert; Hetzer, Stefan; Ulm, Lena; Avirame, Keren; Flaisch, Tobias; Flöel, Agnes

    2012-02-01

    Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) can improve human cognitive functions, but neural underpinnings of its mode of action remain elusive. In a cross-over placebo ("sham") controlled study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neurofunctional correlates of improved language functions induced by atDCS over a core language area, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Intrascanner transcranial direct current stimulation-induced changes in overt semantic word generation assessed behavioral modulation; task-related and task-independent (resting-state) fMRI characterized language network changes. Improved word-retrieval during atDCS was paralleled by selectively reduced task-related activation in the left ventral IFG, an area specifically implicated in semantic retrieval processes. Under atDCS, resting-state fMRI revealed increased connectivity of the left IFG and additional major hubs overlapping with the language network. In conclusion, atDCS modulates endogenous low-frequency oscillations in a distributed set of functionally connected brain areas, possibly inducing more efficient processing in critical task-relevant areas and improved behavioral performance. PMID:22302824

  11. PECAM-1 isoform-specific functions in PECAM-1-deficient brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Terri A; Sheibani, Nader

    2008-03-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) is alternatively spliced generating eight isoforms that only differ in the length of their cytoplasmic domain. Multiple isoforms of PECAM-1 are present in the endothelium and their expression levels are regulated during vascular development and angiogenesis. However, the functional significance of PECAM-1 isoforms during these processes remains largely unknown. We recently showed that mouse brain endothelial (bEND) cells prepared from PECAM-1-deficient (PECAM-1-/-) mice differ in their cell adhesive and migratory properties compared to PECAM-1+/+ bEND cells. Here we demonstrate that the restoration of PECAM-1 expression in these cells affects their adhesive and migratory properties in an isoform-specific manner. Expression of Delta14&15 PECAM-1, the predominant isoform present in the mouse endothelium, in PECAM-1-/- bEND cells activated MAPK/ERKs, disrupted adherens junctions, and enhanced cell migration and capillary morphogenesis in Matrigel. In contrast, expression of Delta15 PECAM-1 in PECAM-1-/- bEND cells had minimal effects on their activation of MAPK/ERKs, migration, and capillary morphogenesis. The effects of PECAM-1 on cell adhesive and migratory properties were mediated in an isoform-specific manner, at least in part, through its interactions with intracellular signaling proteins, including SHP-2 and Src. These results suggest that the impact of PECAM-1 on EC adhesion, migration, and capillary morphogenesis is modulated by alternative splicing of its cytoplasmic domain. PMID:18029285

  12. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a brain-specific somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, J F; Xu, Y; Song, J; Berelowitz, M

    1992-01-01

    The PCR and conventional library screening were used to clone the brain-specific somatostatin receptor rSSTR-4 from a rat genomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes a protein of 384 amino acids and displays structural and sequence homologies with members of the G protein-receptor superfamily. The amino acid sequence of rSSTR-4 is 60% and 48% identical to that of somatostatin receptors SSTR-1 and SSTR-2, respectively, two recently cloned subtypes. Competition curve analysis of the binding properties of the receptor transiently expressed in COS-1 cells revealed a higher apparent affinity for somatostatin 14 than for somatostatin 28. In contrast, the somatostatin analogs SMS 201-995, IM 4-28, and MK-678 failed to displace specific binding in transfected cells. These characteristics resemble the pharmacological binding properties of the previously described brain-specific somatostatin-receptor subtype. Examination of the tissue distribution of mRNA for rSSTR-4 revealed expression limited to various brain regions with highest levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Thus, based on the pharmacology and tissue localization of this receptor, we conclude that rSSTR-4 represents a brain-specific somatostatin receptor. Images PMID:1360663

  13. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  14. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  15. Functional equivalence of Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebrum during embryonic brain development of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hirth, F; Loop, T; Egger, B; Miller, D F; Kaufman, T C; Reichert, H

    2001-12-01

    Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the specification of segmental identity during embryonic development. This specification of identity is thought to be directed by differential Hox gene action, based on differential spatiotemporal expression patterns, protein sequence differences, interactions with co-factors and regulation of specific downstream genes. During embryonic development of the Drosophila brain, the Hox gene labial is required for the regionalized specification of the tritocerebral neuromere; in the absence of labial, the cells in this brain region do not acquire a neuronal identity and major axonal pathfinding deficits result. We have used genetic rescue experiments to investigate the functional equivalence of the Drosophila Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. Using the Gal4-UAS system, we first demonstrate that the labial mutant brain phenotype can be rescued by targeted expression of the Labial protein under the control of CNS-specific labial regulatory elements. We then show that under the control of these CNS-specific regulatory elements, all other Drosophila Hox gene products, except Abdominal-B, are able to efficiently replace Labial in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. We also observe a correlation between the rescue efficiency of the Hox proteins and the chromosomal arrangement of their encoding loci. Our results indicate that, despite considerably diverged sequences, most Hox proteins are functionally equivalent in their ability to replace Labial in the specification of neuronal identity. This suggests that in embryonic brain development, differences in Hox gene action rely mainly on cis-acting regulatory elements and not on Hox protein specificity. PMID:11731458

  16. Low frequency steady-state brain responses modulate large scale functional networks in a frequency-specific means.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (<1 Hz). However, it is difficult to determine the frequency characteristics of brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities. PMID:26512872

  17. Is the self a higher-order or fundamental function of the brain? The "basis model of self-specificity" and its encoding by the brain's spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-01

    What is the self? This is a question that has long been discussed in (Western) philosophy where the self is traditionally conceived a higher-order function at the apex or pinnacle of all functions. This tradition has been transferred to recent neuroscience where the self is often considered to be a higher-order cognitive function reflected in memory and other high-level judgements. However, other lines of research demonstrate a close and intimate relationship between self-specificity and more basic functions like perceptions, emotions and reward. This paper focuses on the relationship between self-specificity and other basic functions relating to emotions, reward and perception. I propose the basis model that conceives self-specificity as a fundamental feature of the brain's spontaneous activity. This is supported by recent findings showing rest-self overlap in midline regions as well as findings demonstrating that the resting state can predict subsequent degrees of self-specificity. I conclude that such self-specificity in the brain's spontaneous activity may be central in linking the self to either internal or external stimuli. This may also provide the basis for coding the self as subject in relation to internal (i.e., self-consciousness) or external (i.e., phenomenal consciousness) mental events. PMID:26505808

  18. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  19. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients. PMID:26193256

  20. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients. PMID:26193256

  1. Specificity of hemodynamic brain responses to painful stimuli: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Meryem A; Aasted, Christopher M; Petkov, Mihayl P; Borsook, David; Boas, David A; Becerra, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Assessing pain in individuals not able to communicate (e.g. infants, under surgery, or following stroke) is difficult due to the lack of non-verbal objective measures of pain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) being a portable, non-invasive and inexpensive method of monitoring cerebral hemodynamic activity has the potential to provide such a measure. Here we used functional NIRS to evaluate brain activation to an innocuous and a noxious electrical stimulus on healthy human subjects (n = 11). For both innocuous and noxious stimuli, we observed a signal change in the primary somatosensory cortex contralateral to the stimulus. The painful and non-painful stimuli can be differentiated based on their signal size and profile. We also observed that repetitive noxious stimuli resulted in adaptation of the signal. Furthermore, the signal was distinguishable from a skin sympathetic response to pain that tended to mask it. Our results support the notion that functional NIRS has a potential utility as an objective measure of pain. PMID:25820289

  2. Specificity of Hemodynamic Brain Responses to Painful Stimuli: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Aasted, Christopher M.; Petkov, Mihayl P.; Borsook, David; Boas, David A.; Becerra, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Assessing pain in individuals not able to communicate (e.g. infants, under surgery, or following stroke) is difficult due to the lack of non-verbal objective measures of pain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) being a portable, non-invasive and inexpensive method of monitoring cerebral hemodynamic activity has the potential to provide such a measure. Here we used functional NIRS to evaluate brain activation to an innocuous and a noxious electrical stimulus on healthy human subjects (n = 11). For both innocuous and noxious stimuli, we observed a signal change in the primary somatosensory cortex contralateral to the stimulus. The painful and non-painful stimuli can be differentiated based on their signal size and profile. We also observed that repetitive noxious stimuli resulted in adaptation of the signal. Furthermore, the signal was distinguishable from a skin sympathetic response to pain that tended to mask it. Our results support the notion that functional NIRS has a potential utility as an objective measure of pain. PMID:25820289

  3. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Methods Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Results Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Conclusions Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OO-13003389. PMID:26464415

  4. Differences in mitochondrial function in homogenated samples from healthy and epileptic specific brain tissues revealed by high-resolution respirometry.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Johannes; Zangrandi, Luca; Schwarzer, Christoph; Gnaiger, Erich

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are strongly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy. Strikingly, neurodegenerative diseases show regional specificity in vulnerability and follow distinct patterns of neuronal loss. A challenge is to understand, why mitochondria fail in particular brain regions under specific pathological conditions. A potential explanation could be provided by regional or cellular specificity of mitochondrial function. We applied high-resolution respirometry to analyze the integrated Complex I- and II (CI and CII)-linked respiration, the activity of Complex IV, and the combined CI&II-linked oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)- and electron-transfer system (ETS)-capacity in microsamples obtained from distinct regions of the mouse brain. We compared different approaches to assess mitochondrial density and suggest flux control ratios as a valid method to normalize respiration to mitochondrial density. This approach revealed significant differences of CI- and CII-linked OXPHOS capacity and coupling control between motor cortex, striatum, hippocampus and pons of naïve mice. CI-linked respiration was highest in motor cortex, while CII-linked respiration predominated in the striatum. To investigate if this method could also determine differences in normal and disease states within the same brain region, we compared hippocampal homogenates in a chronic epilepsy model. Three weeks after stereotaxic injection of kainate, there was a down-regulation of CI- and upregulation of CII-linked respiration in the resulting epileptic ipsilateral hippocampus compared to the contralateral one. In summary, respirometric OXPHOS analysis provides a very sensitive diagnostic approach using small amounts of distinct brain tissues. In a single assay, information is obtained on numerous OXPHOS parameters as indicators of tissue-specific mitochondrial performance. PMID:26516105

  5. Functional Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA). The database search was supplemented with a search of relevant Web sites and a review of the bibliographies of selected papers. General inclusion criteria were applied to all conditions. Those criteria included the following: Full reports of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort-control studies, prospective cohort studies (PCS’), and retrospective studies. Sample sizes of at least 20 patients (≥ 10 with condition being reviewed). English-language studies. Human studies. Any age. Studying at least one of the following: fMRI, PET, MRS, or MEG. Functional brain imaging modality must be compared with a clearly defined reference standard. Must report at least one of the following outcomes: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), receiver operating characteristic curve, outcome measuring impact on diagnostic testing, treatment, patient health, or cost. Summary of Findings There is evidence to indicate that PET can accurately diagnose AD; however, at this time, there is no evidence to suggest that a diagnosis of AD with PET alters the clinical outcomes of patients. The addition of MRS or O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine (FET)-PET to gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MRI for distinguishing malignant from benign tumours during primary diagnosis may provide a higher specificity than Gd-enhanced MRI alone. The clinical utility of additional imaging in patients to distinguish malignant from benign tumours is unclear, because patients with a suspected brain tumour will likely undergo a biopsy despite additional imaging results. The addition of MRS, FET-PET, or MRI T2 to Gd-enhanced MRI for the differentiation of recurrence from radiation necrosis may provide a higher specificity than Gd-enhanced MRI alone. The clinical utility of additional imaging in patients with a suspected recurrence is in the monitoring of

  6. Split Brain Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)

  7. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  8. Disease-Specific Probabilistic Brain Atlases.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul; Mega, Michael S; Toga, Arthur W

    2000-06-11

    Atlases of the human brain, in health and disease, provide a comprehensive framework for understanding brain structure and function. The complexity and variability of brain structure, especially in the gyral patterns of the human cortex, present challenges in creating standardized brain atlases that reflect the anatomy of a population. This paper introduces the concept of a population-based, disease-specific brain atlas that can reflect the unique anatomy and physiology of a particular clinical subpopulation. Based on well-characterized patient groups, disease-specific atlases contain thousands of structure models, composite maps, average templates, and visualizations of structural variability, asymmetry and group-specific differences. They correlate the structural, metabolic, molecular and histologic hallmarks of the disease. Rather than simply fusing information from multiple subjects and sources, new mathematical strategies are introduced to resolve group-specific features not apparent in individual scans. High-dimensional elastic mappings, based on covariant partial differential equations, are developed to encode patterns of cortical variation. In the resulting brain atlas, disease-specific features and regional asymmetries emerge that are not apparent in individual anatomies. The resulting probabilistic atlas can identify patterns of altered structure and function, and can guide algorithms for knowledge-based image analysis, automated image labeling, tissue classification, data mining and functional image analysis. PMID:19424457

  9. Disease-Specific Probabilistic Brain Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul; Mega, Michael S.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Atlases of the human brain, in health and disease, provide a comprehensive framework for understanding brain structure and function. The complexity and variability of brain structure, especially in the gyral patterns of the human cortex, present challenges in creating standardized brain atlases that reflect the anatomy of a population. This paper introduces the concept of a population-based, disease-specific brain atlas that can reflect the unique anatomy and physiology of a particular clinical subpopulation. Based on well-characterized patient groups, disease-specific atlases contain thousands of structure models, composite maps, average templates, and visualizations of structural variability, asymmetry and group-specific differences. They correlate the structural, metabolic, molecular and histologic hallmarks of the disease. Rather than simply fusing information from multiple subjects and sources, new mathematical strategies are introduced to resolve group-specific features not apparent in individual scans. High-dimensional elastic mappings, based on covariant partial differential equations, are developed to encode patterns of cortical variation. In the resulting brain atlas, disease-specific features and regional asymmetries emerge that are not apparent in individual anatomies. The resulting probabilistic atlas can identify patterns of altered structure and function, and can guide algorithms for knowledge-based image analysis, automated image labeling, tissue classification, data mining and functional image analysis. PMID:19424457

  10. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  11. Brain Hemispheric Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Four articles consider brain hemisphere functioning of gifted students as it relates to gifted programs; alternation of education methodologies; spatial ability as an element of intellectual gifted functioning; and the interaction between hemisphere specialization, imagery, creative imagination, and sex differentiation. (SB)

  12. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  13. High-Resolution Labeling and Functional Manipulation of Specific Neuron Types in Mouse Brain by Cre-Activated Viral Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Huang, Z. Josh

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2) upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv) fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain. PMID:18414675

  14. Dynamic imaging of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there have been unprecedented methodological advances in the dynamic imaging of brain activities. Electrophysiological, optical, and magnetic resonance methods now allow mapping of functional activation (or deactivation) by measurement of neuronal activity (e.g., membrane potential, ion flux, neurotransmitter flux), energy metabolism (e.g., glucose consumption, oxygen consumption, creatine kinase flux), and functional hyperemia (e.g., blood oxygenation, blood flow, blood volume). Properties of the glutamatergic synapse are used as a model to reveal activities at the nerve terminal and their associated changes in energy demand and blood flow. This approach reveals that each method measures different tissue- and/or cell-specific components with specified spatiotemporal resolution. While advantages and disadvantages of different methods are apparent and often used to supersede one another in terms of specificity and/or sensitivity, no particular technique is the optimal dynamic brain imaging method because each method is unique in some respect. Because the demand for energy substrates is a fundamental requirement for function, energy-based methods may allow quantitative dynamic imaging in vivo. However there are exclusive neurobiological insights gained by combining some of these different dynamic imaging techniques. PMID:18839085

  15. BEND3 is involved in the human-specific repression of calreticulin: Implication for the evolution of higher brain functions in human.

    PubMed

    Aghajanirefah, A; Nguyen, L N; Ohadi, M

    2016-01-15

    Recent emerging evidence indicates that changes in gene expression levels are linked to human evolution. We have previously reported a human-specific nucleotide in the promoter sequence of the calreticulin (CALR) gene at position -220C, which is the site of action of valproic acid. Reversion of this nucleotide to the ancestral A-allele has been detected in patients with degrees of deficit in higher brain cognitive functions. This mutation has since been reported in the 1000 genomes database at an approximate frequency of <0.0004 in humans (rs138452745). In the study reported here, we present update on the status of rs138452745 across evolution, based on the Ensembl and NCBI databases. The DNA pulldown assay was also used to identify the proteins binding to the C- and A-alleles, using two cell lines, SK-N-BE and HeLa. Consistent with our previous findings, the C-allele is human-specific, and the A-allele is the rule across all other species (N=38). This nucleotide resides in a block of 12-nucleotides that is strictly conserved across evolution. The DNA pulldown experiments revealed that in both SK-N-BE and HeLa cells, the transcription repressor BEN domain containing 3 (BEND3) binds to the human-specific C-allele, whereas the nuclear factor I (NFI) family members, NF1A, B, C, and X, specifically bind to the ancestral A-allele. This binding pattern is consistent with a previously reported decreased promoter activity of the C-allele vs. the A-allele. We propose that there is a link between binding of BEND3 to the CALR rs138452745 C-allele and removal of NFI binding site from this nucleotide, and the evolution of human-specific higher brain functions. To our knowledge, CALR rs138452745 is the first instance of enormous nucleotide conservation across evolution, except in the human species. PMID:26481236

  16. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  17. The brain timewise: how timing shapes and supports brain function

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the importance of timing in brain function: how temporal dynamics of the world has left its traces in the brain during evolution and how we can monitor the dynamics of the human brain with non-invasive measurements. Accurate timing is important for the interplay of neurons, neuronal circuitries, brain areas and human individuals. In the human brain, multiple temporal integration windows are hierarchically organized, with temporal scales ranging from microseconds to tens and hundreds of milliseconds for perceptual, motor and cognitive functions, and up to minutes, hours and even months for hormonal and mood changes. Accurate timing is impaired in several brain diseases. From the current repertoire of non-invasive brain imaging methods, only magnetoencephalography (MEG) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) provide millisecond time-resolution; our focus in this paper is on MEG. Since the introduction of high-density whole-scalp MEG/EEG coverage in the 1990s, the instrumentation has not changed drastically; yet, novel data analyses are advancing the field rapidly by shifting the focus from the mere pinpointing of activity hotspots to seeking stimulus- or task-specific information and to characterizing functional networks. During the next decades, we can expect increased spatial resolution and accuracy of the time-resolved brain imaging and better understanding of brain function, especially its temporal constraints, with the development of novel instrumentation and finer-grained, physiologically inspired generative models of local and network activity. Merging both spatial and temporal information with increasing accuracy and carrying out recordings in naturalistic conditions, including social interaction, will bring much new information about human brain function. PMID:25823867

  18. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness. PMID:18568016

  19. Peroxisomes in brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Berger, Johannes; Dorninger, Fabian; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Kunze, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes contain numerous enzymatic activities that are important for mammalian physiology. Patients lacking either all peroxisomal functions or a single enzyme or transporter function typically develop severe neurological deficits, which originate from aberrant development of the brain, demyelination and loss of axonal integrity, neuroinflammation or other neurodegenerative processes. Whilst correlating peroxisomal properties with a compilation of pathologies observed in human patients and mouse models lacking all or individual peroxisomal functions, we discuss the importance of peroxisomal metabolites and tissue- and cell type-specific contributions to the observed brain pathologies. This enables us to deconstruct the local and systemic contribution of individual metabolic pathways to specific brain functions. We also review the recently discovered variability of pathological symptoms in cases with unexpectedly mild presentation of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Finally, we explore the emerging evidence linking peroxisomes to more common neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:26686055

  20. Modeling of functional brain imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, Barry

    1999-03-01

    The richness and complexity of data sets obtained from functional neuroimaging studies of human cognitive behavior, using techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, have until recently not been exploited by computational neural modeling methods. In this article, following a brief introduction to functional neuroimaging methodology, two neural modeling approaches for use with functional brain imaging data are described. One, which uses structural equation modeling, examines the effective functional connections between various brain regions during specific cognitive tasks. The second employs large-scale neural modeling to relate functional neuroimaging signals in multiple, interconnected brain regions to the underlying neurobiological time-varying activities in each region. These two modeling procedures are illustrated using a visual processing paradigm.

  1. Evidence that increased 5-HT release evokes region-specific effects on blood-oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Preece, M A; Taylor, M J; Raley, J; Blamire, A; Sharp, T; Sibson, N R

    2009-03-17

    This study aimed to determine the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a non-invasive means of detecting effects of increased 5-HT release in brain. Changes in blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the 5-HT-releasing agent, fenfluramine, were measured in selected brain regions of halothane-anesthetized rats. Initial immunohistochemical measurements of the marker of neural activation, Fos, confirmed that in halothane-anesthetized rats fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) evoked cellular responses in cortical regions which were attenuated by pre-treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg i.p. once daily for 2 days). Fenfluramine-induced Fos was demonstrated in numerous glutamatergic pyramidal neurons (Fos/excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) co-labeled), but also a small number of GABA interneurons (Fos/glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(67) colabeled). Fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) evoked changes in BOLD signal intensity in a number of cortical and sub-cortical regions with the greatest effects being observed in the nucleus accumbens (-13.0%+/-2.7%), prefrontal cortex (-10.1%+/-3.2%) and motor cortex (+2.3%+/-1.0%). Pre-treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, significantly attenuated the response to fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) in all regions with the exception of the motor cortex which showed a trend. These experiments demonstrate that increased 5-HT release evokes region-specific changes in the BOLD signal in rats, and that this effect is attenuated in almost all regions by 5-HT depletion. These findings support the use of fMRI imaging methods as a non-invasive tool to study 5-HT function in animal models, with the potential for extension to clinical studies. PMID:19174180

  2. Modeling of region-specific fMRI BOLD neurovascular response functions in rat brain reveals residual differences that correlate with the differences in regional evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Pawela, Christopher P; Hudetz, Anthony G; Ward, B Douglas; Schulte, Marie L; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S; Mauck, Matthew C; Cho, Younghoon R; Neitz, Jay; Hyde, James S

    2008-06-01

    The response of the rat visual system to flashes of blue light has been studied by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The BOLD temporal response is dependent on the number of flashes presented and demonstrates a refractory period that depends on flash frequency. Activated brain regions included the primary and secondary visual cortex, superior colliculus (SC), dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP), which were found to exhibit differing temporal responses. To explain these differences, the BOLD neurovascular response function was modeled. A second-order differential equation was developed and solved numerically to arrive at region-specific response functions. Included in the model are the light input from the diode (duty cycle), a refractory period, a transient response following onset and cessation of stimulus, and a slow adjustment to changes in the average level of the signal. Constants in the differential equation were evaluated for each region by fitting the model to the experimental BOLD response from a single flash, and the equation was then solved for multiple flashes. The simulation mimics the major features of the data; however, remaining differences in the frequency dependence of the response between the cortical and subcortical regions were unexplained. We hypothesized that these discrepancies were due to regional-specific differences in neuronal response to flash frequency. To test this hypothesis, cortical visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded using the same stimulation protocol as the fMRI. Cortical VEPs were more suppressed than subcortical VEPs as flash frequency increased, supporting our hypothesis. This is the first report that regional differences in neuronal activation to the same stimulus lead to differential BOLD activation. PMID:18406628

  3. Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  4. Lead poisoning and brain cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G.W. Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1990-11-01

    Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

  5. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  6. Secretin: specific binding to rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fremeau, R.T. Jr.; Jensen, R.T.; Charlton, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Moody, T.W.

    1983-08-01

    The binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin to rat brain membranes was investigated. Radiolabeled secretin bound with high affinity (KD . 0.2 nM) to a single class of noninteracting sites. Binding was specific, saturable, and reversible. Regional distribution studies indicated that the specific binding was greatest in the cerebellum, intermediate in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and lowest in the midbrain and medulla/pons. Pharmacological studies indicated that only secretin, but not other peptides, inhibits binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin with high affinity. Also, certain guanine nucleotides inhibited high affinity binding. These data indicate that rat brain membranes possess high affinity binding sites specific for secretin and that with the use of (/sup 125/I) secretin the kinetics, stoichiometry, specificity, and distribution of secretin receptors can be directly investigated.

  7. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  8. Specific binding of atrial natriuretic factor in brain microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrier, P.E.; Roubert, P.; Braquet, P.

    1987-04-01

    Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood-brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. The authors examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using /sup 125/I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood-brain barrier function.

  9. Specific Binding of Atrial Natriuretic Factor in Brain Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Pierre E.; Roubert, Pierre; Braquet, Pierre

    1987-04-01

    Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood--brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. We examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using 125I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity (dissociation constant, ≈ 10-10 M) and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of 125I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood--brain barrier function.

  10. [Localization of language function in the brain].

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2011-12-01

    Since the first report of an aphasic patient by Paul Broca, the localization of brain function has been disputed for 150 years. In lesion studies, double dissociation has been a key concept to show the localization of particular cognitive functions. The advancement of non-invasive brain imaging methods enables us to investigate the brain activities under well-controlled conditions, further promoting the studies on the localization of the cognitive functions, including language function. Brain imaging studies, together with subtraction and correlation analyses, have accumulated evidence that syntax, phonology, and sentence comprehension are separately processed by modules in different cortical regions. More specifically, it has been clarified that the module for syntax localizes in the left lateral premotor cortex and the opercular/triangular parts of the left inferior frontal gyrus. This modular structure further suggests that aphasia is interpreted as deficits in either syntactic or phonological processing. Therefore, the classical model of contrasting speech production and comprehension should be updated. According to theoretical linguistics, on the other hand, the recursive computation of syntactic structures is an essential feature of human language faculty. One direction of research would be to contrast human beings and animals for the abilities of processing symbolic sequences. Another direction is to clarify that the human brain is indeed specialized in language processing, which can be revealed by well-controlled language tasks and functional imaging techniques. Here we will review recent studies that demonstrate the existence of grammar center in the left frontal cortex. The future studies in the neuroscience of language will eventually elucidate the cortical localization of language function in a more precise way, i.e., what is really computed in the human brain. PMID:22147453

  11. Differentiating cognitive functions of poststroke patients with specific brain lesions: A preliminary study on the clinical utility of Cognistat-P.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sam C C; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wu, Yi; Liu, Karen P Y; Xu, Yan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The Cognistat is widely used to measure the cognitive profile of neurological patients. This study aimed to further obtain evidence on the construct and discriminative validity of the Putonghua version of the Cognistat (Cognistat-P) on poststroke patients with specific brain lesions. Cognistat-P was administered to poststroke patients (n = 98), as well as healthy elderly (n = 40) and adult (n = 34) participants as the control groups. Poststroke patients were further categorized into 4 lesion groups using standard brain slice templates. Exploratory factory analysis reflected a 2-factor structure for the Cognistat-P that resembles that for the original English version. The Construction, Similarities, and Judgment subtests were found to differentiate patients with frontal or parietal lesions from those with subcortical lesions (p < .01, R(2) = .48). The Construction subtest, tapping the "fluid" ability, was the most useful for differentiating patients with parietal lesions from those with subcortical lesions. The Similarities subtest together with the Construction subtest was the most useful for differentiating patients with frontal lesions from those with subcortical lesions. This study established the validity of the Cognistat-P for differentiating poststroke patients with specific brain lesions. Future studies should replicate the results on a larger sample size and test the clinical significance of the Cognistat-P profiles. PMID:26571130

  12. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paolo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Ciappolino, Valentina; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders. PMID:26742060

  13. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paolo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Ciappolino, Valentina; Agostoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders. PMID:26742060

  14. Brief Report: Brain Mechanisms in Autism: Functional and Structural Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of research on functional and structural abnormalities of the brain in autism. The current concept of causation is seen to involve multiple biologic levels. A consistent profile of brain function and dysfunction across methods has been found and specific neuropathologic findings have been found; but some research…

  15. Robust Transient Dynamics and Brain Functions

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades several concepts of dynamical systems theory (DST) have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques) has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc., have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework – heteroclinic sequential dynamics – to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i) within the same modality, (ii) among different modalities from the same family (like perception), and (iii) among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition). The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential) dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory – a vital cognitive function –, and to find specific dynamical signatures – different kinds of instabilities – of several brain functions and mental diseases. PMID:21716642

  16. Robust transient dynamics and brain functions.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Varona, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades several concepts of dynamical systems theory (DST) have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques) has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc., have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework - heteroclinic sequential dynamics - to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i) within the same modality, (ii) among different modalities from the same family (like perception), and (iii) among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition). The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential) dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory - a vital cognitive function -, and to find specific dynamical signatures - different kinds of instabilities - of several brain functions and mental diseases. PMID:21716642

  17. Frequency-specific network topologies in the resting human brain.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Shuntaro; Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    A community is a set of nodes with dense inter-connections, while there are sparse connections between different communities. A hub is a highly connected node with high centrality. It has been shown that both "communities" and "hubs" exist simultaneously in the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN), as estimated by correlations among low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal changes (0.01-0.10 Hz). This indicates that the brain has a spatial organization that promotes both segregation and integration of information. Here, we demonstrate that frequency-specific network topologies that characterize segregation and integration also exist within this frequency range. In investigating the coherence spectrum among 87 brain regions, we found that two frequency bands, 0.01-0.03 Hz (very low frequency [VLF] band) and 0.07-0.09 Hz (low frequency [LF] band), mainly contributed to functional connectivity. Comparing graph theoretical indices for the VLF and LF bands revealed that the network in the former had a higher capacity for information segregation between identified communities than the latter. Hubs in the VLF band were mainly located within the anterior cingulate cortices, whereas those in the LF band were located in the posterior cingulate cortices and thalamus. Thus, depending on the timescale of brain activity, at least two distinct network topologies contributed to information segregation and integration. This suggests that the brain intrinsically has timescale-dependent functional organizations. PMID:25566037

  18. Frequency-specific network topologies in the resting human brain

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Shuntaro; Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    A community is a set of nodes with dense inter-connections, while there are sparse connections between different communities. A hub is a highly connected node with high centrality. It has been shown that both “communities” and “hubs” exist simultaneously in the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN), as estimated by correlations among low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal changes (0.01–0.10 Hz). This indicates that the brain has a spatial organization that promotes both segregation and integration of information. Here, we demonstrate that frequency-specific network topologies that characterize segregation and integration also exist within this frequency range. In investigating the coherence spectrum among 87 brain regions, we found that two frequency bands, 0.01–0.03 Hz (very low frequency [VLF] band) and 0.07–0.09 Hz (low frequency [LF] band), mainly contributed to functional connectivity. Comparing graph theoretical indices for the VLF and LF bands revealed that the network in the former had a higher capacity for information segregation between identified communities than the latter. Hubs in the VLF band were mainly located within the anterior cingulate cortices, whereas those in the LF band were located in the posterior cingulate cortices and thalamus. Thus, depending on the timescale of brain activity, at least two distinct network topologies contributed to information segregation and integration. This suggests that the brain intrinsically has timescale-dependent functional organizations. PMID:25566037

  19. Non-Invasive Brain-to-Brain Interface (BBI): Establishing Functional Links between Two Brains

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer’s intention to stimulate a rat’s brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer’s intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications. PMID:23573251

  20. Dynamic geometry, brain function modeling, and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sisir; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Pellionisz and Llinás proposed, years ago, a geometric interpretation towards understanding brain function. This interpretation assumes that the relation between the brain and the external world is determined by the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to construct an internal model of the external world using an interactive geometrical relationship between sensory and motor expression. This approach opened new vistas not only in brain research but also in understanding the foundations of geometry itself. The approach named tensor network theory is sufficiently rich to allow specific computational modeling and addressed the issue of prediction, based on Taylor series expansion properties of the system, at the neuronal level, as a basic property of brain function. It was actually proposed that the evolutionary realm is the backbone for the development of an internal functional space that, while being purely representational, can interact successfully with the totally different world of the so-called "external reality". Now if the internal space or functional space is endowed with stochastic metric tensor properties, then there will be a dynamic correspondence between events in the external world and their specification in the internal space. We shall call this dynamic geometry since the minimal time resolution of the brain (10-15 ms), associated with 40 Hz oscillations of neurons and their network dynamics, is considered to be responsible for recognizing external events and generating the concept of simultaneity. The stochastic metric tensor in dynamic geometry can be written as five-dimensional space-time where the fifth dimension is a probability space as well as a metric space. This extra dimension is considered an imbedded degree of freedom. It is worth noticing that the above-mentioned 40 Hz oscillation is present both in awake and dream states where the central difference is the inability of phase resetting in the latter. This framework of dynamic

  1. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  2. Dolichol alters brain membrane functions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.Y.; Sun, A.Y.; Schroeder, F.; Wood, G.; Strong, R.

    1986-03-05

    It has been well demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between increase in dolichol level in brain and aging. An abnormally high level of dolichol was found in brain tissue of patients with pathological aging disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the physiological significance of dolichol affecting membrane transport activity and phospholipid acyl group turnover. Dolichol added to synaptic plasma membranes resulted in a biphasic effect on (Na/sup +/, K/sup +/)-ATPase, i.e., an enhancement of activity at low concentrations (5 ..mu..g/125 mg protein) and an inhibition of activity at high concentrations (40-100 ..mu..g). To probe the membrane acyl group turnover, the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-arachidonate into plasma membrane phospholipids was examined in the presence and absence of dolichol. Dolichol elicited an increase in the incorporation of label into phospholipids. However, the effects varied depending on whether BSA is present. In the absence of BSA, the increase in labeling of phosphatidylinositols is higher than that of phosphatidylcholines. These results suggest that dolichols, when inserted into membranes, may alter membrane functions.

  3. Brain-specific epigenetic markers of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wockner, L F; Morris, C P; Noble, E P; Lawford, B R; Whitehall, V L J; Young, R M; Voisey, J

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a crucial role in schizophrenia susceptibility. In a previous study, we identified over 4500 differentially methylated sites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) samples from schizophrenia patients. We believe this was the first genome-wide methylation study performed on human brain tissue using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip. To understand the biological significance of these results, we sought to identify a smaller number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of more functional relevance compared with individual differentially methylated sites. Since our schizophrenia whole genome methylation study was performed, another study analysing two separate data sets of post-mortem tissue in the PFC from schizophrenia patients has been published. We analysed all three data sets using the bumphunter function found in the Bioconductor package minfi to identify regions that are consistently differentially methylated across distinct cohorts. We identified seven regions that are consistently differentially methylated in schizophrenia, despite considerable heterogeneity in the methylation profiles of patients with schizophrenia. The regions were near CERS3, DPPA5, PRDM9, DDX43, REC8, LY6G5C and a region on chromosome 10. Of particular interest is PRDM9 which encodes a histone methyltransferase that is essential for meiotic recombination and is known to tag genes for epigenetic transcriptional activation. These seven DMRs are likely to be key epigenetic factors in the aetiology of schizophrenia and normal brain neurodevelopment. PMID:26575221

  4. Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function

    PubMed Central

    Mergenthaler, Philipp; Lindauer, Ute; Dienel, Gerald A.; Meisel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We aim at synthesizing these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation which lead to disease. PMID:23968694

  5. Development of auditory-specific brain rhythm in infants.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takako; Mourad, Nasser; Trainor, Laurel J

    2011-02-01

    Human infants rapidly develop their auditory perceptual abilities and acquire culture-specific knowledge in speech and music in the second 6 months of life. In the adult brain, neural rhythm around 10 Hz in the temporal lobes is thought to reflect sound analysis and subsequent cognitive processes such as memory and attention. To study when and how such rhythm emerges in infancy, we examined electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in infants 4 and 12 months of age during sound stimulation and silence. In the 4-month-olds, the amplitudes of narrowly tuned 4-Hz brain rhythm, recorded from bilateral temporal electrodes, were modulated by sound stimuli. In the 12-month-olds, the sound-induced modulation occurred at faster 6-Hz rhythm at temporofrontal locations. The brain rhythms in the older infants consisted of more complex components, as even evident in individual data. These findings suggest that auditory-specific rhythmic neural activity, which is already established before 6 months of age, involves more speed-efficient long-range neural networks by the age of 12 months when long-term memory for native phoneme representation and for musical rhythmic features is formed. We suggest that maturation of distinct rhythmic components occurs in parallel, and that sensory-specific functions bound to particular thalamo-cortical networks are transferred to newly developed higher-order networks step by step until adult hierarchical neural oscillatory mechanisms are achieved across the whole brain. PMID:21226773

  6. Structural and functional connectivity in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hui; Yang, Yang; Xi, Ji-hui; Chen, Zi-qian

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury survivors often experience cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific impairments are not fully understood. Advances in neuroimaging techniques (such as diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI) have given us new insights on structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain in both health and disease. The connectome derived from connectivity maps reflects the entire constellation of distributed brain networks. Using these powerful neuroimaging approaches, changes at the microstructural level can be detected through regional and global properties of neuronal networks. Here we will review recent developments in the study of brain network abnormalities in traumatic brain injury, mainly focusing on structural and functional connectivity. Some connectomic studies have provided interesting insights into the neurological dysfunction that occurs following traumatic brain injury. These techniques could eventually be helpful in developing imaging biomarkers of cognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae, as well as predicting outcome and prognosis. PMID:26889200

  7. Promoting motor function by exercising the brain.

    PubMed

    Perrey, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement of task-related cortical responses noninvasively and is relatively robust with regard to the subjects' motion. Although the components of optimal exercise interventions have not been determined, evidence from animal and human studies suggests that aerobic exercise with sufficiently high intensity has neuroprotective properties and promotes motor function. This review provides an insight into the effect of physical activity (based on endurance and resistance exercises) on brain function for producing movement. Since most progress in the study of brain function has come from patients with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and Parkinson's patients), this review presents some findings emphasizing training paradigms for restoring motor function. PMID:24961309

  8. Promoting Motor Function by Exercising the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement of task-related cortical responses noninvasively and is relatively robust with regard to the subjects’ motion. Although the components of optimal exercise interventions have not been determined, evidence from animal and human studies suggests that aerobic exercise with sufficiently high intensity has neuroprotective properties and promotes motor function. This review provides an insight into the effect of physical activity (based on endurance and resistance exercises) on brain function for producing movement. Since most progress in the study of brain function has come from patients with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and Parkinson’s patients), this review presents some findings emphasizing training paradigms for restoring motor function. PMID:24961309

  9. Neural Differentiation Modulates the Vertebrate Brain Specific Splicing Program

    PubMed Central

    Madgwick, Alicia; Fort, Philippe; Hanson, Peter S.; Thibault, Philippe; Gaudreau, Marie-Claude; Lutfalla, Georges; Möröy, Tarik; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chaudhry, Bill; Elliott, David J.; Morris, Christopher M.; Venables, Julian P.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing patterns are known to vary between tissues but these patterns have been found to be predominantly peculiar to one species or another, implying only a limited function in fundamental neural biology. Here we used high-throughput RT-PCR to monitor the expression pattern of all the annotated simple alternative splicing events (ASEs) in the Reference Sequence Database, in different mouse tissues and identified 93 brain-specific events that shift from one isoform to another (switch-like) between brain and other tissues. Consistent with an important function, regulation of a core set of 9 conserved switch-like ASEs is highly conserved, as they have the same pattern of tissue-specific splicing in all vertebrates tested: human, mouse and zebrafish. Several of these ASEs are embedded within genes that encode proteins associated with the neuronal microtubule network, and show a dramatic and concerted shift within a short time window of human neural stem cell differentiation. Similarly these exons are dynamically regulated in zebrafish development. These data demonstrate that although alternative splicing patterns often vary between species, there is nonetheless a core set of vertebrate brain-specific ASEs that are conserved between species and associated with neural differentiation. PMID:25993117

  10. Neural differentiation modulates the vertebrate brain specific splicing program.

    PubMed

    Madgwick, Alicia; Fort, Philippe; Hanson, Peter S; Thibault, Philippe; Gaudreau, Marie-Claude; Lutfalla, Georges; Möröy, Tarik; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chaudhry, Bill; Elliott, David J; Morris, Christopher M; Venables, Julian P

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing patterns are known to vary between tissues but these patterns have been found to be predominantly peculiar to one species or another, implying only a limited function in fundamental neural biology. Here we used high-throughput RT-PCR to monitor the expression pattern of all the annotated simple alternative splicing events (ASEs) in the Reference Sequence Database, in different mouse tissues and identified 93 brain-specific events that shift from one isoform to another (switch-like) between brain and other tissues. Consistent with an important function, regulation of a core set of 9 conserved switch-like ASEs is highly conserved, as they have the same pattern of tissue-specific splicing in all vertebrates tested: human, mouse and zebrafish. Several of these ASEs are embedded within genes that encode proteins associated with the neuronal microtubule network, and show a dramatic and concerted shift within a short time window of human neural stem cell differentiation. Similarly these exons are dynamically regulated in zebrafish development. These data demonstrate that although alternative splicing patterns often vary between species, there is nonetheless a core set of vertebrate brain-specific ASEs that are conserved between species and associated with neural differentiation. PMID:25993117

  11. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  12. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  13. The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J

    2011-12-01

    A role for vitamin D in brain development and function has been gaining support over the last decade. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that this vitamin is actually a neuroactive steroid that acts on brain development, leading to alterations in brain neurochemistry and adult brain function. Early deficiencies have been linked with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, and adult deficiencies have been associated with a host of adverse brain outcomes, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression and cognitive decline. This review summarises the current state of research on the actions of vitamin D in the brain and the consequences of deficiencies in this vitamin. Furthermore, we discuss specific implications of vitamin D status on the neurotransmitter, dopamine. PMID:21664231

  14. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support intensity frontier research in elementary particle physics, with possible applications to nuclear physics and nuclear energy research, at Fermilab. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions. This paper will describe the Functional Requirements for the Project X facility and the rationale for these requirements.

  15. Energetic cost of brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2013-01-01

    The brain's functional connectivity is complex, has high energetic cost, and requires efficient use of glucose, the brain's main energy source. It has been proposed that regions with a high degree of functional connectivity are energy efficient and can minimize consumption of glucose. However, the relationship between functional connectivity and energy consumption in the brain is poorly understood. To address this neglect, here we propose a simple model for the energy demands of brain functional connectivity, which we tested with positron emission tomography and MRI in 54 healthy volunteers at rest. Higher glucose metabolism was associated with proportionally larger MRI signal amplitudes, and a higher degree of connectivity was associated with nonlinear increases in metabolism, supporting our hypothesis for the energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs. Basal metabolism (in the absence of connectivity) accounted for 30% of brain glucose utilization, which suggests that the spontaneous brain activity accounts for 70% of the energy consumed by the brain. The energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs was higher for ventral precuneus, cerebellum, and subcortical hubs than for cortical hubs. The higher energy demands of brain communication that hinges upon higher connectivity could render brain hubs more vulnerable to deficits in energy delivery or utilization and help explain their sensitivity to neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23898179

  16. Brain Function: Implications for Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clifford H.

    1982-01-01

    The implications of cerebral dominance for curriculum and instruction are enormous. Cognitive style, sex differences, instructional materials preparation and selection, and testing are affected by right or left brain hemisphere dominance. (CJ)

  17. Functional brain correlates of heterosexual paedophilia.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Boris; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2008-05-15

    Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal sexual motivation and function have recently been examined, the alterations in brain function in deviant sexual behaviours such as paedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify paedophilia-specific functional networks implicated in sexual arousal. Therefore a consecutive sample of eight paedophile forensic inpatients, exclusively attracted to females, and 12 healthy age-matched heterosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum participated in a visual sexual stimulation procedure during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The visual stimuli were sexually stimulating photographs and emotionally neutral photographs. Immediately after the imaging session subjective responses pertaining to sexual desire were recorded. Principally, the brain response of heterosexual paedophiles to heteropaedophilic stimuli was comparable to that of heterosexual males to heterosexual stimuli, including different limbic structures (amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus), the substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, different thalamic nuclei, and associative cortices. However, responses to visual sexual stimulation were found in the orbitofrontal cortex in healthy heterosexual males, but not in paedophiles, in whom abnormal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was observed. Thus, in line with clinical observations and neuropsychological studies, it seems that central processing of sexual stimuli in heterosexual paedophiles may be altered by a disturbance in the prefrontal networks, which, as has already been hypothesized, may be associated with stimulus-controlled behaviours, such as sexual compulsive behaviours. Moreover, these findings may suggest a dysfunction (in the functional and effective connectivity) at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing. PMID:18358744

  18. Hyper-connectivity of functional networks for brain disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jie, Biao; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-08-01

    Exploring structural and functional interactions among various brain regions enables better understanding of pathological underpinnings of neurological disorders. Brain connectivity network, as a simplified representation of those structural and functional interactions, has been widely used for diagnosis and classification of neurodegenerative diseases, especially for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its early stage - mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the conventional functional connectivity network is usually constructed based on the pairwise correlation among different brain regions and thus ignores their higher-order relationships. Such loss of high-order information could be important for disease diagnosis, since neurologically a brain region predominantly interacts with more than one other brain regions. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a novel framework for estimating the hyper-connectivity network of brain functions and then use this hyper-network for brain disease diagnosis. Here, the functional connectivity hyper-network denotes a network where each of its edges representing the interactions among multiple brain regions (i.e., an edge can connect with more than two brain regions), which can be naturally represented by a hyper-graph. Specifically, we first construct connectivity hyper-networks from the resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) time series by using sparse representation. Then, we extract three sets of brain-region specific features from the connectivity hyper-networks, and further exploit a manifold regularized multi-task feature selection method to jointly select the most discriminative features. Finally, we use multi-kernel support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The experimental results on both MCI dataset and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) dataset demonstrate that, compared with the conventional connectivity network-based methods, the proposed method can not only improve the classification performance, but also help

  19. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  20. Pineal proteins upregulate specific antioxidant defense systems in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Srivastava, R S

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day), control (28 day), vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 μg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases. PMID:20357930

  1. Brain, Mind and Language Functional Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Marchetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between brain and language has been investigated by a vast amount of research and different approaches, which however do not offer a comprehensive and unified theoretical framework to analyze how brain functioning performs the mental processes we use in producing language and in understanding speech. This Special Issue addresses the need to develop such a general theoretical framework, by fostering an interaction among the various scientific disciplines and methodologies, which centres on investigating the functional architecture of brain, mind and language, and is articulated along the following main dimensions of research: (a) Language as a regulatory contour of brain and mental processes; (b) Language as a unique human phenomenon; (c) Language as a governor of human behaviour and brain operations; (d) Language as an organizational factor of ontogenesis of mentation and behaviour. PMID:20922047

  2. Mitochondrial specific therapeutic targets following brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yonutas, H M; Vekaria, H J; Sullivan, P G

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a complicated disease to treat due to the complex multi-factorial secondary injury cascade that is initiated following the initial impact. This secondary injury cascade causes nonmechanical tissue damage, which is where therapeutic interventions may be efficacious for intervention. One therapeutic target that has shown much promise following brain injury are mitochondria. Mitochondria are complex organelles found within the cell. At a superficial level, mitochondria are known to produce the energy substrate used within the cell called ATP. However, their importance to overall cellular homeostasis is even larger than their production of ATP. These organelles are necessary for calcium cycling, ROS production and play a role in the initiation of cell death pathways. When mitochondria become dysfunctional, they can become dysregulated leading to a loss of cellular homeostasis and eventual cell death. Within this review there will be a deep discussion into mitochondrial bioenergetics followed by a brief discussion into traumatic brain injury and how mitochondria play an integral role in the neuropathological sequelae following an injury. The review will conclude with a discussion pertaining to the therapeutic approaches currently being studied to ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction following brain injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26872596

  3. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. PMID:25913701

  4. Development of the Brain's Functional Network Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    A full understanding of the development of the brain's functional network architecture requires not only an understanding of developmental changes in neural processing in individual brain regions but also an understanding of changes in inter-regional interactions. Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is increasingly being used to study functional interactions between brain regions in both adults and children. We briefly review methods used to study functional interactions and networks with rs-fcMRI and how these methods have been used to define developmental changes in network functional connectivity. The developmental rs-fcMRI studies to date have found two general properties. First, regional interactions change from being predominately anatomically local in children to interactions spanning longer cortical distances in young adults. Second, this developmental change in functional connectivity occurs, in general, via mechanisms of segregation of local regions and integration of distant regions into disparate subnetworks. PMID:20976563

  5. Network Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod; Rubin, Daniel; Musen, Mark; Greicius, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Functional brain networks detected in task-free (“resting-state”) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have a small-world architecture that reflects a robust functional organization of the brain. Here, we examined whether this functional organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age-matched controls were obtained. Wavelet analysis was applied to the fMRI data to compute frequency-dependent correlation matrices. Correlation matrices were thresholded to create 90-node undirected-graphs of functional brain networks. Small-world metrics (characteristic path length and clustering coefficient) were computed using graph analytical methods. In the low frequency interval 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, functional brain networks in controls showed small-world organization of brain activity, characterized by a high clustering coefficient and a low characteristic path length. In contrast, functional brain networks in AD showed loss of small-world properties, characterized by a significantly lower clustering coefficient (p<0.01), indicative of disrupted local connectivity. Clustering coefficients for the left and right hippocampus were significantly lower (p<0.01) in the AD group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the clustering coefficient distinguished AD participants from the controls with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 78%. Our study provides new evidence that there is disrupted organization of functional brain networks in AD. Small-world metrics can characterize the functional organization of the brain in AD, and our findings further suggest that these network measures may be useful as an imaging-based biomarker to distinguish AD from healthy aging. PMID:18584043

  6. Brain-specific genes have identifier sequences in their introns.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, R J; Bloom, F E; Lai, C; Lerner, R A; Sutcliffe, J G

    1984-01-01

    The 82-nucleotide identifier (ID) sequence is present in the rat genome in 1-1.5 X 10(5) copies and in cDNA clones of precursors of brain-specific mRNAs. One brain-specific gene contains more than one ID sequence in its introns. There is an excess of ID sequences to brain genes, and some ID sequences appear to have been inserted as mobile elements into other genetic locations. Therefore, brain genes contain ID sequences in their introns, but not all ID sequences are located in brain gene introns. A brain ID consensus sequence has been obtained by comparing 8 ID nucleotide sequences. Images PMID:6583673

  7. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus. PMID:21899000

  8. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's "functional connectome." Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/. PMID

  9. Entropy changes in brain function.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2007-04-01

    The traditional way of analyzing brain electrical activity, on the basis of electroencephalography (EEG) records, relies mainly on visual inspection and years of training. Although it is quite useful, of course, one has to acknowledge its subjective nature that hardly allows for a systematic protocol. In the present work quantifiers based on information theory and wavelet transform are reviewed. The "relative wavelet energy" provides information about the relative energy associated with different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The "normalized total wavelet entropy" carries information about the degree of order-disorder associated with a multi-frequency signal response. Their application in the analysis and quantification of short duration EEG signals (event-related potentials) and epileptic EEG records are summarized. PMID:17234291

  10. Developing Brain Vital Signs: Initial Framework for Monitoring Brain Function Changes Over Time.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Hajra, Sujoy; Liu, Careesa C; Song, Xiaowei; Fickling, Shaun; Liu, Luke E; Pawlowski, Gabriela; Jorgensen, Janelle K; Smith, Aynsley M; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Van Den Broek, Rudi; Rizzotti, Rowena; Fisher, Kirk; D'Arcy, Ryan C N

    2016-01-01

    Clinical assessment of brain function relies heavily on indirect behavior-based tests. Unfortunately, behavior-based assessments are subjective and therefore susceptible to several confounding factors. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are often used to provide objective, physiological measures of brain function. Historically, ERPs have been characterized extensively within research settings, with limited but growing clinical applications. Over the past 20 years, we have developed clinical ERP applications for the evaluation of functional status following serious injury and/or disease. This work has identified an important gap: the need for a clinically accessible framework to evaluate ERP measures. Crucially, this enables baseline measures before brain dysfunction occurs, and might enable the routine collection of brain function metrics in the future much like blood pressure measures today. Here, we propose such a framework for extracting specific ERPs as potential "brain vital signs." This framework enabled the translation/transformation of complex ERP data into accessible metrics of brain function for wider clinical utilization. To formalize the framework, three essential ERPs were selected as initial indicators: (1) the auditory N100 (Auditory sensation); (2) the auditory oddball P300 (Basic attention); and (3) the auditory speech processing N400 (Cognitive processing). First step validation was conducted on healthy younger and older adults (age range: 22-82 years). Results confirmed specific ERPs at the individual level (86.81-98.96%), verified predictable age-related differences (P300 latency delays in older adults, p < 0.05), and demonstrated successful linear transformation into the proposed brain vital sign (BVS) framework (basic attention latency sub-component of BVS framework reflects delays in older adults, p < 0.05). The findings represent an initial critical step in developing, extracting, and

  11. Developing Brain Vital Signs: Initial Framework for Monitoring Brain Function Changes Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh Hajra, Sujoy; Liu, Careesa C.; Song, Xiaowei; Fickling, Shaun; Liu, Luke E.; Pawlowski, Gabriela; Jorgensen, Janelle K.; Smith, Aynsley M.; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Van Den Broek, Rudi; Rizzotti, Rowena; Fisher, Kirk; D'Arcy, Ryan C. N.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical assessment of brain function relies heavily on indirect behavior-based tests. Unfortunately, behavior-based assessments are subjective and therefore susceptible to several confounding factors. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are often used to provide objective, physiological measures of brain function. Historically, ERPs have been characterized extensively within research settings, with limited but growing clinical applications. Over the past 20 years, we have developed clinical ERP applications for the evaluation of functional status following serious injury and/or disease. This work has identified an important gap: the need for a clinically accessible framework to evaluate ERP measures. Crucially, this enables baseline measures before brain dysfunction occurs, and might enable the routine collection of brain function metrics in the future much like blood pressure measures today. Here, we propose such a framework for extracting specific ERPs as potential “brain vital signs.” This framework enabled the translation/transformation of complex ERP data into accessible metrics of brain function for wider clinical utilization. To formalize the framework, three essential ERPs were selected as initial indicators: (1) the auditory N100 (Auditory sensation); (2) the auditory oddball P300 (Basic attention); and (3) the auditory speech processing N400 (Cognitive processing). First step validation was conducted on healthy younger and older adults (age range: 22–82 years). Results confirmed specific ERPs at the individual level (86.81–98.96%), verified predictable age-related differences (P300 latency delays in older adults, p < 0.05), and demonstrated successful linear transformation into the proposed brain vital sign (BVS) framework (basic attention latency sub-component of BVS framework reflects delays in older adults, p < 0.05). The findings represent an initial critical step in developing, extracting, and

  12. Language functioning and deficits following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jeremy R; Riccio, Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a current review of language functioning and deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically among the pediatric population. This paper will: (a) outline the manner in which these deficits may impede functioning across environments; (b) review methods of assessing language functioning within this population; and (c) discuss empirically supported interventions to address noted language deficits as they present in pediatric TBI. PMID:20467948

  13. The connection between rhythmicity and brain function.

    PubMed

    Thaut, M H; Kenyon, G P; Schauer, M L; McIntosh, G C

    1999-01-01

    endeavor with important ramifications for the study of brain function, sensory perception, and motor behavior. One of the most exciting findings in this research, however, may be the evidence that the interaction between auditory rhythm and physical response can be effectively harnessed for specific therapeutic purposes in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders. PMID:10101675

  14. Mapping brain function in freely moving subjects

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, Daniel P.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of many fundamental mammalian behaviors such as, for example, aggression, mating, foraging or social behaviors, depend on locomotor activity. A central dilemma in the functional neuroimaging of these behaviors has been the fact that conventional neuroimaging techniques generally rely on immobilization of the subject, which extinguishes all but the simplest activity. Ideally, imaging could occur in freely moving subjects, while presenting minimal interference with the subject’s natural behavior. Here we provide an overview of several approaches that have been undertaken in the past to achieve this aim in both tethered and freely moving animals, as well as in nonrestrained human subjects. Applications of specific radiotracers to single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography are discussed in which brain activation is imaged after completion of the behavioral task and capture of the tracer. Potential applications to clinical neuropsychiatry are discussed, as well as challenges inherent to constraint-free functional neuroimaging. Future applications of these methods promise to increase our understanding of the neural circuits underlying mammalian behavior in health and disease. PMID:15465134

  15. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  16. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  17. Strengthening connections: functional connectivity and brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The ascendancy of functional neuroimaging has facilitated the addition of network-based approaches to the neuropsychologist’s toolbox for evaluating the sequelae of brain insult. In particular, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) mapping of resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data constitutes an ideal approach to measuring macro-scale networks in the human brain. Beyond the value of iFC mapping for charting how the functional topography of the brain is altered by insult and injury, iFC analyses can provide insights into effects of experience-dependent plasticity at the macro level of large-scale functional networks. Such insights are foundational to the design of training and remediation interventions that will best facilitate recovery of function. In this review, we consider what is currently known about the origin and function of iFC in the brain, and how this knowledge is informative in neuropsychological settings. We then summarize studies that have examined experience-driven plasticity of iFC in healthy control participants, and frame these findings in terms of a schema that may aid in the interpretation of results and the generation of hypothesis for rehabilitative studies. Finally, we outline some caveats to the R-fMRI approach, as well as some current developments that are likely to bolster the utility of the iFC paradigm for neuropsychology. PMID:24496903

  18. Progesterone Receptors: Form and Function in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Thompson, Richard F.; Foy, Michael R.; Baudry, Michel; Wang, JunMing; Finch, Caleb E; Morgan, Todd E.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.; Nilsen, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that progesterone has multiple non-reproductive functions in the central nervous system to regulate cognition, mood, inflammation, mitochondrial function, neurogenesis and regeneration, myelination and recovery from traumatic brain injury. Progesterone-regulated neural responses are mediated by an array of progesterone receptors (PR) that include the classic nuclear PRA and PRB receptors and splice variants of each, the seven transmembrane domain 7TMPRβ and the membrane-associated 25-Dx PR (PGRMC1). These PRs induce classic regulation of gene expression while also transducing signaling cascades that originate at the cell membrane and ultimately activate transcription factors. Remarkably, PRs are broadly expressed throughout the brain and can be detected in every neural cell type. The distribution of PRs beyond hypothalamic borders, suggests a much broader role of progesterone in regulating neural function. Despite the large body of evidence regarding progesterone regulation of reproductive behaviors and estrogen-inducible responses as well as effects of progesterone metabolite neurosteroids, much remains to be discovered regarding the functional outcomes resulting from activation of the complex array of PRs in brain by gonadally and / or glial derived progesterone. Moreover, the impact of clinically used progestogens and developing selective PR modulators for targeted outcomes in brain is a critical avenue of investigation as the non-reproductive functions of PRs have far-reaching implications for hormone therapy to maintain neurological health and function throughout menopausal aging. PMID:18374402

  19. Specific glial functions contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Andrea; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Ripke, Stephan; Hultman, Christina M; Sklar, Pamela; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smit, August B; Posthuma, Danielle; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2014-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic brain disorder. The main hypothesis for disease etiology in schizophrenia primarily focuses on the role of dysfunctional synaptic transmission. Previous studies have therefore directed their investigations toward the role of neuronal dysfunction. However, recent studies have shown that apart from neurons, glial cells also play a major role in synaptic transmission. Therefore, we investigated the potential causal involvement of the 3 principle glial cell lineages in risk to schizophrenia. We performed a functional gene set analysis to test for the combined effects of genetic variants in glial type-specific genes for association with schizophrenia. We used genome-wide association data from the largest schizophrenia sample to date, including 13 689 cases and 18 226 healthy controls. Our results show that astrocyte and oligodendrocyte gene sets, but not microglia gene sets, are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. The astrocyte and oligodendrocyte findings are related to astrocyte signaling at the synapse, myelin membrane integrity, glial development, and epigenetic control. Together, these results show that genetic alterations underlying specific glial cell type functions increase susceptibility to schizophrenia and provide evidence that the neuronal hypothesis of schizophrenia should be extended to include the role of glia. PMID:23956119

  20. Specific Glial Functions Contribute to Schizophrenia Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Ripke, Stephan; Hultman, Christina M.; Sklar, Pamela; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smit, August B.; Posthuma, Danielle; Verheijen, Mark H. G.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic brain disorder. The main hypothesis for disease etiology in schizophrenia primarily focuses on the role of dysfunctional synaptic transmission. Previous studies have therefore directed their investigations toward the role of neuronal dysfunction. However, recent studies have shown that apart from neurons, glial cells also play a major role in synaptic transmission. Therefore, we investigated the potential causal involvement of the 3 principle glial cell lineages in risk to schizophrenia. We performed a functional gene set analysis to test for the combined effects of genetic variants in glial type–specific genes for association with schizophrenia. We used genome-wide association data from the largest schizophrenia sample to date, including 13 689 cases and 18 226 healthy controls. Our results show that astrocyte and oligodendrocyte gene sets, but not microglia gene sets, are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. The astrocyte and oligodendrocyte findings are related to astrocyte signaling at the synapse, myelin membrane integrity, glial development, and epigenetic control. Together, these results show that genetic alterations underlying specific glial cell type functions increase susceptibility to schizophrenia and provide evidence that the neuronal hypothesis of schizophrenia should be extended to include the role of glia. PMID:23956119

  1. Functional interrelationship of brain aging and delirium.

    PubMed

    Rapazzini, Piero

    2016-02-01

    Theories on the development of delirium are complementary rather than competing and they may relate to each other. Here, we highlight that similar alterations in functional brain connectivity underlie both the observed age-related deficits and episodes of delirium. The default mode network (DMN) is a group of brain regions showing a greater level of activity at rest than during attention-based tasks. These regions include the posteromedial-anteromedial cortices and temporoparietal junctions. Evidence suggests that awareness is subserved through higher order neurons associated with the DMN. By using functional MRI disruption of DMN, connectivity and weaker task-induced deactivations of these regions are observed both in age-related cognitive impairment and during episodes of delirium. We can assume that an acute up-regulation of inhibitory tone within the brain acts to further disrupt network connectivity in vulnerable patients, who are predisposed by a reduced baseline connectivity, and triggers the delirium. PMID:25998952

  2. Hepatic encephalopathy: effects of liver failure on brain function.

    PubMed

    Felipo, Vicente

    2013-12-01

    Liver failure affects brain function, leading to neurological and psychiatric alterations; such alterations are referred to as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Early diagnosis of minimal HE reveals an unexpectedly high incidence of mild cognitive impairment and psychomotor slowing in patients with liver cirrhosis - conditions that have serious health, social and economic consequences. The mechanisms responsible for the neurological alterations in HE are beginning to emerge. New therapeutic strategies acting on specific targets in the brain (phosphodiesterase 5, type A GABA receptors, cyclooxygenase and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38) have been shown to restore cognitive and motor function in animal models of chronic HE, and NMDA receptor antagonists have been shown to increase survival in acute liver failure. This article reviews the latest studies aimed at understanding how liver failure affects brain function and potential ways to ameliorate these effects. PMID:24149188

  3. The Brain and Development of Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touwen, Bert C. L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the weak relationship between structural and functional brain development. Maintains that variability is the basic characteristic of normal development, and that involves the ability to construct pluriform strategies and to select the proper strategy in any particular situation. Argues that McGraw recognized intra- and inter-individual…

  4. Classroom Seating and Functional Brain Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Raquel E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between functional brain assymetry, as measured by the characteristic direction of eye movements in response to face-to-face questioning, and sitting on the left or right side of a classroom. Results are congruent with other findings comparing right and left movers. (Author/BJG)

  5. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  6. Beyond Genotype: Serotonin Transporter Epigenetic Modification Predicts Human Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Galea, Sandro; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Seney, Marianne L.; Sibille, Etienne; Williamson, Douglas E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined epigenetic regulation in regards to behaviorally and clinically relevant human brain function. Specifically, we found that increased promoter methylation of the serotonin transporter gene predicted increased threat-related amygdala reactivity and decreased mRNA expression in postmortem amygdala tissue. These patterns were independent of functional genetic variation in the same region. Furthermore, the association with amygdala reactivity was replicated in a second cohort and was robust to both sampling methods and age. PMID:25086606

  7. Functional neuroimaging can support causal claims about brain function

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Matthew J.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists habitually deny that functional neuroimaging can furnish causal information about the relationship between brain events and behavior. However, imaging studies do provide causal information about those relationships—though not causal certainty. Although popular portrayals of functional neuroimaging tend to attribute too much inferential power to the technique, we should restrain ourselves from ascribing it too little. PMID:20201629

  8. SPECT functional brain imaging. Technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Devous, M D

    1995-07-01

    The technical aspects of functional brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, referring primarily to the most common SPECT brain function measure--regional cerebral blood flow--are reviewed. SPECT images of regional cerebral blood flow are influenced by a number of factors unrelated to pathology, including tomographic quality, radiopharmaceuticals, environmental conditions at the time of radiotracer administration, characteristics of the subject (e.g., age, sex), image presentation, and image processing techniques. Modern SPECT scans yield excellent image quality, and instrumentation continues to improve. The armamentarium of regional cerebral blood flow and receptor radiopharmaceuticals is rapidly expanding. Standards regarding the environment for patient imaging and image presentation are emerging. However, there is still much to learn about the circumstances for performances and evaluation of SPECT functional brain imaging. Challenge tests, primarily established in cerebrovascular disease (i.e., the acetazolamide test), offer great promise in defining the extent and nature of disease, as well as predicting therapeutic responses. Clearly, SPECT brain imaging is a powerful clinical and research tool. However, SPECT will only achieve its full potential in the management of patients with cerebral pathology through close cooperation among members of the nuclear medicine, neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and internal medicine specialties. PMID:7626833

  9. Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

  10. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Annabelle M.; Yen, Cecil Chern-Chyi; Notardonato, Lucia; Ross, Thomas J.; Volkow, Nora D.; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A.; Silva, Afonso C.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2016-01-01

    In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or “hubs”, and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here, we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains FC hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2), higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM]), posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31), thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a). lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain’s network topology. PMID:26973476

  11. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    Estimating brain wiring patterns is critical to better understand the brain organization and function. Anatomical brain connectivity models axonal pathways, while the functional brain connectivity characterizes the statistical dependencies and correlation between the activities of various brain regions. The synchronization of brain activity can be inferred through the variation of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from functional MRI (fMRI) and the neural connections can be estimated using tractography from diffusion MRI (dMRI). Functional connections between brain regions are supported by anatomical connections, and the synchronization of brain activities arises through sharing of information in the form of electro-chemical signals on axon pathways. Jointly modeling fMRI and dMRI data may improve the accuracy in constructing anatomical connectivity as well as functional connectivity. Such an approach may lead to novel multimodal biomarkers potentially able to better capture functional and anatomical connectivity variations. We present a novel brain network model which jointly models the dMRI and fMRI data to improve the anatomical connectivity estimation and extract the anatomical subnetworks associated with specific functional modes by constraining the anatomical connections as structural supports to the functional connections. The key idea is similar to a multi-commodity flow optimization problem that minimizes the cost or maximizes the efficiency for flow configuration and simultaneously fulfills the supply-demand constraint for each commodity. In the proposed network, the nodes represent the grey matter (GM) regions providing brain functionality, and the links represent white matter (WM) fiber bundles connecting those regions and delivering information. The commodities can be thought of as the information corresponding to brain activity patterns as obtained for instance by independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. The concept of information

  12. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    Estimating brain wiring patterns is critical to better understand the brain organization and function. Anatomical brain connectivity models axonal pathways, while the functional brain connectivity characterizes the statistical dependencies and correlation between the activities of various brain regions. The synchronization of brain activity can be inferred through the variation of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from functional MRI (fMRI) and the neural connections can be estimated using tractography from diffusion MRI (dMRI). Functional connections between brain regions are supported by anatomical connections, and the synchronization of brain activities arises through sharing of information in the form of electro-chemical signals on axon pathways. Jointly modeling fMRI and dMRI data may improve the accuracy in constructing anatomical connectivity as well as functional connectivity. Such an approach may lead to novel multimodal biomarkers potentially able to better capture functional and anatomical connectivity variations. We present a novel brain network model which jointly models the dMRI and fMRI data to improve the anatomical connectivity estimation and extract the anatomical subnetworks associated with specific functional modes by constraining the anatomical connections as structural supports to the functional connections. The key idea is similar to a multi-commodity flow optimization problem that minimizes the cost or maximizes the efficiency for flow configuration and simultaneously fulfills the supply-demand constraint for each commodity. In the proposed network, the nodes represent the grey matter (GM) regions providing brain functionality, and the links represent white matter (WM) fiber bundles connecting those regions and delivering information. The commodities can be thought of as the information corresponding to brain activity patterns as obtained for instance by independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. The concept of information

  13. Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks.

    PubMed

    Petri, G; Expert, P; Turkheimer, F; Carhart-Harris, R; Nutt, D; Hellyer, P J; Vaccarino, F

    2014-12-01

    Networks, as efficient representations of complex systems, have appealed to scientists for a long time and now permeate many areas of science, including neuroimaging (Bullmore and Sporns 2009 Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 186-198. (doi:10.1038/nrn2618)). Traditionally, the structure of complex networks has been studied through their statistical properties and metrics concerned with node and link properties, e.g. degree-distribution, node centrality and modularity. Here, we study the characteristics of functional brain networks at the mesoscopic level from a novel perspective that highlights the role of inhomogeneities in the fabric of functional connections. This can be done by focusing on the features of a set of topological objects-homological cycles-associated with the weighted functional network. We leverage the detected topological information to define the homological scaffolds, a new set of objects designed to represent compactly the homological features of the correlation network and simultaneously make their homological properties amenable to networks theoretical methods. As a proof of principle,we apply these tools to compare resting state functional brain activity in 15 healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion of placebo and psilocybin-the main psychoactive component of magic mushrooms. The results show that the homological structure of the brain's functional patterns undergoes a dramatic change post-psilocybin, characterized by the appearance of many transient structures of low stability and of a small number of persistent ones that are not observed in the case of placebo. PMID:25401177

  14. Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks

    PubMed Central

    Petri, G.; Expert, P.; Turkheimer, F.; Carhart-Harris, R.; Nutt, D.; Hellyer, P. J.; Vaccarino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Networks, as efficient representations of complex systems, have appealed to scientists for a long time and now permeate many areas of science, including neuroimaging (Bullmore and Sporns 2009 Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 186–198. (doi:10.1038/nrn2618)). Traditionally, the structure of complex networks has been studied through their statistical properties and metrics concerned with node and link properties, e.g. degree-distribution, node centrality and modularity. Here, we study the characteristics of functional brain networks at the mesoscopic level from a novel perspective that highlights the role of inhomogeneities in the fabric of functional connections. This can be done by focusing on the features of a set of topological objects—homological cycles—associated with the weighted functional network. We leverage the detected topological information to define the homological scaffolds, a new set of objects designed to represent compactly the homological features of the correlation network and simultaneously make their homological properties amenable to networks theoretical methods. As a proof of principle, we apply these tools to compare resting-state functional brain activity in 15 healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion of placebo and psilocybin—the main psychoactive component of magic mushrooms. The results show that the homological structure of the brain's functional patterns undergoes a dramatic change post-psilocybin, characterized by the appearance of many transient structures of low stability and of a small number of persistent ones that are not observed in the case of placebo. PMID:25401177

  15. Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

    1999-01-01

    High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

  16. Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is little…

  17. The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly emerging evidence continues to describe an intimate and causal relationship between sleep and emotional brain function. These findings are mirrored by longstanding clinical observations demonstrating that nearly all mood and anxiety disorders co-occur with one or more sleep abnormalities. This review aims to (1) provide a synthesis of recent findings describing the emotional brain and behavioral benefits triggered by sleep, and conversely, the detrimental impairments following a lack of sleep, (2) outline a proposed framework in which sleep, and specifically rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, supports a process of affective brain homeostasis, optimally preparing the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning, and (3) describe how this hypothesized framework can explain the prevalent relationships between sleep and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression. PMID:24499013

  18. Structural and functional brain imaging in schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, J M; Zipursky, R B; List, S J

    1991-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the contribution of structural and functional brain imaging to our understanding of schizophrenia. Methodological influences on the validity of the data generated by these new technologies include problems with measurement and clinical and anatomic heterogeneity. These considerations greatly affect the interpretation of the data generated by these technologies. Work in these fields to date, however, has produced strong evidence which suggests that schizophrenia is a disease which involves abnormalities in the structure and function of many brain areas. Structural brain imaging studies of schizophrenia using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed and their contribution to current theories of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia are discussed. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of brain metabolic activity and dopamine receptor binding in schizophrenia are summarized and the critical questions raised by these studies are outlined. Future studies in these fields have the potential to yield critical insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; new directions for studies of schizophrenia using these technologies are identified. PMID:1911736

  19. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness and connection cost, though, an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with 7 Tesla functional MRI and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=−0.97) and the physical connection cost in 3D space (r=−0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=−0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at 3 Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

  20. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness, and connection cost, although an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with seven Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=-0.97), and the physical connection cost in three-dimensional space (r=-0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=-0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at three Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

  1. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18400922

  2. Large-scale functional connectivity networks in the rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Gozzi, Alessandro; Schwarz, Adam J

    2016-02-15

    Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsfMRI) of the human brain has revealed multiple large-scale neural networks within a hierarchical and complex structure of coordinated functional activity. These distributed neuroanatomical systems provide a sensitive window on brain function and its disruption in a variety of neuropathological conditions. The study of macroscale intrinsic connectivity networks in preclinical species, where genetic and environmental conditions can be controlled and manipulated with high specificity, offers the opportunity to elucidate the biological determinants of these alterations. While rsfMRI methods are now widely used in human connectivity research, these approaches have only relatively recently been back-translated into laboratory animals. Here we review recent progress in the study of functional connectivity in rodent species, emphasising the ability of this approach to resolve large-scale brain networks that recapitulate neuroanatomical features of known functional systems in the human brain. These include, but are not limited to, a distributed set of regions identified in rats and mice that may represent a putative evolutionary precursor of the human default mode network (DMN). The impact and control of potential experimental and methodological confounds are also critically discussed. Finally, we highlight the enormous potential and some initial application of connectivity mapping in transgenic models as a tool to investigate the neuropathological underpinnings of the large-scale connectional alterations associated with human neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions. We conclude by discussing the translational potential of these methods in basic and applied neuroscience. PMID:26706448

  3. Repeated administration of phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-THC or synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 induces tolerance to hypothermia but not locomotor suppression in mice, and reduces CB1 receptor expression and function in a brain region-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Tai, S; Hyatt, W S; Gu, C; Franks, L N; Vasiljevik, T; Brents, L K; Prather, P L; Fantegrossi, W E

    2015-12-01

    These studies probed the relationship between intrinsic efficacy and tolerance/cross-tolerance between ∆(9)-THC and synthetic cannabinoid drugs of abuse (SCBs) by examining in vivo effects and cellular changes concomitant with their repeated administration in mice. Dose-effect relationships for hypothermic effects were determined in order to confirm that SCBs JWH-018 and JWH-073 are higher efficacy agonists than ∆(9)-THC in mice. Separate groups of mice were treated with saline, sub-maximal hypothermic doses of JWH-018 or JWH-073 (3.0mg/kg or 10.0mg/kg, respectively) or a maximally hypothermic dose of 30.0mg/kg ∆(9)-THC once per day for 5 consecutive days while core temperature and locomotor activity were monitored via biotelemetry. Repeated administration of all drugs resulted in tolerance to hypothermic effects, but not locomotor effects, and this tolerance was still evident 14 days after the last drug administration. Further studies treated mice with 30.0mg/kg ∆(9)-THC once per day for 4 days, then tested with SCBs on day 5. Mice with a ∆(9)-THC history were cross-tolerant to both SCBs, and this cross-tolerance also persisted 14 days after testing. Select brain regions from chronically treated mice were examined for changes in CB1 receptor expression and function. Expression and function of hypothalamic CB1Rs were reduced in mice receiving chronic drugs, but cortical CB1R expression and function were not altered. Collectively, these data demonstrate that repeated ∆(9)-THC, JWH-018 and JWH-073 can induce long-lasting tolerance to some in vivo effects, which is likely mediated by region-specific downregulation and desensitization of CB1Rs. PMID:26361728

  4. Projection-Specific Characteristics of Retinal Input to the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gauvain, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The brain receives information about the direction of object motion from several types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). On-Off direction-selective (DS) RGCs respond preferentially to stimuli moving quickly in one of four directions and provide a significant (but difficult to quantify) fraction of RGC input to the SC. On DS RGCs, in comparison, respond preferentially to stimuli moving slowly in one of three directions and are thought to only target retinorecipient nuclei comprising the accessory optic system, e.g., the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). To determine the fraction of SC-projecting RGCs that exhibit direction selectivity, and the specificity with which On-Off and On DS RGCs target retinorecipient areas, we performed optical and electrophysiological recordings from RGCs retrogradely labeled from the mouse SC and MTN. We found, surprisingly, that both On-Off and On DS RGCs innervate the SC; collectively they constitute nearly 40% of SC-projecting RGCs. In comparison, only On DS RGCs project to the MTN. Subsequent experiments revealed that individual On DS RGCs innervate either the SC or MTN and exhibit robust projection-specific differences in somatodendritic morphology, cellular excitability, and light-evoked activity; several projection-specific differences in the output of On DS RGCs correspond closely to differences in excitatory synaptic input the cells receive. Our results reveal a robust projection of On DS RGCs to the SC, projection-specific differences in the response properties of On DS RGCs, and biophysical and synaptic mechanisms that underlie these functional differences. PMID:25904807

  5. Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

  6. Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Walton, Esther; Naylor, Melissa; Roessner, Veit; Lim, Kelvin O; Charles Schulz, S; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-10-30

    Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity. PMID:26341950

  7. Using Saccadometry with Deep Brain Stimulation to Study Normal and Pathological Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; FitzGerald, James J

    2016-01-01

    The oculomotor system involves a large number of brain areas including parts of the basal ganglia, and various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Huntington's can disrupt it. People with Parkinson's disease, for example, tend to have increased saccadic latencies. Consequently, the quantitative measurement of saccadic eye movements has received considerable attention as a potential biomarker for neurodegenerative conditions. A lot more can be learned about the brain in both health and disease by observing what happens to eye movements when the function of specific brain areas is perturbed. Deep brain stimulation is a surgical intervention used for the management of a range of neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease, in which stimulating electrodes are placed in specific brain areas including several sites in the basal ganglia. Eye movement measurements can then be made with the stimulator systems both off and on and the results compared. With suitable experimental design, this approach can be used to study the pathophysiology of the disease being treated, the mechanism by which DBS exerts it beneficial effects, and even aspects of normal neurophysiology. PMID:27501123

  8. [Contribution of brain function analysis to the evolution of neurorehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Miyai, Ichiro; Mihara, Masahito; Hattori, Noriaki; Hatakenaka, Megumi; Kawano, Teiji; Yagura, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of functional neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology have implied that functional recovery after stroke is associated with use-dependent plasticity of the damaged brain. However the property of the reorganized neural network depends on site and size of the lesion, which makes it difficult to assess what the adaptive plasticity is. From clinical point of view there is accumulating randomized controlled trials for the benefit of task-oriented rehabilitative intervention including constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics, and body-weight supported treadmill training. However dose-matched control intervention is usually as effective as a specific intervention. This raises a question regarding the specificity of a task-oriented intervention. Second question is whether such intervention goes beyond the biological destiny of human. Specifically there is no known strategy enhancing recovery of severely impaired hand. To augment functional gain, several methods of neuro-modulation may bring break-through on the assumption that they induce greater adaptive plasticity. Such neuro-modulative methods include neuropharmacological modulation, brain stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation and direct current stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, neurofeedback using real-time fMRI and real-time fNIRS, and brain-machine interface. A preliminary randomized controlled trial regarding real-time feedback of premotor activities revealed promising results for recovery of paretic hand in patients with stroke. PMID:23196554

  9. The function of neurocognitive networks. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressler, Steven L.

    2014-09-01

    Pessoa [5] has performed a valuable service by reviewing the extant literature on brain networks and making a number of interesting proposals about their cognitive function. The term function is at the core of understanding the brain networks of cognition, or neurocognitive networks (NCNs) [1]. The great Russian neuropsychologist, Luria [4], defined brain function as the common task executed by a distributed brain network of complex dynamic structures united by the demands of cognition. Casting Luria in a modern light, we can say that function emerges from the interactions of brain regions in NCNs as they dynamically self-organize according to cognitive demands. Pessoa rightly details the mapping between brain function and structure, emphasizing both its pluripotency (one structure having multiple functions) and degeneracy (many structures having the same function). However, he fails to consider the potential importance of a one-to-one mapping between NCNs and function. If NCNs are uniquely composed of specific collections of brain areas, then each NCN has a unique function determined by that composition.

  10. Dynamic reorganization of functional brain networks during picture naming.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Benquet, Pascal; Biraben, Arnaud; Berrou, Claude; Dufor, Olivier; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    For efficient information processing during cognitive activity, functional brain networks have to rapidly and dynamically reorganize on a sub-second time scale. Tracking the spatiotemporal dynamics of large scale networks over this short time duration is a very challenging issue. Here, we tackle this problem by using dense electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a picture naming task. We found that (i) the picture naming task can be divided into six brain network states (BNSs) characterized by significantly high synchronization of gamma (30-45 Hz) oscillations, (ii) fast transitions occur between these BNSs that last from 30 msec to 160 msec, (iii) based on the state of the art of the picture naming task, we consider that the spatial location of their nodes and edges, as well as the timing of transitions, indicate that each network can be associated with one or several specific function (from visual processing to articulation) and (iv) the comparison with previously-used approach aimed at localizing the sources showed that the network-based approach reveals networks that are more specific to the performed task. We speculate that the persistence of several brain regions in successive BNSs participates to fast and efficient information processing in the brain. PMID:26478964

  11. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  12. Age- and brain region-specific differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Royland, Joyce E; MacPhail, Robert C; Sullivan, Patrick G; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters in 5 brain regions (brain stem [BS], frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus [HIP]) of 4 diverse age groups (1 month [young], 4 months [adult], 12 months [middle-aged], 24 months [old age]) to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their possible contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters and enzyme activities were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5/group). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State III respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12, and 24-months age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and electron transport chain complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age and brain region specific. In general, changes associated with age were more pronounced with enzyme activities declining as the animals aged (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). These age- and brain region-specific observations may aid in evaluating brain bioenergetic impact on the age-related susceptibility to environmental chemical stressors. PMID:27143418

  13. A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses.

    PubMed

    Wager, Tor D; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E; Satpute, Ajay B; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-04-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories--fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness--is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  14. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  15. The neuropathology of alcohol-specific brain damage, or does alcohol damage the brain?

    PubMed

    Harper, C

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this review is to identify neuropathological changes that are directly related to the long-term use of excessive amounts of alcohol (ethanol). There is still debate as to whether alcohol per se causes brain damage. The main problem has been to identify those lesions caused by alcohol itself and those caused by other common alcohol-related factors, principally thiamin deficiency. Careful selection and classification of alcoholic cases into those with and without these complications, together with detailed quantitative neuropathological analyses, has provided us with useful data. There is brain shrinkage in uncomplicated alcoholics which can largely be accounted for by loss of white matter. Some of this damage appears to be reversible. However, alcohol-related neuronal loss has been documented in specific regions of the cerebral cortex (superior frontal association cortex), hypothalamus (supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei), and cerebellum. The data is conflicting for several regions: the hippocampus, amygdala and locus ceruleus. No change is found in the basal ganglia, nucleus basalis, or serotonergic raphe nuclei. Many of the regions that are normal in uncomplicated alcoholics are damaged in those with the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Dendritic and synaptic changes have been documented in uncomplicated alcoholics and these, together with receptor and transmitter changes, may explain functional changes and cognitive deficits that precede the more severe structural neuronal changes. The pattern of damage appears to be somewhat different and species-specific in animal models of alcohol toxicity. Pathological changes that have been found to correlate with alcohol intake include white matter loss and neuronal loss in the hypothalamus and cerebellum. PMID:9600202

  16. The Construction of Common and Specific Significance Subnetworks of Alzheimer's Disease from Multiple Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Na; Zeng, Weiming; Li, Shasha; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively and fatally neurodegenerative disorder and leads to irreversibly cognitive and memorial damage in different brain regions. The identification and analysis of the dysregulated pathways and subnetworks among affected brain regions will provide deep insights for the pathogenetic mechanism of AD. In this paper, commonly and specifically significant subnetworks were identified from six AD brain regions. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) data were integrated to add molecular biological information to construct the functional modules of six AD brain regions by Heinz algorithm. Then, the simulated annealing algorithm based on edge weight is applied to predicting and optimizing the maximal scoring networks for common and specific genes, respectively, which can remove the weak interactions and add the prediction of strong interactions to increase the accuracy of the networks. The identified common subnetworks showed that inflammation of the brain nerves is one of the critical factors of AD and calcium imbalance may be a link among several causative factors in AD pathogenesis. In addition, the extracted specific subnetworks for each brain region revealed many biologically functional mechanisms to understand AD pathogenesis. PMID:25866779

  17. The construction of common and specific significance subnetworks of Alzheimer's disease from multiple brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei; Mou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Na; Zeng, Weiming; Li, Shasha; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively and fatally neurodegenerative disorder and leads to irreversibly cognitive and memorial damage in different brain regions. The identification and analysis of the dysregulated pathways and subnetworks among affected brain regions will provide deep insights for the pathogenetic mechanism of AD. In this paper, commonly and specifically significant subnetworks were identified from six AD brain regions. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) data were integrated to add molecular biological information to construct the functional modules of six AD brain regions by Heinz algorithm. Then, the simulated annealing algorithm based on edge weight is applied to predicting and optimizing the maximal scoring networks for common and specific genes, respectively, which can remove the weak interactions and add the prediction of strong interactions to increase the accuracy of the networks. The identified common subnetworks showed that inflammation of the brain nerves is one of the critical factors of AD and calcium imbalance may be a link among several causative factors in AD pathogenesis. In addition, the extracted specific subnetworks for each brain region revealed many biologically functional mechanisms to understand AD pathogenesis. PMID:25866779

  18. Brain Functional and Structural Predictors of Language Performance.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-05-01

    The relation between brain function and behavior on the one hand and the relation between structural changes and behavior on the other as well as the link between the 2 aspects are core issues in cognitive neuroscience. It is an open question, however, whether brain function or brain structure is the better predictor for age-specific cognitive performance. Here, in a comprehensive set of analyses, we investigated the direct relation between hemodynamic activity in 2 pairs of frontal and temporal cortical areas, 2 long-distance white matter fiber tracts connecting each pair and sentence comprehension performance of 4 age groups, including 3 groups of children between 3 and 10 years as well as young adults. We show that the increasing accuracy of processing complex sentences throughout development is correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation of 2 core language processing regions in Broca's area and the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus. Moreover, both accuracy and speed of processing are correlated with the maturational status of the arcuate fasciculus, that is, the dorsal white matter fiber bundle connecting these 2 regions. The present data provide compelling evidence for the view that brain function and white matter structure together best predict developing cognitive performance. PMID:25770126

  19. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  20. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  1. Split My Brain: A Case Study of Seizure Disorder and Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omarzu, Julia

    2004-01-01

    This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

  2. Tissue Non-specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) in Vessels of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Deracinois, Barbara; Lenfant, Anne-Marie; Dehouck, Marie-Pierre; Flahaut, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The microvessels of the brain represent around 3-4 % of the brain compartment but constitute the most important length (400 miles) and surface of exchange (20 m(2)) between the blood and the parenchyma of brain. Under influence of surrounding tissues, the brain microvessel endothelium expresses a specific phenotype that regulates and restricts the entry of compounds and cells from blood to brain, and defined the so-called blood-brain barrier (BBB). Evidences that alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a characteristic feature of the BBB phenotype that allows differentiating capillary endothelial cells from brain to those of the periphery have rapidly emerge. Thenceforth, AP has been rapidly used as a biomarker of the blood-brain barrier phenotype. In fact, brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) express exclusively tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). There are several lines of evidence in favour of an important role for TNAP in brain function. TNAP is thought to be responsible for the control of transport of some compounds across the plasma membrane of the BCECs. Here, we report that levamisole-mediated inhibition of TNAP provokes an increase of the permeability to Lucifer Yellow of the endothelial monolayer. Moreover, we illustrate the disruption of the cytoskeleton organization. Interestingly, all observed effects were reversible 24 h after levamisole removal and correlated with the return of a full activity of the TNAP. This reversible effect remains to be studied in details to evaluate the potentiality of a levamisole treatment to enhance the entry of drugs in the brain parenchyma. PMID:26219710

  3. Transcriptome analyses of adult mouse brain reveal enrichment of lncRNAs in specific brain regions and neuronal populations

    PubMed Central

    Kadakkuzha, Beena M.; Liu, Xin-An; McCrate, Jennifer; Shankar, Gautam; Rizzo, Valerio; Afinogenova, Alina; Young, Brandon; Fallahi, Mohammad; Carvalloza, Anthony C.; Raveendra, Bindu; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating biological functions, the expression profiles of lncRNAs in the sub-regions of the mammalian brain and neuronal populations remain largely uncharacterized. By analyzing RNASeq datasets, we demonstrate region specific enrichment of populations of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the mouse hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex (PFC), the two major regions of the brain involved in memory storage and neuropsychiatric disorders. We identified 2759 lncRNAs and 17,859 mRNAs in the hippocampus and 2561 lncRNAs and 17,464 mRNAs expressed in the PFC. The lncRNAs identified correspond to ~14% of the transcriptome of the hippocampus and PFC and ~70% of the lncRNAs annotated in the mouse genome (NCBIM37) and are localized along the chromosomes as varying numbers of clusters. Importantly, we also found that a few of the tested lncRNA-mRNA pairs that share a genomic locus display specific co-expression in a region-specific manner. Furthermore, we find that sub-regions of the brain and specific neuronal populations have characteristic lncRNA expression signatures. These results reveal an unexpected complexity of the lncRNA expression in the mouse brain. PMID:25798087

  4. Studying newt brain regeneration following subtype specific neuronal ablation.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Matthew; Joven, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The realization that neuronal injury does not result in permanent functional or cellular loss in all vertebrates has fascinated regenerative biologists. Neuronal regeneration occurs in a subset of species, including lizards, teleost fish, axolotls, and newts. One tool for studying neuronal regeneration in the adult brain is intraventricular injection of selective neuronal toxins, which leads to loss of subpopulations of neurons. To trace cells involved in the regeneration process, plasmids encoding reporter proteins can be electroporated in vivo into the cells of interest. This protocol describes methods to label the ependymoglial cells of the brain of the red spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens and follow their response after ablation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25740479

  5. Dynamic Functional Brain Connectivity for Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive processing. We investigated the dynamic functional connectivity in face perception by analyzing time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in four different frequency bands: theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–14 Hz), beta (15–24 Hz), and gamma (25–45 Hz) bands in the early stages of face processing from 30 to 300 ms. High-density EEG were recorded from subjects who were passively viewing faces, buildings, and chairs. The dynamic connectivity within the core system and between the extended system were investigated. Significant differences between faces and non-faces mainly appear in theta band connectivity: (1) at the time segment of 90–120 ms between parietal area and occipito-temporal area in the right hemisphere, and (2) at the time segment of 150–180 ms between bilateral occipito-temporal areas. These results indicate (1) the importance of theta-band connectivity in the face-sensitive processing, and (2) that different parts of network are involved for the initial stage of face categorization and the stage of face structural encoding. PMID:26696870

  6. Brain Dynamics, Chaos and Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, W. J.; Capolupo, A.; Kozma, R.; Olivares del Campo, A.; Vitiello, G.

    2015-07-01

    By resorting to Freeman's observations showing that the distribution functions of impulse responses of cortex to sensory stimuli resemble Bessel functions, we study brain dynamics by considering the equivalence of spherical Bessel equation, in a given parametrization, to two oscillator equations, one damped and one amplified oscillator. The study of such a couple of equations, which are at the basis of the formulation of the dissipative many-body model, reveals the structure of the root loci of poles and zeros of solutions of Bessel equations, which are consistent with results obtained using ordinary differential equation techniques. We analyze stable and unstable limit cycles and consider thermodynamic features of brain functioning, which in this way may be described in terms of transitions between chaotic gas-like and ordered liquid-like behaviors. Nonlinearity dominates the dynamical critical transition regimes. Linear behavior, on the other hand, characterizes superpositions within self-organized neuronal domains in each dynamical phase. The formalism is consistent with the observed coexistence in circular causality of pulse density fields and wave density fields.

  7. A Simple Alternative to Stereotactic Injection for Brain Specific Knockdown of miRNA.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sarangdhar, Mayuresh Anant; Vij, Manika; Roshan, Reema; Singh, Vijay Pal; Ganguli, Munia; Pillai, Beena

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. In the brain, vital processes like neurodevelopment and neuronal functions depend on the correct expression of microRNAs. Perturbation of microRNAs in the brain can be used to model neurodegenerative diseases by modulating neuronal cell death. Currently, stereotactic injection is used to deliver miRNA knockdown agents to specific location in the brain. Here, we discuss strategies to design antagomirs against miRNA with locked nucleotide modifications (LNA). Subsequently describe a method for brain specific delivery of antagomirs, uniformly across different regions of the brain. This method is simple and widely applicable since it overcomes the surgery, associated injury and limitation of local delivery in stereotactic injections. We prepared a complex of neurotropic, cell-penetrating peptide Rabies Virus Glycoprotein (RVG) with antagomir against miRNA-29 and injected through tail vein, to specifically deliver in the brain. The antagomir design incorporated features that allow specific targeting of the miRNA and formation of non-covalent complexes with the peptide. The knock-down of the miRNA in neuronal cells, resulted in apoptotic cell death and associated behavioural defects. Thus, the method can be used for acute models of neuro-degeneration through the perturbation of miRNAs. PMID:26779762

  8. 28 CFR 0.131 - Specific functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.131 Section 0.131 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.131 Specific functions. The Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives shall:...

  9. 28 CFR 0.131 - Specific functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.131 Section 0.131 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.131 Specific functions. The Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives shall:...

  10. 28 CFR 0.131 - Specific functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.131 Section 0.131 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.131 Specific functions. The Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives shall:...

  11. Localization of Asymmetric Brain Function in Emotion and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, John D.; Heller, Wendy; Mohanty, Aprajita; Engels, Anna S.; Banich, Marie T.; Webb, Andrew G.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous EEG studies have shown that depression is associated with abnormal functional asymmetries in frontal cortex, fMRI and PET studies have largely failed to identify specific brain areas showing this effect. The present study tested the hypothesis that emotion processes are related to asymmetric patterns of fMRI activity, particularly within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Eleven depressed and 18 control participants identified the color in which pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant words were printed. Both groups showed a leftward lateralization for pleasant words in DLPFC. In a neighboring DLPFC area, the depression group showed more right-lateralized activation than controls, replicating EEG findings. These data confirm that emotional stimulus processing and trait depression are associated with asymmetric brain functions in distinct subregions of the DLPFC that may go undetected unless appropriate analytic procedures are used. PMID:20070577

  12. piRNAs and Their Functions in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Zhiren; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Xiangning; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are the non-coding RNAs with 24–32 nucleotides (nt). They exhibit stark differences in length, expression pattern, abundance, and genomic organization when compared to micro-RNAs (miRNAs). There are hundreds of thousands unique piRNA sequences in each species. Numerous piRNAs have been identified and deposited in public databases. Since the piRNAs were originally discovered and well-studied in the germline, a few other studies have reported the presence of piRNAs in somatic cells including neurons. This paper reviewed the common features, biogenesis, functions, and distributions of piRNAs and summarized their specific functions in the brain. This review may provide new insights and research direction for brain disorders. PMID:27512315

  13. Phosphatidylserine in the Brain: Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Yong; Huang, Bill X.; Spector, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the major anionic phospholipid class particularly enriched in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in neural tissues. PS is synthesized from phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine by exchanging the base head group with serine in reactions are catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase 1 and phosphatidylserine synthase 2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of Akt, Raf-1 and protein kinase C signaling, which supports neuronal survival and differentiation, requires interaction of these proteins with PS localized in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and a number of synaptic receptors and proteins are modulated by PS present in the neuronal membranes. Brain is highly enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and brain PS has a high DHA content. By promoting PS synthesis, DHA can uniquely expand the PS pool in neuronal membranes and thereby influence PS-dependent signaling and protein function. Ethanol decreases DHA-promoted PS synthesis and accumulation in neurons, which may contribute to the deleterious effects of ethanol intake. Improvement of some memory functions has been observed in cognitively impaired subjects as a result of PS supplementation, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:24992464

  14. Cell type-specific transcriptome profiling in mammalian brains

    PubMed Central

    LoVerso, Peter R.; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian brain contains numerous types of cells. Advances in neuroscience in the past decade allow us to identify and isolate neural cells of interest from mammalian brains. Recent developments in high-throughput technologies, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS), provide detailed information on gene expression in pooled cells on a genomic scale. As a result, many novel genes have been found critical in cell type-specific transcriptional regulation. These differentially expressed genes can be used as molecular signatures, unique to a particular class of neural cells. Use of this gene expression-based approach can further differentiate neural cell types into subtypes, potentially linking some of them with neurological diseases. In this article, experimental techniques used to purify neural cells are described, followed by a review on recent microarray- or NGS-based transcriptomic studies of common neural cell types. The future prospects of cell type-specific research are also discussed. PMID:27100485

  15. Cell type-specific transcriptome profiling in mammalian brains.

    PubMed

    LoVerso, Peter R; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian brain contains numerous types of cells. Advances in neuroscience in the past decade allow us to identify and isolate neural cells of interest from mammalian brains. Recent developments in high-throughput technologies, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS), provide detailed information on gene expression in pooled cells on a genomic scale. As a result, many novel genes have been found critical in cell type-specific transcriptional regulation. These differentially expressed genes can be used as molecular signatures, unique to a particular class of neural cells. Use of this gene expression-based approach can further differentiate neural cell types into subtypes, potentially linking some of them with neurological diseases. In this article, experimental techniques used to purify neural cells are described, followed by a review on recent microarray- or NGS-based transcriptomic studies of common neural cell types. The future prospects of cell type-specific research are also discussed. PMID:27100485

  16. Cell type-specific gene expression profiling in brain tissue: comparison between TRAP, LCM and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Kim, TaeHyun; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-01-01

    The brain is an organ that consists of various cell types. As our knowledge of the structure and function of the brain progresses, cell type-specific research is gaining importance. Together with advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics, cell type-specific transcriptome studies are providing important insights into brain cell function. In this review, we discuss 3 different cell type-specific transcriptome analyses i.e., Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP)/RiboTag, and single cell RNA-Seq, that are widely used in the field of neuroscience. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(7): 388-394] PMID:25603796

  17. Cell type-specific gene expression profiling in brain tissue: comparison between TRAP, LCM and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Kim, TaeHyun; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-07-01

    The brain is an organ that consists of various cell types. As our knowledge of the structure and function of the brain progresses, cell type-specific research is gaining importance. Together with advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics, cell type-specific transcriptome studies are providing important insights into brain cell function. In this review, we discuss 3 different cell type-specific transcriptome analyses i.e., Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP)/RiboTag, and single cell RNA-Seq, that are widely used in the field of neuroscience. PMID:25603796

  18. ABERRANT SPLICING OF A BRAIN-ENRICHED ALTERNATIVE EXON ELIMINATES TUMOR SUPPRESSOR FUNCTION AND PROMOTES ONCOGENE FUNCTION DURING BRAIN TUMORIGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Bredel, Markus; Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Elverfeldt, Dominik v.; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific alternative splicing is known to be critical to emergence of tissue identity during development, yet its role in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionary-conserved, alternative exons, which represent only a minority of total alternative exons. Many, however, have functional features that influence activity in signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Given that tissue-specific splicing has a determinative role in brain development and the enrichment of genes containing tissue-specific exons for proteins with roles in signaling and development, it is thus plausible that changes in such exons could rewire normal neurogenesis towards malignant transformation. METHODS: We used integrated molecular genetic and cell biology analyses, computational biology, animal modeling, and clinical patient profiles to characterize the effect of aberrant splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on oncogene regulation and brain tumorigenesis. RESULTS: We show that aberrant splicing of a tissue-specific cassette exon in ANXA7 diminishes endosomal targeting and consequent termination of the signal of the EGFR oncoprotein during brain tumorigenesis. Splicing of this exon is mediated by the ribonucleoprotein Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1), which is normally repressed during brain development but, we find, is excessively expressed in glioblastomas through either gene amplification or loss of a neuron-specific microRNA, miR-124. Silencing of PTBP1 attenuates both malignancy and angiogenesis in a stem cell-derived glioblastoma animal model characterized by a high native propensity to generate tumor endothelium or vascular pericytes to support tumor growth. We show that EGFR amplification and PTBP1 overexpression portend a similarly poor clinical outcome, further highlighting the importance of PTBP1-mediated activation of EGFR

  19. Order and disorder in the brain function.

    PubMed

    Quadens, Olga

    2003-01-01

    The interest in studying the brain electrical activity as a function of the development of intelligence has been spurred by the need to understand how the brain responds to environmental information. The description of sleep in mentally retarded children reveals deviant patterns of the EEG-spindles and of the eye movement activity (REM sleep) when compared to normal children. The patterns may be considered as a valuable index of mental function. According to experimental evidence, the distribution of the eye movements of sleep appears either as random or ordered. The latter are altered in the mentally handicapped in whom the appearance out of chaos, of the order which is needed for intelligence and memory to function, is altered. The sleep signs are redundant as from birth. Their pattern is also related to the psychomotor development of the infant. If their distribution remains random, or appears in long uninterrupted sequences of waves as in epilepsy, intelligence does not develop. A similar strategy appears to function in the foetus when nature organizes the structures that will lead to the development of intelligence. The eye movement patterns of sleep change in the pregnant women as a function of term and resemble those of premature babies of a similar gestational age. They also change as a function of the menstrual cycle and more generally as a function of age. The hypothesis that attention is the diurnal equivalent of REM sleep is discussed. Attempts at modelling the eye movement patterns of REM sleep as a function of near zero gravity environments have been made. 1) By means of a Montecarlo simulation using the semi Markov model during the Spacelab 1 flight. 2) With the method of the single and multiple g-phase transition analysis of the strange attractor dimension (d) during parabolic flights. The implication of the latter for the neural processes involved in learning is that the central nervous system can preserve intact, from input to output, over a

  20. Integrating in vitro organ-specific function with the microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Monica L.; George, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    There is significant interest within the tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industries to create 3D microphysiological systems of human organ function. The interest stems from a growing concern that animal models and simple 2D culture systems cannot replicate essential features of human physiology that are critical to predict drug response, or simply to develop new therapeutic strategies to repair or replace damaged organs. Central to human organ function is a microcirculation that not only enhances the rate of nutrient and waste transport by convection, but also provides essential additional physiological functions that can be specific to each organ. This review highlights progress in the creation of in vitro functional microvessel networks, and emphasizes organ-specific functional and structural characteristics that should be considered in the future mimicry of four organ systems that are of primary interest: lung, brain, liver, and muscle (skeletal and cardiac). PMID:24729953

  1. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states. PMID:27401999

  2. Data-driven analysis of functional brain interactions during free listening to music and speech.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-06-01

    Natural stimulus functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) such as fMRI acquired when participants were watching video streams or listening to audio streams has been increasingly used to investigate functional mechanisms of the human brain in recent years. One of the fundamental challenges in functional brain mapping based on N-fMRI is to model the brain's functional responses to continuous, naturalistic and dynamic natural stimuli. To address this challenge, in this paper we present a data-driven approach to exploring functional interactions in the human brain during free listening to music and speech streams. Specifically, we model the brain responses using N-fMRI by measuring the functional interactions on large-scale brain networks with intrinsically established structural correspondence, and perform music and speech classification tasks to guide the systematic identification of consistent and discriminative functional interactions when multiple subjects were listening music and speech in multiple categories. The underlying premise is that the functional interactions derived from N-fMRI data of multiple subjects should exhibit both consistency and discriminability. Our experimental results show that a variety of brain systems including attention, memory, auditory/language, emotion, and action networks are among the most relevant brain systems involved in classic music, pop music and speech differentiation. Our study provides an alternative approach to investigating the human brain's mechanism in comprehension of complex natural music and speech. PMID:24526569

  3. Predicting individual brain maturity using dynamic functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Chen, Shan-Guang; Hu, Dewen; Zeng, Ling-Li; Fan, Yi-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses have revealed significant developmental trends in specific intrinsic connectivity networks linked to cognitive and behavioral maturation. However, knowledge of how brain functional maturation is associated with FC dynamics at rest is limited. Here, we examined age-related differences in the temporal variability of FC dynamics with data publicly released by the Nathan Kline Institute (NKI; n = 183, ages 7–30) and showed that dynamic inter-region interactions can be used to accurately predict individual brain maturity across development. Furthermore, we identified a significant age-dependent trend underlying dynamic inter-network FC, including increasing variability of the connections between the visual network, default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum as well as within the cerebellum and DMN and decreasing variability within the cerebellum and between the cerebellum and DMN as well as the cingulo-opercular network. Overall, the results suggested significant developmental changes in dynamic inter-network interaction, which may shed new light on the functional organization of typical developmental brains. PMID:26236224

  4. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    T-brain-1 (TBR1) is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1−∕− mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+∕− mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1−∕− mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+∕− mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections) and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity), two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+∕− mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK–TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+∕− mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules—including Ntng1, Cdh8, and Cntn2—are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD

  5. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  6. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  7. [Hunger-driven modulation in brain functions].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    \\All organisms must obtain nutrition in order to survive and produce their progeny. In the natural environment, however, adequate nutrition or food is not always available. Thus, all organisms are equipped with mechanisms by which their nutritional condition alters their internal activities. In animals, the loss of nutritional intake (fasting) alters not only metabolism, but also behavior in a manner dependent on hormones such as insulin, glucagon, leptin, and ghrelin. As a result, animals are able to maintain their blood sugar level, and are motivated to crave food upon fasting. Moreover, our recent study revealed a novel role of hunger, which facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation, and its molecular mechanism in the fruit fly, Drosophila. Here, we review the overall effect of fasting, and how fasting affects brain function. I then introduce our finding in which mild fasting facilitates LTM formation, and discuss its biological significance. PMID:24371130

  8. Effects of the diet on brain function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernstrom, John D.

    The rates of synthesis by brain neurons of the neurotransmitters serotonin, acetylcholine, and the catecholamines depend on the brain levels of the respective precursor molecules. Brain levels of each precursor are influenced by their blood concentration, and for the amino acid precursors, by the blood levels of other amino acids as well. Since diet readily alters blood concentrations of each of these precursors, it thereby also influences the brain formation of their neurotransmitter products.

  9. Effects of the diet on brain function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernstrom, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The rates of synthesis by brain neurons of the neurotransmitters serotonin, acetylcholine, and the catecholamines depend on the brain levels of the respective precursor molecules. Brain levels of each precursor are influenced by their blood concentration, and for the amino acid precursors, by the blood levels of other amino acids as well. Since diet readily alters blood concentrations of each of these precursors, it thereby also influences the brain formation of their neutrotransmitter products.

  10. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function.

    PubMed

    Basiago, Adam; Binder, Devin K

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target. PMID:27537920

  11. Non-specific immunostaining by a rabbit antibody against gustducin α subunit in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoxiang; Redding, Kevin; Chen, Bei; Cohen, Akiva S; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-02-01

    Gustducin is a guanosine nucleotide-binding protein functionally coupled with taste receptors and thus originally identified in taste cells of the tongue. Recently, bitter taste receptors and gustducin have been detected in the airways, digestive tracts and brain. The existing studies showing taste receptors and gustducin in the brain were carried out exclusively on frozen sections. In order to avoid the technical shortcomings associated with frozen sectioning, we performed immunofluorescence staining using vibratome-cut sections from mouse brains. Using a rabbit gustducin antibody, we could not detect neurons or astrocytes as reported previously. Rather, we found dense fibers in the nucleus accumbens and periventricular areas. We assumed these staining patterns to be specific after confirmation with conventional negative control staining. For the verification of this finding, we stained gustducin knockout mouse brain and tongue sections with the same rabbit gustducin antibody. Whereas negative staining was confirmed in the tongue, intensive fibers were constantly stained in the brain. Moreover, immunostaining with a goat gustducin antibody could not demonstrate the fibers in the brain tissue. The present study implies a cross immunoreaction that occurs with the rabbit gustducin antibody in mouse brain samples, suggesting that the conventional negative controls may not be sufficient when an immunostaining pattern is to be verified. PMID:25411190

  12. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson’s disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25083161

  13. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure.

    PubMed

    Sarter, M; Berntson, G G; Cacioppo, J T

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has emerged from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology as a scientific discipline that aims at the determination of "how brain function gives rise to mental activity" (S. M. Kosslyn & L. M. Shin, 1992, p. 146). While research in cognitive neuroscience combines many levels of neuroscientific and psychological analyses, modern imaging techniques that monitor brain activity during behavioral or cognitive operations have significantly contributed to the emergence of this discipline. The conclusions deduced from these studies are inherently localizationistic in nature; in other words, they describe cognitive functions as being localized in focal brain regions (brain activity in a defined brain region, phi, is involved in specific cognitive function, psi). A broad discussion about the virtues and limitations of such conclusions may help avoid the emergence of a mentalistic localizationism (i.e., the attribution of mentalistic concepts such as happiness, morality, or consciousness to brain structure) and illustrates the importance of a convergence with information generated by different research strategies (such as, for example, evidence generated by studies in which the effects of experimental manipulations of local neuronal processes on cognitive functions are assessed). Progress in capitalizing on brain-imaging studies to investigate questions of the form "brain structure or event phi is associated with cognitive function psi" may be impeded because of the way in which inferences are typically formulated in the brain imaging literature. A conceptual framework to advance the interpretation of data describing the relationships between cognitive phenomena and brain structure activity is provided. PMID:8585670

  15. An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Dealing with Brain Functions and Brain Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryder, James S.

    This document discusses the problem of teachers who teach primarily to the left hemisphere of the brain, not allowing the right-brain dominant student to expand his creative ability. It presents information about brain structure and function for educators. A glossary of 25 terms is provided with sources of the definitions. Annotations summarizing…

  16. Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

  17. Brain responses in 4-month-old infants are already language specific.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Friedrich, Manuela; Christophe, Anne

    2007-07-17

    Language is the most important faculty that distinguishes humans from other animals. Infants learn their native language fast and effortlessly during the first years of life, as a function of the linguistic input in their environment. Behavioral studies reported the discrimination of melodic contours [1] and stress patterns [2, 3] in 1-4-month-olds. Behavioral [4, 5] and brain measures [6-8] have shown language-independent discrimination of phonetic contrasts at that age. Language-specific discrimination, however, has been reported for phonetic contrasts only for 6-12-month-olds [9-12]. Here we demonstrate language-specific discrimination of stress patterns in 4-month-old German and French infants by using electrophysiological brain measures. We compare the processing of disyllabic words differing in their rhythmic structure, mimicking German words being stressed on the first syllable, e.g., pápa/daddy[13], and French ones being stressed on the second syllable, e.g., papá/daddy. Event-related brain potentials reveal that experience with German and French differentially affects the brain responses of 4-month-old infants, with each language group displaying a processing advantage for the rhythmic structure typical in its native language. These data indicate language-specific neural representations of word forms in the infant brain as early as 4 months of age. PMID:17583508

  18. Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is little information about what role stimulus-specific brain regions play in successful memory processes. To address this issue, the present event-related fMRI study used a factorial design to focus on the role of stimulus-specific brain regions, such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA) in successful encoding and retrieval processes. Searching within regions sensitive to faces or places, we identified areas similarly involved in encoding and retrieval, as well as areas differentially involved in encoding or retrieval. Finally, we isolated regions associated with successful memory, regardless of stimulus and process type. There were three main findings. Within face sensitive regions, anterior medial PFC and right FFA displayed equivalent encoding and retrieval success processes whereas left FFA was associated with successful encoding rather than retrieval. Within place sensitive regions, left PPA displayed equivalent encoding and retrieval success processes whereas right PPA was associated with successful encoding rather than retrieval. Finally, medial temporal and prefrontal regions were associated with general memory success, regardless of stimulus or process type. Taken together, our results clarify the contribution of different brain regions to stimulus- and process-specific episodic memory mechanisms. PMID:19524092

  19. BrainKnowledge: a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2011-03-01

    Associating fMRI image datasets with the available literature is crucial for the analysis and interpretation of fMRI data. Here, we present a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system (BrainKnowledge) that associates fMRI data analysis and literature search functions. BrainKnowledge not only contains indexed literature, but also provides the ability to compare experimental data with those derived from the literature. BrainKnowledge provides three major functions: (1) to search for brain activation models by selecting a particular brain function; (2) to query functions by brain structure; (3) to compare the fMRI data with data extracted from the literature. All these functions are based on our literature extraction and mining module developed earlier (Hsiao, Chen, Chen. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 42, 912-922, 2009), which automatically downloads and extracts information from a vast amount of fMRI literature and generates co-occurrence models and brain association patterns to illustrate the relevance of brain structures and functions. BrainKnowledge currently provides three co-occurrence models: (1) a structure-to-function co-occurrence model; (2) a function-to-structure co-occurrence model; and (3) a brain structure co-occurrence model. Each model has been generated from over 15,000 extracted Medline abstracts. In this study, we illustrate the capabilities of BrainKnowledge and provide an application example with the studies of affect. BrainKnowledge, which combines fMRI experimental results with Medline abstracts, may be of great assistance to scientists not only by freeing up resources and valuable time, but also by providing a powerful tool that collects and organizes over ten thousand abstracts into readily usable and relevant sources of information for researchers. PMID:20857233

  20. Cytokine Signaling Modulates Blood-Brain Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weihong; Stone, Kirsten P.; Hsuchou, Hung; Manda, Vamshi K.; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a vast interface for cytokines to affect CNS function. The BBB is a target for therapeutic intervention. It is essential, therefore, to understand how cytokines interact with each other at the level of the BBB and how secondary signals modulate CNS functions beyond the BBB. The interactions between cytokines and lipids, however, have not been fully addressed at the level of the BBB. Here, we summarize current understanding of the localization of cytokine receptors and transporters in specific membrane microdomains, particularly lipid rafts, on the luminal (apical) surface of the microvascular endothelial cells composing the BBB. We then illustrate the clinical context of cytokine effects on the BBB by neuroendocrine regulation and amplification of inflammatory signals. Two unusual aspects discussed are signaling crosstalk by different classes of cytokines and genetic regulation of drug efflux transporters. We also introduce a novel area of focus on how cytokines may act through nuclear hormone receptors to modulate efflux transporters and other targets. A specific example discussed is the ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA-1) that regulates lipid metabolism. Overall, cytokine signaling at the level of the BBB is a crucial feature of the dynamic regulation that can rapidly change BBB function and affect brain health and disease. PMID:21834767

  1. Topographic Brain Mapping: A Window on Brain Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniski, Walt M.

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the method of topographic mapping of the brain's electrical activity. Multiple electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and computerized analysis of the EEG signal are used to generate maps of frequency and voltage (evoked potential). This relatively new technique holds promise in the evaluation of children with behavioral and…

  2. Reduced brain functional reserve and altered functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cader, Sarah; Cifelli, Alberto; Abu-Omar, Yasir; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M

    2006-02-01

    Cognitive dysfunction (affecting particularly attention and working memory) occurs early in patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies have focused on identifying potentially adaptive functional reorganization through recruitment of new brain regions that could limit expression of these deficits. However, lesion studies remind us that functional specializations in the brain make certain brain regions necessary for a given task. We therefore have asked whether altered functional interactions between regions normally recruited provide an alternative adaptive mechanism with multiple sclerosis pathology. We used a version of the n-back task to probe working memory in patients with early multiple sclerosis. We applied a functional connectivity analysis to test whether relationships between relative activations in different brain regions change in potentially adaptive ways with multiple sclerosis. We studied 21 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls with 3T functional MRI. The two groups performed equally well on the task. Task-related activations were found in similar regions for patients and controls. However, patients showed relatively reduced activation in the superior frontal and anterior cingulate gyri (P > 0.01). Patients also showed a variable, but generally substantially smaller increase in activation than healthy controls with greater task complexity, depending on the specific brain region assessed (P < 0.001). Functional connectivity analysis defined further differences not apparent from the univariate contrast of the task-associated activation patterns. Control subjects showed significantly greater correlations between right dorsolateral prefrontal and superior frontal/anterior cingulate activations (P < 0.05). Patients showed correlations between activations in the right and left prefrontal cortices, although this relationship was not significant in healthy controls (P < 0.05). We interpret

  3. Oxytocin, brain physiology, and functional connectivity: a review of intranasal oxytocin fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Bethlehem, Richard A I; van Honk, Jack; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has become one of the most studied peptides of the human neuroendocrine system. Research has shown widespread behavioural effects and numerous potential therapeutic benefits. However, little is known about how OT triggers these effects in the brain. Here, we discuss some of the physiological properties of OT in the human brain including the long half-life of neuropeptides, the diffuse projections of OT throughout the brain and interactions with other systems such as the dopaminergic system. These properties indicate that OT acts without clear spatial and temporal specificity. Therefore, it is likely to have widespread effects on the brain's intrinsic functioning. Additionally, we review studies that have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) concurrently with OT administration. These studies reveal a specific set of 'social' brain regions that are likely to be the strongest targets for OT's potential to influence human behaviour. On the basis of the fMRI literature and the physiological properties of the neuropeptide, we argue that OT has the potential to not only modulate activity in a set of specific brain regions, but also the functional connectivity between these regions. In light of the increasing knowledge of the behavioural effects of OT in humans, studies of the effects of OT administration on brain function can contribute to our understanding of the neural networks in the social brain. PMID:23159011

  4. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  5. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  6. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  7. Chemotherapy Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Women with Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Julie A.; Makarewicz, Jenna; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Devins, Robert; Albert, Kimberly; Dittus, Kim; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improvements in long-term cancer survival. However, reports of cognitive impairment following treatment emphasize the importance of understanding the long-term effects of chemotherapy on brain functioning. Cognitive deficits found in chemotherapy patients suggest a change in brain functioning that affects specific cognitive domains such as attentional processing and executive functioning. This study examined the processes potentially underlying these changes in cognition by examining brain functional connectivity pre- and post-chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Functional connectivity examines the temporal correlation between spatially remote brain regions in an effort to understand how brain networks support specific cognitive functions. Nine women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before chemotherapy, one month after, and one year after the completion of chemotherapy. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were completed using seeds in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to examine connectivity in the dorsal anterior attention network and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to examine connectivity in the default mode network. Results showed decreased functional connectivity one month after chemotherapy that partially returned to baseline at one year in the dorsal attention network. Decreased connectivity was seen in the default mode network at one month and one year following chemotherapy. In addition, increased subjective memory complaints were noted at one month and one year post-chemotherapy. These findings suggest a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functional connectivity that is potentially related to subjective cognitive assessment. PMID:23852814

  8. Basic, specific, mechanistic? Conceptualizing musical emotions in the brain.

    PubMed

    Omigie, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The number of studies investigating music processing in the human brain continues to increase, with a large proportion of them focussing on the correlates of so-called musical emotions. The current Review highlights the recent development whereby such studies are no longer concerned only with basic emotions such as happiness and sadness but also with so-called music-specific or "aesthetic" ones such as nostalgia and wonder. It also highlights how mechanisms such as expectancy and empathy, which are seen as inducing musical emotions, are enjoying ever-increasing investigation and substantiation with physiological and neuroimaging methods. It is proposed that a combination of these approaches, namely, investigation of the precise mechanisms through which so-called music-specific or aesthetic emotions may arise, will provide the most important advances for our understanding of the unique nature of musical experience. PMID:26172307

  9. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Miller, Tyler E.; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.; Bredel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  10. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R; Yadav, Ajay K; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Miller, Tyler E; Masilamani, Anie P; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M; Yu, Irene L Y; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N; Carro, Maria S; Bredel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  11. Brain-specific Crmp2 deletion leads to neuronal development deficits and behavioural impairments in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Eunchai; Wang, Yaqing; Yang, Chaojuan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Zheyu; Zhang, Chen; Christian, Kimberly M.; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-01-01

    Several genome- and proteome-wide studies have associated transcription and translation changes of CRMP2 (collapsing response mediator protein 2) with psychiatric disorders, yet little is known about its function in the developing or adult mammalian brain in vivo. Here we show that brain-specific Crmp2 knockout (cKO) mice display molecular, cellular, structural and behavioural deficits, many of which are reminiscent of neural features and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. cKO mice exhibit enlarged ventricles and impaired social behaviour, locomotor activity, and learning and memory. Loss of Crmp2 in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation, abnormal NMDA receptor composition, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation in CA1 neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of crmp2 specifically in newborn neurons results in stage-dependent defects in their development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings reveal a critical role for CRMP2 in neuronal plasticity, neural function and behavioural modulation in mice. PMID:27249678

  12. Brain-specific Crmp2 deletion leads to neuronal development deficits and behavioural impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Eunchai; Wang, Yaqing; Yang, Chaojuan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Zheyu; Zhang, Chen; Christian, Kimberly M; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-01-01

    Several genome- and proteome-wide studies have associated transcription and translation changes of CRMP2 (collapsing response mediator protein 2) with psychiatric disorders, yet little is known about its function in the developing or adult mammalian brain in vivo. Here we show that brain-specific Crmp2 knockout (cKO) mice display molecular, cellular, structural and behavioural deficits, many of which are reminiscent of neural features and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. cKO mice exhibit enlarged ventricles and impaired social behaviour, locomotor activity, and learning and memory. Loss of Crmp2 in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation, abnormal NMDA receptor composition, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation in CA1 neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of crmp2 specifically in newborn neurons results in stage-dependent defects in their development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings reveal a critical role for CRMP2 in neuronal plasticity, neural function and behavioural modulation in mice. PMID:27249678

  13. Brain Research: The Necessity for Separating Sites, Actions and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Mary

    Educators, as applied scientists, must work in partnership with investigative scientists who are researching brain functions in order to reach a better understanding of gifted students and students who are intelligent but do not learn. Improper understanding of brain functions can cause gross errors in educational placement. Until recently, the…

  14. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas. PMID:25540983

  15. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Updates News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men ... Using functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in ...

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury and Neuronal Functionality Changes in Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Simone F.; Alwis, Dasuni S.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), caused by direct blows to the head or inertial forces during relative head-brain movement, can result in long-lasting cognitive and motor deficits which can be particularly consequential when they occur in young people with a long life ahead. Much is known of the molecular and anatomical changes produced in TBI but much less is known of the consequences of these changes to neuronal functionality, especially in the cortex. Given that much of our interior and exterior lives are dependent on responsiveness to information from and about the world around us, we have hypothesized that a significant contributor to the cognitive and motor deficits seen after TBI could be changes in sensory processing. To explore this hypothesis, and to develop a model test system of the changes in neuronal functionality caused by TBI, we have examined neuronal encoding of simple and complex sensory input in the rat’s exploratory and discriminative tactile system, the large face macrovibrissae, which feeds to the so-called “barrel cortex” of somatosensory cortex. In this review we describe the short-term and long-term changes in the barrel cortex encoding of whisker motion modeling naturalistic whisker movement undertaken by rats engaged in a variety of tasks. We demonstrate that the most common form of TBI results in persistent neuronal hyperexcitation specifically in the upper cortical layers, likely due to changes in inhibition. We describe the types of cortical inhibitory neurons and their roles and how selective effects on some of these could produce the particular forms of neuronal encoding changes described in TBI, and then generalize to compare the effects on inhibition seen in other forms of brain injury. From these findings we make specific predictions as to how non-invasive extra-cranial electrophysiology can be used to provide the high-precision information needed to monitor and understand the temporal evolution of changes in neuronal

  17. [The transition of deep brain stimulation from disease specific to symptom specific indications].

    PubMed

    Okun, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The success of chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) and electrical neuro-network modulation (ENM) to address neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and also other worldwide regulatory agencies to grant approval for the use of DBS in specific disorders. In the United States, DBS is FDA approved for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and for dystonia. OCD and dystonia have been approved under a mechanism referred to as a humanitarian device exemption (HDE). However, as the field of DBS and ENM evolve there has been a shift in practice patterns from targeting diseases to targeting specific and disabling symptoms. This shift has been driving interdisciplinary DBS boards to collect, and to address symptom profiles in all potential DBS candidates. Based on a specific symptom profile, a strategic and personalized medicine approach can be undertaken. The personalized approach will take into consideration the brain target, a unilateral versus a bilateral procedure, and the potential for use of more than one DBS lead per brain hemisphere. Additionally, a personalized approach to DBS will also facilitate improved pre-operative medication adjustments, as well as optimal post-operative medication, behavioral, and device management. PMID:23196455

  18. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks for Cognitive Control of Action in Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H.; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly…

  19. Functional Neuroanatomy of Executive Function after Neonatal Brain Injury in Adults Who Were Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakidou, Anastasia K.; Allin, Matthew P. G.; Walshe, Muriel; Giampietro, Vincent; McGuire, Philip K.; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks) are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD), 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH), 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads (‘easy’ and ‘hard’ letters). Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8) performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back). Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory) may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury. PMID:25438043

  20. Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433

  1. Bisphenol A Interaction With Brain Development and Functions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose–response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health. PMID:26672480

  2. Enzyme Specific Activity in Functionalized Nanoporous Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2008-03-26

    Enzyme specific activity can be increased or decreased to a large extent by changing protein loading density in functionalized nanoporous support, where organophosphorus hydrolase can display a constructive orientation and thus leave a completely open entrance for substrate even at higher protein loading density, but glucose oxidase can not.

  3. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  4. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  5. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Bertolero, Maxwell A.; Yeo, B. T. Thomas; D’Esposito, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules’ processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author–topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network’s modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules’ functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain’s modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  6. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A.; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti–IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti–IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti–IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.—Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, S. Y., Kim, J.-E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y.-P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. PMID:25609424

  7. Knockdown of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in specific brain sites precipitates behaviors associated with depression and reduces neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Taliaz, D; Stall, N; Dar, D E; Zangen, A

    2009-01-01

    Depression has been associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. In addition, animal studies suggest an association between reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior. These associations were predominantly established based on responses to antidepressant drugs and alterations in BDNF levels and neurogenesis in depressive patients or animal models for depressive behavior. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence that the actual reduction of the BDNF protein in specific brain sites can induce depressive-like behaviors or affect neurogenesis in vivo. Using BDNF knockdown by RNA interference and lentiviral vectors injected into specific subregions of the hippocampus we show that a reduction in BDNF expression in the dentate gyrus, but not the CA3, reduces neurogenesis and affects behaviors associated with depression. Moreover, we show that BDNF has a critical function in neuronal differentiation, but not proliferation in vivo. Finally, we found that a specific BDNF knockdown in the ventral subiculum induces anhedonic-like behavior. These findings provide substantial support for the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression and specify anatomical and neurochemical targets for potential antidepressant interventions. Moreover, the specific effect of BDNF reduction on neuronal differentiation has broader implications for the study of neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19621014

  8. Regional brain atrophy development is related to specific aspects of clinical dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jasperse, Bas; Vrenken, Hugo; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; de Groot, Vincent; Smith, Stephen M; Polman, Chris H; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-11-15

    Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to reflect irreversible tissue damage leading to persistent clinical deficit. Little is known about the rate of atrophy in specific brain regions in relation to specific clinical deficits. We determined the displacement of the brain surface between two T1-weighted MRI images obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 2.2 years for 79 recently diagnosed, mildly disabled MS patients. Voxel- and cluster-wise permutation-based statistics were used to identify brain regions in which atrophy development was significantly related to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed Walk Test (TWT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and 9-Hole Peg Test (HPT). Clusters were considered significant at a corrected cluster-wise p-value of 0.05. Worse EDSS change-score and worse follow-up EDSS were related to atrophy development of periventricular and brainstem regions and right-sided parietal, occipital and temporal regions. Worse PASAT at follow-up was significantly related to atrophy of the ventricles. A worse TWT change-score and worse follow-up TWT were exclusively related to atrophy around the ventricles and of the brainstem. Worse HPT change-score and worse follow-up HPT of either arm were significantly related to the atrophy of widely distributed peripheral regions, as well as atrophy of periventricular and brainstem regions. Our findings suggest that decline in ambulatory function is related to atrophy of central brain regions exclusively, whereas decline in neurologically more complex tasks for coordinated hand function is related to atrophy of both central and peripheral brain regions. PMID:17889567

  9. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Musen, Mark; Menon, Vinod

    2009-07-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID:19621066

  10. Ribosome Profiling Reveals a Cell-Type-Specific Translational Landscape in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Christian; Sims, Jennifer S.; Hornstein, Nicholas; Mela, Angeliki; Garcia, Franklin; Lei, Liang; Gass, David A.; Amendolara, Benjamin; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Glioma growth is driven by signaling that ultimately regulates protein synthesis. Gliomas are also complex at the cellular level and involve multiple cell types, including transformed and reactive cells in the brain tumor microenvironment. The distinct functions of the various cell types likely lead to different requirements and regulatory paradigms for protein synthesis. Proneural gliomas can arise from transformation of glial progenitors that are driven to proliferate via mitogenic signaling that affects translation. To investigate translational regulation in this system, we developed a RiboTag glioma mouse model that enables cell-type-specific, genome-wide ribosome profiling of tumor tissue. Infecting glial progenitors with Cre-recombinant retrovirus simultaneously activates expression of tagged ribosomes and delivers a tumor-initiating mutation. Remarkably, we find that although genes specific to transformed cells are highly translated, their translation efficiencies are low compared with normal brain. Ribosome positioning reveals sequence-dependent regulation of ribosomal activity in 5′-leaders upstream of annotated start codons, leading to differential translation in glioma compared with normal brain. Additionally, although transformed cells express a proneural signature, untransformed tumor-associated cells, including reactive astrocytes and microglia, express a mesenchymal signature. Finally, we observe the same phenomena in human disease by combining ribosome profiling of human proneural tumor and non-neoplastic brain tissue with computational deconvolution to assess cell-type-specific translational regulation. PMID:25122893

  11. Gut Microbiota and Brain Function: An Evolving Field in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane A; Lyte, Mark; Meyer, Emeran; Cryan, John F

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the importance of gut microbiota to health and disease. This has been driven by advances in sequencing technology and recent findings demonstrating the important role of microbiota in common health disorders such as obesity. Moreover, the potential role of gut microbiota in influencing brain function, behavior, and mental health has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and psychiatrists. At the 29(th) International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) World Congress held in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2014, a group of experts presented the symposium, "Gut microbiota and brain function: Relevance to psychiatric disorders" to review the latest findings in how gut microbiota may play a role in brain function, behavior, and disease. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, including gut microbiota and neuroendocrine function, the influence of gut microbiota on behavior, probiotics as regulators of brain and behavior, and imaging the gut-brain axis in humans. This report provides an overview of these presentations. PMID:26438800

  12. Alzheimer's disease: Is this a brain specific diabetic condition?

    PubMed

    Rani, Vanita; Deshmukh, Rahul; Jaswal, Priya; Kumar, Puneet; Bariwal, Jitender

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are the two major health issues affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, with major impacts in the patient's daily life. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing AD compared with healthy individuals. The principal biological mechanisms that associate with the progression of diabetes and AD are not completely understood. Impaired insulin signaling, uncontrolled glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, abnormal protein processing, and the stimulation of inflammatory pathways are common features to both AD and T2DM. In recent years brain specific abnormalities in insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling considered as a major trigger involved in the etiopathogenesis of AD, showing T2DM like milieu. This review summarizes the pathways that might link diabetes and AD and the effect of diminished insulin. PMID:27235734

  13. Functional brain imaging of trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Moisset, Xavier; Villain, Nicolas; Ducreux, Denis; Serrie, Alain; Cunin, Gérard; Valade, Dominique; Calvino, Bernard; Bouhassira, Didier

    2011-02-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to analyze changes in brain activity associated with stimulation of the cutaneous trigger zone in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN). Fifteen consecutive patients with CTN in the second or third division of the nerve, were included in this study. The fMRI paradigm consisted of light tactile stimuli of the trigger zone and the homologous contralateral area. Stimulation of the affected side induced pain in seven patients, but was not painful in eight patients on the day of the experiment. Painful stimuli were associated with significantly increased activity in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV), thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (S1, S2), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, premotor/motor cortex, prefrontal areas, putamen, hippocampus and brainstem. Nonpainful stimulation of the trigger zone activated all but three of these structures (SpV, brainstem and ACC). After a successful surgical treatment, activation induced by stimulation of the operated side was confined to S1 and S2. Our data demonstrate the pathological hyperexcitability of the trigeminal nociceptive system, including the second order trigeminal sensory neurons during evoked attacks of CTN. Such sensitization may depend on pain modulatory systems involving both the brainstem (i.e. periaqueductal gray and adjacent structures) and interconnected cortical structures (i.e. ACC). The fact that large portions of the classical 'pain neuromatrix' were also activated during nonpainful stimulation of the trigger zone, could reflect a state of maintained sensitization of the trigeminal nociceptive systems in CTN. PMID:20609605

  14. Beyond localized and distributed accounts of brain functions. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Tamietto, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence in cognitive neuroscience lends support to the idea that network models of brain architecture provide a privileged access to the understanding of the relation between brain organization and cognitive processes [1]. The core perspective holds that cognitive processes depend on the interactions among distributed neuronal populations and brain structures, and that the impact of a given region on behavior largely depends on its pattern of anatomical and functional connectivity [2,3].

  15. Evidence for hubs in human functional brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hubs integrate and distribute information in powerful ways due to the number and positioning of their contacts in a network. Several resting state functional connectivity MRI reports have implicated regions of the default mode system as brain hubs; we demonstrate that previous degree-based approaches to hub identification may have identified portions of large brain systems rather than critical nodes of brain networks. We utilize two methods to identify hub-like brain regions: 1) finding network nodes that participate in multiple sub-networks of the brain, and 2) finding spatial locations where several systems are represented within a small volume. These methods converge on a distributed set of regions that differ from previous reports on hubs. This work identifies regions that support multiple systems, leading to spatially constrained predictions about brain function that may be tested in terms of lesions, evoked responses, and dynamic patterns of activity. PMID:23972601

  16. Regional specificity in deltamethrin induced cytochrome P450 expression in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Sanjay; Johri, Ashu; Dhawan, Alok; Seth, Prahlad K.; Parmar, Devendra . E-mail: parmar_devendra@hotmail.com

    2006-11-15

    Oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg x 7 or 15 or 21 days) was found to produce a time-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), 1A2 and CYP2B1, 2B2 isoenzymes in rat brain. RT-PCR studies further showed that increase in the mRNA expression of these CYP isoenzymes observed after 21 days of exposure was region specific. Hippocampus exhibited maximum increase in the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which was followed by pons-medulla, cerebellum and hypothalamus. The mRNA expression of CYP2B1 also exhibited maximum increase in the hypothalamus and hippocampus followed by almost similar increase in midbrain and cerebellum. In contrast, mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and CYP2B2, the constitutive isoenzymes exhibited relatively higher increase in pons-medulla, cerebellum and frontal cortex. Immunoblotting studies carried out with polyclonal antibody raised against rat liver CYP1A1/1A2 or CYP2B1/2B2 isoenzymes also showed increase in immunoreactivity comigrating with CYP1A1/1A2 or 2B1/2B2 in the microsomal fractions isolated from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of rat treated with deltamethrin. Though the exact relationship of the xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs with the physiological function of the brain is yet to be clearly understood, the increase in the mRNA expression of the CYPs in the brain regions that regulate specific brain functions affected by deltamethrin have further indicated that modulation of these CYPs could be associated with the various endogenous functions of the brain.

  17. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance. PMID:20176953

  18. The Apolipoprotein E Gene, Attention, and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Sunderland, Trey

    2005-01-01

    The ɛ4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene is associated with alterations in brain function and is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Changes in components of visuospatial attention with ApoE-ɛ4, aging, and AD are described. Healthy middle-aged adults without dementia who have the ApoE-ɛ4 gene show deficits in spatial attention and working memory that are qualitatively similar to those seen in clinically diagnosed AD patients. The findings support an association between ApoE polymorphism and specific components of visuospatial attention. Molecular mechanisms that may mediate the ApoE–attention link by modulating cholinergic neurotransmission to the posterior parietal cortex are discussed. Studies of attention and brain function in ApoE-ɛ4 carriers without dementia can advance knowledge of the genetics of visual attention, may enhance understanding of the preclinical phase of AD, and may lead to better methods for early AD detection. PMID:11949718

  19. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  20. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  1. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A; Hillary, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength

  2. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A.; Hillary, Frank G.

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength

  3. Functional connectivity of the rodent brain using optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Codina, Edgar

    showed a decreasing trend of homologous correlation in the motor and cingulate cortices. Graph analyses showed a randomization of the cortex functional networks, suggesting a loss of connectivity, more specifically in the motor cortex ipsilateral to the treated carotid; however these changes are not reflected in differentiated metabolic estimates. Confounds remain due to the fact that carotid rigidification gives rise to neural decline in the hippocampus as well as unilateral alteration of vascular pulsatility; however the results support the need to look at several hemodynamic parameters when imaging the brain after arterial remodeling. The third article of this thesis studies a model of inflammatory injury on the newborn rat. Oxygen saturation and functional connectivity were assessed with photoacoustic tomography. Oxygen saturation was decreased in the site of the lesion and on the cortex ipsilateral to the injury; however this decrease is not fully explained by hypovascularization revealed by histology. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis showed that inter-hemispheric connectivity is not affected by inflammatory injury.

  4. Brain microRNAs and insights into biological functions and therapeutic potential of brain enriched miRNA-128

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs, the non-coding single-stranded RNA of 19–25 nucleotides are emerging as robust players of gene regulation. Plethora of evidences support that the ability of microRNAs to regulate several genes of a pathway or even multiple cross talking pathways have significant impact on a complex regulatory network and ultimately the physiological processes and diseases. Brain being a complex organ with several cell types, expresses more distinct miRNAs than any other tissues. This review aims to discuss about the microRNAs in brain development, function and their dysfunction in brain tumors. We also provide a comprehensive summary of targets of brain specific and brain enriched miRNAs that contribute to the diversity and plasticity of the brain. In particular, we uncover recent findings on miRNA-128, a brain-enriched microRNA that is induced during neuronal differentiation and whose aberrant expression has been reported in several cancers. This review describes the wide spectrum of targets of miRNA-128 that have been identified till date with potential roles in apoptosis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cholesterol metabolism, self renewal, invasion and cancer progression and how this knowledge might be exploited for the development of future miRNA-128 based therapies for the treatment of cancer as well as metabolic diseases. PMID:24555688

  5. Cell-specific blood–brain barrier regulation in health and disease: a focus on hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, S; Patkar, S; Ogunshola, O O

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex vascular structure consisting of microvascular endothelial cells that line the vessel wall, astrocyte end-feet, pericytes, as well as the basal lamina. BBB cells act in concert to maintain the characteristic impermeable and low paracellular flux of the brain vascular network, thus ensuring a homeostatic neuronal environment. Alterations in BBB stability that occur during injury have dire consequences on disease progression and it is clear that BBB cell-specific responses, positive or negative, must make a significant contribution to injury outcome. Reduced oxygenation, or hypoxia, is a characteristic of many brain diseases that significantly increases barrier permeability. Recent data suggest that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1), the master regulator of the hypoxic response, probably mediates many hypoxic effects either directly or indirectly via its target genes. This review discusses current knowledge of physiological cell-specific regulation of barrier function, their responses to hypoxia as well as consequences of hypoxic-and HIF-1-mediated mechanisms on barrier integrity during select brain diseases. In the final sections, the potential of current advances in targeting HIF-1 as a therapeutic strategy will be overviewed. PMID:24641185

  6. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    ScienceCinema

    Olaf Sporns

    2010-01-08

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  7. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    SciTech Connect

    Sporns, Olaf

    2008-01-23

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life. How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood. In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  8. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    SciTech Connect

    Olaf Sporns

    2008-01-23

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  9. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    PubMed Central

    Stolp, Helen B.; Liddelow, Shane A.; Sá-Pereira, Inês; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Saunders, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognized that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signaling or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signaling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body's response to damage or infection. This signaling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed. PMID:23986663

  10. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  11. Neural Substrate Expansion for the Restoration of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H. Isaac; Jgamadze, Dennis; Serruya, Mijail D.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Wolf, John A.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoring neurological and cognitive function in individuals who have suffered brain damage is one of the principal objectives of modern translational neuroscience. Electrical stimulation approaches, such as deep-brain stimulation, have achieved the most clinical success, but they ultimately may be limited by the computational capacity of the residual cerebral circuitry. An alternative strategy is brain substrate expansion, in which the computational capacity of the brain is augmented through the addition of new processing units and the reconstitution of network connectivity. This latter approach has been explored to some degree using both biological and electronic means but thus far has not demonstrated the ability to reestablish the function of large-scale neuronal networks. In this review, we contend that fulfilling the potential of brain substrate expansion will require a significant shift from current methods that emphasize direct manipulations of the brain (e.g., injections of cellular suspensions and the implantation of multi-electrode arrays) to the generation of more sophisticated neural tissues and neural-electric hybrids in vitro that are subsequently transplanted into the brain. Drawing from neural tissue engineering, stem cell biology, and neural interface technologies, this strategy makes greater use of the manifold techniques available in the laboratory to create biocompatible constructs that recapitulate brain architecture and thus are more easily recognized and utilized by brain networks. PMID:26834579

  12. Neural Substrate Expansion for the Restoration of Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Isaac; Jgamadze, Dennis; Serruya, Mijail D; Cullen, D Kacy; Wolf, John A; Smith, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Restoring neurological and cognitive function in individuals who have suffered brain damage is one of the principal objectives of modern translational neuroscience. Electrical stimulation approaches, such as deep-brain stimulation, have achieved the most clinical success, but they ultimately may be limited by the computational capacity of the residual cerebral circuitry. An alternative strategy is brain substrate expansion, in which the computational capacity of the brain is augmented through the addition of new processing units and the reconstitution of network connectivity. This latter approach has been explored to some degree using both biological and electronic means but thus far has not demonstrated the ability to reestablish the function of large-scale neuronal networks. In this review, we contend that fulfilling the potential of brain substrate expansion will require a significant shift from current methods that emphasize direct manipulations of the brain (e.g., injections of cellular suspensions and the implantation of multi-electrode arrays) to the generation of more sophisticated neural tissues and neural-electric hybrids in vitro that are subsequently transplanted into the brain. Drawing from neural tissue engineering, stem cell biology, and neural interface technologies, this strategy makes greater use of the manifold techniques available in the laboratory to create biocompatible constructs that recapitulate brain architecture and thus are more easily recognized and utilized by brain networks. PMID:26834579

  13. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  14. Generating Text from Functional Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco; Detre, Greg; Botvinick, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., “Apartment’’) while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., “door,” “window” for “Apartment’’). Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively. PMID:21927602

  15. Generating text from functional brain images.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco; Detre, Greg; Botvinick, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., "Apartment'') while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., "door," "window" for "Apartment''). Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively. PMID:21927602

  16. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A; Stonestreet, Barbara S

    2015-05-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti-IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti-IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti-IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia. PMID:25609424

  17. Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-07-01

    Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management. PMID:22504276

  18. Characterizing dynamic local functional connectivity in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lifu; Sun, Junfeng; Cheng, Lin; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC), obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brings insights into the functional organization of the brain. Recently, rich and complex behaviour of brain has been revealed by the dynamic fluctuation of FC, which had previously been regarded as confounding 'noise'. While the dynamics of long-distance, inter-regional FC has been extensively studied, the dynamics of local FC within a few millimetres in space remains largely unexplored. In this study, the local FC was depicted by regional homogeneity (ReHo), and the dynamics of local FC was obtained using sliding windows method. We observed a robust positive correlation between ReHo and its temporal variability, which was shown to be an intrinsic feature of the brain rather than a pure stochastic effect. Furthermore, fluctuation of ReHo was associated with global functional organization: (i) brain regions with higher centrality of inter-regional FC tended to possess higher ReHo variability; (ii) coherence of ReHo fluctuation was higher within brain's functional modules. Finally, we observed alteration of ReHo variability during a motor task compared with resting-state. Our findings associated the temporal fluctuation of ReHo with brain function, opening up the possibility of dynamic local FC study in the future. PMID:27231194

  19. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  20. Memory Networks in Tinnitus: A Functional Brain Image Study

    PubMed Central

    Laureano, Maura Regina; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Batista, Ilza Rosa; Reis, Marilia Alves; Garcia, Michele Vargas; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; de Almeida, Roberta Ribeiro; Garrido, Griselda J.; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls. Methods: Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT). The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the “Tinnitus Handicap Inventory” (THI). The images were processed and analyzed using “Statistical Parametric Mapping” (SPM8). Results: A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05) was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus. Conclusion: It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes. PMID:24516567

  1. Selectionist and Evolutionary Approaches to Brain Function: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2012-01-01

    We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse, and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise. PMID:22557963

  2. Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Kraft, Eduard; Santana, Silvina; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. PMID:26054789

  3. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. PMID:23501053

  4. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  5. A chemical proteomic atlas of brain serine hydrolases identifies cell type-specific pathways regulating neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Joslyn, Christopher M; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Mori, Simone; Nguyen, William; Conti, Bruno; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLα) and –beta (DAGLβ) to neurons and microglia, respectively. Disruption of DAGLβ perturbed eCB-eicosanoid crosstalk specifically in microglia and suppressed neuroinflammatory events in vivo independently of broader effects on eCB content. Mapping the cellular distribution of metabolic enzymes thus identifies pathways for regulating specialized inflammatory responses in the brain while avoiding global alterations in CNS function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12345.001 PMID:26779719

  6. [Determinism and Freedom of Choice in the Brain Functioning].

    PubMed

    Ivanitsky, A M

    2015-01-01

    The problem is considered whether the brain response is completely determined by the stimulus and the personal experience or in some cases the brain is free to choose its behavioral response to achieve the desired goal. The attempt is made to approach to this important philosophical problem basing on modern knowledge about the brain. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part the theoretical views about the free choice problem solving are considered, including views about the freedom of choice as a useful illusion, the hypothesis on appliance of quantum mechanics laws to the brain functioning and the theory of mentalism. In other tree parts consequently the more complicated brain functions such as choice reaction, thinking and creation are analyzed. The general conclusion is that the possibility of quite unpredictable, but sometimes very effective decisions increases when the brain functions are more and more complicated. This fact can be explained with two factors: increasing stochasticity of the brain processes and the role of top-down determinations from mental to neural levels, according to the theory of mentalism. PMID:26601509

  7. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders. PMID:26405867

  8. ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

    2008-01-30

    Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

  9. Evolving Knowledge of Sex Differences in Brain Structure, Function and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Staley, Julie K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical and epidemiologic evidence demonstrates sex differences in the prevalence and course of various psychiatric disorders. Understanding sex-specific brain differences in healthy individuals is a critical first step towards understanding sex-specific expression of psychiatric disorders. Here, we evaluate evidence on sex differences in brain structure, chemistry and function using imaging methodologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mentally healthy individuals. Methods MEDLINE searches of English-language literature (1980-November 2006) using the terms sex, gender, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, morphometry, neurochemistry and neurotransmission were performed to extract relevant sources. Results The literature suggests that while there are many similarities in brain structure, function and neurotransmission in healthy men and women, there are important differences that distinguish the male from the female brain. Overall brain volume is greater in men than women, yet, when controlling for total volume, women have a higher percentage of gray matter and men a higher percentage of white matter. Regional volume differences are less consistent. Global cerebral blood flow is higher in women than in men. Sex-specific differences in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic markers indicate that male and female brains are neurochemically distinct. Conclusions Insight into the etiology of sex differences in the normal living human brain provides an important foundation to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders and to guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders. PMID:17544382

  10. Functional imaging of the brain with/sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M; Greenberg, J; Alavi, A; Hand, P; Rintelmann, W; Rosenquist, A; Christman, D; Fowler, J; MacGregor, R; Wolf, A

    1980-01-01

    A techniques is reported by which it is possible to determine which regions of the human brain become functionally active in response to a specific stimulus. The method utilizes /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 18/F)-FDG) administered as a bolus. (/sup 18/F)-FDG is used as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation. The subject is then scanned during administration of a physiologic stimulus by position emission tomography and the three-dimensional distribution of /sup 18/F activity in the brain determined. (ACR)

  11. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed. PMID:23256049

  12. Branched-chain amino acids and brain function.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2005-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) influence brain function by modifying large, neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport at the blood-brain barrier. Transport is shared by several LNAAs, notably the BCAAs and the aromatic amino acids (ArAAs), and is competitive. Consequently, when plasma BCAA concentrations rise, which can occur in response to food ingestion or BCAA administration, or with the onset of certain metabolic diseases (e.g., uncontrolled diabetes), brain BCAA concentrations rise, and ArAA concentrations decline. Such effects occur acutely and chronically. Such reductions in brain ArAA concentrations have functional consequences: biochemically, they reduce the synthesis and the release of neurotransmitters derived from ArAAs, notably serotonin (from tryptophan) and catecholamines (from tyrosine and phenylalanine). The functional effects of such neurochemical changes include altered hormonal function, blood pressure, and affective state. Although the BCAAs thus have biochemical and functional effects in the brain, few attempts have been made to characterize time-course or dose-response relations for such effects. And, no studies have attempted to identify levels of BCAA intake that might produce adverse effects on the brain. The only "model" of very high BCAA exposure is a very rare genetic disorder, maple syrup urine disease, a feature of which is substantial brain dysfunction but that probably cannot serve as a useful model for excessive BCAA intake by normal individuals. Given the known biochemical and functional effects of the BCAAs, it should be a straightforward exercise to design studies to assess dose-response relations for biochemical and functional effects and, in this context, to explore for adverse effect thresholds. PMID:15930466

  13. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  14. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  15. Brain functional connectivity and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, E

    2014-01-01

    the flow of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2 s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12 Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. The results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a distinct time window, impeding thus the ability of the system to recruit and to process information during this time window. The results of this study seem to have greater importance on neuronal correlation of consciousness. The brain is a highly distributed system in which

  16. Characterizing dynamic local functional connectivity in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lifu; Sun, Junfeng; Cheng, Lin; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC), obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brings insights into the functional organization of the brain. Recently, rich and complex behaviour of brain has been revealed by the dynamic fluctuation of FC, which had previously been regarded as confounding ‘noise’. While the dynamics of long-distance, inter-regional FC has been extensively studied, the dynamics of local FC within a few millimetres in space remains largely unexplored. In this study, the local FC was depicted by regional homogeneity (ReHo), and the dynamics of local FC was obtained using sliding windows method. We observed a robust positive correlation between ReHo and its temporal variability, which was shown to be an intrinsic feature of the brain rather than a pure stochastic effect. Furthermore, fluctuation of ReHo was associated with global functional organization: (i) brain regions with higher centrality of inter-regional FC tended to possess higher ReHo variability; (ii) coherence of ReHo fluctuation was higher within brain’s functional modules. Finally, we observed alteration of ReHo variability during a motor task compared with resting-state. Our findings associated the temporal fluctuation of ReHo with brain function, opening up the possibility of dynamic local FC study in the future. PMID:27231194

  17. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. PMID:26396520

  18. Patient-specific computational biomechanics of the brain without segmentation and meshing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Johnny Y; Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol

    2013-02-01

    Motivated by patient-specific computational modelling in the context of image-guided brain surgery, we propose a new fuzzy mesh-free modelling framework. The method works directly on an unstructured cloud of points that do not form elements so that mesh generation is not required. Mechanical properties are assigned directly to each integration point based on fuzzy tissue classification membership functions without the need for image segmentation. Geometric integration is performed over an underlying uniform background grid. The verification example shows that, while requiring no hard segmentation and meshing, the proposed model gives, for all practical purposes, equivalent results to a finite element model. PMID:23345159

  19. Hubs of brain functional networks are radically reorganized in comatose patients

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Sophie; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Vértes, Petra E.; Renard, Félix; Schenck, Maleka; Schneider, Francis; Heinrich, Christian; Kremer, Stéphane; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Human brain networks have topological properties in common with many other complex systems, prompting the following question: what aspects of brain network organization are critical for distinctive functional properties of the brain, such as consciousness? To address this question, we used graph theoretical methods to explore brain network topology in resting state functional MRI data acquired from 17 patients with severely impaired consciousness and 20 healthy volunteers. We found that many global network properties were conserved in comatose patients. Specifically, there was no significant abnormality of global efficiency, clustering, small-worldness, modularity, or degree distribution in the patient group. However, in every patient, we found evidence for a radical reorganization of high degree or highly efficient “hub” nodes. Cortical regions that were hubs of healthy brain networks had typically become nonhubs of comatose brain networks and vice versa. These results indicate that global topological properties of complex brain networks may be homeostatically conserved under extremely different clinical conditions and that consciousness likely depends on the anatomical location of hub nodes in human brain networks. PMID:23185007

  20. Resiliency of EEG-Based Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Applying tools available in network science and graph theory to study brain networks has opened a new era in understanding brain mechanisms. Brain functional networks extracted from EEG time series have been frequently studied in health and diseases. In this manuscript, we studied failure resiliency of EEG-based brain functional networks. The network structures were extracted by analysing EEG time series obtained from 30 healthy subjects in resting state eyes-closed conditions. As the network structure was extracted, we measured a number of metrics related to their resiliency. In general, the brain networks showed worse resilient behaviour as compared to corresponding random networks with the same degree sequences. Brain networks had higher vulnerability than the random ones (P < 0.05), indicating that their global efficiency (i.e., communicability between the regions) is more affected by removing the important nodes. Furthermore, the breakdown happened as a result of cascaded failures in brain networks was severer (i.e., less nodes survived) as compared to randomized versions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that real EEG-based networks have not been evolved to possess optimal resiliency against failures. PMID:26295341

  1. Altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cézilly, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes. PMID:17015346

  2. Functional specificity of local synaptic connections in neocortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ho; Hofer, Sonja B.; Pichler, Bruno; Buchanan, Kate; Sjöström, P. Jesper; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal connectivity is fundamental to information processing in the brain. Understanding the mechanisms of sensory processing, therefore, requires uncovering how connection patterns between neurons relate to their function. On a coarse scale long range projections can preferentially link cortical regions with similar responses to sensory stimuli1-4. But on the local scale, where dendrites and axons overlap substantially, the functional specificity of connections remains unknown. Here we determine synaptic connectivity between nearby layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro whose response properties were first characterized in mouse visual cortex in vivo. We found that connection probability was related to the similarity of visually driven neuronal activity. Neurons with the same preference for oriented stimuli connected at twice the rate of neurons with orthogonal orientation preferences. Neurons responding similarly to naturalistic stimuli formed connections at much higher rates than those with uncorrelated responses. Bidirectional synaptic connections were found more frequently between neuronal pairs with strongly correlated visual responses. Our results reveal the deg of functional specificity of local synaptic connections in visual cortex, and point to the existence of fine-scale subnetworks dedicated to processing related sensory information. PMID:21478872

  3. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Bak, Per

    1995-05-01

    We introduce a simple ``toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ``critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught.

  4. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; p<0.001) of aged rats compared to young rats, however no significant differences were detected in synaptic levels in the PFC region. Double immunogold labeling indicated that agmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26548412

  5. How the brain attunes to sentence processing: Relating behavior, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-04-01

    Unlike other aspects of language comprehension, the ability to process complex sentences develops rather late in life. Brain maturation as well as verbal working memory (vWM) expansion have been discussed as possible reasons. To determine the factors contributing to this functional development, we assessed three aspects in different age-groups (5-6years, 7-8years, and adults): first, functional brain activity during the processing of increasingly complex sentences; second, brain structure in language-related ROIs; and third, the behavioral comprehension performance on complex sentences and the performance on an independent vWM test. At the whole-brain level, brain functional data revealed a qualitatively similar neural network in children and adults including the left pars opercularis (PO), the left inferior parietal lobe together with the posterior superior temporal gyrus (IPL/pSTG), the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. While functional activation of the language-related ROIs PO and IPL/pSTG predicted sentence comprehension performance for all age-groups, only adults showed a functional selectivity in these brain regions with increased activation for more complex sentences. The attunement of both the PO and IPL/pSTG toward a functional selectivity for complex sentences is predicted by region-specific gray matter reduction while that of the IPL/pSTG is additionally predicted by vWM span. Thus, both structural brain maturation and vWM expansion provide the basis for the emergence of functional selectivity in language-related brain regions leading to more efficient sentence processing during development. PMID:26777477

  6. How the brain attunes to sentence processing: Relating behavior, structure, and function

    PubMed Central

    Fengler, Anja; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike other aspects of language comprehension, the ability to process complex sentences develops rather late in life. Brain maturation as well as verbal working memory (vWM) expansion have been discussed as possible reasons. To determine the factors contributing to this functional development, we assessed three aspects in different age-groups (5–6 years, 7–8 years, and adults): first, functional brain activity during the processing of increasingly complex sentences; second, brain structure in language-related ROIs; and third, the behavioral comprehension performance on complex sentences and the performance on an independent vWM test. At the whole-brain level, brain functional data revealed a qualitatively similar neural network in children and adults including the left pars opercularis (PO), the left inferior parietal lobe together with the posterior superior temporal gyrus (IPL/pSTG), the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. While functional activation of the language-related ROIs PO and IPL/pSTG predicted sentence comprehension performance for all age-groups, only adults showed a functional selectivity in these brain regions with increased activation for more complex sentences. The attunement of both the PO and IPL/pSTG toward a functional selectivity for complex sentences is predicted by region-specific gray matter reduction while that of the IPL/pSTG is additionally predicted by vWM span. Thus, both structural brain maturation and vWM expansion provide the basis for the emergence of functional selectivity in language-related brain regions leading to more efficient sentence processing during development. PMID:26777477

  7. Function-Structure Associations of the Brain: Evidence from Multimodal Connectivity and Covariance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Jing; Huster, Rene; Yu, Qingbao; Segall, Judith M.; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in multimodal imaging techniques and analysis approaches, unimodal studies are still the predominant way to investigate brain changes or group differences, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Multimodal brain studies can be used to understand the complex interplay of anatomical, functional and physiological brain alterations or development, and to better comprehend the biological significance of multiple imaging measures. To examine the function-structure associations of the brain in a more comprehensive and integrated manner, we reviewed a number of multimodal studies that combined two or more functional (fMRI and/or EEG) and structural (sMRI and/or DTI) modalities. In this review paper, we specifically focused on multimodal neuroimaging studies on cognition, aging, disease and behavior. We also compared multiple analysis approaches, including univariate and multivariate methods. The possible strengths and limitations of each method are highlighted, which can guide readers when selecting a method based on a given research question. In particular, we believe that multimodal fusion approaches will shed further light on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the major structural and functional pathophysiological features of both the healthy brain (e.g. development) or the diseased brain (e.g. mental illness). And in the latter case, may provide a more sensitive measure than unimodal imaging for disease classification, e.g. multimodal biomarkers, which potentially can be used to support clinical diagnosis based on neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24084066

  8. Specific binding of naloxone to ovine brain tissue: comparison of brain regions and endocrine states.

    PubMed

    Weesner, G D; Trout, W E; Malven, P V

    1989-06-01

    Binding of [3H]naloxone ([3H]NAL) to brain membranes was quantified by Scatchard analysis using two methods of separating bound from free [3H]NAL. In the centrifugation method, membranes that were soluble at 1,000 x g, but sedimented at 20,000 x g, were incubated with [3H]NAL. For filtration, all membranes that sedimented at 20,000 x g were incubated and filtered through glass filter fibers. Nonspecific binding was estimated using greater than 500-fold excess of unlabeled naloxone (10(-6) M). Specific binding of [3H]NAL was used to generate linear multiple-point Scatchard plots, which indicated a single class of high-affinity sites. In Exp. 1, 10 ovariectomized (OVX) ewes were injected with estradiol-17 beta alone or in combination with progesterone. Compared with OVX controls, these hormonal treatments did not affect binding of [3H]NAL (centrifugation method) to combined hypothalamus (HYP) + preoptic (POA) tissues. In cyclic ewes (Exp. 2, filtration method), affinity constants (2.4 +/- .2 x 10(8) M-1) did not differ among HYP, POA and basal forebrain (BF) tissues, but BF had more sites (39 +/- 3 fmol/mg) than either HYP (14 +/- 1) or POA (17 +/- 1). Binding affinity and concentration of sites within each brain area (HYP, POA, BF) did not differ between d 8 and d 16 (preovulatory but after luteolysis) in normally cycling ewes. Overall, neural tissue dissected from BF had a greater concentration of binding sites than HYP or POA. Exogenous and endogenous fluctuations in ovarian steroids did not affect binding of [3H]NAL to these tissues. PMID:2768110

  9. Altered brain rhythms and functional network disruptions involved in patients with generalized fixation-off epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Solana, Ana Beatriz; Martínez, Kenia; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; San Antonio-Arce, Victoria; Toledano, Rafael; García-Morales, Irene; Alvárez-Linera, Juan; Gil-Nágel, Antonio; Del Pozo, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Generalized Fixation-off Sensitivity (CGE-FoS) patients present abnormal EEG patterns when losing fixation. In the present work, we studied two CGE-FoS epileptic patients with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. We aim to identify brain areas that are specifically related to the pathology by identifying the brain networks that are related to the EEG brain altered rhythms. Three main analyses were performed: EEG standalone, where the voltage fluctuations in delta, alpha, and beta EEG bands were obtained; fMRI standalone, where resting-state fMRI ICA analyses for opened and closed eyes conditions were computed per subject; and, EEG-informed fMRI, where EEG delta, alpha and beta oscillations were used to analyze fMRI. Patient 1 showed EEG abnormalities for lower beta band EEG brain rhythm. Fluctuations of this rhythm were correlated with a brain network mainly composed by temporo-frontal areas only found in the closed eyes condition. Patient 2 presented alterations in all the EEG brain rhythms (delta, alpha, beta) under study when closing eyes. Several biologically relevant brain networks highly correlated (r > 0.7) to each other in the closed eyes condition were found. EEG-informed fMRI results in patient 2 showed hypersynchronized patterns in the fMRI correlation spatial maps. The obtained findings allow a differential diagnosis for each patient and different profiles with respect to healthy volunteers. The results suggest a different disruption in the functional brain networks of these patients that depends on their altered brain rhythms. This knowledge could be used to treat these patients by novel brain stimulation approaches targeting specific altered brain networks in each patient. PMID:26001771

  10. The Bilingual Brain as Revealed by Functional Neuroimaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Cappa, Stefano F.; Perani, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging of bilinguals and monolinguals used in conjunction with experimental cognitive tasks has been successful in establishing functional specialization as a principle of brain organization in humans. Consistent results show that attained proficiency and possibly language exposure are more important than age of acquisition as a…

  11. Analyzing complex functional brain networks: Fusing statistics and network science to understand the brain*†

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Sean L.; Bowman, F. DuBois; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Complex functional brain network analyses have exploded over the last decade, gaining traction due to their profound clinical implications. The application of network science (an interdisciplinary offshoot of graph theory) has facilitated these analyses and enabled examining the brain as an integrated system that produces complex behaviors. While the field of statistics has been integral in advancing activation analyses and some connectivity analyses in functional neuroimaging research, it has yet to play a commensurate role in complex network analyses. Fusing novel statistical methods with network-based functional neuroimage analysis will engender powerful analytical tools that will aid in our understanding of normal brain function as well as alterations due to various brain disorders. Here we survey widely used statistical and network science tools for analyzing fMRI network data and discuss the challenges faced in filling some of the remaining methodological gaps. When applied and interpreted correctly, the fusion of network scientific and statistical methods has a chance to revolutionize the understanding of brain function. PMID:25309643

  12. Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Understanding entangled cerebral networks: a prerequisite for restoring brain function with brain-computer interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Historically, cerebral processing has been conceptualized as a framework based on statically localized functions. However, a growing amount of evidence supports a hodotopical (delocalized) and flexible organization. A number of studies have reported absence of a permanent neurological deficit after massive surgical resections of eloquent brain tissue. These results highlight the tremendous plastic potential of the brain. Understanding anatomo-functional correlates underlying this cerebral reorganization is a prerequisite to restore brain functions through brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in patients with cerebral diseases, or even to potentiate brain functions in healthy individuals. Here, we review current knowledge of neural networks that could be utilized in the BCIs that enable movements and language. To this end, intraoperative electrical stimulation in awake patients provides valuable information on the cerebral functional maps, their connectomics and plasticity. Overall, these studies indicate that the complex cerebral circuitry that underpins interactions between action, cognition and behavior should be throughly investigated before progress in BCI approaches can be achieved. PMID:24834030

  14. Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation. PMID:24795629

  15. Specific absorbed fractions of energy from internal photon sources in brain tumor and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F. )); Stubbs, J.B. )

    1995-03-01

    Transferrin, radiolabeled with In-111, can be coinjected into glioblastoma multiforme lesions, and subsequent scintigraphic imaging can demonstrate the biokinetics of the cytotoxic transferrin. The administration of [sup 111]In transferrin into a brain tumor results in distribution of radioactivity in the brain, brain tumor, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Information about absorbed radiation doses to these regions, as well as other nearby tissues and organs, is important for evaluating radiation-related risks from this procedure. The radiation dose is usually estimated for a mathematical representation of the human body. We have included source/target regions for the eye, lens of the eye, spinal column, spinal CSF, cranial CSF, and a 100-g tumor within the brain of an adult male phantom developed by Cristy and Eckerman. The spinal column, spinal CSF, and the eyes have not been routinely included in photon transport simulations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) as a function of photon energy were calculated using the ALGAMP computer code, which utilizes Monte Carlo techniques for simulating photon transport. The ALGAMP code was run three times, with the source activity distributed uniformly within the tumor, cranial CSF, and the spinal CSF volumes. These SAFs, which were generated for 12 discrete photon energies ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV, were used with decay scheme data to calculate [ital S]-values needed for estimating absorbed doses. [ital S]-values for [sup 111]In are given for three source regions (brain tumor, cranial CSF, and spinal CSF) and all standard target regions/organs, the eye and lens, as well as to tissues within these source regions. [ital S]-values for the skeletal regions containing active marrow are estimated. These results are useful in evaluating the radiation doses from intracranial administration of [sup 111]In transferrin.

  16. Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca; Fornito, Alex; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. Methods Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. Results Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex). Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. Conclusions Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology. PMID:23451272

  17. Loss of brain function - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be made by the body, such as ammonia. Or they may be substances that you take ... MRI EEG Liver function tests Prothrombin time Serum ammonia level Sodium level in the blood Potassium level ...

  18. Local inhibitory plasticity tunes macroscopic brain dynamics and allows the emergence of functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Peter J; Jachs, Barbara; Clopath, Claudia; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rich, spontaneous brain activity has been observed across a range of different temporal and spatial scales. These dynamics are thought to be important for efficient neural functioning. A range of experimental evidence suggests that these neural dynamics are maintained across a variety of different cognitive states, in response to alterations of the environment and to changes in brain configuration (e.g., across individuals, development and in many neurological disorders). This suggests that the brain has evolved mechanisms to maintain rich dynamics across a broad range of situations. Several mechanisms based around homeostatic plasticity have been proposed to explain how these dynamics emerge from networks of neurons at the microscopic scale. Here we explore how a homeostatic mechanism may operate at the macroscopic scale: in particular, focusing on how it interacts with the underlying structural network topology and how it gives rise to well-described functional connectivity networks. We use a simple mean-field model of the brain, constrained by empirical white matter structural connectivity where each region of the brain is simulated using a pool of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show, as with the microscopic work, that homeostatic plasticity regulates network activity and allows for the emergence of rich, spontaneous dynamics across a range of brain configurations, which otherwise show a very limited range of dynamic regimes. In addition, the simulated functional connectivity of the homeostatic model better resembles empirical functional connectivity network. To accomplish this, we show how the inhibitory weights adapt over time to capture important graph theoretic properties of the underlying structural network. Therefore, this work presents suggests how inhibitory homeostatic mechanisms facilitate stable macroscopic dynamics to emerge in the brain, aiding the formation of functional connectivity networks. PMID:26348562

  19. Left and Right Hemisphere Brain Functions and Symbolic vs. Spontaneous Communication Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Ross

    Recent findings on the communicative functions of the left versus the right hemisphere of the brain may suggest that there is a distinction between the intentional use of symbols for the sending of specific messages or propositions (language, signing, pantomime) and spontaneous expressive behaviors that signal their meaning through a natural…

  20. Gut Microbiota and Brain Function: An Evolving Field in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Lyte, Mark; Meyer, Emeran; Cryan, John F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation of the importance of gut microbiota to health and disease. This has been driven by advances in sequencing technology and recent findings demonstrating the important role of microbiota in common health disorders such as obesity. Moreover, the potential role of gut microbiota in influencing brain function, behavior, and mental health has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and psychiatrists. At the 29th International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) World Congress held in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2014, a group of experts presented the symposium, “Gut microbiota and brain function: Relevance to psychiatric disorders” to review the latest findings in how gut microbiota may play a role in brain function, behavior, and disease. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, including gut microbiota and neuroendocrine function, the influence of gut microbiota on behavior, probiotics as regulators of brain and behavior, and imaging the gut-brain axis in humans. This report provides an overview of these presentations. PMID:26438800

  1. Linking structure and function: Information processing in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gremillion, M.A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Traditionally, theories of function in neuroscience have emerged from physiology. Physiologists have suggested a number of means by which information in the brain can be processed, yet the principles underlying the generation of these phenomena are not well understood. A complex systems approach would be to examine the overall structure and function of the system and to attempt to establish a common framework for information processing interactions. This paper will use the structure-function relationship as a basis for exploring units of information processing. It will examine the brain as a whole, first providing the non-specialists with an short overview of the structure and some of the functions or outputs of the brain. It then very briefly reviews three of the prominent theoretical concepts that have emerged in the last few decades: receptive fields, feature extraction, and parallel processing. Next, it addresses the question of information processing and outlines the structures which have traditionally been proposed to be the basic unit of information processing. An alternative unit on which information processing in the brain might be based is then proposed, and data outlined to support it. Finally, the implications of this different mode of processing are discussed, both for the brain and for other complex systems. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An Adaptive Complex Network Model for Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio J.; Gleiser, Pablo M.

    2009-01-01

    Brain functional networks are graph representations of activity in the brain, where the vertices represent anatomical regions and the edges their functional connectivity. These networks present a robust small world topological structure, characterized by highly integrated modules connected sparsely by long range links. Recent studies showed that other topological properties such as the degree distribution and the presence (or absence) of a hierarchical structure are not robust, and show different intriguing behaviors. In order to understand the basic ingredients necessary for the emergence of these complex network structures we present an adaptive complex network model for human brain functional networks. The microscopic units of the model are dynamical nodes that represent active regions of the brain, whose interaction gives rise to complex network structures. The links between the nodes are chosen following an adaptive algorithm that establishes connections between dynamical elements with similar internal states. We show that the model is able to describe topological characteristics of human brain networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In particular, when the dynamical rules of the model allow for integrated processing over the entire network scale-free non-hierarchical networks with well defined communities emerge. On the other hand, when the dynamical rules restrict the information to a local neighborhood, communities cluster together into larger ones, giving rise to a hierarchical structure, with a truncated power law degree distribution. PMID:19738902

  3. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  4. Rehabilitation of executive functioning in patients with frontal lobe brain damage with goal management training.

    PubMed

    Levine, Brian; Schweizer, Tom A; O'Connor, Charlene; Turner, Gary; Gillingham, Susan; Stuss, Donald T; Manly, Tom; Robertson, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits due to brain disease affecting frontal lobe functions cause significant real-life disability, yet solid evidence in support of executive functioning interventions is lacking. Goal Management Training (GMT), an executive functioning intervention that draws upon theories concerning goal processing and sustained attention, has received empirical support in studies of patients with traumatic brain injury, normal aging, and case studies. GMT promotes a mindful approach to complex real-life tasks that pose problems for patients with executive functioning deficits, with a main goal of periodically stopping ongoing behavior to monitor and adjust goals. In this controlled trial, an expanded version of GMT was compared to an alternative intervention, Brain Health Workshop that was matched to GMT on non-specific characteristics that can affect intervention outcome. Participants included 19 individuals in the chronic phase of recovery from brain disease (predominantly stroke) affecting frontal lobe function. Outcome data indicated specific effects of GMT on the Sustained Attention to Response Task as well as the Tower Test, a visuospatial problem-solving measure that reflected far transfer of training effects. There were no significant effects on self-report questionnaires, likely owing to the complexity of these measures in this heterogeneous patient sample. Overall, these data support the efficacy of GMT in the rehabilitation of executive functioning deficits. PMID:21369362

  5. Rehabilitation of Executive Functioning in Patients with Frontal Lobe Brain Damage with Goal Management Training

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Brian; Schweizer, Tom A.; O'Connor, Charlene; Turner, Gary; Gillingham, Susan; Stuss, Donald T.; Manly, Tom; Robertson, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits due to brain disease affecting frontal lobe functions cause significant real-life disability, yet solid evidence in support of executive functioning interventions is lacking. Goal Management Training (GMT), an executive functioning intervention that draws upon theories concerning goal processing and sustained attention, has received empirical support in studies of patients with traumatic brain injury, normal aging, and case studies. GMT promotes a mindful approach to complex real-life tasks that pose problems for patients with executive functioning deficits, with a main goal of periodically stopping ongoing behavior to monitor and adjust goals. In this controlled trial, an expanded version of GMT was compared to an alternative intervention, Brain Health Workshop that was matched to GMT on non-specific characteristics that can affect intervention outcome. Participants included 19 individuals in the chronic phase of recovery from brain disease (predominantly stroke) affecting frontal lobe function. Outcome data indicated specific effects of GMT on the Sustained Attention to Response Task as well as the Tower Test, a visuospatial problem-solving measure that reflected far transfer of training effects. There were no significant effects on self-report questionnaires, likely owing to the complexity of these measures in this heterogeneous patient sample. Overall, these data support the efficacy of GMT in the rehabilitation of executive functioning deficits. PMID:21369362

  6. Allelic Specificity of Ube3a Expression in the Mouse Brain during Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    JUDSON, MATTHEW C.; SOSA-PAGAN, JASON O.; DEL CID, WILMER A.; HAN, JI EUN; PHILPOT, BENJAMIN D.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic alterations of the maternal UBE3A allele result in Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe developmental delay, lack of speech, and difficulty with movement and balance. The combined effects of maternal UBE3A mutation and cell type-specific epigenetic silencing of paternal UBE3A are hypothesized to result in a complete loss of functional UBE3A protein in neurons. However, the allelic specificity of UBE3A expression in neurons and other cell types in the brain has yet to be characterized throughout development, including the early postnatal period when AS phenotypes emerge. Here we define maternal and paternal allele-specific Ube3a protein expression throughout postnatal brain development in the mouse, a species which exhibits orthologous epigenetic silencing of paternal Ube3a in neurons and AS-like behavioral phenotypes subsequent to maternal Ube3a deletion. We find that neurons downregulate paternal Ube3a protein expression as they mature and, with the exception of neurons born from postnatal stem cell niches, do not express detectable paternal Ube3a beyond the first postnatal week. By contrast, neurons express maternal Ube3a throughout postnatal development, during which time localization of the protein becomes increasingly nuclear. Unlike neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrotyes biallelically express Ube3a. Notably, mature oligodendrocytes emerge as the predominant Ube3a-expressing glial cell type in the cortex and white matter tracts during postnatal development. These findings demonstrate the spatiotemporal characteristics of allele-specific Ube3a expression in key brain cell types, thereby improving our understanding of the developmental parameters of paternal Ube3a silencing and the cellular basis of AS. PMID:24254964

  7. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    PubMed

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  8. The brain and higher mental function.

    PubMed

    Smith, G C

    1991-06-01

    Critical evaluation of biological theories of psychiatric disorder requires an understanding of current concepts of higher mental function and its related biology. Both the nature of the topic and the rapidity of advances in the field make it difficult to obtain an updated synthesis. Part I of this paper attempts to provide that by reviewing current concepts of the mind/body relationship, emotion, arousal, attention, consciousness and motivation. Part II considers those concepts in relation to recent work on the structure and function of the reticular, limbic and anterior cerebral systems. It is concluded that the model of the limbic system as subserving emotional life could now perhaps be set aside in favour of the model of a core set of chemically identified neurons in the reticular system being necessary but not sufficient to subserve higher mental function whilst also subserving other integrating functions for which no mental terminology is required. The problem of developing an eclectic theory of higher mental function that will embrace these concepts is discussed. PMID:1678938

  9. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Bernardo-Garcia, F. Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  10. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  11. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2014-10-01

    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. PMID:24937013

  12. Task-specific brain reorganization in motor recovery induced by a hybrid-rehabilitation combining training with brain stimulation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Sagara, Akiko; Ikkaku, Tomoko; Shimada, Kenji; Kanematsu, Madoka; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Domen, Kazuhisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we have developed a new hybrid-rehabilitation combining 5Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and extensor motor training of the paretic upper-limb for stroke patients with flexor hypertonia. We previously showed that the extensor-specific plastic change in M1 was associated with beneficial effects of our protocol (Koganemaru et al., 2010). Here, we investigated whether extensor-specific multiregional brain reorganization occurred after the hybrid-rehabilitation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven chronic stroke patients were scanned while performing upper-limb extensor movements. Untrained flexor movements were used as a control condition. The scanning and clinical assessments were done before, immediately and 2 weeks after the hybrid-rehabilitation. As a result, during the trained extensor movements, the imaging analysis showed a significant reduction of brain activity in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex, the contralesional cingulate motor cortex and the contralesional premotor cortex in association with functional improvements of the paretic hands. The activation change was not found for the control condition. Our results suggested that use-dependent plasticity induced by repetitive motor training with brain stimulation might be related to task-specific multi-regional brain reorganization. It provides a key to understand why repetitive training of the target action is one of the most powerful rehabilitation strategies to help patients. PMID:25450315

  13. Localization of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in brain with subtype-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Levey, A I; Hersch, S M; Rye, D B; Sunahara, R K; Niznik, H B; Kitt, C A; Price, D L; Maggio, R; Brann, M R; Ciliax, B J

    1993-10-01

    Five or more dopamine receptor genes are expressed in brain. However, the pharmacological similarities of the encoded D1-D5 receptors have hindered studies of the localization and functions of the subtypes. To better understand the roles of the individual receptors, antibodies were raised against recombinant D1 and D2 proteins and were shown to bind to the receptor subtypes specifically in Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. Each antibody reacted selectively with the respective receptor protein expressed both in cells transfected with the cDNAs and in brain. By immunocytochemistry, D1 and D2 had similar regional distributions in rat, monkey, and human brain, with the most intense staining in striatum, olfactory bulb, and substantia nigra. Within each region, however, the precise distributions of each subtype were distinct and often complementary. D1 and D2 were differentially enriched in striatal patch and matrix compartments, in selective layers of the olfactory bulb, and in either substantia nigra pars compacta or reticulata. Electron microscopy demonstrated that D1 and D2 also had highly selective subcellular distributions. In the rat neostriatum, the majority of D1 and D2 immunoreactivity was localized in postsynaptic sites in subsets of spiny dendrites and spine heads in rat neostriatum. Presynaptic D1 and D2 receptors were also observed, indicating both subtypes may regulate neurotransmitter release. D1 was also present in axon terminals in the substantia nigra. These results provide a morphological substrate for understanding the pre- and postsynaptic functions of the genetically defined D1 and D2 receptors in discrete neuronal circuits in mammalian brain. PMID:8415621

  14. A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain correlates of deception in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Revell, Letty J; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Shastri, Ananda; Elhai, Jon D; Horner, Michael David; Smith, Adam; Nahas, Ziad; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that specific brain regions would activate during deception, and these areas would correlate with changes in electrodermal activity (EDA). Eight men were asked to find money hidden under various objects. While functional MRI images were acquired and EDA was recorded, the subjects gave both truthful and deceptive answers regarding the money's location. The group analysis revealed significant activation during deception in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFCx) and anterior cingulate (AC), but individual results were not consistent. Individually and as a group, EDA correlated with blood flow changes in the OFCx and AC. Specific brain regions were activated during deception, but the present technique lacks good predictive power for individuals. PMID:15377736

  15. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients’ quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other’s expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis. PMID:24921926

  16. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis. PMID:24921926

  17. Estimating brain's functional graph from the structural graph's Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnour, F.; Dayan, M.; Devinsky, O.; Thesen, T.; Raj, A.

    2015-09-01

    The interplay between the brain's function and structure has been of immense interest to the neuroscience and connectomics communities. In this work we develop a simple linear model relating the structural network and the functional network. We propose that the two networks are related by the structural network's Laplacian up to a shift. The model is simple to implement and gives accurate prediction of function's eigenvalues at the subject level and its eigenvectors at group level.

  18. Quantitative Expression Profile of Distinct Functional Regions in the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Mamoru; Uno, Kenichiro D.; Tsujino, Kaori; Hanashima, Carina; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B*) project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/) for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems. PMID:21858037

  19. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  20. Neurosteroid Biosynthesis and Function in the Brain of Domestic Birds

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    It is now established that the brain and other nervous systems have the capability of forming steroids de novo, the so-called “neurosteroids.” The pioneering discovery of Baulieu and his colleagues, using rodents, has opened the door to a new research field of “neurosteroids.” In contrast to mammalian vertebrates, little has been known regarding de novo neurosteroidogenesis in the brain of birds. We therefore investigated neurosteroid formation and metabolism in the brain of quail, a domestic bird. Our studies over the past two decades demonstrated that the quail brain possesses cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase (3β-HSD), 5β-reductase, cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/c17,20-lyase (P45017α,lyase), 17β-HSD, etc., and produces pregnenolone, progesterone, 5β-dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP), 3β, 5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (3β, 5β-THP), androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol from cholesterol. Independently, Schlinger’s laboratory demonstrated that the brain of zebra finch, a songbird, also produces various neurosteroids. Thus, the formation and metabolism of neurosteroids from cholesterol is now known to occur in the brain of birds. In addition, we recently found that the quail brain expresses cytochrome P4507α and produces 7α- and 7β-hydroxypregnenolone, previously undescribed avian neurosteroids, from pregnenolone. This paper summarizes the advances made in our understanding of neurosteroid formation and metabolism in the brain of domestic birds. This paper also describes what are currently known about physiological changes in neurosteroid formation and biological functions of neurosteroids in the brain of domestic and other birds. PMID:22645509

  1. Cultured pericytes from human brain show phenotypic and functional differences associated with differential CD90 expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Thomas I-H.; Feisst, Vaughan; Brooks, Anna E. S.; Rustenhoven, Justin; Monzo, Hector J.; Feng, Sheryl X.; Mee, Edward W.; Bergin, Peter S.; Oldfield, Robyn; Graham, E. Scott; Curtis, Maurice A.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Dunbar, P. Rod; Dragunow, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a highly vascular organ in which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) tightly regulates molecules entering the brain. Pericytes are an integral cell type of the BBB, regulating vascular integrity, neuroinflammation, angiogenesis and wound repair. Despite their importance, identifying pericytes amongst other perivascular cell types and deciphering their specific role in the neurovasculature remains a challenge. Using primary adult human brain cultures and fluorescent-activated cell sorting, we identified two CD73+CD45− mesenchymal populations that showed either high or low CD90 expression. CD90 is known to be present on neurons in the brain and peripheral blood vessels. We found in the human brain, that CD90 immunostaining localised to the neurovasculature and often associated with pericytes. In vitro, CD90+ cells exhibited higher basal proliferation, lower expression of markers αSMA and CD140b, produced less extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and exhibited lesser pro-inflammatory responses when compared to the CD90− population. Thus, CD90 distinguishes two interrelated, yet functionally distinct pericyte populations in the adult human brain that may have discrete roles in neurovascular function, immune response and scar formation. PMID:27215737

  2. Cultured pericytes from human brain show phenotypic and functional differences associated with differential CD90 expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Thomas I-H; Feisst, Vaughan; Brooks, Anna E S; Rustenhoven, Justin; Monzo, Hector J; Feng, Sheryl X; Mee, Edward W; Bergin, Peter S; Oldfield, Robyn; Graham, E Scott; Curtis, Maurice A; Faull, Richard L M; Dunbar, P Rod; Dragunow, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a highly vascular organ in which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) tightly regulates molecules entering the brain. Pericytes are an integral cell type of the BBB, regulating vascular integrity, neuroinflammation, angiogenesis and wound repair. Despite their importance, identifying pericytes amongst other perivascular cell types and deciphering their specific role in the neurovasculature remains a challenge. Using primary adult human brain cultures and fluorescent-activated cell sorting, we identified two CD73(+)CD45(-) mesenchymal populations that showed either high or low CD90 expression. CD90 is known to be present on neurons in the brain and peripheral blood vessels. We found in the human brain, that CD90 immunostaining localised to the neurovasculature and often associated with pericytes. In vitro, CD90(+) cells exhibited higher basal proliferation, lower expression of markers αSMA and CD140b, produced less extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and exhibited lesser pro-inflammatory responses when compared to the CD90(-) population. Thus, CD90 distinguishes two interrelated, yet functionally distinct pericyte populations in the adult human brain that may have discrete roles in neurovascular function, immune response and scar formation. PMID:27215737

  3. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  4. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

  6. Bilingual brain organization: a functional magnetic resonance adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Milner, Brenda; Crane, Joelle; Belin, Pascal; Bouffard, Marc

    2006-05-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMRA) to examine whether intra-voxel functional specificity may be present for first (L1)- and second (L2)-language processing. We examined within- and across-language adaptation for spoken words in English-French bilinguals who had acquired their L2 after the age of 4 years. Subjects listened to words presented binaurally through earphones. In two control conditions (one for each language), six identical words were presented to obtain maximal adaptation. The remaining six conditions each consisted of five words that were identical followed by a sixth word that differed. There were thus a total of eight experimental conditions: no-change (sixth word identical to first five); a change in meaning (different final word in L1); a change in language (final item translated into L2); a change in meaning and language (different final word in L2). The same four conditions were presented in L2. The study also included a silent baseline. At the neural level, within- and across-language word changes resulted in release from adaptation. This was true for separate analyses of L1 and L2. We saw no evidence for greater recovery from adaptation in across-language relative to within-language conditions. While many brain regions were common to L1 and L2, we did observe differences in adaptation for forward translation (L1 to L2) as compared to backward translation (L2 to L1). The results support the idea that, at the lexical level, the neural substrates for L1 and L2 in bilinguals are shared, but with some populations of neurons within these shared regions showing language-specific responses. PMID:16460968

  7. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player's unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6-12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  8. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  9. Brain-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in sleep regulation

    PubMed Central

    Taishi, Ping; Davis, Christopher J.; Bayomy, Omar; Zielinski, Mark R.; Liao, Fan; Clinton, James M.; Smith, Dirk E.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in several brain functions, including sleep regulation. It promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via the IL-1 type I receptor. IL-1β/IL-1 receptor complex signaling requires adaptor proteins, e.g., the IL-1 receptor brain-specific accessory protein (AcPb). We have cloned and characterized rat AcPb, which shares substantial homologies with mouse AcPb and, compared with AcP, is preferentially expressed in the brain. Furthermore, rat somatosensory cortex AcPb mRNA varied across the day with sleep propensity, increased after sleep deprivation, and was induced by somnogenic doses of IL-1β. Duration of NREM sleep was slightly shorter and duration of REM sleep was slightly longer in AcPb knockout than wild-type mice. In response to lipopolysaccharide, which is used to induce IL-1β, sleep responses were exaggerated in AcPb knockout mice, suggesting that, in normal mice, inflammation-mediated sleep responses are attenuated by AcPb. We conclude that AcPb has a role in sleep responses to inflammatory stimuli and, possibly, in physiological sleep regulation. PMID:22174404

  10. Behavioral and pharmacological phenotypes of brain-specific diacylglycerol kinase δ-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Takako; Takato, Tamae; Lu, Qiang; Sakai, Hiromichi; Bando, Kana; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Sakane, Fumio

    2016-10-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is a lipid-metabolizing enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. Previously, we reported that the δ isozyme of DGK was abundantly expressed in the mouse brain. However, the functions of DGKδ in the brain are still unclear. Because conventional DGKδ-knockout (KO) mice die within 24h after birth, we have generated brain-specific conditional DGKδ-KO mice to circumvent the lethality. In the novel object recognition test, the number of contacts in the DGKδ-KO mice to novel and familiar objects was greatly increased compared to the control mice, indicating that the DGKδ-KO mice showed irrational contacts with objects such as compulsive checking. In the marble burying test, which is used for analyzing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like phenotypes, the DGKδ-KO mice buried more marbles than the control mice. Additionally, these phenotypes were significantly alleviated by the administration of an OCD remedy, fluoxetine. These results indicate that the DGKδ-KO mice showed OCD-like behaviors. Moreover, the number of long axon/neurites increased in both DGKδ-KO primary cortical neurons and DGKδ-knockdown neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells compared to control cells. Conversely, overexpression of DGKδ decreased the number of long axon/neurites of Neuro-2a cells. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that a deficiency of DGKδ induces OCD-like behavior through enhancing axon/neurite outgrowth. PMID:27423518

  11. Functional constraints in the evolution of brain circuits

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Conrado A.; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of major anatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, the vertebrate isocortex shows a remarkably well-conserved organization. In the isocortex, reciprocal connections between excitatory and inhibitory neurons are distributed across multiple layers, encompassing modular, dynamical and recurrent functional networks during information processing. These dynamical brain networks are often organized in neuronal assemblies interacting through rhythmic phase relationships. Accordingly, these oscillatory interactions are observed across multiple brain scale levels, and they are associated with several sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. Most notably, oscillatory interactions are also found in the complete spectrum of vertebrates. Yet, it is unknown why this functional organization is so well conserved in evolution. In this perspective, we propose some ideas about how functional requirements of the isocortex can account for the evolutionary stability observed in microcircuits across vertebrates. We argue that isocortex architectures represent canonical microcircuits resulting from: (i) the early selection of neuronal architectures based on the oscillatory excitatory-inhibitory balance, which lead to the implementation of compartmentalized oscillations and (ii) the subsequent emergence of inferential coding strategies (predictive coding), which are able to expand computational capacities. We also argue that these functional constraints may be the result of several advantages that oscillatory activity contributes to brain network processes, such as information transmission and code reliability. In this manner, similarities in mesoscale brain circuitry and input-output organization between different vertebrate groups may reflect evolutionary constraints imposed by these functional requirements, which may or may not be traceable to a common ancestor. PMID:26388716

  12. Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Matthias; Jung, Erik; Sahm, Felix; Solecki, Gergely; Venkataramani, Varun; Blaes, Jonas; Weil, Sophie; Horstmann, Heinz; Wiestler, Benedikt; Syed, Mustafa; Huang, Lulu; Ratliff, Miriam; Karimian Jazi, Kianush; Kurz, Felix T; Schmenger, Torsten; Lemke, Dieter; Gömmel, Miriam; Pauli, Martin; Liao, Yunxiang; Häring, Peter; Pusch, Stefan; Herl, Verena; Steinhäuser, Christian; Krunic, Damir; Jarahian, Mostafa; Miletic, Hrvoje; Berghoff, Anna S; Griesbeck, Oliver; Kalamakis, Georgios; Garaschuk, Olga; Preusser, Matthias; Weiss, Samuel; Liu, Haikun; Heiland, Sabine; Platten, Michael; Huber, Peter E; Kuner, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Winkler, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting network allows multicellular communication through microtube-associated gap junctions. When damage to the network occurred, tumour microtubes were used for repair. Moreover, the microtube-connected astrocytoma cells, but not those remaining unconnected throughout tumour progression, were protected from cell death inflicted by radiotherapy. The neuronal growth-associated protein 43 was important for microtube formation and function, and drove microtube-dependent tumour cell invasion, proliferation, interconnection, and radioresistance. Oligodendroglial brain tumours were deficient in this mechanism. In summary, astrocytomas can develop functional multicellular network structures. Disconnection of astrocytoma cells by targeting their tumour microtubes emerges as a new principle to reduce the treatment resistance of this disease. PMID:26536111

  13. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Henry W; Bronstone, Amy; Merzenich, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    aging adults. Current treatments directed at age-related functional losses are limited in important ways. Pharmacological therapies can target only a limited number of the many changes believed to underlie functional decline. Behavioral approaches focus on teaching specific strategies to aid higher order cognitive functions, and do not usually aspire to fundamentally change brain function. A brain-plasticity-based training program would potentially be applicable to all aging adults with the promise of improving their operational capabilities. We have constructed such a brain-plasticity-based training program and conducted an initial randomized controlled pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of its use by older adults. A main objective of this initial study was to estimate the effect size on standardized neuropsychological measures of memory. We found that older adults could learn the training program quickly, and could use it entirely unsupervised for the majority of the time required. Pre- and posttesting documented a significant improvement in memory within the training group (effect size 0.41, p<0.0005), with no significant within-group changes in a time-matched computer using active control group, or in a no-contact control group. Thus, a brain-plasticity-based intervention targeting normal age-related cognitive decline may potentially offer benefit to a broad population of older adults. PMID:17046669

  14. Anatomical correlates for category-specific naming of objects and actions: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Vincent; Filleron, Thomas; Démonet, Jean-François; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    The production of object and action words can be dissociated in aphasics, yet their anatomical correlates have been difficult to distinguish in functional imaging studies. To investigate the extent to which the cortical neural networks underlying object- and action-naming processing overlap, we performed electrostimulation mapping (ESM), which is a neurosurgical mapping technique routinely used to examine language function during brain-tumor resections. Forty-one right-handed patients who had surgery for a brain tumor were asked to perform overt naming of object and action pictures under stimulation. Overall, 73 out of the 633 stimulated cortical sites (11.5%) were associated with stimulation-induced language interferences. These interference sites were very much localized (<1 cm(2) ), and showed substantial variability across individuals in their exact localization. Stimulation interfered with both object and action naming over 44 sites, whereas it specifically interfered with object naming over 19 sites and with action naming over 10 sites. Specific object-naming sites were mainly identified in Broca's area (Brodmann area 44/45) and the temporal cortex, whereas action-naming specific sites were mainly identified in the posterior midfrontal gyrus (Brodmann area 6/9) and Broca's area (P = 0.003 by the Fisher's exact test). The anatomical loci we emphasized are in line with a cortical distinction between objects and actions based on conceptual/semantic features, so the prefrontal/premotor cortex would preferentially support sensorimotor contingencies associated with actions, whereas the temporal cortex would preferentially underpin (functional) properties of objects. PMID:23015527

  15. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.

    PubMed

    Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

    2012-06-01

    The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 μM and 3 μM. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 μM and 3.1 μM. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. PMID:22426196

  16. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants' degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain's intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  17. Some specifics on the brain drain from the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Mckee, D L

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the brain drain from the Andean countries of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the United States is presented. The data are from a survey of 62 persons from those countries who are currently residing in the United States and are listed in the current edition of "American Men and Women of Science". The reasons why they left their country of origin and are staying in the United States are considered. (summary in FRE, SPA) PMID:12159629

  18. Netrin 1 regulates blood–brain barrier function and neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Podjaski, Cornelia; Alvarez, Jorge I.; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Larouche, Sandra; Terouz, Simone; Bin, Jenea M.; Lécuyer, Marc-André; Saint-Laurent, Olivia; Larochelle, Catherine; Darlington, Peter J.; Arbour, Nathalie; Antel, Jack P.; Kennedy, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier function is driven by the influence of astrocyte-secreted factors. During neuroinflammatory responses the blood–brain barrier is compromised resulting in central nervous system damage and exacerbated pathology. Here, we identified endothelial netrin 1 induction as a vascular response to astrocyte-derived sonic hedgehog that promotes autocrine barrier properties during homeostasis and increases with inflammation. Netrin 1 supports blood–brain barrier integrity by upregulating endothelial junctional protein expression, while netrin 1 knockout mice display disorganized tight junction protein expression and barrier breakdown. Upon inflammatory conditions, blood–brain barrier endothelial cells significantly upregulated netrin 1 levels in vitro and in situ, which prevented junctional breach and endothelial cell activation. Finally, netrin 1 treatment during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis significantly reduced blood–brain barrier disruption and decreased clinical and pathological indices of disease severity. Our results demonstrate that netrin 1 is an important regulator of blood–brain barrier maintenance that protects the central nervous system against inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PMID:25903786

  19. Disrupted functional brain connectome in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Fan, Wenliang; Zhao, Xueyan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is generally defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies and within a three-day period. This hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. The pathogenesis of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still unknown, and the alterations in the functional connectivity are suspected to involve one possible pathogenesis. Despite scarce findings with respect to alterations in brain functional networks in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, the alterations of the whole brain functional connectome and whether these alterations were already in existence in the acute period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of brain functional connectome in two large samples of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and to investigate the correlation between unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss characteristics and changes in the functional network properties. Pure tone audiometry was performed to assess hearing ability. Abnormal changes in the peripheral auditory system were examined using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The graph theoretical network analysis method was used to detect brain connectome alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Compared with the control groups, both groups of unilateral SSNHL patients exhibited a significantly increased clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency but a significantly decreased characteristic path length. In addition, the primary increased nodal strength (e.g., nodal betweenness, hubs) was observed in several regions primarily, including the limbic and paralimbic systems, and in the auditory network brain areas. These findings suggest that the alteration of network organization already exists in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period

  20. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

  1. Mitochondrial Complex 1 Activity Measured by Spectrophotometry Is Reduced across All Brain Regions in Ageing and More Specifically in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function, in particular complex 1 of the electron transport chain (ETC), has been shown to decrease during normal ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. However, there is some debate concerning which area of the brain has the greatest complex 1 activity. It is important to identify the pattern of activity in order to be able to gauge the effect of age or disease related changes. We determined complex 1 activity spectrophotometrically in the cortex, brainstem and cerebellum of middle aged mice (70–71 weeks), a cerebellar ataxic neurodegeneration model (pcd5J) and young wild type controls. We share our updated protocol on the measurements of complex1 activity and find that mitochondrial fractions isolated from frozen tissues can be measured for robust activity. We show that complex 1 activity is clearly highest in the cortex when compared with brainstem and cerebellum (p<0.003). Cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria exhibit similar levels of complex 1 activity in wild type brains. In the aged brain we see similar levels of complex 1 activity in all three-brain regions. The specific activity of complex 1 measured in the aged cortex is significantly decreased when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Both the cerebellum and brainstem mitochondria also show significantly reduced activity with ageing (p<0.05). The mouse model of ataxia predictably has a lower complex 1 activity in the cerebellum, and although reductions are measured in the cortex and brain stem, the remaining activity is higher than in the aged brains. We present clear evidence that complex 1 activity decreases across the brain with age and much more specifically in the cerebellum of the pcd5j mouse. Mitochondrial impairment can be a region specific phenomenon in disease, but in ageing appears to affect the entire brain, abolishing the pattern of higher activity in cortical regions. PMID:27333203

  2. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016-0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  3. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  4. Modulatory Interactions of Resting-State Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2013-01-01

    The functional brain connectivity studies are generally based on the synchronization of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. Functional connectivity measures usually assume a stable relationship over time; however, accumulating studies have reported time-varying properties of strength and spatial distribution of functional connectivity. The present study explored the modulation of functional connectivity between two regions by a third region using the physiophysiological interaction (PPI) technique. We first identified eight brain networks and two regions of interest (ROIs) representing each of the networks using a spatial independent component analysis. A voxel-wise analysis was conducted to identify regions that showed modulatory interactions (PPI) with the two ROIs of each network. Mostly, positive modulatory interactions were observed within regions involved in the same system. For example, the two regions of the dorsal attention network revealed modulatory interactions with the regions related to attention, while the two regions of the extrastriate network revealed modulatory interactions with the regions in the visual cortex. In contrast, the two regions of the default mode network (DMN) revealed negative modulatory interactions with the regions in the executive network, and vice versa, suggesting that the activities of one network may be associated with smaller within network connectivity of the competing network. These results validate the use of PPI analysis to study modulation of resting-state functional connectivity by a third region. The modulatory effects may provide a better understanding of complex brain functions. PMID:24023609

  5. Functional craniology and brain evolution: from paleontology to biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Emiliano; de la Cuétara, José Manuel; Masters, Michael; Amano, Hideki; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modeling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes. PMID:24765064

  6. Functional craniology and brain evolution: from paleontology to biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; de la Cuétara, José Manuel; Masters, Michael; Amano, Hideki; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modeling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes. PMID:24765064

  7. Memory Function Before and After Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With and Without Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Grit Fleckenstein, Katharina; Schaefer, Joerg; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Mai, Sabine K.; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) on memory function in patients with and without brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with and without brain metastases (n = 44) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before RT (T0), after starting RT (T1), at the end of RT (T2), and 6-8 weeks (T3) after RT completion. Data were obtained from small-cell lung cancer patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation, patients with brain metastases treated with therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), and breast cancer patients treated with RT to the breast. Results: Before therapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation patients performed worse than TCI patients or than controls on most test scores. During and after WBRT, verbal memory function was influenced by pretreatment cognitive status (p < 0.001) and to a lesser extent by WBRT. Acute (T1) radiation effects on verbal memory function were only observed in TCI patients (p = 0.031). Subacute (T3) radiation effects on verbal memory function were observed in both TCI and prophylactic cranial irradiation patients (p = 0.006). These effects were more pronounced in patients with above-average performance at baseline. Visual memory and attention were not influenced by WBRT. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that WBRT causes cognitive dysfunction immediately after the beginning of RT in patients with brain metastases only. At 6-8 weeks after the end of WBRT, cognitive dysfunction was seen in patients with and without brain metastases. Because cognitive dysfunction after WBRT is restricted to verbal memory, patients should not avoid WBRT because of a fear of neurocognitive side effects.

  8. The Functional Connectivity Landscape of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Zainab; Jonides, John; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment. PMID:25350370

  9. Complex function in the dynamic brain. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Luiz Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael L.

    2014-09-01

    There is much to commend in this excellent overview of the progress we've made toward-and the challenges that remain for-developing an empirical framework for neuroscience that is adequate to the dynamic complexity of the brain [17]. Here I will limit myself first to highlighting the concept of dynamic affiliation, which I take to be the central feature of the functional architecture of the brain, and second to clarifying Pessoa's brief discussion of the ontology of cognition, to be sure readers appreciate this crucial issue.

  10. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  11. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  12. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Vanhove, Christian; Descamps, Benedicte; Dauwe, Ine; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Keereman, Vincent; Raedt, Robrecht; Boon, Paul; Van Holen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were <0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Our data indicate that real-time hippocampal DBS evokes a bilateral BOLD response in hippocampal and other mesolimbic structures, depending on the applied stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS. PMID:26193653

  13. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  14. Functional Brain Connectivity using fMRI in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Emily L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease cause profound changes in the brain’s structure and function. AD in particular is accompanied by widespread cortical neuronal loss, and loss of connections between brain systems. This degeneration of neural pathways disrupts the functional coherence of brain activation. Recent innovations in brain imaging have detected characteristic disruptions in functional networks. Here we review studies examining changes in functional connectivity, measured through fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), starting with healthy aging and then Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We cover studies that employ the three primary methods to analyze functional connectivity – seed-based, ICA (independent components analysis), and graph theory. At the end we include a brief discussion of other methodologies, such as EEG (electroencephalography), MEG (magnetoencephalography), and PET (positron emission tomography). We also describe multi-modal studies that combine rsfMRI (resting state fMRI) with PET imaging, as well as studies examining the effects of medications. Overall, connectivity and network integrity appear to decrease in healthy aging, but this decrease is accelerated in AD, with specific systems hit hardest, such as the default mode network (DMN). Functional connectivity is a relatively new topic of research, but it holds great promise in revealing how brain network dynamics change across the lifespan and in disease. PMID:24562737

  15. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  16. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'. PMID:26448908

  17. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomically constrained distribution of power for each frequency band. This result was replicated on a repository dataset of 195 subjects. Next, we examined larger-scale organization by parceling the neocortex into regions approximating Brodmann Areas (BAs). This indicated that BAs of simple function/connectivity (unimodal), vs. complex properties (transmodal), are dominated by low frequency BOLD oscillations, and within the visual ventral stream we observe a graded shift of power to higher frequency bands for BAs further removed from the primary visual cortex (increased complexity), linking frequency properties of BOLD to hodology. Additionally, BOLD oscillation properties for the default mode network demonstrated that it is composed of distinct frequency dependent regions. When the same analysis was performed on a visual-motor task, frequency-dependent global and voxel-wise shifts in BOLD oscillations could be detected at brain sites mostly outside those identified with general linear modeling. Thus, analysis of BOLD oscillations in full bandwidth uncovers novel brain organizational rules, linking anatomical structures and functional networks to characteristic BOLD oscillations. The approach also identifies changes in brain intrinsic properties in relation to responses to external inputs. PMID:21613505

  18. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM. PMID:25987956

  19. [On the question of the organization of brain function: cortical associations, «disconnection» syndrome and higher brain functions].

    PubMed

    Damulin, I V

    2015-01-01

    The review considers the structural/functional brain organization, the disturbance of which is accompanied by the development of cognitive and behavioral disorders. The significance of the disruption of parallel circuits connecting frontal lobes with subcortical structures (the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum) is highlighted. This disruption is clinically described as "disconnection" syndrome. The associations between the basal ganglia and the cortex of the large cerebral hemispheres responsible for motor, cognitive and emotional/behavioral functions do not restricted to these spheres and is characteristic not only of frontal brain areas. There are circuits connecting other brain compartments and the basal ganglia that provide perception, and are involved in decision making on the basis of input information of different modalities.The improvement of understanding of the pathophysiology and neurochemistry of these structures opens new possibilities for selective action on some or other circuit to achieve the best therapeutic result. PMID:26978059

  20. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  1. Reentry: a key mechanism for integration of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Gerald M.; Gally, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Reentry in nervous systems is the ongoing bidirectional exchange of signals along reciprocal axonal fibers linking two or more brain areas. The hypothesis that reentrant signaling serves as a general mechanism to couple the functioning of multiple areas of the cerebral cortex and thalamus was first proposed in 1977 and 1978 (Edelman, 1978). A review of the amount and diversity of supporting experimental evidence accumulated since then suggests that reentry is among the most important integrative mechanisms in vertebrate brains (Edelman, 1993). Moreover, these data prompt testable hypotheses regarding mechanisms that favor the development and evolution of reentrant neural architectures. PMID:23986665

  2. Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Kao, Dennis S.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Schulte, Marie L.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Hyde, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Regional-specific average time courses of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI contrast at 9.4T in lightly anesthetized resting rat brain are formed, and correlation coefficients between time course pairs are interpreted as measures of connectivity. A hierarchy of regional pairwise correlation coefficients (RPCCs) is observed, with the highest values found in the thalamus and cortex, both intra- and interhemisphere, and lower values between cortex and thalamus. Independent sensory networks are distinguished by two methods: data driven, where task activation defines regions of interest (ROI), and hypothesis driven, where regions are defined by the rat histological atlas. Success in these studies is attributed in part to the use of medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitor) for anesthesia. Consistent results in two different rat-brain systems, the sensorimotor and visual, strongly support the hypothesis that resting-state BOLD fluctuations are conserved across mammalian species and can be used to map brain systems. PMID:18429028

  3. [Interest of EEG recording during direct electrical stimulation for brain mapping function in surgery].

    PubMed

    Trebuchon, A; Guye, M; Tcherniack, V; Tramoni, E; Bruder, N; Metellus, P

    2012-06-01

    Brain tumor surgery is at risk when lesions are located in eloquent areas. The interindividual anatomo-functional variability of the central nervous system implies that brain surgery within eloquent regions may induce neurological sequelae. Brain mapping using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation in awake patients has been for long validated as the standard for functional brain mapping. Direct electrical stimulation inducing a local transient electrical and functional disorganization is considered positive if the task performed by the patient is disturbed. The brain area stimulated is then considered as essential for the function tested. However, the exactitude of the information provided by this technique is cautious because the actual impact of cortical direct electrical stimulation is not known. Indeed, the possibility of false negative (insufficient intensity of the stimulation due to the heterogeneity of excitability threshold of different cortical areas) or false positive (current spread, interregional signal propagation responsible for remote effects, which make difficult the interpretation of positive or negative behavioural effects) constitute a limitation of this technique. To improve the sensitivity and specificity of this technique, we used an electrocorticographic recording system allowing a real time visualization of the local. We provide here evidence that direct cortical stimulation combined with electrocorticographic recording could be useful to detect remote after discharge and to adjust stimulation parameters. In addition this technique offers new perspective to better assess connectivity of cerebral networks. PMID:22683402

  4. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain.

    PubMed

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics. PMID:26881224

  5. Restoration of function after brain damage using a neural prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guggenmos, David J.; Azin, Meysam; Barbay, Scott; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Dunham, Caleb; Mohseni, Pedram; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2013-01-01

    Neural interface systems are becoming increasingly more feasible for brain repair strategies. This paper tests the hypothesis that recovery after brain injury can be facilitated by a neural prosthesis serving as a communication link between distant locations in the cerebral cortex. The primary motor area in the cerebral cortex was injured in a rat model of focal brain injury, disrupting communication between motor and somatosensory areas and resulting in impaired reaching and grasping abilities. After implantation of microelectrodes in cerebral cortex, a neural prosthesis discriminated action potentials (spikes) in premotor cortex that triggered electrical stimulation in somatosensory cortex continuously over subsequent weeks. Within 1 wk, while receiving spike-triggered stimulation, rats showed substantially improved reaching and grasping functions that were indistinguishable from prelesion levels by 2 wk. Post hoc analysis of the spikes evoked by the stimulation provides compelling evidence that the neural prosthesis enhanced functional connectivity between the two target areas. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that neural interface systems can be used effectively to bridge damaged neural pathways functionally and promote recovery after brain injury. PMID:24324155

  6. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the “universal” language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics. PMID:26881224

  7. Impact of fatty acids on brain circulation, structure and function.

    PubMed

    Haast, Roy A M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary intervention has evolved into a promising approach to prevent the onset and progression of brain diseases. The positive relationship between intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFAs) and decreased onset of disease- and aging-related deterioration of brain health is increasingly endorsed across epidemiological and diet-interventional studies. Promising results are found regarding to the protection of proper brain circulation, structure and functionality in healthy and diseased humans and animal models. These include enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF), white and gray matter integrity, and improved cognitive functioning, and are possibly mediated through increased neurovascular coupling, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity, respectively. Contrary, studies investigating diets high in saturated fats provide opposite results, which may eventually lead to irreversible damage. Studies like these are of great importance given the high incidence of obesity caused by the increased and decreased consumption of respectively saturated fats and ω3-LCPUFAs in the Western civilization. This paper will review in vivo research conducted on the effects of ω3-LCPUFAs and saturated fatty acids on integrity (circulation, structure and function) of the young, aging and diseased brain. PMID:24485516

  8. Effects of chronic peripheral olfactory loss on functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Kollndorfer, K; Jakab, A; Mueller, C A; Trattnig, S; Schöpf, V

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sensory loss on central processing in various sensory systems have already been described. The olfactory system holds the special ability to be activated by a sensorimotor act, without the presentation of an odor. In this study, we investigated brain changes related to chronic peripheral smell loss. We included 11 anosmic patients (eight female, three male; mean age, 43.5 years) with smell loss after an infection of the upper respiratory tract (mean disease duration, 4.64 years) and 14 healthy controls (seven female, seven male; mean age, 30.1 years) in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with a sniffing paradigm. Data were analyzed using group-independent component analysis and functional connectivity analysis. Our results revealed a spatially intact olfactory network in patients, whereas major aberrations due to peripheral loss were observed in functional connectivity through a variety of distributed brain areas. This is the first study to show the re-organization caused by the lack of peripheral input. The results of this study indicate that anosmic patients hold the ability to activate an olfaction-related functional network through the sensorimotor component of odor-perception (sniffing). The areas involved were not different from those that emerged in healthy controls. However, functional connectivity appears to be different between the two groups, with a decrease in functional connectivity in the brain in patients with chronic peripheral sensory loss. We can further conclude that the loss of the sense of smell may induce far-reaching effects in the whole brain, which lead to compensatory mechanisms from other sensory systems due to the close interconnectivity of the olfactory system with other functional networks. PMID:26415766

  9. A review on functional and structural brain connectivity in numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Only recently has the complex anatomo-functional system underlying numerical cognition become accessible to evaluation in the living brain. We identified 27 studies investigating brain connectivity in numerical cognition. Despite considerable heterogeneity regarding methodological approaches, populations investigated, and assessment procedures implemented, the results provided largely converging evidence regarding the underlying brain connectivity involved in numerical cognition. Analyses of both functional/effective as well as structural connectivity have consistently corroborated the assumption that numerical cognition is subserved by a fronto-parietal network including (intra)parietal as well as (pre)frontal cortex sites. Evaluation of structural connectivity has indicated the involvement of fronto-parietal association fibers encompassing the superior longitudinal fasciculus dorsally and the external capsule/extreme capsule system ventrally. Additionally, commissural fibers seem to connect the bilateral intraparietal sulci when number magnitude information is processed. Finally, the identification of projection fibers such as the superior corona radiata indicates connections between cortex and basal ganglia as well as the thalamus in numerical cognition. Studies on functional/effective connectivity further indicated a specific role of the hippocampus. These specifications of brain connectivity augment the triple-code model of number processing and calculation with respect to how gray matter areas associated with specific number-related representations may work together. PMID:26029075

  10. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. {yields} BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. {yields} Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. {yields} BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, {beta}-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  11. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2014-01-01

    Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs. PMID

  12. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  13. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  14. Whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moseley, R L; Ypma, R J F; Holt, R J; Floris, D; Chura, L R; Spencer, M D; Baron-Cohen, S; Suckling, J; Bullmore, E; Rubinov, M

    2015-01-01

    Endophenotypes are heritable and quantifiable markers that may assist in the identification of the complex genetic underpinnings of psychiatric conditions. Here we examined global hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). We studied well-matched groups of adolescent males with autism, genetically-related siblings of individuals with autism, and typically-developing control participants. We parcellated the brain into 258 regions and used complex-network analysis to detect a robust hypoconnectivity endophenotype in our participant group. We observed that whole-brain functional connectivity was highest in controls, intermediate in siblings, and lowest in ASC, in task and rest conditions. We identified additional, local endophenotype effects in specific networks including the visual processing and default mode networks. Our analyses are the first to show that whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity is an endophenotype of autism in adolescence, and may thus underlie the heritable similarities seen in adolescents with ASC and their relatives. PMID:26413477

  15. Whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R.L.; Ypma, R.J.F.; Holt, R.J.; Floris, D.; Chura, L.R.; Spencer, M.D.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Suckling, J.; Bullmore, E.; Rubinov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Endophenotypes are heritable and quantifiable markers that may assist in the identification of the complex genetic underpinnings of psychiatric conditions. Here we examined global hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). We studied well-matched groups of adolescent males with autism, genetically-related siblings of individuals with autism, and typically-developing control participants. We parcellated the brain into 258 regions and used complex-network analysis to detect a robust hypoconnectivity endophenotype in our participant group. We observed that whole-brain functional connectivity was highest in controls, intermediate in siblings, and lowest in ASC, in task and rest conditions. We identified additional, local endophenotype effects in specific networks including the visual processing and default mode networks. Our analyses are the first to show that whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity is an endophenotype of autism in adolescence, and may thus underlie the heritable similarities seen in adolescents with ASC and their relatives. PMID:26413477

  16. Brain Region-Specific Trafficking of the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ethan R.; Nuttle, Jacob; Balcita-Pedicino, Judith Joyce; Caltagarone, John; Watkins, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) controls dopaminergic neurotransmission by removing extracellular DA. Although DA reuptake is proposed to be regulated by DAT traffic to and from the cell surface, the membrane trafficking system involved in the endocytic cycling of DAT in the intact mammalian brain has not been characterized. Hence, we performed immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of the subcellular and regional distribution of DAT using the transgenic knock-in mouse expressing hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged DAT (HA-DAT) and by using a combination of electron microscopy and a novel method for immunofluorescence labeling of HA-DAT in acute sagittal brain slices. Both approaches demonstrated that, in midbrain somatodendritic regions, HA-DAT was present in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex, with a small fraction in early and recycling endosomes and an even smaller fraction in late endosomes and lysosomes. In the striatum and in axonal tracts between the midbrain and striatum, HA-DAT was detected predominantly in the plasma membrane, and quantitative analysis revealed increased DAT density in striatal compared with midbrain plasma membranes. Endosomes were strikingly rare and lysosomes were absent in striatal axons, in which there was little intracellular HA-DAT. Acute administration of amphetamine in vivo (60 min) or to slices ex vivo (10–60 min) did not result in detectable changes in DAT distribution. Altogether, these data provide evidence for regional differences in DAT plasma membrane targeting and retention and suggest a surprisingly low level of endocytic trafficking of DAT in the striatum along with limited DAT endocytic activity in somatodendritic areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the key regulator of the dopamine neurotransmission in the CNS. In the present study, we developed a new approach for studying DAT localization and dynamics in intact neurons in acute sagittal brain slices from

  17. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks. PMID:26956115

  18. Profiles by Sex of Brain MRI and Cognitive Function in The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; DeCarli, Charles; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether there are sex-specific associations between brain MRI measures and neuropsychological test performance. Background Differences in cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) have been linked to decreased total cerebral brain volume (TCBV) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Although brain morphology has been related to cognitive performance, few studies have addressed sex-specific effects in this relationship. Methods Framingham Offspring who were stroke and dementia-free underwent a brain MRI scan and neuropsychological (NP) testing (n=2,085; 978 men). Factor analysis identified four domain-specific neuropsychological factors. MRI participants were divided into four MRI subgroups based on measures of TCBV and combinations of the presence of WMH and silent cerebral infarcts (≥3mm; SCI). Results Overall, the relationship between MRI and NP measures was similar between the sexes. The exception was that only men showed a positive relationship between executive function (EF) and cerebrovascular disease defined as large white matter hyperintensity volume plus SCI. This finding was attributed only among men with FSRP scores > 90th percentile range (p=0.0019). Conclusions Measures of brain atrophy and subclinical markers of vascular disease showed that sex does not significantly alter the relationship between MRI and NP, except among men and women who are at high risk for stroke; these men show poorer performance on EF, whereas the women do not. PMID:20505436

  19. Mammalian galectins: structure, carbohydrate specificity, and functions.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, E M; Kurmyshkina, O V; Bovin, N V

    2008-04-01

    Galectins are a family of beta-galactoside binding lectins, homological by a sequence of the carbohydrate-binding site. In this review literature data about structure and carbohydrate specificity of galectins are discussed. The role of galectins in the regulation of cell adhesion in immune response, inflammation, and cancer progression is considered. PMID:18457568

  20. Sleep Restriction Impairs Blood–Brain Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J.; Wang, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. PMID:25355222

  1. Functional brain networks associated with eating behaviors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Yong; Seo, Jongbum; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes critical health problems including diabetes and hypertension that affect billions of people worldwide. Obesity and eating behaviors are believed to be closely linked but their relationship through brain networks has not been fully explored. We identified functional brain networks associated with obesity and examined how the networks were related to eating behaviors. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained for 82 participants. Data were from an equal number of people of healthy weight (HW) and non-healthy weight (non-HW). Connectivity matrices were computed with spatial maps derived using a group independent component analysis approach. Brain networks and associated connectivity parameters with significant group-wise differences were identified and correlated with scores on a three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) describing restraint, disinhibition, and hunger eating behaviors. Frontoparietal and cerebellum networks showed group-wise differences between HW and non-HW groups. Frontoparietal network showed a high correlation with TFEQ disinhibition scores. Both frontoparietal and cerebellum networks showed a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) scores. Brain networks with significant group-wise differences between HW and non-HW groups were identified. Parts of the identified networks showed a high correlation with eating behavior scores. PMID:27030024

  2. Recruiting specialized macrophages across the borders to restore brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Corraliza, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Although is well accepted that the central nervous system has an immune privilege protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and maintained by the glia, it is also known that in homeostatic conditions, peripheral immune cells are able to penetrate to the deepest regions of brain without altering the structural integrity of the BBB. Nearly all neurological diseases, including degenerative, autoimmune or infectious ones, compromising brain functions, develop with a common pattern of inflammation in which macrophages and microglia activation have been regarded often as the “bad guys.” However, recognizing the huge heterogeneity of macrophage populations and also the different expression properties of microglia, there is increasing evidence of alternative conditions in which these cells, if primed and addressed in the correct direction, could be essential for reparative and regenerative functions. The main proposal of this review is to integrate studies about macrophage’s biology at the brain borders where the ultimate challenge is to penetrate through the BBB and contribute to change or even stop the course of disease. Thanks to the efforts made in the last century, this special wall is currently recognized as a highly regulated cooperative structure, in which their components form neurovascular units. This new scenario prompted us to review the precise cross-talk between the mind and body modes of immune response. PMID:25228859

  3. Sleep restriction impairs blood-brain barrier function.

    PubMed

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-10-29

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. PMID:25355222

  4. Functional brain networks associated with eating behaviors in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-yong; Seo, Jongbum; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes critical health problems including diabetes and hypertension that affect billions of people worldwide. Obesity and eating behaviors are believed to be closely linked but their relationship through brain networks has not been fully explored. We identified functional brain networks associated with obesity and examined how the networks were related to eating behaviors. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained for 82 participants. Data were from an equal number of people of healthy weight (HW) and non-healthy weight (non-HW). Connectivity matrices were computed with spatial maps derived using a group independent component analysis approach. Brain networks and associated connectivity parameters with significant group-wise differences were identified and correlated with scores on a three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) describing restraint, disinhibition, and hunger eating behaviors. Frontoparietal and cerebellum networks showed group-wise differences between HW and non-HW groups. Frontoparietal network showed a high correlation with TFEQ disinhibition scores. Both frontoparietal and cerebellum networks showed a high correlation with body mass index (BMI) scores. Brain networks with significant group-wise differences between HW and non-HW groups were identified. Parts of the identified networks showed a high correlation with eating behavior scores. PMID:27030024

  5. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  6. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  7. Structural and Functional MRI Differences in Master Sommeliers: A Pilot Study on Expertise in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sarah J.; Sreenivasan, Karthik R.; Weintraub, David M.; Baldock, Deanna; Noback, Michael; Pierce, Meghan E.; Frasnelli, Johannes; James, Jay; Beall, Erik; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Cordes, Dietmar; Leger, Gabriel C.

    2016-01-01

    Our experiences, even as adults, shape our brains. Regional differences have been found in experts, with the regions associated with their particular skill-set. Functional differences have also been noted in brain activation patterns in some experts. This study uses multimodal techniques to assess structural and functional patterns that differ between experts and non-experts. Sommeliers are experts in wine and thus in olfaction. We assessed differences in Master Sommeliers’ brains, compared with controls, in structure and also in functional response to olfactory and visual judgment tasks. MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry as well as automated parcellation to assess structural properties, and group differences between tasks were calculated. Results indicate enhanced volume in the right insula and entorhinal cortex, with the cortical thickness of the entorhinal correlating with experience. There were regional activation differences in a large area involving the right olfactory and memory regions, with heightened activation specifically for sommeliers during an olfactory task. Our results indicate that sommeliers’ brains show specialization in the expected regions of the olfactory and memory networks, and also in regions important in integration of internal sensory stimuli and external cues. Overall, these differences suggest that specialized expertise and training might result in enhancements in the brain well into adulthood. This is particularly important given the regions involved, which are the first to be impacted by many neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27597821

  8. Structural and Functional MRI Differences in Master Sommeliers: A Pilot Study on Expertise in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah J; Sreenivasan, Karthik R; Weintraub, David M; Baldock, Deanna; Noback, Michael; Pierce, Meghan E; Frasnelli, Johannes; James, Jay; Beall, Erik; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Cordes, Dietmar; Leger, Gabriel C

    2016-01-01

    Our experiences, even as adults, shape our brains. Regional differences have been found in experts, with the regions associated with their particular skill-set. Functional differences have also been noted in brain activation patterns in some experts. This study uses multimodal techniques to assess structural and functional patterns that differ between experts and non-experts. Sommeliers are experts in wine and thus in olfaction. We assessed differences in Master Sommeliers' brains, compared with controls, in structure and also in functional response to olfactory and visual judgment tasks. MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry as well as automated parcellation to assess structural properties, and group differences between tasks were calculated. Results indicate enhanced volume in the right insula and entorhinal cortex, with the cortical thickness of the entorhinal correlating with experience. There were regional activation differences in a large area involving the right olfactory and memory regions, with heightened activation specifically for sommeliers during an olfactory task. Our results indicate that sommeliers' brains show specialization in the expected regions of the olfactory and memory networks, and also in regions important in integration of internal sensory stimuli and external cues. Overall, these differences suggest that specialized expertise and training might result in enhancements in the brain well into adulthood. This is particularly important given the regions involved, which are the first to be impacted by many neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27597821

  9. Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI in normal and pathological brain networks.

    PubMed

    Guye, Maxime; Bettus, Gaelle; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Cozzone, Patrick J

    2010-12-01

    Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI data (ie. diffusion tractography or cortical volume correlation and resting-state or task-related (effective) fMRI, respectively) has provided new measures of human brain organization in vivo. The most striking discovery is that the whole-brain network exhibits "small-world" properties shared with many other complex systems (social, technological, information, biological). This topology allows a high efficiency at different spatial and temporal scale with a very low wiring and energy cost. Its modular organization also allows for a high level of adaptation. In addition, degree distribution of brain networks demonstrates highly connected hubs that are crucial for the whole-network functioning. Many of these hubs have been identified in regions previously defined as belonging to the default-mode network (potentially explaining the high basal metabolism of this network) and the attentional networks. This could explain the crucial role of these hub regions in physiology (task-related fMRI data) as well as in pathophysiology. Indeed, such topological definition provides a reliable framework for predicting behavioral consequences of focal or multifocal lesions such as stroke, tumors or multiple sclerosis. It also brings new insights into a better understanding of pathophysiology of many neurological or psychiatric diseases affecting specific local or global brain networks such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Graph theoretical analysis of connectivity MRI data provides an outstanding framework to merge anatomical and functional data in order to better understand brain pathologies. PMID:20349109

  10. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  11. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  12. Sharing self-related information is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity of cortical midline brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Mamerow, Loreen; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Morawetz, Carmen; Margulies, Daniel S.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants’ degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use. We conducted seed-based correlation analyses in cortical midline regions previously shown in meta-analyses to be involved in self-referential cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), central precuneus (CP), and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (CACC). We examined whether and how functional connectivity between these regions and the rest of the brain was associated with participants’ degree of self-related information sharing. Analyses revealed associations between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the CP with the right DLPFC, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and left anterior temporal pole. These findings extend our present knowledge of functional brain connectivity, specifically demonstrating how the brain’s intrinsic functional organization relates to individual differences in the sharing of self-related information. PMID:26948055

  13. In Vivo Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Neuropathology with Structural and Functional Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    LEVINE, BRIAN; FUJIWARA, ESTHER; O’CONNOR, CHARLENE; RICHARD, NADINE; KOVACEVIC, NATASA; MANDIC, MARINA; RESTAGNO, ADRIANA; EASDON, CRAIG; ROBERTSON, IAN H.; GRAHAM, SIMON J.; CHEUNG, GORDON; GAO, FUQIANG; SCHWARTZ, MICHAEL L.; BLACK, SANDRA E.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain structure and function. This paper reviews quantitative structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with TBI, with an emphasis on the effects of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), the primary neuropathology in TBI. Quantitative structural neuroimaging has evolved from simple planometric measurements through targeted region-of-interest analyses to whole-brain analysis of quantified tissue compartments. Recent studies converge to indicate widespread volume loss of both gray and white matter in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. These changes can be documented even when patients with focal lesions are excluded. Broadly speaking, performance on standard neuropsychological tests of speeded information processing are related to these changes, but demonstration of specific brain-behavior relationships requires more refined experimental behavioral measures. The functional consequences of these structural changes can be imaged with activation functional neuroimaging. Although this line of research is at an early stage, results indicate that TBI causes a more widely dispersed activation in frontal and posterior cortices. Further progress in analysis of the consequences of TBI on neural structure and function will require control of variability in neuropathology and behavior. PMID:17020478

  14. Functional role of endothelial adhesion molecules in the early stages of brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Serres, Sébastien; Anthony, Daniel C.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of disease in peripheral tissues cannot be extrapolated to the brain. Here, we have established the spatiotemporal expression of 12 key CAMs in the initial phases of tumor seeding in 2 different models of brain metastasis. Methods BALB/c or SCID mice were injected intracardially (105 cells/100 μL phosphate-buffered saline with either 4T1-GFP or MDA231BR-GFP cells, respectively (n = 4–6/group), and expression of the CAMs was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence colocalisation. Results Endothelial expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ALCAM, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and β4 integrin was markedly increased early in tumor seeding. At the same time, the natural ligands to these adhesion molecules were highly expressed on the metastatic tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Two of these ligands showed particularly high tumor cell expression (ALCAM and VLA-4), and consequently their functional role in tumor seeding was determined. Antibody neutralization of either ALCAM or VLA-4 significantly reduced tumor seeding within the brain (>60% decrease in tumor number/mm2 brain; P < .05–0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that ALCAM/ALCAM and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions play an important functional role in the early stages of metastasis seeding in the brain. Moreover, this work identifies a specific subset of ligand-receptor interactions that may yield new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for brain metastasis. PMID:24311639

  15. Control of the blood-brain barrier function in cancer cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Blecharz, Kinga G; Colla, Ruben; Rohde, Veit; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral metastases are the most common brain neoplasms seen clinically in the adults and comprise more than half of all brain tumours. Actual treatment options for brain metastases that include surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are rarely curative, although palliative treatment improves survival and life quality of patients carrying brain-metastatic tumours. Chemotherapy in particular has also shown limited or no activity in brain metastasis of most tumour types. Many chemotherapeutic agents used systemically do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whereas others may transiently weaken the BBB and allow extravasation of tumour cells from the circulation into the brain parenchyma. Increasing evidence points out that the interaction between the BBB and tumour cells plays a key role for implantation and growth of brain metastases in the central nervous system. The BBB, as the tightest endothelial barrier, prevents both early detection and treatment by creating a privileged microenvironment. Therefore, as observed in several in vivo studies, precise targetting the BBB by a specific transient opening of the structure making it permeable for therapeutic compounds, might potentially help to overcome this difficult clinical problem. Moreover, a better understanding of the molecular features of the BBB, its interrelation with metastatic tumour cells and the elucidation of cellular mechanisms responsible for establishing cerebral metastasis must be clearly outlined in order to promote treatment modalities that particularly involve chemotherapy. This in turn would substantially expand the survival and quality of life of patients with brain metastasis, and potentially increase the remission rate. Therefore, the focus of this review is to summarise the current knowledge on the role and function of the BBB in cancer metastasis. PMID:26032862

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, R G; Blamire, A M; Rothman, D L; McCarthy, G

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy have been established over the past two decades. Recent applications of these methods to study human brain function have become a rapidly growing area of research. The development of methods using standard MR contrast agents within the cerebral vasculature has allowed measurements of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which are activity dependent. Subsequent investigations linked the MR relaxation properties of brain tissue to blood oxygenation levels which are also modulated by consumption and blood flow (rCBF). These methods have allowed mapping of brain activity in human visual and motor cortex as well as in areas of the frontal lobe involved in language. The methods have high enough spatial and temporal sensitivity to be used in individual subjects. MR spectroscopy of proton and carbon-13 nuclei has been used to measure rates of glucose transport and metabolism in the human brain. The steady-state measurements of brain glucose concentrations can be used to monitor the glycolytic flux, whereas subsequent glucose metabolism--i.e., the flux into the cerebral glutamate pool--can be used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Under visual stimulation the concentration of lactate in the visual cortex has been shown to increase by MR spectroscopy. This increase is compatible with an increase of anaerobic glycolysis under these conditions as earlier proposed from positron emission tomography studies. It is shown how MR spectroscopy can extend this understanding of brain metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8475050

  17. TE-dependent spatial and spectral specificity of functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changwei W; Gu, Hong; Zou, Qihong; Lu, Hanbing; Stein, Elliot A; Yang, Yihong

    2012-02-15

    Previous studies suggest that spontaneous fluctuations in the resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) signal may reflect fluctuations in transverse relaxation time (T(2)(*)) rather than spin density (S(0)). However, such S(0) and T(2)(*) features have not been well characterized. In this study, spatial and spectral characteristics of functional connectivity on sensorimotor, default-mode, dorsal attention, and primary visual systems were examined using a multiple gradient-echo sequence at 3T. In the spatial domain, we found broad, local correlations at short echo times (TE ≤ 14 ms) due to dominant S(0) contribution, whereas long-range connections mediated by T(2)(*) became explicit at TEs longer than 22 ms. In the frequency domain, compared with the flat spectrum of S(0), spectral power of the T(2)(*)-weighted signal elevated significantly with increasing TE, particularly in the frequency ranges of 0.008-0.023 Hz and 0.037-0.043 Hz. Using the S(0) spectrum as a reference, we propose two indices to measure spectral signal change (SSC) and spectral contrast-to-noise ratio (SCNR), respectively, for quantifying the RS-fMRI signal. These indices demonstrated TE dependency of connectivity-related fluctuation strength, resembling functional contrasts in activation-based fMRI. These findings further confirm that large-scale functional circuit connectivity based on BOLD contrast may be constrained within specific frequency ranges in every brain network, and the spectral features of S(0) and T(2)(*) could be valuable for interpreting and quantifying RS-fMRI data. PMID:22119650

  18. Control of Brain Development, Function, and Behavior by the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Timothy R.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2015-01-01

    Animals share an intimate and life-long partnership with a myriad of resident microbial species, collectively referred to as the microbiota. Symbiotic microbes have been shown to regulate nutrition and metabolism, and are critical for the development and function of the immune system. More recently, studies have suggested that gut bacteria can impact neurological outcomes – altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of nervous system disorders. In this review, we highlight emerging evidence that the microbiome extends its influence to the brain via various pathways connecting the gut to the central nervous system. While understanding and appreciation of a gut microbial impact on neurological function is nascent, unraveling gut-microbiome-brain connections holds the promise of transforming the neurosciences and revealing potentially novel etiologies for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25974299

  19. Rescue of Brain Function Using Tunneling Nanotubes Between Neural Stem Cells and Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Xie, Chong; Tan, Zijian; Tian, Qi; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Mingyuan; Guan, Yangtai

    2016-05-01

    Evidence indicates that neural stem cells (NSCs) can ameliorate cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying one of the neuroprotective effects of NSCs: tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation. We addressed whether the control of cell-to-cell communication processes between NSCs and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and, particularly, the control of TNT formation could influence the rescue function of stem cells. In an attempt to mimic the cellular microenvironment in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of terminally differentiated BMECs from mice in a distressed state and NSCs was constructed. Additionally, engraftment experiments with infarcted mouse brains revealed that control of TNT formation influenced the effects of stem cell transplantation in vivo. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that TNTs exist between NSCs and BMECs and that regulation of TNT formation alters cell function. PMID:26041660

  20. Functional design specification: NASA form 1510

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The 1510 worksheet used to calculate approved facility project cost estimates is explained. Topics covered include data base considerations, program structure, relationship of the 1510 form to the 1509 form, and functions which the application must perform: WHATIF, TENENTER, TENTYPE, and data base utilities. A sample NASA form 1510 printout and a 1510 data dictionary are presented in the appendices along with the cost adjustment table, the floppy disk index, and methods for generating the calculated values (TENCALC) and for calculating cost adjustment (CONSTADJ). Storage requirements are given.

  1. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ugurbil, Kamil

    2016-10-01

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a 'golden technique' that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574313

  2. Tracing Activity Across the Whole Brain Neural Network with Optogenetic Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming need, there has been a relatively large gap in our ability to trace network level activity across the brain. The complex dense wiring of the brain makes it extremely challenging to understand cell-type specific activity and their communication beyond a few synapses. Recent development of the optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI) provides a new impetus for the study of brain circuits by enabling causal tracing of activities arising from defined cell types and firing patterns across the whole brain. Brain circuit elements can be selectively triggered based on their genetic identity, cell body location, and/or their axonal projection target with temporal precision while the resulting network response is monitored non-invasively with unprecedented spatial and temporal accuracy. With further studies including technological innovations to bring ofMRI to its full potential, ofMRI is expected to play an important role in our system-level understanding of the brain circuit mechanism. PMID:22046160

  3. Contactin-4 mediates axon-target specificity and functional development of the accessory optic system.

    PubMed

    Osterhout, Jessica A; Stafford, Benjamin K; Nguyen, Phong L; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Huberman, Andrew D

    2015-05-20

    The mammalian eye-to-brain pathway includes more than 20 parallel circuits, each consisting of precise long-range connections between specific sets of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and target structures in the brain. The mechanisms that drive assembly of these parallel connections and the functional implications of their specificity remain unresolved. Here we show that in the absence of contactin 4 (CNTN4) or one of its binding partners, amyloid precursor protein (APP), a subset of direction-selective RGCs fail to target the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT)--the accessory optic system (AOS) target controlling horizontal image stabilization. Conversely, ectopic expression of CNTN4 biases RGCs to arborize in the NOT, and that process also requires APP. Our data reveal critical and novel roles for CNTN4/APP in promoting target-specific axon arborization, and they highlight the importance of this process for functional development of a behaviorally relevant parallel visual pathway. PMID:25959733

  4. Brain-specific proteins decline in the cerebrospinal fluid of humans with Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiaojun; Strand, Andrew; Law, Wendy; Faca, Vitor M; Fitzgibbon, Matthew P; Hamel, Nathalie; Houle, Benoit; Liu, Xin; May, Damon H; Poschmann, Gereon; Roy, Line; Stühler, Kai; Ying, Wantao; Zhang, Jiyang; Zheng, Zhaobin; Bergeron, John J M; Hanash, Sam; He, Fuchu; Leavitt, Blair R; Meyer, Helmut E; Qian, Xiaohong; McIntosh, Martin W

    2009-03-01

    We integrated five sets of proteomics data profiling the constituents of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived from Huntington disease (HD)-affected and -unaffected individuals with genomics data profiling various human and mouse tissues, including the human HD brain. Based on an integrated analysis, we found that brain-specific proteins are 1.8 times more likely to be observed in CSF than in plasma, that brain-specific proteins tend to decrease in HD CSF compared with unaffected CSF, and that 81% of brain-specific proteins have quantitative changes concordant with transcriptional changes identified in different regions of HD brain. The proteins found to increase in HD CSF tend to be liver-associated. These protein changes are consistent with neurodegeneration, microgliosis, and astrocytosis known to occur in HD. We also discuss concordance between laboratories and find that ratios of individual proteins can vary greatly, but the overall trends with respect to brain or liver specificity were consistent. Concordance is highest between the two laboratories observing the largest numbers of proteins. PMID:18984577

  5. Disrupted resting-state functional architecture of the brain after 45-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Rao, Li-Lin; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Dang; Tan, Cheng; Tian, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Chun-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Shan-Guang; Li, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of −6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of −6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC), to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS) and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies), in the male volunteers after 45 days of −6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS–MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function, and central neural activity. PMID:24926242

  6. A Mapping Between Structural and Functional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jil; Tewarie, Prejaas; Hillebrand, Arjan; Douw, Linda; van Dijk, Bob W; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between structural and functional brain networks is still highly debated. Most previous studies have used a single functional imaging modality to analyze this relationship. In this work, we use multimodal data, from functional MRI, magnetoencephalography, and diffusion tensor imaging, and assume that there exists a mapping between the connectivity matrices of the resting-state functional and structural networks. We investigate this mapping employing group averaged as well as individual data. We indeed find a significantly high goodness of fit level for this structure-function mapping. Our analysis suggests that a functional connection is shaped by all walks up to the diameter in the structural network in both modality cases. When analyzing the inverse mapping, from function to structure, longer walks in the functional network also seem to possess minor influence on the structural connection strengths. Even though similar overall properties for the structure-function mapping are found for different functional modalities, our results indicate that the structure-function relationship is modality dependent. PMID:26860437

  7. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  8. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family

  9. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a ‘sex phenotype’ in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs. PMID:22843414

  10. Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Legault, Jennifer; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A

    2014-09-01

    The brain has an extraordinary ability to functionally and physically change or reconfigure its structure in response to environmental stimulus, cognitive demand, or behavioral experience. This property, known as neuroplasticity, has been examined extensively in many domains. But how does neuroplasticity occur in the brain as a function of an individual's experience with a second language? It is not until recently that we have gained some understanding of this question by examining the anatomical changes as well as functional neural patterns that are induced by the learning and use of multiple languages. In this article we review emerging evidence regarding how structural neuroplasticity occurs in the brain as a result of one's bilingual experience. Our review aims at identifying the processes and mechanisms that drive experience-dependent anatomical changes, and integrating structural imaging evidence with current knowledge of functional neural plasticity of language and other cognitive skills. The evidence reviewed so far portrays a picture that is highly consistent with structural neuroplasticity observed for other domains: second language experience-induced brain changes, including increased gray matter (GM) density and white matter (WM) integrity, can be found in children, young adults, and the elderly; can occur rapidly with short-term language learning or training; and are sensitive to age, age of acquisition, proficiency or performance level, language-specific characteristics, and individual differences. We conclude with a theoretical perspective on neuroplasticity in language and bilingualism, and point to future directions for research. PMID:24996640

  11. Structural architecture supports functional organization in the human aging brain at a regionwise and network level.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Ritter, Petra; Shen, Kelly; Rothmeier, Simon; Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-07-01

    Functional interactions in the brain are constrained by the underlying anatomical architecture, and structural and functional networks share network features such as modularity. Accordingly, age-related changes of structural connectivity (SC) may be paralleled by changes in functional connectivity (FC). We provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of the SC-FC coupling in human aging as inferred from resting-state blood oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in a sample of 47 adults with an age range of 18-82. We revealed that SC and FC decrease with age across most parts of the brain and there is a distinct age-dependency of regionwise SC-FC coupling and network-level SC-FC relations. A specific pattern of SC-FC coupling predicts age more reliably than does regionwise SC or FC alone (r = 0.73, 95% CI = [0.7093, 0.8522]). Hence, our data propose that regionwise SC-FC coupling can be used to characterize brain changes in aging. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2645-2661, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27041212

  12. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Nasim; Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-08-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a 'sex phenotype' in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs. PMID:22843414

  13. Genetic transformation of structural and functional circuitry rewires the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sonia; Cao, Deshou; Choudhary, Ramveer; Biagini, Silvia; Wang, Jing W; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of distinct neuronal identities during development is critical for the assembly of diverse functional neural circuits in the brain. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, intrinsic determinants are thought to act in neural progenitors to specify their identity and the identity of their neuronal progeny. However, the extent to which individual factors can contribute to this is poorly understood. We investigate the role of orthodenticle in the specification of an identified neuroblast (neuronal progenitor) lineage in the Drosophila brain. Loss of orthodenticle from this neuroblast affects molecular properties, neuroanatomical features, and functional inputs of progeny neurons, such that an entire central complex lineage transforms into a functional olfactory projection neuron lineage. This ability to change functional macrocircuitry of the brain through changes in gene expression in a single neuroblast reveals a surprising capacity for novel circuit formation in the brain and provides a paradigm for large-scale evolutionary modification of circuitry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04407.001 PMID:25546307

  14. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  15. REGIONAL BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTIONS RELATE TO FACIAL DYSMORPHOLOGY AND NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION IN FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence F.; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Adnams, Colleen M.; May, Philip A.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Narr, Katherine L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and alterations in brain structure that persist into adulthood. In this report, data from 99 participants collected across three sites (Los Angeles and San Diego, California, and Cape Town, South Africa) were analyzed to examine relationships between brain structure, neurocognitive function, facial morphology, and maternal reports of quantities of alcohol consumption during the first trimester. Across study sites, we found highly significant volume reductions in the FASD group for all of the brain regions evaluated. After correcting for scan location, age, and total brain volume, these differences remained significant in some regions of the basal ganglia and diencephalon. In alcohol-exposed subjects, we found that smaller palpebral fissures were significantly associated with reduced volumes in the diencephalon bilaterally, that greater dysmorphology of the philtrum predicted smaller volumes in basal ganglia and diencephalic structures, and that lower IQ scores were associated with both smaller basal ganglia volumes and greater facial dysmorphology. In subjects from South Africa, we found a significant negative correlation between intracranial volume and total number of drinks per week in the first trimester. These results corroborate previous reports that prenatal alcohol exposure is particularly toxic to basal ganglia and diencephalic structures. We extend previous findings by illustrating relationships between specific measures of facial dysmorphology and the volumes of particular subcortical structures, and for the first time show that continuous measures of maternal alcohol consumption during the first trimester relates to overall brain volume reduction. PMID:21416562

  16. A Multivariate Granger Causality Concept towards Full Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Hertel, Nicole; Witte, Herbert; Wismüller, Axel; Leistritz, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Detecting changes of spatially high-resolution functional connectivity patterns in the brain is crucial for improving the fundamental understanding of brain function in both health and disease, yet still poses one of the biggest challenges in computational neuroscience. Currently, classical multivariate Granger Causality analyses of directed interactions between single process components in coupled systems are commonly restricted to spatially low- dimensional data, which requires a pre-selection or aggregation of time series as a preprocessing step. In this paper we propose a new fully multivariate Granger Causality approach with embedded dimension reduction that makes it possible to obtain a representation of functional connectivity for spatially high-dimensional data. The resulting functional connectivity networks may consist of several thousand vertices and thus contain more detailed information compared to connectivity networks obtained from approaches based on particular regions of interest. Our large scale Granger Causality approach is applied to synthetic and resting state fMRI data with a focus on how well network community structure, which represents a functional segmentation of the network, is preserved. It is demonstrated that a number of different community detection algorithms, which utilize a variety of algorithmic strategies and exploit topological features differently, reveal meaningful information on the underlying network module structure. PMID:27064897

  17. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function in Brain Death: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Northrup, Jesse; Olcese, James

    2016-01-01

    The Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) states that an individual is dead when "all functions of the entire brain" have ceased irreversibly. However, it has been questioned whether some functions of the hypothalamus, particularly osmoregulation, can continue after the clinical diagnosis of brain death (BD). In order to learn whether parts of the hypothalamus can continue to function after the diagnosis of BD, we performed 2 separate systematic searches of the MEDLINE database, corresponding to the functions of the posterior and anterior pituitary. No meta-analysis is possible due to nonuniformity in the clinical literature. However, some modest generalizations can reasonably be drawn from a narrative review and from anatomic considerations that explain why these findings should be expected. We found evidence suggesting the preservation of hypothalamic function, including secretion of hypophysiotropic hormones, responsiveness to anterior pituitary stimulation, and osmoregulation, in a substantial proportion of patients declared dead by neurological criteria. We discuss several possible explanations for these findings. We conclude by suggesting that additional clinical research with strict inclusion criteria is necessary and further that a more nuanced and forthright public dialogue is needed, particularly since standard diagnostic practices and the UDDA may not be entirely in accord. PMID:24692211

  18. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Ostatníková, Daniela; Hodosy, Július

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences. PMID:25741229

  19. Human-specific hypomethylation of CENPJ, a key brain size regulator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Lin, Qiang; Su, Bing

    2014-03-01

    Both the enlarged brain and concurrent highly developed cognitive skills are often seen as distinctive characteristics that set humans apart from other primates. Despite this obvious differentiation, the genetic mechanisms that underlie such human-specific traits are not clearly understood. In particular, whether epigenetic regulations may play a key role in human brain evolution remain elusive. In this study, we used bisulfite sequencing to compare the methylation patterns of four known genes that regulate brain size (ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, and MCPH1) in the prefrontal cortex among several primate species spanning the major lineages of primates (i.e., humans, great apes, lesser apes, and Old World monkeys). The results showed a human-specific hypomethylation in the 5' UTR of CENPJ in the brain, where methylation levels among humans are only about one-third of those found among nonhuman primates. Similar methylation patterns were also detected in liver, kidney, and heart tissues, although the between-species differences were much less pronounced than those in the brain. Further in vitro methylation assays indicated that the methylation status of the CENPJ promoter could influence its expression. We also detected a large difference in CENPJ expression in the human and nonhuman primate brains of both adult individuals and throughout the major stages of fetal brain development. The hypomethylation and comparatively high expression of CENPJ in the central nervous system of humans suggest that a human-specific--and likely heritable--epigenetic modification likely occurred during human evolution, potentially leading to a much larger neural progenitor pool during human brain development, which may have eventually contributed to the dramatically enlarged brain and highly developed cognitive abilities associated with humans. PMID:24288161

  20. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Functional Connectivity Architecture of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Zuo, Xi-Nian; McMahon, Katie L; Craddock, R Cameron; Kelly, Clare; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Hickie, Ian; Bandettini, Peter A; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-05-01

    One of the grand challenges faced by neuroscience is to delineate the determinants of interindividual variation in the comprehensive structural and functional connection matrices that comprise the human connectome. At present, this endeavor appears most tractable at the macroanatomic scale, where intrinsic brain activity exhibits robust patterns of synchrony that recapitulate core functional circuits at the individual level. Here, we use a classical twin study design to examine the heritability of intrinsic functional network properties in 101 twin pairs, including network activity (i.e., variance of a network's specific temporal fluctuations) and internetwork coherence (i.e., correlation between networks' specific temporal fluctuations). Five of 7 networks exhibited significantly heritable (23.3-65.2%) network activity, 6 of the 21 internetwork coherences were significantly heritable (25.6-42.0%), and 11 of the 21 internetwork coherences were significantly influenced by common environmental factors (18.0-47.1%). These results suggest that the source of interindividual variation in functional connectome has a modular architecture: individual modules represented by intrinsic connectivity networks are genetic controlled, while environmental factors influence the interplays between the modules. This work further provides network-specific hypotheses for discovery of the specific genetic and environmental factors influencing functional specialization and integration of the human brain. PMID:26891986

  1. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Functional Connectivity Architecture of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Zuo, Xi-Nian; McMahon, Katie L.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Kelly, Clare; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Hickie, Ian; Bandettini, Peter A.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Wright, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the grand challenges faced by neuroscience is to delineate the determinants of interindividual variation in the comprehensive structural and functional connection matrices that comprise the human connectome. At present, this endeavor appears most tractable at the macroanatomic scale, where intrinsic brain activity exhibits robust patterns of synchrony that recapitulate core functional circuits at the individual level. Here, we use a classical twin study design to examine the heritability of intrinsic functional network properties in 101 twin pairs, including network activity (i.e., variance of a network's specific temporal fluctuations) and internetwork coherence (i.e., correlation between networks' specific temporal fluctuations). Five of 7 networks exhibited significantly heritable (23.3–65.2%) network activity, 6 of the 21 internetwork coherences were significantly heritable (25.6–42.0%), and 11 of the 21 internetwork coherences were significantly influenced by common environmental factors (18.0–47.1%). These results suggest that the source of interindividual variation in functional connectome has a modular architecture: individual modules represented by intrinsic connectivity networks are genetic controlled, while environmental factors influence the interplays between the modules. This work further provides network-specific hypotheses for discovery of the specific genetic and environmental factors influencing functional specialization and integration of the human brain. PMID:26891986

  2. Large-scale functional brain networks in human non-rapid eye movement sleep: insights from combined electroencephalographic/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Czisch, Michael; Maquet, Pierre; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-10-13

    This paper reviews the existing body of knowledge on the neural correlates of spontaneous oscillations, functional connectivity and brain plasticity in human non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The first section reviews the evidence that specific sleep events as slow waves and spindles are associated with transient increases in regional brain activity. The second section describes the changes in functional connectivity during NREM sleep, with a particular focus on changes within a low-frequency, large-scale functional brain network. The third section will discuss the possibility that spontaneous oscillations and differential functional connectivity are related to brain plasticity and systems consolidation, with a particular focus on motor skill acquisition. Implications for the mode of information processing per sleep stage and future experimental studies are discussed. PMID:21893524

  3. Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Jörg; Riedel, Anett; Braun, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus) is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behavior. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method) in 8-day-old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A) pups together with parents and siblings (control), (B) separation of the litter from the parents, (C) individual separation from parents and siblings, and (D) individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B) significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C), where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D) maternal vocalizations “reactivated” brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, NAcc, and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex (IL) and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other

  4. PROTEIN III, A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN: VARIANT FORMS FOUND IN HUMAN BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work in the laboratory has shown the presence of many neuron-specific phosphoproteins in the mammalian nervous system. Two of these proteins, Protein III and Synapsin I, are specifically associated with synaptic vesicles in neurons throughout the brain. Protein III consist...

  5. Heritability of human brain functioning as assessed by electroencephalography

    SciTech Connect

    Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Boomsma, D.I.

    1996-03-01

    To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG was recorded on 14 scalp positions during quiet resting with eyes closed. Spectral powers were calculated for four frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Twin correlations pointed toward high genetic influences for all these powers and scalp locations. Model fitting confirmed these findings; the largest part of the variance of the EEG is explained by additive genetic factors. The averaged heritabilities for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies was 76%, 89%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Multivariate analyses suggested that the same genes for EEG alpha rhythm were expressed in different brain areas in the left and right hemisphere. This study shows that brain functioning, as indexed by rhythmic brain-electrical activity, is one of the most heritable characteristics in humans. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Exploiting temporal information in functional magnetic resonance imaging brain data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Samaras, Dimitris; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Cottone, Lisa; Leskovjan, Andreana; Volkow, Nora; Goldstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) has enabled scientists to look into the active human brain, leading to a flood of new data, thus encouraging the development of new data analysis methods. In this paper, we contribute a comprehensive framework for spatial and temporal exploration of fMRI data, and apply it to a challenging case study: separating drug addicted subjects from healthy non-drug-using controls. To our knowledge, this is the first time that learning on fMRI data is performed explicitly on temporal information for classification in such applications. Experimental results demonstrate that, by selecting discriminative features, group classification can be successfully performed on our case study although training data are exceptionally high dimensional, sparse and noisy fMRI sequences. The classification performance can be significantly improved by incorporating temporal information into machine learning. Both statistical and neuroscientific validation of the method's generalization ability are provided. We demonstrate that incorporation of computer science principles into functional neuroimaging clinical studies, facilitates deduction about the behavioral probes from the brain activation data, thus providing a valid tool that incorporates objective brain imaging data into clinical classification of psychopathologies and identification of genetic vulnerabilities. PMID:16685905

  7. Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-07-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is applied to functional brain imaging in living mice. A near-diffraction-limited bright-field optical illumination is employed to achieve micrometer lateral resolution, and a dual-wavelength measurement is utilized to extract the blood oxygenation information. The variation in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) along vascular branching has been imaged in a precapillary arteriolar tree and a postcapillary venular tree, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on in vivo volumetric imaging of brain microvascular morphology and oxygenation down to single capillaries through intact mouse skulls. It is anticipated that: (i) chronic imaging enabled by this minimally invasive procedure will advance the study of cortical plasticity and neurological diseases; (ii) revealing the neuroactivity-dependent changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation will facilitate the understanding of neurovascular coupling at the capillary level; and (iii) combining functional OR-PAM and high-resolution blood flowmetry will have the potential to explore cellular pathways of brain energy metabolism.

  8. Intra-Arterial Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Functional Recovery of the Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Danilina, T I; Zorov, L D; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-08-01

    We compared the efficiency of delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into the brain after their intravenous and intra-arterial injection. Analysis of the therapeutic effects of cells after experimental traumatic brain injury revealed improvement of the neurological status and motor functions of the damaged hemisphere, the effect being more pronounced after intraarterial injection of cells. Intra-arterial administration was followed by rapid infiltration of the cells into the brain tissue and their number considerably surpassed that after intravenous infusion. Targeted delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells into the brain after their injection into the carotid arteries substantially potentiated their neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury. PMID:26388566

  9. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling and brain reward function

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynorphin-like peptides have profound effects on the state of the brain reward system and human and animal behavior. The dynorphin-like peptides affect locomotor activity, food intake, sexual behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and drug intake. Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors, the endogenous receptor for the dynorphin-like peptides, inhibits dopamine release in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen) and induces a negative mood state in humans and animals. The administration of drugs of abuse increases the release of dopamine in the striatum and mediates the concomitant release of dynorphin-like peptides in this brain region. The reviewed studies suggest that chronic drug intake leads to an upregulation of the brain dynorphin system in the striatum and in particular in the dorsal part of the striatum/caudate putamen. This might inhibit drug-induced dopamine release and provide protection against the neurotoxic effects of high dopamine levels. After the discontinuation of chronic drug intake these neuroadaptations remain unopposed which has been suggested to contribute to the negative emotional state associated with drug withdrawal and increased drug intake. Kappa-opioid receptor agonists have also been shown to inhibit calcium channels. Calcium channel inhibitors have antidepressant-like effects and inhibit the release of norepinephrine. This might explain that in some studies kappa-opioid receptor agonists attenuate nicotine and opioid withdrawal symptomatology. A better understanding of the role of dynorphins in the regulation of brain reward function might contribute to the development of novel treatments for mood disorders and other disorders that stem from a dysregulation of the brain reward system. PMID:19804796

  10. Functional System and Areal Organization of a Highly Sampled Individual Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Laumann, Timothy O; Gordon, Evan M; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Snyder, Abraham Z; Joo, Sung Jun; Chen, Mei-Yen; Gilmore, Adrian W; McDermott, Kathleen B; Nelson, Steven M; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A; Petersen, Steven E

    2015-08-01

    Resting state functional MRI (fMRI) has enabled description of group-level functional brain organization at multiple spatial scales. However, cross-subject averaging may obscure patterns of brain organization specific to each individual. Here, we characterized the brain organization of a single individual repeatedly measured over more than a year. We report a reproducible and internally valid subject-specific areal-level parcellation that corresponds with subject-specific task activations. Highly convergent correlation network estimates can be derived from this parcellation if sufficient data are collected-considerably more than typically acquired. Notably, within-subject correlation variability across sessions exhibited a heterogeneous distribution across the cortex concentrated in visual and somato-motor regions, distinct from the pattern of intersubject variability. Further, although the individual's systems-level organization is broadly similar to the group, it demonstrates distinct topological features. These results provide a foundation for studies of individual differences in cortical organization and function, especially for special or rare individuals. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26212711

  11. Structural and Functional Rich Club Organization of the Brain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, David S.; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G. Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain’s white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain’s major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

  12. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of

  13. Structural and Functional Plasticity in the Maternal Brain Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana

    2016-09-01

    Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social experience while the reciprocal relationship between the mother and her infant forms and develops. These alterations account for the remarkable behavioral plasticity of mothers. This review will examine the molecular and neurobiological modulation and plasticity through which parenting develops and adjusts in new mothers, primarily discussing recent findings in nonhuman animals. A better understanding of how parenting impacts the brain at the molecular, cellular, systems/network, and behavioral levels is likely to significantly contribute to novel strategies for treating postpartum neuropsychiatric disorders in new mothers, and critical for both the mother's physiological and mental health and the development and well-being of her young. PMID:27589496

  14. The functional brain connectome of the child and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Brain connectomics is a relatively new field of research that maps the brain's large-scale structural and functional networks at rest. The connectome of the human brain develops progressively from early infancy to late adolescence, and this review describes the theory behind the concept and its applicability to studying the development and dynamics of brain networks through graph theoretical metrics. We also describe how the brain connectome concept could further our understanding of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) CONCLUSION: Further research into the functional child brain connectome concept could enhance our understanding of atypical brain connectivity patterns presumed to be linked to ASD. PMID:27228241

  15. Disrupted Brain Functional Network Architecture in Chronic Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Yuan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Mao, Cun-Nan; Xia, Wenqing; Ren, Jun; Yin, Xindao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated the disruptions of multiple brain networks in tinnitus patients. Nonetheless, several studies found no differences in network processing between tinnitus patients and healthy controls (HCs). Its neural bases are poorly understood. To identify aberrant brain network architecture involved in chronic tinnitus, we compared the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) patterns of tinnitus patients and HCs. Materials and Methods: Chronic tinnitus patients (n = 24) with normal hearing thresholds and age-, sex-, education- and hearing threshold-matched HCs (n = 22) participated in the current study and underwent the rs-fMRI scanning. We used degree centrality (DC) to investigate functional connectivity (FC) strength of the whole-brain network and Granger causality to analyze effective connectivity in order to explore directional aspects involved in tinnitus. Results: Compared to HCs, we found significantly increased network centrality in bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Unidirectionally, the left SFG revealed increased effective connectivity to the left middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left postcentral gyrus, and right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) while the right SFG exhibited enhanced effective connectivity to the right supplementary motor area (SMA). In addition, the effective connectivity from the bilateral SFG to the OFC and SMA showed positive correlations with tinnitus distress. Conclusions: Rs-fMRI provides a new and novel method for identifying aberrant brain network architecture. Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted FC strength and causal connectivity mostly in non-auditory regions, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The current findings will provide a new perspective for understanding the neuropathophysiological mechanisms in chronic tinnitus. PMID:27458377

  16. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2016-08-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the brain in older age. We investigated brain size and structure at age 68 years after prenatal famine exposure. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of the brain were made in 118 Dutch famine birth cohort members. Of these 118 (44% male, age range 65-69 years), 41 had been exposed to famine in early gestation and 77 had been prenatally unexposed. Structural volumes were automatically assessed using FreeSurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed and anisotropy and diffusivity were computed. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery was performed to assess white matter hyperintensities. Exposure to famine in early gestation was associated with smaller intracranial volume in males, but not females. Volumes of total brain, grey and white matter were also smaller in early exposed males, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for intracranial volume. Prenatally exposed males but not females, had a smaller intracranial and total brain volume compared to unexposed subjects. Our findings show that prenatal undernutrition permanently affected brain size.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww132_video_abstractaww132_video_abstract. PMID:27401522

  17. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  18. Brain macrophages: evaluation of microglia and their functions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, W E

    1992-01-01

    There is now evidence approaching, if not having already surpassed, overwhelming in support of microglial cells as macrophages. Consistent with this cellular identity, they appear to arise from monocytes in developing brain where amoeboid microglia function in removing cell death-associated debris and in regulating gliogenesis. In normal adult tissue, ramified microglial cells with down-regulated macrophage functional properties may serve a constitutive role in cleansing the extracellular fluid. Under all conditions of brain injury, microglia appear to activate and convert into active macrophages. Activated and reactive microglia participate in inflammation, removal of cellular debris and wound-healing, the latter through regulation of gliosis in scar formation and a potential contribution to neural regeneration and neovascularization. In the activated state, microglia also express MHC's and, thus, may function in antigen presentation and lymphocyte activation for CNS immune responses. As uniquely adapted tissue resident macrophages within the CNS, microglia serve a variety of functional roles over the lifespan of this tissue. These cells may therefore be involved in or contribute to some disease states; such has been indicated in multiple sclerosis and AIDS dementia complex. PMID:1638276

  19. Analytical Operations Relate Structural and Functional Connectivity in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Saggio, Maria Luisa; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state large-scale brain models vary in the amount of biological elements they incorporate and in the way they are being tested. One might expect that the more realistic the model is, the closer it should reproduce real functional data. It has been shown, instead, that when linear correlation across long BOLD fMRI time-series is used as a measure for functional connectivity (FC) to compare simulated and real data, a simple model performs just as well, or even better, than more sophisticated ones. The model in question is a simple linear model, which considers the physiological noise that is pervasively present in our brain while it diffuses across the white-matter connections, that is structural connectivity (SC). We deeply investigate this linear model, providing an analytical solution to straightforwardly compute FC from SC without the need of computationally costly simulations of time-series. We provide a few examples how this analytical solution could be used to perform a fast and detailed parameter exploration or to investigate resting-state non-stationarities. Most importantly, by inverting the analytical solution, we propose a method to retrieve information on the anatomical structure directly from functional data. This simple method can be used to complement or guide DTI/DSI and tractography results, especially for a better assessment of inter-hemispheric connections, or to provide an estimate of SC when only functional data are available. PMID:27536987

  20. Sleep-disordered breathing: effects on brain structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Macey, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is accompanied by neural injury that affects a wide range of physiological systems which include processes for sensing chemoreception and airflow, driving respiratory musculature, timing circuitry for coordination of breathing patterning, and integration of blood pressure mechanisms with respiration. The damage also occurs in regions mediating emotion and mood, as well as areas regulating memory and cognitive functioning, and appears in structures that serve significant glycemic control processes. The injured structures include brain areas involved in hormone release and action of major neurotransmitters, including those playing a role in depression. The injury is reflected in a range of structural magnetic resonance procedures, and also appears as functional distortions of evoked activity in brain areas mediating vital autonomic and breathing functions. The damage is preferentially unilateral, and includes axonal projections; the asymmetry of the injury poses unique concerns for sympathetic discharge and potential consequences for arrhythmia. Sleep-disordered breathing should be viewed as a condition that includes central nervous system injury and impaired function; the processes underlying injury remain unclear. PMID:23643610

  1. Analytical Operations Relate Structural and Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saggio, Maria Luisa; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state large-scale brain models vary in the amount of biological elements they incorporate and in the way they are being tested. One might expect that the more realistic the model is, the closer it should reproduce real functional data. It has been shown, instead, that when linear correlation across long BOLD fMRI time-series is used as a measure for functional connectivity (FC) to compare simulated and real data, a simple model performs just as well, or even better, than more sophisticated ones. The model in question is a simple linear model, which considers the physiological noise that is pervasively present in our brain while it diffuses across the white-matter connections, that is structural connectivity (SC). We deeply investigate this linear model, providing an analytical solution to straightforwardly compute FC from SC without the need of computationally costly simulations of time-series. We provide a few examples how this analytical solution could be used to perform a fast and detailed parameter exploration or to investigate resting-state non-stationarities. Most importantly, by inverting the analytical solution, we propose a method to retrieve information on the anatomical structure directly from functional data. This simple method can be used to complement or guide DTI/DSI and tractography results, especially for a better assessment of inter-hemispheric connections, or to provide an estimate of SC when only functional data are available. PMID:27536987

  2. Rewiring the Brain: Potential Role of the Premotor Cortex in Motor Control, Learning, and Recovery of Function Following Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Shailesh S.; Stinear, James W.; Buch, Ethan R.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a plastic organ with a capability to reorganize in response to behavior and/or injury. Following injury to the motor cortex or emergent corticospinal pathways, recovery of function depends on the capacity of surviving anatomical resources to recover and repair in response to task-specific training. One such area implicated in poststroke reorganization to promote recovery of upper extremity recovery is the premotor cortex (PMC). This study reviews the role of distinct subdivisions of PMC: dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) premotor cortices as critical anatomical and physiological nodes within the neural networks for the control and learning of goal-oriented reach and grasp actions in healthy individuals and individuals with stroke. Based on evidence emerging from studies of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional neuroimaging, and experimental studies in animals and humans, the authors propose 2 distinct patterns of reorganization that differentially engage ipsilesional and contralesional PMC. Research directions that may offer further insights into the role of PMC in motor control, learning, and poststroke recovery are also proposed. This research may facilitate neuroplasticity for maximal recovery of function following brain injury. PMID:21926382

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to explore tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gemma; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Meek, Judith; Jackson, Deborah; Tracey, Irene; Robertson, Nicola; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the importance of neonatal skin stimulation, little is known about activation of the newborn human infant brain by sensory stimulation of the skin. We carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the feasibility of measuring brain activation to a range of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin of neonatal infants. Methods We studied 19 term infants with a mean age of 13 days. Brain activation was measured in response to brushing, von Frey hair (vFh) punctate stimulation and, in one case, nontissue damaging pinprick stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot. Initial whole brain analysis was followed by region of interest analysis of specific brain areas. Results Distinct patterns of functional brain activation were evoked by brush and vFh punctate stimulation, which were reduced, but still present, under chloral hydrate sedation. Brain activation increased with increasing stimulus intensity. The feasibility of using pinprick stimulation in fMRI studies was established in one unsedated healthy full-term infant. Conclusion Distinct brain activity patterns can be measured in response to different modalities and intensities of skin sensory stimulation in term infants. This indicates the potential for fMRI studies in exploring tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain. PMID:25358870

  4. Machine-learning to characterise neonatal functional connectivity in the preterm brain

    PubMed Central

    Ball, G.; Aljabar, P.; Arichi, T.; Tusor, N.; Cox, D.; Merchant, N.; Nongena, P.; Hajnal, J.V.; Edwards, A.D.; Counsell, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain development is adversely affected by preterm birth. Magnetic resonance image analysis has revealed a complex fusion of structural alterations across all tissue compartments that are apparent by term-equivalent age, persistent into adolescence and adulthood, and associated with wide-ranging neurodevelopment disorders. Although functional MRI has revealed the relatively advanced organisational state of the neonatal brain, the full extent and nature of functional disruptions following preterm birth remain unclear. In this study, we apply machine-learning methods to compare whole-brain functional connectivity in preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy term-born neonates in order to test the hypothesis that preterm birth results in specific alterations to functional connectivity by term-equivalent age. Functional connectivity networks were estimated in 105 preterm infants and 26 term controls using group-independent component analysis and a graphical lasso model. A random forest–based feature selection method was used to identify discriminative edges within each network and a nonlinear support vector machine was used to classify subjects based on functional connectivity alone. We achieved 80% cross-validated classification accuracy informed by a small set of discriminative edges. These edges connected a number of functional nodes in subcortical and cortical grey matter, and most were stronger in term neonates compared to those born preterm. Half of the discriminative edges connected one or more nodes within the basal ganglia. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity in the preterm brain is significantly altered by term-equivalent age, confirming previous reports of altered connectivity between subcortical structures and higher-level association cortex following preterm birth. PMID:26341027

  5. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity. PMID:26315689

  6. When Neuroscience 'Touches' Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting 'neuro-architecture' as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people-environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory. PMID:27375542

  7. Functional Brain Networks: Does the Choice of Dependency Estimator and Binarization Method Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    The human brain can be modelled as a complex networked structure with brain regions as individual nodes and their anatomical/functional links as edges. Functional brain networks are constructed by first extracting weighted connectivity matrices, and then binarizing them to minimize the noise level. Different methods have been used to estimate the dependency values between the nodes and to obtain a binary network from a weighted connectivity matrix. In this work we study topological properties of EEG-based functional networks in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). To estimate the connectivity strength between two time series, we use Pearson correlation, coherence, phase order parameter and synchronization likelihood. In order to binarize the weighted connectivity matrices, we use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), Minimum Connected Component (MCC), uniform threshold and density-preserving methods. We find that the detected AD-related abnormalities highly depend on the methods used for dependency estimation and binarization. Topological properties of networks constructed using coherence method and MCC binarization show more significant differences between AD and healthy subjects than the other methods. These results might explain contradictory results reported in the literature for network properties specific to AD symptoms. The analysis method should be seriously taken into account in the interpretation of network-based analysis of brain signals.

  8. Functional Brain Networks: Does the Choice of Dependency Estimator and Binarization Method Matter?

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be modelled as a complex networked structure with brain regions as individual nodes and their anatomical/functional links as edges. Functional brain networks are constructed by first extracting weighted connectivity matrices, and then binarizing them to minimize the noise level. Different methods have been used to estimate the dependency values between the nodes and to obtain a binary network from a weighted connectivity matrix. In this work we study topological properties of EEG-based functional networks in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). To estimate the connectivity strength between two time series, we use Pearson correlation, coherence, phase order parameter and synchronization likelihood. In order to binarize the weighted connectivity matrices, we use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), Minimum Connected Component (MCC), uniform threshold and density-preserving methods. We find that the detected AD-related abnormalities highly depend on the methods used for dependency estimation and binarization. Topological properties of networks constructed using coherence method and MCC binarization show more significant differences between AD and healthy subjects than the other methods. These results might explain contradictory results reported in the literature for network properties specific to AD symptoms. The analysis method should be seriously taken into account in the interpretation of network-based analysis of brain signals. PMID:27417262

  9. Functional Brain Networks: Does the Choice of Dependency Estimator and Binarization Method Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be modelled as a complex networked structure with brain regions as individual nodes and their anatomical/functional links as edges. Functional brain networks are constructed by first extracting weighted connectivity matrices, and then binarizing them to minimize the noise level. Different methods have been used to estimate the dependency values between the nodes and to obtain a binary network from a weighted connectivity matrix. In this work we study topological properties of EEG-based functional networks in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). To estimate the connectivity strength between two time series, we use Pearson correlation, coherence, phase order parameter and synchronization likelihood. In order to binarize the weighted connectivity matrices, we use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), Minimum Connected Component (MCC), uniform threshold and density-preserving methods. We find that the detected AD-related abnormalities highly depend on the methods used for dependency estimation and binarization. Topological properties of networks constructed using coherence method and MCC binarization show more significant differences between AD and healthy subjects than the other methods. These results might explain contradictory results reported in the literature for network properties specific to AD symptoms. The analysis method should be seriously taken into account in the interpretation of network-based analysis of brain signals. PMID:27417262

  10. When Neuroscience ‘Touches’ Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C.; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting ‘neuro-architecture’ as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people–environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory. PMID:27375542

  11. Brain-gut microbiome interactions and functional bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Emeran A; Savidge, Tor; Shulman, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in the bidirectional interactions between the intestine and the nervous system have important roles in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A body of largely preclinical evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate these interactions. A small and poorly defined role for dysbiosis in the development of IBS symptoms has been established through characterization of altered intestinal microbiota in IBS patients and reported improvement of subjective symptoms after its manipulation with prebiotics, probiotics, or antibiotics. It remains to be determined whether IBS symptoms are caused by alterations in brain signaling from the intestine to the microbiota or primary disruption of the microbiota, and whether they are involved in altered interactions between the brain and intestine during development. We review the potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of IBS in different groups of patients. Studies are needed to better characterize alterations to the intestinal microbiome in large cohorts of well-phenotyped patients, and to correlate intestinal metabolites with specific abnormalities in gut-brain interactions. PMID:24583088

  12. Brain Gut Microbiome Interactions and Functional Bowel Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Savidge, Tor; Shulman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the bidirectional interactions between the gut and the nervous system play an important role in IBS pathophysiology and symptom generation. A body of largely preclinical evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate these interactions. Characterizations of alterations of gut microbiota in unselected IBS patients, and assessment of changes in subjective symptoms associated with manipulations of the gut microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics support a small, but poorly defined role of dybiosis in overall IBS symptoms. It remains to be determined if the observed abnormalities are a consequence of altered top down signaling from the brain to the gut and microbiota, if they are secondary to a primary perturbation of the microbiota, and if they play a role in the development of altered brain gut interactions early in life. Different mechanisms may play role in subsets of patients. Characterization of gut microbiome alterations in large cohorts of well phenotyped patients as well as evidence correlating gut metabolites with specific abnormalities in the gut brain axis are required to answer these questions. PMID:24583088

  13. Linking human brain local activity fluctuations to structural and functional network architectures.

    PubMed

    Baria, A T; Mansour, A; Huang, L; Baliki, M N; Cecchi, G A; Mesulam, M M; Apkarian, A V

    2013-06-01

    Activity of cortical local neuronal populations fluctuates continuously, and a large proportion of these fluctuations are shared across populations of neurons. Here we seek organizational rules that link these two phenomena. Using neuronal activity, as identified by functional MRI (fMRI) and for a given voxel or brain region, we derive a single measure of full bandwidth brain-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations by calculating the slope, α, for the log-linear power spectrum. For the same voxel or region, we also measure the temporal coherence of its fluctuations to other voxels or regions, based on exceeding a given threshold, Θ, for zero lag correlation, establishing functional connectivity between pairs of neuronal populations. From resting state fMRI, we calculated whole-brain group-averaged maps for α and for functional connectivity. Both maps showed similar spatial organization, with a correlation coefficient of 0.75 between the two parameters across all brain voxels, as well as variability with hodology. A computational model replicated the main results, suggesting that synaptic low-pass filtering can account for these interrelationships. We also investigated the relationship between α and structural connectivity, as determined by diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography. We observe that the correlation between α and connectivity depends on attentional state; specifically, α correlated more highly to structural connectivity during rest than while attending to a task. Overall, these results provide global rules for the dynamics between frequency characteristics of local brain activity and the architecture of underlying brain networks. PMID:23396160

  14. A preliminary study of the effects of working memory training on brain function.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C; Gaynor, Alexandra; Bessette, Katie L; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2016-06-01

    Working memory (WM) training improves WM ability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its efficacy for non-cognitive ADHD impairments ADHD has been sharply debated. The purpose of this preliminary study was to characterize WM training-related changes in ADHD brain function and see if they were linked to clinical improvement. We examined 18 adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV Combined-subtype ADHD before and after 25 sessions of WM training using a frequently employed approach (Cogmed™) using a nonverbal Sternberg WM fMRI task, neuropsychological tests, and participant- and parent-reports of ADHD symptom severity and associated functional impairment. Whole brain SPM8 analyses identified ADHD activation deficits compared to 18 non-ADHD control participants, then tested whether impaired ADHD frontoparietal brain activation would increase following WM training. Post hoc tests examined the relationships between neural changes and neurocognitive or clinical improvements. As predicted, WM training increased WM performance, ADHD clinical functioning, and WM-related ADHD brain activity in several frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions. Increased left inferior frontal sulcus region activity was seen in all Encoding, Maintenance, and Retrieval Sternberg task phases. ADHD symptom severity improvements were most often positively correlated with activation gains in brain regions known to be engaged for WM-related executive processing; improvement of different symptom types had different neural correlates. The responsiveness of both amodal WM frontoparietal circuits and executive process-specific WM brain regions was altered by WM training. The latter might represent a promising, relatively unexplored treatment target for researchers seeking to optimize clinical response in ongoing ADHD WM training development efforts. PMID:26138580

  15. Permeabilization of brain tissue in situ enables multiregion analysis of mitochondrial function in a single mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Eric AF; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria function as the core energy providers in the brain and symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to their dysregulation. Assessing mitochondrial function is classically performed in isolated mitochondria; however, this process requires significant isolation time, demand for abundant tissue and disruption of the cooperative mitochondrial reticulum, all of which reduce reliability when attempting to assess in vivo mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we introduce a method that advances the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in the brain by permeabilizing existing brain tissue to grant direct access to the mitochondrial reticulum in situ. The permeabilized brain preparation allows for instant analysis of mitochondrial function with unaltered mitochondrial morphology using significantly small sample sizes (∼2 mg), which permits the analysis of mitochondrial function in multiple subregions within a single mouse brain. Here this technique was applied to assess regional variation in brain mitochondrial function with acute ischaemia–reperfusion injuries and to determine the role of reactive oxygen species in exacerbating dysfunction through the application of a transgenic mouse model overexpressing catalase within mitochondria. Through creating accessibility to small regions for the investigation of mitochondrial function, the permeabilized brain preparation enhances the capacity for examining regional differences in mitochondrial regulation within the brain, as the majority of genetic models used for unique approaches exist in the mouse model. PMID:25529987

  16. Effects of specific carotid body and brain hypoxia on respiratory muscle control in the awake goat.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C A; Engwall, M J; Dempsey, J A; Bisgard, G E

    1993-01-01

    1. We assessed the effects of specific brain hypoxia on the control of inspiratory and expiratory muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities in response to specific carotid body hypoxia in seven awake goats. We used an isolated carotid body perfusion technique that permitted specific, physiological, steady-state stimulation of the carotid bodies or maintenance of normoxia and normocapnia at the carotid bodies while varying the level of systemic, and therefore, brain oxygenation. 2. Isolated brain normocapnic hypoxia of up to 1.5 h duration increased inspired minute ventilation (VI) by means of increases in both tidal volume (VT) and respiratory frequency (fR). Electromyographic activities of both inspiratory and expiratory muscles were augmented as well. These responses were similar to those produced by low levels of whole-body normoxic hypercapnia. We conclude that moderate levels of brain hypoxia (Pa,O2 approximately 40 mmHg) in awake goats caused a net stimulation of ventilatory motor output. 3. Hypoxic stimulation of the carotid bodies alone caused comparable increases in VT and fR, and EMG augmentation of both inspiratory and expiratory muscles whether the brain was hypoxic or normoxic. These responses were quite similar to those obtained over a wide range of whole-body normoxic hypercapnia. We conclude that the integration of carotid body afferent information is not affected by moderate brain hypoxia in awake goats. 4. We found no evidence for an asymmetrical recruitment pattern of inspiratory vs. expiratory muscles in response to carotid body hypoxia or in response to brain hypoxia alone. 5. Our data support the concept that moderate brain hypoxia results in a net stimulation of respiratory motor output. These findings question the significance of 'central hypoxic depression' to the regulation of breathing under physiological levels of hypoxaemia in the awake animal. PMID:8487210

  17. Using computational models to relate structural and functional brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Coombes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Modern imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional brain connectivity. This has lead to the identification of disease-related alterations affecting functional connectivity. The mechanism of how such alterations in functional connectivity arise in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which this can arise and to highlight the important role that local population dynamics can have in shaping emergent spatial functional connectivity patterns. The local dynamics for a neural population is taken to be of the Wilson–Cowan type, whilst the structural connectivity patterns used, describing long-range anatomical connections, cover both realistic scenarios (from the CoComac database) and idealized ones that allow for more detailed theoretical study. We have calculated graph–theoretic measures of functional network topology from numerical simulations of model networks. The effect of the form of local dynamics on the observed network state is quantified by examining the correlation between structural and functional connectivity. We document a profound and systematic dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters controlling the dynamics. Importantly, we show that a weakly coupled oscillator theory explaining these correlations and their variation across parameter space can be developed. This theoretical development provides a novel way to characterize the mechanisms for the breakdown of functional connectivity in diseases through changes in local dynamics. PMID:22805059

  18. Context-specific behavioral surprise is differentially correlated with activity in anterior and posterior brain systems.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Michael J; Gläscher, Jan; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-06-15

    This experiment investigated whether behavioral surprise, an information-theoretic measure of the amount of memory and information integration associated with a response, is correlated with neural activity during decision making. A total of 30 participants (age 18-30) were scanned with functional MRI while completing 240 trials of a sequential decision-making task in which they selected an amount to wager from four possible values on each trial. Behavioral surprise was computed trial by trial using both context-free and context-specific formulations, and was used as a parametric modulator in functional MRI analyses. Whereas context-free surprise was not significantly correlated, two sets of clusters (P<0.005; cluster size>156 voxels) were differentially modulated by context-specific behavioral surprise. An anterior system comprised of the inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate (each bilaterally), and left caudate, was positively modulated. A posterior system comprised of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus (each bilaterally), and left angular gyrus, was negatively modulated. These anticorrelated systems indicate that more surprising (resource demanding) actions recruit greater activity from the anterior system and less activity from the posterior system and less surprising actions (memory-guided) recruit greater activity from the posterior system and less activity from the anterior system. These results show that context-specific behavioral surprise is a unique neural signal and may be related to mechanisms for both cognitive control and memory-guided behavior, and support contemporary theories that the brain is a statistical observer of external and internal events. PMID:27110868

  19. Functional Characterization of Germline Mutations in PDGFB and PDGFRB in Primary Familial Brain Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Andaloussi Mäe, Maarja; Nahar, Khayrun; Hornemann, Simone; Kenkel, David; Cunha, Sara I.; Lennartsson, Johan; Boss, Andreas; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Primary Familial Brain Calcification (PFBC), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive pericapillary calcifications, has recently been linked to heterozygous mutations in PDGFB and PDGFRB genes. Here, we functionally analyzed several of these mutations in vitro. All six analyzed PDGFB mutations led to complete loss of PDGF-B function either through abolished protein synthesis or through defective binding and/or stimulation of PDGF-Rβ. The three analyzed PDGFRB mutations had more diverse consequences. Whereas PDGF-Rβ autophosphorylation was almost totally abolished in the PDGFRB L658P mutation, the two sporadic PDGFRB mutations R987W and E1071V caused reductions in protein levels and specific changes in the intensity and kinetics of PLCγ activation, respectively. Since at least some of the PDGFB mutations were predicted to act through haploinsufficiency, we explored the consequences of reduced Pdgfb or Pdgfrb transcript and protein levels in mice. Heterozygous Pdgfb or Pdgfrb knockouts, as well as double Pdgfb+/-;Pdgfrb+/- mice did not develop brain calcification, nor did Pdgfrbredeye/redeye mice, which show a 90% reduction of PDGFRβ protein levels. In contrast, Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have altered tissue distribution of PDGF-B protein due to loss of a proteoglycan binding motif, developed brain calcifications. We also determined pericyte coverage in calcification-prone and non-calcification-prone brain regions in Pdgfbret/ret mice. Surprisingly and contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the calcification-prone brain regions in Pdgfbret/ret mice model had a higher pericyte coverage and a more intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) compared to non-calcification-prone brain regions. While our findings provide clear evidence that loss-of-function mutations in PDGFB or PDGFRB cause PFBC, they also demonstrate species differences in the threshold levels of PDGF-B/PDGF-Rβ signaling that protect against small-vessel calcification in the brain. They

  20. Regioisomers of phosphatidylcholine containing DHA and their potential to deliver DHA to the brain: role of phospholipase specificities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2013-07-01

    Because neurons cannot synthesize docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary supplement of DHA in the form of phospholipids is recommended for maintaining proper brain functions. A model for delivering dietary sn-2-DHA phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) to the brain involves phospholipase A2 based deacylation/reacylation cycle followed by delivery of DHA through high-density lipoproteins that bind to the brain capillary endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous study demonstrated preference of endothelial lipase (EL) for PtdCho species that contain sn-2-DHA, resulting in production of sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho that is preferentially taken up by the brain. However, since CoA-dependent reacylation of lysoPtdCho with DHA at the sn-2 position is not favored in vivo, we proposed that sn-1-DHA PtdCho in the diet may be a superior source of DHA for the brain. To test this hypothesis, DHA PtdCho regioisomers were prepared, and their hydrolysis by physiologically relevant phospholipases was determined. The data presented here show that: (1) group X secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) is about threefold more active than group V sPLA2 in releasing sn-2 fatty acids from DHA regioisomers, and (2) EL shows its specificity for DHA PtdCho species in a concentration independent manner, suggesting that the enzyme could play a major role in generating free sn-1-DHA or/and sn-2-DHA lysoPtdCho from the regioisomers in the BBB. We propose that PtdCho species containing sn-1-DHA may have the advantages of both "preserving" DHA in deacylation/reacylation cycle and releasing free DHA in the BBB for uptake by the brain. PMID:23604781

  1. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A; Grant, Samuel C; Gold, Mark S; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  2. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J.; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A.; Grant, Samuel C.; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  3. Mitochondrial activity and brain functions during cortical depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Sonn, Judith

    2008-12-01

    Cortical depolarization (CD) of the cerebral cortex could be developed under various pathophysiological conditions. In animal models, CD was recorded under partial or complete ischemia as well as when cortical spreading depression (SD) was induced externally or by internal stimulus. The development of CD in patients and the changes in various metabolic parameters, during CD, was rarely reported. Brain metabolic, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical responses to the CD event are dependent upon the O2 balance in the tissue. When the O2 balance is negative (i.e. ischemia), the CD process will be developed due to mitochondrial dysfunction, lack of energy and the inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. In contradiction, when oxygen is available (i.e. normoxia) the development of CD after induction of SD will accelerate mitochondrial respiration for retaining ionic homeostasis and normal brain functions. We used the multiparametric monitoring approach that enable real time monitoring of mitochondrial NADH redox state, microcirculatory blood flow and oxygenation, extracellular K+, Ca2+, H+ levels, DC steady potential and electrocorticogram (ECoG). This monitoring approach, provide a unique tool that has a significant value in analyzing the pathophysiology of the brain when SD developed under normoxia, ischemia, or hypoxia. We applied the same monitoring approach to patients suffered from severe head injury or exposed to neurosurgical procedures.

  4. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation.

    PubMed

    Jao, Tun; Li, Chia-Wei; Vértes, Petra E; Wu, Changwei Wesley; Achard, Sophie; Hsieh, Chao-Hsien; Liou, Chien-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-02-01

    Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness. PMID:26165867

  5. Behavioral Relevance of the Dynamics of the Functional Brain Connectome

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract While many previous studies assumed the functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions to be stationary, recent studies have demonstrated that FC dynamically varies across time. However, two challenges have limited the interpretability of dynamic FC information. First, a principled framework for selecting the temporal extent of the window used to examine the dynamics is lacking and this has resulted in ad-hoc selections of window lengths and subsequent divergent results. Second, it is unclear whether there is any behavioral relevance to the dynamics of the functional connectome in addition to that obtained from conventional static FC (SFC). In this work, we address these challenges by first proposing a principled framework for selecting the extent of the temporal windows in a dynamic and data-driven fashion based on statistical tests of the stationarity of time series. Further, we propose a method involving three levels of clustering—across space, time, and subjects—which allow for group-level inferences of the dynamics. Next, using a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral dataset from the Human Connectome Project, we demonstrate that metrics derived from dynamic FC can explain more than twice the variance in 75 behaviors across different domains (alertness, cognition, emotion, and personality traits) as compared with SFC in healthy individuals. Further, we found that individuals with brain networks exhibiting greater dynamics performed more favorably in behavioral tasks. This indicates that the ease with which brain regions engage or disengage may provide potential biomarkers for disorders involving altered neural circuitry. PMID:25163490

  6. Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2013-10-01

    There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. PMID:23872098

  7. Anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in unmedicated major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Ma, Xiaojuan; Li, Mingli; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Liansheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to explore the mechanism of brain structure and function in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients and methods Fifty patients with MDD and 50 matched healthy control participants free of psychotropic medication underwent high-resolution structural and rsfMRI scanning. Optimized diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra and the Data Processing Assistant for rsfMRI were used to find potential differences in gray-matter volume (GMV) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) between the two groups. A Pearson correlation model was used to analyze associations of morphometric and functional changes with clinical symptoms. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significant GMV increase in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and GMV decrease in the left lingual gyrus (P<0.001, uncorrected). In ReHo analysis, values were significantly increased in the left precuneus and decreased in the left putamen (P<0.001, uncorrected) in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls. There was no overlap between anatomical and functional changes. Linear correlation suggested no significant correlation between mean GMV values within regions with anatomical abnormality and ReHo values in regions with functional abnormality in the patient group. These changes were not significantly correlated with symptom severity. Conclusion Our study suggests a dissociation pattern of brain regions with anatomical and functional alterations in unmedicated patients with MDD, especially with regard to GMV and ReHo. PMID:26425096

  8. Treatment resistant schizophrenia: Course of brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Rosenthal, Jennifer B

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 30% of people with schizophrenia manifest a minimal response to conventional and atypical antipsychotic medications and manifest continuous symptoms of psychosis, with this condition referred to as "treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS)". There are several neurobiological consequences of continuous psychosis, including regional cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement. Pharmacological treatments are available for TRS, with at least 1/3 of patients responding to treatment with clozapine. In this paper we review the evidence regarding the course of treatment resistant schizophrenia, as well as changes in brain structure and function in psychosis and on the possible role of clozapine treatment in altering cortical deterioration in patients with TRS. PMID:26925705

  9. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  10. Functional brain networks underlying detection and integration of disconfirmatory evidence.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Katie M; Metzak, Paul D; Woodward, Todd S

    2015-05-15

    Processing evidence that disconfirms a prior interpretation is a fundamental aspect of belief revision, and has clear social and clinical relevance. This complex cognitive process requires (at minimum) an alerting stage and an integration stage, and in the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we used multivariate analysis methodology on two datasets in an attempt to separate these sequentially-activated cognitive stages and link them to distinct functional brain networks. Thirty-nine healthy participants completed one of two versions of an evidence integration experiment involving rating two consecutive animal images, both of which consisted of two intact images of animal faces morphed together at different ratios (e.g., 70/30 bird/dolphin followed by 10/90 bird/dolphin). The two versions of the experiment differed primarily in terms of stimulus presentation and timing, which facilitated functional interpretation of brain networks based on differences in the hemodynamic response shapes between versions. The data were analyzed using constrained principal component analysis for fMRI (fMRI-CPCA), which allows distinct, simultaneously active task-based networks to be separated, and these were interpreted using both temporal (task-based hemodynamic response shapes) and spatial (dominant brain regions) information. Three networks showed increased activity during integration of disconfirmatory relative to confirmatory evidence: (1) a network involved in alerting to the requirement to revise an interpretation, identified as the salience network (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula); (2) a sensorimotor response-related network (pre- and post-central gyri, supplementary motor area, and thalamus); and (3) an integration network involving rostral prefrontal, orbitofrontal and posterior parietal cortex. These three networks were staggered in their peak activity (alerting, responding, then integrating), but at certain time points (e

  11. Crossed-brain representation of verbal and nonverbal functions.

    PubMed

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  12. Motor skill failure or flow-experience? Functional brain asymmetry and brain connectivity in elite and amateur table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian; Brölz, Ellen; Keune, Philipp M; Wesa, Benjamin; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

    2015-02-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetry is assumed to constitute one underlying neurophysiological mechanism of flow-experience and skilled psycho-motor performance in table tennis athletes. We hypothesized that when initiating motor execution during motor imagery, elite table tennis players show higher right- than left-hemispheric temporal activity and stronger right temporal-premotor than left temporal-premotor theta coherence compared to amateurs. We additionally investigated, whether less pronounced left temporal cortical activity is associated with more world rank points and more flow-experience. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 experts and 15 amateur table tennis players. Subjects watched videos of an opponent serving a ball and were instructed to imagine themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. Alpha asymmetry scores were calculated by subtracting left from right hemispheric 8-13 Hz alpha power. 4-7 Hz theta coherence was calculated between temporal (T3/T4) and premotor (Fz) cortex. Experts showed a significantly stronger shift towards lower relative left-temporal brain activity compared to amateurs and a significantly stronger right temporal-premotor coherence than amateurs. The shift towards lower relative left-temporal brain activity in experts was associated with more flow-experience and lower relative left temporal activity was correlated with more world rank points. The present findings suggest that skilled psycho-motor performance in elite table tennis players reflect less desynchronized brain activity at the left hemisphere and more coherent brain activity between fronto-temporal and premotor oscillations at the right hemisphere. This pattern probably reflect less interference of irrelevant communication of verbal-analytical with motor-control mechanisms which implies flow-experience and predict world rank in experts. PMID:25616246

  13. Targeting brain tumor cAMP: the case for sex-specific therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Sun, Tao; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    A relationship between cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) levels and brain tumor biology has been evident for nearly as long as cAMP and its synthetase, adenylate cyclase (ADCY) have been known. The importance of the pathway in brain tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in vitro and in multiple animal models. Recently, we provided human validation for a cooperating oncogenic role for cAMP in brain tumorigenesis when we found that SNPs in ADCY8 were correlated with glioma (brain tumor) risk in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Together, these studies provide a strong rationale for targeting cAMP in brain tumor therapy. However, the cAMP pathway is well-known to be sexually dimorphic, and SNPs in ADCY8 affected glioma risk in a sex-specific fashion, elevating the risk for females while protecting males. The cAMP pathway can be targeted at multiple levels in the regulation of its synthesis and degradation. Sex differences in response to drugs that target cAMP regulators indicate that successful targeting of the cAMP pathway for brain tumor patients is likely to require matching specific mechanisms of drug action with patient sex. PMID:26283963

  14. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    PubMed Central

    Pamplona, Gustavo S. P.; Santos Neto, Gérson S.; Rosset, Sara R. E.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Salmon, Carlos E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding. PMID:25713528

  15. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. PMID:25869858

  16. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina; Giannì, Costanza; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  17. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  18. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only