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Sample records for specific brain functions

  1. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind Nancy Kanwisher1 McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 This contribution is part of the special series of Inaugural Articles by members

  2. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Fedorenko, Evelina G.

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain ...

  3. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    PubMed Central

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide variety of cognitive processes? For nearly two centuries, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain—from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky and Fodor—have jousted with the proponents of distributed cognitive and neural processing—from Flourens to Lashley to McClelland and Rumelhart. I argue here that research using functional MRI is beginning to answer this long-standing question with new clarity and precision by indicating that at least a few specific aspects of cognition are implemented in brain regions that are highly specialized for that process alone. Cortical regions have been identified that are specialized not only for basic sensory and motor processes but also for the high-level perceptual analysis of faces, places, bodies, visually presented words, and even for the very abstract cognitive function of thinking about another person’s thoughts. I further consider the as-yet unanswered questions of how much of the mind and brain are made up of these functionally specialized components and how they arise developmentally. PMID:20484679

  4. Functional specificity in the human brain: a window into the functional architecture of the mind.

    PubMed

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2010-06-22

    Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide variety of cognitive processes? For nearly two centuries, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain--from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky and Fodor--have jousted with the proponents of distributed cognitive and neural processing--from Flourens to Lashley to McClelland and Rumelhart. I argue here that research using functional MRI is beginning to answer this long-standing question with new clarity and precision by indicating that at least a few specific aspects of cognition are implemented in brain regions that are highly specialized for that process alone. Cortical regions have been identified that are specialized not only for basic sensory and motor processes but also for the high-level perceptual analysis of faces, places, bodies, visually presented words, and even for the very abstract cognitive function of thinking about another person's thoughts. I further consider the as-yet unanswered questions of how much of the mind and brain are made up of these functionally specialized components and how they arise developmentally. PMID:20484679

  5. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  6. Electro-acupuncture at different acupoints modulating the relative specific brain functional network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yin; Liu, Hesheng; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Kehua; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Objective: The specific brain effects of acupoint are important scientific concern in acupuncture. However, previous acupuncture fMRI studies focused on acupoints in muscle layer on the limb. Therefore, researches on acupoints within connective tissue at trunk are warranted. Material and Methods: Brain effects of acupuncture on abdomen at acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were tested using fMRI on 21 healthy volunteers. The data acquisition was performed at resting state, during needle retention, electroacupuncture (EA) and post-EA resting state. Needling sensations were rated after every electroacupuncture (EA) procedure. The needling sensations and the brain functional activity and connectivity were compared between CV4 and CV12 using SPSS, SPM2 and the local and remote connectivity maps. Results and conclusion: EA at CV4 and CV12 induced apparent deactivation effects in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network. The default mode of the brain was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The functional brain network was significantly changed post EA. However, the minor differences existed between these two acupoints. The results demonstrated similarity between functional brain network mode of acupuncture modulation and functional circuits of emotional and cognitive regulation. Acupuncture may produce analgesia, anti-anxiety and anti-depression via the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN).

  7. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide ...

  8. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure

    PubMed Central

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641

  9. Functional assays for specific targeting and delivery of RNA nanoparticles to brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Jin; Haque, Farzin; Vieweger, Mario; Yoo, Ji Young; Kaur, Balveen; Guo, Peixuan; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative progress in nanoparticle development has opened a new era of targeted delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells and tissue. However, developing proper detection methods has lagged behind resulting in the lack of precise evaluation and monitoring of the systemically administered nanoparticles. RNA nanoparticles derived from the bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor pRNA have emerged as a new generation of drugs for cancer therapy. Multifunctional RNA nanoparticles can be fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly of engineered RNA fragments harboring targeting (RNA aptamer or chemical ligand), therapeutic (siRNA, miRNA, ribozymes, and small molecule drugs), and imaging (fluorophore, radiolabels) modules. We have recently demonstrated that RNA nanoparticles can reach and target intracranial brain tumors in mice upon systemic injection with little or no accumulation in adjacent healthy brain tissues or in major healthy internal organs. Herein, we describe various functional imaging methods (fluorescence confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence whole body imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging) to evaluate and monitor RNA nanoparticle targeting to intracranial brain tumors in mice. Such imaging techniques will allow in-depth evaluation of specifically delivered RNA therapeutics to brain tumors. PMID:25896001

  10. Microglia Determine Brain Region-Specific Neurotoxic Responses to Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Cyrill; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2015-08-25

    Surface tunability and their ability to translocate plasma membranes make chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) promising intracellular delivery systems for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to determine the biological impact of different types of multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) on primary neuronal and glial cell populations isolated from fetal rat frontal cortex (FCO) and striatum (ST). Neurons from both brain regions were generally not affected by exposure to MWNTs as determined by a modified LDH assay. In contrast, the viability of mixed glia was reduced in ST-derived mixed glial cultures, but not in FCO-derived ones. Cytotoxicity was independent of MWNT type or dose, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to CNTs. Characterization of the cell populations in mixed glial cultures prior to nanotube exposure showed higher number of CD11b/c positive cells in the ST-derived mixed glial cultures. After exposure to MWNTs, CNT were uptaken more effectively by CD11b/c positive cells (microglia), compared to GFAP positive cells (astrocytes). When exposed to conditioned media from microglia enriched cultures exposed to MWNTs, ST-derived glial cultures secreted more NO than FCO-derived cells. These results suggested that the more significant cytotoxic response obtained from ST-derived mixed glia cultures was related to the higher number of microglial cells in this brain region. Our findings emphasize the role that resident macrophages of the CNS play in response to nanomaterials and the need to thoroughly investigate the brain region-specific effects toward designing implantable devices or delivery systems to the CNS. PMID:26043308

  11. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a brain-specific somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, J F; Xu, Y; Song, J; Berelowitz, M

    1992-01-01

    The PCR and conventional library screening were used to clone the brain-specific somatostatin receptor rSSTR-4 from a rat genomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence encodes a protein of 384 amino acids and displays structural and sequence homologies with members of the G protein-receptor superfamily. The amino acid sequence of rSSTR-4 is 60% and 48% identical to that of somatostatin receptors SSTR-1 and SSTR-2, respectively, two recently cloned subtypes. Competition curve analysis of the binding properties of the receptor transiently expressed in COS-1 cells revealed a higher apparent affinity for somatostatin 14 than for somatostatin 28. In contrast, the somatostatin analogs SMS 201-995, IM 4-28, and MK-678 failed to displace specific binding in transfected cells. These characteristics resemble the pharmacological binding properties of the previously described brain-specific somatostatin-receptor subtype. Examination of the tissue distribution of mRNA for rSSTR-4 revealed expression limited to various brain regions with highest levels in the cortex and hippocampus. Thus, based on the pharmacology and tissue localization of this receptor, we conclude that rSSTR-4 represents a brain-specific somatostatin receptor. Images PMID:1360663

  12. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  13. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility.

    PubMed

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  14. Involvement of specific macrophage-lineage cells surrounding arterioles in barrier and scavenger function in brain cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Mato, M; Ookawara, S; Sakamoto, A; Aikawa, E; Ogawa, T; Mitsuhashi, U; Masuzawa, T; Suzuki, H; Honda, M; Yazaki, Y; Watanabe, E; Luoma, J; Yla-Herttuala, S; Fraser, I; Gordon, S; Kodama, T

    1996-01-01

    The transport of solutes between blood and brain is regulated by a specific barrier. Capillary endothelial cells of brain are known to mediate barrier function and facilitate transport. Here we report that specific cells surrounding arterioles, known as Mato's fluorescent granular perithelial (FGP) cells or perivascular microglial cells, contribute to the barrier function. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies indicate that, in normal brain cortex, type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors are expressed only in FGP/perivascular microglial cells, and surface markers of macrophage lineage are also detected on them. These cells mediate the uptake of macromolecules, including modified low density lipoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, and ferritin injected either into the blood or into the cerebral ventricles. Accumulation of scavenged materials with aging or after the administration of a high-fat diet results in the formation of honeycomb-like foam cells and the narrowing of the lumen of arterioles in the brain cortex. These results indicate involvement of FGP/perivascular microglial cells in the barrier and scavenger functions in the central nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622926

  15. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging Trust's impact on this landscape · to consider the future direction of human functional brain imaging

  16. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  17. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  18. Specificity of Hemodynamic Brain Responses to Painful Stimuli: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Aasted, Christopher M.; Petkov, Mihayl P.; Borsook, David; Boas, David A.; Becerra, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Assessing pain in individuals not able to communicate (e.g. infants, under surgery, or following stroke) is difficult due to the lack of non-verbal objective measures of pain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) being a portable, non-invasive and inexpensive method of monitoring cerebral hemodynamic activity has the potential to provide such a measure. Here we used functional NIRS to evaluate brain activation to an innocuous and a noxious electrical stimulus on healthy human subjects (n = 11). For both innocuous and noxious stimuli, we observed a signal change in the primary somatosensory cortex contralateral to the stimulus. The painful and non-painful stimuli can be differentiated based on their signal size and profile. We also observed that repetitive noxious stimuli resulted in adaptation of the signal. Furthermore, the signal was distinguishable from a skin sympathetic response to pain that tended to mask it. Our results support the notion that functional NIRS has a potential utility as an objective measure of pain. PMID:25820289

  19. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  20. Lutein and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, John W.; Smith, Joshua W.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Mohn, Emily S.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Wang, Lin; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Neuringer, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities. PMID:26566524

  1. Functioning Hardware Functional Specifications

    E-print Network

    Cores. ASPLOS 2010. #12;Bacon et al.'s Liquid Metal Fig. 2. Block level diagram of DES and Lime code, Liquid Metal, ECOOP 2008. #12;What are we doing about it? #12;Functional Programs to FPGAs #12;Functional

  2. Modulating Brain Oscillations to Drive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Do neuronal oscillations play a causal role in brain function? In a study in this issue of PLOS Biology, Helfrich and colleagues address this long-standing question by attempting to drive brain oscillations using transcranial electrical current stimulation. Remarkably, they were able to manipulate visual perception by forcing brain oscillations of the left and right visual hemispheres into synchrony using oscillatory currents over both hemispheres. Under this condition, human observers more often perceived an inherently ambiguous visual stimulus in one of its perceptual instantiations. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying neuronal computation. They show that it is the neuronal oscillations that drive the visual experience, not the experience driving the oscillations. And they indicate that synchronized oscillatory activity groups brain areas into functional networks. This points to new ways for controlled experimental and possibly also clinical interventions for the study and modulation of brain oscillations and associated functions. PMID:25549340

  3. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness. PMID:18568016

  4. The brain timewise: how timing shapes and supports brain function

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the importance of timing in brain function: how temporal dynamics of the world has left its traces in the brain during evolution and how we can monitor the dynamics of the human brain with non-invasive measurements. Accurate timing is important for the interplay of neurons, neuronal circuitries, brain areas and human individuals. In the human brain, multiple temporal integration windows are hierarchically organized, with temporal scales ranging from microseconds to tens and hundreds of milliseconds for perceptual, motor and cognitive functions, and up to minutes, hours and even months for hormonal and mood changes. Accurate timing is impaired in several brain diseases. From the current repertoire of non-invasive brain imaging methods, only magnetoencephalography (MEG) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) provide millisecond time-resolution; our focus in this paper is on MEG. Since the introduction of high-density whole-scalp MEG/EEG coverage in the 1990s, the instrumentation has not changed drastically; yet, novel data analyses are advancing the field rapidly by shifting the focus from the mere pinpointing of activity hotspots to seeking stimulus- or task-specific information and to characterizing functional networks. During the next decades, we can expect increased spatial resolution and accuracy of the time-resolved brain imaging and better understanding of brain function, especially its temporal constraints, with the development of novel instrumentation and finer-grained, physiologically inspired generative models of local and network activity. Merging both spatial and temporal information with increasing accuracy and carrying out recordings in naturalistic conditions, including social interaction, will bring much new information about human brain function. PMID:25823867

  5. BEND3 is involved in the human-specific repression of calreticulin: Implication for the evolution of higher brain functions in human.

    PubMed

    Aghajanirefah, A; Nguyen, L N; Ohadi, M

    2016-01-15

    Recent emerging evidence indicates that changes in gene expression levels are linked to human evolution. We have previously reported a human-specific nucleotide in the promoter sequence of the calreticulin (CALR) gene at position -220C, which is the site of action of valproic acid. Reversion of this nucleotide to the ancestral A-allele has been detected in patients with degrees of deficit in higher brain cognitive functions. This mutation has since been reported in the 1000 genomes database at an approximate frequency of <0.0004 in humans (rs138452745). In the study reported here, we present update on the status of rs138452745 across evolution, based on the Ensembl and NCBI databases. The DNA pulldown assay was also used to identify the proteins binding to the C- and A-alleles, using two cell lines, SK-N-BE and HeLa. Consistent with our previous findings, the C-allele is human-specific, and the A-allele is the rule across all other species (N=38). This nucleotide resides in a block of 12-nucleotides that is strictly conserved across evolution. The DNA pulldown experiments revealed that in both SK-N-BE and HeLa cells, the transcription repressor BEN domain containing 3 (BEND3) binds to the human-specific C-allele, whereas the nuclear factor I (NFI) family members, NF1A, B, C, and X, specifically bind to the ancestral A-allele. This binding pattern is consistent with a previously reported decreased promoter activity of the C-allele vs. the A-allele. We propose that there is a link between binding of BEND3 to the CALR rs138452745 C-allele and removal of NFI binding site from this nucleotide, and the evolution of human-specific higher brain functions. To our knowledge, CALR rs138452745 is the first instance of enormous nucleotide conservation across evolution, except in the human species. PMID:26481236

  6. Synergetics of brain function.

    PubMed

    Haken, Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Several brain functions such as movement coordination and visual perception are analysed in terms of synergetics, an interdisciplinary field of research dealing with spontaneous pattern formation. Accordingly, the brain is conceived as a self-organizing system operating close to instabilities where its activities are governed by collective variables, the order parameters, that enslave the individual parts, i.e., the neurons. In this approach, emphasis is laid on qualitative changes of behavioral and neuronal activities. These concepts are substantiated by detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the coordination of finger movements by direct observation of their changes and MEG measurements. In its main part, this paper deals with visual pattern recognition. Using general properties of order parameters, at the phenomenological level bistability, hysteresis and oscillations of visual perception can be modelled. Then, at the microscopic level, a network of pulse-coupled neurons is treated, where the dynamics of the dendritic currents as well as the axonic pulses (spikes) are taken into account. Both pulse-synchronization as well as pattern recognition are treated. In the high pulse frequency limit the attractor network of the synergetic computer is recovered. In the next step, the concept of quasi-attractors is mathematically formulated where due to saturation of attention attractors are closed. Depending on incoming signals, the visual system thus wanders from quasi-attractor to quasi-attractor. The paper includes an interpretation of consciousness in terms of order parameters as well as a discussion on linearity versus nonlinearity, the binding problem, and the psychological "present". PMID:16527368

  7. Functional Lateralization of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

  8. Effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His(26)]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Rylkova, Daria; Boissoneault, Jeffrey; Isaac, Shani; Prado, Melissa; Shah, Hina P; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W

    2008-06-01

    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by dysphoria upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research suggests that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor agonists attenuate negative affective states and somatic withdrawal signs. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His(26)]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function as this procedure can provide a quantitative measure of emotional states in rodents. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. In the first experiment, NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Similar to NPY, [D-His(26)]-NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Neither NPY nor [D-His(26)]-NPY affected the response latencies. In a separate experiment, it was demonstrated that the specific Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 prevented the NPY-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds. NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. [D-His(26)]-NPY did not affect the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal, but decreased the number of abdominal constrictions. Both NPY and [D-His(26)]-NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These findings indicate that NPY and [D-His(26)]-NPY attenuate somatic nicotine withdrawal signs, but do not prevent the deficit in brain reward function associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. In addition, NPY decreases the sensitivity to rewarding electrical stimuli via an Y1 dependent mechanism. PMID:18468678

  9. Effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His26]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rylkova, Daria; Boissoneault, Jeffrey; Isaac, Shani; Prado, Melissa; Shah, Hina P.; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by dysphoria upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research suggests that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor agonists attenuate negative affective states and somatic withdrawal signs. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His26]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function as this procedure can provide a quantitative measure of emotional states in rodents. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. In the first experiment, NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Similar to NPY, [D-His26]-NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Neither NPY nor [D-His26]-NPY affected the response latencies. In a separate experiment, it was demonstrated that the specific Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 prevented the NPY-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds. NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. [D-His26]-NPY did not affect the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal, but decreased the number of abdominal constrictions. Both NPY and [D-His26]-NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These findings indicate that NPY and [D-His26]-NPY attenuate somatic nicotine withdrawal signs, but do not prevent the deficit in brain reward function associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. In addition, NPY decreases the sensitivity to rewarding electrical stimuli via an Y1 dependent mechanism. PMID:18468678

  10. Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.

    PubMed

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-06-30

    Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. PMID:22804970

  11. Functional Imaging: Is the Resting Brain Resting?

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    Functional Imaging: Is the Resting Brain Resting? It is often assumed that the human brain only the function of this resting activity. R. Chris Miall1 and Edwin M. Robertson2 The human brain has a large, that an efficient strategy would be to use the brain only when absolutely necessary. But does the human brain

  12. Functional brain mapping of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Honey, G; Fletcher, P; Bullmore, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity for investigation of physiological function of the living human brain, there are fundamental questions and assumptions which remain to be addressed. In this review we examine these conceptual issues under three broad sections: (1) characterising the clinical population of interest, (2) defining appropriate levels of description of normal brain function, and (3) relating these models to pathophysiological conditions. Parallel advances in each of these questions will be required before imaging techniques can impact on clinical decisions in psychiatry. PMID:11909899

  13. Natriuretic Hormones in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Anastasia; Lichtstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic hormones (NH) include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin), and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume, and blood pressure (BP). In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of NH is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the NH and their receptors in the brain is summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that NH participate in the central regulation of BP, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, addiction, and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different NH in the periphery and the brain are discussed. PMID:25506340

  14. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  15. Specific binding of atrial natriuretic factor in brain microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrier, P.E.; Roubert, P.; Braquet, P.

    1987-04-01

    Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood-brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. The authors examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using /sup 125/I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood-brain barrier function.

  16. Specific Binding of Atrial Natriuretic Factor in Brain Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrier, Pierre E.; Roubert, Pierre; Braquet, Pierre

    1987-04-01

    Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood--brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. We examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using 125I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity (dissociation constant, ? 10-10 M) and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of 125I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood--brain barrier function.

  17. Exploring candidate genes for human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network

    E-print Network

    Jiang,Tianzi

    Exploring candidate genes for human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network Bing Liu identifying multiple candidate genes for genetic human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network knowledge of a specific brain disease, we can effectively iden- tify multiple candidate genes

  18. Did brain-specific genes evolve faster in humans than in chimpanzees?

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Did brain-specific genes evolve faster in humans than in chimpanzees? Peng Shi* , Margaret A distinctive characteristics of humans among primates is the size, organization and function of the brain among the five sets of brain-specific genes, none of them supports human acceleration. On the contrary

  19. Frequency-specific network topologies in the resting human brain

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Shuntaro; Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    A community is a set of nodes with dense inter-connections, while there are sparse connections between different communities. A hub is a highly connected node with high centrality. It has been shown that both “communities” and “hubs” exist simultaneously in the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN), as estimated by correlations among low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal changes (0.01–0.10 Hz). This indicates that the brain has a spatial organization that promotes both segregation and integration of information. Here, we demonstrate that frequency-specific network topologies that characterize segregation and integration also exist within this frequency range. In investigating the coherence spectrum among 87 brain regions, we found that two frequency bands, 0.01–0.03 Hz (very low frequency [VLF] band) and 0.07–0.09 Hz (low frequency [LF] band), mainly contributed to functional connectivity. Comparing graph theoretical indices for the VLF and LF bands revealed that the network in the former had a higher capacity for information segregation between identified communities than the latter. Hubs in the VLF band were mainly located within the anterior cingulate cortices, whereas those in the LF band were located in the posterior cingulate cortices and thalamus. Thus, depending on the timescale of brain activity, at least two distinct network topologies contributed to information segregation and integration. This suggests that the brain intrinsically has timescale-dependent functional organizations. PMID:25566037

  20. Robust Transient Dynamics and Brain Functions

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades several concepts of dynamical systems theory (DST) have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques) has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc., have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework – heteroclinic sequential dynamics – to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i) within the same modality, (ii) among different modalities from the same family (like perception), and (iii) among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition). The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential) dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory – a vital cognitive function –, and to find specific dynamical signatures – different kinds of instabilities – of several brain functions and mental diseases. PMID:21716642

  1. Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function

    PubMed Central

    Mergenthaler, Philipp; Lindauer, Ute; Dienel, Gerald A.; Meisel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We aim at synthesizing these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation which lead to disease. PMID:23968694

  2. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  3. Brain-specific epigenetic markers of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wockner, L F; Morris, C P; Noble, E P; Lawford, B R; Whitehall, V L J; Young, R M; Voisey, J

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a crucial role in schizophrenia susceptibility. In a previous study, we identified over 4500 differentially methylated sites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) samples from schizophrenia patients. We believe this was the first genome-wide methylation study performed on human brain tissue using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip. To understand the biological significance of these results, we sought to identify a smaller number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of more functional relevance compared with individual differentially methylated sites. Since our schizophrenia whole genome methylation study was performed, another study analysing two separate data sets of post-mortem tissue in the PFC from schizophrenia patients has been published. We analysed all three data sets using the bumphunter function found in the Bioconductor package minfi to identify regions that are consistently differentially methylated across distinct cohorts. We identified seven regions that are consistently differentially methylated in schizophrenia, despite considerable heterogeneity in the methylation profiles of patients with schizophrenia. The regions were near CERS3, DPPA5, PRDM9, DDX43, REC8, LY6G5C and a region on chromosome 10. Of particular interest is PRDM9 which encodes a histone methyltransferase that is essential for meiotic recombination and is known to tag genes for epigenetic transcriptional activation. These seven DMRs are likely to be key epigenetic factors in the aetiology of schizophrenia and normal brain neurodevelopment. PMID:26575221

  4. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions Yalin Wang1,2 , Xianfeng Gu3 a brain surface to a multi-hole disk. The re- sulting parameterizations do not have any singularities of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, in- cluding the hippocampi and the cerebral cortices

  5. Functional Specificity among Ribosomal Proteins

    E-print Network

    Roth, Frederick

    Functional Specificity among Ribosomal Proteins Regulates Gene Expression Suzanne Komili,1RNAs. Intriguingly, these paralog-specific effects are limited to a distinct subset of duplicated ribosomal pro- teins. Moreover, transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of cells lacking specific ribosomal pro- teins

  6. Neural Differentiation Modulates the Vertebrate Brain Specific Splicing Program

    PubMed Central

    Madgwick, Alicia; Fort, Philippe; Hanson, Peter S.; Thibault, Philippe; Gaudreau, Marie-Claude; Lutfalla, Georges; Möröy, Tarik; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chaudhry, Bill; Elliott, David J.; Morris, Christopher M.; Venables, Julian P.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing patterns are known to vary between tissues but these patterns have been found to be predominantly peculiar to one species or another, implying only a limited function in fundamental neural biology. Here we used high-throughput RT-PCR to monitor the expression pattern of all the annotated simple alternative splicing events (ASEs) in the Reference Sequence Database, in different mouse tissues and identified 93 brain-specific events that shift from one isoform to another (switch-like) between brain and other tissues. Consistent with an important function, regulation of a core set of 9 conserved switch-like ASEs is highly conserved, as they have the same pattern of tissue-specific splicing in all vertebrates tested: human, mouse and zebrafish. Several of these ASEs are embedded within genes that encode proteins associated with the neuronal microtubule network, and show a dramatic and concerted shift within a short time window of human neural stem cell differentiation. Similarly these exons are dynamically regulated in zebrafish development. These data demonstrate that although alternative splicing patterns often vary between species, there is nonetheless a core set of vertebrate brain-specific ASEs that are conserved between species and associated with neural differentiation. PMID:25993117

  7. The function of neurocognitive networks. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressler, Steven L.

    2014-09-01

    Pessoa [5] has performed a valuable service by reviewing the extant literature on brain networks and making a number of interesting proposals about their cognitive function. The term function is at the core of understanding the brain networks of cognition, or neurocognitive networks (NCNs) [1]. The great Russian neuropsychologist, Luria [4], defined brain function as the common task executed by a distributed brain network of complex dynamic structures united by the demands of cognition. Casting Luria in a modern light, we can say that function emerges from the interactions of brain regions in NCNs as they dynamically self-organize according to cognitive demands. Pessoa rightly details the mapping between brain function and structure, emphasizing both its pluripotency (one structure having multiple functions) and degeneracy (many structures having the same function). However, he fails to consider the potential importance of a one-to-one mapping between NCNs and function. If NCNs are uniquely composed of specific collections of brain areas, then each NCN has a unique function determined by that composition.

  8. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    PubMed Central

    Raichle, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  9. Bioengineered functional brain-like cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Schomer, Min D.; White, James D.; Tien, Lee W.; Schmitt, L. Ian; Valentin, Thomas M.; Graziano, Daniel J.; Hopkins, Amy M.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Haydon, Philip G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The brain remains one of the most important but least understood tissues in our body, in part because of its complexity as well as the limitations associated with in vivo studies. Although simpler tissues have yielded to the emerging tools for in vitro 3D tissue cultures, functional brain-like tissues have not. We report the construction of complex functional 3D brain-like cortical tissue, maintained for months in vitro, formed from primary cortical neurons in modular 3D compartmentalized architectures with electrophysiological function. We show that, on injury, this brain-like tissue responds in vitro with biochemical and electrophysiological outcomes that mimic observations in vivo. This modular 3D brain-like tissue is capable of real-time nondestructive assessments, offering previously unidentified directions for studies of brain homeostasis and injury. PMID:25114234

  10. Functional specifications for mathematical computations

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.M. ); Harmer, T.J. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Are functional programs useful for specifying numerical computations We believe they certainly are, despite the long-established tradition of using procedural languages for such computations. We have prepared a pure functional specification for an algorithm that solves one-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). Using automated program transformations, we have derived a Fortran program from this specification that executes faster on a CRAY X-MP than does the hand-written Fortran implementation of the same algorithm. We discuss the development of the initial specification for the one-dimensional problem and its evolution into a second specification for solving multidimensional hyperbolic PDEs. In this second specification, the dimensionality of the problem is completely parameterized and is given by specifying the set of neighbors of a cell in the grid. Thus, programs can be derived from this specification to solve hyperbolic PDEs of any given dimensionality. Our goal is to elucidate how we approach specifying numerical computations in the functional style and to show how we take advantage of the modularity and abstractness of functional programming to obtain a very high-level representation of the algorithm. We also briefly discuss transformational derivation of efficient programs from such specifications. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Regulation of brain function by exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutoo, Den'etsu; Akiyama, Kayo

    2003-06-01

    The effect of excercise on brain function was investigated through animal experiments. Exercise leads to increased serum calcium levels, and the calcium is transported to the brain. This in turn enhances brain dopamine synthesis through a calmodulin-dependent system, and increased dopamine levels regulate various brain functions. There are abnormally low levels of dopamine in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens of epileptic mice (El mice strain) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The low dopamine levels in those animals were improved following intracerebroventricular administration of calcium chloride. Dopamine levels and blood pressure in SHR were also normalized by exercise. In epileptic El mice, convulsions normalized dopamine levels and physiologic function. These findings suggest that exercise or convulsions affect brain function through calcium/calmodulin-dependent dopamine synthesis. This leads to the possibility that some symptoms of Parkinson's disease or senile dementia might be improved by exercise. PMID:12758062

  12. The gravitational field and brain function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Dai; Lan, Jing-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Ging; Wu, Wen-Can; Xue, Xin-Min

    The frontal cortex is recognized as the highest adaptive control center of the human brain. The principle of the ``frontalization'' of human brain function offers new possibilities for brain research in space. There is evolutionary and experimental evidence indicating the validity of the principle, including it's role in nervous response to gravitational stimulation. The gravitational field is considered here as one of the more constant and comprehensive factors acting on brain evolution, which has undergone some successive crucial steps: ``encephalization'', ``corticalization'', ``lateralization'' and ``frontalization''. The dominating effects of electrical responses from the frontal cortex have been discovered 1) in experiments under gravitational stimulus; and 2) in processes potentially relating to gravitational adaptation, such as memory and learning, sensory information processing, motor programing, and brain state control. A brain research experiment during space flight is suggested to test the role of the frontal cortex in space adaptation and it's potentiality in brain control.

  13. Functional brain networks involved in reality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Metzak, Paul D; Lavigne, Katie M; Woodward, Todd S

    2015-08-01

    Source monitoring refers to the recollection of variables that specify the context and conditions in which a memory episode was encoded. This process involves using the qualitative and quantitative features of a memory trace to distinguish its source. One specific class of source monitoring is reality monitoring, which involves distinguishing internally generated from externally generated information, that is, memories of imagined events from real events. The purpose of the present study was to identify functional brain networks that underlie reality monitoring, using an alternative type of source monitoring as a control condition. On the basis of previous studies on self-referential thinking, it was expected that a medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) based network would be more active during reality monitoring than the control condition, due to the requirement to focus on a comparison of internal (self) and external (other) source information. Two functional brain networks emerged from this analysis, one reflecting increasing task-related activity, and one reflecting decreasing task-related activity. The second network was mPFC based, and was characterized by task-related deactivations in areas resembling the default-mode network; namely, the mPFC, middle temporal gyri, lateral parietal regions, and the precuneus, and these deactivations were diminished during reality monitoring relative to source monitoring, resulting in higher activity during reality monitoring. This result supports previous research suggesting that self-referential thinking involves the mPFC, but extends this to a network-level interpretation of reality monitoring. PMID:26004062

  14. Brain Function: Implications for Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clifford H.

    1982-01-01

    The implications of cerebral dominance for curriculum and instruction are enormous. Cognitive style, sex differences, instructional materials preparation and selection, and testing are affected by right or left brain hemisphere dominance. (CJ)

  15. Brain dynamics promotes function Carlos Lourenco

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    Brain dynamics promotes function Carlos Louren¸co 1 Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa - Portugal Abstract. Dynamical structure in the brain promotes biological func- tion from a computational viewpoint, not excluding dynamical regimes that a number of authors are willing

  16. Functional imaging of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Costa, D.C.; Cullum, I.D.; Lui, D.

    1987-07-01

    The radionuclide tracer method is unique among all other imaging methodologies in its ability to trace organ or tissue function and metabolism. Physical processes such as electron or proton density assessment or resonance, edge identification, electrical or ultrasonic impedence, do not pertain to the image generation process in nuclear medicine, and if so, only in a rather secondary manner. The nuclear medicine imaging study is primarily a study of the chemical nature, distribution and interaction of the tracer/radiopharmaceutical utilized with the cellular system which requires investigation: the thyroid cells with sodium iodide, the recticular endothelial cells with colloidal particles, the adrenal medulla cells with metaiodobenzylguanidine, and so on. In the two most recent areas of nuclear medicine expansion, oncology (with labelled monoclonal antibodies) and neurology and psychiatry (with a whole new series of lipid soluble radiopharmaceuticals), specific cell systems can also be targeted and hence imaged and investigated. The study of structure as masterly performed by Virchow and all his successors over more than a century, is now definitely the prerogative of such imaging systems which excel with spatial and contrast resolution However the investigation of function and metabolism, has clearly passed from the laboratory animal protocol and experiment to the direct investigation in man, this being the achievement of the radionuclide tracer methodology. In this article, we review present interest and developments in that part of nuclear medicine activity which is aimed at the study of the neurological or psychiatric patient.

  17. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. PMID:25913701

  18. BrainKnowledge: A Human Brain Function Mapping Knowledge-Base System

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chein Chung

    BrainKnowledge: A Human Brain Function Mapping Knowledge-Base System Mei-Yu Hsiao & Chien and interpretation of fMRI data. Here, we present a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system (Brain. 1992), is a non-invasive approach for studying human brain function. Due to the increasing popularity

  19. Functional network organization of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D; Cohen, Alexander L; Nelson, Steven M; Wig, Gagan S; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Church, Jessica A; Vogel, Alecia C; Laumann, Timothy O; Miezin, Fran M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2011-01-01

    Summary Real-world complex systems may be mathematically modeled as graphs, revealing properties of the system. Here we study graphs of functional brain organization in healthy adults using resting state functional connectivity MRI. We propose two novel brain-wide graphs, one of 264 putative functional areas, the other a modification of voxelwise networks that eliminates potentially artificial short-distance relationships. These graphs contain many subgraphs in good agreement with known functional brain systems. Other subgraphs lack established functional identities; we suggest possible functional characteristics for these subgraphs. Further, graph measures of the areal network indicate that the default mode subgraph shares network properties with sensory and motor subgraphs: it is internally integrated but isolated from other subgraphs, much like a “processing” system. The modified voxelwise graph also reveals spatial motifs in the patterning of systems across the cortex. PMID:22099467

  20. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  1. The Role of the Y Chromosome in Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Kopsida, Eleni; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Lynn, Phoebe M.; Wilkinson, Lawrence S.; Davies, William

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, sex differences are evident in many aspects of brain development, brain function and behaviour. Ultimately, such differences must arise from the differential sex chromosome complements in males and females: males inherit a single X chromosome and a Y chromosome, whilst females inherit two X chromosomes. One possible mechanism for sexual differentiation of the brain is via male-limited expression of genes on the small Y chromosome. Many Y-linked genes have been implicated in the development of the testes, and therefore could theoretically contribute to sexual differentiation of the brain indirectly, through influencing gonadal hormone production. Alternatively, Y-linked genes that are expressed in the brain could directly influence neural masculinisation. The present paper reviews evidence from human genetic studies and animal models for Y-linked effects (both direct and indirect) on neurodevelopment, brain function and behaviour. Besides enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying mammalian neural sexual differentiation, studies geared towards understanding the role of the Y chromosome in brain function will help to elucidate the molecular basis of sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders, allowing for more selective sex-specific therapies. PMID:20396406

  2. Tracking the Brain's Functional Coupling Dynamics over Development.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, R Matthew; Morton, J Bruce

    2015-04-29

    The transition from childhood to adulthood is marked by pronounced functional and structural brain transformations that impact cognition and behavior. Here, we use a functional imaging approach to reveal dynamic changes in coupling strength between networks and the expression of discrete brain configurations over human development during rest and a cognitive control task. Although the brain's repertoire of functional states was generally preserved across ages, state-specific temporal features, such as the frequency of expression and the amount of time spent in select states, varied by age in ways that were dependent on condition. Increasing age was associated with greater variability of connection strengths across time at rest, while there was a selective inversion of this effect in higher-order networks during implementation of cognitive control. The results suggest that development is characterized by the modification of dynamic coupling to both maximize and constrain functional variability in response to ongoing cognitive and behavioral requirements. PMID:25926460

  3. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's "functional connectome." Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/. PMID:20176931

  4. Meta-analytic approaches to mapping the brain, its functions and

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Adam

    Meta-analytic approaches to mapping the brain, its functions and connectivity Simon Eickhoff-specific findings Inference on brain function and pathomechanisms is based on a specific observed difference between Articles on Schizophrenia, Depression und Autism All report standardised results! There are many studies

  5. Classification on Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Classification on Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dimensionality, Sample Size, Subject magnetic resonance imaging. We propose a synthetic model for the systematic study of as- pects generalization ac- curacy. 1 Introduction Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become one of the meth

  6. Entropy changes in brain function.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2007-04-01

    The traditional way of analyzing brain electrical activity, on the basis of electroencephalography (EEG) records, relies mainly on visual inspection and years of training. Although it is quite useful, of course, one has to acknowledge its subjective nature that hardly allows for a systematic protocol. In the present work quantifiers based on information theory and wavelet transform are reviewed. The "relative wavelet energy" provides information about the relative energy associated with different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The "normalized total wavelet entropy" carries information about the degree of order-disorder associated with a multi-frequency signal response. Their application in the analysis and quantification of short duration EEG signals (event-related potentials) and epileptic EEG records are summarized. PMID:17234291

  7. Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is little…

  8. Optogenetic approaches for functional mouse brain mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Diana H.; LeDue, Jeffrey; Mohajerani, Majid H.; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the connectivity of the brain, it is important to map both structural and functional connections between neurons and cortical regions. In recent years, a set of optogenetic tools have been developed that permit selective manipulation and investigation of neural systems. These tools have enabled the mapping of functional connections between stimulated cortical targets and other brain regions. Advantages of the approach include the ability to arbitrarily stimulate brain regions that express opsins, allowing for brain mapping independent of behavior or sensory processing. The ability of opsins to be rapidly and locally activated allows for investigation of connectivity with spatial resolution on the order of single neurons and temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Optogenetic methods for functional mapping have been applied in experiments ranging from in vitro investigation of microcircuits, to in vivo probing of inter-regional cortical connections, to examination of global connections within the whole brain. We review recently developed functional mapping methods that use optogenetic single-point stimulation in the rodent brain and employ cellular electrophysiology, evoked motor movements, voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs), calcium indicators, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess activity. In particular we highlight results using red-shifted organic VSDs that permit high temporal resolution imaging in a manner spectrally separated from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) activation. VSD maps stimulated by ChR2 were dependent on intracortical synaptic activity and were able to reflect circuits used for sensory processing. Although the methods reviewed are powerful, challenges remain with respect to finding approaches that permit selective high temporal resolution assessment of stimulated activity in animals that can be followed longitudinally. PMID:23596383

  9. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    Estimating brain wiring patterns is critical to better understand the brain organization and function. Anatomical brain connectivity models axonal pathways, while the functional brain connectivity characterizes the statistical dependencies and correlation between the activities of various brain regions. The synchronization of brain activity can be inferred through the variation of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from functional MRI (fMRI) and the neural connections can be estimated using tractography from diffusion MRI (dMRI). Functional connections between brain regions are supported by anatomical connections, and the synchronization of brain activities arises through sharing of information in the form of electro-chemical signals on axon pathways. Jointly modeling fMRI and dMRI data may improve the accuracy in constructing anatomical connectivity as well as functional connectivity. Such an approach may lead to novel multimodal biomarkers potentially able to better capture functional and anatomical connectivity variations. We present a novel brain network model which jointly models the dMRI and fMRI data to improve the anatomical connectivity estimation and extract the anatomical subnetworks associated with specific functional modes by constraining the anatomical connections as structural supports to the functional connections. The key idea is similar to a multi-commodity flow optimization problem that minimizes the cost or maximizes the efficiency for flow configuration and simultaneously fulfills the supply-demand constraint for each commodity. In the proposed network, the nodes represent the grey matter (GM) regions providing brain functionality, and the links represent white matter (WM) fiber bundles connecting those regions and delivering information. The commodities can be thought of as the information corresponding to brain activity patterns as obtained for instance by independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. The concept of information flow is introduced and used to model the propagation of information between GM areas through WM fiber bundles. The link capacity, i.e., ability to transfer information, is characterized by the relative strength of fiber bundles, e.g., fiber count gathered from the tractography of dMRI data. The node information demand is considered to be proportional to the correlation between neural activity at various cortical areas involved in a particular functional mode (e.g. visual, motor, etc.). These two properties lead to the link capacity and node demand constraints in the proposed model. Moreover, the information flow of a link cannot exceed the demand from either end node. This is captured by the feasibility constraints. Two different cost functions are considered in the optimization formulation in this paper. The first cost function, the reciprocal of fiber strength represents the unit cost for information passing through the link. In the second cost function, a min-max (minimizing the maximal link load) approach is used to balance the usage of each link. Optimizing the first cost function selects the pathway with strongest fiber strength for information propagation. In the second case, the optimization procedure finds all the possible propagation pathways and allocates the flow proportionally to their strength. Additionally, a penalty term is incorporated with both the cost functions to capture the possible missing and weak anatomical connections. With this set of constraints and the proposed cost functions, solving the network optimization problem recovers missing and weak anatomical connections supported by the functional information and provides the functional-associated anatomical subnetworks. Feasibility is demonstrated using realistic diffusion and functional MRI phantom data. It is shown that the proposed model recovers the maximum number of true connections, with fewest number of false connections when compared with the connectivity derived from a joint probabilistic model using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm presented in a prior work. We also

  10. The role of sleep in emotional brain function.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Andrea N; Walker, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly emerging evidence continues to describe an intimate and causal relationship between sleep and emotional brain function. These findings are mirrored by long-standing clinical observations demonstrating that nearly all mood and anxiety disorders co-occur with one or more sleep abnormalities. This review aims to (a) provide a synthesis of recent findings describing the emotional brain and behavioral benefits triggered by sleep, and conversely, the detrimental impairments following a lack of sleep; (b) outline a proposed framework in which sleep, and specifically rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, supports a process of affective brain homeostasis, optimally preparing the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning; and (c) describe how this hypothesized framework can explain the prevalent relationships between sleep and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. PMID:24499013

  11. The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Andrea N.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly emerging evidence continues to describe an intimate and causal relationship between sleep and emotional brain function. These findings are mirrored by longstanding clinical observations demonstrating that nearly all mood and anxiety disorders co-occur with one or more sleep abnormalities. This review aims to (1) provide a synthesis of recent findings describing the emotional brain and behavioral benefits triggered by sleep, and conversely, the detrimental impairments following a lack of sleep, (2) outline a proposed framework in which sleep, and specifically rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, supports a process of affective brain homeostasis, optimally preparing the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning, and (3) describe how this hypothesized framework can explain the prevalent relationships between sleep and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression. PMID:24499013

  12. RIFAMPICIN: an antibiotic with brain protective function.

    PubMed

    Yulug, Burak; Hanoglu, Lütfü; Kilic, Ertugrul; Schabitz, Wolf Rüdiger

    2014-08-01

    Besides its well known antibiotic activity rifampicin exerts multiple brain protective functions in acute cerebral ischemia and chronic neurodegeneration. The present mini-review gives an update of the unique activity of rifampicin in different diseases including Parkinson's disease, meningitis, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and optic nerve injury. PMID:24905548

  13. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  14. Subject-specific functional localizers increase sensitivity and functional resolution of multi-subject analyses

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Castañón, Alfonso; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2012-01-01

    One important goal of cognitive neuroscience is to discover and explain properties common to all human brains. The traditional solution for comparing functional activations across brains in fMRI is to align each individual brain to a template brain in a Cartesian coordinate system (e.g., the Montreal Neurological Institute template). However, inter-individual anatomical variability leads to decreases in sensitivity (ability to detect a significant activation when it is present) and functional resolution (ability to discriminate spatially adjacent but functionally different neural responses) in group analyses. Subject-specific functional localizers have been previously argued to increase the sensitivity and functional resolution of fMRI analyses in the presence of inter-subject variability in the locations of functional activations (e.g., Kanwisher et al., 1997; Brett et al., 2002; Saxe et al., 2006; Fedorenko & Kanwisher, 2009, 2011; Fedorenko et al., 2010). In the current paper we quantify this dependence of sensitivity and functional resolution on functional variability across subjects in order to illustrate the highly detrimental effects of this variability on traditional group analyses. We show that analyses that use subject-specific functional localizers usually outperform traditional group-based methods in both sensitivity and functional resolution, even when the same total amount of data is used for each analysis. We further discuss how the subject-specific functional localization approach, which has traditionally only been considered in the context of ROI-based analyses, can be extended to whole-brain voxel-based analyses. We conclude that subject-specific functional localizers are particularly well suited for investigating questions of functional specialization in the brain. An SPM toolbox that can perform all of the analyses described in this paper is publicly available, and the analyses can be applied retroactively to any dataset, provided that multiple runs were acquired per subject, even if no explicit “localizer” task was included. PMID:22784644

  15. Wavelets and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain

    E-print Network

    Breakspear, Michael

    Wavelets and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain Ed Bullmore,a,* Jalal Fadili, such as functional magnetic resonance images of the human brain, which often demonstrate scale invariant or fractal Breakspeare a Brain Mapping Unit and Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke

  16. Structure and function of complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of theoretical and empirical studies approach the function of the human brain from a network perspective. The analysis of brain networks is made feasible by the development of new imaging acquisition methods as well as new tools from graph theory and dynamical systems. This review surveys some of these methodological advances and summarizes recent findings on the architecture of structural and functional brain networks. Studies of the structural connectome reveal several modules or network communities that are interlinked by hub regions mediating communication processes between modules. Recent network analyses have shown that network hubs form a densely linked collective called a “rich club,” centrally positioned for attracting and dispersing signal traffic. In parallel, recordings of resting and task-evoked neural activity have revealed distinct resting-state networks that contribute to functions in distinct cognitive domains. Network methods are increasingly applied in a clinical context, and their promise for elucidating neural substrates of brain and mental disorders is discussed. PMID:24174898

  17. Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

    1999-01-01

    High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

  18. Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks.

    PubMed

    Petri, G; Expert, P; Turkheimer, F; Carhart-Harris, R; Nutt, D; Hellyer, P J; Vaccarino, F

    2014-12-01

    Networks, as efficient representations of complex systems, have appealed to scientists for a long time and now permeate many areas of science, including neuroimaging (Bullmore and Sporns 2009 Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 186-198. (doi:10.1038/nrn2618)). Traditionally, the structure of complex networks has been studied through their statistical properties and metrics concerned with node and link properties, e.g. degree-distribution, node centrality and modularity. Here, we study the characteristics of functional brain networks at the mesoscopic level from a novel perspective that highlights the role of inhomogeneities in the fabric of functional connections. This can be done by focusing on the features of a set of topological objects-homological cycles-associated with the weighted functional network. We leverage the detected topological information to define the homological scaffolds, a new set of objects designed to represent compactly the homological features of the correlation network and simultaneously make their homological properties amenable to networks theoretical methods. As a proof of principle,we apply these tools to compare resting state functional brain activity in 15 healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion of placebo and psilocybin-the main psychoactive component of magic mushrooms. The results show that the homological structure of the brain's functional patterns undergoes a dramatic change post-psilocybin, characterized by the appearance of many transient structures of low stability and of a small number of persistent ones that are not observed in the case of placebo. PMID:25401177

  19. Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks

    PubMed Central

    Petri, G.; Expert, P.; Turkheimer, F.; Carhart-Harris, R.; Nutt, D.; Hellyer, P. J.; Vaccarino, F.

    2014-01-01

    Networks, as efficient representations of complex systems, have appealed to scientists for a long time and now permeate many areas of science, including neuroimaging (Bullmore and Sporns 2009 Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 186–198. (doi:10.1038/nrn2618)). Traditionally, the structure of complex networks has been studied through their statistical properties and metrics concerned with node and link properties, e.g. degree-distribution, node centrality and modularity. Here, we study the characteristics of functional brain networks at the mesoscopic level from a novel perspective that highlights the role of inhomogeneities in the fabric of functional connections. This can be done by focusing on the features of a set of topological objects—homological cycles—associated with the weighted functional network. We leverage the detected topological information to define the homological scaffolds, a new set of objects designed to represent compactly the homological features of the correlation network and simultaneously make their homological properties amenable to networks theoretical methods. As a proof of principle, we apply these tools to compare resting-state functional brain activity in 15 healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion of placebo and psilocybin—the main psychoactive component of magic mushrooms. The results show that the homological structure of the brain's functional patterns undergoes a dramatic change post-psilocybin, characterized by the appearance of many transient structures of low stability and of a small number of persistent ones that are not observed in the case of placebo. PMID:25401177

  20. Common and specific brain responses to scenic emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Radua, Joaquim; Sarró, Salvador; Vigo, Teresa; Alonso-Lana, Silvia; Bonnín, C Mar; Ortiz-Gil, Jordi; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Maristany, Teresa; Vieta, Eduard; Mckenna, Peter J; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith

    2014-07-01

    Processing of emotions has been an enduring topic of interest in neuroimaging research, but studies have mostly used facial emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine neural networks involved in emotion processing using scenic emotional visual stimuli. One hundred and twenty photographs from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), including ecological scenes of disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness, were presented to 40 healthy participants while they underwent functional magnetic imaging resonance (fMRI). Afterwards they evaluated the emotional content of the pictures in an offline task. The occipito-temporal cortex and the amygdala-hippocampal complex showed a non-specific emotion-related activation, which was more marked in response to negative emotions than to happiness. The temporo-parietal cortex and the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus showed deactivation, with the former being marked for all emotions except fear and the latter being most marked for disgust. The fusiform gyrus showed activation in response to disgust and deactivation in response to happiness or sadness. Brain regions involved in processing of scenic emotion therefore resemble those reported for facial expressions of emotion in that they respond to a range of different emotions, although there appears to be specificity in the intensity and direction of the response. PMID:23700105

  1. The formation and function of the brain ventricular system

    E-print Network

    Chang, Jessica T. (Jessica Tzung-Min)

    2012-01-01

    The brain ventricular system is composed of a highly conserved set of cavities that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a protein-rich fluid essential for brain function. However, little is known about the function of ...

  2. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. The brain regions ... reduced after game play was discontinued for a week. November 30, 2011 | CHICAGO—A functional magnetic resonance ...

  3. On the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries

    E-print Network

    Ghazanfar, Asif

    On the Relationship Between Lateralized Brain Function and Orienting Asymmetries Christoph Teufel will require a much better understanding of how lateralized brain functions interact with overt behaviors in cognitive neuroscience. Evidence has accumulated to suggest that lateralized acoustic processing

  4. Brain Function Lateralization and Language Acquisition: the Evidence from Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Presents evidence of differences in brain function lateralization between Japanese-speakers and speakers of Indo-European languages, and suggests that current conceptualizations of brain function specialization are not adequate. (AM)

  5. Brain structure and function correlates of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Walton, Esther; Naylor, Melissa; Roessner, Veit; Lim, Kelvin O; Charles Schulz, S; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince D; Sponheim, Scott R; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-10-30

    Stable neuropsychological deficits may provide a reliable basis for identifying etiological subtypes of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of individuals with schizophrenia based on dimensions of neuropsychological performance, and to characterize their neural correlates. We acquired neuropsychological data as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging from 129 patients with schizophrenia and 165 healthy controls. We derived eight cognitive dimensions and subsequently applied a cluster analysis to identify possible schizophrenia subtypes. Analyses suggested the following four cognitive clusters of schizophrenia: (1) Diminished Verbal Fluency, (2) Diminished Verbal Memory and Poor Motor Control, (3) Diminished Face Memory and Slowed Processing, and (4) Diminished Intellectual Function. The clusters were characterized by a specific pattern of structural brain changes in areas such as Wernicke's area, lingual gyrus and occipital face area, and hippocampus as well as differences in working memory-elicited neural activity in several fronto-parietal brain regions. Separable measures of cognitive function appear to provide a method for deriving cognitive subtypes meaningfully related to brain structure and function. Because the present study identified brain-based neural correlates of the cognitive clusters, the proposed groups of individuals with schizophrenia have some external validity. PMID:26341950

  6. Nutrition and brain function: a multidisciplinary virtual symposium.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S S; Duntas, L H; Dye, L; Nunes, M L; Prasad, C; Rocha, J B T; Wainwright, P; Zaia, C T B V; Guedes, R C A

    2002-10-01

    A few months ago, the Brazilian Society for Neuroscience and Behavior (SBNeC) promoted a "virtual symposium" (by Internet, under the coordination of R.C.A. Guedes) on "Nutrition and Brain Function". The discussions generated during that symposium originated the present text, which analyzes current topics on the theme, based on the multidisciplinary experience of the authors. The way the brain could be non-homogeneously affected by nutritional alterations, as well as questions like early malnutrition and the development of late obesity and hormone abnormalities were discussed. Also, topics like the role of essential fatty acids (EFAs) on brain development, increased seizure susceptibility and changes in different neurotransmitters and in cognitive performance in malnourished animals, as well as differences between overall changes in nutrient intake and excess or deficiency of specific nutrients (e.g. iodine deficiency) were analyzed. It was pointed out that different types of neurons, possibly in distinct brain structures, might be differently affected by nutritional manipulation, including not only lack-but also excess of nutrient intake. Such differences could help in explaining discrepancies between data on humans and in animals and so, could aid in determining the basic mechanisms underlying lesions or changes in brain function and behavior. PMID:12385593

  7. Repeated administration of phytocannabinoid ?(9)-THC or synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 induces tolerance to hypothermia but not locomotor suppression in mice, and reduces CB1 receptor expression and function in a brain region-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Tai, S; Hyatt, W S; Gu, C; Franks, L N; Vasiljevik, T; Brents, L K; Prather, P L; Fantegrossi, W E

    2015-12-01

    These studies probed the relationship between intrinsic efficacy and tolerance/cross-tolerance between ?(9)-THC and synthetic cannabinoid drugs of abuse (SCBs) by examining in vivo effects and cellular changes concomitant with their repeated administration in mice. Dose-effect relationships for hypothermic effects were determined in order to confirm that SCBs JWH-018 and JWH-073 are higher efficacy agonists than ?(9)-THC in mice. Separate groups of mice were treated with saline, sub-maximal hypothermic doses of JWH-018 or JWH-073 (3.0mg/kg or 10.0mg/kg, respectively) or a maximally hypothermic dose of 30.0mg/kg ?(9)-THC once per day for 5 consecutive days while core temperature and locomotor activity were monitored via biotelemetry. Repeated administration of all drugs resulted in tolerance to hypothermic effects, but not locomotor effects, and this tolerance was still evident 14 days after the last drug administration. Further studies treated mice with 30.0mg/kg ?(9)-THC once per day for 4 days, then tested with SCBs on day 5. Mice with a ?(9)-THC history were cross-tolerant to both SCBs, and this cross-tolerance also persisted 14 days after testing. Select brain regions from chronically treated mice were examined for changes in CB1 receptor expression and function. Expression and function of hypothalamic CB1Rs were reduced in mice receiving chronic drugs, but cortical CB1R expression and function were not altered. Collectively, these data demonstrate that repeated ?(9)-THC, JWH-018 and JWH-073 can induce long-lasting tolerance to some in vivo effects, which is likely mediated by region-specific downregulation and desensitization of CB1Rs. PMID:26361728

  8. When “altering brain function” becomes “mind control”

    PubMed Central

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. “Under what conditions does ‘altering brain function’ qualify as ‘mind control’?” In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control. PMID:25352789

  9. Functional neuroimaging can support causal claims about brain function

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    the inability of functional imaging to address causal matters (Uddin et al., 2006; Wagner et al., 2007; Ruff et and behaviour can be tested with [transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)]." To say that "fMRI provides only involved in the task. On the other hand, the causal involvement of a given brain region 1 #12;in a task

  10. Cell type-specific gene expression profiling in brain tissue: comparison between TRAP, LCM and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Kim, TaeHyun; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-01-01

    The brain is an organ that consists of various cell types. As our knowledge of the structure and function of the brain progresses, cell type-specific research is gaining importance. Together with advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics, cell type-specific transcriptome studies are providing important insights into brain cell function. In this review, we discuss 3 different cell type-specific transcriptome analyses i.e., Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP)/RiboTag, and single cell RNA-Seq, that are widely used in the field of neuroscience. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(7): 388-394] PMID:25603796

  11. Radial glial cell-specific ablation in the adult Zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, Yoko; Tanaka, Hideomi; Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-07-01

    The zebrafish brain can continue to produce new neurons in widespread neurogenic brain regions throughout life. In contrast, neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is restricted to the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG). In neurogenic regions in the adult brain, radial glial cells (RGCs) are considered to function as neural stem cells (NSCs). We generated a Tg(gfap:Gal4FF) transgenic zebrafish line, which enabled us to express specific genes in RGCs. To study the function of RGCs in neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish brain, we also generated a Tg(gfap: Gal4FF; UAS:nfsB-mcherry) transgenic zebrafish line, which allowed us to induce cell death exclusively within RGCs upon addition of metronidazole (Mtz) to the media. RGCs expressing nitroreductase were specifically ablated by the Mtz treatment, decreasing the number of proliferative RGCs. Using the Tg(gfap:Gal4FF; UAS:nfsB-mcherry) transgenic zebrafish line, we found that RGCs were specifically ablated in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. The Tg(gfap:Gal4FF) line could be useful to study the function of RGCs. PMID:26045148

  12. Brain region-specific gene expression profiles in freshly isolated rat microglia

    PubMed Central

    Doorn, Karlijn J.; Brevé, John J. P.; Drukarch, Benjamin; Boddeke, Hendrikus W.; Huitinga, Inge; Lucassen, Paul J.; van Dam, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are important cells in the brain that can acquire different morphological and functional phenotypes dependent on the local situation they encounter. Knowledge on the region-specific gene signature of microglia may hold valuable clues for microglial functioning in health and disease, e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD) in which microglial phenotypes differ between affected brain regions. Therefore, we here investigated whether regional differences exist in gene expression profiles of microglia that are isolated from healthy rat brain regions relevant for PD. We used an optimized isolation protocol based on a rapid isolation of microglia from discrete rat gray matter regions using density gradients and fluorescent-activated cell sorting. Application of the present protocol followed by gene expression analysis enabled us to identify subtle differences in region-specific microglial expression profiles and show that the genetic profile of microglia already differs between different brain regions when studied under control conditions. As such, these novel findings imply that brain region-specific microglial gene expression profiles exist that may contribute to the region-specific differences in microglia responsivity during disease conditions, such as seen in, e.g., PD. PMID:25814934

  13. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  14. A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses.

    PubMed

    Wager, Tor D; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E; Satpute, Ajay B; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-04-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories--fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness--is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  15. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  16. Sialylation regulates brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; Motari, Mary G; Susuki, Keiichiro; Prendergast, Jillian; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2015-07-01

    Every cell expresses a molecularly diverse surface glycan coat (glycocalyx) comprising its interface with its cellular environment. In vertebrates, the terminal sugars of the glycocalyx are often sialic acids, 9-carbon backbone anionic sugars implicated in intermolecular and intercellular interactions. The vertebrate brain is particularly enriched in sialic acid-containing glycolipids termed gangliosides. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis result in paraplegia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. To better understand sialoglycan functions in the nervous system, we studied brain anatomy, histology, biochemistry, and behavior in mice with engineered mutations in St3gal2 and St3gal3, sialyltransferase genes responsible for terminal sialylation of gangliosides and some glycoproteins. St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed dysmyelination marked by a 40% reduction in major myelin proteins, 30% fewer myelinated axons, a 33% decrease in myelin thickness, and molecular disruptions at nodes of Ranvier. In part, these changes may be due to dysregulation of ganglioside-mediated oligodendroglial precursor cell proliferation. Neuronal markers were also reduced up to 40%, and hippocampal neurons had smaller dendritic arbors. Young adult St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed impaired motor coordination, disturbed gait, and profound cognitive disability. Comparisons among sialyltransferase mutant mice provide insights into the functional roles of brain gangliosides and sialoglycoproteins consistent with related human congenital disorders. PMID:25846372

  17. Clinton Woolsey: functional brain mapping pioneer.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Will; Mehta, Tej I; Pointer, Kelli B; Walden, Daniel; Elmayan, Ardem; Swanson, Kyle I; Kuo, John S

    2014-10-01

    Dr. Clinton Woolsey was a leading 20th-century neuroscientist for almost 4 decades. His most significant achievements were the novel use and refinement of evoked potential techniques to functionally map mammalian brains, the discovery of secondary cortical areas, and a wide repertoire of comparative neurofunctional studies across many species. The authors discuss his life and work through a historical context with contemporaries, highlight the primitive state of brain mapping before Woolsey, and review his involvement in advancing its rapid development through work at both Johns Hopkins University and University of Wisconsin in Madison. Dr. Woolsey's lasting impact on basic and clinical neuroscience, neurosurgery, and neurology and his important roles as a scientific mentor and leader are also described. PMID:25105696

  18. Clinton Woolsey: Functional Brain Mapping Pioneer

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Will; Mehta, Tej I.; Pointer, Kelli B.; Walden, Daniel; Elmayan, Ardem; Swanson, Kyle I.; Kuo, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Clinton Woolsey was a leading twentieth century neuroscientist for almost four decades. His most significant achievements were the novel use and refinement of evoked potential techniques to functionally map mammalian brains, the discovery of secondary cortical areas, and a wide repertoire of comparative neurofunctional studies across many species. We discuss his life and work through a historical context with contemporaries, highlight the primitive state of brain mapping before Woolsey, and his involvement in advancing its rapid development through work at both Johns Hopkins University and University of Wisconsin in Madison. Dr. Woolsey’s lasting impact on basic and clinical neuroscience, neurosurgery, and neurology and his important roles as a scientific mentor and leader are also described. PMID:25105696

  19. Brain function assessment in different conscious states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study of brain functioning is a major challenge in neuroscience fields as human brain has a dynamic and ever changing information processing. Case is worsened with conditions where brain undergoes major changes in so-called different conscious states. Even though the exact definition of consciousness is a hard one, there are certain conditions where the descriptions have reached a consensus. The sleep and the anesthesia are different conditions which are separable from each other and also from wakefulness. The aim of our group has been to tackle the issue of brain functioning with setting up similar research conditions for these three conscious states. Methods In order to achieve this goal we have designed an auditory stimulation battery with changing conditions to be recorded during a 40 channel EEG polygraph (Nuamps) session. The stimuli (modified mismatch, auditory evoked etc.) have been administered both in the operation room and the sleep lab via Embedded Interactive Stimulus Unit which was developed in our lab. The overall study has provided some results for three domains of consciousness. In order to be able to monitor the changes we have incorporated Bispectral Index Monitoring to both sleep and anesthesia conditions. Results The first stage results have provided a basic understanding in these altered states such that auditory stimuli have been successfully processed in both light and deep sleep stages. The anesthesia provides a sudden change in brain responsiveness; therefore a dosage dependent anesthetic administration has proved to be useful. The auditory processing was exemplified targeting N1 wave, with a thorough analysis from spectrogram to sLORETA. The frequency components were observed to be shifting throughout the stages. The propofol administration and the deeper sleep stages both resulted in the decreasing of N1 component. The sLORETA revealed similar activity at BA7 in sleep (BIS 70) and target propofol concentration of 1.2 µg/mL. Conclusions The current study utilized similar stimulation and recording system and incorporated BIS dependent values to validate a common approach to sleep and anesthesia. Accordingly the brain has a complex behavior pattern, dynamically changing its responsiveness in accordance with stimulations and states. PMID:20522267

  20. The development of social brain functions in infancy.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    One fundamental question in psychology is what makes humans such intensely social beings. Probing the developmental and neural origins of our social capacities is a way of addressing this question. In the last 10 years the field of social-cognitive development has witnessed a surge in studies using neuroscience methods to elucidate the development of social information processing during infancy. While the use of electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has revealed a great deal about the timing and localization of the cortical processes involved in early social cognition, the principles underpinning the early development of social brain functioning remain largely unexplored. Here I provide a framework that delineates the essential processes implicated in the early development of the social brain. In particular, I argue that the development of social brain functions in infancy is characterized by the following key principles: (a) self-relevance, (b) joint engagement, (c) predictability, (d) categorization, (e) discrimination, and (f) integration. For all of the proposed principles, I provide empirical examples to illustrate when in infancy they emerge. Moreover, I discuss to what extent they are in fact specifically social in nature or share properties with more domain-general developmental principles. Taken together, this article provides a conceptual integration of the existing EEG/ERPs and fNIRS work on infant social brain function and thereby offers the basis for a principle-based approach to studying the neural correlates of early social cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25984728

  1. Analysis of functional neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zepeng; Macara, Ann Marie; Lelito, Katherine R.; Minosyan, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model system for the neural basis of complex behavior, but an inability to routinely interrogate physiologic connections within central neural networks of the fly brain remains a fundamental barrier to progress in the field. To address this problem, we have introduced a simple method of measuring functional connectivity based on the independent expression of the mammalian P2X2 purinoreceptor and genetically encoded Ca2+ and cAMP sensors within separate genetically defined subsets of neurons in the adult brain. We show that such independent expression is capable of specifically rendering defined sets of neurons excitable by pulses of bath-applied ATP in a manner compatible with high-resolution Ca2+ and cAMP imaging in putative follower neurons. Furthermore, we establish that this approach is sufficiently sensitive for the detection of excitatory and modulatory connections deep within larval and adult brains. This technically facile approach can now be used in wild-type and mutant genetic backgrounds to address functional connectivity within neuronal networks governing a wide range of complex behaviors in the fly. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this approach in the fly brain suggests that similar methods using appropriate heterologous receptors might be adopted for other widely used model systems. PMID:22539819

  2. Dynamic Functional Brain Connectivity for Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive processing. We investigated the dynamic functional connectivity in face perception by analyzing time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in four different frequency bands: theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–14 Hz), beta (15–24 Hz), and gamma (25–45 Hz) bands in the early stages of face processing from 30 to 300 ms. High-density EEG were recorded from subjects who were passively viewing faces, buildings, and chairs. The dynamic connectivity within the core system and between the extended system were investigated. Significant differences between faces and non-faces mainly appear in theta band connectivity: (1) at the time segment of 90–120 ms between parietal area and occipito-temporal area in the right hemisphere, and (2) at the time segment of 150–180 ms between bilateral occipito-temporal areas. These results indicate (1) the importance of theta-band connectivity in the face-sensitive processing, and (2) that different parts of network are involved for the initial stage of face categorization and the stage of face structural encoding. PMID:26696870

  3. Early Brain Stimulation May Help Stroke Survivors Recover Language Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Making News on Heart.org Learn More Early brain stimulation may help stroke survivors recover language function ... and strokeassociation.org Share Related Images Infographic - Thiel-Brain Stimulation copyright American Heart Association Download (311.8 ...

  4. Brain Dynamics, Chaos and Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, W. J.; Capolupo, A.; Kozma, R.; Olivares del Campo, A.; Vitiello, G.

    2015-07-01

    By resorting to Freeman's observations showing that the distribution functions of impulse responses of cortex to sensory stimuli resemble Bessel functions, we study brain dynamics by considering the equivalence of spherical Bessel equation, in a given parametrization, to two oscillator equations, one damped and one amplified oscillator. The study of such a couple of equations, which are at the basis of the formulation of the dissipative many-body model, reveals the structure of the root loci of poles and zeros of solutions of Bessel equations, which are consistent with results obtained using ordinary differential equation techniques. We analyze stable and unstable limit cycles and consider thermodynamic features of brain functioning, which in this way may be described in terms of transitions between chaotic gas-like and ordered liquid-like behaviors. Nonlinearity dominates the dynamical critical transition regimes. Linear behavior, on the other hand, characterizes superpositions within self-organized neuronal domains in each dynamical phase. The formalism is consistent with the observed coexistence in circular causality of pulse density fields and wave density fields.

  5. Data-driven analysis of functional brain interactions during free listening to music and speech.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-06-01

    Natural stimulus functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) such as fMRI acquired when participants were watching video streams or listening to audio streams has been increasingly used to investigate functional mechanisms of the human brain in recent years. One of the fundamental challenges in functional brain mapping based on N-fMRI is to model the brain's functional responses to continuous, naturalistic and dynamic natural stimuli. To address this challenge, in this paper we present a data-driven approach to exploring functional interactions in the human brain during free listening to music and speech streams. Specifically, we model the brain responses using N-fMRI by measuring the functional interactions on large-scale brain networks with intrinsically established structural correspondence, and perform music and speech classification tasks to guide the systematic identification of consistent and discriminative functional interactions when multiple subjects were listening music and speech in multiple categories. The underlying premise is that the functional interactions derived from N-fMRI data of multiple subjects should exhibit both consistency and discriminability. Our experimental results show that a variety of brain systems including attention, memory, auditory/language, emotion, and action networks are among the most relevant brain systems involved in classic music, pop music and speech differentiation. Our study provides an alternative approach to investigating the human brain's mechanism in comprehension of complex natural music and speech. PMID:24526569

  6. Phosphatidylserine in the Brain: Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Yong; Huang, Bill X.; Spector, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the major anionic phospholipid class particularly enriched in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in neural tissues. PS is synthesized from phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine by exchanging the base head group with serine in reactions are catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase 1 and phosphatidylserine synthase 2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of Akt, Raf-1 and protein kinase C signaling, which supports neuronal survival and differentiation, requires interaction of these proteins with PS localized in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Furthermore, neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and a number of synaptic receptors and proteins are modulated by PS present in the neuronal membranes. Brain is highly enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and brain PS has a high DHA content. By promoting PS synthesis, DHA can uniquely expand the PS pool in neuronal membranes and thereby influence PS-dependent signaling and protein function. Ethanol decreases DHA-promoted PS synthesis and accumulation in neurons, which may contribute to the deleterious effects of ethanol intake. Improvement of some memory functions has been observed in cognitively impaired subjects as a result of PS supplementation, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:24992464

  7. Integrating in vitro organ-specific function with the microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Monica L.; George, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    There is significant interest within the tissue engineering and pharmaceutical industries to create 3D microphysiological systems of human organ function. The interest stems from a growing concern that animal models and simple 2D culture systems cannot replicate essential features of human physiology that are critical to predict drug response, or simply to develop new therapeutic strategies to repair or replace damaged organs. Central to human organ function is a microcirculation that not only enhances the rate of nutrient and waste transport by convection, but also provides essential additional physiological functions that can be specific to each organ. This review highlights progress in the creation of in vitro functional microvessel networks, and emphasizes organ-specific functional and structural characteristics that should be considered in the future mimicry of four organ systems that are of primary interest: lung, brain, liver, and muscle (skeletal and cardiac). PMID:24729953

  8. Predicting individual brain maturity using dynamic functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Chen, Shan-Guang; Hu, Dewen; Zeng, Ling-Li; Fan, Yi-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses have revealed significant developmental trends in specific intrinsic connectivity networks linked to cognitive and behavioral maturation. However, knowledge of how brain functional maturation is associated with FC dynamics at rest is limited. Here, we examined age-related differences in the temporal variability of FC dynamics with data publicly released by the Nathan Kline Institute (NKI; n = 183, ages 7–30) and showed that dynamic inter-region interactions can be used to accurately predict individual brain maturity across development. Furthermore, we identified a significant age-dependent trend underlying dynamic inter-network FC, including increasing variability of the connections between the visual network, default mode network (DMN) and cerebellum as well as within the cerebellum and DMN and decreasing variability within the cerebellum and between the cerebellum and DMN as well as the cingulo-opercular network. Overall, the results suggested significant developmental changes in dynamic inter-network interaction, which may shed new light on the functional organization of typical developmental brains. PMID:26236224

  9. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    T-brain-1 (TBR1) is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1??? mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+?? mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1??? mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+?? mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections) and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity), two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+?? mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK–TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+?? mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules—including Ntng1, Cdh8, and Cntn2—are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD etiology at the cellular and circuit levels. PMID:26578866

  10. The Modeling and Functional Connectivity of the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seunghwan

    2008-12-01

    The brain is considered to be the most complex system, a fertile ground for understanding the complexity of its functions through dynamical modeling. In this talk, we present some biophysical models that help to reveal the complexity of visual functions of the brain through functional self-organization processes. We also present some recent results on how the functional connectivity arises and changes in the brain, reflecting the underlying dynamics of nervous systems. The implications of our work to the brain function are discussed. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  11. Stereotaxic Surgery for Excitotoxic Lesion of Specific Brain Areas in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Jensen, Kelly; Goosens, Ki A.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Many behavioral functions in mammals, including rodents and humans, are mediated principally by discrete brain regions. A common method for discerning the function of various brain regions for behavior or other experimental outcomes is to implement a localized ablation of function. In humans, patient populations with localized brain lesions are often studied for deficits, in hopes of revealing the underlying function of the damaged area. In rodents, one can experimentally induce lesions of specific brain regions. Lesion can be accomplished in several ways. Electrolytic lesions can cause localized damage but will damage a variety of cell types as well as traversing fibers from other brain regions that happen to be near the lesion site. Inducible genetic techniques using cell-type specific promoters may also enable site-specific targeting. These techniques are complex and not always practical depending on the target brain area. Excitotoxic lesion using stereotaxic surgery, by contrast, is one of the most reliable and practical methods of lesioning excitatory neurons without damaging local glial cells or traversing fibers. Here, we present a protocol for stereotaxic infusion of the excitotoxin, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), into the basolateral amygdala complex. Using anatomical indications, we apply stereotaxic coordinates to determine the location of our target brain region and lower an injection needle in place just above the target. We then infuse our excitotoxin into the brain, resulting in excitotoxic death of nearby neurons. While our experimental subject of choice is a rat, the same methods can be applied to other mammals, with the appropriate adjustments in equipment and coordinates. This method can be used on a variety of brain regions, including the basolateral amygdala1-6, other amygdala nuclei6, 7, hippocampus8, entorhinal cortex9 and prefrontal cortex10. It can also be used to infuse biological compounds such as viral vectors1, 11. The basic stereotaxic technique could also be adapted for implantation of more permanent osmotic pumps, allowing more prolonged exposure to a compound of interest. PMID:22847556

  12. Resilience of human brain functional coactivation networks under thresholding

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, S; Weng, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of community structure and rich club nodes, (i.e., highly interconnected, high degree hub nodes), in human brain functional networks. The cognitive relevance of the detected modules and hubs has also been demonstrated, for both task based and default mode networks, suggesting that the brain self-organizes into patterns of co-activated sets of regions for performing specific tasks or in resting state. In this paper, we report studies on the resilience or robustness of this modular structure: under systematic erosion of connectivity in the network under thresholding, how resilient is the modularity and hub structure? The results show that the network shows show strong resilience properties, with the modularity and hub structure maintaining itself over a large range of connection strengths. Then, at a certain critical threshold that falls very close to 0, the connectivity, the modularity, and hub structure suddenly break down, showing a phase transition like propert...

  13. Heart and brain interconnection - clinical implications of changes in brain function during heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Jae-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent disorder worldwide and, consequently, a burden on the healthcare systems of many nations. Although the effects of HF are systemic, many therapeutic targets are focused on cardiac dysfunction. The brain is closely related to the heart, but there are few reports on the relationship between these organs. We describe the effects of the brain on HF progression. Specific brain regions control sympathetic drive and neurohumoral factors, which play an important role in disease exacerbation. In addition, we review some of our previous studies on deranged cerebral metabolism and reduced cerebral blood flow during HF. Although the reasons underlying these effects during HF remain uncertain, we propose plausible mechanisms for these phenomena. In addition, the clinical implications of such conditions in terms of predicting prognosis are discussed. Finally, we investigate cognitive impairment in patients with HF. Cognitive impairment through cerebral infarction or hypoperfusion is associated with adverse outcomes, including death. This brief review of brain function during the development of HF should assist with future strategies to better manage patients with this condition. PMID:25891994

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Function and Neurochemistry

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Function and Neurochemistry KAMIL UGURBIL, DAE-SHIK KIM, TIM ANDERSEN, AND GREGOR ADRIANY Invited Paper In the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research approaches to map brain function. This capability, often referred to as functional magnetic resonance imaging

  15. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson’s disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25083161

  17. Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

  18. Algorithms for enhanced spatiotemporal imaging of human brain function

    E-print Network

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human brain function require technologies to non-invasively image neuronal dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) measure neuronal activity ...

  19. Laser technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Huerta, Laura; Hernandez, Adan; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Silva, Adriana B.; Khotiaintsev, Konstantin S.; Svirid, Vladimir A.; Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.

    1999-05-01

    The brain represents one of the most complex systems that we know yet. In its study, non-destructive methods -- in particular, behavioral studies play an important role. By alteration of brain functioning (e.g. by pharmacological means) and observation of consequent behavior changes an important information on brain organization and functioning is obtained. For inducing local alterations, permanent brain lesions are employed. However, for correct results this technique has to be quasi-non-destructive, i.e. not to affect the normal brain function. Hence, the lesions should be very small, accurate and applied precisely over the structure (e.g. the brain nucleus) of interest. These specifications are difficult to meet with the existing techniques for brain lesions -- specifically, neurotoxical, mechanical and electrical means because they result in too extensive damage. In this paper, we present new laser technique for quasi-non- destructive anatomical-functional mapping in vivo of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the rat. The technique is based on producing of small-size, well-controlled laser- induced lesions over some areas of the MPFC. The anesthetized animals are subjected to stereotactic surgery and certain points of the MPFC are exposed the confined radiation of the 10 W cw CO2 laser. Subsequent behavioral changes observed in neonatal and adult animals as well as histological data prove effectiveness of this technology for anatomical- functional studies of the brain by areas, and as a treatment method for some pathologies.

  20. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Miller, Tyler E.; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.; Bredel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  1. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R; Yadav, Ajay K; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Miller, Tyler E; Masilamani, Anie P; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M; Yu, Irene L Y; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N; Carro, Maria S; Bredel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  2. The Union of Shortest Path Trees of Functional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jil; Tewarie, Prejaas; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Communication between brain regions is still insufficiently understood. Applying concepts from network science has shown to be successful in gaining insight in the functioning of the brain. Recent work has implicated that especially shortest paths in the structural brain network seem to play a major role in the communication within the brain. So far, for the functional brain network, only the average length of the shortest paths has been analyzed. In this article, we propose to construct the union of shortest path trees (USPT) as a new topology for the functional brain network. The minimum spanning tree, which has been successful in a lot of recent studies to comprise important features of the functional brain network, is always included in the USPT. After interpreting the link weights of the functional brain network as communication probabilities, the USPT of this network can be uniquely defined. Using data from magnetoencephalography, we applied the USPT as a method to find differences in the network topology of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. The new concept of the USPT of the functional brain network also allows interesting interpretations and may represent the highways of the brain. PMID:26027712

  3. Effects of the diet on brain function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernstrom, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The rates of synthesis by brain neurons of the neurotransmitters serotonin, acetylcholine, and the catecholamines depend on the brain levels of the respective precursor molecules. Brain levels of each precursor are influenced by their blood concentration, and for the amino acid precursors, by the blood levels of other amino acids as well. Since diet readily alters blood concentrations of each of these precursors, it thereby also influences the brain formation of their neutrotransmitter products.

  4. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Hong, Seokjun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy. PMID:24098281

  5. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions. PMID:26598686

  6. Gut microbial communities modulating brain development and function

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmakh, Maha; Anuar, Farhana; Zadjali, Fahad; Rafter, Joseph; Pettersson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian brain development is initiated in utero and internal and external environmental signals can affect this process all the way until adulthood. Recent observations suggest that one such external cue is the indigenous microbiota which has been shown to affect developmental programming of the brain. This may have consequences for brain maturation and function that impact on cognitive functions later in life. This review discusses these recent findings from a developmental perspective. PMID:22743758

  7. MESSAGE LINK PROTOCOL (MLP) Functional Specification

    E-print Network

    von Bochmann, Gregor

    MESSAGE LINK PROTOCOL (MLP) Functional Specification by G.v.Bochmann University of Montreal Montreal Canada F.H.Vogt Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin-West Germany Abstract This document is a specification of the Message Link Protocol (MLP), The MLP creates a transport service between session control

  8. Topographic Brain Mapping: A Window on Brain Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniski, Walt M.

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the method of topographic mapping of the brain's electrical activity. Multiple electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and computerized analysis of the EEG signal are used to generate maps of frequency and voltage (evoked potential). This relatively new technique holds promise in the evaluation of children with behavioral and…

  9. Network Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    Network Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease Kaustubh Supekar organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease. PLoS Comput Biol 4(6): e1000100

  10. Gender-Specific Gene Expression in Post-Mortem Human Brain: Localization to Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex- chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences. PMID:14583743

  11. Ribosome Profiling Reveals a Cell-Type-Specific Translational Landscape in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Christian; Sims, Jennifer S.; Hornstein, Nicholas; Mela, Angeliki; Garcia, Franklin; Lei, Liang; Gass, David A.; Amendolara, Benjamin; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Glioma growth is driven by signaling that ultimately regulates protein synthesis. Gliomas are also complex at the cellular level and involve multiple cell types, including transformed and reactive cells in the brain tumor microenvironment. The distinct functions of the various cell types likely lead to different requirements and regulatory paradigms for protein synthesis. Proneural gliomas can arise from transformation of glial progenitors that are driven to proliferate via mitogenic signaling that affects translation. To investigate translational regulation in this system, we developed a RiboTag glioma mouse model that enables cell-type-specific, genome-wide ribosome profiling of tumor tissue. Infecting glial progenitors with Cre-recombinant retrovirus simultaneously activates expression of tagged ribosomes and delivers a tumor-initiating mutation. Remarkably, we find that although genes specific to transformed cells are highly translated, their translation efficiencies are low compared with normal brain. Ribosome positioning reveals sequence-dependent regulation of ribosomal activity in 5?-leaders upstream of annotated start codons, leading to differential translation in glioma compared with normal brain. Additionally, although transformed cells express a proneural signature, untransformed tumor-associated cells, including reactive astrocytes and microglia, express a mesenchymal signature. Finally, we observe the same phenomena in human disease by combining ribosome profiling of human proneural tumor and non-neoplastic brain tissue with computational deconvolution to assess cell-type-specific translational regulation. PMID:25122893

  12. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks for Cognitive Control of Action in Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H.; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly…

  13. Structure-function relationships in human brain development

    E-print Network

    Saygin, Zeynep Mevhibe

    2012-01-01

    The integration of anatomical, functional, and developmental approaches in cognitive neuroscience is essential for generating mechanistic explanations of brain function. In this thesis, I first establish a proof-of-principle ...

  14. Bisphenol A Interaction With Brain Development and Functions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose–response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health. PMID:26672480

  15. Microwave beamforming for non-invasive patient-specific hyperthermia treatment of pediatric brain cancer

    E-print Network

    Hagness, Susan C.

    Microwave beamforming for non-invasive patient-specific hyperthermia treatment of pediatric brain-invasive patient-specific hyperthermia treatment of pediatric brain cancer Matthew J Burfeindt1 , Earl Zastrow1 beamforming approach for non-invasive hyperthermia treatment of pediatric brain tumors. The transmit

  16. Specific trophic factor-receptor interactions. Key selective elements in brain development and "regeneration".

    PubMed

    Fine, R E; Rubin, J B

    1988-05-01

    An hypothesis is presented which emphasizes the key role of specific trophic factor-receptor interactions in the development of the brain. We postulate that very early in development neurons become dependent on external factors (mainly neuropeptides) for guidance and survival. These requirements are the key to the selection process which results in the creation of a functional nervous system. These specific localized trophic factor requirements are postulated to persist throughout life. Disruptions in specific trophic factor-receptor systems are postulated to be responsible for a variety of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The implications of recent animal and human transplant experiments in the context of the theoretical framework discussed above are profound. It would appear that the mature mammalian brain possesses an exquisite ability to regenerate specific connections to replace those lost due to death or injury to nerve cells. Unfortunately, it does not contain a population of undifferentiated stem cells to supply the necessary healthy neurons. The reason for this appears obvious based on the theoretical considerations given above, that the specific trophic factor-receptor interactions needed to produce a functional brain circuitry are necessarily stringently selective. Therefore, a significant stem cell population does not survive. However, if an appropriate stem cell population, ie, a fetal transplant, is provided, the brain will "heal itself" according to the program outlined above. In the future it may be technically feasible to perform genetic testing of newborns to determine to which genetic neurological diseases they are susceptible and at an appropriate time provide the appropriate fetal transplant. Obviously, society will have to deal with the profound ethical questions this technology will raise. PMID:2834427

  17. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  18. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  19. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be stored in a relational database for comparison with corresponding responses previously observed in other subjects.

  20. Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433

  1. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  2. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-01

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. PMID:26447580

  3. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    PubMed

    Bola, Micha?; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. PMID:25828884

  4. Beyond localized and distributed accounts of brain functions. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Tamietto, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence in cognitive neuroscience lends support to the idea that network models of brain architecture provide a privileged access to the understanding of the relation between brain organization and cognitive processes [1]. The core perspective holds that cognitive processes depend on the interactions among distributed neuronal populations and brain structures, and that the impact of a given region on behavior largely depends on its pattern of anatomical and functional connectivity [2,3].

  5. Evidence for hubs in human functional brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hubs integrate and distribute information in powerful ways due to the number and positioning of their contacts in a network. Several resting state functional connectivity MRI reports have implicated regions of the default mode system as brain hubs; we demonstrate that previous degree-based approaches to hub identification may have identified portions of large brain systems rather than critical nodes of brain networks. We utilize two methods to identify hub-like brain regions: 1) finding network nodes that participate in multiple sub-networks of the brain, and 2) finding spatial locations where several systems are represented within a small volume. These methods converge on a distributed set of regions that differ from previous reports on hubs. This work identifies regions that support multiple systems, leading to spatially constrained predictions about brain function that may be tested in terms of lesions, evoked responses, and dynamic patterns of activity. PMID:23972601

  6. Brain microRNAs and insights into biological functions and therapeutic potential of brain enriched miRNA-128

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs, the non-coding single-stranded RNA of 19–25 nucleotides are emerging as robust players of gene regulation. Plethora of evidences support that the ability of microRNAs to regulate several genes of a pathway or even multiple cross talking pathways have significant impact on a complex regulatory network and ultimately the physiological processes and diseases. Brain being a complex organ with several cell types, expresses more distinct miRNAs than any other tissues. This review aims to discuss about the microRNAs in brain development, function and their dysfunction in brain tumors. We also provide a comprehensive summary of targets of brain specific and brain enriched miRNAs that contribute to the diversity and plasticity of the brain. In particular, we uncover recent findings on miRNA-128, a brain-enriched microRNA that is induced during neuronal differentiation and whose aberrant expression has been reported in several cancers. This review describes the wide spectrum of targets of miRNA-128 that have been identified till date with potential roles in apoptosis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cholesterol metabolism, self renewal, invasion and cancer progression and how this knowledge might be exploited for the development of future miRNA-128 based therapies for the treatment of cancer as well as metabolic diseases. PMID:24555688

  7. Cell-specific blood–brain barrier regulation in health and disease: a focus on hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, S; Patkar, S; Ogunshola, O O

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a complex vascular structure consisting of microvascular endothelial cells that line the vessel wall, astrocyte end-feet, pericytes, as well as the basal lamina. BBB cells act in concert to maintain the characteristic impermeable and low paracellular flux of the brain vascular network, thus ensuring a homeostatic neuronal environment. Alterations in BBB stability that occur during injury have dire consequences on disease progression and it is clear that BBB cell-specific responses, positive or negative, must make a significant contribution to injury outcome. Reduced oxygenation, or hypoxia, is a characteristic of many brain diseases that significantly increases barrier permeability. Recent data suggest that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1), the master regulator of the hypoxic response, probably mediates many hypoxic effects either directly or indirectly via its target genes. This review discusses current knowledge of physiological cell-specific regulation of barrier function, their responses to hypoxia as well as consequences of hypoxic-and HIF-1-mediated mechanisms on barrier integrity during select brain diseases. In the final sections, the potential of current advances in targeting HIF-1 as a therapeutic strategy will be overviewed. PMID:24641185

  8. Dispersion of the neurons expressing layer specific markers in the reeler brain.

    PubMed

    Dekimoto, Hideyuki; Terashima, Toshio; Katsuyama, Yu

    2010-02-01

    Neurons with similar functions including neuronal connectivity and gene expression form discrete condensed structures within the vertebrate brain. This is exemplified within the circuitry formed by the cortical layers and the neuronal nuclei. It is well known that the Reelin protein is required for development of these neuronal structures in rodents and human, but the function of Reelin remains controversial. In this report, we used "layer-specific markers" of the cerebral cortex to carry out detailed observations of spatial distribution of the neuronal subpopulations in the brain of the Reelin deficient mouse, reeler. We observed a spatially dispersed expression of the markers in the reeler cerebral cortex. These markers are expressed also in other laminated and non-laminated structures of brain, in which we observed similar abnormal gene expression. Our observations suggest that neurons within the brain structures (such as the layers and the nuclei), which normally exhibit condensed distribution of marker expressions, loosen their segregation or scatter by a lack of Reelin. PMID:20067496

  9. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  10. Hierarchical organization of brain functional networks during visual tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2011-09-01

    The functional network of the brain is known to demonstrate modular structure over different hierarchical scales. In this paper, we systematically investigated the hierarchical modular organizations of the brain functional networks that are derived from the extent of phase synchronization among high-resolution EEG time series during a visual task. In particular, we compare the modular structure of the functional network from EEG channels with that of the anatomical parcellation of the brain cortex. Our results show that the modular architectures of brain functional networks correspond well to those from the anatomical structures over different levels of hierarchy. Most importantly, we find that the consistency between the modular structures of the functional network and the anatomical network becomes more pronounced in terms of vision, sensory, vision-temporal, motor cortices during the visual task, which implies that the strong modularity in these areas forms the functional basis for the visual task. The structure-function relationship further reveals that the phase synchronization of EEG time series in the same anatomical group is much stronger than that of EEG time series from different anatomical groups during the task and that the hierarchical organization of functional brain network may be a consequence of functional segmentation of the brain cortex.

  11. Changes in Brain Functioning From Infancy to Early Childhood: Evidence

    E-print Network

    Changes in Brain Functioning From Infancy to Early Childhood: Evidence From EEG Power and Coherence developmental changes in brain electrical activity during higher order cognitive processing at infancy and early for a follow-up visit and were assessed with age-appropriate working- memory tasks. At infancy, working memory

  12. Functional connectivity of the rodent brain using optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Codina, Edgar

    The aim of this thesis is to apply functional connectivity in a variety of animal models, using several optical imaging modalities. Even at rest, the brain shows high metabolic activity: the correlation in slow spontaneous fluctuations identifies remotely connected areas of the brain; hence the term "functional connectivity". Ongoing changes in spontaneous activity may provide insight into the neural processing that takes most of the brain metabolic activity, and so may provide a vast source of disease related changes. Brain hemodynamics may be modified during disease and affect resting-state activity. The thesis aims to better understand these changes in functional connectivity due to disease, using functional optical imaging. The optical imaging techniques explored in the first two contributions of this thesis are Optical Imaging of Intrinsic Signals and Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging, together they can estimate the metabolic rate of oxygen consumption, that closely parallels neural activity. They both have adequate spatial and temporal resolution and are well adapted to image the convexity of the mouse cortex. In the last article, a depth-sensitive modality called photoacoustic tomography was used in the newborn rat. Optical coherence tomography and laminar optical tomography were also part of the array of imaging techniques developed and applied in other collaborations. The first article of this work shows the changes in functional connectivity in an acute murine model of epileptiform activity. Homologous correlations are both increased and decreased with a small dependence on seizure duration. These changes suggest a potential decoupling between the hemodynamic parameters in resting-state networks, underlining the importance to investigate epileptic networks with several independent hemodynamic measures. The second study examines a novel murine model of arterial stiffness: the unilateral calcification of the right carotid. Seed-based connectivity analysis showed a decreasing trend of homologous correlation in the motor and cingulate cortices. Graph analyses showed a randomization of the cortex functional networks, suggesting a loss of connectivity, more specifically in the motor cortex ipsilateral to the treated carotid; however these changes are not reflected in differentiated metabolic estimates. Confounds remain due to the fact that carotid rigidification gives rise to neural decline in the hippocampus as well as unilateral alteration of vascular pulsatility; however the results support the need to look at several hemodynamic parameters when imaging the brain after arterial remodeling. The third article of this thesis studies a model of inflammatory injury on the newborn rat. Oxygen saturation and functional connectivity were assessed with photoacoustic tomography. Oxygen saturation was decreased in the site of the lesion and on the cortex ipsilateral to the injury; however this decrease is not fully explained by hypovascularization revealed by histology. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis showed that inter-hemispheric connectivity is not affected by inflammatory injury.

  13. Action-specific value signals in reward-related regions of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating the value of potential actions is crucial for learning and adaptive behaviour. We know little about how the human brain represents action-specific value outside of motor areas. This is, in part, due to a difficulty in detecting the neural correlates of value using conventional (region of interest) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses, due to a potential distributed representation of value. We address this limitation by applying a recently developed multivariate decoding method to high-resolution fMRI data in subjects performing an instrumental learning task. We found evidence for action-specific value signals in circumscribed regions, specifically ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), putamen, thalamus and insula cortex. By contrast, action-independent value signals were more widely represented across a large set of brain areas. Using multivariate Bayesian model comparison we formally tested whether value–specific responses are spatially distributed or coherent. We find strong evidence that both action-specific and action-independent value signals are represented in a distributed fashion. Our results suggest that a surprisingly large number of classical reward-related areas contain distributed representations of action-specific values, representations that are likely to mediate between reward and adaptive behaviour. PMID:23152624

  14. ProductSpecifications Fit. Form. Function.

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    ProductSpecifications Fit. Form. Function. More than 30,000 Thermo Scientific Niton analyzers are hard at work today around the world, making our customers more efficient and competitive. We've now silicon drift detectors (SDD). By combining a 50 kV, 200 µA x-ray tube, closely optimized geometry, our

  15. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  16. Near to the Brain: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Lightweight Brain Imaging Technique for Visualization

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging technology for brain imaging being developedNear to the Brain: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Lightweight Brain Imaging Technique the use of cumbersome or expensive brain imaging equipment. In recent years, functional near-infrared

  17. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

  18. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    SciTech Connect

    Sporns, Olaf

    2008-01-23

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life. How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood. In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  19. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    SciTech Connect

    Olaf Sporns

    2008-01-23

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  20. Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function

    ScienceCinema

    Olaf Sporns

    2010-01-08

    The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

  1. Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2008-03-01

    Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (PLD) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (Ie, defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOX) and a net positively charged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were entrapped spontaneously in NH2- and HOOC-functionalized mesoporous silica (300 Å, FMS) respectively. The specific activity of GOX entrapped in FMS increased with decreasing PLD. With decreasing PLD, Ie of GOX in FMS increased from<35% to>150%. Unlike GOX, OPH in HOOC-FMS showed increased specific activity with increasing PLD. With increasing PLD, the corresponding Ie of OPH in FMS increased from 100% to>200%. A protein structure-based analysis of the protein surface charges directing the electrostatic interaction-based orientation of the protein molecules in FMS demonstrates that substrate access to GOX molecules in FMS is limited at high PLD, consequently lowering the GOX specific activity. In contrast, substrate access to OPH molecules in FMS remains open at high PLD and may promote a more favorable confinement environment that enhances the OPH activity.

  2. Neuron-glia networks: integral gear of brain function

    E-print Network

    Perea, Gertrudis

    Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell in the brain, play critical roles in metabolic and homeostatic functions of the Nervous System; however, their participation in coding information and cognitive processes has been ...

  3. Cerebral energy metabolism and the brain's functional network architecture: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Louis-David; Expert, Paul; Huckins, Jeremy F; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have emphasized the contributions of synchronized activity in distributed brain networks to cognitive processes in both health and disease. The brain's ‘functional connectivity' is typically estimated from correlations in the activity time series of anatomically remote areas, and postulated to reflect information flow between neuronal populations. Although the topological properties of functional brain networks have been studied extensively, considerably less is known regarding the neurophysiological and biochemical factors underlying the temporal coordination of large neuronal ensembles. In this review, we highlight the critical contributions of high-frequency electrical oscillations in the ?-band (30 to 100?Hz) to the emergence of functional brain networks. After describing the neurobiological substrates of ?-band dynamics, we specifically discuss the elevated energy requirements of high-frequency neural oscillations, which represent a mechanistic link between the functional connectivity of brain regions and their respective metabolic demands. Experimental evidence is presented for the high oxygen and glucose consumption, and strong mitochondrial performance required to support rhythmic cortical activity in the ?-band. Finally, the implications of mitochondrial impairments and deficits in glucose metabolism for cognition and behavior are discussed in the context of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by large-scale changes in the organization of functional brain networks. PMID:23756687

  4. Impact of head morphology on local brain specific absorption rate from exposure to mobile phone radiation.

    PubMed

    Adibzadeh, Fatemeh; Bakker, Jurriaan F; Paulides, Margarethus M; Verhaart, René F; van Rhoon, Gerard C

    2015-01-01

    Among various possible health effects of mobile phone radiation, the risk of inducing cancer has the strongest interest of laymen and health organizations. Recently, the Interphone epidemiological study investigated the association between the estimated Radio Frequency (RF) dose from mobile phones and the risk of developing a brain tumor. Their dosimetric analysis included over 100 phone models but only two homogeneous head phantoms. So, the potential impact of individual morphological features on global and local RF absorption in the brain was not investigated. In this study, we performed detailed dosimetric simulations for 20 head models and quantified the variation of RF dose in different brain regions as a function of head morphology. Head models were exposed to RF fields from generic mobile phones at 835 and 1900 MHz in the "tilted" and "cheek" positions. To evaluate the local RF dose variation, we used and compared two different post-processing methods, that is, averaging specific absorption rate (SAR) over Talairach regions and over sixteen predefined 1 cm(3) cube-shaped field-sensors. The results show that the variation in the averaged SAR among the heads can reach up to 16.4 dB at a 1 cm(3) cube inside the brain (field-sensor method) and alternatively up to 15.8 dB in the medulla region (Talairach method). In conclusion, we show head morphology as an important uncertainty source for dosimetric studies of mobile phones. Therefore, any dosimetric analysis dealing with RF dose at a specific region in the brain (e.g., tumor risk analysis) should be based upon real morphology. PMID:25399806

  5. Functional imaging of the brain with/sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Reivich, M; Greenberg, J; Alavi, A; Hand, P; Rintelmann, W; Rosenquist, A; Christman, D; Fowler, J; MacGregor, R; Wolf, A

    1980-01-01

    A techniques is reported by which it is possible to determine which regions of the human brain become functionally active in response to a specific stimulus. The method utilizes /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 18/F)-FDG) administered as a bolus. (/sup 18/F)-FDG is used as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation. The subject is then scanned during administration of a physiologic stimulus by position emission tomography and the three-dimensional distribution of /sup 18/F activity in the brain determined. (ACR)

  6. Relationship Between Neurocognitive Function and Quality of Life After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Bentzen, Soren M.; Li Jialiang; Renschler, Markus; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between neurocognitive function (NCF) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain metastases after whole-brain radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: A total of 208 patients from the whole-brain radiotherapy arm of a Phase III trial (PCI-P120-9801), who underwent regular NCF and QOL (ADL [activities of daily living] and FACT-Br [Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain-specific]) testing, were analyzed. Spearman's rank correlation was calculated between NCF and QOL, using each patient's own data, at each time point. To test the hypothesis that NCF declines before QOL changes, the predictive effect of NCF from previous visits on QOL was studied with a linear mixed-effects model. Neurocognitive function or QOL deterioration was defined relative to each patient's own baseline. Lead or lag time, defined as NCF deterioration before or after the date of QOL decline, respectively, was computed. Results: At baseline, all NCF tests showed statistically significant correlations with ADL, which became stronger at 4 months. A similar observation was made with FACT-Br. Neurocognitive function scores from previous visits predicted ADL (p < 0.05 for seven of eight tests) or FACT-Br. Scores on all eight NCF tests deteriorated before ADL decline (net lead time 9-153 days); and scores on six of eight NCF tests deteriorated before FACT-Br (net lead time 9-82 days). Conclusions: Neurocognitive function and QOL are correlated. Neurocognitive function scores from previous visits are predictive of QOL. Neurocognitive function deterioration precedes QOL decline. The sequential association between NCF and QOL decline suggests that delaying NCF deterioration is a worthwhile treatment goal in brain metastases patients.

  7. Selectionist and Evolutionary Approaches to Brain Function: A Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2012-01-01

    We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse, and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise. PMID:22557963

  8. Memory Networks in Tinnitus: A Functional Brain Image Study

    PubMed Central

    Laureano, Maura Regina; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Batista, Ilza Rosa; Reis, Marilia Alves; Garcia, Michele Vargas; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; de Almeida, Roberta Ribeiro; Garrido, Griselda J.; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls. Methods: Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT). The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the “Tinnitus Handicap Inventory” (THI). The images were processed and analyzed using “Statistical Parametric Mapping” (SPM8). Results: A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05) was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus. Conclusion: It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes. PMID:24516567

  9. Glucocorticoid-induction of hypothalamic aromatase via its brain-specific promoter

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, DC; Zhao, H; Yilmaz, B; Coon, VJS; Bulun, SE

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, a 36-kb distal promoter (I.f) regulates the Cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis. Local estrogen production in the brain regulates critical functions such as gonadotropin secretion and sexual behavior. The mechanisms that control brain aromatase production are not well understood. Here we show that the glucocorticoid dexamethasone robustly increases aromatase mRNA and protein by up to 98-fold in mouse hypothalamic cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Using deletion mutants of the brain-specific promoter I.f and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR, we isolated a distinct region (?500/?200bp) which becomes enriched in bound glucocorticoid receptor upon dexamethasone stimulation. A glucocorticoid antagonist or siRNA based knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor ablated dexamethasone stimulation of aromatase expression. Our findings demonstrate how glucocorticoids alter aromatase expression in the hypothalamus and might indicate a mechanism whereby glucocorticoid action modifies gonadotropin pulses and the menstrual cycle. PMID:22705581

  10. Myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2C expression in fetal mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Leifer, D; Li, Y L; Wehr, K

    1997-04-01

    We have previously found that myocyte-specific enhancer binding factor 2C (MEF2C) is expressed in the brain, where it is found at high levels in the developing cerebral cortex. We have now examined MEF2C expression in fetal mouse brain by in situ hybridization and by immunohistochemistry from E11 to E17, the period when most cortical neurons are born. The distribution of MEF2C mRNA detected by in situ hybridization closely resembles that of MEF2C immunoreactivity. MEF2C is not present in proliferative zones in the brain. It is present at high levels in cells that have migrated to the subplate and cortical plate. MEF2C is also found in the olfactory blub at high levels and at lower levels in hippocampus, basal forebrain, striatum, cerebellum, and inferior colliculus, and in some nuclei of the hypothalamus, thalamus and brainstem. The pattern of expression suggests that MEF2C is expressed in a subset of postmitotic neurons in the brain and that it may therefore function to promote terminal differentiation of the cells that express it. PMID:9188042

  11. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. PMID:23501053

  12. Brain-Specific Rescue of Clock Reveals System-Driven Transcriptional Rhythms in Peripheral Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael E.; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Chong, Jason L.; Indacochea, Alejandra A.; Lee, Samuel S.; Han, Michael; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Hogenesch, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian regulatory network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, with a central oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) orchestrating circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues. The nature of the relationship between central and peripheral oscillators, however, is poorly understood. We used the tetOFF expression system to specifically restore Clock function in the brains of Clock?19 mice, which have compromised circadian clocks. Rescued mice showed normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness, with activity period lengths approximating wildtype controls. We used microarray analysis to assess whether brain-specific rescue of circadian rhythmicity was sufficient to restore circadian transcriptional output in the liver. Compared to Clock mutants, Clock-rescue mice showed significantly larger numbers of cycling transcripts with appropriate phase and period lengths, including many components of the core circadian oscillator. This indicates that the SCN oscillator overcomes local circadian defects and signals directly to the molecular clock. Interestingly, the vast majority of core clock genes in liver were responsive to Clock expression in the SCN, suggesting that core clock genes in peripheral tissues are intrinsically sensitive to SCN cues. Nevertheless, most circadian output in the liver was absent or severely low-amplitude in Clock-rescue animals, demonstrating that the majority of peripheral transcriptional rhythms depend on a fully functional local circadian oscillator. We identified several new system-driven rhythmic genes in the liver, including Alas1 and Mfsd2. Finally, we show that 12-hour transcriptional rhythms (i.e., circadian “harmonics") are disrupted by Clock loss-of-function. Brain-specific rescue of Clock converted 12-hour rhythms into 24-hour rhythms, suggesting that signaling via the central circadian oscillator is required to generate one of the two daily peaks of expression. Based on these data, we conclude that 12-hour rhythms are driven by interactions between central and peripheral circadian oscillators. PMID:22844252

  13. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  14. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  15. Exploring Dynamic Brain Functional Networks Using Continuous “State-Related” Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    We applied a “temporal decomposition” method, which decomposed a single brain functional network into several “modes”; each of them dominated a short temporal period, on a continuous, “state-” related, “finger-force feedback” functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. With the hypothesis that attention and internal/external information processing interaction could be manipulated by different (real and sham) feedback conditions, we investigated functional network dynamics of the “default mode,” “executive control,” and sensorimotor networks. They were decomposed into several modes. During real feedback, the occurrence of “default mode-executive control competition-related” mode was higher than that during sham feedback (P = 0.0003); the “default mode-visual facilitation-related” mode more frequently appeared during sham than real feedback (P = 0.0004). However, the dynamics of the sensorimotor network did not change significantly between two conditions (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that the visual-guided motor feedback involves higher cognitive functional networks rather than primary motor network. The dynamics monitoring of inner and outside environment and multisensory integration could be the mechanisms. This study is an extension of our previous region-specific and static-styled study of our brain functional architecture. PMID:26413546

  16. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  17. Generating Text from Functional Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisco; Detre, Greg; Botvinick, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., “Apartment’’) while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., “door,” “window” for “Apartment’’). Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively. PMID:21927602

  18. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  19. Patient-specific computational biomechanics of the brain without segmentation and meshing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Johnny Y; Joldes, Grand Roman; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol

    2013-02-01

    Motivated by patient-specific computational modelling in the context of image-guided brain surgery, we propose a new fuzzy mesh-free modelling framework. The method works directly on an unstructured cloud of points that do not form elements so that mesh generation is not required. Mechanical properties are assigned directly to each integration point based on fuzzy tissue classification membership functions without the need for image segmentation. Geometric integration is performed over an underlying uniform background grid. The verification example shows that, while requiring no hard segmentation and meshing, the proposed model gives, for all practical purposes, equivalent results to a finite element model. PMID:23345159

  20. Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Slobounov, Semyon M; Zhang, K; Pennell, D; Ray, W; Johnson, B; Sebastianelli, W

    2010-04-01

    Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion. Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently concussed but asymptomatic individuals. Specifically, we report performance of spatial memory navigation tasks in a VR environment and fMRI data in 15 athletes suffering from MTBI and 15 neurologically normal, athletically active age matched controls. No differences in performance were observed between these two groups of subjects in terms of success rate (94 and 92%) and time to complete the spatial memory navigation tasks (mean = 19.5 and 19.7 s). Whole brain analysis revealed that similar brain activation patterns were observed during both encoding and retrieval among the groups. However, concussed athletes showed larger cortical networks with additional increases in activity outside of the shared region of interest (ROI) during encoding. Quantitative analysis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal revealed that concussed individuals had a significantly larger cluster size during encoding at parietal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right hippocampus. In addition, there was a significantly larger BOLD signal percent change at the right hippocampus. Neither cluster size nor BOLD signal percent change at shared ROIs was different between groups during retrieval. These major findings are discussed with respect to current hypotheses regarding the neural mechanism responsible for alteration of brain functions in a clinical setting. PMID:20039023

  1. Function-Structure Associations of the Brain: Evidence from Multimodal Connectivity and Covariance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Jing; Huster, Rene; Yu, Qingbao; Segall, Judith M.; Calhoun, Vince D

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in multimodal imaging techniques and analysis approaches, unimodal studies are still the predominant way to investigate brain changes or group differences, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Multimodal brain studies can be used to understand the complex interplay of anatomical, functional and physiological brain alterations or development, and to better comprehend the biological significance of multiple imaging measures. To examine the function-structure associations of the brain in a more comprehensive and integrated manner, we reviewed a number of multimodal studies that combined two or more functional (fMRI and/or EEG) and structural (sMRI and/or DTI) modalities. In this review paper, we specifically focused on multimodal neuroimaging studies on cognition, aging, disease and behavior. We also compared multiple analysis approaches, including univariate and multivariate methods. The possible strengths and limitations of each method are highlighted, which can guide readers when selecting a method based on a given research question. In particular, we believe that multimodal fusion approaches will shed further light on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the major structural and functional pathophysiological features of both the healthy brain (e.g. development) or the diseased brain (e.g. mental illness). And in the latter case, may provide a more sensitive measure than unimodal imaging for disease classification, e.g. multimodal biomarkers, which potentially can be used to support clinical diagnosis based on neuroimaging techniques. PMID:24084066

  2. Brain Region-Specific Expression of MeCP2 Isoforms Correlates with DNA Methylation within Mecp2 Regulatory Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Vichithra R. B.; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    MeCP2 is a critical epigenetic regulator in brain and its abnormal expression or compromised function leads to a spectrum of neurological disorders including Rett Syndrome and autism. Altered expression of the two MeCP2 isoforms, MeCP2E1 and MeCP2E2 has been implicated in neurological complications. However, expression, regulation and functions of the two isoforms are largely uncharacterized. Previously, we showed the role of MeCP2E1 in neuronal maturation and reported MeCP2E1 as the major protein isoform in the adult mouse brain, embryonic neurons and astrocytes. Recently, we showed that DNA methylation at the regulatory elements (REs) within the Mecp2 promoter and intron 1 impact the expression of Mecp2 isoforms in differentiating neural stem cells. This current study is aimed for a comparative analysis of temporal, regional and cell type-specific expression of MeCP2 isoforms in the developing and adult mouse brain. MeCP2E2 displayed a later expression onset than MeCP2E1 during mouse brain development. In the adult female and male brain hippocampus, both MeCP2 isoforms were detected in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, MeCP2E1 expression was relatively uniform in different brain regions (olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum), whereas MeCP2E2 showed differential enrichment in these brain regions. Both MeCP2 isoforms showed relatively similar distribution in these brain regions, except for cerebellum. Lastly, a preferential correlation was observed between DNA methylation at specific CpG dinucleotides within the REs and Mecp2 isoform-specific expression in these brain regions. Taken together, we show that MeCP2 isoforms display differential expression patterns during brain development and in adult mouse brain regions. DNA methylation patterns at the Mecp2 REs may impact this differential expression of Mecp2/MeCP2 isoforms in brain regions. Our results significantly contribute towards characterizing the expression profiles of Mecp2/MeCP2 isoforms and thereby provide insights on the potential role of MeCP2 isoforms in the developing and adult brain. PMID:24594659

  3. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders. PMID:26405867

  4. [Determinism and Freedom of Choice in the Brain Functioning].

    PubMed

    Ivanitsky, A M

    2015-01-01

    The problem is considered whether the brain response is completely determined by the stimulus and the personal experience or in some cases the brain is free to choose its behavioral response to achieve the desired goal. The attempt is made to approach to this important philosophical problem basing on modern knowledge about the brain. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part the theoretical views about the free choice problem solving are considered, including views about the freedom of choice as a useful illusion, the hypothesis on appliance of quantum mechanics laws to the brain functioning and the theory of mentalism. In other tree parts consequently the more complicated brain functions such as choice reaction, thinking and creation are analyzed. The general conclusion is that the possibility of quite unpredictable, but sometimes very effective decisions increases when the brain functions are more and more complicated. This fact can be explained with two factors: increasing stochasticity of the brain processes and the role of top-down determinations from mental to neural levels, according to the theory of mentalism. PMID:26601509

  5. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; p<0.001) of aged rats compared to young rats, however no significant differences were detected in synaptic levels in the PFC region. Double immunogold labeling indicated that agmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26548412

  6. Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Kraft, Eduard; Santana, Silvina; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. PMID:26054789

  7. Exploring Brain Function from Anatomical Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-López, Gorka; Zhou, Changsong; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that cortico-cortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i) modular organization, (ii) abundant alternative processing paths, and (iii) the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them toward a comprehensive perception of the real world. The results here exposed are mainly based on anatomical data of cats’ brain, but further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share these fundamental principles of organization. PMID:21734863

  8. Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K.; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation. PMID:24795629

  9. Functional Specialization in the Human Brain Estimated By Intrinsic Hemispheric Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    The human brain demonstrates functional specialization, including strong hemispheric asymmetries. Here specialization was explored using fMRI by examining the degree to which brain networks preferentially interact with ipsilateral as opposed to contralateral networks. Preferential within-hemisphere interaction was prominent in the heteromodal association cortices and minimal in the sensorimotor cortices. The frontoparietal control network exhibited strong within-hemisphere interactions but with distinct patterns in each hemisphere. The frontoparietal control network preferentially coupled to the default network and language-related regions in the left hemisphere but to attention networks in the right hemisphere. This arrangement may facilitate control of processing functions that are lateralized. Moreover, the regions most linked to asymmetric specialization also display the highest degree of evolutionary cortical expansion. Functional specialization that emphasizes processing within a hemisphere may allow the expanded hominin brain to minimize between-hemisphere connectivity and distribute domain-specific processing functions. PMID:25209275

  10. Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Gard, Tim; Taquet, Maxime; Dixit, Rohan; Hölzel, Britta K; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Brach, Narayan; Salat, David H; Dickerson, Bradford C; Gray, Jeremy R; Lazar, Sara W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the normal age-related decline of neural structure, function, and cognitive performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that meditation may reduce decline in specific cognitive domains and in brain structure. Here we extended this research by investigating the relation between age and fluid intelligence and resting state brain functional network architecture using graph theory, in middle-aged yoga and meditation practitioners, and matched controls. Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls. Furthermore, mindfulness was positively correlated with fluid intelligence, resilience, and global network efficiency. These findings reveal the possibility to increase resilience and to slow the decline of fluid intelligence and brain functional architecture and suggest that mindfulness plays a mechanistic role in this preservation. PMID:24795629

  11. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed. PMID:23256049

  12. Cognitive consonance: complex brain functions in the fruit fly and its relatives

    E-print Network

    Cognitive consonance: complex brain functions in the fruit fly and its relatives Ralph J. Greenspan The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a model for the study of a growing number of human of their arachnid relatives, as well as specific probing of the capabilities of fruit flies, suggests that even

  13. Deep-Brain Electrical Microstimulation Is an Effective Tool to Explore Functional Characteristics of Somatosensory Neurons in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han-Jia; Chen, Kuang-Hsuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan

    2015-01-01

    In neurophysiology researches, peripheral stimulation is used along with recordings of neural activities to study the processing of somatosensory signals in the brain. However, limited precision of peripheral stimulation makes it difficult to activate the neuron with millisecond resolution and study its functional properties in this scale. Also, tissue/receptor damage that could occur in some experiments often limits the amount of responses that can be recorded and hence reduces data reproducibility. To overcome these limitations, electrical microstimulation (ES) of the brain could be used to directly and more precisely evoke neural responses. For this purpose, a deep-brain ES protocol for rat somatosensory relay neurons was developed in this study. Three male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The ES was applied to the thalamic region responsive to hindpaw tactile stimulation (TS) via a theta glass microelectrode. The resulting ES-evoked cortical responses showed action potentials and thalamocortical relay latencies very similar to those evoked by TS. This result shows that the developed deep-brain ES protocol is an effective tool to bypass peripheral tissue for in vivo functional analysis of specific types of somatosensory neurons. This protocol could be readily applied in researches of nociception and other somatosensory systems to allow more extensive exploration of the neural functional networks. PMID:25695538

  14. Task-specific brain reorganization in motor recovery induced by a hybrid-rehabilitation combining training with brain stimulation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Sagara, Akiko; Ikkaku, Tomoko; Shimada, Kenji; Kanematsu, Madoka; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Domen, Kazuhisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we have developed a new hybrid-rehabilitation combining 5Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and extensor motor training of the paretic upper-limb for stroke patients with flexor hypertonia. We previously showed that the extensor-specific plastic change in M1 was associated with beneficial effects of our protocol (Koganemaru et al., 2010). Here, we investigated whether extensor-specific multiregional brain reorganization occurred after the hybrid-rehabilitation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven chronic stroke patients were scanned while performing upper-limb extensor movements. Untrained flexor movements were used as a control condition. The scanning and clinical assessments were done before, immediately and 2 weeks after the hybrid-rehabilitation. As a result, during the trained extensor movements, the imaging analysis showed a significant reduction of brain activity in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex, the contralesional cingulate motor cortex and the contralesional premotor cortex in association with functional improvements of the paretic hands. The activation change was not found for the control condition. Our results suggested that use-dependent plasticity induced by repetitive motor training with brain stimulation might be related to task-specific multi-regional brain reorganization. It provides a key to understand why repetitive training of the target action is one of the most powerful rehabilitation strategies to help patients. PMID:25450315

  15. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. PMID:26396520

  16. [Functional imaging of deep brain stimulation in idiopathic Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hilker, R

    2010-10-01

    Functional brain imaging allows the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the living human brain to be investigated. In patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), positron emission tomography (PET) studies were undertaken at rest as well as under motor, cognitive or behavioral activation. DBS leads to a reduction of abnormal PD-related network activity in the motor system, which partly correlates with the improvement of motor symptoms. The local increase of energy consumption within the direct target area suggests a predominant excitatory influence of the stimulation current on neuronal tissue. Remote effects of DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on frontal association cortices indicate an interference of stimulation energy with associative and limbic basal ganglia loops. Taken together, functional brain imaging provides very valuable data for advancement of the DBS technique in PD therapy. PMID:20798917

  17. Resiliency of EEG-Based Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Applying tools available in network science and graph theory to study brain networks has opened a new era in understanding brain mechanisms. Brain functional networks extracted from EEG time series have been frequently studied in health and diseases. In this manuscript, we studied failure resiliency of EEG-based brain functional networks. The network structures were extracted by analysing EEG time series obtained from 30 healthy subjects in resting state eyes-closed conditions. As the network structure was extracted, we measured a number of metrics related to their resiliency. In general, the brain networks showed worse resilient behaviour as compared to corresponding random networks with the same degree sequences. Brain networks had higher vulnerability than the random ones (P < 0.05), indicating that their global efficiency (i.e., communicability between the regions) is more affected by removing the important nodes. Furthermore, the breakdown happened as a result of cascaded failures in brain networks was severer (i.e., less nodes survived) as compared to randomized versions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that real EEG-based networks have not been evolved to possess optimal resiliency against failures. PMID:26295341

  18. Specific absorbed fractions of energy from internal photon sources in brain tumor and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.F. )); Stubbs, J.B. )

    1995-03-01

    Transferrin, radiolabeled with In-111, can be coinjected into glioblastoma multiforme lesions, and subsequent scintigraphic imaging can demonstrate the biokinetics of the cytotoxic transferrin. The administration of [sup 111]In transferrin into a brain tumor results in distribution of radioactivity in the brain, brain tumor, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Information about absorbed radiation doses to these regions, as well as other nearby tissues and organs, is important for evaluating radiation-related risks from this procedure. The radiation dose is usually estimated for a mathematical representation of the human body. We have included source/target regions for the eye, lens of the eye, spinal column, spinal CSF, cranial CSF, and a 100-g tumor within the brain of an adult male phantom developed by Cristy and Eckerman. The spinal column, spinal CSF, and the eyes have not been routinely included in photon transport simulations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) as a function of photon energy were calculated using the ALGAMP computer code, which utilizes Monte Carlo techniques for simulating photon transport. The ALGAMP code was run three times, with the source activity distributed uniformly within the tumor, cranial CSF, and the spinal CSF volumes. These SAFs, which were generated for 12 discrete photon energies ranging from 0.01 to 4.0 MeV, were used with decay scheme data to calculate [ital S]-values needed for estimating absorbed doses. [ital S]-values for [sup 111]In are given for three source regions (brain tumor, cranial CSF, and spinal CSF) and all standard target regions/organs, the eye and lens, as well as to tissues within these source regions. [ital S]-values for the skeletal regions containing active marrow are estimated. These results are useful in evaluating the radiation doses from intracranial administration of [sup 111]In transferrin.

  19. Local sleep homeostasis in the avian brain: convergence of sleep function in mammals and birds?

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Wilzeck, Christiane; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2011-01-01

    The function of the brain activity that defines slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in mammals is unknown. During SWS, the level of electroencephalogram slow wave activity (SWA or 0.5–4.5 Hz power density) increases and decreases as a function of prior time spent awake and asleep, respectively. Such dynamics occur in response to waking brain use, as SWA increases locally in brain regions used more extensively during prior wakefulness. Thus, SWA is thought to reflect homeostatically regulated processes potentially tied to maintaining optimal brain functioning. Interestingly, birds also engage in SWS and REM sleep, a similarity that arose via convergent evolution, as sleeping reptiles and amphibians do not show similar brain activity. Although birds deprived of sleep show global increases in SWA during subsequent sleep, it is unclear whether avian sleep is likewise regulated locally. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first electrophysiological evidence for local sleep homeostasis in the avian brain. After staying awake watching David Attenborough's The Life of Birds with only one eye, SWA and the slope of slow waves (a purported marker of synaptic strength) increased only in the hyperpallium—a primary visual processing region—neurologically connected to the stimulated eye. Asymmetries were specific to the hyperpallium, as the non-visual mesopallium showed a symmetric increase in SWA and wave slope. Thus, hypotheses for the function of mammalian SWS that rely on local sleep homeostasis may apply also to birds. PMID:21208955

  20. Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically collapse data from many subjects, but brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a 'fingerprint' that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual's connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence: the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects on the basis of functional connectivity fMRI. PMID:26457551

  1. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  2. PET scans relate clinical picture to more specific nerve function

    SciTech Connect

    Ziporyn, T.

    1985-02-15

    This article describes the historical development of the use of positron emission tomography in studies of brain chemistry and the specific pathways associated with specific disease states. Fluorine-18 is used to label dopa since dopa can cross the blood-brain barrier. This radiopharmaceutical has been used to study the role of dopamine in Parkinson's disease and other motor disorders. The new PET technologies may also allow insight into the cause of variable responses to levo-dopa therapy.

  3. Fractal analysis of resting state functional connectivity of the brain

    E-print Network

    Fractal analysis of resting state functional connectivity of the brain Wonsang You1 , Sophie Achard neuroimaging data tend to exhibit fractal behavior where their power spectrums follow power-law scaling. Resting state functional connectivity is signicantly inuenced by fractal behav- ior which may not directly

  4. Analyzing complex functional brain networks: Fusing statistics and network science to understand the brain*†

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Sean L.; Bowman, F. DuBois; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Complex functional brain network analyses have exploded over the last decade, gaining traction due to their profound clinical implications. The application of network science (an interdisciplinary offshoot of graph theory) has facilitated these analyses and enabled examining the brain as an integrated system that produces complex behaviors. While the field of statistics has been integral in advancing activation analyses and some connectivity analyses in functional neuroimaging research, it has yet to play a commensurate role in complex network analyses. Fusing novel statistical methods with network-based functional neuroimage analysis will engender powerful analytical tools that will aid in our understanding of normal brain function as well as alterations due to various brain disorders. Here we survey widely used statistical and network science tools for analyzing fMRI network data and discuss the challenges faced in filling some of the remaining methodological gaps. When applied and interpreted correctly, the fusion of network scientific and statistical methods has a chance to revolutionize the understanding of brain function. PMID:25309643

  5. Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Local inhibitory plasticity tunes macroscopic brain dynamics and allows the emergence of functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Peter J; Jachs, Barbara; Clopath, Claudia; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rich, spontaneous brain activity has been observed across a range of different temporal and spatial scales. These dynamics are thought to be important for efficient neural functioning. A range of experimental evidence suggests that these neural dynamics are maintained across a variety of different cognitive states, in response to alterations of the environment and to changes in brain configuration (e.g., across individuals, development and in many neurological disorders). This suggests that the brain has evolved mechanisms to maintain rich dynamics across a broad range of situations. Several mechanisms based around homeostatic plasticity have been proposed to explain how these dynamics emerge from networks of neurons at the microscopic scale. Here we explore how a homeostatic mechanism may operate at the macroscopic scale: in particular, focusing on how it interacts with the underlying structural network topology and how it gives rise to well-described functional connectivity networks. We use a simple mean-field model of the brain, constrained by empirical white matter structural connectivity where each region of the brain is simulated using a pool of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show, as with the microscopic work, that homeostatic plasticity regulates network activity and allows for the emergence of rich, spontaneous dynamics across a range of brain configurations, which otherwise show a very limited range of dynamic regimes. In addition, the simulated functional connectivity of the homeostatic model better resembles empirical functional connectivity network. To accomplish this, we show how the inhibitory weights adapt over time to capture important graph theoretic properties of the underlying structural network. Therefore, this work presents suggests how inhibitory homeostatic mechanisms facilitate stable macroscopic dynamics to emerge in the brain, aiding the formation of functional connectivity networks. PMID:26348562

  7. Laterality Patterns of Brain Functional Connectivity: Gender Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism). PMID:21878483

  8. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  9. Brain-Specific Superoxide Dismutase 2 Deficiency Causes Perinatal Death with Spongiform Encephalopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Izuo, Naotaka; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Kojima, Shuji; Sasaki, Toru; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegeneration. Impairment of mitochondrial energy production and increased mitochondrial oxidative damage are considered early pathological events that lead to neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that converts toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the pathological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the central nervous system, we generated brain-specific SOD2-deficient mice (B-Sod2?/?) using nestin-Cre-loxp system. B-Sod2?/? showed perinatal death, along with severe growth retardation. Interestingly, these mice exhibited spongiform neurodegeneration in motor cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem, accompanied by gliosis. In addition, the mutant mice had markedly decreased mitochondrial complex II activity, but not complex I or IV, in the brain based on enzyme histochemistry. Furthermore, brain lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the B-Sod2?/?, without any compensatory alterations of the activities of other antioxidative enzymes, such as catalase or glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that SOD2 protects the neural system from oxidative stress in the perinatal stage and is essential for infant survival and central neural function in mice. PMID:26301039

  10. Functionally Enigmatic Genes: A Case Study of the Brain Ignorome

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng; Homayouni, Ramin; Williams, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function? In what ways do these functionally enigmatic genes differ from well-studied genes? To address these two questions, we devised a computational approach that defines so-called ignoromes. As proof of principle, we extracted and analyzed a large subset of genes with intense and selective expression in brain. We find that publications associated with this set are highly skewed—the top 5% of genes absorb 70% of the relevant literature. In contrast, approximately 20% of genes have essentially no neuroscience literature. Analysis of the ignorome over the past decade demonstrates that it is stubbornly persistent, and the rapid expansion of the neuroscience literature has not had the expected effect on numbers of these genes. Surprisingly, ignorome genes do not differ from well-studied genes in terms of connectivity in coexpression networks. Nor do they differ with respect to numbers of orthologs, paralogs, or protein domains. The major distinguishing characteristic between these sets of genes is date of discovery, early discovery being associated with greater research momentum—a genomic bandwagon effect. Finally we ask to what extent massive genomic, imaging, and phenotype data sets can be used to provide high-throughput functional annotation for an entire ignorome. In a majority of cases we have been able to extract and add significant information for these neglected genes. In several cases—ELMOD1, TMEM88B, and DZANK1—we have exploited sequence polymorphisms, large phenome data sets, and reverse genetic methods to evaluate the function of ignorome genes. PMID:24523945

  11. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients’ quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other’s expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis. PMID:24921926

  12. Non-specific Perceptual Organization Deficits After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Costa, Thiago; Zaninotto, Ana; Benute, Gláucia; Lúcia, Mara; Paiva, Wellingson; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; Boggio, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a prevalent condition and there is limited visual perception research of this population. Here, we investigated perceptual organization changes in 15 closed head TBI outpatients (and age-matched controls) with diffuse axonal injury only (a fundamental clinical manifestation of TBI) and no other known comorbidities. Patients had normal or corrected visual acuity and differed in the time since the lesion (between 4 and 9 months). Perceptual organization was measured with the Leuven Perceptual Organization Screening Test (L-POST), a coherent motion task (CM) and the Leuven Embedded Figures Test (L-EFT). These tests were chosen to screen for deficits in different aspects of perceptual organization (L-POST), to evaluate local and global processing (L-EFT) and grouping in a dynamic set of stimuli (CM). TBI was significantly impaired compared to controls in all measures for both reaction time and accuracy, except for CM thresholds (p=0.23). Repeated measures ANOVA showed that the TBI group was similarly affected in all aspects of the L-EFT (open vs. closed figures, different number of continued elements shared by figure and ground). TBI was also similarly affected in all perceptual factors of the L-POST (perceptual grouping, figure-ground segmentation, parts in wholes, and shape discrimination). No significant correlations were found between scores and time since lesion, except for CM (rs=-0.65), which might explain the lack of group-level differences in CM. The only scores significantly correlated to IQ were L-EFT reaction times (rs=-0.58) and parts in wholes L-POST factor (rs=0.62). These findings demonstrate that perceptual organization is diffusely affected in TBI and this effect has no substantial correlations with IQ. As many of the neuropsychological tests used to measure different cognitive functions involve some level of visual discrimination and perceptual organization demands, these results must be taken into account in the general neuropsychological evaluation of TBI patients. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326533

  13. Bilingual brain organization: a functional magnetic resonance adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Milner, Brenda; Crane, Joelle; Belin, Pascal; Bouffard, Marc

    2006-05-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMRA) to examine whether intra-voxel functional specificity may be present for first (L1)- and second (L2)-language processing. We examined within- and across-language adaptation for spoken words in English-French bilinguals who had acquired their L2 after the age of 4 years. Subjects listened to words presented binaurally through earphones. In two control conditions (one for each language), six identical words were presented to obtain maximal adaptation. The remaining six conditions each consisted of five words that were identical followed by a sixth word that differed. There were thus a total of eight experimental conditions: no-change (sixth word identical to first five); a change in meaning (different final word in L1); a change in language (final item translated into L2); a change in meaning and language (different final word in L2). The same four conditions were presented in L2. The study also included a silent baseline. At the neural level, within- and across-language word changes resulted in release from adaptation. This was true for separate analyses of L1 and L2. We saw no evidence for greater recovery from adaptation in across-language relative to within-language conditions. While many brain regions were common to L1 and L2, we did observe differences in adaptation for forward translation (L1 to L2) as compared to backward translation (L2 to L1). The results support the idea that, at the lexical level, the neural substrates for L1 and L2 in bilinguals are shared, but with some populations of neurons within these shared regions showing language-specific responses. PMID:16460968

  14. Fine-grained mapping of mouse brain functional connectivity with resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mechling, Anna E; Hübner, Neele S; Lee, Hsu-Lei; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Harsan, Laura-Adela

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the intrinsic circuit-level functional organization of the brain has benefited tremendously from the advent of resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI). In humans, resting-state functional network has been consistently mapped and its alterations have been shown to correlate with symptomatology of various neurological or psychiatric disorders. To date, deciphering the mouse brain functional connectivity (MBFC) with rsfMRI remains a largely underexplored research area, despite the plethora of human brain disorders that can be modeled in this specie. To pave the way from pre-clinical to clinical investigations we characterized here the intrinsic architecture of mouse brain functional circuitry, based on rsfMRI data acquired at 7T using the Cryoprobe technology. High-dimensional spatial group independent component analysis demonstrated fine-grained segregation of cortical and subcortical networks into functional clusters, overlapping with high specificity onto anatomical structures, down to single gray matter nuclei. These clusters, showing a high level of stability and reliability in their patterning, formed the input elements for computing the MBFC network using partial correlation and graph theory. Its topological architecture conserved the fundamental characteristics described for the human and rat brain, such as small-worldness and partitioning into functional modules. Our results additionally showed inter-modular interactions via "network hubs". Each major functional system (motor, somatosensory, limbic, visual, autonomic) was found to have representative hubs that might play an important input/output role and form a functional core for information integration. Moreover, the rostro-dorsal hippocampus formed the highest number of relevant connections with other brain areas, highlighting its importance as core structure for MBFC. PMID:24718287

  15. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  16. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, Susan

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating ...

  17. Functional constraints in the evolution of brain circuits

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Conrado A.; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of major anatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, the vertebrate isocortex shows a remarkably well-conserved organization. In the isocortex, reciprocal connections between excitatory and inhibitory neurons are distributed across multiple layers, encompassing modular, dynamical and recurrent functional networks during information processing. These dynamical brain networks are often organized in neuronal assemblies interacting through rhythmic phase relationships. Accordingly, these oscillatory interactions are observed across multiple brain scale levels, and they are associated with several sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. Most notably, oscillatory interactions are also found in the complete spectrum of vertebrates. Yet, it is unknown why this functional organization is so well conserved in evolution. In this perspective, we propose some ideas about how functional requirements of the isocortex can account for the evolutionary stability observed in microcircuits across vertebrates. We argue that isocortex architectures represent canonical microcircuits resulting from: (i) the early selection of neuronal architectures based on the oscillatory excitatory-inhibitory balance, which lead to the implementation of compartmentalized oscillations and (ii) the subsequent emergence of inferential coding strategies (predictive coding), which are able to expand computational capacities. We also argue that these functional constraints may be the result of several advantages that oscillatory activity contributes to brain network processes, such as information transmission and code reliability. In this manner, similarities in mesoscale brain circuitry and input-output organization between different vertebrate groups may reflect evolutionary constraints imposed by these functional requirements, which may or may not be traceable to a common ancestor. PMID:26388716

  18. Functional constraints in the evolution of brain circuits.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Conrado A; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of major anatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, the vertebrate isocortex shows a remarkably well-conserved organization. In the isocortex, reciprocal connections between excitatory and inhibitory neurons are distributed across multiple layers, encompassing modular, dynamical and recurrent functional networks during information processing. These dynamical brain networks are often organized in neuronal assemblies interacting through rhythmic phase relationships. Accordingly, these oscillatory interactions are observed across multiple brain scale levels, and they are associated with several sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. Most notably, oscillatory interactions are also found in the complete spectrum of vertebrates. Yet, it is unknown why this functional organization is so well conserved in evolution. In this perspective, we propose some ideas about how functional requirements of the isocortex can account for the evolutionary stability observed in microcircuits across vertebrates. We argue that isocortex architectures represent canonical microcircuits resulting from: (i) the early selection of neuronal architectures based on the oscillatory excitatory-inhibitory balance, which lead to the implementation of compartmentalized oscillations and (ii) the subsequent emergence of inferential coding strategies (predictive coding), which are able to expand computational capacities. We also argue that these functional constraints may be the result of several advantages that oscillatory activity contributes to brain network processes, such as information transmission and code reliability. In this manner, similarities in mesoscale brain circuitry and input-output organization between different vertebrate groups may reflect evolutionary constraints imposed by these functional requirements, which may or may not be traceable to a common ancestor. PMID:26388716

  19. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  20. A review on functional and structural brain connectivity in numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Only recently has the complex anatomo-functional system underlying numerical cognition become accessible to evaluation in the living brain. We identified 27 studies investigating brain connectivity in numerical cognition. Despite considerable heterogeneity regarding methodological approaches, populations investigated, and assessment procedures implemented, the results provided largely converging evidence regarding the underlying brain connectivity involved in numerical cognition. Analyses of both functional/effective as well as structural connectivity have consistently corroborated the assumption that numerical cognition is subserved by a fronto-parietal network including (intra)parietal as well as (pre)frontal cortex sites. Evaluation of structural connectivity has indicated the involvement of fronto-parietal association fibers encompassing the superior longitudinal fasciculus dorsally and the external capsule/extreme capsule system ventrally. Additionally, commissural fibers seem to connect the bilateral intraparietal sulci when number magnitude information is processed. Finally, the identification of projection fibers such as the superior corona radiata indicates connections between cortex and basal ganglia as well as the thalamus in numerical cognition. Studies on functional/effective connectivity further indicated a specific role of the hippocampus. These specifications of brain connectivity augment the triple-code model of number processing and calculation with respect to how gray matter areas associated with specific number-related representations may work together. PMID:26029075

  1. Brain Areas Specific for Attentional Load in a Motion Tracking Task Jorge Jovicich1,2

    E-print Network

    Peters, Rob

    they were tracking or not. This gave an objective measure of tracking, with 50% being chance. Eye trackingBrain Areas Specific for Attentional Load in a Motion Tracking Task Jorge Jovicich1,2 , Robert J undetermined. Here we use fMRI to measure brain activity in humans as they covertly track a variable number

  2. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology

    E-print Network

    Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) mediates the development of sex-specific brain morphology March 1, 2000) Steroid hormone action during brain development exerts profound effects on reproductive physiology and behavior that last into adulthood. A variety of in vitro studies indicate that steroid

  3. Category-Specific Organization in the Human Brain Does Not Require Visual Experience

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Neuron Article Category-Specific Organization in the Human Brain Does Not Require Visual Experience Caramazza1,2,* 1Center for Mind/Brain Sciences (CIMeC), University of Trento, Rovereto, TN 38068, Italy 2). It is also known that occip- ital-temporal cortex in humans and nonhuman primates contains populations

  4. Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Matthias; Jung, Erik; Sahm, Felix; Solecki, Gergely; Venkataramani, Varun; Blaes, Jonas; Weil, Sophie; Horstmann, Heinz; Wiestler, Benedikt; Syed, Mustafa; Huang, Lulu; Ratliff, Miriam; Karimian Jazi, Kianush; Kurz, Felix T; Schmenger, Torsten; Lemke, Dieter; Gömmel, Miriam; Pauli, Martin; Liao, Yunxiang; Häring, Peter; Pusch, Stefan; Herl, Verena; Steinhäuser, Christian; Krunic, Damir; Jarahian, Mostafa; Miletic, Hrvoje; Berghoff, Anna S; Griesbeck, Oliver; Kalamakis, Georgios; Garaschuk, Olga; Preusser, Matthias; Weiss, Samuel; Liu, Haikun; Heiland, Sabine; Platten, Michael; Huber, Peter E; Kuner, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Winkler, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting network allows multicellular communication through microtube-associated gap junctions. When damage to the network occurred, tumour microtubes were used for repair. Moreover, the microtube-connected astrocytoma cells, but not those remaining unconnected throughout tumour progression, were protected from cell death inflicted by radiotherapy. The neuronal growth-associated protein 43 was important for microtube formation and function, and drove microtube-dependent tumour cell invasion, proliferation, interconnection, and radioresistance. Oligodendroglial brain tumours were deficient in this mechanism. In summary, astrocytomas can develop functional multicellular network structures. Disconnection of astrocytoma cells by targeting their tumour microtubes emerges as a new principle to reduce the treatment resistance of this disease. PMID:26536111

  5. Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Gollub, Randy L; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-08-01

    Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, and default mode networks: SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN, and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable, with no significant changes of subjects' pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula, and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to interindividual differences in pain sensitivity. PMID:23718988

  6. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  7. ?7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Specific Antibody Induces Inflammation and Amyloid ?42 Accumulation in the Mouse Brain to Impair Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lykhmus, Olena; Voytenko, Larysa; Koval, Lyudmyla; Mykhalskiy, Sergiy; Kholin, Victor; Peschana, Kateryna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tzartos, Socrates; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in the brain are involved in regulating cognitive functions, as well as inflammatory reactions. Their density is decreased upon Alzheimer disease accompanied by accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?42), memory deficit and neuroinflammation. Previously we found that ?7 nAChR-specific antibody induced pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 production in U373 glioblastoma cells and that such antibodies were present in the blood of humans. We raised a hypothesis that ?7 nAChR-specific antibody can cause neuroinflammation when penetrating the brain. To test this, C57Bl/6 mice were either immunized with extracellular domain of ?7 nAChR subunit ?7(1-208) or injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 5 months. We studied their behavior and the presence of ?3, ?4, ?7, ?2 and ?4 nAChR subunits, A?40 and A?42 and activated astrocytes in the brain by sandwich ELISA and confocal microscopy. It was found that either LPS injections or immunizations with ?7(1-208) resulted in region-specific decrease of ?7 and ?4?2 and increase of ?3?4 nAChRs, accumulation of A?42 and activated astrocytes in the brain of mice and worsening of their episodic memory. Intravenously transferred ?7 nAChR-specific-antibodies penetrated the brain parenchyma of mice pre-injected with LPS. Our data demonstrate that (1) neuroinflammation is sufficient to provoke the decrease of ?7 and ?4?2 nAChRs, A?42 accumulation and memory impairment in mice and (2) ?7(1-208) nAChR-specific antibodies can cause inflammation within the brain resulting in the symptoms typical for Alzheimer disease. PMID:25816313

  8. Memory Function Before and After Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With and Without Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Grit Fleckenstein, Katharina; Schaefer, Joerg; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Mai, Sabine K.; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) on memory function in patients with and without brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with and without brain metastases (n = 44) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before RT (T0), after starting RT (T1), at the end of RT (T2), and 6-8 weeks (T3) after RT completion. Data were obtained from small-cell lung cancer patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation, patients with brain metastases treated with therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), and breast cancer patients treated with RT to the breast. Results: Before therapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation patients performed worse than TCI patients or than controls on most test scores. During and after WBRT, verbal memory function was influenced by pretreatment cognitive status (p < 0.001) and to a lesser extent by WBRT. Acute (T1) radiation effects on verbal memory function were only observed in TCI patients (p = 0.031). Subacute (T3) radiation effects on verbal memory function were observed in both TCI and prophylactic cranial irradiation patients (p = 0.006). These effects were more pronounced in patients with above-average performance at baseline. Visual memory and attention were not influenced by WBRT. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that WBRT causes cognitive dysfunction immediately after the beginning of RT in patients with brain metastases only. At 6-8 weeks after the end of WBRT, cognitive dysfunction was seen in patients with and without brain metastases. Because cognitive dysfunction after WBRT is restricted to verbal memory, patients should not avoid WBRT because of a fear of neurocognitive side effects.

  9. Abnormal circling behavior in rat mutants and its relevance to model specific brain dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Circling or rotational behavior is the most studied indicator of cerebral asymmetry in the rat. In humans, disturbances in cerebral asymmetry are involved in the etiology of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Abnormal rotational behavior in rodents is indicative of either an imbalance of forebrain dopamine systems, particularly an imbalance of nigrostriatal function, or an inner ear disease affecting the vestibular (balance) system. Abnormally enhanced circling behavior has been described in several mutant rat and mouse strains both with and without defects of the vestibular system. However, the relationship between vestibular defects and lateralized circling in rodents is only incompletely understood. In this review, we describe and discuss various spontaneous mutations associated with abnormal circling behavior in different rat strains and their potential relevance to model specific brain dysfunctions. The circling rat mutants described in this review illustrate how genetic animal models may serve to study multifaceted brain functions and dysfunctions, including disorders of the basal ganglia and vestibular system. PMID:19607857

  10. Gender and brain regions specific differences in brain derived neurotrophic factor protein levels of depressed individuals who died through suicide.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Shawn; Du, Lisheng; Litteljohn, Darcy; Palkovits, Miklós; Faludi, Gábor; Merali, Zul; Poulter, Michael O; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-23

    Considerable evidence supports the view that depressive illness and suicidal behaviour stem from perturbations of neuroplasticity. Presently, we assessed whether depressed individuals who died by suicide displayed brain region-specific changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and whether such effects varied by gender. Using postmortem samples from non-psychiatric controls and depressed individuals who died by suicide, BDNF protein levels were assessed within the hippocampus and frontopolar prefrontal cortex using Western blot. As expected, BDNF levels were reduced within the frontopolar prefrontal cortex among female depressed suicides; however, males showed no such effect. Contrastingly, within the hippocampus, depressed male but not female suicides displayed significant reductions of BDNF protein levels. Although the mechanisms driving the gender and brain region specific BDNF changes are unclear, our data do support the notion that complex alterations of neuroplasticity may be fundamentally involved in the illness. PMID:26033186

  11. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. {yields} BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. {yields} Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. {yields} BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, {beta}-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  12. Complex function in the dynamic brain. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Luiz Pessoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael L.

    2014-09-01

    There is much to commend in this excellent overview of the progress we've made toward-and the challenges that remain for-developing an empirical framework for neuroscience that is adequate to the dynamic complexity of the brain [17]. Here I will limit myself first to highlighting the concept of dynamic affiliation, which I take to be the central feature of the functional architecture of the brain, and second to clarifying Pessoa's brief discussion of the ontology of cognition, to be sure readers appreciate this crucial issue.

  13. Whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R.L.; Ypma, R.J.F.; Holt, R.J.; Floris, D.; Chura, L.R.; Spencer, M.D.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Suckling, J.; Bullmore, E.; Rubinov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Endophenotypes are heritable and quantifiable markers that may assist in the identification of the complex genetic underpinnings of psychiatric conditions. Here we examined global hypoconnectivity as an endophenotype of autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). We studied well-matched groups of adolescent males with autism, genetically-related siblings of individuals with autism, and typically-developing control participants. We parcellated the brain into 258 regions and used complex-network analysis to detect a robust hypoconnectivity endophenotype in our participant group. We observed that whole-brain functional connectivity was highest in controls, intermediate in siblings, and lowest in ASC, in task and rest conditions. We identified additional, local endophenotype effects in specific networks including the visual processing and default mode networks. Our analyses are the first to show that whole-brain functional hypoconnectivity is an endophenotype of autism in adolescence, and may thus underlie the heritable similarities seen in adolescents with ASC and their relatives. PMID:26413477

  14. Localization of asymmetric brain function in emotion and depression

    E-print Network

    Banich, Marie T.

    Localization of asymmetric brain function in emotion and depression JOHN D. HERRINGTON,a WENDY the hypothesis that emotion processes are related to asymmetric patterns of fMRI activity, particularly within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Eleven depressed and 18 control participants identified the color

  15. A Journal of Brain Function Editors-in-Chief

    E-print Network

    Jonides, John

    Robert Turner London, UK John Watson Camperdown,Australia Roger Woods Los Angeles, USA Keith J. Worsley#12;A Journal of Brain Function Editors-in-Chief Arthur W. Toga Richard S. J. Frackowiak John CBonhoeffer Munich, Germany Marie-Francoise Chesselet Philadelphia, USA Lawrence B. Cohen New Haven, USA Luder Deecke

  16. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Carmustine Delivery to a Patient-Specific Brain Tumor

    E-print Network

    Arifin, Davis Yohanes

    This study presents the recent development of three-dimensional patient-specific simulation of carmustine delivery to brain tumor that highlights several crucial factors affecting the delivery. The simulation utilizes the ...

  17. Functional craniology and brain evolution: from paleontology to biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Emiliano; de la Cuétara, José Manuel; Masters, Michael; Amano, Hideki; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modeling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes. PMID:24765064

  18. Function of insulin in snail brain in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S; Sunada, H; Mita, K; Sakakibara, M; Lukowiak, K; Ito, E

    2015-10-01

    Insulin is well known as a hormone regulating glucose homeostasis across phyla. Although there are insulin-independent mechanisms for glucose uptake in the mammalian brain, which had contributed to a perception of the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ for decades, the finding of insulin and its receptors in the brain revolutionized the concept of insulin signaling in the brain. However, insulin's role in brain functions, such as cognition, attention, and memory, remains unknown. Studies using invertebrates with their open blood-vascular system have the promise of promoting a better understanding of the role played by insulin in mediating/modulating cognitive functions. In this review, the relationship between insulin and its impact on long-term memory (LTM) is discussed particularly in snails. The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has the ability to undergo conditioned taste aversion (CTA), that is, it associatively learns and forms LTM not to respond with a feeding response to a food that normally elicits a robust feeding response. We show that molluscan insulin-related peptides are up-regulated in snails exhibiting CTA-LTM and play a key role in the causal neural basis of CTA-LTM. We also survey the relevant literature of the roles played by insulin in learning and memory in other phyla. PMID:26233474

  19. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  20. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Vanhove, Christian; Descamps, Benedicte; Dauwe, Ine; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Keereman, Vincent; Raedt, Robrecht; Boon, Paul; Van Holen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were <0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Our data indicate that real-time hippocampal DBS evokes a bilateral BOLD response in hippocampal and other mesolimbic structures, depending on the applied stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS. PMID:26193653

  1. The Functional Connectivity Landscape of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Zainab; Jonides, John; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment. PMID:25350370

  2. The Role of Noise in Brain Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Llinás, R.

    2012-12-01

    Noise plays a fundamental role in all living organisms from the earliest prokaryotes to advanced mammalian forms, such as ourselves. In the context of living organisms, the term 'noise' usually refers to the variance amongst measurements obtained from repeated identical experimental conditions, or from output signals from these systems. It is noteworthy that both these conditions are universally characterized by the presence of background fluctuations. In non-biological systems, such as electronics or in communications sciences, where the aim is to send error-free messages, noise was generally regarded as a problem. The discovery of Stochastic Resonances (SR) in non-linear dynamics brought a shift of perception where noise, rather than representing a problem, became fundamental to system function, especially so in biology. The question now is: to what extent is biological function dependent on random noise. Indeed, it seems feasible that noise also plays an important role in neuronal communication and oscillatory synchronization. Given this approach, it follows that determining Fisher information content could be relevant in neuronal communication. It also seems possible that the principle of least time, and that of the sum over histories, could be important basic principles in understanding the coherence dynamics responsible for action and perception. Ultimately, external noise cancellation combined with intrinsic noise signal embedding and, the use of the principle of least time may be considered an essential step in the organization of central nervous system (CNS) function.

  3. Given a simple noun such as apple, and a question such as ``Is it edible?,'' what processes take place in the human brain? More specifically, given the stimulus, what are the interactions between (groups of) neurons (also known as

    E-print Network

    Sobelman, Gerald E.

    processes take place in the human brain? More specifically, given the stimulus, what are the interactions? This type of communication is formally defined as functional connectivity of the human brain understanding of how the human brain works and can have a great impact both on machine and human learning

  4. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  5. Neuroleptic drugs in the human brain: clinical impact of persistence and region-specific distribution.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Riederer, Peter; Bleich, Stefan

    2006-08-01

    After discontinuation of neuroleptic agents, their effects are still present for a long time. The exact underlaying mechanisms are still unclear. In two previous studies we measured the concentrations and region-specific distribution of haloperidol (Kornhuber et al. 1999) and levomepromazine (Kornhuber et al. 2006) in postmortem human brain tissues. The aim of the present paper is to compare the results of these two studies. Even after short-term treatment, haloperidol and levomepromazine concentrations reach high levels in human brain tissue. Haloperidol concentrations in brain tissue are 10-30 times higher than the optimum serum concentrations in the treatment of schizophrenia. The brain-to-blood concentration ratio of levomepromazine is about 10. The estimated elimination half-life of these drugs in brain tissue are 6.8 days (haloperidol), 7.9 days (levomepromazine) and 27.8 days for the metabolite desmethyl-levomepromazine, respectively. After two half-lives (about 2 weeks), a considerable amount of drug remains in brain tissue. Haloperidol concentrations appeared to be homogeneously distributed across different brain areas, whereas levomepromazine shows a region-specific distribution, with highest values in the basal ganglia. The persistence of neuroleptic drugs in the human brain might explain their prolonged effects and side effects. The region-specific distribution of levomepromazine may increase our understanding of both the preferential toxicity of neuroleptic drugs against basal ganglia structures and higher basal ganglia volumes in patients treated with neuroleptics. PMID:16788768

  6. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM. PMID:25987956

  7. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain: functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna; Larsson, Henrik B W; Olesen, Jes; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. Design Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Setting Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. Participants 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. Main outcome measures Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas theme. Methods Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises Christmas. After scanning, participants answered a questionnaire about their Christmas traditions and the associations they have with Christmas. Brain activation maps from scanning were analysed for Christmas related activation in the “Christmas” and “non-Christmas” groups individually. Subsequently, differences between the two groups were calculated to determine Christmas specific brain activation. Results Significant clusters of increased BOLD activation in the sensory motor cortex, the premotor and primary motor cortex, and the parietal lobule (inferior and superior) were found in scans of people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. Conclusions There is a “Christmas spirit network” in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further research is necessary to understand this and other potential holiday circuits in the brain. Although merry and intriguing, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26676562

  8. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Wood, Stephen A.; Melega, William P.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-? pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of proteome changes underlying both nigrostriatal pathways and other brain regions potentially involved in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. The observed molecular changes provide a valuable reference resource for future hypothesis-driven functional studies of PD.

  9. Mining topological structures of protein-protein interaction networks for human brain-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Cui, W J; Gong, X J; Yu, H; Zhang, X C

    2015-01-01

    Compared to other placental mammals, humans have unique thinking and cognitive abilities because of their developed cerebral cortex composed of billions of neurons and synaptic connections. As the primary effectors of the mechanisms of life, proteins and their interactions form the basis of cellular and molecular functions in the living body. In this paper, we developed a pipeline for mining topological structures, identifying functional modules, and analyzing their functions from publically available datasets. A human brain-specific protein-protein interaction network with 1482 nodes and 3105 edges was built using a MapReduce based shortest path algorithm. Within this, 7 functional cliques were identified using a network clustering method, 98 hub proteins were obtained by the calculation of betweenness and connectivity, and 5 closest relationship to clique connector proteins were recognized by the combination scores of topological distance and gene ontology similarity. Furthermore, we discovered functional modules interacting with TP53 protein, which involves several fragmented research study conclusions and might be an important clue for further in vivo or in silico experiments to confirm these associations. PMID:26505393

  10. A Network Analysis Approach to fMRI Condition-Specific Functional Connectivity

    E-print Network

    Svetlana V. Shinkareva; Vladimir Gudkov; Jing Wang

    2010-08-03

    In this work we focus on examination and comparison of whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI across experimental conditions. Direct examination and comparison of condition-specific matrices is challenging due to the large number of elements in a connectivity matrix. We present a framework that uses network analysis to describe condition-specific functional connectivity. Treating the brain as a complex system in terms of a network, we extract the most relevant connectivity information by partitioning each network into clusters representing functionally connected brain regions. Extracted clusters are used as features for predicting experimental condition in a new data set. The approach is illustrated on fMRI data examining functional connectivity patterns during processing of abstract and concrete concepts. Topological (brain regions) and functional (level of connectivity and information flow) systematic differences in the ROI-based functional networks were identified across participants for concrete and abstract concepts. These differences were sufficient for classification of previously unseen connectivity matrices as abstract or concrete based on training data derived from other people.

  11. Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI in normal and pathological brain networks.

    PubMed

    Guye, Maxime; Bettus, Gaelle; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Cozzone, Patrick J

    2010-12-01

    Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI data (ie. diffusion tractography or cortical volume correlation and resting-state or task-related (effective) fMRI, respectively) has provided new measures of human brain organization in vivo. The most striking discovery is that the whole-brain network exhibits "small-world" properties shared with many other complex systems (social, technological, information, biological). This topology allows a high efficiency at different spatial and temporal scale with a very low wiring and energy cost. Its modular organization also allows for a high level of adaptation. In addition, degree distribution of brain networks demonstrates highly connected hubs that are crucial for the whole-network functioning. Many of these hubs have been identified in regions previously defined as belonging to the default-mode network (potentially explaining the high basal metabolism of this network) and the attentional networks. This could explain the crucial role of these hub regions in physiology (task-related fMRI data) as well as in pathophysiology. Indeed, such topological definition provides a reliable framework for predicting behavioral consequences of focal or multifocal lesions such as stroke, tumors or multiple sclerosis. It also brings new insights into a better understanding of pathophysiology of many neurological or psychiatric diseases affecting specific local or global brain networks such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Graph theoretical analysis of connectivity MRI data provides an outstanding framework to merge anatomical and functional data in order to better understand brain pathologies. PMID:20349109

  12. Effects of chronic peripheral olfactory loss on functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Kollndorfer, K; Jakab, A; Mueller, C A; Trattnig, S; Schöpf, V

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sensory loss on central processing in various sensory systems have already been described. The olfactory system holds the special ability to be activated by a sensorimotor act, without the presentation of an odor. In this study, we investigated brain changes related to chronic peripheral smell loss. We included 11 anosmic patients (eight female, three male; mean age, 43.5years) with smell loss after an infection of the upper respiratory tract (mean disease duration, 4.64years) and 14 healthy controls (seven female, seven male; mean age, 30.1years) in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with a sniffing paradigm. Data were analyzed using group-independent component analysis and functional connectivity analysis. Our results revealed a spatially intact olfactory network in patients, whereas major aberrations due to peripheral loss were observed in functional connectivity through a variety of distributed brain areas. This is the first study to show the re-organization caused by the lack of peripheral input. The results of this study indicate that anosmic patients hold the ability to activate an olfaction-related functional network through the sensorimotor component of odor-perception (sniffing). The areas involved were not different from those that emerged in healthy controls. However, functional connectivity appears to be different between the two groups, with a decrease in functional connectivity in the brain in patients with chronic peripheral sensory loss. We can further conclude that the loss of the sense of smell may induce far-reaching effects in the whole brain, which lead to compensatory mechanisms from other sensory systems due to the close interconnectivity of the olfactory system with other functional networks. PMID:26415766

  13. Quantitative analysis of group-specific brain tissue probability map for schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Uicheul; Lee, Jong-Min; Koo, B B; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, In Young; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Sun I

    2005-06-01

    We developed group-specific tissue probability map (TPM) for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the common spatial coordinates of an averaged brain atlas derived from normal controls (NC) and from schizophrenic patients (SZ). To identify differences in group-specific TPMs, we used quantitative evaluation methods based on differences in probabilistic distribution as a global criterion, and the mean probability and the similarity index (SI) by lobe as regional criteria. The SZ group showed more spatial variation with a lower mean probability than NC subjects. And, for the right temporal and left parietal lobes, the SI between each group was lower than the other lobes. It can be said that there were significant differences in spatial distribution between controls and schizophrenic patients at those areas. In case of female group, although group differences in the volumes of GM and WM were not significant, global difference in the probabilistic distribution of GM was more prominent and the SI was lower and its descent rate was greater in all lobes, compared with the male group. If these morphological differences caused by disease or group-specific features were not considered in TPM, the accuracy and certainty of specific group studies would be greatly reduced. Therefore, suitable TPM is required as a common framework for functional neuroimaging studies and an a priori knowledge of tissue classification. PMID:15907307

  14. In Vivo Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Neuropathology with Structural and Functional Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    LEVINE, BRIAN; FUJIWARA, ESTHER; O’CONNOR, CHARLENE; RICHARD, NADINE; KOVACEVIC, NATASA; MANDIC, MARINA; RESTAGNO, ADRIANA; EASDON, CRAIG; ROBERTSON, IAN H.; GRAHAM, SIMON J.; CHEUNG, GORDON; GAO, FUQIANG; SCHWARTZ, MICHAEL L.; BLACK, SANDRA E.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain structure and function. This paper reviews quantitative structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with TBI, with an emphasis on the effects of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), the primary neuropathology in TBI. Quantitative structural neuroimaging has evolved from simple planometric measurements through targeted region-of-interest analyses to whole-brain analysis of quantified tissue compartments. Recent studies converge to indicate widespread volume loss of both gray and white matter in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. These changes can be documented even when patients with focal lesions are excluded. Broadly speaking, performance on standard neuropsychological tests of speeded information processing are related to these changes, but demonstration of specific brain-behavior relationships requires more refined experimental behavioral measures. The functional consequences of these structural changes can be imaged with activation functional neuroimaging. Although this line of research is at an early stage, results indicate that TBI causes a more widely dispersed activation in frontal and posterior cortices. Further progress in analysis of the consequences of TBI on neural structure and function will require control of variability in neuropathology and behavior. PMID:17020478

  15. Functional role of endothelial adhesion molecules in the early stages of brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Serres, Sébastien; Anthony, Daniel C.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of disease in peripheral tissues cannot be extrapolated to the brain. Here, we have established the spatiotemporal expression of 12 key CAMs in the initial phases of tumor seeding in 2 different models of brain metastasis. Methods BALB/c or SCID mice were injected intracardially (105 cells/100 ?L phosphate-buffered saline with either 4T1-GFP or MDA231BR-GFP cells, respectively (n = 4–6/group), and expression of the CAMs was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence colocalisation. Results Endothelial expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, ALCAM, ICAM-1, VLA-4, and ?4 integrin was markedly increased early in tumor seeding. At the same time, the natural ligands to these adhesion molecules were highly expressed on the metastatic tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Two of these ligands showed particularly high tumor cell expression (ALCAM and VLA-4), and consequently their functional role in tumor seeding was determined. Antibody neutralization of either ALCAM or VLA-4 significantly reduced tumor seeding within the brain (>60% decrease in tumor number/mm2 brain; P < .05–0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that ALCAM/ALCAM and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions play an important functional role in the early stages of metastasis seeding in the brain. Moreover, this work identifies a specific subset of ligand-receptor interactions that may yield new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for brain metastasis. PMID:24311639

  16. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2014-01-01

    Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs. PMID:24822040

  17. The effect of sleep-specific brain activity versus reduced stimulus interference on declarative memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Weber, Friederike; Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Frase, Lukas; Riemann, Dieter; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Nissen, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    Studies suggest that the consolidation of newly acquired memories and underlying long-term synaptic plasticity might represent a major function of sleep. In a combined repeated-measures and parallel-group sleep laboratory study (active waking versus sleep, passive waking versus sleep), we provide evidence that brief periods of daytime sleep (42.1 ± 8.9 min of non-rapid eye movement sleep) in healthy adolescents (16 years old, all female), compared with equal periods of waking, promote the consolidation of declarative memory (word-pairs) in participants with high power in the electroencephalographic sleep spindle (sigma) frequency range. This observation supports the notion that sleep-specific brain activity when reaching a critical dose, beyond a mere reduction of interference, promotes synaptic plasticity in a hippocampal-neocortical network that underlies the consolidation of declarative memory. PMID:23398120

  18. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1?. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  19. Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation of SICE Matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjia; Zhou, Luping; Wang, Lei; Li, Wanqing

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) technique has been employed to model functional brain connectivity. The inverse covariance matrix (SICE matrix in short) estimated for each subject is used as a representation of brain connectivity to discriminate Alzheimers disease from normal controls. However, we observed that direct use of the SICE matrix does not necessarily give satisfying discrimination, due to its high dimensionality and the scarcity of training subjects. Looking into this problem, we argue that the intrinsic dimensionality of these SICE matrices shall be much lower, considering 1) an SICE matrix resides on a Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definiteness matrices, and 2) human brains share common patterns of connectivity across subjects. Therefore, we propose to employ manifold-based similarity measures and kernel-based PCA to extract principal connectivity components as a compact representation of brain network. Moreover, to cater for the requirement of both discrimination and interpretation in neuroimage analysis, we develop a novel preimage estimation algorithm to make the obtained connectivity components anatomically interpretable. To verify the efficacy of our method and gain insights into SICE-based brain networks, we conduct extensive experimental study on synthetic data and real rs-fMRI data from the ADNI dataset. Our method outperforms the comparable methods and improves the classification accuracy significantly. PMID:25667346

  20. Effect of brain shift on the creation of functional atlases for deep brain stimulation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Remple, Michael S.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Kao, Chris; Konrad, Peter E.; D’Haese, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In the recent past many groups have tried to build functional atlases of the deep brain using intra-operatively acquired information such as stimulation responses or micro-electrode recordings. An underlying assumption in building such atlases is that anatomical structures do not move between pre-operative imaging and intra-operative recording. In this study, we present evidences that this assumption is not valid. We quantify the effect of brain shift between pre-operative imaging and intra-operative recording on the creation of functional atlases using intra-operative somatotopy recordings and stimulation response data. Methods A total of 73 somatotopy points from 24 bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) implantations and 52 eye deviation stimulation response points from 17 bilateral STN implantations were used. These points were spatially normalized on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas using a fully automatic non-rigid registration algorithm. Each implantation was categorized as having low, medium or large brain shift based on the amount of pneumocephalus visible on post-operative CT. The locations of somatotopy clusters and stimulation maps were analyzed for each category. Results The centroid of the large brain shift cluster of the somatotopy data (posterior, lateral, inferior: 3.06, 11.27, 5.36 mm) was found posterior, medial and inferior to that of the medium cluster (2.90, 13.57, 4.53 mm) which was posterior, medial and inferior to that of the low shift cluster (1.94, 13.92, 3.20 mm). The coordinates are referenced with respect to the mid-commissural point. Euclidean distances between the centroids were 1.68, 2.44 and 3.59 mm, respectively for low-medium, medium-large and low-large shift clusters. We found similar trends for the positions of the stimulation maps. The Euclidian distance between the highest probability locations on the low and medium-large shift maps was 4.06 mm. Conclusion The effect of brain shift in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery has been demonstrated using intra-operative somatotopy recordings as well as stimulation response data. The results not only indicate that considerable brain shift happens before micro-electrode recordings in DBS but also that brain shift affects the creation of accurate functional atlases. Therefore, care must be taken when building and using such atlases of intra-operative data and also when using intra-operative data to validate anatomical atlases. PMID:20033503

  1. Glycolysis-mediated control of blood-brain barrier development and function.

    PubMed

    Salmina, Alla B; Kuvacheva, Natalia V; Morgun, Andrey V; Komleva, Yulia K; Pozhilenkova, Elena A; Lopatina, Olga L; Gorina, Yana V; Taranushenko, Tatyana E; Petrova, Lyudmila L

    2015-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of differentiated cells integrating in one ensemble to control transport processes between the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral blood. Molecular organization of BBB affects the extracellular content and cell metabolism in the CNS. Developmental aspects of BBB attract much attention in recent years, and barriergenesis is currently recognized as a very important and complex mechanism of CNS development and maturation. Metabolic control of angiogenesis/barriergenesis may be provided by glucose utilization within the neurovascular unit (NVU). The role of glycolysis in the brain has been reconsidered recently, and it is recognized now not only as a process active in hypoxic conditions, but also as a mechanism affecting signal transduction, synaptic activity, and brain development. There is growing evidence that glycolysis-derived metabolites, particularly, lactate, affect barriergenesis and functioning of BBB. In the brain, lactate produced in astrocytes or endothelial cells can be transported to the extracellular space via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), and may act on the adjoining cells via specific lactate receptors. Astrocytes are one of the major sources of lactate production in the brain and significantly contribute to the regulation of BBB development and functioning. Active glycolysis in astrocytes is required for effective support of neuronal activity and angiogenesis, while endothelial cells regulate bioavailability of lactate for brain cells adjusting its bidirectional transport through the BBB. In this article, we review the current knowledge with regard to energy production in endothelial and astroglial cells within the NVU. In addition, we describe lactate-driven mechanisms and action of alternative products of glucose metabolism affecting BBB structural and functional integrity in developing and mature brain. PMID:25900038

  2. Sleep Restriction Impairs Blood–Brain Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J.; Wang, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. PMID:25355222

  3. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family members. Additionally, while age had a relatively strong impact on all neurocognitive traits, the effects of age on cognition did not differ between diagnostic groups. Most brain-behaviour associations were also similar across the age range, with the exception of cortical and ventricular volume and lingual gyrus thickness, which showed weak correlations with verbal fluency and inhibitory control at younger ages that increased in magnitude in older subjects, regardless of diagnosis. Findings indicate that neuroanatomical traits potentially impacted by bipolar disorder are significantly associated with multiple neurobehavioural domains. Structure-function relationships are generally preserved across diagnostic groups, with the notable exception of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortex, volumetric increases in which may be associated with cognitive resilience specifically in individuals with bipolar disorder. Although age impacted all neurobehavioural traits, we did not find any evidence of accelerated cognitive decline specific to bipolar disorder subjects. Regardless of diagnosis, greater global brain volume may represent a protective factor for the effects of ageing on executive functioning. PMID:25943422

  4. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  5. Disrupted resting-state functional architecture of the brain after 45-day simulated microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Rao, Li-Lin; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Dang; Tan, Cheng; Tian, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Chun-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Shan-Guang; Li, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Long-term spaceflight induces both physiological and psychological changes in astronauts. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying these physiological and psychological changes, it is critical to investigate the effects of microgravity on the functional architecture of the brain. In this study, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to study whether the functional architecture of the brain is altered after 45 days of ?6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest, which is a reliable model for the simulation of microgravity. Sixteen healthy male volunteers underwent rs-fMRI scans before and after 45 days of ?6° HDT bed rest. Specifically, we used a commonly employed graph-based measure of network organization, i.e., degree centrality (DC), to perform a full-brain exploration of the regions that were influenced by simulated microgravity. We subsequently examined the functional connectivities of these regions using a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis. We found decreased DC in two regions, the left anterior insula (aINS) and the anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex (MCC; also called the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in many studies), in the male volunteers after 45 days of ?6° HDT bed rest. Furthermore, seed-based RSFC analyses revealed that a functional network anchored in the aINS and MCC was particularly influenced by simulated microgravity. These results provide evidence that simulated microgravity alters the resting-state functional architecture of the brains of males and suggest that the processing of salience information, which is primarily subserved by the aINS–MCC functional network, is particularly influenced by spaceflight. The current findings provide a new perspective for understanding the relationships between microgravity, cognitive function, autonomic neural function, and central neural activity. PMID:24926242

  6. Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Legault, Jennifer; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A

    2014-09-01

    The brain has an extraordinary ability to functionally and physically change or reconfigure its structure in response to environmental stimulus, cognitive demand, or behavioral experience. This property, known as neuroplasticity, has been examined extensively in many domains. But how does neuroplasticity occur in the brain as a function of an individual's experience with a second language? It is not until recently that we have gained some understanding of this question by examining the anatomical changes as well as functional neural patterns that are induced by the learning and use of multiple languages. In this article we review emerging evidence regarding how structural neuroplasticity occurs in the brain as a result of one's bilingual experience. Our review aims at identifying the processes and mechanisms that drive experience-dependent anatomical changes, and integrating structural imaging evidence with current knowledge of functional neural plasticity of language and other cognitive skills. The evidence reviewed so far portrays a picture that is highly consistent with structural neuroplasticity observed for other domains: second language experience-induced brain changes, including increased gray matter (GM) density and white matter (WM) integrity, can be found in children, young adults, and the elderly; can occur rapidly with short-term language learning or training; and are sensitive to age, age of acquisition, proficiency or performance level, language-specific characteristics, and individual differences. We conclude with a theoretical perspective on neuroplasticity in language and bilingualism, and point to future directions for research. PMID:24996640

  7. Identifying functional subdivisions in the human brain using meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Chu, Congying; Zhuo, Junjie; Wang, Jiaojian; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Parcellation of the human brain into fine-grained units by grouping voxels into distinct clusters has been an effective approach for delineating specific brain regions and their subregions. Published neuroimaging studies employing coordinate-based meta-analyses have shown that the activation foci and their corresponding behavioral categories may contain useful information about the anatomical-functional organization of brain regions. Inspired by these developments, we proposed a new parcellation scheme called meta-analytic activation modeling-based parcellation (MAMP) that uses meta-analytically obtained information. The raw meta data, including the experiments and the reported activation coordinates related to a brain region of interest, were acquired from the Brainmap database. Using this data, we first obtained the "modeled activation" pattern by modeling the voxel-wise activation probability given spatial uncertainty for each experiment that featured at least one focus within the region of interest. Then, we processed these "modeled activation" patterns across the experiments with a K-means clustering algorithm to group the voxels into different subregions. In order to verify the reliability of the method, we employed our method to parcellate the amygdala and the left Brodmann area 44 (BA44). The parcellation results were quite consistent with previous cytoarchitectonic and in vivo neuroimaging findings. Therefore, the MAMP proposed in the current study could be a useful complement to other methods for uncovering the functional organization of the human brain. PMID:26296500

  8. Reorganization of functionally connected brain subnetworks in high-functioning autism

    E-print Network

    Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Kujala, Rainer; Lahnakoski, Juha; Roine, Ulrika; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Leppämäki, Sami; Wendt, Taina Nieminen-von; Tani, Pekka; Saramäki, Jari; Sams, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous functional connectivity studies have found both hypo- and hyper-connectivity in brains of individuals having autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we studied abnormalities in functional brain subnetworks in high-functioning individuals with ASD during free viewing of a movie containing social cues and interactions. Methods: Thirteen subjects with ASD and 13 matched-pair controls watched a 68 minutes movie during functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each subject, we computed Pearson`s correlation between haemodynamic time-courses of each pair of 6-mm isotropic voxels. From the whole-brain functional networks, we derived individual and group-level subnetworks using graph theory. Scaled inclusivity was then calculated between all subject pairs to estimate intersubject similarity of connectivity structure of each subnetwork. Additional 27 individuals with ASD from the ABIDE resting-state database were included to test the reproducibility of the results. Results: Between-group differences...

  9. Brain function in epilepsy: midbrain, medullary, and cerebellar interaction with the rostral forebrain.

    PubMed

    Heath, R G

    1976-11-01

    Against the background previous findings in epileptic patients, in whom electroencephalographic recordings were obtained from numerous deep and surface brain sites during seizures, rhesus monkeys with electrodes implanted into specific brain sites were used to demonstrate anatomical connections by evoked potential techniques and to serve as models of experimental epilepsy. In the animals, many monosynaptic connections were revealed between forebrain sites consistently involved in seizures in patients and more caudal brain sites subserving functions of sensory perception, eye movement, synaptic chemical transmission, and motor coordination. Further, the participation of these interrelated sites during seizures was demonstrated. The findings provide an anatomical-physiological explanation for many of the clinical phenomena observed in epileptic patients and a rationale for the use of cerebellar stimulation as a treatment. PMID:827602

  10. Brain function in epilepsy: midbrain, medullary, and cerebellar interaction with the rostral forebrain.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, R G

    1976-01-01

    Against the background previous findings in epileptic patients, in whom electroencephalographic recordings were obtained from numerous deep and surface brain sites during seizures, rhesus monkeys with electrodes implanted into specific brain sites were used to demonstrate anatomical connections by evoked potential techniques and to serve as models of experimental epilepsy. In the animals, many monosynaptic connections were revealed between forebrain sites consistently involved in seizures in patients and more caudal brain sites subserving functions of sensory perception, eye movement, synaptic chemical transmission, and motor coordination. Further, the participation of these interrelated sites during seizures was demonstrated. The findings provide an anatomical-physiological explanation for many of the clinical phenomena observed in epileptic patients and a rationale for the use of cerebellar stimulation as a treatment. PMID:827602

  11. PROTEIN III, A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN: VARIANT FORMS FOUND IN HUMAN BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work in the laboratory has shown the presence of many neuron-specific phosphoproteins in the mammalian nervous system. Two of these proteins, Protein III and Synapsin I, are specifically associated with synaptic vesicles in neurons throughout the brain. Protein III consist...

  12. Global features of functional brain networks change with contextual disorder

    PubMed Central

    Andric, Michael; Hasson, Uri

    2015-01-01

    It is known that features of stimuli in the environment affect the strength of functional connectivity in the human brain. However, investigations to date have not converged in determining whether these also impact functional networks' global features, such as modularity strength, number of modules, partition structure, or degree distributions. We hypothesized that one environmental attribute that may strongly impact global features is the temporal regularity of the environment, as prior work indicates that differences in regularity impact regions involved in sensory, attentional and memory processes. We examined this with an fMRI study, in which participants passively listened to tonal series that had identical physical features and differed only in their regularity, as defined by the strength of transition structure between tones. We found that series-regularity induced systematic changes to global features of functional networks, including modularity strength, number of modules, partition structure, and degree distributions. In tandem, we used a novel node-level analysis to determine the extent to which brain regions maintained their within-module connectivity across experimental conditions. This analysis showed that primary sensory regions and those associated with default-mode processes are most likely to maintain their within-module connectivity across conditions, whereas prefrontal regions are least likely to do so. Our work documents a significant capacity for global-level brain network reorganization as a function of context. These findings suggest that modularity and other core, global features, while likely constrained by white-matter structural brain connections, are not completely determined by them. PMID:25988223

  13. Global features of functional brain networks change with contextual disorder.

    PubMed

    Andric, Michael; Hasson, Uri

    2015-08-15

    It is known that features of stimuli in the environment affect the strength of functional connectivity in the human brain. However, investigations to date have not converged in determining whether these also impact functional networks' global features, such as modularity strength, number of modules, partition structure, or degree distributions. We hypothesized that one environmental attribute that may strongly impact global features is the temporal regularity of the environment, as prior work indicates that differences in regularity impact regions involved in sensory, attentional and memory processes. We examined this with an fMRI study, in which participants passively listened to tonal series that had identical physical features and differed only in their regularity, as defined by the strength of transition structure between tones. We found that series-regularity induced systematic changes to global features of functional networks, including modularity strength, number of modules, partition structure, and degree distributions. In tandem, we used a novel node-level analysis to determine the extent to which brain regions maintained their within-module connectivity across experimental conditions. This analysis showed that primary sensory regions and those associated with default-mode processes are most likely to maintain their within-module connectivity across conditions, whereas prefrontal regions are least likely to do so. Our work documents a significant capacity for global-level brain network reorganization as a function of context. These findings suggest that modularity and other core, global features, while likely constrained by white-matter structural brain connections, are not completely determined by them. PMID:25988223

  14. Measures for characterizing directionality specific volume changes in TBM of brain growth

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Tensor based morphology (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods are unable to present direction-specific analysis of volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying brain developmental patterns in fetuses. Results show that this approach detects early changes local growth that are related to the early stages of sulcal and gyral formation. PMID:20879333

  15. Brain basis of early parent–infant interactions: psychology, physiology, and in vivo functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants’ current and future behavior. The parent–infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others’ expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain imaging experiments of parents. We begin with a discussion of background, perspectives and caveats for considering the neurobiology of parent–infant relationships. Then, we discuss aspects of the psychology of parenting that are significantly motivating some of the more basic neuroscience research. Following that, we discuss some of the neurohormones that are important for the regulation of social bonding, and the dysregulation of parenting with cocaine abuse. Then, we review the brain circuitry underlying parenting, proceeding from relevant rodent and nonhuman primate research to human work. Finally, we focus on a study-by-study review of functional neuroimaging studies in humans. Taken together, this research suggests that networks of highly conserved hypothalamic–midbrain–limbic–paralimbic–cortical circuits act in concert to support aspects of parent response to infants, including the emotion, attention, motivation, empathy, decision-making and other thinking that are required to navigate the complexities of parenting. Specifically, infant stimuli activate basal forebrain regions, which regulate brain circuits that handle specific nurturing and caregiving responses and activate the brain’s more general circuitry for handling emotions, motivation, attention, and empathy – all of which are crucial for effective parenting. We argue that an integrated understanding of the brain basis of parenting has profound implications for mental health. PMID:17355399

  16. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Jean; Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  17. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (??Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. Conclusions Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted. PMID:23116158

  18. Wavelets and statistical analysis of functional magnetic resonance images of the human brain

    E-print Network

    Breakspear, Michael

    Wavelets and statistical analysis of functional magnetic resonance images of the human brain Ed. Wavelets are particularly well suited to analysis of biological signals and images, such as human brain Bullmore Brain Mapping Unit and Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke

  19. Machine-learning to characterise neonatal functional connectivity in the preterm brain

    PubMed Central

    Ball, G.; Aljabar, P.; Arichi, T.; Tusor, N.; Cox, D.; Merchant, N.; Nongena, P.; Hajnal, J.V.; Edwards, A.D.; Counsell, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain development is adversely affected by preterm birth. Magnetic resonance image analysis has revealed a complex fusion of structural alterations across all tissue compartments that are apparent by term-equivalent age, persistent into adolescence and adulthood, and associated with wide-ranging neurodevelopment disorders. Although functional MRI has revealed the relatively advanced organisational state of the neonatal brain, the full extent and nature of functional disruptions following preterm birth remain unclear. In this study, we apply machine-learning methods to compare whole-brain functional connectivity in preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy term-born neonates in order to test the hypothesis that preterm birth results in specific alterations to functional connectivity by term-equivalent age. Functional connectivity networks were estimated in 105 preterm infants and 26 term controls using group-independent component analysis and a graphical lasso model. A random forest–based feature selection method was used to identify discriminative edges within each network and a nonlinear support vector machine was used to classify subjects based on functional connectivity alone. We achieved 80% cross-validated classification accuracy informed by a small set of discriminative edges. These edges connected a number of functional nodes in subcortical and cortical grey matter, and most were stronger in term neonates compared to those born preterm. Half of the discriminative edges connected one or more nodes within the basal ganglia. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity in the preterm brain is significantly altered by term-equivalent age, confirming previous reports of altered connectivity between subcortical structures and higher-level association cortex following preterm birth. PMID:26341027

  20. Machine-learning to characterise neonatal functional connectivity in the preterm brain.

    PubMed

    Ball, G; Aljabar, P; Arichi, T; Tusor, N; Cox, D; Merchant, N; Nongena, P; Hajnal, J V; Edwards, A D; Counsell, S J

    2016-01-01

    Brain development is adversely affected by preterm birth. Magnetic resonance image analysis has revealed a complex fusion of structural alterations across all tissue compartments that are apparent by term-equivalent age, persistent into adolescence and adulthood, and associated with wide-ranging neurodevelopment disorders. Although functional MRI has revealed the relatively advanced organisational state of the neonatal brain, the full extent and nature of functional disruptions following preterm birth remain unclear. In this study, we apply machine-learning methods to compare whole-brain functional connectivity in preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy term-born neonates in order to test the hypothesis that preterm birth results in specific alterations to functional connectivity by term-equivalent age. Functional connectivity networks were estimated in 105 preterm infants and 26 term controls using group-independent component analysis and a graphical lasso model. A random forest-based feature selection method was used to identify discriminative edges within each network and a nonlinear support vector machine was used to classify subjects based on functional connectivity alone. We achieved 80% cross-validated classification accuracy informed by a small set of discriminative edges. These edges connected a number of functional nodes in subcortical and cortical grey matter, and most were stronger in term neonates compared to those born preterm. Half of the discriminative edges connected one or more nodes within the basal ganglia. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity in the preterm brain is significantly altered by term-equivalent age, confirming previous reports of altered connectivity between subcortical structures and higher-level association cortex following preterm birth. PMID:26341027

  1. Alteration and reorganization of functional networks: a new perspective in brain injury study.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Nazareth P; Bajo, Ricardo; Cuesta, Pablo; Villacorta-Atienza, José Antonio; Paúl, Nuria; Garcia-Prieto, Juan; Del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity is the mechanism underlying the brain's potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown how functional connections among the brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various areas of the brain and it could be an essential tool for brain functional studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives, and clinical uses in brain injury studies. PMID:21960965

  2. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Ostatníková, Daniela; Hodosy, Július

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences. PMID:25741229

  3. Sequence harmony: detecting functional specificity from alignments

    PubMed Central

    Feenstra, K. Anton; Pirovano, Walter; Krab, Klaas; Heringa, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignments are often used for the identification of key specificity-determining residues within protein families. We present a web server implementation of the Sequence Harmony (SH) method previously introduced. SH accurately detects subfamily specific positions from a multiple alignment by scoring compositional differences between subfamilies, without imposing conservation. The SH web server allows a quick selection of subtype specific sites from a multiple alignment given a subfamily grouping. In addition, it allows the predicted sites to be directly mapped onto a protein structure and displayed. We demonstrate the use of the SH server using the family of plant mitochondrial alternative oxidases (AOX). In addition, we illustrate the usefulness of combining sequence and structural information by showing that the predicted sites are clustered into a few distinct regions in an AOX homology model. The SH web server can be accessed at www.ibi.vu.nl/programs/seqharmwww. PMID:17584793

  4. Internship MASTER 2012 Joint estimation of primary brain functional territories from BOLD functional

    E-print Network

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    Internship MASTER 2012 Joint estimation of primary brain functional territories from BOLD). Internship focus The internship work will make use of an already existing paradigm, which is a fast event replication to functional ASL. The internship work will be dedicated to adapt different image processing

  5. Reactivation of Context-Specific Brain Regions during Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Erin I.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Fernandes, Myra A.

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of recollection were examined using event-related functional MRI. We examined how the presence of different visual context information during encoding of target words influenced later recollection for the words presented alone at retrieval. Participants studied words presented with different pictures of faces or scrambled…

  6. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function in Brain Death: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Northrup, Jesse; Olcese, James

    2016-01-01

    The Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) states that an individual is dead when "all functions of the entire brain" have ceased irreversibly. However, it has been questioned whether some functions of the hypothalamus, particularly osmoregulation, can continue after the clinical diagnosis of brain death (BD). In order to learn whether parts of the hypothalamus can continue to function after the diagnosis of BD, we performed 2 separate systematic searches of the MEDLINE database, corresponding to the functions of the posterior and anterior pituitary. No meta-analysis is possible due to nonuniformity in the clinical literature. However, some modest generalizations can reasonably be drawn from a narrative review and from anatomic considerations that explain why these findings should be expected. We found evidence suggesting the preservation of hypothalamic function, including secretion of hypophysiotropic hormones, responsiveness to anterior pituitary stimulation, and osmoregulation, in a substantial proportion of patients declared dead by neurological criteria. We discuss several possible explanations for these findings. We conclude by suggesting that additional clinical research with strict inclusion criteria is necessary and further that a more nuanced and forthright public dialogue is needed, particularly since standard diagnostic practices and the UDDA may not be entirely in accord. PMID:24692211

  7. Effect of disease and recovery on functional anatomy in brain tumor patients: insights from functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Saleh, Emam; Huang, Raymond Y; Golby, Alexandra J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with brain tumors provide a unique opportunity to understand functional brain plasticity. Using advanced imaging techniques, such as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, we have gained tremendous knowledge of brain tumor behavior, transformation, infiltration and destruction of nearby structures. Using these advanced techniques as an adjunct with more proven techniques, such as direct cortical stimulation, intraoperative navigation and advanced microsurgical techniques, we now are able to better formulate safer resection trajectories, perform larger resections at reduced risk and better counsel patients and their families about possible complications. Brain mapping in patients with brain tumors and other lesions has shown us that the old idea of fixed function of the adult cerebral cortex is not entirely true. Improving care for patients with brain lesions in the future will depend on better understanding of the functional organization and plasticity of the adult brain. Advanced noninvasive brain imaging will undoubtedly play a role in advancing this understanding. PMID:24660024

  8. Functional Characterization of Germline Mutations in PDGFB and PDGFRB in Primary Familial Brain Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Andaloussi Mäe, Maarja; Nahar, Khayrun; Hornemann, Simone; Kenkel, David; Cunha, Sara I.; Lennartsson, Johan; Boss, Andreas; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Primary Familial Brain Calcification (PFBC), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive pericapillary calcifications, has recently been linked to heterozygous mutations in PDGFB and PDGFRB genes. Here, we functionally analyzed several of these mutations in vitro. All six analyzed PDGFB mutations led to complete loss of PDGF-B function either through abolished protein synthesis or through defective binding and/or stimulation of PDGF-R?. The three analyzed PDGFRB mutations had more diverse consequences. Whereas PDGF-R? autophosphorylation was almost totally abolished in the PDGFRB L658P mutation, the two sporadic PDGFRB mutations R987W and E1071V caused reductions in protein levels and specific changes in the intensity and kinetics of PLC? activation, respectively. Since at least some of the PDGFB mutations were predicted to act through haploinsufficiency, we explored the consequences of reduced Pdgfb or Pdgfrb transcript and protein levels in mice. Heterozygous Pdgfb or Pdgfrb knockouts, as well as double Pdgfb+/-;Pdgfrb+/- mice did not develop brain calcification, nor did Pdgfrbredeye/redeye mice, which show a 90% reduction of PDGFR? protein levels. In contrast, Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have altered tissue distribution of PDGF-B protein due to loss of a proteoglycan binding motif, developed brain calcifications. We also determined pericyte coverage in calcification-prone and non-calcification-prone brain regions in Pdgfbret/ret mice. Surprisingly and contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the calcification-prone brain regions in Pdgfbret/ret mice model had a higher pericyte coverage and a more intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) compared to non-calcification-prone brain regions. While our findings provide clear evidence that loss-of-function mutations in PDGFB or PDGFRB cause PFBC, they also demonstrate species differences in the threshold levels of PDGF-B/PDGF-R? signaling that protect against small-vessel calcification in the brain. They further implicate region-specific susceptibility factor(s) in PFBC pathogenesis that are distinct from pericyte and BBB deficiency. PMID:26599395

  9. Self-regulation of circumscribed brain activity modulates spatially selective and frequency specific connectivity of distributed resting state networks

    PubMed Central

    Vukeli?, Mathias; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of learning involved in brain self-regulation have still to be unveiled to exploit the full potential of this methodology for therapeutic interventions. This skill of volitionally changing brain activity presumably resembles motor skill learning which in turn is accompanied by plastic changes modulating resting state networks. Along these lines, we hypothesized that brain regulation and neurofeedback would similarly modify intrinsic networks at rest while presenting a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High-resolution electroencephalography preceded and followed a single neurofeedback training intervention of modulating circumscribed sensorimotor low ?-activity by kinesthetic motor imagery in eleven healthy participants. The participants were kept in the deliberative phase of skill acquisition with high demands for learning self-regulation through stepwise increases of task difficulty. By applying the corrected imaginary part of the coherency function, we observed increased functional connectivity of both the primary motor and the primary somatosensory cortex with their respective contralateral homologous cortices in the low ?-frequency band which was self-regulated during feedback. At the same time, the primary motor cortex—but none of the surrounding cortical areas—showed connectivity to contralateral supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas in the high ?-band. Simultaneously, the neurofeedback target displayed a specific increase of functional connectivity with an ipsilateral fronto-parietal network in the ?-band while presenting a de-coupling with contralateral primary and secondary sensorimotor areas in the very same frequency band. Brain self-regulation modifies resting state connections spatially selective to the neurofeedback target of the dominant hemisphere. These are anatomically distinct with regard to the cortico-cortical connectivity pattern and are functionally specific with regard to the time domain of coherent activity consistent with a Hebbian-like sharpening concept. PMID:26236207

  10. The effects of methylphenidate on whole brain intrinsic functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sophia; Costa, Anna; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver; Berman, Albert; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Ettinger, Ulrich; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is an indirect dopaminergic and noradrenergic agonist that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and that has shown therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, dementia, and Parkinson's disease. While effects of MPH on task-induced brain activation have been investigated, little is known about how MPH influences the resting brain. To investigate the effects of 40 mg of oral MPH on intrinsic functional connectivity, we used resting state fMRI in 54 healthy male subjects in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Functional connectivity analysis employing ICA revealed seven resting state networks (RSN) of interest. Connectivity strength between the dorsal attention network and the thalamus was increased after MPH intake. Other RSN located in association cortex areas, such as the left and right frontoparietal networks and the executive control network, showed MPH-induced connectivity increase to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions and connectivity decrease to cortical and subcortical components of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits (CST). RSN located in sensory-motor cortex areas showed the opposite pattern with MPH-induced connectivity increase to CST components and connectivity decrease to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions. Our results provide evidence that MPH does not only alter intrinsic connectivity between brain areas involved in sustained attention, but that it also induces significant changes in the cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity of many other cognitive and sensory-motor RSN. PMID:24862742

  11. Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-07-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is applied to functional brain imaging in living mice. A near-diffraction-limited bright-field optical illumination is employed to achieve micrometer lateral resolution, and a dual-wavelength measurement is utilized to extract the blood oxygenation information. The variation in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) along vascular branching has been imaged in a precapillary arteriolar tree and a postcapillary venular tree, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on in vivo volumetric imaging of brain microvascular morphology and oxygenation down to single capillaries through intact mouse skulls. It is anticipated that: (i) chronic imaging enabled by this minimally invasive procedure will advance the study of cortical plasticity and neurological diseases; (ii) revealing the neuroactivity-dependent changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation will facilitate the understanding of neurovascular coupling at the capillary level; and (iii) combining functional OR-PAM and high-resolution blood flowmetry will have the potential to explore cellular pathways of brain energy metabolism.

  12. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling and brain reward function

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynorphin-like peptides have profound effects on the state of the brain reward system and human and animal behavior. The dynorphin-like peptides affect locomotor activity, food intake, sexual behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and drug intake. Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors, the endogenous receptor for the dynorphin-like peptides, inhibits dopamine release in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen) and induces a negative mood state in humans and animals. The administration of drugs of abuse increases the release of dopamine in the striatum and mediates the concomitant release of dynorphin-like peptides in this brain region. The reviewed studies suggest that chronic drug intake leads to an upregulation of the brain dynorphin system in the striatum and in particular in the dorsal part of the striatum/caudate putamen. This might inhibit drug-induced dopamine release and provide protection against the neurotoxic effects of high dopamine levels. After the discontinuation of chronic drug intake these neuroadaptations remain unopposed which has been suggested to contribute to the negative emotional state associated with drug withdrawal and increased drug intake. Kappa-opioid receptor agonists have also been shown to inhibit calcium channels. Calcium channel inhibitors have antidepressant-like effects and inhibit the release of norepinephrine. This might explain that in some studies kappa-opioid receptor agonists attenuate nicotine and opioid withdrawal symptomatology. A better understanding of the role of dynorphins in the regulation of brain reward function might contribute to the development of novel treatments for mood disorders and other disorders that stem from a dysregulation of the brain reward system. PMID:19804796

  13. Regional specific regulation of steroid receptor coactivator-1 immunoreactivity by orchidectomy in the brain of adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chen; Zhang, Kaiyuan; Zhao, Yangang; Guo, Qiang; Cai, Wenqin; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Androgens including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone play important roles on brain structure and function, either directly through androgen receptor or indirectly through estrogen receptors, which need coactivators for their transcription activation. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) has been shown to be multifunctional potentials in the brain, but how it is regulated by androgens in the brain remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of orchidectomy (ORX) on the expression of SRC-1 in the adult male mice using nickel-intensified immunohistochemistry. The results showed that ORX induced dramatic decrease of SRC-1 immunoreactivity in the olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex, ventral pallidum, most parts of the septal area, hippocampus, substantia nigra (compact part), pontine nuclei and nucleus of the trapezoid body (p<0.01). Significant decrease of SRC-1 was noticed in the dorsal and lateral septal nucleus, medial preoptical area, dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and superior paraolivary nucleus (p<0.05). Whereas in other regions examined, levels of SRC-1 immunoreactivity were not obviously changed by ORX (p>0.05). The above results demonstrated ORX downregulation of SRC-1 in specific regions that have been involved in sense of smell, learning and memory, cognition, neuroendocrine, reproduction and motor control, indicating that SRC-1 play pivotal role in the mediating circulating androgenic regulation on these important brain functions. It also indicates that SRC-1 may serve as a novel target for the central disorders caused by the age-related decrease of circulating androgens. PMID:24945110

  14. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    PubMed Central

    Pamplona, Gustavo S. P.; Santos Neto, Gérson S.; Rosset, Sara R. E.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Salmon, Carlos E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding. PMID:25713528

  15. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  16. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina; Giannì, Costanza; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692

  17. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. PMID:25869858

  18. Motor skill failure or flow-experience? Functional brain asymmetry and brain connectivity in elite and amateur table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian; Brölz, Ellen; Keune, Philipp M; Wesa, Benjamin; Hautzinger, Martin; Birbaumer, Niels; Strehl, Ute

    2015-02-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetry is assumed to constitute one underlying neurophysiological mechanism of flow-experience and skilled psycho-motor performance in table tennis athletes. We hypothesized that when initiating motor execution during motor imagery, elite table tennis players show higher right- than left-hemispheric temporal activity and stronger right temporal-premotor than left temporal-premotor theta coherence compared to amateurs. We additionally investigated, whether less pronounced left temporal cortical activity is associated with more world rank points and more flow-experience. To this aim, electroencephalographic data were recorded in 14 experts and 15 amateur table tennis players. Subjects watched videos of an opponent serving a ball and were instructed to imagine themselves responding with a specific table tennis stroke. Alpha asymmetry scores were calculated by subtracting left from right hemispheric 8-13 Hz alpha power. 4-7 Hz theta coherence was calculated between temporal (T3/T4) and premotor (Fz) cortex. Experts showed a significantly stronger shift towards lower relative left-temporal brain activity compared to amateurs and a significantly stronger right temporal-premotor coherence than amateurs. The shift towards lower relative left-temporal brain activity in experts was associated with more flow-experience and lower relative left temporal activity was correlated with more world rank points. The present findings suggest that skilled psycho-motor performance in elite table tennis players reflect less desynchronized brain activity at the left hemisphere and more coherent brain activity between fronto-temporal and premotor oscillations at the right hemisphere. This pattern probably reflect less interference of irrelevant communication of verbal-analytical with motor-control mechanisms which implies flow-experience and predict world rank in experts. PMID:25616246

  19. SELECTIVE OESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS DIFFERENTIALLY POTENTIATE BRAIN MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Ronald W.; Yao, Jia; To, Jimmy; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity of the brain is important for long-term neurological health and is influenced by endocrine hormone responsiveness. This study aimed to determine the role of oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in regulating mitochondrial function using selective agonists for ER? (PPT) and ER? (DPN). Ovariectomised female rats were treated with 17?-oestradiol (E2), PPT, DPN or vehicle control. Both ER selective agonists significantly increased the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity relative to vehicle. Western blots of purified whole brain mitochondria detected ER? and to a greater extent, ER? localization. Pre-treatment with DPN, an ER? agonist, significantly increased ER? association with mitochondria. In hippocampus, DPN activated mitochondrial DNA-encoded COXI expression whereas PPT was ineffective indicating that mechanistically ER?, not ER?, activated mitochondrial transcriptional machinery. Both selective ER agonists increased protein expression of nuclear DNA-encoded COXIV suggesting that activation of ER? or ER? is sufficient. Selective ER agonists up-regulated a panel of bioenergetic enzymes and antioxidant defense proteins. Up-regulated proteins included pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, manganese superoxide dismutase, and peroxiredoxin V. In vitro, whole cell metabolism was assessed in live primary cultured hippocampal neurons and mixed glia. Results of in vitro analyses were consistent with in vivo data. Further, lipid peroxides, accumulated as a result of hormone deprivation, were significantly reduced by E2, PPT, and DPN. These findings suggest that activation of both ER? and ER? are differentially required to potentiate mitochondrial function in brain. As active components in hormone therapy, synthetically designed oestrogens as well as natural phyto-oestrogen cocktails can be tailored to improve brain mitochondrial endpoints. PMID:22070562

  20. specificity of genomics-based protein-function prediction, although whether specific experimental testing of protein

    E-print Network

    Lässig, Michael

    specificity of genomics-based protein-function prediction, although whether specific experimental testing of protein function prediction will ever catch up with the large number of function predictions of proteins that physically interact. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23, 324­328 2 Teichmann, S. and Babu, M. (2002

  1. Targeting brain tumor cAMP: the case for sex-specific therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Sun, Tao; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    A relationship between cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate (cAMP) levels and brain tumor biology has been evident for nearly as long as cAMP and its synthetase, adenylate cyclase (ADCY) have been known. The importance of the pathway in brain tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in vitro and in multiple animal models. Recently, we provided human validation for a cooperating oncogenic role for cAMP in brain tumorigenesis when we found that SNPs in ADCY8 were correlated with glioma (brain tumor) risk in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Together, these studies provide a strong rationale for targeting cAMP in brain tumor therapy. However, the cAMP pathway is well-known to be sexually dimorphic, and SNPs in ADCY8 affected glioma risk in a sex-specific fashion, elevating the risk for females while protecting males. The cAMP pathway can be targeted at multiple levels in the regulation of its synthesis and degradation. Sex differences in response to drugs that target cAMP regulators indicate that successful targeting of the cAMP pathway for brain tumor patients is likely to require matching specific mechanisms of drug action with patient sex. PMID:26283963

  2. Patient-specific semi-supervised learning for postoperative brain tumor segmentation.

    PubMed

    Meier, Raphael; Bauer, Stefan; Slotboom, Johannes; Wiest, Roland; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to preoperative brain tumor segmentation, the problem of postoperative brain tumor segmentation has been rarely approached so far. We present a fully-automatic segmentation method using multimodal magnetic resonance image data and patient-specific semi-supervised learning. The idea behind our semi-supervised approach is to effectively fuse information from both pre- and postoperative image data of the same patient to improve segmentation of the postoperative image. We pose image segmentation as a classification problem and solve it by adopting a semi-supervised decision forest. The method is evaluated on a cohort of 10 high-grade glioma patients, with segmentation performance and computation time comparable or superior to a state-of-the-art brain tumor segmentation method. Moreover, our results confirm that the inclusion of preoperative MR images lead to a better performance regarding postoperative brain tumor segmentation. PMID:25333182

  3. Brain Gut Microbiome Interactions and Functional Bowel Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Savidge, Tor; Shulman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the bidirectional interactions between the gut and the nervous system play an important role in IBS pathophysiology and symptom generation. A body of largely preclinical evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate these interactions. Characterizations of alterations of gut microbiota in unselected IBS patients, and assessment of changes in subjective symptoms associated with manipulations of the gut microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics support a small, but poorly defined role of dybiosis in overall IBS symptoms. It remains to be determined if the observed abnormalities are a consequence of altered top down signaling from the brain to the gut and microbiota, if they are secondary to a primary perturbation of the microbiota, and if they play a role in the development of altered brain gut interactions early in life. Different mechanisms may play role in subsets of patients. Characterization of gut microbiome alterations in large cohorts of well phenotyped patients as well as evidence correlating gut metabolites with specific abnormalities in the gut brain axis are required to answer these questions. PMID:24583088

  4. Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

  5. Some Problems for Representations of Brain Organization Based on Activation in Functional Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging has overshadowed traditional lesion studies in becoming the dominant approach to the study of brain-behavior relationships. The proponents of functional imaging studies frequently argue that this approach provides an advantage over lesion studies by observing normal brain activity in vivo without the disruptive effects of…

  6. New Approaches for Exploring Anatomical and Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Penny, Will

    REVIEWS New Approaches for Exploring Anatomical and Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain architecture of networks in the living human brain with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We also highlight transmission across networks in the human brain (functional and effective connectivity). Key Words: Diffusion

  7. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Alessandro G.; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J.; Edwards, A. David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level–dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. PMID:26491066

  8. Maturation of Sensori-Motor Functional Responses in the Preterm Brain.

    PubMed

    Allievi, Alessandro G; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Kimpton, Jessica; Arulkumaran, Sophie; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David; Burdet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth engenders an increased risk of conditions like cerebral palsy and therefore this time may be crucial for the brain's developing sensori-motor system. However, little is known about how cortical sensori-motor function matures at this time, whether development is influenced by experience, and about its role in spontaneous motor behavior. We aimed to systematically characterize spatial and temporal maturation of sensori-motor functional brain activity across this period using functional MRI and a custom-made robotic stimulation device. We studied 57 infants aged from 30 + 2 to 43 + 2 weeks postmenstrual age. Following both induced and spontaneous right wrist movements, we saw consistent positive blood oxygen level-dependent functional responses in the contralateral (left) primary somatosensory and motor cortices. In addition, we saw a maturational trend toward faster, higher amplitude, and more spatially dispersed functional responses; and increasing integration of the ipsilateral hemisphere and sensori-motor associative areas. We also found that interhemispheric functional connectivity was significantly related to ex-utero exposure, suggesting the influence of experience-dependent mechanisms. At term equivalent age, we saw a decrease in both response amplitude and interhemispheric functional connectivity, and an increase in spatial specificity, culminating in the establishment of a sensori-motor functional response similar to that seen in adults. PMID:26491066

  9. Automatic tissue segmentation of neonate brain MR Images with subject-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherel, Marie; Budin, Francois; Prastawa, Marcel; Gerig, Guido; Lee, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Lyall, Amanda; Zaldarriaga Consing, Kirsten; Styner, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Automatic tissue segmentation of the neonate brain using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is extremely important to study brain development and perform early diagnostics but is challenging due to high variability and inhomogeneity in contrast throughout the image due to incomplete myelination of the white matter tracts. For these reasons, current methods often totally fail or give unsatisfying results. Furthermore, most of the subcortical midbrain structures are misclassified due to a lack of contrast in these regions. We have developed a novel method that creates a probabilistic subject-specific atlas based on a population atlas currently containing a number of manually segmented cases. The generated subject-specific atlas is sharp and adapted to the subject that is being processed. We then segment brain tissue classes using the newly created atlas with a single-atlas expectation maximization based method. Our proposed method leads to a much lower failure rate in our experiments. The overall segmentation results are considerably improved when compared to using a non-subject-specific, population average atlas. Additionally, we have incorporated diffusion information obtained from Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) to improve the detection of white matter that is not visible at this early age in structural MRI (sMRI) due to a lack of myelination. Although this necessitates the acquisition of an additional sequence, the diffusion information improves the white matter segmentation throughout the brain, especially for the mid-brain structures such as the corpus callosum and the internal capsule.

  10. Automatic Tissue Segmentation of Neonate Brain MR Images with Subject-specific Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Marie; Budin, Francois; Prastawa, Marcel; Gerig, Guido; Lee, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Lyall, Amanda; Consing, Kirsten Zaldarriaga; Styner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic tissue segmentation of the neonate brain using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is extremely important to study brain development and perform early diagnostics but is challenging due to high variability and inhomogeneity in contrast throughout the image due to incomplete myelination of the white matter tracts. For these reasons, current methods often totally fail or give unsatisfying results. Furthermore, most of the subcortical midbrain structures are misclassified due to a lack of contrast in these regions. We have developed a novel method that creates a probabilistic subject-specific atlas based on a population atlas currently containing a number of manually segmented cases. The generated subject-specific atlas is sharp and adapted to the subject that is being processed. We then segment brain tissue classes using the newly created atlas with a single-atlas expectation maximization based method. Our proposed method leads to a much lower failure rate in our experiments. The overall segmentation results are considerably improved when compared to using a non-subject-specific, population average atlas. Additionally, we have incorporated diffusion information obtained from Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) to improve the detection of white matter that is not visible at this early age in structural MRI (sMRI) due to a lack of myelination. Although this necessitates the acquisition of an additional sequence, the diffusion information improves the white matter segmentation throughout the brain, especially for the mid-brain structures such as the corpus callosum and the internal capsule. PMID:26089584

  11. Scopolamine effects on functional brain connectivity: a pharmacological model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bajo, R; Pusil, S; López, M E; Canuet, L; Pereda, E; Osipova, D; Maestú, F; Pekkonen, E

    2015-01-01

    Scopolamine administration may be considered as a psychopharmacological model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied a group of healthy elderly under scopolamine to test whether it elicits similar changes in brain connectivity as those observed in AD, thereby verifying a possible model of AD impairment. We did it by testing healthy elderly subjects in two experimental conditions: glycopyrrolate (placebo) and scopolamine administration. We then analyzed magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data corresponding to both conditions in resting-state with eyes closed. This analysis was performed in source space by combining a nonlinear frequency band-specific measure of functional connectivity (phase locking value, PLV) with network analysis methods. Under scopolamine, functional connectivity between several brain areas was significantly reduced as compared to placebo, in most frequency bands analyzed. Besides, regarding the two complex network indices studied (clustering and shortest path length), clustering significantly decreased in the alpha band while shortest path length significantly increased also in alpha band both after scopolamine administration. Overall our findings indicate that both PLV and graph analysis are suitable tools to measure brain connectivity changes induced by scopolamine, which causes alterations in brain connectivity apparently similar to those reported in AD. PMID:26130273

  12. Scopolamine effects on functional brain connectivity: a pharmacological model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, R.; Pusil, S.; López, M. E.; Canuet, L.; Pereda, E.; Osipova, D.; Maestú, F.; Pekkonen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Scopolamine administration may be considered as a psychopharmacological model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we studied a group of healthy elderly under scopolamine to test whether it elicits similar changes in brain connectivity as those observed in AD, thereby verifying a possible model of AD impairment. We did it by testing healthy elderly subjects in two experimental conditions: glycopyrrolate (placebo) and scopolamine administration. We then analyzed magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data corresponding to both conditions in resting-state with eyes closed. This analysis was performed in source space by combining a nonlinear frequency band-specific measure of functional connectivity (phase locking value, PLV) with network analysis methods. Under scopolamine, functional connectivity between several brain areas was significantly reduced as compared to placebo, in most frequency bands analyzed. Besides, regarding the two complex network indices studied (clustering and shortest path length), clustering significantly decreased in the alpha band while shortest path length significantly increased also in alpha band both after scopolamine administration. Overall our findings indicate that both PLV and graph analysis are suitable tools to measure brain connectivity changes induced by scopolamine, which causes alterations in brain connectivity apparently similar to those reported in AD. PMID:26130273

  13. Functional design specification: NASA form 1510

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The 1510 worksheet used to calculate approved facility project cost estimates is explained. Topics covered include data base considerations, program structure, relationship of the 1510 form to the 1509 form, and functions which the application must perform: WHATIF, TENENTER, TENTYPE, and data base utilities. A sample NASA form 1510 printout and a 1510 data dictionary are presented in the appendices along with the cost adjustment table, the floppy disk index, and methods for generating the calculated values (TENCALC) and for calculating cost adjustment (CONSTADJ). Storage requirements are given.

  14. Mitochondrial activity and brain functions during cortical depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Sonn, Judith

    2008-12-01

    Cortical depolarization (CD) of the cerebral cortex could be developed under various pathophysiological conditions. In animal models, CD was recorded under partial or complete ischemia as well as when cortical spreading depression (SD) was induced externally or by internal stimulus. The development of CD in patients and the changes in various metabolic parameters, during CD, was rarely reported. Brain metabolic, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical responses to the CD event are dependent upon the O2 balance in the tissue. When the O2 balance is negative (i.e. ischemia), the CD process will be developed due to mitochondrial dysfunction, lack of energy and the inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. In contradiction, when oxygen is available (i.e. normoxia) the development of CD after induction of SD will accelerate mitochondrial respiration for retaining ionic homeostasis and normal brain functions. We used the multiparametric monitoring approach that enable real time monitoring of mitochondrial NADH redox state, microcirculatory blood flow and oxygenation, extracellular K+, Ca2+, H+ levels, DC steady potential and electrocorticogram (ECoG). This monitoring approach, provide a unique tool that has a significant value in analyzing the pathophysiology of the brain when SD developed under normoxia, ischemia, or hypoxia. We applied the same monitoring approach to patients suffered from severe head injury or exposed to neurosurgical procedures.

  15. Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N

    2004-02-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function. PMID:14645144

  16. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  17. Reinforcement-related brain potentials from medial frontal cortex: origins and functional significance

    E-print Network

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    Reinforcement-related brain potentials from medial frontal cortex: origins and functional brain potential in humans that was differentially sensitive to negative and positive performance depends crucially on the ability of the organism to discriminate between positive feedback, indicating

  18. Nanoparticle-mediated Brain-Specific Drug Delivery, Imaging, and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hu

    2010-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) diseases represent the largest and fastest growing area of unmet medical need. Nanotechnology plays a unique instrumental role in the revolutionary development of brain-specific drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis. With the aid of nanoparticles of high specificity and multifunctionality, such as dendrimers and quantum dots, therapeutics, imaging agents, and diagnostic molecules can be delivered to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), enabling considerable progress in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of CNS diseases. Nanoparticles used in the CNS for drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are reviewed, as well as their administration routes, toxicity, and routes to cross the BBB. Future directions and major challenges are outlined. PMID:20593303

  19. Individual Variability in Functional Connectivity Architecture of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sophia; Wang, Danhong; Fox, Michael D.; Thomas Yeo, B. T.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Shafee, Rebecca; Lu, Jie; Liu, Hesheng

    2013-01-01

    Summary The fact that people think or behave differently from one another is rooted in individual differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Here we used repeated-measurement resting-state functional MRI to explore inter-subject variability in connectivity. Individual differences in functional connectivity were heterogeneous across the cortex, with significantly higher variability in heteromodal association cortex and lower variability in unimodal cortices. Inter-subject variability in connectivity was significantly correlated with the degree of evolutionary cortical expansion, suggesting a potential evolutionary root of functional variability. The connectivity variability was also related to variability in sulcal depth but not cortical thickness, positively correlated with the degree of long-range connectivity but negatively correlated with local connectivity. A meta-analysis further revealed that regions predicting individual differences in cognitive domains are predominantly located in regions of high connectivity variability. Our findings have potential implications for understanding brain evolution and development, guiding intervention, and interpreting statistical maps in neuroimaging. PMID:23395382

  20. Anatomical and functional brain abnormalities in unmedicated major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Ma, Xiaojuan; Li, Mingli; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Liansheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to explore the mechanism of brain structure and function in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients and methods Fifty patients with MDD and 50 matched healthy control participants free of psychotropic medication underwent high-resolution structural and rsfMRI scanning. Optimized diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra and the Data Processing Assistant for rsfMRI were used to find potential differences in gray-matter volume (GMV) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) between the two groups. A Pearson correlation model was used to analyze associations of morphometric and functional changes with clinical symptoms. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significant GMV increase in the left posterior cingulate gyrus and GMV decrease in the left lingual gyrus (P<0.001, uncorrected). In ReHo analysis, values were significantly increased in the left precuneus and decreased in the left putamen (P<0.001, uncorrected) in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls. There was no overlap between anatomical and functional changes. Linear correlation suggested no significant correlation between mean GMV values within regions with anatomical abnormality and ReHo values in regions with functional abnormality in the patient group. These changes were not significantly correlated with symptom severity. Conclusion Our study suggests a dissociation pattern of brain regions with anatomical and functional alterations in unmedicated patients with MDD, especially with regard to GMV and ReHo. PMID:26425096

  1. Natural History of Brain Function, Quality of Life, and Seizure Control in Patients With Brain Tumor Who Have Undergone Surgery | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This trial studies the natural history of brain function, quality of life, and seizure control in patients with brain tumor who have undergone surgery. Learning about brain function, quality of life, and seizure control in patients with brain tumor who have undergone surgery may help doctors learn more about the disease and find better methods of treatment and on-going care.

  2. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Esmeralda; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Molina Del Rio, Jahaziel; López Elizalde, Ramiro; López, Manuel; Ontiveros, Angel

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial), constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed. PMID:25802778

  3. Functional genomics of human brain development and implications for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ziats, M N; Grosvenor, L P; Rennert, O M

    2015-01-01

    Transcription of the inherited DNA sequence into copies of messenger RNA is the most fundamental process by which the genome functions to guide development. Encoded sequence information, inherited epigenetic marks and environmental influences all converge at the level of mRNA gene expression to allow for cell-type-specific, tissue-specific, spatial and temporal patterns of expression. Thus, the transcriptome represents a complex interplay between inherited genomic structure, dynamic experiential demands and external signals. This property makes transcriptome studies uniquely positioned to provide insight into complex genetic-epigenetic-environmental processes such as human brain development, and disorders with non-Mendelian genetic etiologies such as autism spectrum disorders. In this review, we describe recent studies exploring the unique functional genomics profile of the human brain during neurodevelopment. We then highlight two emerging areas of research with great potential to increase our understanding of functional neurogenomics-non-coding RNA expression and gene interaction networks. Finally, we review previous functional genomics studies of autism spectrum disorder in this context, and discuss how investigations at the level of functional genomics are beginning to identify convergent molecular mechanisms underlying this genetically heterogeneous disorder. PMID:26506051

  4. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that “there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies” to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  5. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  6. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  7. Spatiotemporal-specific lncRNAs in the brain, colon, liver and lung of macaque during development.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xiao, Yun; Huang, Fei; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Hongying; Shi, Xinrui; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Han, Zujing; Luo, Longhai; Zhu, Qianhua; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Shujun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-11-10

    Genome-wide expression profiling during development provides useful information to uncover the potential molecular mechanisms of development in mammals. Recent studies have revealed that a subset of lncRNAs can regulate major biological processes during development. Here, we sequenced four tissues, including brain, colon, liver and lung, using RNA-seq across three developmental stages (early, middle and late stage), and then constructed genome-wide expression profiles during macaque development. In each tissue, we identified developmental time-specific lncRNA and mRNA clusters that displayed diverse expression alteration patterns, including a gradual increase, a gradual decrease, or a reversal of expression. These lncRNAs showed more specific functional associations with their corresponding tissues relative to the developmental time-specific mRNAs. Furthermore, we identified 20 spatiotemporal-specific co-modules including 101 lncRNAs and 609 mRNAs distributed at different developmental stages in different tissues. Our findings suggested that lncRNAs could play critical roles in the development of macaques through close cooperation with mRNAs. Finally, we predicted the functions of the spatiotemporal-specific lncRNAs by their spatiotemporal cooperation with mRNAs and further validated our findings using gene knockdown data of mouse. Our study reveals the spatiotemporal characteristics of lncRNAs and provides a functional map of the spatiotemporal-specific lncRNAs during the development of macaques. PMID:26456323

  8. Perturbation of Brain Oscillations after Ischemic Stroke: A Potential Biomarker for Post-Stroke Function and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rabiller, Gratianne; He, Ji-Wei; Nishijima, Yasuo; Wong, Aaron; Liu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    Brain waves resonate from the generators of electrical current and propagate across brain regions with oscillation frequencies ranging from 0.05 to 500 Hz. The commonly observed oscillatory waves recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG) in normal adult humans can be grouped into five main categories according to the frequency and amplitude, namely ? (1–4 Hz, 20–200 ?V), ? (4–8 Hz, 10 ?V), ? (8–12 Hz, 20–200 ?V), ? (12–30 Hz, 5–10 ?V), and ? (30–80 Hz, low amplitude). Emerging evidence from experimental and human studies suggests that groups of function and behavior seem to be specifically associated with the presence of each oscillation band, although the complex relationship between oscillation frequency and function, as well as the interaction between brain oscillations, are far from clear. Changes of brain oscillation patterns have long been implicated in the diseases of the central nervous system including ischemic stroke, in which the reduction of cerebral blood flow as well as the progression of tissue damage have direct spatiotemporal effects on the power of several oscillatory bands and their interactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge in behavior and function associated with each brain oscillation, and also in the specific changes in brain electrical activities that correspond to the molecular events and functional alterations observed after experimental and human stroke. We provide the basis of the generations of brain oscillations and potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying stroke-induced perturbation. We will also discuss the implications of using brain oscillation patterns as biomarkers for the prediction of stroke outcome and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26516838

  9. Perturbation of Brain Oscillations after Ischemic Stroke: A Potential Biomarker for Post-Stroke Function and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rabiller, Gratianne; He, Ji-Wei; Nishijima, Yasuo; Wong, Aaron; Liu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    Brain waves resonate from the generators of electrical current and propagate across brain regions with oscillation frequencies ranging from 0.05 to 500 Hz. The commonly observed oscillatory waves recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG) in normal adult humans can be grouped into five main categories according to the frequency and amplitude, namely ? (1-4 Hz, 20-200 ?V), ? (4-8 Hz, 10 ?V), ? (8-12 Hz, 20-200 ?V), ? (12-30 Hz, 5-10 ?V), and ? (30-80 Hz, low amplitude). Emerging evidence from experimental and human studies suggests that groups of function and behavior seem to be specifically associated with the presence of each oscillation band, although the complex relationship between oscillation frequency and function, as well as the interaction between brain oscillations, are far from clear. Changes of brain oscillation patterns have long been implicated in the diseases of the central nervous system including ischemic stroke, in which the reduction of cerebral blood flow as well as the progression of tissue damage have direct spatiotemporal effects on the power of several oscillatory bands and their interactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge in behavior and function associated with each brain oscillation, and also in the specific changes in brain electrical activities that correspond to the molecular events and functional alterations observed after experimental and human stroke. We provide the basis of the generations of brain oscillations and potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying stroke-induced perturbation. We will also discuss the implications of using brain oscillation patterns as biomarkers for the prediction of stroke outcome and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26516838

  10. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Hong, Sujin; Chung, Jun-Young; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness, and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas vs. non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas (SMA) between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain. PMID:26578939

  11. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Jakab, András; Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable morphological abnormalities. After adapting functional magnetic resonance acquisition, motion correction, and nuisance signal reduction procedures of resting-state functional data analysis to fetuses, we extracted neural activity information for major cortical and subcortical structures. Resting fMRI networks were observed for increasing regional functional connectivity from 21st to 38th gestational weeks (GWs) with a network-based statistical inference approach. The overall connectivity network, short range, and interhemispheric connections showed sigmoid expansion curve peaking at the 26–29 GW. In contrast, long-range connections exhibited linear increase with no periods of peaking development. Region-specific increase of functional signal synchrony followed a sequence of occipital (peak: 24.8 GW), temporal (peak: 26 GW), frontal (peak: 26.4 GW), and parietal expansion (peak: 27.5 GW). We successfully adapted functional neuroimaging and image post-processing approaches to correlate macroscopical scale activations in the fetal brain with gestational age. This in vivo study reflects the fact that the mid-fetal period hosts events that cause the architecture of the brain circuitry to mature, which presumably manifests in increasing strength of intra- and interhemispheric functional macro connectivity. PMID:25374531

  12. Recursive Cluster Elimination Based Support Vector Machine for Disease State Prediction Using Resting State Functional and Effective Brain Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Li, Zhihao; Santhanam, Priya; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hamann, Stephan; Hu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Background Brain state classification has been accomplished using features such as voxel intensities, derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, as inputs to efficient classifiers such as support vector machines (SVM) and is based on the spatial localization model of brain function. With the advent of the connectionist model of brain function, features from brain networks may provide increased discriminatory power for brain state classification. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we introduce a novel framework where in both functional connectivity (FC) based on instantaneous temporal correlation and effective connectivity (EC) based on causal influence in brain networks are used as features in an SVM classifier. In order to derive those features, we adopt a novel approach recently introduced by us called correlation-purged Granger causality (CPGC) in order to obtain both FC and EC from fMRI data simultaneously without the instantaneous correlation contaminating Granger causality. In addition, statistical learning is accelerated and performance accuracy is enhanced by combining recursive cluster elimination (RCE) algorithm with the SVM classifier. We demonstrate the efficacy of the CPGC-based RCE-SVM approach using a specific instance of brain state classification exemplified by disease state prediction. Accordingly, we show that this approach is capable of predicting with 90.3% accuracy whether any given human subject was prenatally exposed to cocaine or not, even when no significant behavioral differences were found between exposed and healthy subjects. Conclusions/Significance The framework adopted in this work is quite general in nature with prenatal cocaine exposure being only an illustrative example of the power of this approach. In any brain state classification approach using neuroimaging data, including the directional connectivity information may prove to be a performance enhancer. When brain state classification is used for disease state prediction, our approach may aid the clinicians in performing more accurate diagnosis of diseases in situations where in non-neuroimaging biomarkers may be unable to perform differential diagnosis with certainty. PMID:21151556

  13. The power of using functional fMRI on small rodents to study brain pharmacology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Jonckers, Elisabeth; Shah, Disha; Hamaide, Julie; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g., treatment, lesion etc.) modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI) and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI) between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with several methodological considerations. PMID:26539115

  14. Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  15. [Functional exploration of the brain by fMRI].

    PubMed

    Fall, S; de Marco, G

    2007-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) permits to obtain physiological information about MRI signal, which is modulated by electrical, biochemical, and physiological properties of the cerebral tissue. It is possible to characterize the brain interactions from an fMRI signal. Particularly, the use of a spectral analysis at a given frequency allows access to the time series chronology, which occurs within various activated areas of the brain. Thus, spectral parameters such as coherency and phase shift may be calculated from presupposed stationary stochastic signals and of an estimate of the cross-spectral power density function. Coherency describes a correlation structure in frequency domain between signals and thus allows obtaining an accurate estimate of the phase relation (time delay), which connects the signals between them. We describe in the last part of the article a calculation method integrating spectral information obtained previously and which makes it possible to evaluate the intensity of the existing interaction between two distinct cerebral areas. PMID:17996811

  16. Heritability of the network architecture of intrinsic brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Benjamin; Hansell, Narelle K; Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Martin, Nicholas G; Thompson, Paul M; Breakspear, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J; McMahon, Katie L

    2015-11-01

    The brain's functional network exhibits many features facilitating functional specialization, integration, and robustness to attack. Using graph theory to characterize brain networks, studies demonstrate their small-world, modular, and "rich-club" properties, with deviations reported in many common neuropathological conditions. Here we estimate the heritability of five widely used graph theoretical metrics (mean clustering coefficient (?), modularity (Q), rich-club coefficient (?norm), global efficiency (?), small-worldness (?)) over a range of connection densities (k=5-25%) in a large cohort of twins (N=592, 84 MZ and 89 DZ twin pairs, 246 single twins, age 23±2.5). We also considered the effects of global signal regression (GSR). We found that the graph metrics were moderately influenced by genetic factors h(2) (?=47-59%, Q=38-59%, ?norm=0-29%, ?=52-64%, ?=51-59%) at lower connection densities (?15%), and when global signal regression was implemented, heritability estimates decreased substantially h(2) (?=0-26%, Q=0-28%, ?norm=0%, ?=23-30%, ?=0-27%). Distinct network features were phenotypically correlated (|r|=0.15-0.81), and ?, Q, and ? were found to be influenced by overlapping genetic factors. Our findings suggest that these metrics may be potential endophenotypes for psychiatric disease and suitable for genetic association studies, but that genetic effects must be interpreted with respect to methodological choices. PMID:26226088

  17. [The stimulating impact of light on brain cognition function].

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating impact of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual impact of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating impact of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitive function and for cognition in general. PMID:25311026

  18. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  19. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain

  20. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  1. Computational modeling of high-level cognition and brain function.

    PubMed

    Just, M A; Carpenter, P A; Varma, S

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition, the proposed 4CAPS model accounts for the functional decomposition of the cognitive system and predicts fMRI activation levels and their localization within specific cortical regions, by incorporating key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. PMID:10524604

  2. Functional connectivity changes detected with magnetoencephalography after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Zouridakis, George; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may affect normal cognition and behavior by disrupting the functional connectivity networks that mediate efficient communication among brain regions. In this study, we analyzed brain connectivity profiles from resting state Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings obtained from 31 mTBI patients and 55 normal controls. We used phase-locking value estimates to compute functional connectivity graphs to quantify frequency-specific couplings between sensors at various frequency bands. Overall, normal controls showed a dense network of strong local connections and a limited number of long-range connections that accounted for approximately 20% of all connections, whereas mTBI patients showed networks characterized by weak local connections and strong long-range connections that accounted for more than 60% of all connections. Comparison of the two distinct general patterns at different frequencies using a tensor representation for the connectivity graphs and tensor subspace analysis for optimal feature extraction showed that mTBI patients could be separated from normal controls with 100% classification accuracy in the alpha band. These encouraging findings support the hypothesis that MEG-based functional connectivity patterns may be used as biomarkers that can provide more accurate diagnoses, help guide treatment, and monitor effectiveness of intervention in mTBI. PMID:26640764

  3. NR2B overexpression leads to the enhancement of specific protein phosphorylation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxia; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Yinghe; Wang, Huimin

    2014-11-01

    n-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) including the cerebral cortex, and it has been found that they contribute significantly to the processes of learning and memory. Dysfunctions of NMDARs are implicated in many neurological disorders. To further investigate the specific role of the NR2B subunit of NMDARs in brain functions, we have examined differences in gene expression in the cerebral cortex between NR2B transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates using the DNA microarray. Total of 179 differentially expressed genes were identified, including genes involved in ion channel activity and/or neurotransmission, signal transduction, structure/cytoskeleton, transcription, and hormone/growth factor activity. Signal pathway analysis has indicated that multiple pathways were involved in this process, especially the Mitogen-activated protein kinases/Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) pathway. The phosphorylation levels of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and the mRNA levels of CREB target genes (C-Fos and Nr4a1) were significantly upregulated in the cerebral cortices of NR2B transgenic mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Our study suggested that a chronic increase of NMDARs activation by NR2B overexpression in the forebrain may enhance the protein serine/threonine phosphorylation levels of MAPK/ERK-CREB and thereby regulated their signaling pathway. PMID:25128602

  4. Subject-specific prediction using nonlinear population modeling: application to early brain maturation from DTI.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Neda; Fletcher, P Thomas; Prastawa, Marcel; Gilmore, John H; Gerig, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The term prediction implies expected outcome in the future, often based on a model and statistical inference. Longitudinal imaging studies offer the possibility to model temporal change trajectories of anatomy across populations of subjects. In the spirit of subject-specific analysis, such normative models can then be used to compare data from new subjects to the norm and to study progression of disease or to predict outcome. This paper follows a statistical inference approach and presents a framework for prediction of future observations based on past measurements and population statistics. We describe prediction in the context of nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NLME) where the full reference population's statistics (estimated fixed effects, variance-covariance of random effects, variance of noise) is used along with the individual's available observations to predict its trajectory. The proposed methodology is generic in regard to application domains. Here, we demonstrate analysis of early infant brain maturation from longitudinal DTI with up to three time points. Growth as observed in DTI-derived scalar invariants is modeled with a parametric function, its parameters being input to NLME population modeling. Trajectories of new subject's data are estimated when using no observation, only the first or the first two time points. Leave-one-out experiments result in statistics on differences between actual and predicted observations. We also simulate a clinical scenario of prediction on multiple categories, where trajectories predicted from multiple models are classified based on maximum likelihood criteria. PMID:25320779

  5. Aromatase in the brain of teleost fish: expression, regulation and putative functions.

    PubMed

    Diotel, Nicolas; Le Page, Yann; Mouriec, Karen; Tong, Sok-Keng; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Vaillant, Colette; Anglade, Isabelle; Brion, François; Pakdel, Farzad; Chung, Bon-chu; Kah, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Unlike that of mammals, the brain of teleost fish exhibits an intense aromatase activity due to the strong expression of one of two aromatase genes (aromatase A or cyp19a1a and aromatase B or cyp19a1b) that arose from a gene duplication event. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and expression of GFP (green fluorescent protein) in transgenic tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) fish demonstrate that aromatase B is only expressed in radial glial cells (RGC) of adult fish. These cells persist throughout life and act as progenitors in the brain of both developing and adult fish. Although aromatase B-positive radial glial cells are most abundant in the preoptic area and the hypothalamus, they are observed throughout the entire central nervous system and spinal cord. In agreement with the fact that brain aromatase activity is correlated to sex steroid levels, the high expression of cyp19a1b is due to an auto-regulatory loop through which estrogens and aromatizable androgens up-regulate aromatase expression. This mechanism involves estrogen receptor binding on an estrogen response element located on the cyp19a1b promoter. Cell specificity is achieved by a mandatory cooperation between estrogen receptors and unidentified glial factors. Given the emerging roles of estrogens in neurogenesis, the unique feature of the adult fish brain suggests that, in addition to classical functions on brain sexual differentiation and sexual behaviour, aromatase expression in radial glial cells could be part of the mechanisms authorizing the maintenance of a high proliferative activity in the brain of fish. PMID:20116395

  6. Are Structural Changes Induced by Lithium in the HIV Brain Accompanied by Changes in Functional Connectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Leistritz, Lutz; Schifitto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Lithium therapy has been shown to affect imaging measures of brain function and microstructure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with cognitive impairment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to explore whether changes in brain microstructure also entail changes in functional connectivity. Functional MRI data of seven cognitively impaired HIV infected individuals enrolled in an open-label lithium study were included in the connectivity analysis. Seven regions of interest (ROI) were defined based on previously observed lithium induced microstructural changes measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC), based on time-variant multivariate autoregressive models, was used to quantify the degree of connectivity between the selected ROIs. Statistical analyses using a linear mixed model showed significant differences in the average node strength between pre and post lithium therapy conditions. Specifically, we found that lithium treatment in this population induced changes suggestive of increased strength in functional connectivity. Therefore, by exploiting the information about the strength of functional interactions provided by gPDC we can quantify the connectivity changes observed in relation to a given intervention. Furthermore, in conditions where the intervention is associated with clinical changes, we suggest that this methodology could enable an interpretation of such changes in the context of disease or treatment induced modulations in functional networks. PMID:26436895

  7. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Chronic Pain and the Emotional Brain: Specific Brain

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    ). Continuous ratings of fluctuations of spontaneous pain during functional magnetic resonance imaging werePFC activity was strongly related to intensity of CBP, and the region is known to be involved in negative emotions, response conflict, and detection of unfavorable outcomes, especially in relation to the self

  8. Functionalized nanoscale micelles with brain targeting ability and intercellular microenvironment biosensitivity for anti-intracranial infection applications.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kun; Zhang, Yu; Ding, Ning; Huang, Shixian; Wu, Jiqin; Li, Jianfeng; Yang, Chunfu; Leng, Qibin; Ye, Liya; Lou, Jinning; Zhu, Liping; Jiang, Chen

    2015-01-28

    Due to complication factors such as blood-brain barrier (BBB), integrating high efficiency of brain target ability with specific cargo releasing into one nanocarrier seems more important. A brain targeting nanoscale system is developed using dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as targeting moiety. DHA has high affinity with GLUT1 on BBB. More importantly, the GLUT1 transportation of DHA represents a "one-way" accumulative priority from blood into brain. The artificial micelles are fabricated by a disulfide linkage, forming a bio-responsive inner barrier, which can maintain micelles highly stable in circulation and shield the leakage of entrapped drug before reaching the targeting cells. The designed micelles can cross BBB and be further internalized by brain cells. Once within the cells, the drug release can be triggered by high intracellular level of glutathione (GSH). Itraconazole (ITZ) is selected as the model drug because of its poor brain permeability and low stability in blood. It demonstrates that the functionalized nanoscale micelles can achieve highly effective direct drug delivery to targeting site. Based on the markedly increased stability in blood circulation and improved brain delivery efficiency of ITZ, DHA-modified micelles show highly effective in anti-intracranial infection. Therefore, this smart nanodevice shows a promising application for the treatment of brain diseases. PMID:25124929

  9. Hash Function Luffa Specification Ver. 2.0

    E-print Network

    Kaminsky, Alan

    Hash Function Luffa Specification Ver. 2.0 Christophe De Canni`ere ESAT-COSIC, Katholieke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Chaining 8 3.1 Message Padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 Round Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.1 Message Injection Function for w = 3

  10. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.

    PubMed

    He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

    2010-05-13

    Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  11. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.; Zempel, John M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P ? f-?, are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with ? being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. PMID:20471349

  12. Specific targeting of brain tumors with an optical/magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobe across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Veiseh, Omid; Sun, Conroy; Fang, Chen; Bhattarai, Narayan; Gunn, Jonathan; Kievit, Forrest; Du, Kim; Pullar, Barbara; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Olson, Jim; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-08-01

    Nanoparticle-based platforms have drawn considerable attention for their potential effect on oncology and other biomedical fields. However, their in vivo application is challenged by insufficient accumulation and retention within tumors due to limited specificity to the target, and an inability to traverse biological barriers. Here, we present a nanoprobe that shows an ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically target brain tumors in a genetically engineered mouse model, as established through in vivo magnetic resonance and biophotonic imaging, and histologic and biodistribution analyses. The nanoprobe is comprised of an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with biocompatible polyethylene glycol-grafted chitosan copolymer, to which a tumor-targeting agent, chlorotoxin, and a near-IR fluorophore are conjugated. The nanoprobe shows an innocuous toxicity profile and sustained retention in tumors. With the versatile affinity of the targeting ligand and the flexible conjugation chemistry for alternative diagnostic and therapeutic agents, this nanoparticle platform can be potentially used for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of tumor types. PMID:19638572

  13. Abnormal functional global and local brain connectivity in female patients with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Daniel; Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton R.; Boehm, Ilka; Ritschel, Franziska; Zwipp, Johannes; Clas, Sabine; King, Joseph A.; Wolff-Stephan, Silvia; Roessner, Veit; Walter, Martin; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous resting-state functional connectivity studies in patients with anorexia nervosa used independent component analysis or seed-based connectivity analysis to probe specific brain networks. Instead, modelling the entire brain as a complex network allows determination of graph-theoretical metrics, which describe global and local properties of how brain networks are organized and how they interact. Methods To determine differences in network properties between female patients with acute anorexia nervosa and pairwise matched healthy controls, we used resting-state fMRI and computed well-established global and local graph metrics across a range of network densities. Results Our analyses included 35 patients and 35 controls. We found that the global functional network structure in patients with anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in both characteristic path length (longer average routes between nodes) and assortativity (more nodes with a similar connectedness link together). Accordingly, we found locally decreased connectivity strength and increased path length in the posterior insula and thalamus. Limitations The present results may be limited to the methods applied during preprocessing and network construction. Conclusion We demonstrated anorexia nervosa–related changes in the network configuration for, to our knowledge, the first time using resting-state fMRI and graph-theoretical measures. Our findings revealed an altered global brain network architecture accompanied by local degradations indicating wide-scale disturbance in information flow across brain networks in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Reduced local network efficiency in the thalamus and posterior insula may reflect a mechanism that helps explain the impaired integration of visuospatial and homeostatic signals in patients with this disorder, which is thought to be linked to abnormal representations of body size and hunger. PMID:26252451

  14. Role of cerebral blood volume changes in brain specific-gravity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Picozzi, P.; Todd, N.V.; Crockard, A.H.

    1985-05-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was calculated in gerbils from specific-gravity (SG) changes between normal and saline-perfused brains. Furthermore, changes in CBV were investigated during ischemia using carbon-14-labeled dextran (MW 70,000) as an intravascular marker. Both data were used to evaluate the possible error due to a change in CBV on the measurement of ischemic brain edema by the SG method. The methodological error found was 0.0004 for a 100% CBV change. This error is insignificant, being less than the standard deviation in the SG measured for the gerbil cortex. Thus, CBV changes are not responsible for the SG variations observed during the first phase of ischemia. These variations are better explained as an increase of brain water content during ischemia.

  15. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  16. Lag in maturation of the brain's intrinsic functional architecture in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Chandra S; Kessler, Daniel; Angstadt, Mike

    2014-09-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood, and there is great interest in understanding its neurobiological basis. A prominent neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes that ADHD involves a lag in brain maturation. Previous work has found support for this hypothesis, but examinations have been limited to structural features of the brain (e.g., gray matter volume or cortical thickness). More recently, a growing body of work demonstrates that the brain is functionally organized into a number of large-scale networks, and the connections within and between these networks exhibit characteristic patterns of maturation. In this study, we investigated whether individuals with ADHD (age 7.2-21.8 y) exhibit a lag in maturation of the brain's developing functional architecture. Using connectomic methods applied to a large, multisite dataset of resting state scans, we quantified the effect of maturation and the effect of ADHD at more than 400,000 connections throughout the cortex. We found significant and specific maturational lag in connections within default mode network (DMN) and in DMN interconnections with two task positive networks (TPNs): frontoparietal network and ventral attention network. In particular, lag was observed within the midline core of the DMN, as well as in DMN connections with right lateralized prefrontal regions (in frontoparietal network) and anterior insula (in ventral attention network). Current models of the pathophysiology of attention dysfunction in ADHD emphasize altered DMN-TPN interactions. Our finding of maturational lag specifically in connections within and between these networks suggests a developmental etiology for the deficits proposed in these models. PMID:25225387

  17. Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Functional Representation of Human Embryo Brain Models Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner Hirofumi embryo brain is organic and has many folds that are difficult to model or animate with conventional metamorphosis during the growth of some human embryo organs, partic- ularly brain and stomach. Popular methods

  18. Imaging Genomics: Mapping the Influence of Genetics on Brain Structure and Function

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    .e., heritable). Several articles in this Special Issue document the heritability of brain anatomy, as indexedCOMMENT Imaging Genomics: Mapping the Influence of Genetics on Brain Structure and Function David C, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas 2 Brain & Body Centre, University

  19. Categories and Functional Units: An Infinite Hierarchical Model for Brain Activations

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    Categories and Functional Units: An Infinite Hierarchical Model for Brain Activations Danial present a model that describes the structure in the responses of different brain areas to a set of stimuli encodes the relationship between brain activations and fMRI time courses. A variational inference

  20. Restoration of Function With Acupuncture Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jacob; Sparks, Linda; Deng, Yong; Langland, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    This case report illustrates the improvement of an acupuncture-treated patient who incurred a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a snowboarding accident. Over 4 years, the patient progressed from initially not being able to walk, having difficulty with speech, and suffering from poor eyesight to where he has now regained significant motor function, speech, and vision and has returned to snowboarding. A core acupuncture protocol plus specific points added to address the patient's ongoing concerns was used. This case adds to the medical literature by demonstrating the potential role of acupuncture in TBI treatment. PMID:26665023

  1. Peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase heterozygosity alters brain copper handling with region specificity.

    PubMed

    Gaier, Eric D; Miller, Megan B; Ralle, Martina; Aryal, Dipendra; Wetsel, William C; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2013-12-01

    Copper (Cu), an essential trace element present throughout the mammalian nervous system, is crucial for normal synaptic function. Neuronal handling of Cu is poorly understood. We studied the localization and expression of Atp7a, the major intracellular Cu transporter in the brain, and its relation to peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential cuproenzyme and regulator of Cu homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells. Based on biochemical fractionation and immunostaining of dissociated neurons, Atp7a was enriched in post-synaptic vesicular fractions. Cu followed a similar pattern, with ~ 20% of total Cu in synaptosomes. A mouse model heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/?) was selectively Cu deficient in the amygdala. As in cortex and hippocampus, Atp7a and PAM expression overlap in the amygdala, with highest expression in interneurons. Messenger RNA levels of Atox-1 and Atp7a, which deliver Cu to the secretory pathway, were reduced in the amygdala but not in the hippocampus in PAM+/? mice, GABAB receptor mRNA levels were similarly affected. Consistent with Cu deficiency, dopamine ?-monooxygenase function was impaired as evidenced by elevated dopamine metabolites in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus, of PAM+/? mice. These alterations in Cu delivery to the secretory pathway in the PAM+/? amygdala may contribute to the physiological and behavioral deficits observed. Atp7a, a Cu-transporting P-type ATPase, is localized to the trans-Golgi network and to vesicles distributed throughout the dendritic arbor. Tissue-specific alterations in Atp7a expression were found in mice heterozygous for peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential neuropeptide-synthesizing cuproenzyme. Atp7a and PAM are highly expressed in amygdalar interneurons. Reduced amygdalar expression of Atox-1 and Atp7a in PAM heterozygous mice may lead to reduced synaptic Cu levels, contributing to the behavioral and neurochemical alterations seen in these mice. PMID:24032518

  2. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. PMID:25994971

  3. Post-mortem brain pathology is related to declining respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Dawe, Robert J.; VanderHorst, Veronique; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to brain structures which constitute the distributed neural network that integrates respiratory muscle and pulmonary functions, can impair adequate ventilation and its volitional control. We tested the hypothesis that the level of brain pathology in older adults is associated with declining respiratory function measured during life. 1,409 older adults had annual testing with spirometry (SPI) and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) based on maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressures (MEPs). Those who died underwent structured brain autopsy. On average, during 5 years of follow-up, SPI and RMS showed progressive decline which was moderately correlated (? = 0.57, p < 0.001). Among decedents (N = 447), indices of brain neuropathologies showed differential associations with declining SPI and RMS. Nigral neuronal loss was associated with the person-specific decline in SPI (Estimate, ?0.016 unit/year, S.E. 0.006, p = 0.009) and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 4%. By contrast, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology (Estimate, ?0.030 unit/year, S.E. 0.009, p < 0.001) and macroscopic infarcts (?0.033 unit/year, S.E., 0.011, p = 0.003) were associated with the person-specific decline in RMS and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 7%. These results suggest that brain pathology is associated with the rate of declining respiratory function in older adults. PMID:26539108

  4. Emotion regulation ability varies in relation to intrinsic functional brain architecture.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mai; Biederman, Joseph; Gabrieli, John D E; Micco, Jamie; de Los Angeles, Carlo; Brown, Ariel; Kenworthy, Tara; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of individual variation in emotion regulation, specifically the ability to reappraise negative stimuli so as to down-regulate negative affect. Brain functions in young adults were measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during three conditions: (i) attending to neutral pictures; (ii) attending to negative pictures and (iii) reappraising negative pictures. Resting-state functional connectivity was measured with amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortical (DLPFC) seed regions frequently associated with emotion regulation. Participants reported more negative affect after attending to negative than neutral pictures, and less negative affect following reappraisal. Both attending to negative vs neutral pictures and reappraising vs attending to negative pictures yielded widespread activations that were significantly right-lateralized for attending to negative pictures and left-lateralized for reappraising negative pictures. Across participants, more successful reappraisal correlated with less trait anxiety and more positive daily emotion, greater activation in medial and lateral prefrontal regions, and lesser resting-state functional connectivity between (a) right amygdala and both medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, and (b) bilateral DLPFC and posterior visual cortices. The ability to regulate emotion, a source of resilience or of risk for distress, appears to vary in relation to differences in intrinsic functional brain architecture. PMID:25999363

  5. Methamphetamine disrupts blood brain barrier function by induction of oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Servio H.; Potula, Raghava; Fan, Shongshan; Eidem, Tess; Papugani, Anil; Reichenbach, Nancy; Dykstra, Holly; Weksler, Babette B.; Romero, Ignacio A.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Persidsky, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a potent stimulant with strong euphoric properties, has a high abuse liability and long-lasting neurotoxic effects. Recent studies in animal models have indicated that METH can induce impairment of the blood brain barrier (BBB), thus suggesting that some of the neurotoxic effects resulting from METH abuse could be the outcome of barrier disruption. Here we provide evidence that METH alters BBB function via direct effects on endothelial cells and explore possible underlying mechanisms leading to endothelial injury. We report that METH increases BBB permeability in vivo, and exposure of primary human microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) to METH diminishes tightness of BMVEC monolayers in a dose- and time-dependent manner by decreasing expression of cell membrane associated tight junction (TJ) proteins. These changes were accompanied by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, increased monocyte migration across METH-treated endothelial monolayers, and activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in BMVEC. Anti-oxidant treatment attenuated or completely reversed all tested aspects of METH induced BBB dysfunction. Our data suggest that BBB injury is caused by METH-mediated oxidative stress, which activates MLCK and negatively affects the TJ complex. These observations provide a basis for antioxidant protection against brain endothelial injury caused by METH exposure. PMID:19654589

  6. Accumulation of waterborne mercury(II) in specific areas of fish brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rouleau, C.; Borg-Neczak, K.; Gottofrey, J.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-10-01

    The authors used whole-body autoradiography to study the distribution of {sup 203}Hg(II) in the central nervous system of brown (Salmo trutta) and rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout. Fish were either exposed to waterborne Hg(II) for 7 and 21 d or they received an intravenous injection of the metal and were sacrificed 1 and 21 d later. Mercury did not accumulate in the brain after intravenous injection, indicating that the blood-brain barrier is impervious to Hg in plasma. In contrast, Hg was accumulated in specific areas of the grain and spinal cord following water exposure. The specificity of the accumulation sites strongly suggests that waterborne Hg was taken up by water-exposed receptor cells of sensory nerves and subsequently transferred toward the brain by axonal transport, a normal physiological process for the transport of organelles and dissolved neuronal constituents along nerve axons. Accumulation of Hg in ventral horn ganglis is probably the result of leaching of metal from blood into muscle followed by uptake in motor plates. Axonal transport allows waterborne inorganic Hg, and possibly other xenobiotics, to circumvent the blood-brain barrier. Considering the importance of complex behavior in the life of fish, and the well-known deleterious effects of mercury on the nervous system, the toxicological significance of this uptake route needs to be assessed.

  7. Protocatechuic acid protects brain mitochondrial function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Semaming, Yoswaris; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Pintana, Hiranya; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in diabetic animals with neurodegeneration. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a major metabolite of anthocyanin, has been shown to exert glycemic control and oxidative stress reduction in the heart. However, its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the brain under diabetic condition have never been investigated. We found that PCA exerted glycemic control, attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and contributes to the prevention of brain oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:26316260

  8. Generation of a Tph2 Conditional Knockout Mouse Line for Time- and Tissue-Specific Depletion of Brain Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Migliarini, Sara; Pacini, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin has been gaining increasing attention during the last two decades due to the dual function of this monoamine as key regulator during critical developmental events and as neurotransmitter. Importantly, unbalanced serotonergic levels during critical temporal phases might contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite increasing evidences from both animal models and human genetic studies have underpinned the importance of serotonin homeostasis maintenance during central nervous system development and adulthood, the precise role of this molecule in time-specific activities is only beginning to be elucidated. Serotonin synthesis is a 2-step process, the first step of which is mediated by the rate-limiting activity of Tph enzymes, belonging to the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and existing in two isoforms, Tph1 and Tph2, responsible for the production of peripheral and brain serotonin, respectively. In the present study, we generated and validated a conditional knockout mouse line, Tph2flox/flox, in which brain serotonin can be effectively ablated with time specificity. We demonstrated that the Cre-mediated excision of the third exon of Tph2 gene results in the production of a Tph2null allele in which we observed the near-complete loss of brain serotonin, as well as the growth defects and perinatal lethality observed in serotonin conventional knockouts. We also revealed that in mice harbouring the Tph2null allele, but not in wild-types, two distinct Tph2 mRNA isoforms are present, namely Tph2?3 and Tph2?3?4, with the latter showing an in-frame deletion of amino acids 84–178 and coding a protein that could potentially retain non-negligible enzymatic activity. As we could not detect Tph1 expression in the raphe, we made the hypothesis that the Tph2?3?4 isoform can be at the origin of the residual, sub-threshold amount of serotonin detected in the brain of Tph2null/null mice. Finally, we set up a tamoxifen administration protocol that allows an efficient, time-specific inactivation of brain serotonin synthesis. On the whole, we generated a suitable genetic tool to investigate how serotonin depletion impacts on time-specific events during central nervous system development and adulthood life. PMID:26291320

  9. [The brain structures functional activity and aggression patients' multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Reznikova, T N; Seliverstova, N A; Kataeva, G V; Aroev, R A; Il'ves, A G; Kuznetsova, A K

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to investigation of unconscious aggression in patients with multiple sclerosis. We carried out comparison of the relative assessments of metabolism speed of glucose (according to positron emission tomography) and indicators of unconscious aggression (in the Hand test). It is shown that an increased tendency to open aggression (unconscious aggression) in patients with multiple sclerosis, is mainly linked with a reduction in the functioning of different departments of the frontal lobes of the brain on the left and with changes of the metabolism speed of glucose in the structures of the limbic system of the left and right hemisphere. With increasing of unconscious aggression we observed decrease of glucose metabolism speed in certain areas of the lower and middle frontal gyrus. PMID:25857175

  10. Working Memory Updating Function Training Influenced Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Renlai; Fu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that working memory could be improved by training. We recruited healthy adult participants and used adaptive running working memory training tasks with a double-blind design, combined with the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach, to explore the influence of updating function training on brain activity. Participants in the training group underwent training for 20 days. Compared with the control group, the training group's accuracy (ACC) in the two-back working memory task had no significant differences after training, but reaction time (RT) was reduced significantly. Besides, the amplitudes of N160 and P300 increased significantly whereas that of P200 decreased significantly. The results suggest that training could have improved the participants' capacity on both inhibitory and updating. PMID:24015182

  11. Imaging local brain function with emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1984-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was used to map local cerebral glucose utilization in the study of local cerebral function. This information differs fundamentally from structural assessment by means of computed tomography (CT). In normal human volunteers, the FDG scan was used to determine the cerebral metabolic response to conrolled sensory stimulation and the effects of aging. Cerebral metabolic patterns are distinctive among depressed and demented elderly patients. The FDG scan appears normal in the depressed patient, studded with multiple metabolic defects in patients with multiple infarct dementia, and in the patients with Alzheimer disease, metabolism is particularly reduced in the parietal cortex, but only slightly reduced in the caudate and thalamus. The interictal FDG scan effectively detects hypometabolic brain zones that are sites of onset for seizures in patients with partial epilepsy, even though these zones usually appear normal on CT scans. The future prospects of PET are discussed.

  12. Analysis of Functional Pathways Altered after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Grill, Raymond J.; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24?h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated Gene Ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1? and IL-1? showed marked increases at 3?h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24?h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:22913729

  13. Crew interface specifications development for inflight maintenance and stowage functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Findings and data products developed during crew specification study for inflight maintenance and stowage functions are reported. From this information base, a family of data concepts to support crew inflight troubleshooting and corrective maintenance activities was developed and specified. Recommendations are made for the improvement of inflight maintenance planning, preparations and operations in future space flight programs through the establishment of an inflight maintenance organization and specific suggestions for techniques to improve the management of the inflight maintenance function.

  14. Oxytocin enhances brain function in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ilanit; Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Bennett, Randi H.; Cordeaux, Cara; Lucas, Molly V.; Eilbott, Jeffrey A.; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Following intranasal administration of oxytocin (OT), we measured, via functional MRI, changes in brain activity during judgments of socially (Eyes) and nonsocially (Vehicles) meaningful pictures in 17 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OT increased activity in the striatum, the middle frontal gyrus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, and the left superior temporal sulcus. In the striatum, nucleus accumbens, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left premotor cortex, OT increased activity during social judgments and decreased activity during nonsocial judgments. Changes in salivary OT concentrations from baseline to 30 min postadministration were positively associated with increased activity in the right amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex during social vs. nonsocial judgments. OT may thus selectively have an impact on salience and hedonic evaluations of socially meaningful stimuli in children with ASD, and thereby facilitate social attunement. These findings further the development of a neurophysiological systems-level understanding of mechanisms by which OT may enhance social functioning in children with ASD. PMID:24297883

  15. Discriminative Analysis of Parkinson’s Disease Based on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongbin; Yang, Wanqun; Long, Jinyi; Zhang, Yuhu; Feng, Jieying; Li, Yuanqing; Huang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on applications of pattern recognition and neuroimaging techniques in the effective and accurate diagnosis of psychiatric or neurological disorders. In the present study, we investigated the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of Parkinson's disease (PD), which are expected to provide additional information for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease. First, we computed the functional connectivity between each pair of 116 regions of interest derived from a prior atlas. The most discriminative features based on Kendall tau correlation coefficient were then selected. A support vector machine classifier was employed to classify 21 PD patients with 26 demographically matched healthy controls. This method achieved a classification accuracy of 93.62% using leave-one-out cross-validation, with a sensitivity of 90.47% and a specificity of 96.15%. The majority of the most discriminative functional connections were located within or across the default mode, cingulo-opercular and frontal-parietal networks and the cerebellum. These disease-related resting-state network alterations might play important roles in the pathophysiology of this disease. Our results suggest that analyses of whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns have the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment evaluation of PD. PMID:25885059

  16. Graph analysis of functional brain networks: practical issues in translational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Richiardi, Jonas; Chavez, Mario; Achard, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The brain can be regarded as a network: a connected system where nodes, or units, represent different specialized regions and links, or connections, represent communication pathways. From a functional perspective, communication is coded by temporal dependence between the activities of different brain areas. In the last decade, the abstract representation of the brain as a graph has allowed to visualize functional brain networks and describe their non-trivial topological properties in a compact and objective way. Nowadays, the use of graph analysis in translational neuroscience has become essential to quantify brain dysfunctions in terms of aberrant reconfiguration of functional brain networks. Despite its evident impact, graph analysis of functional brain networks is not a simple toolbox that can be blindly applied to brain signals. On the one hand, it requires the know-how of all the methodological steps of the pipeline that manipulate the input brain signals and extract the functional network properties. On the other hand, knowledge of the neural phenomenon under study is required to perform physiologically relevant analysis. The aim of this review is to provide practical indications to make sense of brain network analysis and contrast counterproductive attitudes. PMID:25180301

  17. Immunostaining for oligodendrocyte-specific galactosphingolipids in fixed brain sections using the cholesterol-selective detergent digitonin

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Yutaka; Iwai, Lena; Toda, Tomohisa; Lu, Qing Richard; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Galactocerebroside (GalC) and its sulfated derivative sulfatide (SUL) are galactosphingolipids abundantly expressed in oligodendrocytes (OLs). Despite their biological importance in OL development and function, attempts to visualize GalC/SUL in tissue sections have met with limited success. This is at least in part because permeabilization of tissue sections with detergents such as Triton X-100 results in significant degradation of GalC/SUL immunoreactivity. Here we establish a novel method that enables visualization of endogenous GalC/SUL in OLs and myelin throughout the entire depth of brain sections. We show that treating brain sections with the cholesterol-specific detergent digitonin instead of Triton X-100 or methanol leads to efficient antibody penetration into tissue sections without disrupting GalC/SUL immunoreactivity. We also determine the optimal concentrations of digitonin using confocal microscopy. With our method, the morphology and the number of GalC/SUL-expressing OLs can be visualized three-dimensionally. Furthermore, our method is applicable to double immunostaining with anti-GalC/SUL antibody and other antibodies which recognize intracellular antigens. Our simple method using digitonin should prove to be useful in enabling detailed examination of GalC/SUL expression in the brain in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:19100769

  18. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage: Independent Component and Seed-Based Analyses.

    PubMed

    Iraji, Armin; Benson, Randall R; Welch, Robert D; O'Neil, Brian J; Woodard, John L; Ayaz, Syed Imran; Kulek, Andrew; Mika, Valerie; Medado, Patrick; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Liu, Tianming; Haacke, E Mark; Kou, Zhifeng

    2015-07-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for more than 1 million emergency visits each year. Most of the injured stay in the emergency department for a few hours and are discharged home without a specific follow-up plan because of their negative clinical structural imaging. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly functional MRI (fMRI), has been reported as being sensitive to functional disturbances after brain injury. In this study, a cohort of 12 patients with mTBI were prospectively recruited from the emergency department of our local Level-1 trauma center for an advanced MRI scan at the acute stage. Sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were also recruited for comparison. Both group-based and individual-based independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in both posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus regions in comparison with controls, which is part of the default mode network (DMN). Further seed-based analysis confirmed reduced functional connectivity in these two regions and also demonstrated increased connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain in mTBI. Seed-based analysis using the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala regions further demonstrated increased functional connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain, particularly in the frontal lobe, in mTBI. Our data demonstrate alterations of multiple brain networks at the resting state, particularly increased functional connectivity in the frontal lobe, in response to brain concussion at the acute stage. Resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN could serve as a potential biomarker for improved detection of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:25285363

  19. FINAL REPORT FOR THE CONTRACT BETWEEN POC AND UCSD IMPACT OF INTERMITTENT LIGHT ON NORMAL BRAIN FUNCTION

    E-print Network

    Gorodnitsky, Irina

    FINAL REPORT FOR THE CONTRACT BETWEEN POC AND UCSD IMPACT OF INTERMITTENT LIGHT ON NORMAL BRAIN (blinking) photic stimulation (IPS) on the brain's intrinsic activity. It is well known that the brain that spontaneous rhythmic excitations occur naturally in the brain and are integrally tied to all brain functions

  20. Neurological Soft Signs Are Not “Soft” in Brain Structure and Functional Networks: Evidence From ALE Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. NSS have been conventionally considered as clinical neurological signs without localized brain regions. However, recent brain imaging studies suggest that NSS are partly localizable and may be associated with deficits in specific brain areas. Method: We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to quantitatively review structural and functional imaging studies that evaluated the brain correlates of NSS in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Six structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and 15 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were included. Results: The results from meta-analysis of the sMRI studies indicated that NSS were associated with atrophy of the precentral gyrus, the cerebellum, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. The results from meta-analysis of the fMRI studies demonstrated that the NSS-related task was significantly associated with altered brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral putamen, the cerebellum, and the superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings from both sMRI and fMRI meta-analyses further support the conceptualization of NSS as a manifestation of the “cerebello-thalamo-prefrontal” brain network model of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. PMID:23671197

  1. Determination of Dominant Frequency of Resting-State Brain Interaction within One Functional System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Han; Biswal, Bharat B.; Lu, Chun-Ming; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is frequency specific and functional system dependent. Determination of dominant frequency of RSFC (RSFCdf) within a functional system, therefore, is of importance for further understanding the brain interaction and accurately assessing the RSFC within the system. Given the unique advantages over other imaging techniques, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) holds distinct merits for RSFCdf determination. However, an obstacle that hinders fNIRS from potential RSFCdf investigation is the interference of various global noises in fNIRS data which could bring spurious connectivity at the frequencies unrelated to spontaneous neural activity. In this study, we first quantitatively evaluated the interferences of multiple systemic physiological noises and the motion artifact by using simulated data. We then proposed a functional system dependent and frequency specific analysis method to solve the problem by introducing anatomical priori information on the functional system of interest. Both the simulated and real resting-state fNIRS experiments showed that the proposed method outperforms the traditional one by effectively eliminating the negative effects of the global noises and significantly improving the accuracy of the RSFCdf estimation. The present study thus provides an effective approach to RSFCdf determination for its further potential applications in basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:23284719

  2. Methamphetamine effects on blood-brain barrier structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Northrop, Nicole A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a widely abuse psychostimulant. Traditionally, studies have focused on the neurotoxic effects of Meth on monoaminergic neurotransmitter terminals. Recently, both in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the effects of Meth on the BBB and found that Meth produces a decrease in BBB structural proteins and an increase in BBB permeability to various molecules. Moreover, preclinical studies are validated by clinical studies in which human Meth users have increased concentrations of toxins in the brain. Therefore, this review will focus on the structural and functional disruption of the BBB caused by Meth and the mechanisms that contribute to Meth-induced BBB disruption. The review will reveal that the mechanisms by which Meth damages dopamine and serotonin terminals are similar to the mechanisms by which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is damaged. Furthermore, this review will cover the factors that are known to potentiate the effects of Meth (McCann et al., 1998) on the BBB, such as stress and HIV, both of which are co-morbid conditions associated with Meth abuse. Overall, the goal of this review is to demonstrate that the scope of damage produced by Meth goes beyond damage to monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems to include BBB disruption as well as provide a rationale for investigating therapeutics to treat Meth-induced BBB disruption. Since a breach of the BBB can have a multitude of consequences, therapies directed toward the treatment of BBB disruption may help to ameliorate the long-term neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits produced by Meth and possibly even Meth addiction. PMID:25788874

  3. The brain basis of language processing: from structure to function.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D

    2011-10-01

    Language processing is a trait of human species. The knowledge about its neurobiological basis has been increased considerably over the past decades. Different brain regions in the left and right hemisphere have been identified to support particular language functions. Networks involving the temporal cortex and the inferior frontal cortex with a clear left lateralization were shown to support syntactic processes, whereas less lateralized temporo-frontal networks subserve semantic processes. These networks have been substantiated both by functional as well as by structural connectivity data. Electrophysiological measures indicate that within these networks syntactic processes of local structure building precede the assignment of grammatical and semantic relations in a sentence. Suprasegmental prosodic information overtly available in the acoustic language input is processed predominantly in a temporo-frontal network in the right hemisphere associated with a clear electrophysiological marker. Studies with patients suffering from lesions in the corpus callosum reveal that the posterior portion of this structure plays a crucial role in the interaction of syntactic and prosodic information during language processing. PMID:22013214

  4. Functional Brain Mapping in Freely Moving Rats During Treadmill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, D. P.; Maarek, J.-M. I.; Yang, J.; Harimoto, J.; Scremin, O. U.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A dilemma in functional neuroimaging is that immobilization of the subject, necessary to avoid movement artifact, extinguishes all but the simplest behaviors. Recently, we developed an implantable microbolus infusion pump (MIP) that allows bolus injection of radiotracers by remote activation in freely moving, nontethered animals. The MIP is examined as a tool for brain mapping in rats during a locomotor task. Cerebral blood flow–related tissue radioactivity (CBF-TR) was measured using [14C]-iodoantipyrine with an indicator-fractionation method, followed by autoradiography. Rats exposed to walking on a treadmill, compared to quiescent controls, showed increases in CBF-TR in motor circuits (primary motor cortex, dorsolateral striatum, ventrolateral thalamus, midline cerebellum, copula pyramis, paramedian lobule), in primary somatosensory cortex mapping the forelimbs, hindlimbs and trunk, as well as in secondary visual cortex. These results support the use of implantable pumps as adjunct tools for functional neuroimaging of behaviors that cannot be elicited in restrained or tethered animals. PMID:12902836

  5. State-Dependent Changes of Connectivity Patterns and Functional Brain Network Topology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Wicker, Bruno; Cukier, Sebastian; Navarta, Silvana; Lew, Sergio; Leiguarda, Ramon; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical and functional brain studies have converged to the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with atypical connectivity. Using a modified resting-state paradigm to drive subjects' attention, we provide evidence of a very marked interaction between ASD brain functional connectivity and cognitive state. We show that…

  6. Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional

  7. Mapping Language Function in the Brain: A Review of the Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crafton, Robert E.; Kido, Elissa

    2000-01-01

    Considers the potential importance of brain study for composition instruction, briefly describes functional imaging techniques, and reviews the findings of recent brain-mapping studies investigating the neurocognitive systems involved in language function. Presents a review of the recent literature and considers the possible implications of this…

  8. Changes in Connectivity after Visual Cortical Brain Damage Underlie Altered Visual Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Holly; Thomas, Owen; Jbabdi, Saad; Cowey, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The full extent of the brain's ability to compensate for damage or changed experience is yet to be established. One question particularly important for evaluating and understanding rehabilitation following brain damage is whether recovery involves new and aberrant neural connections or whether any change in function is due to the functional

  9. From the Left to the Right: How the Brain Compensates Progressive Loss of Language Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function of the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the…

  10. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. PMID:26095088

  11. Functional brain network changes associated with clinical and biochemical measures of the severity of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jao, Tun; Schröter, Manuel; Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Lo, Chun-Yi Zac; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Patel, Ameera X; Lin, Wei-Che; Lin, Ching-Po; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-11-15

    Functional properties of the brain may be associated with changes in complex brain networks. However, little is known about how properties of large-scale functional brain networks may be altered stepwise in patients with disturbance of consciousness, e.g., an encephalopathy. We used resting-state fMRI data on patients suffering from various degrees of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) to explore how topological and spatial network properties of functional brain networks changed at different cognitive and consciousness states. Severity of HE was measured clinically and by neuropsychological tests. Fifty-eight non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients and 62 normal controls were studied. Patients were subdivided into liver cirrhosis with no outstanding HE (NoHE, n=23), minimal HE with cognitive impairment only detectable by neuropsychological tests (MHE, n=28), and clinically overt HE (OHE, n=7). From the earliest stage, the NoHE, functional brain networks were progressively more random, less clustered, and less modular. Since the intermediate stage (MHE), increased ammonia level was accompanied by concomitant exponential decay of mean connectivity strength, especially in the primary cortical areas and midline brain structures. Finally, at the OHE stage, there were radical reorganization of the topological centrality-i.e., the relative importance-of the hubs and reorientation of functional connections between nodes. In summary, this study illustrated progressively greater abnormalities in functional brain network organization in patients with clinical and biochemical evidence of more severe hepatic encephalopathy. The early-than-expected brain network dysfunction in cirrhotic patients suggests that brain functional connectivity and network analysis may provide useful and complementary biomarkers for more aggressive and earlier intervention of hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, the stepwise deterioration of functional brain networks in HE patients may suggest that hierarchical network properties are necessary for normal brain function. PMID:26236028

  12. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  13. Microwave beamforming for non-invasive patient-specific hyperthermia treatment of pediatric brain cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.; Zastrow, Earl; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Medow, Joshua E.

    2011-05-01

    We present a numerical study of an array-based microwave beamforming approach for non-invasive hyperthermia treatment of pediatric brain tumors. The transmit beamformer is designed to achieve localized heating—that is, to achieve constructive interference and selective absorption of the transmitted electromagnetic waves at the desired focus location in the brain while achieving destructive interference elsewhere. The design process takes into account patient-specific and target-specific propagation characteristics at 1 GHz. We evaluate the effectiveness of the beamforming approach using finite-difference time-domain simulations of two MRI-derived child head models from the Virtual Family (IT'IS Foundation). Microwave power deposition and the resulting steady-state thermal distribution are calculated for each of several randomly chosen focus locations. We also explore the robustness of the design to mismatch between the assumed and actual dielectric properties of the patient. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of the beamformer to suppress hot spots caused by pockets of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Our results show that microwave beamforming has the potential to create localized heating zones in the head models for focus locations that are not surrounded by large amounts of CSF. These promising results suggest that the technique warrants further investigation and development.

  14. Coordination between Drosophila Arc1 and a specific population of brain neurons regulates organismal fat.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Jeremy; Zhang, Wei; Blumhagen, Rachel Z; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Hesselberth, Jay R; Reis, Tânia

    2015-09-15

    The brain plays a critical yet incompletely understood role in regulating organismal fat. We performed a neuronal silencing screen in Drosophila larvae to identify brain regions required to maintain proper levels of organismal fat. When used to modulate synaptic activity in specific brain regions, the enhancer-trap driver line E347 elevated fat upon neuronal silencing, and decreased fat upon neuronal activation. Unbiased sequencing revealed that Arc1 mRNA levels increase upon E347 activation. We had previously identified Arc1 mutations in a high-fat screen. Here we reveal metabolic changes in Arc1 mutants consistent with a high-fat phenotype and an overall shift toward energy storage. We find that Arc1-expressing cells neighbor E347 neurons, and manipulating E347 synaptic activity alters Arc1 expression patterns. Elevating Arc1 expression in these cells decreased fat, a phenocopy of E347 activation. Finally, loss of Arc1 prevented the lean phenotype caused by E347 activation, suggesting that Arc1 activity is required for E347 control of body fat. Importantly, neither E347 nor Arc1 manipulation altered energy-related behaviors. Our results support a model wherein E347 neurons induce Arc1 in specific neighboring cells to prevent excess fat accumulation. PMID:26209258

  15. Deep brain optical measurements of cell type–specific neural activity in behaving mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guohong; Jun, Sang Beom; Jin, Xin; Luo, Guoxiang; Pham, Michael D; Lovinger, David M; Vogel, Steven S; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable the monitoring of cellular events from genetically defined groups of neurons in vivo. In this protocol, we describe how to use a time-correlated single-photon counting (tcspc)–based fiber optics system to measure the intensity, emission spectra and lifetime of fluorescent biosensors expressed in deep brain structures in freely moving mice. When combined with cre-dependent selective expression of genetically encoded ca2+ indicators (GecIs), this system can be used to measure the average neural activity from a specific population of cells in mice performing complex behavioral tasks. as an example, we used viral expression of GcaMps in striatal projection neurons (spns) and recorded the fluorescence changes associated with calcium spikes from mice performing a lever-pressing operant task. the whole procedure, consisting of virus injection, behavior training and optical recording, takes 3–4 weeks to complete. With minor adaptations, this protocol can also be applied to recording cellular events from other cell types in deep brain regions, such as dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. the simultaneously recorded fluorescence signals and behavior events can be used to explore the relationship between the neural activity of specific brain circuits and behavior. PMID:24784819

  16. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Almklov, Erin L; Drummond, Sean P A; Orff, Henry; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on cognitive performance and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI) in older adults. The current study examines blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in older adults and younger adults during the sustained attention (GO) and response inhibition (NOGO) portions of a GO-NOGO cognitive task following 36 hr of total sleep deprivation. No significant performance differences were observed between the groups on the behavioral outcome measures of total hits and false alarms. Neuroimaging results, however, revealed a significant interaction between age-group and sleep-deprivation status. Specifically, older adults showed greater BOLD activation as compared to younger adults after 36 hours total sleep deprivation in brain regions typically associated with attention and inhibitory processes. These results suggest in order for older adults to perform the GO-NOGO task effectively after sleep deprivation, they rely on compensatory recruitment of brain regions that aide in the maintenance of cognitive performance. PMID:24787041

  17. [Macroscopic Functional Networks of the Human Brain when Viewing and Recalling Short Videos].

    PubMed

    Verkhlyutov, V M; Sokolov, P A; Ushakov, V L; Velichkovsky, B M

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic functional network of the human brain were identified by use of the independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI while viewing and imaging/recalling stories. The networks were relatively stable in structure, but had a specific dynamics in different experimental conditions. When comparing detected networks with previously detected resting state networks it was found that they coincide on localization. We. discovered also the specificity of activating the peripheral and central parts of retinotopic projections in the visual cortex. The peripheral areas were activated during subject viewing and imaging/recalling. On the contrary, the central departments strengthened their activation when viewing and reduced activity during the imaging/recalling. PMID:26281231

  18. Functional MRI of the vocalization-processing network in the macaque brain

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rios, Michael; Ku?mierek, Pawe?; DeWitt, Iain; Archakov, Denis; Azevedo, Frederico A. C.; Sams, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Keliris, Georgios A.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake behaving monkeys we investigated how species-specific vocalizations are represented in auditory and auditory-related regions of the macaque brain. We found clusters of active voxels along the ascending auditory pathway that responded to various types of complex sounds: inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate nucleus (MGN), auditory core, belt, and parabelt cortex, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and sulcus (STS). Regions sensitive to monkey calls were most prevalent in the anterior STG, but some clusters were also found in frontal and parietal cortex on the basis of comparisons between responses to calls and environmental sounds. Surprisingly, we found that spectrotemporal control sounds derived from the monkey calls (“scrambled calls”) also activated the parietal and frontal regions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that species-specific vocalizations in rhesus monkeys activate preferentially the auditory ventral stream, and in particular areas of the antero-lateral belt and parabelt. PMID:25883546

  19. Intra-Amniotic LPS Induced Region-Specific Changes in Presynaptic Bouton Densities in the Ovine Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Strackx, Eveline; Jellema, Reint K.; Rieke, Rebecca; Gussenhoven, Ruth; Vles, Johan S. H.; Kramer, Boris W.; Gavilanes, Antonio W. D.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. Chorioamnionitis has been associated with increased risk for fetal brain damage. Although, it is now accepted that synaptic dysfunction might be responsible for functional deficits, synaptic densities/numbers after a fetal inflammatory challenge have not been studied in different regions yet. Therefore, we tested in this study the hypothesis that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused profound changes in synaptic densities in different regions of the fetal sheep brain. Material and Methods. Chorioamnionitis was induced by a 10?mg intra-amniotic LPS injection at two different exposure intervals. The fetal brain was studied at 125 days of gestation (term = 150 days) either 2 (LPS2D group) or 14 days (LPS14D group) after LPS or saline injection (control group). Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the presynaptic density in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, entorhinal cortex, and piriforme cortex, in the nucleus caudatus and putamen and in CA1/2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results. There was a significant reduction in presynaptic bouton densities in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex and in layers 2-3 of the entorhinal and the somatosensory cortex, in the nucleus caudate and putamen and the CA1/2 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the LPS2D compared to control animals. Only in the motor cortex and putamen, the presynaptic density was significantly decreased in the LPS14 D compared to the control group. No changes were found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the piriforme cortex. Conclusion. We demonstrated that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused a decreased density in presynaptic boutons in different areas in the fetal brain. These synaptic changes seemed to be region-specific, with some regions being more affected than others, and seemed to be transient in some regions. PMID:26417592

  20. Effects of bisphenol A and triclocarban on brain-specific expression of aromatase in early zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunah; Genco, Maria C.; Megrelis, Laura; Ruderman, Joan V.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen regulates numerous developmental and physiological processes. Most effects are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), which function as ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen also regulates the activity of GPR30, a membrane-associated G protein-coupled receptor. Many different types of environmental contaminants can activate ERs; some can bind GPR30 as well. There is growing concern that exposure to some of these compounds, termed xenoestrogens, is interfering with the behavior and reproductive potential of numerous wildlife species, as well as affecting human health. Here, we investigated how two common, environmentally pervasive chemicals affect the in vivo expression of a known estrogen target gene in the brain of developing zebrafish embryos, aromatase AroB, which converts androgens to estrogens. We confirm that, like estrogen, the well-studied xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA, a plastics monomer), induces strong brain-specific overexpression of aromatase. Experiments using ER- and GPR30-selective modulators argue that this induction is largely through nuclear ERs. BPA induces dramatic overexpression of AroB RNA in the same subregions of the developing brain as estrogen. The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) by itself stimulates AroB expression only slightly, but TCC strongly enhances the overexpression of AroB that is induced by exogenous estrogen. Thus, both BPA and TCC have the potential to elevate levels of aromatase and, thereby, levels of endogenous estrogens in the developing brain. In contrast to estrogen, BPA-induced AroB overexpression was suppressed by TCC. These results indicate that exposures to combinations of certain hormonally active pollutants can have outcomes that are not easily predicted from their individual effects. PMID:22006313

  1. Susceptibility to everyday cognitive failure is reflected in functional network interactions in the resting brain.

    PubMed

    Bey, Katharina; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    The proneness to minor errors and slips in everyday life as assessed by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) constitutes a trait characteristic and is reflected in stable features of brain structure and function. It is unclear, however, how dynamic interactions of large-scale brain networks contribute to this disposition. To address this question, we performed a high model order independent component analysis (ICA) with subsequent dual regression on resting-state fMRI data from 71 subjects to extract temporal time courses describing the dynamics of 17 resting-state networks (RSN). Dynamic network interactions between all 17 RSN were assessed by linear correlations between networks' time courses. On this basis, we investigated the relationship between subject-level RSN interactions and the susceptibility to everyday cognitive failure. We found that CFQ scores were significantly correlated with the interplay of the cingulo-opercular network (CON) and a posterior parietal network which unifies clusters in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, intraparietal lobules and middle temporal regions. Specifically, a higher positive functional connectivity between these two RSN was indicative of higher proneness to cognitive failure. Both the CON and posterior parietal network are implicated in cognitive functions, such as tonic alertness and executive control. Results indicate that proper checks and balances between the two networks are needed to protect against cognitive failure. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the study of temporal network dynamics in the resting state is a feasible tool to investigate individual differences in cognitive ability and performance. PMID:26210814

  2. Nonlinear transfer function encodes synchronization in a neural network from the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Menendez de la Prida, L; Sanchez-Andres, J V

    1999-09-01

    Synchronization is one of the mechanisms by which the brain encodes information. The observed synchronization of neuronal activity has, however, several levels of fluctuations, which presumably regulate local features of specific areas. This means that biological neural networks should have an intrinsic mechanism able to synchronize the neuronal activity but also to preserve the firing capability of individual cells. Here, we investigate the input-output relationship of a biological neural network from developing mammalian brain, i.e., the hippocampus. We show that the probability of occurrence of synchronous output activity (which consists in stereotyped population bursts recorded throughout the hippocampus) is encoded by a sigmoidal transfer function of the input frequency. Under this scope, low-frequency inputs will not produce any coherent output while high-frequency inputs will determine a synchronous pattern of output activity (population bursts). We analyze the effect of the network size (N) on the parameters of the transfer function (threshold and slope). We found that sigmoidal functions realistically simulate the synchronous output activity of hippocampal neural networks. This outcome is particularly important in the application of results from neural network models to neurobiology. PMID:11970133

  3. Platelets Recognize Brain-Specific Glycolipid Structures, Respond to Neurovascular Damage and Promote Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sotnikov, Ilya; Veremeyko, Tatyana; Starossom, Sarah C.; Barteneva, Natalia; Weiner, Howard L.; Ponomarev, Eugene D.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets respond to vascular damage and contribute to inflammation, but their role in the neurodegenerative diseases is unknown. We found that the systemic administration of brain lipid rafts induced a massive platelet activation and degranulation resulting in a life-threatening anaphylactic-like response in mice. Platelets were engaged by the sialated glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) integrated in the rigid structures of astroglial and neuronal lipid rafts. The brain-abundant gangliosides GT1b and GQ1b were specifically recognized by the platelets and this recognition involved multiple receptors with P-selectin (CD62P) playing the central role. During the neuroinflammation, platelets accumulated in the central nervous system parenchyma, acquired an activated phenotype and secreted proinflammatory factors, thereby triggering immune response cascades. This study determines a new role of platelets which directly recognize a neuronal damage and communicate with the cells of the immune system in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23555611

  4. Multiple functions of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain.

    PubMed

    Katona, István; Freund, Tamás F

    2012-01-01

    Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology. First, we summarize unexpected advances in the molecular complexity of biogenesis and inactivation of the two endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Then, we show how these new metabolic routes are integrated into well-known intracellular signaling pathways. These endocannabinoid-producing signalosomes operate in phasic and tonic modes, thereby differentially governing homeostatic, short-term, and long-term synaptic plasticity throughout the brain. Finally, we discuss how cell type- and synapse-specific refinement of endocannabinoid signaling may explain the characteristic behavioral effects of cannabinoids. PMID:22524785

  5. Mutation frequency and specificity with age in liver, bladder and brain of lacI transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, G R; Oda, Y; de Boer, J G; Glickman, B W

    2000-01-01

    Mutation frequency and specificity were determined as a function of age in nuclear DNA from liver, bladder, and brain of Big Blue lacI transgenic mice aged 1.5-25 months. Mutations accumulated with age in liver and accumulated more rapidly in bladder. In the brain a small initial increase in mutation frequency was observed in young animals; however, no further increase was observed in adult mice. To investigate the origin of mutations, the mutational spectra for each tissue and age were determined. DNA sequence analysis of mutant lacI transgenes revealed no significant changes in mutational specificity in any tissue at any age. The spectra of mutations found in aging animals were identical to those in younger animals, suggesting that they originated from a common set of DNA lesions manifested during DNA replication. The data also indicated that there were no significant age-related mutational changes due to oxidative damage, or errors resulting from either changes in the fidelity of DNA polymerase or the efficiency of DNA repair. Hence, no evidence was found to support hypotheses that predict that oxidative damage or accumulation of errors in nuclear DNA contributes significantly to the aging process, at least in these three somatic tissues. PMID:10757770

  6. A primer on brain-machine interfaces, concepts, and technology: a key element in the future of functional neurorestoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2013-01-01

    Conventionally, the practice of neurosurgery has been characterized by the removal of pathology, congenital or acquired. The emerging complement to the removal of pathology is surgery for the specific purpose of restoration of function. Advents in neuroscience, technology, and the understanding of neural circuitry are creating opportunities to intervene in disease processes in a reparative manner, thereby advancing toward the long-sought-after concept of neurorestoration. Approaching the issue of neurorestoration from a biomedical engineering perspective is the rapidly growing arena of implantable devices. Implantable devices are becoming more common in medicine and are making significant advancements to improve a patient's functional outcome. Devices such as deep brain stimulators, vagus nerve stimulators, and spinal cord stimulators are now becoming more commonplace in neurosurgery as we utilize our understanding of the nervous system to interpret neural activity and restore function. One of the most exciting prospects in neurosurgery is the technologically driven field of brain-machine interface, also known as brain-computer interface, or neuroprosthetics. The successful development of this technology will have far-reaching implications for patients suffering from a great number of diseases, including but not limited to spinal cord injury, paralysis, stroke, or loss of limb. This article provides an overview of the issues related to neurorestoration using implantable devices with a specific focus on brain-machine interface technology. PMID:23333985

  7. A genome-wide supported psychiatric risk variant in NCAN influences brain function and cognitive performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Raum, Heidelore; Dietsche, Bruno; Nagels, Arne; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1064395 in the NCAN gene has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. NCAN encodes neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is thought to influence neuronal adhesion and migration. Several lines of research suggest an impact of NCAN on neurocognitive functioning. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rs1064395 genotype on neural processing and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an overt semantic verbal fluency task in 110 healthy subjects who were genotyped for the NCAN SNP rs1064395. Participants additionally underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Whole brain analyses revealed that NCAN risk status, defined as AA or AG genotype, was associated with a lack of task-related deactivation in a large left lateral temporal cluster extending from the middle temporal gyrus to the temporal pole. Regarding neuropsychological measures, risk allele carriers demonstrated poorer immediate and delayed verbal memory performance when compared to subjects with GG genotype. Better verbal memory performance was significantly associated with greater deactivation of the left temporal cluster during the fMRI task in subjects with GG genotype. The current data demonstrate that common genetic variation in NCAN influences both neural processing and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Our study provides new evidence for a specific genetic influence on human brain function. PMID:25220293

  8. Specific immunolabeling of brain macrophages and microglial cells in the developing and mature chick central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Miguel A; Santos, Ana M; Martín-Oliva, David; Calvente, Ruth; Tassi, Mohamed; Marín-Teva, José Luis; Navascués, Julio

    2006-06-01

    The present study showed that the HIS-C7 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the chick form of CD45, is a specific marker for macrophages/microglial cells in the developing and mature chick central nervous system (CNS). HIS-C7-positive cells were characterized according to their morphological features and chronotopographical distribution patterns within developing and adult CNS, similar to those of macrophages/microglial cells in the quail CNS and confirmed by their histochemical labeling with Ricinus communis agglutinin I, a lectin that recognizes chick microglial cells. Therefore, the HIS-C7 antibody is a valuable tool to identify brain macrophage and microglial cells in studies of the function, development, and pathology of the chick brain. CD45 expression differed between chick microglia (as revealed with HIS-C7 antibody) and mouse microglial cells (as revealed with an antibody against mouse form of CD45). Thus, a discontinuous label was seen on mouse microglial cells with the anti-mouse CD45 immunostaining, whereas the entire surface of chick microglial cells was labeled with the anti-chick CD45 staining. The functional relevance of these differences between species has yet to be determined. PMID:16461367

  9. Effects of Low Doses of Pioglitazone on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Conscious Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Crenshaw, Donna G.; Asin, Karen; Gottschalk, William K.; Liang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Nanyin; Roses, Allen D.

    2015-01-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist in clinical use for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Accumulating evidence suggests PPAR? agonists may be useful for treating or delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), possibly via actions on mitochondria, and that dose strengths lower than those clinically used for T2DM may be efficacious. Our major objective was to determine if low doses of pioglitazone, administered orally, impacted brain activity. We measured blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) low-frequency fluctuations in conscious rats to map changes in brain resting-state functional connectivity due to daily, oral dosing with low-dose PIO. The connectivity in two neural circuits exhibited significant changes compared with vehicle after two days of treatment with PIO at 0.08 mg/kg/day. After 7 days of treatment with a range of PIO dose-strengths, connections between 17 pairs of brain regions were significantly affected. Functional connectivity with the CA1 region of the hippocampus, a region that is involved in memory and is affected early in the progression of AD, was specifically investigated in a seed-based analysis. This approach revealed that the spatial pattern of CA1 connectivity was consistent among all dose groups at baseline, prior to treatment with PIO, and in the control group imaged on day 7. Compared to baseline and controls, increased connectivity to CA1 was observed regionally in the hypothalamus and ventral thalamus in all PIO-treated groups, but was least pronounced in the group treated with the highest dose of PIO. These data support our hypothesis that PIO modulates neuronal and/or cerebrovascular function at dose strengths significantly lower than those used to treat T2DM and therefore may be a useful therapy for neurodegenerative diseases including AD. PMID:25671601

  10. Fractal-based Correlation Analysis for Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Rat Brain in Functional MRI

    E-print Network

    Fractal-based Correlation Analysis for Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Rat Brain the brain s hemodynamic response to a stimulation. On' the other hand, the low-frequency spontaneous such that the wavelet correlation spectrum between long memory processes is scale-invariant over low frequency scales

  11. Brain-based Correlations Between Psychological Factors and Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Jiaofen; Liu, Jixin; Mu, Junya; Dun, Wanghuan; Zhang, Ming; Gong, Qiyong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Liang, Fanrong; Zeng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Increasing evidence shows involvement of psychological disorders in functional dyspepsia (FD), but how psychological factors exert their influences upon FD remains largely unclear. The purpose of the present study was to explore the brain-based correlations of psychological factors and FD. Methods Based on Fluorine-18-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography, the altered cerebral glycometabolism was investigated in 40 FD patients compared with 20 healthy controls during resting state using statistical parametric mapping software. Results FD patients exhibited increased glucose metabolism in multiple regions relative to controls (P < 0.001, family-wise error corrected). After controlling for the dyspeptic symptoms, increased aberrations persisted within the insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), middle cingulate cortex (MCC) and middle frontal cortex (midFC), which was related to anxiety and depression score. Interestingly, FD patients without anxiety/depression symptoms also showed increased glycometabolism within the insula, ACC, MCC and midFC. Moreover, FD patients with anxiety/depression symptoms exhibited more significant hypermetabolism within the above 4 sites compared with patients without anxiety/depression symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggested that the altered cerebral glycometabolism may be in a vicious cycle of psychological vulnerabilities and increased gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:25540947

  12. Astrocytes, Synapses and Brain Function: A Computational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2006-03-01

    Modulation of synaptic reliability is one of the leading mechanisms involved in long- term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) and therefore has implications in information processing in the brain. A recently discovered mechanism for modulating synaptic reliability critically involves recruitments of astrocytes - star- shaped cells that outnumber the neurons in most parts of the central nervous system. Astrocytes until recently were thought to be subordinate cells merely participating in supporting neuronal functions. New evidence, however, made available by advances in imaging technology has changed the way we envision the role of these cells in synaptic transmission and as modulator of neuronal excitability. We put forward a novel mathematical framework based on the biophysics of the bidirectional neuron-astrocyte interactions that quantitatively accounts for two distinct experimental manifestation of recruitment of astrocytes in synaptic transmission: a) transformation of a low fidelity synapse transforms into a high fidelity synapse and b) enhanced postsynaptic spontaneous currents when astrocytes are activated. Such a framework is not only useful for modeling neuronal dynamics in a realistic environment but also provides a conceptual basis for interpreting experiments. Based on this modeling framework, we explore the role of astrocytes for neuronal network behavior such as synchrony and correlations and compare with experimental data from cultured networks.

  13. Distribution of vitamin C is tissue specific with early saturation of the brain and adrenal glands following differential oral dose regimens in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hasselholt, Stine; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-05-28

    Vitamin C (VitC) deficiency is surprisingly common in humans even in developed parts of the world. The micronutrient has several established functions in the brain; however, the consequences of its deficiency are not well characterised. To elucidate the effects of VitC deficiency on the brain, increased knowledge about the distribution of VitC to the brain and within different brain regions after varying dietary concentrations is needed. In the present study, guinea pigs (like humans lacking the ability to synthesise VitC) were randomly divided into six groups (n 10) that received different concentrations of VitC ranging from 100 to 1500 mg/kg feed for 8 weeks, after which VitC concentrations in biological fluids and tissues were measured using HPLC. The distribution of VitC was found to be dynamic and dependent on dietary availability. Brain saturation was region specific, occurred at low dietary doses, and the dose-concentration relationship could be approximated with a three-parameter Hill equation. The correlation between plasma and brain concentrations of VitC was moderate compared with other organs, and during non-scorbutic VitC deficiency, the brain was able to maintain concentrations from about one-quarter to half of sufficient levels depending on the region, whereas concentrations in other tissues decreased to one-sixth or less. The adrenal glands have similar characteristics to the brain. The observed distribution kinetics with a low dietary dose needed for saturation and exceptional retention ability suggest that the brain and adrenal glands are high priority tissues with regard to the distribution of VitC. PMID:25865869

  14. Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongwen; Zou, Zhiling; Kou, Juan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lizhuang; Zilverstand, Anna; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found activation increases in brain regions involved in the processing of reward, motivation and emotion regulation, when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known about whether romantic love affects the brain’s functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) across an “in-love” group (LG, N = 34, currently intensely in love), an “ended-love” group (ELG, N = 34, ended romantic relationship recently), and a “single” group (SG, N = 32, never fallen in love). Results show that: (1) ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG); (2) ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; (3) FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion regulation network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens) as well as FC in the social cognition network [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior parietal, precuneus, and temporal lobe] was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG); (4) in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the duration of love in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration of time since breakup in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations in brain functional architecture. Furthermore, the results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate the possibility of applying a resting-state fMRI approach for investigating romantic love. PMID:25762915

  15. Conjugation of Functionalized SPIONs with Transferrin for Targeting and Imaging Brain Glial Tumors in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ghoorah, Devina; Shang, Yalei; Shi, Haojun; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xiangliang; Xu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    Currently, effective and specific diagnostic imaging of brain glioma is a major challenge. Nanomedicine plays an essential role by delivering the contrast agent in a targeted manner to specific tumor cells, leading to improvement in accurate diagnosis by good visualization and specific demonstration of tumor cells. This study investigated the preparation and characterization of a targeted MR contrast agent, transferrin-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Tf-SPIONs), for brain glioma detection. MR imaging showed the obvious contrast change of brain glioma before and after administration of Tf-SPIONs in C6 glioma rat model in vivo on T2 weighted imaging. Significant contrast enhancement of brain glioma could still be clearly seen even 48 h post injection, due to the retention of Tf-SPIONs in cytoplasm of tumor cells which was proved by Prussian blue staining. Thus, these results suggest that Tf-SPIONs could be a potential targeting MR contrast agent for the brain glioma. PMID:22615995

  16. Specific and Nonspecific Thalamocortical Functional Connectivity in Normal and Vegetative States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingsheng; Liu, Xiaolin; Song, Weiqun; Yang, Yanhui; Zhao, Zhilian; Ling, Feng; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances describing consciousness from information and integration have highlighted the unique role of the thalamocortical system in leading to integrated information and thus, consciousness. Here, we examined the differential distributions of specific and nonspecific thalamocortical functional connections using resting-state fMRI in a group of healthy subjects and vegetative-state patients. We found that both thalamic systems were widely distributed, but they exhibited different patterns. Nonspecific connections were preferentially associated with brain regions involved in higher-order cognitive processing, self-awareness and introspective mentalizing (e.g., the dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices). In contrast, specific connections were prevalent in the ventral and posterior part of the prefrontal and precuneus, known involved in representing externally-directed attentions. Significant reductions of functional connectivity in both systems, especially the nonspecific system, were observed in VS. These data suggest that brain networks sustaining information and integration may be differentiated by the nature of their thalamic functional connectivity. PMID:21078562

  17. Bilingualism trains specific brain circuits involved in flexible rule selection and application.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Andrea; Prat, Chantel S

    2014-10-01

    Bilingual individuals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that measure non-linguistic executive functioning, suggesting that some facets of the bilingual experience give rise to generalized improvements in cognitive performance. The current study investigated the hypothesis that such advantage in executive functioning arises from the need to flexibly select and apply rules when speaking multiple languages. Such flexible behavior may strengthen the functioning of the fronto-striatal loops that direct signals to the prefrontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral and brain data from proficient bilinguals and monolinguals who performed a Rapid Instructed Task Learning paradigm, which requires behaving according to ever-changing rules. Consistent with our hypothesis, bilinguals were faster than monolinguals when executing novel rules, and this improvement was associated with greater modulation of activity in the basal ganglia. The implications of these findings for language and executive function research are discussed herein. PMID:25156160

  18. State-dependent changes of connectivity patterns and functional brain network topology in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Wicker, Bruno; Cukier, Sebastián; Navarta, Silvana; Lew, Sergio; Leiguarda, Ramón; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-12-01

    Anatomical and functional brain studies have converged to the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with atypical connectivity. Using a modified resting-state paradigm to drive subjects' attention, we provide evidence of a very marked interaction between ASD brain functional connectivity and cognitive state. We show that functional connectivity changes in opposite ways in ASD and typicals as attention shifts from external world towards one's body generated information. Furthermore, ASD subject alter more markedly than typicals their connectivity across cognitive states. Using differences in brain connectivity across conditions, we ranked brain regions according to their classification power. Anterior insula and dorsal-anterior cingulate cortex were the regions that better characterize ASD differences with typical subjects across conditions, and this effect was modulated by ASD severity. These results pave the path for diagnosis of mental pathologies based on functional brain networks obtained from a library of mental states. PMID:23044278

  19. Modeling dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peili; Guo, Lei; Hu, Xintao; Li, Xiang; Jin, Changfeng; Han, Junwei; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence from the functional neuroimaging field suggests that human brain functions are realized via dynamic functional interactions on large-scale structural networks. Even in resting state, functional brain networks exhibit remarkable temporal dynamics. However, it has been rarely explored to computationally model such dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks. In this paper, we present a novel computational framework to explore this problem using multimodal resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Basically, recent literature reports including our own studies have demonstrated that the resting state brain networks dynamically undergo a set of distinct brain states. Within each quasi-stable state, functional information flows from one set of structural brain nodes to other sets of nodes, which is analogous to the message package routing on the Internet from the source node to the destination. Therefore, based on the large-scale structural brain networks constructed from DTI data, we employ a dynamic programming strategy to infer functional information transition routines on structural networks, based on which hub routers that most frequently participate in these routines are identified. It is interesting that a majority of those hub routers are located within the default mode network (DMN), revealing a possible mechanism of the critical functional hub roles played by the DMN in resting state. Also, application of this framework on a post trauma stress disorder (PTSD) dataset demonstrated interesting difference in hub router distributions between PTSD patients and healthy controls. PMID:24579202

  20. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-yan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Xi-ping; Tao, Lu-yang

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26170824

  1. Treatment with harmine ameliorates functional impairment and neuronal death following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zeqi; Tao, Yuan; Yang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality in young individuals, and results in motor and cognitive deficiency. Excitotoxicity is an important process during neuronal cell death, which is caused by excessive release of glutamate following TBI. Astrocytic glutamate transporters have a predominant role in maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below excitotoxic levels, and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT?1) may account for >90% of glutamate uptake in the brain. The ??carboline alkaloid harmine has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective actions in vivo, and the beneficial effects were specifically due to elevation of GLT?1. However, whether harmine provides neuroprotection following TBI remains to be elucidated. The present study performed intraperitoneal harmine injections in rats (30 mg/kg per day for up to 5 days), in order to investigate whether harmine treatment attenuates brain edema and improves functional recovery in a rat model of TBI. The neuronal survival ratio and the protein expression of apoptosis?associated caspase 3 were also assessed in the hippocampus of the rat brain. Furthermore, the expression levels of GLT?1 and inflammatory cytokines were detected, in order to determine the underlying mechanisms. The results of the present study demonstrated that administration of harmine significantly attenuated cerebral edema, and improved learning and memory ability. In addition, harmine significantly increased the protein expression of GLT?1, and markedly attenuated the expression levels of interleukin?1? and tumor necrosis factor??, thereby attenuating apoptotic neuronal death in the hippocampus. These results provided in vivo evidence that harmine may exert neuroprotective effects by synergistically reducing excitotoxicity and inflammation following TBI. PMID:26496827

  2. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain. PMID:26037235

  3. A novel brain partition highlights the modular skeleton shared by structure and function.

    PubMed

    Diez, Ibai; Bonifazi, Paolo; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Muñoz, Miguel A; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationship between brain structure and function, both in healthy and pathological conditions, is a key challenge for modern neuroscience. Recent progress in neuroimaging has helped advance our understanding of this important issue, with diffusion images providing information about structural connectivity (SC) and functional magnetic resonance imaging shedding light on resting state functional connectivity (rsFC). Here, we adopt a systems approach, relying on modular hierarchical clustering, to study together SC and rsFC datasets gathered independently from healthy human subjects. Our novel approach allows us to find a common skeleton shared by structure and function from which a new, optimal, brain partition can be extracted. We describe the emerging common structure-function modules (SFMs) in detail and compare them with commonly employed anatomical or functional parcellations. Our results underline the strong correspondence between brain structure and resting-state dynamics as well as the emerging coherent organization of the human brain. PMID:26037235

  4. Creating Patient-Specific Neural Cells for the In Vitro Study of Brain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Brennand, Kristen J; Marchetto, M Carol; Benvenisty, Nissim; Brüstle, Oliver; Ebert, Allison; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Kaykas, Ajamete; Lancaster, Madeline A; Livesey, Frederick J; McConnell, Michael J; McKay, Ronald D; Morrow, Eric M; Muotri, Alysson R; Panchision, David M; Rubin, Lee L; Sawa, Akira; Soldner, Frank; Song, Hongjun; Studer, Lorenz; Temple, Sally; Vaccarino, Flora M; Wu, Jun; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Gage, Fred H; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    As a group, we met to discuss the current challenges for creating meaningful patient-specific in vitro models to study brain disorders. Although the convergence of findings between laboratories and patient cohorts provided us confidence and optimism that hiPSC-based platforms will inform future drug discovery efforts, a number of critical technical challenges remain. This opinion piece outlines our collective views on the current state of hiPSC-based disease modeling and discusses what we see to be the critical objectives that must be addressed collectively as a field. PMID:26610635

  5. Neurocognitive Function of Patients with Brain Metastasis Who Received Either Whole Brain Radiotherapy Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Radiosurgery Alone

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Hidefumi . E-mail: hao@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Tago, Masao; Kato, Norio; Toyoda, Tatsuya; Kenjyo, Masahiro; Hirota, Saeko; Shioura, Hiroki; Inomata, Taisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kobashi, Gen; Shirato, Hiroki

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To determine how the omission of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) affects the neurocognitive function of patients with one to four brain metastases who have been treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: In a prospective randomized trial between WBRT+SRS and SRS alone for patients with one to four brain metastases, we assessed the neurocognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Of the 132 enrolled patients, MMSE scores were available for 110. Results: In the baseline MMSE analyses, statistically significant differences were observed for total tumor volume, extent of tumor edema, age, and Karnofsky performance status. Of the 92 patients who underwent the follow-up MMSE, 39 had a baseline MMSE score of {<=}27 (17 in the WBRT+SRS group and 22 in the SRS-alone group). Improvements of {>=}3 points in the MMSEs of 9 WBRT+SRS patients and 11 SRS-alone patients (p = 0.85) were observed. Of the 82 patients with a baseline MMSE score of {>=}27 or whose baseline MMSE score was {<=}26 but had improved to {>=}27 after the initial brain treatment, the 12-, 24-, and 36-month actuarial free rate of the 3-point drop in the MMSE was 76.1%, 68.5%, and 14.7% in the WBRT+SRS group and 59.3%, 51.9%, and 51.9% in the SRS-alone group, respectively. The average duration until deterioration was 16.5 months in the WBRT+SRS group and 7.6 months in the SRS-alone group (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study have revealed that, for most brain metastatic patients, control of the brain tumor is the most important factor for stabilizing neurocognitive function. However, the long-term adverse effects of WBRT on neurocognitive function might not be negligible.

  6. Does motion-related brain functional connectivity reflect both artifacts and genuine neural activity?

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; Macià, Dídac; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Sunyer, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael; Caixàs, Assumpta; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Deus, Joan; Harrison, Ben J

    2014-11-01

    Imaging research on functional connectivity is uniquely contributing to characterize the functional organization of the human brain. Functional connectivity measurements, however, may be significantly influenced by head motion that occurs during image acquisition. The identification of how motion influences such measurements is therefore highly relevant to the interpretation of a study's results. We have mapped the effect of head motion on functional connectivity in six different populations representing a wide range of potential influences of motion on functional connectivity. Group-level voxel-wise maps of the correlation between a summary head motion measurement and functional connectivity degree were estimated in 80 young adults, 71 children, 53 older adults, 20 patients with Down syndrome, 24 with Prader-Willi syndrome and 20 with Williams syndrome. In highly compliant young adults, motion correlated with functional connectivity measurements showing a system-specific anatomy involving the sensorimotor cortex, visual areas and default mode network. Further characterization was strongly indicative of these changes expressing genuine neural activity related to motion, as opposed to pure motion artifact. In the populations with larger head motion, results were more indicative of widespread artifacts, but showing notably distinct spatial distribution patterns. Group-level regression of motion effects was efficient in removing both generalized changes and changes putatively related to neural activity. Overall, this study endorses a relatively simple approach for mapping distinct effects of head motion on functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings support the intriguing hypothesis that a component of motion-related changes may reflect system-specific neural activity. PMID:24999036

  7. Spatially Aggregated Multi-Class Pattern Classification in Functional MRI using Optimally Selected Functional Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weili; Ackley, Elena S.; Martínez-Ramón, Manel; Posse, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In previous works, boosting aggregation of classifier outputs from discrete brain areas has been demonstrated to reduce dimensionality, and improve the robustness and accuracy of fMRI classification. However, dimensionality reduction and classification of mixed activation patterns of multiple classes remain challenging. In the present study, the goals were (a) to reduce dimensionality by combining feature reduction at the voxel level and backward elimination of optimally aggregated classifiers at the region level, (b) to compare region selection for spatially aggregated classification using boosting and partial least squares regression methods and (c) to resolve mixed activation patterns using probabilistic prediction of individual tasks. Brain activation maps from interleaved visual, motor, auditory and cognitive tasks were segmented into 144 functional regions. Feature selection reduced the number of feature voxels by more than 50%, leaving 95 regions. The two aggregation approaches further reduced the number of regions to 30, resulting in more than 75% reduction of classification time and misclassification rates of less than 3%. Boosting and partial least squares (PLS) were compared to select the most discriminative and the most task correlated regions, respectively. Successful task prediction in mixed activation patterns was feasible within the first block of task activation in real time fMRI experiments. This methodology is suitable for sparsifying activation patterns in real-time fMRI and for neurofeedback from distributed networks of brain activation. PMID:22902471

  8. Error estimates and specification parameters for functional renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Schnoerr, David; Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt ; Wetterich, Christof

    2013-07-15

    We present a strategy for estimating the error of truncated functional flow equations. While the basic functional renormalization group equation is exact, approximated solutions by means of truncations do not only depend on the choice of the retained information, but also on the precise definition of the truncation. Therefore, results depend on specification parameters that can be used to quantify the error of a given truncation. We demonstrate this for the BCS–BEC crossover in ultracold atoms. Within a simple truncation the precise definition of the frequency dependence of the truncated propagator affects the results, indicating a shortcoming of the choice of a frequency independent cutoff function.

  9. 15 Mycorrhizal Specificity and Function in Myco-heterotrophic Plants

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Lee

    15 Mycorrhizal Specificity and Function in Myco-heterotrophic Plants D.L. Taylor, T.D. Bruns, J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 000 15.3.1.6 Molecular Studies of Wild Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 000 15.3.2 Overview diverse fungi co-exist with the plant. Moreover, in one case, genetic influences of the host plant have

  10. NCAM function in the adult brain: lessons from mimetic peptides and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Dallérac, Glenn; Rampon, Claire; Doyère, Valérie

    2013-06-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are complexes of transmembranal proteins critical for cell-cell interactions. Initially recognized as key players in the orchestration of developmental processes involving cell migration, cell survival, axon guidance, and synaptic targeting, they have been shown to retain these functions in the mature adult brain, in relation to plastic processes and cognitive abilities. NCAMs are able to interact among themselves (homophilic binding) as well as with other molecules (heterophilic binding). Furthermore, they are the sole molecule of the central nervous system undergoing polysialylation. Most interestingly polysialylated and non-polysialylated NCAMs display opposite properties. The precise contributions each of these characteristics brings in the regulations of synaptic and cellular plasticity in relation to cognitive processes in the adult brain are not yet fully understood. With the aim of deciphering the specific involvement of each interaction, recent developments led to the generation of NCAM mimetic peptides that recapitulate identified binding properties of NCAM. The present review focuses on the information such advances have provided in the understanding of NCAM contribution to cognitive function. PMID:23494903

  11. Genes that Affect Brain Structure and Function Identified by Rare Variant Analyses of Mendelian Neurologic Disease.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Ender; Harel, Tamar; Pehlivan, Davut; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gambin, Tomasz; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Erdin, Serkan; Bayram, Yavuz; Campbell, Ian M; Hunter, Jill V; Atik, Mehmed M; Van Esch, Hilde; Yuan, Bo; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Isikay, Sedat; Yesil, Gozde; Yuregir, Ozge O; Tug Bozdogan, Sevcan; Aslan, Huseyin; Aydin, Hatip; Tos, Tulay; Aksoy, Ayse; De Vivo, Darryl C; Jain, Preti; Geckinli, B Bilge; Sezer, Ozlem; Gul, Davut; Durmaz, Burak; Cogulu, Ozgur; Ozkinay, Ferda; Topcu, Vehap; Candan, Sukru; Cebi, Alper Han; Ikbal, Mevlit; Yilmaz Gulec, Elif; Gezdirici, Alper; Koparir, Erkan; Ekici, Fatma; Coskun, Salih; Cicek, Salih; Karaer, Kadri; Koparir, Asuman; Duz, Mehmet Bugrahan; Kirat, Emre; Fenercioglu, Elif; Ulucan, Hakan; Seven, Mehmet; Guran, Tulay; Elcioglu, Nursel; Yildirim, Mahmut Selman; Aktas, Dilek; Alika?ifo?lu, Mehmet; Ture, Mehmet; Yakut, Tahsin; Overton, John D; Yuksel, Adnan; Ozen, Mustafa; Muzny, Donna M; Adams, David R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chung, Wendy K; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2015-11-01

    Development of the human nervous system involves complex interactions among fundamental cellular processes and requires a multitude of genes, many of which remain to be associated with human disease. We applied whole exome sequencing to 128 mostly consanguineous families with neurogenetic disorders that often included brain malformations. Rare variant analyses for both single nucleotide variant (SNV) and copy number variant (CNV) alleles allowed for identification of 45 novel variants in 43 known disease genes, 41 candidate genes, and CNVs in 10 families, with an overall potential molecular cause identified in >85% of families studied. Among the candidate genes identified, we found PRUNE, VARS, and DHX37 in multiple families and homozygous loss-of-function variants in AGBL2, SLC18A2, SMARCA1, UBQLN1, and CPLX1. Neuroimaging and in silico analysis of functional and expression proximity between candidate and known disease genes allowed for further understanding of genetic networks underlying specific types of brain malformations. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26539891

  12. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills. PMID:26601407

  13. Mfsd2a is critical for the formation and function of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Lacoste, Baptiste; Kur, Esther; Andreone, Benjamin J; Mayshar, Yoav; Yan, Han; Gu, Chenghua

    2014-05-22

    The central nervous system (CNS) requires a tightly controlled environment free of toxins and pathogens to provide the proper chemical composition for neural function. This environment is maintained by the 'blood-brain barrier' (BBB), which is composed of blood vessels whose endothelial cells display specialized tight junctions and extremely low rates of transcellular vesicular transport (transcytosis). In concert with pericytes and astrocytes, this unique brain endothelial physiological barrier seals the CNS and controls substance influx and efflux. Although BBB breakdown has recently been associated with initiation and perpetuation of various neurological disorders, an intact BBB is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the CNS. A limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control BBB formation has hindered our ability to manipulate the BBB in disease and therapy. Here we identify mechanisms governing the establishment of a functional BBB. First, using a novel tracer-injection method for embryos, we demonstrate spatiotemporal developmental profiles of BBB functionality and find that the mouse BBB becomes functional at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5). We then screen for BBB-specific genes expressed during BBB formation, and find that major facilitator super family domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a) is selectively expressed in BBB-containing blood vessels in the CNS. Genetic ablation of Mfsd2a results in a leaky BBB from embryonic stages through to adulthood, but the normal patterning of vascular networks is maintained. Electron microscopy examination reveals a dramatic increase in CNS-endothelial-cell vesicular transcytosis in Mfsd2a(-/-) mice, without obvious tight-junction defects. Finally we show that Mfsd2a endothelial expression is regulated by pericytes to facilitate BBB integrity. These findings identify Mfsd2a as a key regulator of BBB function that may act by suppressing transcytosis in CNS endothelial cells. Furthermore, our findings may aid in efforts to develop therapeutic approaches for CNS drug delivery. PMID:24828040

  14. MSFD2A is critical for the formation and function of the blood brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Lacoste, Baptiste; Kur, Esther; Andreone, Benjamin J.; Mayshar, Yoav; Yan, Han; Gu, Chenghua

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) requires a tightly controlled environment free of toxins and pathogens to provide the proper chemical composition for neural function. This environment is maintained by the ‘blood brain barrier’ (BBB), which is composed of blood vessels whose endothelial cells display specialized tight junctions and extremely low rates of transcellular vesicular transport (transcytosis)1–3. In concert with pericytes and astrocytes, this unique brain endothelial physiological barrier seals the CNS and controls substance influx and efflux4–6. While BBB breakdown has recently been associated with initiation and perpetuation of various neurological disorders, an intact BBB is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the CNS7–10. A limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control BBB formation has hindered our ability to manipulate the BBB in disease and therapy. Here, we identify mechanisms governing the establishment of a functional BBB. First, using a novel embryonic tracer injection method, we demonstrate spatiotemporal developmental profiles of BBB functionality and find that the mouse BBB becomes functional at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5). We then screen for BBB-specific genes expressed during BBB formation, and find that major facilitator super family domain containing 2a (Mfsd2a) is selectively expressed in BBB-containing blood vessels in the CNS. Genetic ablation of Mfsd2a results in a leaky BBB from embryonic periods through adulthood, while maintaining the normal patterning of vascular networks. Electron microscopy examination reveals a dramatic increase in CNS endothelial cell vesicular transcytosis in Mfsd2a?/? mice, without obvious tight junction defects. Finally we show that MFSD2A endothelial expression is regulated by pericytes to facilitate BBB integrity. These findings identify MFSD2A as a key regulator of BBB function that may act by suppressing transcytosis in CNS endothelial cells. Further our findings may aid in efforts to develop therapeutic approaches for CNS drug delivery. PMID:24828040

  15. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  16. A Brain-Wide Study of Age-Related Changes in Functional Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Saliasi, Emi; Maurits, Natasha M; Lorist, Monicque M

    2015-07-01

    Aging affects functional connectivity between brain areas, however, a complete picture of how aging affects integration of information within and between functional networks is missing. We used complex network measures, derived from a brain-wide graph, to provide a comprehensive overview of age-related changes in functional connectivity. Functional connectivity in young and older participants was assessed during resting-state fMRI. The results show that aging has a large impact, not only on connectivity within functional networks but also on connectivity between the different functional networks in the brain. Brain networks in the elderly showed decreased modularity (less distinct functional networks) and decreased local efficiency. Connectivity decreased with age within networks supporting higher level cognitive functions, that is, within the default mode, cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal control networks. Conversely, no changes in connectivity within the somatomotor and visual networks, networks implicated in primary information processing, were observed. Connectivity between these networks even increased with age. A brain-wide analysis approach of functional connectivity in the aging brain thus seems fundamental in understanding how age affects integration of information. PMID:24532319

  17. Integration of visual and motor functional streams in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sepulcre, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    A long-standing difficulty in brain research has been to disentangle how information flows across circuits composed by multiple local and distant cerebral areas. At the large-scale level, several brain imaging methods have contributed to the understanding of those circuits by capturing the covariance or coupling patterns of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity between distributed brain regions. The hypothesis is that underlying information processes are closely associated to synchronized brain activity, and therefore to the functional connectivity structure of the human brain. In this study, we have used a recently developed method called stepwise functional connectivity analysis. Our results show that motor and visual connectivity merge in a multimodal integration network that links together perception, action and cognition in the human functional connectome. PMID:24699175

  18. Can pharmacological and psychological treatment change brain structure and function in PTSD? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Dorrepaal, Ethy; Draijer, Nel; Jansma, Elise P; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J

    2014-03-01

    While there is evidence of clinical improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with treatment, its neural underpinnings are insufficiently clear. Moreover, it is unknown whether similar neurophysiological changes occur in PTSD specifically after child abuse, given its enduring nature and the developmental vulnerability of the brain during childhood. We systematically reviewed PTSD treatment effect studies on structural and functional brain changes from PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PILOTS and the Cochrane Library. We included studies on adults with (partial) PTSD in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) or pre-post designs (excluding case studies) on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Risk of bias was evaluated independently by two raters. Brain coordinates and effect sizes were standardized for comparability. We included 15 studies (6 RCTs, 9 pre-post), four of which were on child abuse. Results showed that pharmacotherapy improved structural abnormalities (i.e., increased hippocampus volume) in both adult-trauma and child abuse related PTSD (3 pre-post studies). Functional changes were found to distinguish between groups. Adult-trauma PTSD patients showed decreased amygdala and increased dorsolateral prefrontal activations post-treatment (4 RCTs, 5 pre-post studies). In one RCT, child abuse patients showed no changes in the amygdala, but decreased dorsolateral prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and insula activation post-treatment. In conclusion, pharmacotherapy may reduce structural abnormalities in PTSD, while psychotherapy may decrease amygdala activity and increase prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and hippocampus activations, that may relate to extinction learning and re-appraisal. There is some evidence for a distinct activation pattern in child abuse patients, which clearly awaits further empirical testing. PMID:24321592

  19. Functional Brain Imaging and the Neural Basis for Voiding Dysfunction in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phillip P; Kuchel, George A; Griffiths, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Brain abnormalities may contribute to the increased prevalence of urinary dysfunction such as overactive bladder and urge incontinence in older individuals. Functional brain imaging suggests that 3 independent neural circuits (frontal, midcingulate, and subcortical) control voiding by suppressing the voiding reflex in the brainstem periaqueductal gray. Damage to the connecting pathways subserving these circuits (white matter hyperintensities) increases with age and is associated both with severity of urge incontinence and changes in brain function. Multicomponent therapies targeting structural and functional neural abnormalities may be more effective than any single treatment focused on the bladder. PMID:26476115

  20. Weighted Functional Brain Network Modeling via Network Filtration

    E-print Network

    Chung, Moo K.

    the local and global differences of the brain networks of 24 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 11 pediatric control (PedCon) children ob- tained through

  1. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural equilibrium with HDT bed rest. This suggests that neuroplastic processes may facilitate adaptation to the HDT bed rest environment. The findings from this study provide novel insights into the neurobiology and future risk assessments of long-duration spaceflight.

  2. Enhanced level of site-specific proteolysis of GAP-43 protein during early stages of brain development.

    PubMed

    Mosevitsky, M I; Konovalova, E S; Bichevaya, N K; Klementiev, B I

    2000-10-01

    GAP-43 protein of nerve terminals (B-50, F1, F57, pp46, neuromodulin) is thought to be one of key proteins involved in the control of outgrowth of neurites, release of neuromediators, synapse plasticity, etc. GAP-43 is usually considered as a whole protein. Along with the intact protein, nerve cells also contain two large native fragments of GAP-43 deprived of four or of about forty N-terminal amino acid residues (GAP-43-2 and GAP-43-3, respectively). The full-length GAP-43 is predominant in the mature brain. However, the ratio of the full-length protein and its fragments can vary under different physiological conditions. Changes in the GAP-43 proteins (the full-length protein and its fragments) were studied during embryonal and postnatal development of rat brain. The GAP-43 proteins were found to be expressed not later than on the 12-13th day of embryogenesis. Then their contents increased, and, until the 10th day after birth, GAP-43-3 dominated rather than the full-length protein. It is suggested that during this period the activity of a specific protease, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide of about 40 residues from the full-length GAP-43 molecule, is increased. The cleavage occurs in the region responsible for the interaction of GAP-43 with calmodulin. In the full-length molecule, this region is responsible also for the recognition of Ser41 residue by protein kinase C during phosphorylation. Another functionally important region that determines, in particular, the attachment of GAP-43 to the plasma membrane is cleaved from the main part of the molecule together with the N-terminal peptide. Thus, the specific fragmentation of GAP-43 that depends on developmental stage should be considered as a controlled structural rearrangement fundamentally affecting the functions of this protein. PMID:11092958

  3. Functional Connectivity MRI in Infants: Exploration of the Functional Organization of the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Smyser, Christopher D.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Neil, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging techniques have been increasingly applied to the study of preterm and term infants in an effort to further define the functional cerebral architecture of the developing brain. Despite improved understanding of the complex relationship between structure and function obtained through these investigations, significant questions remain regarding the nature, location, and timing of the maturational changes which occur during early development. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) utilizes spontaneous, low frequency (< 0.1 Hz), coherent fluctuations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to identify networks of functional cerebral connections. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of its image acquisition and analysis, fcMRI offers a novel neuroimaging approach well suited to investigation of infants. Recently, this methodology has been successfully applied to examine neonatal populations, defining normative patterns of large-scale neural network development in the maturing brain. The resting-state networks (RSNs) identified in these studies reflect the evolving cerebral structural architecture, presumably driven by varied genetic and environmental influences. Principal features of these investigations and their role in characterization of the tenets of neural network development during this critical developmental period are highlighted in this review. Despite these successes, optimal methods for fcMRI data acquisition and analysis for this population have not yet been defined. Further, appropriate schemes for interpretation and translation of fcMRI results remain unknown, a matter of increasing importance as functional neuroimaging findings are progressively applied in the clinical arena. Notwithstanding these concerns, fcMRI provides insight into the earliest forms of cerebral connectivity and therefore holds great promise for future neurodevelopmental investigations. PMID:21376813

  4. Young Children's Changing Conceptualizations of Brain Function: Implications for Teaching Neuroscience in Early Elementary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Comalli, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Two exploratory studies explored young children's views of brain function and whether these views can be modified through exposure to a brief classroom intervention. In Study 1, children aged 4-13 years reported that the brain is used for "thinking," although older children were more likely than younger children to also endorse…

  5. Fusion of Functional Brain Imaging Modalities using L-Norms Signal Reconstruction YAROSLAV O. HALCHENKO

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    RUMBA Rutgers University Mind Brain Analysis Fusion of Functional Brain Imaging Modalities using L-Norms-error (l2 norm) minimization leads to the best estimator in case of Gaussian data noise, absolute error (l1 norm) minimization can lead to a more robust solution in the presence of outliers. This fact lead us

  6. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  7. Purification and characterization of mu-specific opioid receptor from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, J.; Cho, T.M.; Ge, B.L.; Loh, H.H.

    1986-03-05

    A mu-specific opioid receptor was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat brain membranes by 6-succinylmorphine affinity chromatography, Ultrogel filtration, wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. The purified receptor had a molecular weight of 58,000 as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was judged to be homogeneous by the following criteria: (1) a single band on the SDS gel; and (2) a specific opioid binding activity of 17,720 pmole/mg protein, close to the theoretical value. In addition, the 58,000 molecular weight value agrees closely with that determined by covalently labelling purified receptor with bromoacetyl-/sup 3/H-dihydromorphine or with /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and dimethyl suberimidate. To their knowledge, this is the first complete purification of an opioid receptor that retains its ability to bind opiates.

  8. Morphometric studies of specific brain regions of rats chronically intoxicated with the organophosphate methamidophos.

    PubMed

    Pelegrino, J R; Calore, E E; Saldiva, P H N; Almeida, V F; Peres, N M; Vilela-de-Almeida, L

    2006-06-01

    Subtle neurological disturbances have been described in organophosphorus intoxication. Experimental studies have reported neuronal necrosis, particularly in animals experiencing seizures. The objective of the present work was to investigate if in rats (without seizures) exposed to an organophosphate agent, morphological changes occur in specific regions of the brain. The animals received 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg methamidophos once a week for 2 months and were decapitated after 2 months 7 days of drug administration. We observed atrophy of the molecular layer of the parietal cortex without neuronal loss in specific cerebral regions. This would be due to atrophy or loss of neuronal ramifications but without neuronal loss. PMID:16002140

  9. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  10. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  11. Associations between Level and Change in Physical Function and Brain Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, Mark E.; del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Maria; Murray, Catherine; Royle, Natalie A.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher levels of fitness or physical function are positively associated with cognitive outcomes but the potential underlying mechanisms via brain structure are still to be elucidated in detail. We examined associations between brain structure and physical function (contemporaneous and change over the previous three years) in community-dwelling older adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=694) underwent brain MRI at age 73 years to assess intracranial volume, and the volumes of total brain tissue, ventricles, grey matter, normal-appearing white matter, and white matter lesions. At ages 70 and 73, physical function was assessed by 6-meter walk, grip strength, and forced expiratory volume. A summary ‘physical function factor’ was derived from the individual measures using principal components analysis. Performance on each individual physical function measure declined across the three year interval (p<0.001). Higher level of physical function at ages 70 and 73 was associated with larger total brain tissue and white matter volumes, and smaller ventricular and white matter lesion volumes (standardized ? ranged in magnitude from 0.07 to 0.17, p<0.001 to 0.034). Decline in physical function from age 70 to 73 was associated with smaller white matter volume (0.08, p<0.01, though not after correction for multiple testing), but not with any other brain volumetric measurements. Conclusions/Significance Physical function was related to brain volumes in community-dwelling older adults: declining physical function was associated with less white matter tissue. Further study is required to explore the detailed mechanisms through which physical function might influence brain structure, and vice versa. PMID:24265818

  12. Downregulation of serum brain specific microRNA is associated with inflammation and infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Junjian; Han, Rongfei; Liu, Hanxing; Sun, Dong; Liu, Xuan

    2015-02-01

    Cerebral ischemic injury activates a robust inflammatory response, exacerbating neurological deficit. Several brain specific microRNA (miRNA) molecules have been reported to mediate functioning of the immune system, referred to as NeurimmiR. We aimed to explore possible associations between serum miRNA levels and stroke severity and their involvement in the regulation of inflammatory responses after stroke. Blood samples were obtained from 31 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 11 healthy controls. We evaluated infarct volume using diffusion weighted imaging and neurological deficit using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Serum levels of three NeurimmiR, miR-124, miR-9 and miR-219 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and serum levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a proinflammation marker in brain injury, were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that serum miR-124 was significantly decreased within 24 hours after stroke onset and serum miR-9 was decreased in patients with larger stroke. There were no significant changes in serum miR-219. Both serum miR-124 and miR-9 levels within 24 hours were negatively correlated with infarct volume and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. All three NeurimmiR negatively correlated with MMP-9 levels. Our preliminary findings indicate that serum miR-124, miR-9 and miR-219 are suppressed in acute ischemic stroke thus facilitating neuroinflammation and brain injury. PMID:25257664

  13. Brain Function and Upper Limb Outcome in Stroke: A Cross-Sectional fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Buma, Floor E.; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Kwakkel, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nature of changes in brain activation related to good recovery of arm function after stroke is still unclear. While the notion that this is a reflection of neuronal plasticity has gained much support, confounding by compensatory strategies cannot be ruled out. We address this issue by comparing brain activity in recovered patients 6 months after stroke with healthy controls. Methods We included 20 patients with upper limb paresis due to ischemic stroke and 15 controls. We measured brain activation during a finger flexion-extension task with functional MRI, and the relationship between brain activation and hand function. Patients exhibited various levels of recovery, but all were able to perform the task. Results Comparison between patients and controls with voxel-wise whole-brain analysis failed to reveal significant differences in brain activation. Equally, a region of interest analysis constrained to the motor network to optimize statistical power, failed to yield any differences. Finally, no significant relationship between brain activation and hand function was found in patients. Patients and controls performed scanner task equally well. Conclusion Brain activation and behavioral performance during finger flexion-extensions in (moderately) well recovered patients seems normal. The absence of significant differences in brain activity even in patients with a residual impairment may suggest that infarcts do not necessarily induce reorganization of motor function. While brain activity could be abnormal with higher task demands, this may also introduce performance confounds. It is thus still uncertain to what extent capacity for true neuronal repair after stroke exists. PMID:26440276

  14. Characteristics of Brains in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structure, Function and Connectivity across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sungji; Sohn, In-Jung; Kim, Namwook; Sim, Hyeon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). Over the past decade, neuroimaging studies have provided considerable insights underlying neurobiological mechanisms of ASD. In this review, we introduce recent findings from brain imaging studies to characterize the brains of ASD across the human lifespan. Results of structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies dealing with total brain volume, regional brain structure and cortical area are summarized. Using task-based functional MRI (fMRI), many studies have shown dysfunctional activation in critical areas of social communication and RRBs. We also describe several data to show abnormal connectivity in the ASD brains. Finally, we suggest the possible strategies to study ASD brains in the future. PMID:26713076

  15. Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function

    PubMed Central

    Ogunnowo-Bada, E O; Heeley, N; Brochard, L; Evans, M L

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly apparent that the brain plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis, including the maintenance of blood glucose. This is achieved by various efferent pathways from the brain to periphery, which help control hepatic glucose flux and perhaps insulin-stimulated insulin secretion. Also, critically important for the brain given its dependence on a constant supply of glucose as a fuel – emergency counter-regulatory responses are triggered by the brain if blood glucose starts to fall. To exert these control functions, the brain needs to detect rapidly and accurately changes in blood glucose. In this review, we summarize some of the mechanisms postulated to play a role in this and examine the potential role of the low-affinity hexokinase, glucokinase, in the brain as a key part of some of this sensing. We also discuss how these processes may become altered in diabetes and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25200293

  16. A multimodal approach for determining brain networks by jointly modeling functional and structural connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenqiong; Bowman, F. DuBois; Pileggi, Anthony V.; Mayer, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in neuroimaging technology have provided opportunities for researchers to investigate connectivity in the human brain by examining the anatomical circuitry as well as functional relationships between brain regions. Existing statistical approaches for connectivity generally examine resting-state or task-related functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions or separately examine structural linkages. As a means to determine brain networks, we present a unified Bayesian framework for analyzing FC utilizing the knowledge of associated structural connections, which extends an approach by Patel et al. (2006a) that considers only functional data. We introduce an FC measure that rests upon assessments of functional coherence between regional brain activity identified from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Our structural connectivity (SC) information is drawn from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, which is used to quantify probabilities of SC between brain regions. We formulate a prior distribution for FC that depends upon the probability of SC between brain regions, with this dependence adhering to structural-functional links revealed by our fMRI and DTI data. We further characterize the functional hierarchy of functionally connected brain regions by defining an ascendancy measure that compares the marginal probabilities of elevated activity between regions. In addition, we describe topological properties of the network, which is composed of connected region pairs, by performing graph theoretic analyses. We demonstrate the use of our Bayesian model using fMRI and DTI data from a study of auditory processing. We further illustrate the advantages of our method by comparisons to methods that only incorporate functional information. PMID:25750621

  17. Functional analyses of genetic pathways controlling petal specification in poppy.

    PubMed

    Drea, Sinéad; Hileman, Lena C; de Martino, Gemma; Irish, Vivian F

    2007-12-01

    MADS-box genes are crucial regulators of floral development, yet how their functions have evolved to control different aspects of floral patterning is unclear. To understand the extent to which MADS-box gene functions are conserved or have diversified in different angiosperm lineages, we have exploited the capability for functional analyses in a new model system, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy). P. somniferum is a member of the order Ranunculales, and so represents a clade that is evolutionarily distant from those containing traditional model systems such as Arabidopsis, Petunia, maize or rice. We have identified and characterized the roles of several candidate MADS-box genes in petal specification in poppy. In Arabidopsis, the APETALA3 (AP3) MADS-box gene is required for both petal and stamen identity specification. By contrast, we show that the AP3 lineage has undergone gene duplication and subfunctionalization in poppy, with one gene copy required for petal development and the other responsible for stamen development. These differences in gene function are due to differences both in expression patterns and co-factor interactions. Furthermore, the genetic hierarchy controlling petal development in poppy has diverged as compared with that of Arabidopsis. As these are the first functional analyses of AP3 genes in this evolutionarily divergent clade, our results provide new information on the similarities and differences in petal developmental programs across angiosperms. Based on these observations, we discuss a model for how the petal developmental program has evolved. PMID:17959716

  18. Topological organization of the human brain functional connectome across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Cao, Miao; Wang, Jin-Hui; Dai, Zheng-Jia; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Li-Li; Fan, Feng-Mei; Song, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Ming-Rui; Shu, Ni; Dong, Qi; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Zuo, Xi-Nian; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Human brain function undergoes complex transformations across the lifespan. We employed resting-state functional MRI and graph-theory approaches to systematically chart the lifespan trajectory of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks in 126 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. Brain networks were constructed by computing Pearson's correlations in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent temporal fluctuations among 1024 parcellation units followed by graph-based network analyses. We observed that the human brain functional connectome exhibited highly preserved non-random modular and rich club organization over the entire age range studied. Further quantitative analyses revealed linear decreases in modularity and inverted-U shaped trajectories of local efficiency and rich club architecture. Regionally heterogeneous age effects were mainly located in several hubs (e.g., default network, dorsal attention regions). Finally, we observed inverse trajectories of long- and short-distance functional connections, indicating that the reorganization of connectivity concentrates and distributes the brain's functional networks. Our results demonstrate topological changes in the whole-brain functional connectome across nearly the entire human lifespan, providing insights into the neural substrates underlying individual variations in behavior and cognition. These results have important implications for disease connectomics because they provide a baseline for evaluating network impairments in age-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24333927

  19. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  20. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  1. Uncovering Phosphorylation-Based Specificities through Functional Interaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Wagih, Omar; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ishihama, Yasushi; Beltrao, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases are an important class of enzymes involved in the phosphorylation of their targets, which regulate key cellular processes and are typically mediated by a specificity for certain residues around the target phospho-acceptor residue. While efforts have been made to identify such specificities, only ?30% of human kinases have a significant number of known binding sites. We describe a computational method that utilizes functional interaction data and phosphorylation data to predict specificities of kinases. We applied this method to human kinases to predict substrate preferences for 57% of all known kinases and show that we are able to reconstruct well-known specificities. We used an in vitro mass spectrometry approach to validate four understudied kinases and show that predicted models closely resemble true specificities. We show that this method can be applied to different organisms and can be extended to other phospho-recognition domains. Applying this approach to different types of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and binding domains could uncover specificities of understudied PTM recognition domains and provide significant insight into the mechanisms of signaling networks. PMID:26572964

  2. Extrahypophysial distribution of corticotropin as a function of brain size.

    PubMed Central

    Moldow, R; Yalow, R S

    1978-01-01

    Determination by radioimmunoassay of corticotropin in the brains of rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and human beings reveals that the dimensions within which the hormone is found is about the same for each of these species but that the anatomical regions in which the hormone is found depends on brain size. Corticotropin is widely distributed in the brain of rats but is found only in the hypothalamic region of the primate brain. The patterns of immunoreactivity observed after Sephadex gel filtration confirm that the molecular forms of corticotropin found in extrahypophysial regions are similar to those in the pituitary of each species. These findings suggest that the mammalian pituitary is the sole site of synthesis of the hormone. The observation of persistence of corticotropin in the brains of commerically hypophysectomized rats has been interpreted by others as suggesting diencephalic as well as pituitary origin for this peptide. However, our studies demonstrate that 8 weeks after hypophysectomy the rats we have received from commerical sources manifest stress-stimulated plasma corticotropin concentrations about 80% of that found in intact rats in spite of the fact that residual pituitary tissue was not found by visual inspection of the sella. Scrapings from the sella revealed a corticotropin content up to 5% that of the average rat pituitary. Images PMID:204943

  3. Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwen; Zou, Zhiling; Kou, Juan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lizhuang; Zilverstand, Anna; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found activation increases in brain regions involved in the processing of reward, motivation and emotion regulation, when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known about whether romantic love affects the brain's functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) across an "in-love" group (LG, N = 34, currently intensely in love), an "ended-love" group (ELG, N = 34, ended romantic relationship recently), and a "single" group (SG, N = 32, never fallen in love). Results show that: (1) ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG); (2) ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; (3) FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion regulation network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens) as well as FC in the social cognition network [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior parietal, precuneus, and temporal lobe] was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG); (4) in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the duration of love in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration of time since breakup in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations in brain functional architecture. Furthermore, the results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate the possibility of applying a resting-state fMRI approach for investigating romantic love. PMID:25762915

  4. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: In animals, intracerebroventricular glucose and fructose have opposing effects on appetite and weight regulation. In humans, functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during carbohydrate ingestion suggest that glucose may regulate HT signaling but are potentially confoun...

  5. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Ernst

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous ...

  6. Advances in MRI to probe the functional and structural network of the macaque brain

    E-print Network

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion MRI and fMRI have provided neuroscientists with non-invasive tools to probe the functional and structural network of the brain. Diffusion MRI is a neuroimaging technique capable of measuring the diffusion of water ...

  7. Functional Genomics of Brain Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Selective Neuronal Vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xinkun; Michaelis, Mary L.; Michaelis, Elias K.

    2010-10-21

    Pivotal brain functions, such as neurotransmission, cognition, and memory, decline with advancing age and, especially, in neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Yet, deterioration in structure...

  8. Selective Development of Anticorrelated Networks in the Intrinsic Functional Organization of the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Ofen, Noa

    We examined the normal development of intrinsic functional connectivity of the default network (brain regions typically deactivated for attention-demanding tasks) as measured by resting-state fMRI in children, adolescents, ...

  9. Tissue specificity in the nuclear envelope supports its functional complexity

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I; Meinke, Peter; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; Srsen, Vlastimil; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair RW; Schirmer, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear envelope links to inherited disease gave the conundrum of how mutations in near-ubiquitous proteins can yield many distinct pathologies, each focused in different tissues. One conundrum-resolving hypothesis is that tissue-specific partner proteins mediate these pathologies. Such partner proteins may have now been identified with recent proteome studies determining nuclear envelope composition in different tissues. These studies revealed that the majority of the total nuclear envelope proteins are tissue restricted in their expression. Moreover, functions have been found for a number these tissue-restricted nuclear envelope proteins that fit with mechanisms proposed to explain how the nuclear envelope could mediate disease, including defects in mechanical stability, cell cycle regulation, signaling, genome organization, gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and differentiation. The wide range of functions to which these proteins contribute is consistent with not only their involvement in tissue-specific nuclear envelope disease pathologies, but also tissue evolution. PMID:24213376

  10. Intrinsic signal imaging of brain function using a small implantable CMOS imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruta, Makito; Sunaga, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Takehara, Hironari; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2015-04-01

    A brain functional imaging technique over a long period is important to understand brain functions related to animal behavior. We have developed a small implantable CMOS imaging device for measuring brain activity in freely moving animals. This device is composed of a CMOS image sensor chip and LEDs for illumination. In this study, we demonstrated intrinsic signal imaging of blood flow using the device with a green LED light source at a peak wavelength of 535 nm, which corresponds to one of the absorption spectral peaks of blood cells. Brain activity increases regional blood flow. The device light weight of about 0.02 g makes it possible to stably measure brain activity through blood flow over a long period. The device has successfully measured the intrinsic signal related to sensory stimulation on the primary somatosensory cortex.

  11. Nerve Agent Exposure Elicits Site-Specific Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongwen; O’Brien, Jennifer J.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Miller, Diane B.; Zhang, Qiang; Rana, Minal; Tsui, Tiffany; Peng, Youyi; Tomesch, John; Hendrick, Joseph P.; Wennogle, Lawrence P; Snyder, Gretchen L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds cause toxic symptoms, including convulsions, coma, and death, as the result of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The development of effective treatments to block these effects and attenuate long-term cognitive and motor disabilities that result from OP intoxication is hampered by a limited understanding of the CNS pathways responsible for these actions. We employed a candidate method (called CNSProfile™) to identify changes in the phosphorylation state of key neuronal phosphoproteins evoked by the OP compound, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Focused microwave fixation was used to preserve the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in brains of DFP-treated mice; hippocampus and striatum were analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. DFP exposure elicited comparable effects on phosphorylation of brain phosphoproteins in both C57BL/6 and FVB mice. DFP treatment significantly altered phosphorylation at regulatory residues on glutamate receptors, including Serine897 (S897) of the NR1 NMDA receptor. NR1 phosphorylation was bi-directionally regulated after DFP in striatum versus hippocampus. NR1 phosphorylation was reduced in striatum, but elevated in hippocampus, compared with controls. DARPP-32 phosphorylation in striatum was selectively increased at the Cdk5 kinase substrate, Threonine75 (T75). Phencynonate hydrochloride, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, prevented seizure-like behaviors and the observed changes in phosphorylation induced by DFP. The data reveal region-specific effects of nerve agent exposure on intracellular signaling pathways that correlate with seizure-like behavior and which are reversed by the muscarinic receptor blockade. This approach identifies specific targets for nerve agents, including substrates for Cdk5 kinase, which may be the basis for new anti-convulsant therapies. PMID:20423708

  12. Functional characterization of tissue-specific enhancers in the DLX5/6 locus

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Ramon Y.; Everman, David B.; Murphy, Karl K.; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Schwartz, Charles E.; Ahituv, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of distaless homeobox 5 and 6 (Dlx5/6) in mice results in brain, craniofacial, genital, ear and limb defects. In humans, chromosomal aberrations in the DLX5/6 region, some of which do not encompass DLX5/6, are associated with split hand/foot malformation 1 (SHFM1) as well as intellectual disability, craniofacial anomalies and hearing loss, suggesting that the disruption of DLX5/6 regulatory elements could lead to these abnormalities. Here, we characterized enhancers in the DLX5/6 locus whose tissue-specific expression and genomic location along with previously characterized enhancers correlate with phenotypes observed in individuals with chromosomal abnormalities. By analyzing chromosomal aberrations at 7q21, we refined the minimal SHFM1 critical region and used comparative genomics to select 26 evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in this critical region for zebrafish enhancer assays. Eight of these sequences were shown to function as brain, olfactory bulb, branchial arch, otic vesicle and fin enhancers, recapitulating dlx5a/6a expression. Using a mouse enhancer assay, several of these zebrafish enhancers showed comparable expression patterns in the branchial arch, otic vesicle, forebrain and/or limb at embryonic day 11.5. Examination of the coordinates of various chromosomal rearrangements in conjunction with the genomic location of these tissue-specific enhancers showed a correlation with the observed clinical abnormalities. Our findings suggest that chromosomal abnormalities that disrupt the function of these tissue-specific enhancers could be the cause of SHFM1 and its associated phenotypes. In addition, they highlight specific enhancers in which mutations could lead to non-syndromic hearing loss, craniofacial defects or limb malformations. PMID:22914741

  13. MRIVIEW: An interactive computational tool for investigation of brain structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Ranken, D.; George, J.

    1993-12-31

    MRIVIEW is a software system which uses image processing and visualization to provide neuroscience researchers with an integrated environment for combining functional and anatomical information. Key features of the software include semi-automated segmentation of volumetric head data and an interactive coordinate reconciliation method which utilizes surface visualization. The current system is a precursor to a computational brain atlas. We describe features this atlas will incorporate, including methods under development for visualizing brain functional data obtained from several different research modalities.

  14. Multi-Harmony: detecting functional specificity from sequence alignment

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Bernd W.; Feenstra, K. Anton; Heringa, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    Many protein families contain sub-families with functional specialization, such as binding different ligands or being involved in different protein–protein interactions. A small number of amino acids generally determine functional specificity. The identification of these residues can aid the understanding of protein function and help finding targets for experimental analysis. Here, we present multi-Harmony, an interactive web sever for detecting sub-type-specific sites in proteins starting from a multiple sequence alignment. Combining our Sequence Harmony (SH) and multi-Relief (mR) methods in one web server allows simultaneous analysis and comparison of specificity residues; furthermore, both methods have been significantly improved and extended. SH has been extended to cope with more than two sub-groups. mR has been changed from a sampling implementation to a deterministic one, making it more consistent and user friendly. For both methods Z-scores are reported. The multi-Harmony web server produces a dynamic output page, which includes interactive connections to the Jalview and Jmol applets, thereby allowing interactive analysis of the results. Multi-Harmony is available at http://www.ibi.vu.nl/ programs/shmrwww. PMID:20525785

  15. Coherence in a coupled network: Implication for brain function

    E-print Network

    Zhen Ye

    2000-07-26

    In many body systems, constituents interact with each other, forming a recursive pattern of mutual interaction and giving rise to many interesting phenomena. Based upon concepts of the modern many body theory, a model for a generic many body system is developed. A novel approach is used to investigate the general features in such a system. An interesting phase transition in the system is found. Possible link to brain dynamics is discussed. It is shown how some of the basic brain processes, such as learning and memory, find therein a natural explanation.

  16. Functional connectivity in the mouse brain imaged by B-mode photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Xing, Wenxin; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing use of mouse models for human brain disease studies, coupled with the fact that existing functional imaging modalities cannot be easily applied to mice, presents an emerging need for a new functional imaging modality. Utilizing acoustic-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we imaged spontaneous cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations and their associated functional connections in the mouse brain. The images were acquired noninvasively in B-scan mode with a fast frame rate, a large field of view, and a high spatial resolution. At a location relative to the bregma 0, correlations were investigated inter-hemispherically between bilaterally homologous regions, as well as intra-hemispherically within the same functional regions. The functional connectivity in different functional regions was studied. The locations of these regions agreed well with the Paxinos mouse brain atlas. The functional connectivity map obtained in this study can then be used in the investigation of brain disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, autism, and epilepsy. Our experiments show that photoacoustic microscopy is capable to detect connectivities between different functional regions in B-scan mode, promising a powerful functional imaging modality for future brain research.

  17. Visualizing functional pathways in the human brain using correlation tensors and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaohua; Xu, Ran; Bailey, Stephen K; Wu, Tung-Lin; Morgan, Victoria L; Cutting, Laurie E; Anderson, Adam W; Gore, John C

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging usually detects changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions, and is most effective in detecting activity in brain cortex which is irrigated by rich vasculature to meet high metabolic demands. We recently demonstrated that MRI signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions in a resting state exhibit structure-specific temporal correlations along white matter tracts. In this report we validate our preliminary findings and introduce spatio-temporal functional correlation tensors to characterize the directional preferences of temporal correlations in MRI signals acquired at rest. The results bear a remarkable similarity to data obtained by diffusion tensor imaging but without any diffusion-encoding gradients. Just as in gray matter, temporal correlations in resting state signals may reflect intrinsic synchronizations of neural activity in white matter. Here we demonstrate that functional correlation tensors are able to visualize long range white matter tracts as well as short range sub-cortical fibers imaged at rest, and that evoked functional activities alter these structures and enhance the visualization of relevant neural circuitry. Furthermore, we explore the biophysical mechanisms underlying these phenomena by comparing pulse sequences, which suggest that white matter signal variations are consistent with hemodynamic (BOLD) changes associated with neural activity. These results suggest new ways to evaluate MRI signal changes within white matter. PMID:26477562

  18. Inhibition of Monocyte Adhesion to Brain-Derived Endothelial Cells by Dual Functional RNA Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Xiao, Feng; Hao, Xin; Bai, Shuhua; Hao, Jiukuan

    2014-01-01

    Because adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells is the first step of vascular-neuronal inflammation, inhibition of adhesion and recruitment of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells will have a beneficial effect on neuroinflammatory diseases. In this study, we used the pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor to construct a novel RNA nanoparticle for specific targeting to transferrin receptor (TfR) on the murine brain-derived endothelial cells (bEND5) to deliver ICAM-1 siRNA. This RNA nanoparticle (FRS-NPs) contained a FB4 aptamer targeting to TfR and a siRNA moiety for silencing the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our data indicated that this RNA nanoparticle was delivered into murine brain-derived endothelial cells. Furthermore, the siRNA was released from the FRS-NPs in the cells and knocked down ICAM-1 expression in the TNF-?–stimulated cells and in the cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) condition. The functional end points of the study indicated that FRS-NPs significantly inhibited monocyte adhesion to the bEND5 cells induced by TNF-? and OGD/R. In conclusion, our approach using RNA nanotechnology for siRNA delivery could be potentially applied for inhibition of inflammation in ischemic stroke and other neuroinflammatory diseases, or diseases affecting endothelium of vasculature. PMID:25368913

  19. Impact of the ADHD-susceptibility gene CDH13 on development and function of brain networks.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Olga; Sich, Sarah; Popp, Sandy; Schmitt, Angelika; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, early onset and enduring neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, increased impulsivity and motivational/emotional dysregulation with similar prevalence rates throughout different cultural settings. Persistence of ADHD into adulthood is associated with considerable risk for co-morbidities such as depression and substance use disorder. Although the substantial heritability of ADHD is well documented the etiology is characterized by a complex coherence of genetic and environmental factors rendering identification of risk genes difficult. Genome-wide linkage as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy-number variant (CNV) association scans recently allow to reliably define aetiopathogenesis-related genes. A considerable number of novel ADHD risk genes implicate biological processes involved in neurite outgrowth and axon guidance. Here, we focus on the gene encoding Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a cell adhesion molecule which was replicably associated with liability to ADHD and related neuropsychiatric conditions. Based on its unique expression pattern in the brain, we discuss the molecular structure and neuronal mechanisms of Cadherin-13 in relation to other cadherins and the cardiovascular system. An appraisal of various Cadherin-13-modulated signaling pathways impacting proliferation, migration and connectivity of specific neurons is also provided. Finally, we develop an integrative hypothesis of the mechanisms in which Cadherin-13 plays a central role in the regulation of brain network development, plasticity and function. The review concludes with emerging concepts about alterations in Cadherin-13 signaling contributing to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22795700

  20. Structure Expression and Function of kynurenine Aminotransferases in Human and Rodent Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Q Han; T Cai; D Tagle; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-D: -aspartate and alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Abnormal KYNA levels in human brains are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. Four KATs have been reported in mammalian brains, KAT I/glutamine transaminase K/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1, KAT II/aminoadipate aminotransferase, KAT III/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2, and KAT IV/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2/mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. KAT II has a striking tertiary structure in N-terminal part and forms a new subgroup in fold type I aminotransferases, which has been classified as subgroup Iepsilon. Knowledge regarding KATs is vast and complex; therefore, this review is focused on recent important progress of their gene characterization, physiological and biochemical function, and structural properties. The biochemical differences of four KATs, specific enzyme activity assays, and the structural insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes are discussed.

  1. How does morality work in the brain? A functional and structural perspective of moral behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Leo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2013-01-01

    Neural underpinnings of morality are not yet well understood. Researchers in moral neuroscience have tried to find specific structures and processes that shed light on how morality works. Here, we review the main brain areas that have been associated with morality at both structural and functional levels and speculate about how it can be studied. Orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortices are implicated in emotionally-driven moral decisions, while dorsolateral prefrontal cortex appears to moderate its response. These competing processes may be mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex. Parietal and temporal structures play important roles in the attribution of others' beliefs and intentions. The insular cortex is engaged during empathic processes. Other regions seem to play a more complementary role in morality. Morality is supported not by a single brain circuitry or structure, but by several circuits overlapping with other complex processes. The identification of the core features of morality and moral-related processes is needed. Neuroscience can provide meaningful insights in order to delineate the boundaries of morality in conjunction with moral psychology. PMID:24062650

  2. BrainNetVis: analysis and visualization of brain functional networks.

    PubMed

    Tsiaras, Vassilis; Andreou, Dimitris; Tollis, Ioannis G

    2009-01-01

    BrainNetVis is an application, written in Java, that displays and analyzes synchronization networks from brain signals. The program implements a number of network indices and visualization techniques. We demonstrate its use through a case study of left hand and foot motor imagery. The data sets were provided by the Berlin BCI group. Using this program we managed to find differences between the average left hand and foot synchronization networks by comparing them with the average idle state synchronization network. PMID:19964789

  3. Vascular function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: The functional capacity factor.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Maikano, Abubakar; Alawneh, Khaldoon

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neurocognitive function. This study aims at establishing a plausible link between level of serum BDNF, functional capacity (FC), and vascular function in 181 young (age 25.5±9.1 years old), apparently healthy adults. Fasting blood samples were drawn from participants' antecubital veins into plain glass tubes while they were in a sitting position to evaluate serum BDNF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mercury-in-silastic strain-gauge plethysmography was used to determine arterial function indices, blood flow and vascular resistance at rest and following 5 minutes of arterial ischemia. The 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) test was used to determine FC, according to the American Thoracic Society Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories guidelines. It was conducted in an enclosed corridor on a flat surface with a circular track 33 meters long. The walking course was demarcated with bright colored cones. The 6MWD correlated with BDNF (r=0.3, p=0.000), as well as with forearm blood inflow (r=0.5, p=0.000) and vascular resistance (r = -0.4, p=0.000). Subsequent comparison showed that BDNF and blood inflow were greater (p<0.05) while vascular resistance was less (p<0.05) in participants who achieved a longer 6MWD. Similarly, BDNF correlated with forearm blood inflow (r=0.4, p=0.000) and vascular resistance (r = -0.4, p=0.000). Subsequent comparison showed improved vascular function (p<0.05) in the participants with greater BDNF. In conclusion, these findings might suggest that improved vascular function in individuals with greater FC is mediated, at least partially, by an enhanced serum BDNF level. PMID:26285588

  4. A multimodal RAGE-specific inhibitor reduces amyloid ?–mediated brain disorder in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Rashid; Singh, Itender; Sagare, Abhay P.; Bell, Robert D.; Ross, Nathan T.; LaRue, Barbra; Love, Rachal; Perry, Sheldon; Paquette, Nicole; Deane, Richard J.; Thiyagarajan, Meenakshisundaram; Zarcone, Troy; Fritz, Gunter; Friedman, Alan E.; Miller, Benjamin L.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2012-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid ? peptide (A?) accumulates in plaques in the brain. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates A?-induced perturbations in cerebral vessels, neurons, and microglia in AD. Here, we identified a high-affinity RAGE-specific inhibitor (FPS-ZM1) that blocked A? binding to the V domain of RAGE and inhibited A?40- and A?42-induced cellular stress in RAGE-expressing cells in vitro and in the mouse brain in vivo. FPS-ZM1 was nontoxic to mice and readily crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In aged APPsw/0 mice overexpressing human A?-precursor protein, a transgenic mouse model of AD with established A? pathology, FPS-ZM1 inhibited RAGE-mediated influx of circulating A?40 and A?42 into the brain. In brain, FPS-ZM1 bound exclusively to RAGE, which inhibited ?-secretase activity and A? production and suppressed microglia activation and the neuroinflammatory response. Blockade of RAGE actions at the BBB and in the brain reduced A?40 and A?42 levels in brain markedly and normalized cognitive performance and cerebral blood flow responses in aged APPsw/0 mice. Our data suggest that FPS-ZM1 is a potent multimodal RAGE blocker that effectively controls progression of A?-mediated brain disorder and that it may have the potential to be a disease-modifying agent for AD. PMID:22406537

  5. Facial affect recognition linked to damage in specific white matter tracts in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Genova, Helen M; Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Binder, Allison; Deluca, John; Lengenfelder, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Emotional processing deficits have recently been identified in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically in the domain of facial affect recognition. However, the neural networks underlying these impairments have yet to be identified. In the current study, 42 individuals with moderate to severe TBI and 23 healthy controls performed a task of facial affect recognition (Facial Emotion Identification Test (FEIT)) in order to assess their ability to identify and discriminate six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, shame, and fear. These individuals also underwent structural neuroimaging including diffusion tensor imaging to examine white matter (WM) integrity. Correlational analyses were performed to determine where in the brain WM damage was associated with performance on the facial affect recognition task. Reduced performance on the FEIT was associated with reduced WM integrity (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus in individuals with TBI. Poor performance on the task was additionally associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in lingual gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus. The results implicate a pattern of WM and GM damage in TBI that may play a role in emotional processing impairments. PMID:25223759

  6. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of