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1

Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind  

PubMed Central

Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide variety of cognitive processes? For nearly two centuries, proponents of specialized organs or modules of the mind and brain—from the phrenologists to Broca to Chomsky and Fodor—have jousted with the proponents of distributed cognitive and neural processing—from Flourens to Lashley to McClelland and Rumelhart. I argue here that research using functional MRI is beginning to answer this long-standing question with new clarity and precision by indicating that at least a few specific aspects of cognition are implemented in brain regions that are highly specialized for that process alone. Cortical regions have been identified that are specialized not only for basic sensory and motor processes but also for the high-level perceptual analysis of faces, places, bodies, visually presented words, and even for the very abstract cognitive function of thinking about another person’s thoughts. I further consider the as-yet unanswered questions of how much of the mind and brain are made up of these functionally specialized components and how they arise developmentally.

Kanwisher, Nancy

2010-01-01

2

CNS-specific T cells shape brain function via the choroid plexus.  

PubMed

Adaptive immunity was repeatedly shown to play a role in maintaining lifelong brain function. Under physiological conditions, this activity was associated with CD4(+) T cells specific for brain self-antigens. Nevertheless, direct interactions of T cells with the healthy neuronal parenchyma are hardly detectable. Recent studies have identified the brain's choroid plexus (CP) as an active neuro-immunological interface, enriched with CNS-specific CD4(+) T cells. Strategically positioned for receiving signals from both the central nervous system (CNS) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and from the circulation through epithelium-immune cell interactions, the CP has recently been recognized as an important immunological compartment in maintaining and restoring brain homeostasis/allostasis. Here, we propose that CNS-specific T cells shape brain function via the CP, and suggest this immunological control to be lost as part of aging, in general, and immune senescence, in particular. Accordingly, the CP may serve as a novel target for immunomodulation to restore brain equilibrium. PMID:23597431

Baruch, Kuti; Schwartz, Michal

2013-04-15

3

Functional annotation of the human brain methylome identifies tissue-specific epigenetic variation across brain and blood  

PubMed Central

Background Dynamic changes to the epigenome play a critical role in establishing and maintaining cellular phenotype during differentiation, but little is known about the normal methylomic differences that occur between functionally distinct areas of the brain. We characterized intra- and inter-individual methylomic variation across whole blood and multiple regions of the brain from multiple donors. Results Distinct tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation were identified, with a highly significant over-representation of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (TS-DMRs) observed at intragenic CpG islands and low CG density promoters. A large proportion of TS-DMRs were located near genes that are differentially expressed across brain regions. TS-DMRs were significantly enriched near genes involved in functional pathways related to neurodevelopment and neuronal differentiation, including BDNF, BMP4, CACNA1A, CACA1AF, EOMES, NGFR, NUMBL, PCDH9, SLIT1, SLITRK1 and SHANK3. Although between-tissue variation in DNA methylation was found to greatly exceed between-individual differences within any one tissue, we found that some inter-individual variation was reflected across brain and blood, indicating that peripheral tissues may have some utility in epidemiological studies of complex neurobiological phenotypes. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of DNA methylation in regulating cellular phenotype across tissues, and highlights genomic patterns of epigenetic variation across functionally distinct regions of the brain, providing a resource for the epigenetics and neuroscience research communities.

2012-01-01

4

Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

2012-01-01

5

Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K.; Kanwisher, Nancy

2011-01-01

6

Involvement of Specific Macrophage-Lineage Cells Surrounding Arterioles in Barrier and Scavenger Function in Brain Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of solutes between blood and brain is regulated by a specific barrier. Capillary endothelial cells of brain are known to mediate barrier function and facilitate transport. Here we report that specific cells surrounding arterioles, known as Mato's fluorescent granular perithelial (FGP) cells or perivascular microglial cells, contribute to the barrier function. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies indicate

Masao Mato; Shigeo Ookawara; Atsushi Sakamoto; Eizo Aikawa; Tsuyoshi Ogawa; Umehachi Mitsuhashi; Toshio Masuzawa; Hiroshi Suzuki; Makoto Honda; Yoshio Yazaki; Eiju Watanabe; Jukka Luoma; Seppo Yla-Herttuala; Iain Fraser; Siamon Gordon; Tatsuhiko Kodama

1996-01-01

7

Molecular and functional characterization of riboflavin specific transport system in rat brain capillary endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Riboflavin is an important water soluble vitamin (B2) required for metabolic reactions, normal cellular growth, differentiation and function. Mammalian brain cells cannot synthesize riboflavin and must import from systemic circulation. However, the uptake mechanism, cellular translocation and intracellular trafficking of riboflavin in brain capillary endothelial cells are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the existence of a riboflavin-specific transport system and delineate the uptake and intracellular regulation of riboflavin in immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (RBE4). The uptake of [3H]-riboflavin is sodium, temperature and energy dependent but pH independent. [3H]-Riboflavin uptake is saturable with K(m) and V(max) values of 19 ± 3 ?M and 0.235 ± 0.012 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The uptake process is inhibited by unlabelled structural analogs (lumiflavin, lumichrome) but not by structurally unrelated vitamins. Ca(++)/calmodulin and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways are found to play an important role in the intracellular regulation of [3H]-riboflavin. Apical and baso-lateral uptake of [3H]-riboflavin clearly indicates that a riboflavin specific transport system is predominantly localized on the apical side of RBE4 cells. A 628 bp band corresponding to a riboflavin transporter is revealed in RT-PCR analysis. These findings, for the first time report the existence of a specialized and high affinity transport system for riboflavin in RBE4 cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle limiting drug transport inside the brain as it regulates drug permeation from systemic circulation. This transporter can be utilized for targeted delivery in enhancing brain permeation of highly potent drugs on systemic administration. PMID:22683359

Patel, Mitesh; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2012-06-07

8

Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.  

PubMed

The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641

Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

2013-10-17

9

Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure  

PubMed Central

The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Bruck, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

2013-01-01

10

Co-localisation of abnormal brain structure and function in specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior frontal cortex and decreased in the right caudate nucleus and superior temporal cortex bilaterally. The unaffected siblings also showed reduced grey matter in the caudate nucleus relative to controls. In an auditory covert naming task, the SLI group showed reduced activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, right putamen, and in the superior temporal cortex bilaterally. Despite spatially coincident structural and functional abnormalities in frontal and temporal areas, the relationships between structure and function in these regions were different. These findings suggest multiple structural and functional abnormalities in SLI that are differently associated with receptive and expressive language processing.

Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

2012-01-01

11

Specifically Progressive Deficits of Brain Functional Marker in Amnestic Type Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Deficits of the default mode network (DMN) have been demonstrated in subjects with amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who have a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, no longitudinal study of this network has been reported in aMCI. Identifying links between development of DMN and aMCI progression would be of considerable value in understanding brain changes underpinning aMCI and determining risk of conversion to AD. Methodology/Principal Findings Resting-state fMRI was acquired in aMCI subjects (n?=?26) and controls (n?=?18) at baseline and after approximately 20 months follow up. Independent component analysis was used to isolate the DMN in each participant. Differences in DMN between aMCI and controls were examined at baseline, and subsequent changes between baseline and follow-up were also assessed in the groups. Posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu) hyper-functional connectivity was observed at baseline in aMCI subjects, while a substantial decrement of these connections was evident at follow-up in aMCI subjects, compared to matched controls. Specifically, PCC/PCu dysfunction was positively related to the impairments of episodic memory from baseline to follow up in aMCI group. Conclusions/Significance The patterns of longitudinal deficits of DMN may assist investigators to identify and monitor the development of aMCI.

Bai, Feng; Watson, David R.; Shi, Yongmei; Wang, Yi; Yue, Chunxian; YuhuanTeng; Wu, Di; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Zhijun

2011-01-01

12

Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

2011-01-01

13

Cyclooxygenase-2-specific Inhibitor Improves Functional Outcomes, Provides Neuroprotection, and Reduces Inflammation in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Increases in brain cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) are associated with the central inflammatory response and with delayed neuronal death, events that cause secondary insults after traumatic brain injury. A growing literature supports the benefit of COX2-specific inhibitors in treating brain injuries. METHODS DFU [5,5-dimethyl-3(3-fluorophenyl)-4(4-methylsulfonyl)phenyl-2(5H)-furanone] is a third-generation, highly specific COX2 enzyme inhibitor. DFU treatments (1 or 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally, twice daily for 3 d) were initiated either before or after traumatic brain injury in a lateral cortical contusion rat model. RESULTS DFU treatments initiated 10 minutes before injury or up to 6 hours after injury enhanced functional recovery at 3 days compared with vehicle-treated controls. Significant improvements in neurological reflexes and memory were observed. DFU initiated 10 minutes before injury improved histopathology and altered eicosanoid profiles in the brain. DFU 1 mg/kg reduced the rise in prostaglandin E2 in the brain at 24 hours after injury. DFU 10 mg/kg attenuated injury-induced COX2 immunoreactivity in the cortex (24 and 72 h) and hippocampus (6 and 72 h). This treatment also decreased the total number of activated caspase-3–immunoreactive cells in the injured cortex and hippocampus, significantly reducing the number of activated caspase-3–immunoreactive neurons at 72 hours after injury. DFU 1 mg/kg amplified potentially anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels by more than fourfold in the injured brain. DFU 10 mg/kg protected the levels of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, a neuro-protective endocannabinoid, in the injured brain. CONCLUSION These improvements, particularly when treatment began up to 6 hours after injury, suggest exciting neuroprotective potential for COX2 inhibitors in the treatment of traumatic brain injury and support the consideration of Phase I/II clinical trials.

Gopez, Jonas J.; Yue, Hongfei; Vasudevan, Ram; Malik, Amir S.; Fogelsanger, Lester N.; Lewis, Shawn; Panikashvili, David; Shohami, Esther; Jansen, Susan A.; Narayan, Raj K.; Strauss, Kenneth I.

2006-01-01

14

Brain imaging and brain function  

SciTech Connect

This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

Sokoloff, L.

1985-01-01

15

Specifically Progressive Deficits of Brain Functional Marker in Amnestic Type Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDeficits of the default mode network (DMN) have been demonstrated in subjects with amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who have a high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, no longitudinal study of this network has been reported in aMCI. Identifying links between development of DMN and aMCI progression would be of considerable value in understanding brain changes underpinning

Feng Bai; David R. Watson; Yongmei Shi; Yi Wang; Chunxian Yue; Yuhuanteng; Di Wu; Yonggui Yuan; Zhijun Zhang; Jerson Laks

2011-01-01

16

[Dehydroepiandrosterone and brain functioning].  

PubMed

The adrenal glands synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEAS) more intensively than they do other steroid hormones. Researchers are interested in these hormones for several reasons. Firstly, for some years they have been trying to find the reason for DHEA and DHEAS to be synthesized and present in the organism in such high concentrations. Secondly, their attention have been attracted by age-dependent regression of DHEA, which is strictly determined. Thirdly, despite longstanding efforts of scientists, the physiological role and spectrum of the biological activity of DHEA is still unclear. Evidence of that DHEA and DHEAS can be synthesized in situ in the brain tissue, received in rat experiments, urged researchers to clarify the role of these neurosteroids in the CNS. The presented review covers ways of neurosteroid synthesis, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under the condition of stress. The authors analyze experimental and clinical observations undertaken with a goal to clarify a possible role of DHEA in the manifestation of various brain functions. Special attention is payed to ambiguous results of modern studies, dedicated to replacement therapy of various disorders of CNS functioning (Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-specific memory impairment, sleep disturbance etc.) with DHEAS. PMID:16149434

Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N

2005-01-01

17

Split Brain Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizing recent research, this article defines the functions performed by the left and right sides of the human brain. Attention is given to the right side, or the nondominant side, of the brain and its potential in terms of perception of the environment, music, art, geometry, and the aesthetics. (JC)|

Cassel, Russell N.

1978-01-01

18

COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

19

Normal glucose uptake in the brain and heart requires an endothelial cell-specific HIF-1?-dependent function  

PubMed Central

Although intimately positioned between metabolic substrates in the bloodstream and the tissue parenchymal cells that require these substrates, a major role of the vascular endothelium in the regulation of tissue metabolism has not been widely appreciated. We hypothesized that via control of transendothelial glucose transport and contributing paracrine mechanisms the endothelium plays a major role in regulating organ and tissue glucose metabolism. We further hypothesized that the hypoxia-inducible factor -1? (HIF-1?) plays an important role in coordinating these endothelial functions. To test these hypotheses, we generated mice with endothelial cell-specific deletion of HIF-1?. Loss of HIF in the endothelium resulted in significantly increased fasting blood glucose levels, a blunted insulin response with delayed glucose clearance from the blood after i.v. loading, and significantly decreased glucose uptake into the brain and heart. Endothelial HIF-1? knockout mice also exhibited a reduced cerebrospinal fluid/blood glucose ratio, a finding consistent with reduced transendothelial glucose transport and a diagnostic criterion for the Glut1 deficiency genetic syndrome. Endothelial cells from these mice demonstrated decreased Glut1 levels and reduced glucose uptake that was reversed by forced expression of Glut1. These data strongly support an important role of the vascular endothelium in determining whole-organ glucose metabolism and indicate that HIF-1? is a critical mediator of this function.

Huang, Yan; Lei, Li; Liu, DingGang; Jovin, Ion; Russell, Raymond; Johnson, Randall S.; Di Lorenzo, Annarita; Giordano, Frank J.

2012-01-01

20

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

21

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla

2008-01-01

22

Mechanisms and Functional Brain Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations of how psychological capacities are carried out often invoke functional brain areas. I argue that such explanations\\u000a cannot succeed. Psychological capacities are carried out by identifiable entities and their activities in the brain, but functional\\u000a brain areas are not the relevant entities. I proceed by assuming that if functional brain areas did carry out psychological\\u000a capacities, then these brain

Gregory Johnson

2009-01-01

23

Functional Aspects of Creatine Kinase in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinct isoenzyme-specific localization of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes found recently in brain suggests an important function for CK in brain energetics and points to adaptation of the CK system to the special energy requirements of different neuronal and glial cell types. For example, the presence of brain-type B-CK in Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes is very likely related to

Wolfram Hemmer; Theo Wallimann

1993-01-01

24

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

PubMed Central

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness.

Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2009-01-01

25

Nova regulates brain-specific splicing to shape the synapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative RNA splicing greatly increases proteome diversity and may thereby contribute to tissue-specific functions. We carried out genome-wide quantitative analysis of alternative splicing using a custom Affymetrix microarray to assess the role of the neuronal splicing factor Nova in the brain. We used a stringent algorithm to identify 591 exons that were differentially spliced in the brain relative to immune

Jernej Ule; Aljaž Ule; Joanna Spencer; Alan Williams; Jing-Shan Hu; Melissa Cline; Hui Wang; Tyson Clark; Claire Fraser; Matteo Ruggiu; Barry R Zeeberg; David Kane; John N Weinstein; John Blume; Robert B Darnell

2005-01-01

26

Radiotracers for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

The rapid growth of nuclear medicine 25 years ago was in large part related to the success of brain tumor imaging using radiopharmaceuticals designed to detect changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The success of computed tomography, and more recently nuclear magnetic resonance, in imaging these lesions has all but eliminated the use of radioactive agents for brain tumor detection. But, in recent years there has been a new wave of interest in isotope studies of the brain. The recent emphasis has been on agents which enter the brain across the BBB and are designed to provide functional data ranging from regional perfusion and metabolism to the distribution of binding sites for neuroactive compounds. While none of these new radiopharmaceuticals has yet come into widespread clinical application, the research results already achieved clearly indicate that brain imaging will again be an important aspect of nuclear medicine practice. 51 references.

Blau, M.

1985-10-01

27

Modeling of functional brain imaging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The richness and complexity of data sets obtained from functional neuroimaging studies of human cognitive behavior, using techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, have until recently not been exploited by computational neural modeling methods. In this article, following a brief introduction to functional neuroimaging methodology, two neural modeling approaches for use with functional brain imaging data are described. One, which uses structural equation modeling, examines the effective functional connections between various brain regions during specific cognitive tasks. The second employs large-scale neural modeling to relate functional neuroimaging signals in multiple, interconnected brain regions to the underlying neurobiological time-varying activities in each region. These two modeling procedures are illustrated using a visual processing paradigm.

Horwitz, Barry

1999-03-01

28

Isoform-specific effects of human apolipoprotein E on brain function revealed in ApoE knockout mice: Increased susceptibility of females  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates the redistribution of lipids among cells and is expressed at highest levels in brain and liver. Human apoE exists in three major isoforms encoded by distinct alleles (?2, ?3, and ?4). Compared with APOE ?2 and ?3, APOE ?4 increases the risk of cognitive impairments, lowers the age of onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and decreases the response to AD treatments. Besides age, inheritance of the APOE ?4 allele is the most important known risk factor for the development of sporadic AD, the most common form of this illness. Although numerous hypotheses have been advanced, it remains unclear how APOE ?4 might affect cognition and increase AD risk. To assess the effects of distinct human apoE isoforms on the brain, we have used the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter to express human apoE3 or apoE4 at similar levels in neurons of transgenic mice lacking endogenous mouse apoE. Compared with NSE-apoE3 mice and wild-type controls, NSE-apoE4 mice showed impairments in learning a water maze task and in vertical exploratory behavior that increased with age and were seen primarily in females. These findings demonstrate that human apoE isoforms have differential effects on brain function in vivo and that the susceptibility to apoE4-induced deficits is critically influenced by age and gender. These results could be pertinent to cognitive impairments observed in human APOE ?4 carriers. NSE-apoE mice and similar models may facilitate the preclinical assessment of treatments for apoE-related cognitive deficits.

Raber, Jacob; Wong, Derek; Buttini, Manuel; Orth, Matthias; Bellosta, Stefano; Pitas, Robert E.; Mahley, Robert W.; Mucke, Lennart

1998-01-01

29

Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia.  

PubMed

Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. PMID:22804970

Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

2012-07-16

30

Evidence that increased 5-HT release evokes region-specific effects on blood-oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the rat brain.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a non-invasive means of detecting effects of increased 5-HT release in brain. Changes in blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the 5-HT-releasing agent, fenfluramine, were measured in selected brain regions of halothane-anesthetized rats. Initial immunohistochemical measurements of the marker of neural activation, Fos, confirmed that in halothane-anesthetized rats fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) evoked cellular responses in cortical regions which were attenuated by pre-treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg i.p. once daily for 2 days). Fenfluramine-induced Fos was demonstrated in numerous glutamatergic pyramidal neurons (Fos/excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) co-labeled), but also a small number of GABA interneurons (Fos/glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(67) colabeled). Fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) evoked changes in BOLD signal intensity in a number of cortical and sub-cortical regions with the greatest effects being observed in the nucleus accumbens (-13.0%+/-2.7%), prefrontal cortex (-10.1%+/-3.2%) and motor cortex (+2.3%+/-1.0%). Pre-treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, significantly attenuated the response to fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) in all regions with the exception of the motor cortex which showed a trend. These experiments demonstrate that increased 5-HT release evokes region-specific changes in the BOLD signal in rats, and that this effect is attenuated in almost all regions by 5-HT depletion. These findings support the use of fMRI imaging methods as a non-invasive tool to study 5-HT function in animal models, with the potential for extension to clinical studies. PMID:19174180

Preece, M A; Taylor, M J; Raley, J; Blamire, A; Sharp, T; Sibson, N R

2009-01-01

31

Functional brain mapping of psychopathology  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity for investigation of physiological function of the living human brain, there are fundamental questions and assumptions which remain to be addressed. In this review we examine these conceptual issues under three broad sections: (1) characterising the clinical population of interest, (2) defining appropriate levels of description of normal brain function, and (3) relating these models to pathophysiological conditions. Parallel advances in each of these questions will be required before imaging techniques can impact on clinical decisions in psychiatry.

Honey, G; Fletcher, P; Bullmore, E

2002-01-01

32

Modeling of region-specific fMRI BOLD neurovascular response functions in rat brain reveals residual differences that correlate with the differences in regional evoked potentials  

PubMed Central

The response of the rat visual system to flashes of blue light has been studied by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The BOLD temporal response is dependent on the number of flashes presented and demonstrates a refractory period that depends on flash frequency. Activated brain regions included the primary and secondary visual cortex, superior colliculus (SC), dorsal Lateral Geniculate (DLG), and Lateral Posterior Nucleus (LP), which were found to exhibit differing temporal responses. To explain these differences, the BOLD neurovascular response function was modeled. A second order differential equation was developed and solved numerically to arrive at region-specific response functions. Included in the model are the light input from the diode (duty cycle), a refractory period, a transient response following onset and cessation of stimulus, and a slow adjustment to changes in the average level of the signal. Constants in the differential equation were evaluated for each region by fitting the model to the experimental BOLD response from a single flash, and the equation was then solved for multiple flashes. The simulation mimics the major features of the data; however, remaining differences in the frequency dependence of the response between the cortical and subcortical regions were unexplained. We hypothesized that these discrepancies were due to regional-specific differences in neuronal response to flash frequency. To test this hypothesis, cortical visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded using the same stimulation protocol as the fMRI. Cortical VEPs were more suppressed than subcortical VEPs as flash frequency increased, supporting our hypothesis. This is the first report that regional differences in neuronal activation to the same stimulus lead to differential BOLD activation.

Pawela, Christopher P.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Ward, B. Douglas; Schulte, Marie L.; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S.; Mauck, Matthew C.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Neitz, Jay; Hyde, James S.

2008-01-01

33

Detecting Disease-Specific Patterns of Brain Structure Using Cortical Pattern Matching and a Population-Based Probabilistic Brain Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid creation of comprehensive brain image databases mandates the development of mathematical algorithms to uncover disease- specific patterns of brain structure and function in human populations. We describe our construction of probabilistic atlases that store detailed information on how the brain varies across age and gender, across time, in health and disease, and in large human populations. Specifically, we

Paul M. Thompson; Michael S. Mega; Christine Vidal; Judith L. Rapoport; Arthur W. Toga

2001-01-01

34

[Sleep and brain function].  

PubMed

Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2, a common precursor of various prostanoids, to produce PGD2, a potent endogenous somnogen. L-PGDS is localized in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system. PGD2 is proposed to be a major humoral sleep-inducing factor accumulated in the brain during wakefulness. PGD2 stimulates DP, receptors localized in the basal forebrain and increases the local extracellular concentration of adenosine, which activates A2A receptor-possessing neurons in the basal forebrain and/or ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO). The intracerebroventricular infusion of PGD2 or adenosine A2A receptor-agonists induces non-REM sleep and increases the expression of fos protein in VLPO. The activation of VLPO neurons is associated with decreased fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), one of the arousal centers. The GABAergic inhibition of TMN is involved in non-REM sleep induction by PGD2 or adenosine A2A receptor-agonists. The neural network between VLPO and TMN is considered to play a key role in the regulation of vigilance states. PMID:16986732

Urade, Yoshihiro; Mohri, Ikuko

2006-09-01

35

Functional expression of SGLTs in rat brain.  

PubMed

This work provides evidence of previously unrecognized uptake of glucose via sodium-coupled glucose transporters (SGLTs) in specific regions of the brain. The current understanding of functional glucose utilization in brain is largely based on studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose tracer 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG). However, 2-FDG is only a good substrate for facilitated-glucose transporters (GLUTs), not for SGLTs. Thus, glucose accumulation measured by 2-FDG omits the role of SGLTs. We designed and synthesized two high-affinity tracers: one, ?-methyl-4-[F-18]fluoro-4-deoxy-D-glucopyranoside (Me-4FDG), is a highly specific SGLT substrate and not transported by GLUTs; the other one, 4-[F-18]fluoro-4-deoxy-D-glucose (4-FDG), is transported by both SGLTs and GLUTs and will pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB). In vitro Me-4FDG autoradiography was used to map the distribution of uptake by functional SGLTs in brain slices with a comparable result from in vitro 4-FDG autoradiography. Immunohistochemical assays showed that uptake was consistent with the distribution of SGLT protein. Ex vivo 4-FDG autoradiography showed that SGLTs in these areas are functionally active in the normal in vivo brain. The results establish that SGLTs are a normal part of the physiology of specific areas of the brain, including hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortices. 4-FDG PET imaging also established that this BBB-permeable SGLT tracer now offers a functional imaging approach in humans to assess regulation of SGLT activity in health and disease. PMID:20826762

Yu, Amy S; Hirayama, Bruce A; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Basarah, Ernest; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M; Barrio, Jorge R

2010-09-08

36

Brain organization and sleep function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A view of brain organization and sleep function is presented. Sleep is hypothesized to begin at the neuronal group level. Sleep results in the use and thus maintenance, of synapses that are insufficiently stimulated during wakefulness thereby serving to preserve a constancy of a synaptic superstructure. It is further hypothesized that sleep at the neuronal group level is regulated by

James M. Krueger; Ferenc Obál; Levente Kapás; Jidong Fang

1995-01-01

37

Organization, development and function of complex brain networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has revealed general principles in the structural and functional organization of complex networks which are shared by various natural, social and technological systems. This review examines these principles as applied to the organization, development and function of complex brain networks. Specifically, we examine the structural properties of large-scale anatomical and functional brain networks and discuss how they might

Olaf Sporns; Dante R. Chialvo; Marcus Kaiser; Claus C. Hilgetag

2004-01-01

38

Functional Dissociation of Ongoing Oscillatory Brain States  

PubMed Central

The state of a neural assembly preceding an incoming stimulus is assumed to modulate the processing of subsequently presented stimuli. The nature of this state can differ with respect to the frequency of ongoing oscillatory activity. Oscillatory brain activity of specific frequency range such as alpha (8–12 Hz) and gamma (above 30 Hz) band oscillations are hypothesized to play a functional role in cognitive processing. Therefore, a selective modulation of this prestimulus activity could clarify the functional role of these prestimulus fluctuations. For this purpose, we adopted a novel non-invasive brain-computer-interface (BCI) strategy to selectively increase alpha or gamma band activity in the occipital cortex combined with an adaptive presentation of visual stimuli within specific brain states. During training, oscillatory brain activity was estimated online and fed back to the participants to enable a deliberate modulation of alpha or gamma band oscillations. Results revealed that volunteers selectively increased alpha and gamma frequency oscillations with a high level of specificity regarding frequency range and localization. At testing, alpha or gamma band activity was classified online and at defined levels of activity, visual objects embedded in noise were presented instantly and had to be detected by the volunteer. In experiment I, the effect of two levels of prestimulus gamma band activity on visual processing was examined. During phases of increased gamma band activity significantly more visual objects were detected. In experiment II, the effect was compared against increased levels of alpha band activity. An improvement of visual processing was only observed for enhanced gamma band activity. Both experiments demonstrate the specific functional role of prestimulus gamma band oscillations for perceptual processing. We propose that the BCI method permits the selective modulation of oscillatory activity and the direct assessment of behavioral consequences to test for functional dissociations of different oscillatory brain states.

Salari, Neda; Buchel, Christian; Rose, Michael

2012-01-01

39

I. Longitudinal changes in aging brain function.  

PubMed

Changes in brain activity over time were evaluated in a group of older adults in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who maintained good physical and cognitive health. Participants underwent PET scans during rest and delayed verbal and figural recognition memory performance at year 1 baseline and at year 9. While memory performance remained stable over the 8 years, longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow were observed within each scan condition. Further analyses revealed distinctive patterns of change related specifically to verbal or figural recognition, as well as longitudinal changes common to all scan conditions. These findings demonstrate that the older brain undergoes functional reorganization with increasing age in healthy, cognitively stable individuals. In view of the stable memory performance, the task-dependent results suggest that age-related changes in brain activity help maintain cognitive function with advancing age. PMID:17184881

Beason-Held, L L; Kraut, M A; Resnick, S M

2006-12-20

40

Mechanisms of brain plasticity: From normal brain function to pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since this list of mechanisms covers much of what we know about how brain cells operate, one might object to using such a broad brush in characterizing a purportedly special feature of brain function-“plas ticity.” But that is really just the point. If a significant aspect of brain function is “plasticity,” as I believe to be the case, then all

Philip A. Schwartzkroin

2001-01-01

41

Regulation of brain function by exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of excercise on brain function was investigated through animal experiments. Exercise leads to increased serum calcium levels, and the calcium is transported to the brain. This in turn enhances brain dopamine synthesis through a calmodulin-dependent system, and increased dopamine levels regulate various brain functions. There are abnormally low levels of dopamine in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens of

Den’etsu Sutoo; Kayo Akiyama

2003-01-01

42

Secretin: specific binding to rat brain membranes  

SciTech Connect

The binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin to rat brain membranes was investigated. Radiolabeled secretin bound with high affinity (KD . 0.2 nM) to a single class of noninteracting sites. Binding was specific, saturable, and reversible. Regional distribution studies indicated that the specific binding was greatest in the cerebellum, intermediate in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and lowest in the midbrain and medulla/pons. Pharmacological studies indicated that only secretin, but not other peptides, inhibits binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin with high affinity. Also, certain guanine nucleotides inhibited high affinity binding. These data indicate that rat brain membranes possess high affinity binding sites specific for secretin and that with the use of (/sup 125/I) secretin the kinetics, stoichiometry, specificity, and distribution of secretin receptors can be directly investigated.

Fremeau, R.T. Jr.; Jensen, R.T.; Charlton, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Moody, T.W.

1983-08-01

43

Specific Binding of Atrial Natriuretic Factor in Brain Microvessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood--brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. We examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using 125I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity (dissociation constant, ? 10-10 M) and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of 125I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood--brain barrier function.

Chabrier, Pierre E.; Roubert, Pierre; Braquet, Pierre

1987-04-01

44

Specific binding of atrial natriuretic factor in brain microvessels  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral capillaries constitute the blood-brain barrier. Studies of specific receptors (neurotransmitters or hormones) located on this structure can be performed by means of radioligand-binding techniques on isolated brain microvessels. The authors examined on pure bovine cerebral microvessel preparations the binding of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), using /sup 125/I-labeled ANF. Saturation and competition experiments demonstrated the presence of a single class of ANF-binding sites with high affinity and with a binding capacity of 58 fmol/mg of protein. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF to brain microvessels is specific, reversible, and time dependent, as is shown by association-dissociation experiments. The demonstration of specific ANF-binding sites on brain microvessels supposes a physiological role of ANF on brain microvasculature. The coexistence of ANF and angiotensin II receptors on this cerebrovascular tissue suggests that the two circulating peptides may act as mutual antagonists in the regulation of brain microcirculation and/or blood-brain barrier function.

Chabrier, P.E.; Roubert, P.; Braquet, P.

1987-04-01

45

Executive Functions in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maturational course of the development of executive functioning abilities is dependent on the functional capacity of the human brain. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of standardized functional assessments of executive functioning abilities for children. The present article describes neurodevelopment of executive functioning and several recent measures of executive functioning that have been developed to assess maturational periods of specific

Arthur MacNeill Horton Jr; Henry V. Soper; Cecil R. Reynolds

2010-01-01

46

Functional Brain Imaging in Apraxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An extensive literature describes struc- tural lesions in apraxia, but few studies have used func- tional neuroimaging. We used positron emission tomog- raphy (PET) to characterize relative cerebral glucose metabolism in a 65-year-old, right-handed woman with progressive decline in ability to manipulate objects, write, and articulate speech. Objective: To characterize functional brain organiza- tion in apraxia. Design and Methods:

David A. Kareken; Frederick Unverzagt; Karen Caldemeyer; Martin R. Farlow; Gary D. Hutchins

1998-01-01

47

Robust transient dynamics and brain functions.  

PubMed

In the last few decades several concepts of dynamical systems theory (DST) have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques) has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc., have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework - heteroclinic sequential dynamics - to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i) within the same modality, (ii) among different modalities from the same family (like perception), and (iii) among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition). The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential) dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory - a vital cognitive function -, and to find specific dynamical signatures - different kinds of instabilities - of several brain functions and mental diseases. PMID:21716642

Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Varona, Pablo

2011-06-13

48

Robust Transient Dynamics and Brain Functions  

PubMed Central

In the last few decades several concepts of dynamical systems theory (DST) have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques) has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc., have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework – heteroclinic sequential dynamics – to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i) within the same modality, (ii) among different modalities from the same family (like perception), and (iii) among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition). The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential) dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory – a vital cognitive function –, and to find specific dynamical signatures – different kinds of instabilities – of several brain functions and mental diseases.

Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo

2011-01-01

49

Functional brain imaging across development.  

PubMed

The developmental cognitive neuroscience literature has grown exponentially over the last decade. This paper reviews the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature on brain function development of typically late developing functions of cognitive and motivation control, timing and attention as well as of resting state neural networks. Evidence shows that between childhood and adulthood, concomitant with cognitive maturation, there is progressively increased functional activation in task-relevant lateral and medial frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal brain regions that mediate these higher level control functions. This is accompanied by progressively stronger functional inter-regional connectivity within task-relevant fronto-striatal and fronto-parieto-temporal networks. Negative age associations are observed in earlier developing posterior and limbic regions, suggesting a shift with age from the recruitment of "bottom-up" processing regions towards "top-down" fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical connections, leading to a more mature, supervised cognition. The resting state fMRI literature further complements this evidence by showing progressively stronger deactivation with age in anti-correlated task-negative resting state networks, which is associated with better task performance. Furthermore, connectivity analyses during the resting state show that with development increasingly stronger long-range connections are being formed, for example, between fronto-parietal and fronto-cerebellar connections, in both task-positive networks and in task-negative default mode networks, together with progressively lesser short-range connections, suggesting progressive functional integration and segregation with age. Overall, evidence suggests that throughout development between childhood and adulthood, there is progressive refinement and integration of both task-positive fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical activation and task-negative deactivation, leading to a more mature and controlled cognition. PMID:22729957

Rubia, Katya

2012-06-24

50

Introductory study of brain function data processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigational study was conducted of the brain function aiming at developing an interface with the same function as humans have. In the study, the most up-to-date information/knowledge and future problems were examined on brain measurement, brain mod...

1998-01-01

51

Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI): establishing functional links between two brains.  

PubMed

Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications. PMID:23573251

Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

2013-04-03

52

Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In FY11, a collaborative team of researchers began a new Director's Strategic Initiative (DSI) to examine brain structure-function couplings. The effort aims to develop a multidisciplinary, multiscale understanding of the relationship between the brain's ...

A. Dagro J. Vettel R. Kraft S. Gordon S. Kerick

2012-01-01

53

Dynamic geometry, brain function modeling, and consciousness.  

PubMed

Pellionisz and Llinás proposed, years ago, a geometric interpretation towards understanding brain function. This interpretation assumes that the relation between the brain and the external world is determined by the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to construct an internal model of the external world using an interactive geometrical relationship between sensory and motor expression. This approach opened new vistas not only in brain research but also in understanding the foundations of geometry itself. The approach named tensor network theory is sufficiently rich to allow specific computational modeling and addressed the issue of prediction, based on Taylor series expansion properties of the system, at the neuronal level, as a basic property of brain function. It was actually proposed that the evolutionary realm is the backbone for the development of an internal functional space that, while being purely representational, can interact successfully with the totally different world of the so-called "external reality". Now if the internal space or functional space is endowed with stochastic metric tensor properties, then there will be a dynamic correspondence between events in the external world and their specification in the internal space. We shall call this dynamic geometry since the minimal time resolution of the brain (10-15 ms), associated with 40 Hz oscillations of neurons and their network dynamics, is considered to be responsible for recognizing external events and generating the concept of simultaneity. The stochastic metric tensor in dynamic geometry can be written as five-dimensional space-time where the fifth dimension is a probability space as well as a metric space. This extra dimension is considered an imbedded degree of freedom. It is worth noticing that the above-mentioned 40 Hz oscillation is present both in awake and dream states where the central difference is the inability of phase resetting in the latter. This framework of dynamic geometry makes it possible to distinguish one individual from another. In this paper we shall investigate the role of dynamic geometry in brain function modeling and the neuronal basis of consciousness. PMID:18166391

Roy, Sisir; Llinás, Rodolfo

2008-01-01

54

New approaches for exploring anatomical and functional connectivity in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information processing in the primate brain is based on the complementary principles of modular and distributed information processing. The former emphasizes the specialization of functions within different brain areas. The latter emphasizes the massively parallel nature of brain networks and the fact that function also emerges from the flow of information between brain areas. The localization of function to specific

Narender Ramnani; Timothy E. J. Behrens; Will Penny; Paul M. Matthews

2004-01-01

55

Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers.  

PubMed

Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions and aberrant basic information processing. Aberrant brain connectivity patterns have indeed been hypothesized to be a key neural underpinning of autism. In this study, graph analytical tools are used to explore the possible deviant functional brain network organization in autism at a very early stage of brain development. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in 12 toddlers with autism (mean age 3.5 years) and 19 control subjects were used to assess interregional functional brain connectivity, with functional brain networks constructed at the level of temporal synchronization between brain regions underlying the EEG electrodes. Children with autism showed a significantly increased normalized path length and reduced normalized clustering, suggesting a reduced global communication capacity already during early brain development. In addition, whole brain connectivity was found to be significantly reduced in these young patients suggesting an overall under-connectivity of functional brain networks in autism. Our findings support the hypothesis of abnormal neural communication in autism, with deviating effects already present at the early stages of brain development. PMID:23259692

Boersma, Maria; Kemner, Chantal; de Reus, Marcel A; Collin, Guusje; Snijders, Tineke M; Hofman, Dennis; Buitelaar, Jan K; Stam, Cornelis J; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

2013-01-01

56

Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function.  

PubMed

The mammalian brain depends upon glucose as its main source of energy, and tight regulation of glucose metabolism is critical for brain physiology. Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways forms the pathophysiological basis for many brain disorders. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how glucose metabolism sustains basic brain physiology. We synthesize these findings to form a comprehensive picture of the cooperation required between different systems and cell types, and the specific breakdowns in this cooperation that lead to disease. PMID:23968694

Mergenthaler, Philipp; Lindauer, Ute; Dienel, Gerald A; Meisel, Andreas

2013-08-20

57

The organization of prefrontal-subthalamic inputs in primates provides an anatomical substrate for both functional specificity and integration: implications for Basal Ganglia models and deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

The identification of a hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic nucleus connection highlighted the important role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in regulating behavior. However, this pathway was shown primarily from motor areas. Hyperdirect pathways associated with cognitive and motivational cortical regions are particularly relevant given recent data from deep brain stimulation, both for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Our experiments were designed to demonstrate the existence and organization of prefrontal-STN projections, help delineate the "limbic" STN, and determine whether convergence between cortico-STN fibers from functionally diverse cortical areas exists in the STN. We injected anterograde tracers in the ventromedial prefrontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and dorsal prefrontal cortices of Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis to analyze the organization of terminals and passing fibers in the STN. Results show a topographically organized prefrontal hyperdirect pathway in primates. Limbic areas project to the medial tip of the nucleus, straddling its border and extending into the lateral hypothalamus. Associative areas project to the medial half, motor areas to the lateral half. Limbic projections terminated primarily rostrally and motor projections more caudally. The extension of limbic projections into the lateral hypothalamus, suggests that this region be included in the STN. A high degree of convergence exists between projections from functionally diverse cortical areas, creating potentially important interfaces between terminal fields. Taken together, the results provide an anatomical substrate to extend the role of the hyperdirect pathway in models of basal ganglia function, and new keys for understanding deep brain stimulation effects on cognitive and motivational aspects of behavior. PMID:23486951

Haynes, William I A; Haber, Suzanne N

2013-03-13

58

Functional Coactivation Map of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Understanding the interactions among different brain regions is fundamental to our understanding of brain function. Here we describe a complete map of functional connections in the human brain derived by an automatic meta-analysis of 825 neuroimaging articles, representing 3402 experiments. The likelihood of a functional connection between regions was estimated by studying the interdependence of their “activity,” as reported in each experiment, across all experiments. We obtained a dense coactivation map that recovers some fundamental principles of the brain's functional connectivity, such as the symmetric interhemispheric connections, and important functional networks, such as the fronto-parietal attention network, the resting state network and the motor network.

Fox, Peter T.; Paus, Tomas

2008-01-01

59

Exercise enhances and protects brain function.  

PubMed

Physical activity, in the form of voluntary wheel running, induces gene expression changes in the brain. Animals that exercise show an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a molecule that increases neuronal survival, enhances learning, and protects against cognitive decline. Microarray analysis of gene expression provides further support that exercise enhances and supports brain function. PMID:11991541

Cotman, Carl W; Engesser-Cesar, Christie

2002-04-01

60

Manganese action in brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese, an essential trace metal, is supplied to the brain via both the blood–brain and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barriers. There are some mechanisms in this process and transferrin may be involved in manganese transport into the brain. A large portion of manganese is bound to manganese metalloproteins, especially glutamine synthetase in astrocytes. A portion of manganese probably exists in the

Atsushi Takeda

2003-01-01

61

Overexpression of the p53-inducible brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 suppresses efficiently tumour angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 gene has been isolated in an attempt to find fragments with p53 “functional” binding sites. As reported herein and by others, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 expression is present in some normal tissues, but is reduced or lost in tumour tissues. Such data and its particular structure prompted the hypothesis that brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 may

D G Duda; M Sunamura; L Lozonschi; T Yokoyama; T Yatsuoka; F Motoi; A Horii; K Tani; S Asano; Y Nakamura; S Matsuno

2002-01-01

62

Functional specifications for mathematical computations  

SciTech Connect

Are functional programs useful for specifying numerical computations We believe they certainly are, despite the long-established tradition of using procedural languages for such computations. We have prepared a pure functional specification for an algorithm that solves one-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). Using automated program transformations, we have derived a Fortran program from this specification that executes faster on a CRAY X-MP than does the hand-written Fortran implementation of the same algorithm. We discuss the development of the initial specification for the one-dimensional problem and its evolution into a second specification for solving multidimensional hyperbolic PDEs. In this second specification, the dimensionality of the problem is completely parameterized and is given by specifying the set of neighbors of a cell in the grid. Thus, programs can be derived from this specification to solve hyperbolic PDEs of any given dimensionality. Our goal is to elucidate how we approach specifying numerical computations in the functional style and to show how we take advantage of the modularity and abstractness of functional programming to obtain a very high-level representation of the algorithm. We also briefly discuss transformational derivation of efficient programs from such specifications. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Boyle, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Harmer, T.J. (Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK). Dept. of Computer Science)

1991-01-01

63

Brain Functional Network for Chewing of Gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent studies showed that gum-chewing induced significant increases in cerebral blood flow and blood-oxygenation level in\\u000a the widespread brain regions. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of chewing-induced regional interconnection\\u000a and interaction within the brain. In this study, we investigated the human brain functional network during chewing of gum\\u000a by using functional magnetic resonance imaging and complex network

Ming Ke; Hui Shen; Zongtan Zhou; Xiaolin Zhou; Dewen Hu; Xuhui Chen

64

Babies Work Specific Brain Areas to Imitate People  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Babies Work Specific Brain Areas to Imitate People Study mapped ... say they've pinpointed just how infants' brains work during that process. Copying others is a vital ...

65

Brain Function. Volume IV. Brain Function and Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Neurochemical approaches to learning, by John Gaito; Electrical events in the brain and learning, by Robert Galambos; Neurophysiology and learning -- Memory and the organization of attention, by Karl H. Pribram, and A 'model neural system' appro...

D. B. Lindsley A. A. Lumsdaine

1967-01-01

66

The Efficiency of a Small-World Functional Brain Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether the small-world topology of a functional brain network means high information processing efficiency by calculating the correlation between the small-world measures of a functional brain network and behavioral reaction during an imagery task. Functional brain networks are constructed by multichannel event-related potential data, in which the electrodes are the nodes and the functional connectivities between them are the edges. The results show that the correlation between small-world measures and reaction time is task-specific, such that in global imagery, there is a positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and reaction time, while in local imagery the average path length is positively correlated with the reaction time. This suggests that the efficiency of a functional brain network is task-dependent.

Zhao, Qing-Bai; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Sui, Dan-Ni; Zhou, Zhi-Jin; Chen, Qi-Cai; Tang, Yi-Yuan

2012-04-01

67

Project X functional requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support intensity frontier research in elementary particle physics, with possible applications to nuclear physics and nuclear energy research, at Fermilab. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions. This paper will describe the Functional Requirements for the Project X facility and the rationale for these requirements.

Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

68

Vertebrate-specific glutaredoxin is essential for brain development  

PubMed Central

Cellular functions and survival are dependent on a tightly controlled redox potential. Currently, an increasing amount of data supports the concept of local changes in the redox environment and specific redox signaling events controlling cell function. Specific protein thiol groups are the major targets of redox signaling and regulation. Thioredoxins and glutaredoxins catalyze reversible thiol-disulfide exchange reactions and are primary regulators of the protein thiol redox state. Here, we demonstrate that embryonic brain development depends on the enzymatic activity of glutaredoxin 2. Zebrafish with silenced expression of glutaredoxin 2 lost virtually all types of neurons by apoptotic cell death and the ability to develop an axonal scaffold. As demonstrated in zebrafish and in a human cellular model for neuronal differentiation, glutaredoxin 2 controls axonal outgrowth via thiol redox regulation of collapsin response mediator protein 2, a central component of the semaphorin pathway. This study provides an example of a specific thiol redox regulation essential for vertebrate embryonic development.

Brautigam, Lars; Schutte, Lena Dorothee; Godoy, Jose Rodrigo; Prozorovski, Timour; Gellert, Manuela; Hauptmann, Giselbert; Holmgren, Arne; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Berndt, Carsten

2011-01-01

69

Regulation of brain function by exercise.  

PubMed

The effect of excercise on brain function was investigated through animal experiments. Exercise leads to increased serum calcium levels, and the calcium is transported to the brain. This in turn enhances brain dopamine synthesis through a calmodulin-dependent system, and increased dopamine levels regulate various brain functions. There are abnormally low levels of dopamine in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens of epileptic mice (El mice strain) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The low dopamine levels in those animals were improved following intracerebroventricular administration of calcium chloride. Dopamine levels and blood pressure in SHR were also normalized by exercise. In epileptic El mice, convulsions normalized dopamine levels and physiologic function. These findings suggest that exercise or convulsions affect brain function through calcium/calmodulin-dependent dopamine synthesis. This leads to the possibility that some symptoms of Parkinson's disease or senile dementia might be improved by exercise. PMID:12758062

Sutoo, Den'etsu; Akiyama, Kayo

2003-06-01

70

Energetic cost of brain functional connectivity.  

PubMed

The brain's functional connectivity is complex, has high energetic cost, and requires efficient use of glucose, the brain's main energy source. It has been proposed that regions with a high degree of functional connectivity are energy efficient and can minimize consumption of glucose. However, the relationship between functional connectivity and energy consumption in the brain is poorly understood. To address this neglect, here we propose a simple model for the energy demands of brain functional connectivity, which we tested with positron emission tomography and MRI in 54 healthy volunteers at rest. Higher glucose metabolism was associated with proportionally larger MRI signal amplitudes, and a higher degree of connectivity was associated with nonlinear increases in metabolism, supporting our hypothesis for the energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs. Basal metabolism (in the absence of connectivity) accounted for 30% of brain glucose utilization, which suggests that the spontaneous brain activity accounts for 70% of the energy consumed by the brain. The energy efficiency of the connectivity hubs was higher for ventral precuneus, cerebellum, and subcortical hubs than for cortical hubs. The higher energy demands of brain communication that hinges upon higher connectivity could render brain hubs more vulnerable to deficits in energy delivery or utilization and help explain their sensitivity to neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23898179

Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

2013-07-29

71

The gravitational field and brain function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frontal cortex is recognized as the highest adaptive control center of the human brain. The principle of the ``frontalization'' of human brain function offers new possibilities for brain research in space. There is evolutionary and experimental evidence indicating the validity of the principle, including it's role in nervous response to gravitational stimulation. The gravitational field is considered here as one of the more constant and comprehensive factors acting on brain evolution, which has undergone some successive crucial steps: ``encephalization'', ``corticalization'', ``lateralization'' and ``frontalization''. The dominating effects of electrical responses from the frontal cortex have been discovered 1) in experiments under gravitational stimulus; and 2) in processes potentially relating to gravitational adaptation, such as memory and learning, sensory information processing, motor programing, and brain state control. A brain research experiment during space flight is suggested to test the role of the frontal cortex in space adaptation and it's potentiality in brain control.

Mei, Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Dai; Lan, Jing-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Ging; Wu, Wen-Can; Xue, Xin-Min

72

Brain Function: Implications for Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implications of cerebral dominance for curriculum and instruction are enormous. Cognitive style, sex differences, instructional materials preparation and selection, and testing are affected by right or left brain hemisphere dominance. (CJ)

Edwards, Clifford H.

1982-01-01

73

Thyroid function in brain-dead donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty brain-dead potential organ donors were studied prospectively to establish thyroid function. Two or three consecutive blood samples were obtained during brain death. Seven times a sample was available before brain death occurred. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) fell in most patients (80%). Very low (<1.6 pmol\\/l) and subnormal levels (between 2 and 3 pmol\\/l) were found in 65% and 15% of

F. Masson; M. Thicoïpe; M. J. Latapie; P. Maurette

1990-01-01

74

Brain Melanocortin Receptors: From Cloning to Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adan R. A. H., W. H. Gispen.Brain melanocortin receptors: from cloning to function.Peptides 18(8) 1279–1287, 1997.—The cloning of brain melanocortin (MC) receptors, the mapping of their expression pattern and the identification of MC receptor selective ligands have opened a new avenue towards elucidating the role of the melanocortin system in the brain. MC receptors have now been implicated in melanocortin-induced

Roger A. H Adan; Willem Hendrik Gispen

1997-01-01

75

Pain and the brain: Specificity and plasticity of the brain in clinical chronic pain  

PubMed Central

We review recent advances in brain imaging in humans, concentrating on advances in our understanding of the human brain in clinical chronic pain. Understanding regarding anatomical and functional reorganization of the brain in chronic pain is emphasized. We conclude by proposing a brain model for the transition of the human from acute to chronic pain.

Apkarian, A.V.; Hashmi, J.A.; Baliki, M.N.

2010-01-01

76

Brain functional networks analysis and comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used the complex network analysis to examine the brain functional network involved in right finger movements and compare the deferent functional network involved in left finger and right finger movements. We found that (a)the connections change exponentially as distance between nodes change, the function is Gaussian; (b) the distribution of functional connections was scale-free; (c) the typical path

Fangfeng Zhang; Chunhui Chen; Lu Jiang

2010-01-01

77

Simple models of human brain functional networks  

PubMed Central

Human brain functional networks are embedded in anatomical space and have topological properties—small-worldness, modularity, fat-tailed degree distributions—that are comparable to many other complex networks. Although a sophisticated set of measures is available to describe the topology of brain networks, the selection pressures that drive their formation remain largely unknown. Here we consider generative models for the probability of a functional connection (an edge) between two cortical regions (nodes) separated by some Euclidean distance in anatomical space. In particular, we propose a model in which the embedded topology of brain networks emerges from two competing factors: a distance penalty based on the cost of maintaining long-range connections; and a topological term that favors links between regions sharing similar input. We show that, together, these two biologically plausible factors are sufficient to capture an impressive range of topological properties of functional brain networks. Model parameters estimated in one set of functional MRI (fMRI) data on normal volunteers provided a good fit to networks estimated in a second independent sample of fMRI data. Furthermore, slightly detuned model parameters also generated a reasonable simulation of the abnormal properties of brain functional networks in people with schizophrenia. We therefore anticipate that many aspects of brain network organization, in health and disease, may be parsimoniously explained by an economical clustering rule for the probability of functional connectivity between different brain areas.

Vertes, Petra E.; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F.; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay N.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Bullmore, Edward T.

2012-01-01

78

On development of functional brain connectivity in the young brain  

PubMed Central

Our brain is a complex network of structurally and functionally interconnected regions, shaped to efficiently process and integrate information. The development from a brain equipped with basic functionalities to an efficient network facilitating complex behavior starts during gestation and continues into adulthood. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) enables the examination of developmental aspects of functional connectivity (FC) and functional brain networks. This review will discuss changes observed in the developing brain on the level of network FC from a gestational age of 20 weeks onwards. We discuss findings of resting-state fMRI studies showing that functional network development starts during gestation, creating a foundation for each of the resting-state networks (RSNs) to be established. Visual and sensorimotor areas are reported to develop first, with other networks, at different rates, increasing both in network connectivity and size over time. Reaching childhood, marked fine-tuning and specialization takes place in the regions necessary for higher-order cognitive functions.

Hoff, G. E. Anna-Jasmijn; Van den Heuvel, M. P.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; De Vries, L. S.

2013-01-01

79

Lead poisoning and brain cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by

Goldstein

1990-01-01

80

Brain function, injury and disease: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out to provide a brief guide to brain function and the main causes of brain dysfunction likely to be encountered in social care and neurodisability practice. For the first issue of Social Care and Neurodisability, it was felt that such an overview paper serving both as a self-contained aide memoire, and as a ‘signpost’ for other relevant

Keith G Jenkins; Louise Birkett-Swan

2010-01-01

81

Brain spontaneous functional connectivity and intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many functional imaging studies have been performed to explore the neural basis of intelligence by detecting brain activity changes induced by intelligence-related tasks, such as reasoning or working memory. However, little is known about whether the spontaneous brain activity at rest is relevant to the differences in intelligence. Here, 59 healthy adult subjects (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale score, 90–138) were

Ming Song; Yuan Zhou; Jun Li; Yong Liu; Lixia Tian; Chunshui Yu; Tianzi Jiang

2008-01-01

82

Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is associated with changes in the structure and functioning of a number of key brain systems, including prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions involved in working memory and declarative memory, respectively. Imaging techniques provide an unparalleled window into these changes, allowing repeated assessments across pre- and post-onset stages of the disorder and in relation to critical periods of brain

Katherine H. Karlsgodt; Daqiang Sun; Tyrone D. Cannon

2010-01-01

83

Project X functional requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01

84

Isoform-Specific Effects of Human Apolipoprotein E on Brain Function Revealed in ApoE Knockout Mice: Increased Susceptibility of Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates the redistribution of lipids among cells and is expressed at highest levels in brain and liver. Human apoE exists in three major isoforms encoded by distinct alleles (? 2, ? 3, and ? 4). Compared with APOE ? 2 and ? 3, APOE ? 4 increases the risk of cognitive impairments, lowers the age of onset

Jacob Raber; Derek Wong; Manuel Buttini; Matthias Orth; Stefano Bellosta; Robert E. Pitas; Robert W. Mahley; Lennart Mucke

1998-01-01

85

Exploring candidate genes for human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that large numbers of genes are involved in common human brain diseases. Here, we propose a novel computational strategy for simultaneously identifying multiple candidate genes for genetic human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network-level perspective. By integrating diverse genomic and proteomic datasets based on Bayesian statistical model, we built a large-scale human brain-specific gene network. Based

Bing Liu; Tianzi Jiang; Songde Ma; Huizhi Zhao; Jun Li; Xingpeng Jiang; Jing Zhang

2006-01-01

86

FUNCTIONAL IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR), are of immeasurable assistance in the diagnosis and characterization of primary intracranial tumors. Factors which can be accurately deduced via these techniques includes the location, size, mass effect and edema associated with brain tumors; usually a differential diagnosis of tumor type can be generated based on characteristics

Ferenc A. Jolesz

87

Functional brain development in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a continuing debate in developmental neuroscience about the importance of activity-dependent processes. The relatively delayed rate of development of the human brain, compared with that of other mammals, might make it more susceptible to the influence of postnatal experience. The human infant is well adapted to capitalize on this opportunity through primitive biases to attend to relevant stimuli

Mark H. Johnson

2001-01-01

88

Scale-free brain functional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to extract functional networks connecting correlated human brain sites. Analysis of the resulting networks in different tasks shows that (a) the distribution of functional connections, and the probability of finding a link versus distance are both scale-free, (b) the characteristic path length is small and comparable with those of equivalent random networks, and (c)

Victor M. Egu ´ õluz; Dante R. Chialvo; Guillermo A. Cecchi; Marwan Baliki; A. Vania Apkarian

2005-01-01

89

Determination of Vascular Dementia Brain in Distinct Frequency Bands with Whole Brain Functional Connectivity Patterns  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) can be useful for distinguishing brain disorders into categories. Such analyses can substantially enrich and facilitate clinical diagnoses. Using MPVA methods, whole brain functional networks, especially those derived using different frequency windows, can be applied to detect brain states. We constructed whole brain functional networks for groups of vascular dementia (VaD) patients and controls using resting state BOLD-fMRI (rsfMRI) data from three frequency bands - slow-5 (0.01?0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027?0.073 Hz), and whole-band (0.01?0.073 Hz). Then we used the support vector machine (SVM), a type of MVPA classifier, to determine the patterns of functional connectivity. Our results showed that the brain functional networks derived from rsfMRI data (19 VaD patients and 20 controls) in these three frequency bands appear to reflect neurobiological changes in VaD patients. Such differences could be used to differentiate the brain states of VaD patients from those of healthy individuals. We also found that the functional connectivity patterns of the human brain in the three frequency bands differed, as did their ability to differentiate brain states. Specifically, the ability of the functional connectivity pattern to differentiate VaD brains from healthy ones was more efficient in the slow-5 (0.01?0.027 Hz) band than in the other two frequency bands. Our findings suggest that the MVPA approach could be used to detect abnormalities in the functional connectivity of VaD patients in distinct frequency bands. Identifying such abnormalities may contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of VaD.

Zhang, Delong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Jun; Peng, Xiaoling; Liu, Xian; Fan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ming; Huang, Ruiwang

2013-01-01

90

Structure and function of complex brain networks  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of theoretical and empirical studies approach the function of the human brain from a network perspective. The analysis of brain networks is made feasible by the development of new imaging acquisition methods as well as new tools from graph theory and dynamical systems. This review surveys some of these methodological advances and summarizes recent findings on the architecture of structural and functional brain networks. Studies of the structural connectome reveal several modules or network communities that are interlinked by hub regions mediating communication processes between modules. Recent network analyses have shown that network hubs form a densely linked collective called a “rich club,” centrally positioned for attracting and dispersing signal traffic. In parallel, recordings of resting and task-evoked neural activity have revealed distinct resting-state networks that contribute to functions in distinct cognitive domains. Network methods are increasingly applied in a clinical context, and their promise for elucidating neural substrates of brain and mental disorders is discussed.

Sporns, Olaf

2013-01-01

91

Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography in the functional detection and differential diagnosis of brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the detection and differential diagnosis of brain tumours. In 90 patients 201Tl SPET was performed because of clinical or radiological suspicion of tumoral invasion, completed by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and 99mTc-sestamibi SPET in some patients. For all tumours, diagnosis was based

R. A. Dierckx; J. J. Martin; A. Dobbeleir; R. Crols; I. Neetens; P. P. Deyn

1994-01-01

92

Toward discovery science of human brain function.  

PubMed

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's "functional connectome." Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/. PMID:20176931

Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

2010-02-22

93

Toward discovery science of human brain function  

PubMed Central

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's “functional connectome.” Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain–behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

Biswal, Bharat B.; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M.; Beckmann, Christian F.; Adelstein, Jonathan S.; Buckner, Randy L.; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Hyde, James S.; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.; Kotter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J.; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Margulies, Daniel S.; Mayberg, Helen S.; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Pekar, James J.; Peltier, Scott J.; Petersen, Steven E.; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

2010-01-01

94

Neuroecology of cartilaginous fishes: the functional implications of brain scaling.  

PubMed

It is a widely accepted view that neural development can reflect morphological adaptations and sensory specializations. The aim of this review is to give a broad overview of the current status of brain data available for cartilaginous fishes and examine how perspectives on allometric scaling of brain size across this group of fishes has changed within the last 50 years with the addition of new data and more rigorous statistical analyses. The current knowledge of neuroanatomy in cartilaginous fishes is reviewed and data on brain size (encephalization, n = 151) and interspecific variation in brain organization (n = 84) has been explored to ascertain scaling relationships across this clade. It is determined whether similar patterns of brain organization, termed cerebrotypes, exist in species that share certain lifestyle characteristics. Clear patterns of brain organization exist across cartilaginous fishes, irrespective of phylogenetic grouping and, although this study was not a functional analysis, it provides further evidence that chondrichthyan brain structures might have developed in conjunction with specific behaviours or enhanced cognitive capabilities. Larger brains, with well-developed telencephala and large, highly foliated cerebella are reported in species that occupy complex reef or oceanic habitats, potentially identifying a reef-associated cerebrotype. In contrast, benthic and benthopelagic demersal species comprise the group with the smallest brains, with a relatively reduced telencephalon and a smooth cerebellar corpus. There is also evidence herein of a bathyal cerebrotype; deep-sea benthopelagic sharks possess relatively small brains and show a clear relative hypertrophy of the medulla oblongata. Despite the patterns observed and documented, significant gaps in the literature have been highlighted. Brain mass data are only currently available on c. 16% of all chondrichthyan species, and only 8% of species have data available on their brain organization, with far less on subsections of major brain areas that receive distinct sensory input. The interspecific variability in brain organization further stresses the importance of performing functional studies on a greater range of species. Only an expansive data set, comprised of species that span a variety of habitats and taxonomic groups, with widely disparate behavioural repertoires, combined with further functional analyses, will help shed light on the extent to which chondrichthyan brains have evolved as a consequence of behaviour, habitat and lifestyle in addition to phylogeny. PMID:22497414

Yopak, K E

2012-03-27

95

Brain Research: the Necessity for Separating Sites, Actions and Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some brain research concentrates solely on the study of sites and actions of brain functions but the writer argues that it is essential for research to investigate the functions also. Educators can offer measures of brain function such as the Structure of Intellect (S O I) and psychologists need information about the characteristics of brain functions if accurate diagnosis is

Mary Meeker

1988-01-01

96

The connection between rhythmicity and brain function.  

PubMed

Although rhythm and music are not entirely synonymous terms, rhythm constitutes one of the most essential structural and organizational elements of music. When considering the effect of music on human adaptation, the profound effect of rhythm on the motor system strongly suggests that the time structure of music is the essential element relating music specifically to motor behavior. Why the motor system appears so sensitive to auditory priming and timing stimulation can only be partially answered so far. The high-performance function of the auditory system regarding processing of time information makes good functional sense within the constraints of auditory sensory processing. Thus, the motor system sensitivity to auditory entrainment may simply be an evolutionary useful function of taking advantage of the specific and unique aspects of auditory information processing for enhanced control and organization of motor behavior; e.g, in the time domain. Unlike processes in the motor system, many other physiological processes cannot be effectively entrained by external sensory stimuli. For example, there is probably a very good protective reason why other cyclical physiological processes (e.g., autonomic processes such as heart rate) have only very limited entrainment capacity to external rhythmic cues. Some of the basic auditory-motor arousal connections may also have their basis in adaptive evolutionary processes related to survival behavior; e.g., in fight or flight reactions. Much of the "why" in auditory-motor interactions, however, remains unknown heuristically. In the absence of this knowledge, great care should be taken to not compensate for this lack of understanding of specific cause and effect processes by assigning anthropomorphic descriptions to the behavior of biological and physical systems. The unraveling of the perceptual, physiological, and neuroanatomical basis of the interaction between rhythm and movement has been, and continues to be, a fascinating endeavor with important ramifications for the study of brain function, sensory perception, and motor behavior. One of the most exciting findings in this research, however, may be the evidence that the interaction between auditory rhythm and physical response can be effectively harnessed for specific therapeutic purposes in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders. PMID:10101675

Thaut, M H; Kenyon, G P; Schauer, M L; McIntosh, G C

97

Endocannabinoid Functions in Neurogenesis, Neuronal Migration, and Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocannabinoids act as retrograde messengers thus controlling many synapses in the postnatal brain. In contrast, the concept\\u000a that endocannabinoid functions are pivotal to fundamental developmental processes, including progenitor proliferation and\\u000a fate specification, lineage segregation, neuronal migration, differentiation and survival, in the embryonic brain has just\\u000a begun to emerge. Understanding the basic developmental and signaling principles controlled by endocannabinoids is pertinent

Tibor Harkany; Manuel Guzmán; Yasmin L. Hurd

98

Mapping brain function in freely moving subjects.  

PubMed

Expression of many fundamental mammalian behaviors such as, for example, aggression, mating, foraging or social behaviors, depend on locomotor activity. A central dilemma in the functional neuroimaging of these behaviors has been the fact that conventional neuroimaging techniques generally rely on immobilization of the subject, which extinguishes all but the simplest activity. Ideally, imaging could occur in freely moving subjects, while presenting minimal interference with the subject's natural behavior. Here we provide an overview of several approaches that have been undertaken in the past to achieve this aim in both tethered and freely moving animals, as well as in nonrestrained human subjects. Applications of specific radiotracers to single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography are discussed in which brain activation is imaged after completion of the behavioral task and capture of the tracer. Potential applications to clinical neuropsychiatry are discussed, as well as challenges inherent to constraint-free functional neuroimaging. Future applications of these methods promise to increase our understanding of the neural circuits underlying mammalian behavior in health and disease. PMID:15465134

Holschneider, Daniel P; Maarek, Jean-Michel I

2004-09-01

99

Detecting disease-specific patterns of brain structure using cortical pattern matching and a population-based probabilistic brain atlas.  

PubMed

The rapid creation of comprehensive brain image databases mandates the development of mathematical algorithms to uncover disease specific patterns of brain structure and function in human populations. We describe our construction of probabilistic atlases that store detailed information on how the brain varies across age and gender, across time, in health and disease, and in large human populations. Specifically, we introduce a mathematical framework based on covariant partial differential equations (PDEs), pull-backs of mappings under harmonic flows, and high-dimensional random tensor fields to encode variations in cortical patterning, asymmetry and tissue distribution in a population-based brain image database (N =94 scans). We use this information to detect disease-specific abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, including dynamic changes over time. Illustrative examples are chosen to show how group patterns of cortical organization, asymmetry, and disease-specific trends can be resolved that are not apparent in individual brain images. Finally, we create four-dimensional (4D) maps that store probabilistic information on the dynamics of brain change in development and disease. Digital atlases that generate these maps show considerable promise in identifying general patterns of structural and functional variation in diseased populations, and revealing how these features depend on demographic, genetic, clinical and therapeutic parameters. PMID:21218175

Thompson, Paul M; Mega, Michael S; Vidal, Christine; Rapoport, Judith L; Toga, Arthur W

2001-01-01

100

Detecting disease-specific patterns of brain structure using cortical pattern matching and a population-based probabilistic brain atlas  

PubMed Central

The rapid creation of comprehensive brain image databases mandates the development of mathematical algorithms to uncover disease specific patterns of brain structure and function in human populations. We describe our construction of probabilistic atlases that store detailed information on how the brain varies across age and gender, across time, in health and disease, and in large human populations. Specifically, we introduce a mathematical framework based on covariant partial differential equations (PDEs), pull-backs of mappings under harmonic flows, and high-dimensional random tensor fields to encode variations in cortical patterning, asymmetry and tissue distribution in a population-based brain image database (N =94 scans). We use this information to detect disease-specific abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, including dynamic changes over time. Illustrative examples are chosen to show how group patterns of cortical organization, asymmetry, and disease-specific trends can be resolved that are not apparent in individual brain images. Finally, we create four-dimensional (4D) maps that store probabilistic information on the dynamics of brain change in development and disease. Digital atlases that generate these maps show considerable promise in identifying general patterns of structural and functional variation in diseased populations, and revealing how these features depend on demographic, genetic, clinical and therapeutic parameters.

Thompson, Paul M.; Mega, Michael S.; Vidal, Christine; Rapoport, Judith L.; Toga, Arthur W.

2008-01-01

101

Progesterone Receptors: Form and Function in Brain  

PubMed Central

Emerging data indicate that progesterone has multiple non-reproductive functions in the central nervous system to regulate cognition, mood, inflammation, mitochondrial function, neurogenesis and regeneration, myelination and recovery from traumatic brain injury. Progesterone-regulated neural responses are mediated by an array of progesterone receptors (PR) that include the classic nuclear PRA and PRB receptors and splice variants of each, the seven transmembrane domain 7TMPR? and the membrane-associated 25-Dx PR (PGRMC1). These PRs induce classic regulation of gene expression while also transducing signaling cascades that originate at the cell membrane and ultimately activate transcription factors. Remarkably, PRs are broadly expressed throughout the brain and can be detected in every neural cell type. The distribution of PRs beyond hypothalamic borders, suggests a much broader role of progesterone in regulating neural function. Despite the large body of evidence regarding progesterone regulation of reproductive behaviors and estrogen-inducible responses as well as effects of progesterone metabolite neurosteroids, much remains to be discovered regarding the functional outcomes resulting from activation of the complex array of PRs in brain by gonadally and / or glial derived progesterone. Moreover, the impact of clinically used progestogens and developing selective PR modulators for targeted outcomes in brain is a critical avenue of investigation as the non-reproductive functions of PRs have far-reaching implications for hormone therapy to maintain neurological health and function throughout menopausal aging.

Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Thompson, Richard F.; Foy, Michael R.; Baudry, Michel; Wang, JunMing; Finch, Caleb E; Morgan, Todd E.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.; Nilsen, Jon

2008-01-01

102

Optogenetic approaches for functional mouse brain mapping  

PubMed Central

To better understand the connectivity of the brain, it is important to map both structural and functional connections between neurons and cortical regions. In recent years, a set of optogenetic tools have been developed that permit selective manipulation and investigation of neural systems. These tools have enabled the mapping of functional connections between stimulated cortical targets and other brain regions. Advantages of the approach include the ability to arbitrarily stimulate brain regions that express opsins, allowing for brain mapping independent of behavior or sensory processing. The ability of opsins to be rapidly and locally activated allows for investigation of connectivity with spatial resolution on the order of single neurons and temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Optogenetic methods for functional mapping have been applied in experiments ranging from in vitro investigation of microcircuits, to in vivo probing of inter-regional cortical connections, to examination of global connections within the whole brain. We review recently developed functional mapping methods that use optogenetic single-point stimulation in the rodent brain and employ cellular electrophysiology, evoked motor movements, voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs), calcium indicators, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess activity. In particular we highlight results using red-shifted organic VSDs that permit high temporal resolution imaging in a manner spectrally separated from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) activation. VSD maps stimulated by ChR2 were dependent on intracortical synaptic activity and were able to reflect circuits used for sensory processing. Although the methods reviewed are powerful, challenges remain with respect to finding approaches that permit selective high temporal resolution assessment of stimulated activity in animals that can be followed longitudinally.

Lim, Diana H.; LeDue, Jeffrey; Mohajerani, Majid H.; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Murphy, Timothy H.

2013-01-01

103

Functional Brain Imaging of Nicotinic Effects on Higher Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as selective attention, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, and emotional processing. In addition, recent progress in understanding functional connectivity between brain regions utilized during cognitive and emotional processes offers new opportunities for examining drug effects on network-related activity. This review will critically summarize available nicotinic functional brain imaging studies focusing on the specific cognitive domains of attention, memory, behavioral control, and emotional processing. Generally speaking, nicotine appears to increase task-related activity in non-smokers and deprived smokers, but not active smokers. By contrast, nicotine or nicotinic stimulation decreases the activity of structures associated with the default mode network. These particular patterns of activation and/or deactivation may be useful for early drug development and may be an efficient and cost-effective method of screening potential nicotinic agents. Further studies will have to be done to clarify whether such activity changes correlate with cognitive or affective outcomes that are clinically relevant. The use of functional brain imaging will be a key tool for probing pathologic changes related to brain illness and for nicotinic drug development.

Newhouse, Paul A.; Potter, Alexandra S.; Dumas, Julie A.; Thiel, Christiane M.

2011-01-01

104

Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

2009-01-01

105

Classroom Seating and Functional Brain Asymmetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between functional brain assymetry, as measured by the characteristic direction of eye movements in response to face-to-face questioning, and sitting on the left or right side of a classroom. Results are congruent with other findings comparing right and left movers. (Author/BJG)|

Gur, Raquel E.; And Others

1975-01-01

106

Superbinding in integrative brain function and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal related to the superbinding of the activity of neural populations is outlined. Based on the observation of EEG-oscillations, this proposal aims to replace the Sherrington's single neuron doctrine for interpretation of the mechanisms of complex percepts and integrative brain function.

E. Basar; M. Ozgoren; S. Karakas

2001-01-01

107

Early Experience Alters Brain Function and Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the effects of early experience on brain function and structure. Methods. A randomized clinical trial tested the neu- rodevelopmental effectiveness of the Newborn Individ- ualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). Thirty preterm infants, 28 to 33 weeks' ges- tational age (GA) at birth and free of known develop- mental risk factors, participated in the trial. NIDCAP

Frank H. Duffy; Gloria B. McAnulty; Michael J. Rivkin; Sridhar Vajapeyam; Robert V. Mulkern; Simon K. Warfield; Petra S. Huppi; Samantha C. Butler; Nikk Conneman; Christine Fischer; Eric C. Eichenwald

2004-01-01

108

Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species. The cells of the human brain consume about 20% of the oxygen utilized by the body but constitute only 2% of the body weight. Consequently, reactive oxygen species

Ralf Dringen

2000-01-01

109

Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain development for executive functions and social cognition during puberty and adolescence are

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore; Suparna Choudhury

2006-01-01

110

See the brain at work: intraoperative laser Doppler functional brain imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During open brain surgery we acquire perfusion images non-invasively using laser Doppler imaging. The regions of brain activity show a distinct signal in response to stimulation providing intraoperative functional brain maps of remarkably strong contrast.

Martin-Williams, E. J.; Raabe, A.; van de Ville, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Szelényi, A.; Hattingen, E.; Gerlach, R.; Seifert, V.; Hauger, C.; Lopez, A.; Leitgeb, R.; Unser, M.; Lasser, T.

2009-07-01

111

Brain function, nonlinear coupling, and neuronal transients.  

PubMed

The brain can be regarded as an ensemble of connected dynamical systems and as such conforms to some simple principles relating the inputs and outputs of its constituent parts. The ensuing implications, for the way we think about, and measure, neuronal interactions, can be quite profound. These range from 1) implications for which aspects of neuronal activity are important to measure and how to characterize coupling among neuronal populations; 2) implication for understanding the emergence of dynamic receptive fields and functionally specialized brain architectures; and 3) teleological implications pertaining to the genesis of dynamic instability and complexity, which is necessary for adaptive self-organization. This review focuses on the first set of implications by looking at neuronal interactions, coupling, and implicit neuronal codes from a dynamical perspective. By considering the brain in this light, one can show that a sufficient description of neuronal activity must comprise activity at the current time and its recent history. This history constitutes a neuronal transient. Such transients represent an essential metric of neuronal interactions and, implicitly, a code employed in the functional integration of brain systems. The nature of transients, expressed conjointly in different neuronal populations, reflects the underlying coupling among brain systems. A complete description of this coupling, or effective connectivity, can be expressed in terms of generalized convolution kernels (Volterra kernels) that embody high-order or nonlinear interactions. This coupling may be synchronous, and possibly oscillatory, or asynchronous. A critical distinction between synchronous and asynchronous coupling is that the former is essentially linear and the latter is nonlinear. The nonlinear nature of asynchronous coupling enables the rich, context-sensitive interactions that characterize real brain dynamics, suggesting that it plays an important role in functional integration. PMID:11597100

Friston, K J

2001-10-01

112

Sex-specific parent-of-origin allelic expression in the mouse brain.  

PubMed

Genomic imprinting results in preferential gene expression from paternally versus maternally inherited chromosomes. We used a genome-wide approach to uncover sex-specific parent-of-origin allelic effects in the adult mouse brain. Our study identified preferential selection of the maternally inherited X chromosome in glutamatergic neurons of the female cortex. Moreover, analysis of the cortex and hypothalamus identified 347 autosomal genes with sex-specific imprinting features. In the hypothalamus, sex-specific imprinted genes were mostly found in females, which suggests parental influence over the hypothalamic function of daughters. We show that interleukin-18, a gene linked to diseases with sex-specific prevalence, is subject to complex, regional, and sex-specific parental effects in the brain. Parent-of-origin effects thus provide new avenues for investigation of sexual dimorphism in brain function and disease. PMID:20616234

Gregg, Christopher; Zhang, Jiangwen; Butler, James E; Haig, David; Dulac, Catherine

2010-07-08

113

Sex-Specific Parent-of-Origin Allelic expression in the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting results in preferential gene expression from paternally versus maternally inherited chromosomes. We used a genome-wide approach to uncover sex-specific parent-of-origin allelic effects in the adult mouse brain. Our study identified preferential selection of the maternally inherited X chromosome in glutamatergic neurons of the female cortex. Moreover, analysis of the cortex and hypothalamus identified 347 autosomal genes with sex-specific imprinting features. In the hypothalamus, sex-specific imprinted genes were mostly found in females, suggesting parental influence over the hypothalamic function of daughters. We show that Interleukin 18, a gene linked to diseases with sex-specific prevalence, is subject to complex, regional, and sex-specific parental effects in the brain. Parent of origin effects thus provide new avenues for investigation of sexual dimorphism in brain function and disease.

Gregg, Christopher; Zhang, Jiangwen; Butler, James E.; Haig, David; Dulac, Catherine

2010-01-01

114

The illiterate brain. Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Learning a specific skill during childhood may partly determine the functional organization of the adult brain. This hypothesis led us to study oral language processing in illiterate subjects who, for social reasons, had never entered school and had no knowledge of reading or writing. In a brain activation study using PET and statistical parametric mapping, we compared word and

A. Castro-Caldas; K. M. Petersson; A. Reis; S. Stone-Elander; M. Ingvar

1998-01-01

115

MRI Contrast Agents for Functional Molecular Imaging of Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Summary Functional imaging with MRI contrast agents is an emerging experimental approach that can combine the specificity of cellular neural recording techniques with noninvasive whole-brain coverage. A variety of contrast agents sensitive to aspects of brain activity have recently been introduced. These include new probes for calcium and other metal ions that offer high sensitivity and membrane permeability, as well as imaging agents for high resolution pH and metabolic mapping in living animals. Genetically-encoded MRI contrast agents have also been described. Several of the new probes have been validated in the brain; in vivo use of other agents remains a challenge. This review outlines advantages and disadvantages of specific molecular imaging approaches and discusses current or potential applications in neurobiology.

Jasanoff, Alan

2009-01-01

116

The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: Machine Learning Based Detection of User Specific Brain States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline the Berlin Brain-Computer Interface (BBCI), a system which enables us to translate brain signals from movements or movement intentions into control commands. The main contribution of the BBCI, which is a non-invasive EEG-based BCI system, is the use of advanced machine learning techniques that allow to adapt to the specific brain signatures of each user with literally no

Benjamin Blankertz; Guido Dornhege; Steven Lemm; Matthias Krauledat; Gabriel Curio; Klaus-robert Müller

2006-01-01

117

Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is little…

Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

2009-01-01

118

Encoding and Retrieving Faces and Places: Distinguishing Process- and Stimulus-Specific Differences in Brain Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among the most fundamental issues in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain may be organized into process-specific and stimulus-specific regions. In the episodic memory domain, most functional neuroimaging studies have focused on the former dimension, typically investigating the neural correlates of various memory processes. Thus, there is…

Prince, Steven E.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Cabeza, Roberto

2009-01-01

119

Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

Wood, C.C.

1997-10-01

120

Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function.  

PubMed Central

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

Gevins, A; Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Leong, H; Le, J

1999-01-01

121

Structural and functional neuroimaging studies of the suicidal brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicidality is a major challenge for today's health care. Evidence suggests that there are differences in cognitive functioning of suicidal patients but the knowledge about the underlying neurobiology is limited. Brain imaging offers the advantage of a non-invasive in vivo direct estimation of detailed brain structure, regional brain functioning and estimation of molecular processes in the brain.We have reviewed the

S. Desmyter; C. van Heeringen; K. Audenaert

2011-01-01

122

Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.  

PubMed

Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. PMID:22796985

Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

2012-07-14

123

Avoiding specific region of brain during whole-brain radiotherapy prevents memory loss  

Cancer.gov

Limiting the amount of radiation absorbed in the hippocampal portion of the brain during whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for brain metastases preserves memory function in patients for up to six months after treatment, according to research presented at the American Society for Radiation Oncology's (ASTRO's) 55th Annual Meeting by researchers from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, home of the UW Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center.

124

Retinoic Acid Signaling in the Functioning Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Retinoic acid, an active form of vitamin A, regulates gene expression throughout the body, and many components of the signaling system through which it acts are present in the brain. Very little is known, however, about how retinoic acid functions in neurobiological systems. Several studies have provided evidence that retinoic acid plays a role in sleep, learning, and memory, but the precise mechanisms through which it influences these processes remain unclear. All of these processes involve local or long-range inhibition and synchronized neuronal activity between separate locations in the brain. A critical component in the generation of the synchronized firing of cortical neurons (cortical synchrony) is a network of inhibitory interneurons containing parvalbumin, a cell population affected by retinoid perturbations, such as exposure to a vitamin A overdose. An understanding of the role of retinoids in normal brain function would provide clues to the long-standing question of whether abnormalities in retinoic acid signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of some brain diseases with uncertain etiologies that involve both genetic and environmental factors.

Ursula C. Drager (University of Massachusetts Medical School;Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center REV)

2006-02-28

125

Functional connectivity hubs in the human brain.  

PubMed

Brain networks appear to have few and well localized regions with high functional connectivity density (hubs) for fast integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction could contribute to neuropsychiatric diseases. However the variability in the distribution of these brain hubs is unknown due in part to the overwhelming computational demands associated to their localization. Recently we developed a fast algorithm to map the local functional connectivity density (lFCD). Here we extend our method to map the global density (gFDC) taking advantage of parallel computing. We mapped the gFCD in the brain of 1031 subjects from the 1000 Functional Connectomes project and show that the strongest hubs are located in regions of the default mode network (DMN) and in sensory cortices, whereas subcortical regions exhibited the weakest hubs. The strongest hubs were consistently located in ventral precuneus/cingulate gyrus (previously identified by other analytical methods including lFCD) and in primary visual cortex (BA 17/18), which highlights their centrality to resting connectivity networks. In contrast and after rescaling, hubs in prefrontal regions had lower gFCD than lFCD, which suggests that their local functional connectivity (as opposed to long-range connectivity) prevails in the resting state. The power scaling of the probability distribution of gFCD hubs (as for lFCD) was consistent across research centers further corroborating the "scale-free" topology of brain networks. Within and between-subject variability for gFCD were twice than that for lFCD (20% vs. 12% and 84% vs. 34%, respectively) suggesting that gFCD is more sensitive to individual differences in functional connectivity. PMID:21609769

Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

2011-05-14

126

Stereotaxic surgery for excitotoxic lesion of specific brain areas in the adult rat.  

PubMed

Many behavioral functions in mammals, including rodents and humans, are mediated principally by discrete brain regions. A common method for discerning the function of various brain regions for behavior or other experimental outcomes is to implement a localized ablation of function. In humans, patient populations with localized brain lesions are often studied for deficits, in hopes of revealing the underlying function of the damaged area. In rodents, one can experimentally induce lesions of specific brain regions. Lesion can be accomplished in several ways. Electrolytic lesions can cause localized damage but will damage a variety of cell types as well as traversing fibers from other brain regions that happen to be near the lesion site. Inducible genetic techniques using cell-type specific promoters may also enable site-specific targeting. These techniques are complex and not always practical depending on the target brain area. Excitotoxic lesion using stereotaxic surgery, by contrast, is one of the most reliable and practical methods of lesioning excitatory neurons without damaging local glial cells or traversing fibers. Here, we present a protocol for stereotaxic infusion of the excitotoxin, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), into the basolateral amygdala complex. Using anatomical indications, we apply stereotaxic coordinates to determine the location of our target brain region and lower an injection needle in place just above the target. We then infuse our excitotoxin into the brain, resulting in excitotoxic death of nearby neurons. While our experimental subject of choice is a rat, the same methods can be applied to other mammals, with the appropriate adjustments in equipment and coordinates. This method can be used on a variety of brain regions, including the basolateral amygdala, other amygdala nuclei, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex. It can also be used to infuse biological compounds such as viral vectors. The basic stereotaxic technique could also be adapted for implantation of more permanent osmotic pumps, allowing more prolonged exposure to a compound of interest. PMID:22847556

Kirby, Elizabeth D; Jensen, Kelly; Goosens, Ki A; Kaufer, Daniela

2012-07-19

127

Computerized brain atlas in functional neurosurgery.  

PubMed

Computerized brain atlas is a new application area in the practical use of stereotactic neurosurgery. Our approach provides a solution for the straightforward definition of a coordinate system (CA-CP), localization of the selected target point, trepanation points and trajectory transformation of the stereotactic electrode or canula for functional neurosurgery. These problems were solved by comparison of CT, MR and the Schaltenbrand-Wahren atlas. Our original software package integrates all modalities into one system. PMID:9711740

Sramka, M; Ruzicky, E; Novotny, M

1997-01-01

128

Social Functioning in Children with Brain Insult  

PubMed Central

Social dysfunction is commonly reported by survivors of brain insult, and is often rated as the most debilitating of all sequelae, impacting on many areas of daily life, as well as overall quality of life. Within the early brain insult (EBI) literature, physical and cognitive domains have been of primary interest and social skills have received scant attention. As a result it remains unclear how common these problems are, and whether factors predictive of recovery (insult severity, lesion location, age at insult, environment) in other functional domains (motor, speech, cognition) also contribute to social outcome. This study compared social outcomes for children sustaining EBI at different times from gestation to late childhood to determine whether EBI was associated with an increased risk of problems. Children with focal brain insults were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) Congenital (n?=?38): EBI: first–second trimester; (ii) Perinatal (n?=?33); EBI: third trimester to 1-month post-natal; (iii) Infancy (n?=?23): EBI: 2?months–2?years post-birth; (iv) Preschool (n?=?19): EBI: 3–6?years; (v) Middle Childhood (n?=?31): EBI: 7–9?years; and (vi) Late Childhood (n?=?19): EBI: after age 10. Children's teachers completed questionnaires measuring social function (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Walker–McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment). Results showed that children with EBI were at increased risk for social impairment compared to normative expectations. EBI before age 2?years was associated with most significant social impairment, while children with EBI in the preschool years and in late childhood recorded scores closer to normal. Lesion location and laterality were not predictive of social outcome, and nor was social risk. In contrast, presence of disability (seizures) and family function were shown to contribute to aspects of social function.

Greenham, Mardee; Spencer-Smith, Megan M.; Anderson, Peter J.; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Vicki A.

2009-01-01

129

Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain.  

PubMed

Understanding human-specific patterns of brain gene expression and regulation can provide key insights into human brain evolution and speciation. Here, we use next-generation sequencing, and Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms, to compare the transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and macaque telencephalon. Our analysis reveals a predominance of genes differentially expressed within human frontal lobe and a striking increase in transcriptional complexity specific to the human lineage in the frontal lobe. In contrast, caudate nucleus gene expression is highly conserved. We also identify gene coexpression signatures related to either neuronal processes or neuropsychiatric diseases, including a human-specific module with CLOCK as its hub gene and another module enriched for neuronal morphological processes and genes coexpressed with FOXP2, a gene important for language evolution. These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities. PMID:22920253

Konopka, Genevieve; Friedrich, Tara; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Winden, Kellen; Oldham, Michael C; Gao, Fuying; Chen, Leslie; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Luo, Rui; Preuss, Todd M; Geschwind, Daniel H

2012-08-23

130

[Brain-specific proteins S 100 and reception of neuromediators by membrane preparations from the rat brain].  

PubMed

Study on specific binding of ligands of various nervous cell membrane neuromediator receptors revealed that brain-specific proteins S100 modulated in a dose-dependent fashion the level of specific binding. Proteins S100 (but not BSA or blood gamma-globulins) changed the Kd values of the ligand-receptor complexes and the number of binding sites. The effects of proteins S100 were specifically blocked by antibodies to S100. Proteins S100 influenced the functions of acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and GABA receptors but not of opiate, imipramine, histamine and benzodiazepine receptors. PMID:2877691

Gruden', M A; Poletaev, A B

1986-10-01

131

Common and specific brain responses to scenic emotional stimuli.  

PubMed

Processing of emotions has been an enduring topic of interest in neuroimaging research, but studies have mostly used facial emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine neural networks involved in emotion processing using scenic emotional visual stimuli. One hundred and twenty photographs from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), including ecological scenes of disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness, were presented to 40 healthy participants while they underwent functional magnetic imaging resonance (fMRI). Afterwards they evaluated the emotional content of the pictures in an offline task. The occipito-temporal cortex and the amygdala-hippocampal complex showed a non-specific emotion-related activation, which was more marked in response to negative emotions than to happiness. The temporo-parietal cortex and the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus showed deactivation, with the former being marked for all emotions except fear and the latter being most marked for disgust. The fusiform gyrus showed activation in response to disgust and deactivation in response to happiness or sadness. Brain regions involved in processing of scenic emotion therefore resemble those reported for facial expressions of emotion in that they respond to a range of different emotions, although there appears to be specificity in the intensity and direction of the response. PMID:23700105

Radua, Joaquim; Sarró, Salvador; Vigo, Teresa; Alonso-Lana, Silvia; Bonnín, C Mar; Ortiz-Gil, Jordi; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J; Maristany, Teresa; Vieta, Eduard; McKenna, Peter J; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith

2013-05-23

132

Impacts of brain serotonin deficiency following Tph2 inactivation on development and raphe neuron serotonergic specification.  

PubMed

Brain serotonin (5-HT) is implicated in a wide range of functions from basic physiological mechanisms to complex behaviors, including neuropsychiatric conditions, as well as in developmental processes. Increasing evidence links 5-HT signaling alterations during development to emotional dysregulation and psychopathology in adult age. To further analyze the importance of brain 5-HT in somatic and brain development and function, and more specifically differentiation and specification of the serotonergic system itself, we generated a mouse model with brain-specific 5-HT deficiency resulting from a genetically driven constitutive inactivation of neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2). Tph2 inactivation (Tph2-/-) resulted in brain 5-HT deficiency leading to growth retardation and persistent leanness, whereas a sex- and age-dependent increase in body weight was observed in Tph2+/- mice. The conserved expression pattern of the 5-HT neuron-specific markers (except Tph2 and 5-HT) demonstrates that brain 5-HT synthesis is not a prerequisite for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of raphe neurons subjected to the developmental program of serotonergic specification. Furthermore, although these neurons are unable to synthesize 5-HT from the precursor tryptophan, they still display electrophysiological properties characteristic of 5-HT neurons. Moreover, 5-HT deficiency induces an up-regulation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors across brain regions as well as a reduction of norepinephrine concentrations accompanied by a reduced number of noradrenergic neurons. Together, our results characterize developmental, neurochemical, neurobiological and electrophysiological consequences of brain-specific 5-HT deficiency, reveal a dual dose-dependent role of 5-HT in body weight regulation and show that differentiation of serotonergic neuron phenotype is independent from endogenous 5-HT synthesis. PMID:22912815

Gutknecht, Lise; Araragi, Naozumi; Merker, Sören; Waider, Jonas; Sommerlandt, Frank M J; Mlinar, Boris; Baccini, Gilda; Mayer, Ute; Proft, Florian; Hamon, Michel; Schmitt, Angelika G; Corradetti, Renato; Lanfumey, Laurence; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

2012-08-17

133

Quantification of functional alterations after in vitro traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by mechanical forces, producing tissue deformation at the moment of injury. Complex cellular, neurochemical and metabolic alterations are initiated by the deformation and result in delayed cell death and dysfunction. Using an in vitro model of TBI based on organotypic brain slice cultures, we have quantitatively studied the relationship between tissue deformation and functional outcome. Specifically, we studied the effects of low levels of tissue deformation on the functional outcomes as measured by electrophysiology recordings. In response to 5% and 10% biaxial Lagrangian strain, the maximal evoked response and the excitability of neural networks were found to be decreased. Additionally, the different anatomic subregions of the hippocampus displayed different levels of impairment to the injuries. These results suggest that the network function was affected by low levels of applied strain which induced minimal cell death in previous studies. PMID:19963487

Yu, Zhe; Elkin, Benjamin S; Morrison, Barclay

2009-01-01

134

The Brain's Default Network: Anatomy, Function, and Relevance to Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network—a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cog- nition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default net- work is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external

RANDY L. BUCKNER; JESSICA R. ANDREWS-HANNA; D. L. SCHACTER

2008-01-01

135

Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

2008-01-01

136

New Directions in Brain Imaging Research in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional brain imaging has greatly enhanced the ability to investigate brain-gut interactions and to assess the central nervous system role on visceral pain perception. The results of studies using brain imaging in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have demonstrated differences in brain activation between patients with IBS and healthy controls. In addition, the more recent studies are starting to shed light

Yehuda Ringel

2006-01-01

137

Functional Plasticity or Vulnerability After Early Brain Injury?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Context. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common, acquired, childhood disability that may be used as a model to understand more completely the im- pact of early brain injury on both brain structure and day-to-day function. Contrary to previously held views of the “plasticity” of the young brain, recent research suggests that such early insults may have a profound

Vicki Anderson; Cathy Catroppa; Sue Morse; Flora Haritou; Jeffrey Rosenfeld

2010-01-01

138

Split My Brain: A Case Study of Seizure Disorder and Brain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Omarzu, Julia

2004-01-01

139

Split My Brain: A Case Study of Seizure Disorder and Brain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.|

Omarzu, Julia

2004-01-01

140

MOTIVE: Functional Specifications for Moment Tensor Inversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the functional specifications for a program to invert for source properties using a moment tensor source description. The program structure is discussed; individual subroutines are named and their function is specified, and common b...

G. R. Mellman R. Strelitz G. M. Lundquist R. S. Hart

1981-01-01

141

Personality Is Reflected in the Brain's Intrinsic Functional Architecture  

PubMed Central

Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) can detect intrinsic activation patterns without relying on any specific task. Here we use RSFC to investigate the neural correlates of the five-factor personality domains. Based on seed regions placed within two cognitive and affective ‘hubs’ in the brain—the anterior cingulate and precuneus—each domain of personality predicted RSFC with a unique pattern of brain regions. These patterns corresponded with functional subdivisions responsible for cognitive and affective processing such as motivation, empathy and future-oriented thinking. Neuroticism and Extraversion, the two most widely studied of the five constructs, predicted connectivity between seed regions and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and lateral paralimbic regions, respectively. These areas are associated with emotional regulation, self-evaluation and reward, consistent with the trait qualities. Personality traits were mostly associated with functional connections that were inconsistently present across participants. This suggests that although a fundamental, core functional architecture is preserved across individuals, variable connections outside of that core encompass the inter-individual differences in personality that motivate diverse responses.

Adelstein, Jonathan S.; Shehzad, Zarrar; Mennes, Maarten; DeYoung, Colin G.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Margulies, Daniel S.; Bloomfield, Aaron; Gray, Jeremy R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

2011-01-01

142

Visualization of specific binding sites of benzodiazepine in human brain  

SciTech Connect

Using 11C-labeled Ro15-1788 and positron emission tomography, studies of benzodiazepine binding sites in the human brain were performed on four normal volunteers. Rapid and high accumulation of 11C activity was observed in the brain after i.v. injection of (11C)Ro15-1788, the maximum of which was within 12 min. Initial distribution of 11C activity in the brain was similar to the distribution of the normal cerebral blood flow. Ten minutes after injection, however, a high uptake of 11C activity was observed in the cerebral cortex and moderate uptake was seen in the cerebellar cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus. The accumulation of 11C activity was low in the brain stem. This distribution of 11C activity was approximately parallel to the known distribution of benzodiazepine receptors. Saturation experiments were performed on four volunteers with oral administration of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg of cold Ro15-1788 prior to injection. Initial distribution of 11C activity following injection peaked within 2 min and then the accumulation of 11C activity decreased rapidly and remarkably throughout the brain. The results indicated that (11C) Ro15-1788 associates and dissociates to specific and nonspecific binding sites rapidly and has a high ratio of specific receptor binding to nonspecific binding in vivo. Carbon-11 Ro15-1788 is a suitable radioligand for the study of benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in humans.

Shinotoh, H.; Yamasaki, T.; Inoue, O.; Itoh, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Tateno, Y.; Ikehira, H.

1986-10-01

143

Fast Optical Imaging of Human Brain Function  

PubMed Central

Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods) emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100?ms or so) interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15?years) may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level) brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100?ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3?cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

2010-01-01

144

Functional and Pharmacological MRI in Understanding Brain Function at a Systems Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods have been extensively applied to study the human brain and its functional\\u000a organization in healthy and disease states. A strong rationale exists for the extension of this approach to animal models\\u000a as a translational tool to bridge clinical and preclinical research. Specifically, the development of pharmacological MRI\\u000a (phMRI), i.e., the use of fMRI to

Angelo Bifone; Alessandro Gozzi

145

ventral veins lacking is required for specification of the tritocerebrum in embryonic brain development of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homeotic or Hox genes encode a network of conserved transcription factors which provide axial positional information and control segment morphology in development and evolution. During embryonic brain development of Drosophila, the Hox gene labial (lab) is essential for tritocerebral neuromere specification; lab loss of function results in tritocerebral cells that fail to adopt a neuronal identity, causing axonal pathfinding

Stefan Meier; Simon G. Sprecher; Heinrich Reichert; Frank Hirth

2006-01-01

146

Altered Small-World Efficiency of Brain Functional Networks in Acupuncture at ST36: A Functional MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Background Acupuncture in humans can produce clinical effects via the central nervous system. However, the neural substrates of acupuncture’s effects remain largely unknown. Results We utilized functional MRI to investigate the topological efficiency of brain functional networks in eighteen healthy young adults who were scanned before and after acupuncture at the ST36 acupoints (ACUP) and its sham point (SHAM). Whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding temporal correlations matrices of ninety brain regions, followed by a graph theory-based analysis. We showed that brain functional networks exhibited small-world attributes (high local and global efficiency) regardless of the order of acupuncture and stimulus points, a finding compatible with previous studies of brain functional networks. Furthermore, the brain networks had increased local efficiency after ACUP stimulation but there were no significant differences after SHAM, indicating a specificity of acupuncture point in coordinating local information flow over the whole brain. Moreover, significant (P<0.05, corrected by false discovery rate approach) effects of only acupuncture point were detected on nodal degree of the left hippocampus (higher nodal degree at ACUP as compared to SHAM). Using an uncorrected P<0.05, point-related effects were also observed in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal and occipital regions while stimulation-related effects in various brain regions of frontal, parietal and occipital cortex regions. In addition, we found that several limbic and subcortical brain regions exhibited point- and stimulation-related alterations in their regional homogeneity (P<0.05, uncorrected). Conclusions Our results suggest that acupuncture modulates topological organization of whole-brain functional brain networks and the modulation has point specificity. These findings provide new insights into neuronal mechanism of acupuncture from the perspective of functional integration. Further studies would be interesting to apply network analysis approaches to study the effects of acupuncture treatments on brain disorders.

Liu, Xian; Duan, Xiaohui; Shang, Xiaojing; Long, Yu; Chen, Zhiguang; Li, Xiaofang; Huang, Yan; He, Yong

2012-01-01

147

Analysis of functional neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model system for the neural basis of complex behavior, but an inability to routinely interrogate physiologic connections within central neural networks of the fly brain remains a fundamental barrier to progress in the field. To address this problem, we have introduced a simple method of measuring functional connectivity based on the independent expression of the mammalian P2X2 purinoreceptor and genetically encoded Ca2+ and cAMP sensors within separate genetically defined subsets of neurons in the adult brain. We show that such independent expression is capable of specifically rendering defined sets of neurons excitable by pulses of bath-applied ATP in a manner compatible with high-resolution Ca2+ and cAMP imaging in putative follower neurons. Furthermore, we establish that this approach is sufficiently sensitive for the detection of excitatory and modulatory connections deep within larval and adult brains. This technically facile approach can now be used in wild-type and mutant genetic backgrounds to address functional connectivity within neuronal networks governing a wide range of complex behaviors in the fly. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this approach in the fly brain suggests that similar methods using appropriate heterologous receptors might be adopted for other widely used model systems.

Yao, Zepeng; Macara, Ann Marie; Lelito, Katherine R.; Minosyan, Tamara Y.

2012-01-01

148

Analysis of functional neuronal connectivity in the Drosophila brain.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model system for the neural basis of complex behavior, but an inability to routinely interrogate physiologic connections within central neural networks of the fly brain remains a fundamental barrier to progress in the field. To address this problem, we have introduced a simple method of measuring functional connectivity based on the independent expression of the mammalian P2X2 purinoreceptor and genetically encoded Ca(2+) and cAMP sensors within separate genetically defined subsets of neurons in the adult brain. We show that such independent expression is capable of specifically rendering defined sets of neurons excitable by pulses of bath-applied ATP in a manner compatible with high-resolution Ca(2+) and cAMP imaging in putative follower neurons. Furthermore, we establish that this approach is sufficiently sensitive for the detection of excitatory and modulatory connections deep within larval and adult brains. This technically facile approach can now be used in wild-type and mutant genetic backgrounds to address functional connectivity within neuronal networks governing a wide range of complex behaviors in the fly. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this approach in the fly brain suggests that similar methods using appropriate heterologous receptors might be adopted for other widely used model systems. PMID:22539819

Yao, Zepeng; Macara, Ann Marie; Lelito, Katherine R; Minosyan, Tamara Y; Shafer, Orie T

2012-04-25

149

Assessing Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain by FMRI  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is widely used to detect and delineate regions of the brain that change their level of activation in response to specific stimuli and tasks. Simple activation maps depict only the average level of engagement of different regions within distributed systems. FMRI potentially can reveal additional information about the degree by which components of large-scale neural systems are functionally coupled together to achieve specific tasks. In order to better understand how brain regions contribute to functionally connected circuits, it is necessary to record activation maps either as a function of different conditions, at different times or in different subjects. Data obtained under different conditions may then be analyzed by a variety of techniques to infer correlations and couplings between nodes in networks. Several different multivariate statistical methods have been adapted and applied to analyze the variations within such data. An approach of particular interest that is suited to studies of connectivity within single subjects makes use of acquisitions of runs of MRI images obtained while the brain is in a so-called steady state, either at rest (i.e. without any specific stimulus or task) or in a condition of continuous activation. The interregional correlations between fluctuations of MRI signal potentially reveal functional connectivity. Recent studies have established that interregional correlations between different components of circuits in each of the visual, language, motor and working memory systems can be detected in the resting state. The correlations at baseline are changed during the performance of a continuous task. In this review the various methods available for assessing connectivity are described and evaluated.

Rogers, Baxter P.; Morgan, Victoria L.; Newton, Allen T.; Gore, John C.

2007-01-01

150

Writing for emotion management: Integrating brain functioning and subjective experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain's emotion processing system is briefly discussed as a model for understanding the emotional benefits of expressive writing. The act of writing integrates both brain functioning and subjective experience.

Beth Jacobs

2010-01-01

151

Split My Brain A Case Study of Seizure Disorder and Brain Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain. The case was written for an introductory psychology course, but could be adapted for any course that covers brain anatomy, neurological disorders, or rehabilitation therapies.

Omarzu, Julia

2004-01-01

152

Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (PLD) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (Ie, defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively

Chenghong Lei; Thereza A. Soares; Yongsoon Shin; Jun Liu; Eric J. Ackerman

2008-01-01

153

Executive functioning and adaptive living skills after acquired brain injury.  

PubMed

Executive dysfunction is common following brain injury, with impairments involving attention, social pragmatics, higher-order thinking, judgment, and reasoning. Executive function impairments may have a direct impact on an individual's ability to return to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including employment, money management, driving, and maintaining a residence. Research has shown that neuropsychological executive function measures may be able to predict daily-living skills. There is limited research evaluating the relationship between executive functions and IADLs in adults with acquired brain injuries (ABI), with none investigating levels of proficiency as related to specific test scores. We hypothesize that neuropsychological executive function measures will have significant and moderate-to-strong correlations with participant-rated proficiency on functional tasks as measured by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory. Results support that IQ and some of the executive function measures (Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Trail-Making Test-Part B) correlated significantly and strongly and explained unique variance in all IADLs in this study. Data suggest that individuals with ABI who performed in the higher end of the low-average range or higher on measures of executive functioning tend to require little or no assistance to be independent with transportation, money management, living without support, and employment. Results also suggest that individuals with less executive dysfunction are likely to have greater overall community participation. PMID:23373638

Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Talka, Kristin

2012-07-31

154

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed Central

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans.

Penland, J G

1994-01-01

155

Regional Distribution and Cell Type-Specific Subcellular Localization of Prothymosin Alpha in Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prothymosin alpha (ProT?) is an acidic nuclear protein implicated in several cellular functions including cell survival. ProT?\\u000a is found in the central nervous system, but the regional and cell type-specific expression patterns are not known. In this\\u000a study, our immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ProT? is expressed ubiquitously throughout adult brain with difference\\u000a in the intensity of region-specific protein reactivity. Interestingly,

Sebok Kumar Halder; HalderHiroshi Ueda

156

The Modeling and Functional Connectivity of the Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain is considered to be the most complex system, a fertile ground for understanding the complexity of its functions through dynamical modeling. In this talk, we present some biophysical models that help to reveal the complexity of visual functions of the brain through functional self-organization processes. We also present some recent results on how the functional connectivity arises and changes in the brain, reflecting the underlying dynamics of nervous systems. The implications of our work to the brain function are discussed. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Kim, Seunghwan

2008-12-01

157

Specific and Evolving Resting-State Network Alterations in Post-Concussion Syndrome Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Post-concussion syndrome has been related to axonal damage in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, but little is known about the consequences of injury on brain networks. In the present study, our aim was to characterize changes in functional brain networks following mild traumatic brain injury in patients with post-concussion syndrome using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We investigated 17 injured patients with persistent post-concussion syndrome (under the DSM-IV criteria) at 6 months post-injury compared with 38 mild traumatic brain injury patients with no post-concussion syndrome and 34 healthy controls. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations at the subacute (1–3 weeks) and late (6 months) phases after injury. Group-wise differences in functional brain networks were analyzed using graph theory measures. Patterns of long-range functional networks alterations were found in all mild traumatic brain injury patients. Mild traumatic brain injury patients with post-concussion syndrome had greater alterations than patients without post-concussion syndrome. In patients with post-concussion syndrome, changes specifically affected temporal and thalamic regions predominantly at the subacute stage and frontal regions at the late phase. Our results suggest that the post-concussion syndrome is associated with specific abnormalities in functional brain network that may contribute to explain deficits typically observed in PCS patients.

Messe, Arnaud; Caplain, Sophie; Pelegrini-Issac, Melanie; Blancho, Sophie; Levy, Richard; Aghakhani, Nozar; Montreuil, Michele; Benali, Habib; Lehericy, Stephane

2013-01-01

158

Brain microvascular function during cardiopulmonary bypass  

SciTech Connect

Emboli in the brain microvasculature may inhibit brain activity during cardiopulmonary bypass. Such hypothetical blockade, if confirmed, may be responsible for the reduction of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose observed in animals subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass. In previous studies of cerebral blood flow during bypass, brain microcirculation was not evaluated. In the present study in animals (pigs), reduction of the number of perfused capillaries was estimated by measurements of the capillary diffusion capacity for hydrophilic tracers of low permeability. Capillary diffusion capacity, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose were measured simultaneously by the integral method, different tracers being used with different circulation times. In eight animals subjected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and seven subjected to hypothermic bypass, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, and capillary diffusion capacity decreased significantly: cerebral blood flow from 63 to 43 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 34 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose from 43.0 to 23.0 mumol/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 14.1 mumol/100 gm/min in hypothermia. The capillary diffusion capacity declined markedly from 0.15 to 0.03 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia but only to 0.08 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia. We conclude that the decrease of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by interruption of blood flow through a part of the capillary bed, possibly by microemboli, and that cerebral blood flow is an inadequate indicator of capillary blood flow. Further studies must clarify why normal microvascular function appears to be preserved during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

Sorensen, H.R.; Husum, B.; Waaben, J.; Andersen, K.; Andersen, L.I.; Gefke, K.; Kaarsen, A.L.; Gjedde, A.

1987-11-01

159

Executive functions and social skills in survivors of pediatric brain tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical advances have resulted in increased survival rates for children with brain tumors. Consequently, issues related to survivorship have become more critical. The use of multimodal treatment, in particular cranial radiation therapy, has been associated with subsequent cognitive decline. Specifically, deficits in executive functions have been reported in survivors of various types of pediatric brain tumor. Survivors are left with

Kelly R. Wolfe; Karin S. Walsh; Nina C. Reynolds; Frances Mitchell; Alyssa T. Reddy; Iris Paltin; Avi Madan-Swain

2012-01-01

160

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

161

Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional MRI, with a focus on the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a brain area

P. A. M. Smeets

2006-01-01

162

Changes in the Functional Asymmetry of the Brain in Wrestlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the functional asymmetry of the brain influenced by the wrestler’s position, a lateacquired automatism, are analyzed in this work. The functional asymmetry of the brain is known to change under the influence of external factors [1, 2]; in sportsmen, it becomes more marked due to the development of the visual and spatial functions of the right hemisphere

S. V. Afanas'ev; M. M. Mikheev; O. P. Trachenko; N. N. Nikolaenko

2000-01-01

163

Studies of Brain Function and Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study includes single brain cells and their discharge patterns during Pavlovian conditioning to development and evaluation of brain wave recording techniques in pilots flying high performance aircraft on pursuit missions. Much of the work has involve...

J. D. French W. R. Adey H. W. Magoun

1964-01-01

164

Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data. PMID:23020467

Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

2012-09-01

165

Synchronization-based approach for detecting functional activation of brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate a synchronization-based, data-driven clustering approach for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and specifically for detecting functional activation from fMRI data. We first define a new measure of similarity between all pairs of data points (i.e., time series of voxels) integrating both complete phase synchronization and amplitude correlation. These pairwise similarities are taken as the coupling between a set of Kuramoto oscillators, which in turn evolve according to a nearest-neighbor rule. As the network evolves, similar data points naturally synchronize with each other, and distinct clusters will emerge. The clustering behavior of the interaction network of the coupled oscillators, therefore, mirrors the clustering property of the original multiple time series. The clustered regions whose cross-correlation coefficients are much greater than other regions are considered as the functionally activated brain regions. The analysis of fMRI data in auditory and visual areas shows that the recognized brain functional activations are in complete correspondence with those from the general linear model of statistical parametric mapping, but with a significantly lower time complexity. We further compare our results with those from traditional K-means approach, and find that our new clustering approach can distinguish between different response patterns more accurately and efficiently than the K-means approach, and therefore more suitable in detecting functional activation from event-related experimental fMRI data.

Hong, Lei; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhang, Jie; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhou, Pei-Ling

2012-09-01

166

Symbolic functional vector generation for VHDL specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification of the functional correctness of VHDL specificationsis one of the primary and most time consumingtask of design. However, it must necessarily be an incompletetask since it is impossible to completely exercisethe specification by exhaustively applying all input patterns.The paper aims at presenting a two-step strategy based onsymbolic analysis of the VHDL specification, using a behavioralfault model. First, we generate

Fabrizio Ferrandi; Franco Fummi; Luca Gerli; Donatella Sciuto

1999-01-01

167

Ageing and diabetes: implications for brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is associated with moderate cognitive deficits and neurophysiological and structural changes in the brain, a condition that may be referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. Diabetes increases the risk of dementia, particularly in the elderly. The emerging view is that the diabetic brain features many symptoms that are best described as “accelerated brain ageing.” The clinical characteristics of diabetic

Geert Jan Biessels; Lars P van der Heide; Amer Kamal; Ronald L. A. W Bleys; Willem Hendrik Gispen

2002-01-01

168

II. Temporal patterns of longitudinal change in aging brain function.  

PubMed

Time-dependent changes in brain activity were assessed in a group of older adults who maintained good physical and cognitive health at years 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging neuroimaging study. Each year, these participants underwent PET scans during rest and delayed verbal and figural recognition memory conditions. While memory performance remained stable over the 8 years, both generalized and modality-specific patterns of time-dependent changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were found. Many brain regions showed steady, progressive changes in rCBF over the 8 years while others maintained rCBF for a number of years before showing incremental declines or increases in activity. These temporal patterns of change were observed in many regions of the brain, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes, suggesting that there are distinctive patterns of age-related functional decline and compensatory activity over time. The precise patterns of regional involvement and the temporal dynamics of rCBF change within specific regions vary based on cognitive processing demands. PMID:17178430

Beason-Held, L L; Kraut, M A; Resnick, S M

2006-12-18

169

Oxytocin, brain physiology, and functional connectivity: a review of intranasal oxytocin fMRI studies.  

PubMed

In recent years the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has become one of the most studied peptides of the human neuroendocrine system. Research has shown widespread behavioural effects and numerous potential therapeutic benefits. However, little is known about how OT triggers these effects in the brain. Here, we discuss some of the physiological properties of OT in the human brain including the long half-life of neuropeptides, the diffuse projections of OT throughout the brain and interactions with other systems such as the dopaminergic system. These properties indicate that OT acts without clear spatial and temporal specificity. Therefore, it is likely to have widespread effects on the brain's intrinsic functioning. Additionally, we review studies that have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) concurrently with OT administration. These studies reveal a specific set of 'social' brain regions that are likely to be the strongest targets for OT's potential to influence human behaviour. On the basis of the fMRI literature and the physiological properties of the neuropeptide, we argue that OT has the potential to not only modulate activity in a set of specific brain regions, but also the functional connectivity between these regions. In light of the increasing knowledge of the behavioural effects of OT in humans, studies of the effects of OT administration on brain function can contribute to our understanding of the neural networks in the social brain. PMID:23159011

Bethlehem, Richard A I; van Honk, Jack; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2012-11-15

170

Neurofibromatosis-1 regulates neuroglial progenitor proliferation and glial differentiation in a brain region-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that neuroglial progenitor/stem cells (NSCs) from different brain regions exhibit varying capacities for self-renewal and differentiation. In this study, we used neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) as a model system to elucidate a novel molecular mechanism underlying brain region-specific NSC functional heterogeneity. We demonstrate that Nf1 loss leads to increased NSC proliferation and gliogenesis in the brainstem, but not in the cortex. Using Nf1 genetically engineered mice and derivative NSC neurosphere cultures, we show that this brain region-specific increase in NSC proliferation and gliogenesis results from selective Akt hyperactivation. The molecular basis for the increased brainstem-specific Akt activation in brainstem NSCs is the consequence of differential rictor expression, leading to region-specific mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/rictor-mediated Akt phosphorylation and Akt-regulated p27 phosphorylation. Collectively, these findings establish mTOR/rictor-mediated Akt activation as a key driver of NSC proliferation and gliogenesis, and identify a unique mechanism for conferring brain region-specific responses to cancer-causing genetic changes.

Lee, Da Yong; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Emnett, Ryan J.; White, Crystal R.; Gutmann, David H.

2010-01-01

171

Laser technique for anatomical-functional study of the medial prefrontal cortex of the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brain represents one of the most complex systems that we know yet. In its study, non-destructive methods -- in particular, behavioral studies play an important role. By alteration of brain functioning (e.g. by pharmacological means) and observation of consequent behavior changes an important information on brain organization and functioning is obtained. For inducing local alterations, permanent brain lesions are employed. However, for correct results this technique has to be quasi-non-destructive, i.e. not to affect the normal brain function. Hence, the lesions should be very small, accurate and applied precisely over the structure (e.g. the brain nucleus) of interest. These specifications are difficult to meet with the existing techniques for brain lesions -- specifically, neurotoxical, mechanical and electrical means because they result in too extensive damage. In this paper, we present new laser technique for quasi-non- destructive anatomical-functional mapping in vivo of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of the rat. The technique is based on producing of small-size, well-controlled laser- induced lesions over some areas of the MPFC. The anesthetized animals are subjected to stereotactic surgery and certain points of the MPFC are exposed the confined radiation of the 10 W cw CO2 laser. Subsequent behavioral changes observed in neonatal and adult animals as well as histological data prove effectiveness of this technology for anatomical- functional studies of the brain by areas, and as a treatment method for some pathologies.

Sanchez-Huerta, Laura; Hernandez, Adan; Ayala, Griselda; Marroquin, Javier; Silva, Adriana B.; Khotiaintsev, Konstantin S.; Svirid, Vladimir A.; Flores, Gonzalo; Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.

1999-05-01

172

Cholinergic modulation of learning and memory in the human brain as detected with functional neuroimaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has provided investigators with a tool to study neuronal processes involved in cognitive functions in humans. Recent years have seen an increasing amount of studies which mapped higher cognitive functions to specific brain regions. These studies have had a great impact on our

Christiane M Thiel

2003-01-01

173

Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy.

Bernhardt, Boris C.; Hong, SeokJun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

2013-01-01

174

A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Brain damage can cause remarkably selective deficits in processing specific categories of objects, indicating the high degree of functional segregation within the brain. The neuroimaging study presented here investigates differences in the neural activity associated with two categories of natural objects (animals and fruit) and two categories of man-made objects (vehicles and tools). Stimuli were outline drawings and the

Caroline J. Moore; Cathy J. Price

1999-01-01

175

Brain activation and hypothalamic functional connectivity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep: an EEG\\/fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional differences in sleep EEG dynamics indicate that sleep-related brain activity involves local brain processes with sleep stage specific activity patterns of neuronal populations. Macroscopically, it is not fully understood which cerebral brain regions are involved in the successive discontinuation of wakefulness. We simultaneously used EEG and functional MRI on 9 subjects (6 female: mean = 24.1 years, 3 male:

C. Kaufmann; R. Wehrle; T. C. Wetter; F. Holsboer; D. P. Auer; T. Pollmacher; M. Czisch

2006-01-01

176

Development of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains

Kaustubh Supekar; Mark Musen; Vinod Menon

2009-01-01

177

Differences in Brain Function and Changes with Intervention in Children with Poor Spelling and Reading Abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated with poor spelling ability and whether a specific spelling intervention may also be associated with distinct

Daniela Gebauer; Andreas Fink; Reinhard Kargl; Gernot Reishofer; Karl Koschutnig; Christian Purgstaller; Franz Fazekas; Christian Enzinger

2012-01-01

178

Toward Elucidating Language Functions in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intelligence is characterized by the use of language rather than the brain hardware. The human brainware consists of\\u000a a neural system as hardware and a language system as software. Language was created by the brain hardware, and the human brain\\u000a evolved together with language over millions of years. It is, therefore, necessary to take two approaches to create the

Michio Sugeno

2008-01-01

179

What Is the Function of Mind and Brain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Byrnes and Fox (1998) provide a useful and important overview of the ways in which cognitive neuroscientific research can inform educational research and practice, but leave unanswered the question: What is the function of mind and brain? An understanding of the function of mind and brain has implications for research in cognitive neuroscience and in educational psychology, and a number

David C. Geary

1998-01-01

180

Partial correlation for functional brain interactivity investigation in functional MRI.  

PubMed

Examination of functional interactions through effective connectivity requires the determination of three distinct levels of information: (1) the regions involved in the process and forming the spatial support of the network, (2) the presence or absence of interactions between each pair of regions, and (3) the directionality of the existing interactions. While many methods exist to select regions (Step 1), very little is available to complete Step 2. The two main methods developed so far, structural equation modeling (SEM) and dynamical causal modeling (DCM), usually require precise prior information to be used, while such information is sometimes lacking. Assuming that Step 1 was successfully completed, we here propose a data-driven method to deal with Step 2 and extract functional interactions from fMRI datasets through partial correlations. Partial correlation is more closely related to effective connectivity than marginal correlation and provides a convenient graphical representation for functional interactions. As an instance of brain interactivity investigation, we consider how simple hand movements are processed by the bihemispheric cortical motor network. In the proposed framework, Bayesian analysis makes it possible to estimate and test the partial statistical dependencies between regions without any prior model on the underlying functional interactions. We demonstrate the interest of this approach on real data. PMID:16777436

Marrelec, Guillaume; Krainik, Alexandre; Duffau, Hugues; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib

2006-06-13

181

Network Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional brain networks detected in task-free (''resting-state'') functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have a small- world architecture that reflects a robust functional organization of the brain. Here, we examined whether this functional organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age-matched controls were obtained. Wavelet analysis was applied to the fMRI data

Kaustubh Supekar; Vinod Menon; Daniel Rubin; Mark Musen; Michael D. Greicius

2008-01-01

182

Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks for Cognitive Control of Action in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly…

Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H.; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P.

2012-01-01

183

What drives the organization of object knowledge in the brain? The distributed domain-specific hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Various forms of category-specificity have been described at both the cognitive and neural levels, inviting the inference that different semantic domains are processed by distinct, dedicated mechanisms. Here we argue for an extension of a Domain-Specific interpretation to these phenomena that is based on network-level analyses of functional coupling among brain regions. On this view, domain-specificity in one region of the brain emerges because of innate connectivity with a network of regions that also process information about that domain. Recent findings are reviewed that converge with this framework, and a new direction is outlined for understanding the neural principles that shape the organization of conceptual knowledge.

Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

2011-01-01

184

Functional brain connectivity as revealed by singular spectrum analysis.  

PubMed

Correlation based measures have widely been used to characterize brain connectivity. In this paper, a new approach based on singular spectrum analysis is proposed to characterize brain connectivity. It is obtained by deriving the common basis vector of two or more trajectory matrices associated with functional brain responses. This approach has the advantage illustrating the existence of joint variations of the functional brain responses and to characterize the correlation structure. The performance of the method are illustrated on both simulated autoregressive data and real fMRI data. PMID:23367097

Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Shah, Adnan

2012-01-01

185

Decoding Lifespan Changes of the Human Brain Using Resting-State Functional Connectivity MRI  

PubMed Central

The development of large-scale functional brain networks is a complex, lifelong process that can be investigated using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI). In this study, we aimed to decode the developmental dynamics of the whole-brain functional network in seven decades (8–79 years) of the human lifespan. We first used parametric curve fitting to examine linear and nonlinear age effect on the resting human brain, and then combined manifold learning and support vector machine methods to predict individuals' “brain ages” from rs-fcMRI data. We found that age-related changes in interregional functional connectivity exhibited spatially and temporally specific patterns. During brain development from childhood to senescence, functional connections tended to linearly increase in the emotion system and decrease in the sensorimotor system; while quadratic trajectories were observed in functional connections related to higher-order cognitive functions. The complex patterns of age effect on the whole-brain functional network could be effectively represented by a low-dimensional, nonlinear manifold embedded in the functional connectivity space, which uncovered the inherent structure of brain maturation and aging. Regression of manifold coordinates with age further showed that the manifold representation extracted sufficient information from rs-fcMRI data to make prediction about individual brains' functional development levels. Our study not only gives insights into the neural substrates that underlie behavioral and cognitive changes over age, but also provides a possible way to quantitatively describe the typical and atypical developmental progression of human brain function using rs-fcMRI.

Wang, Lubin; Su, Longfei; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen

2012-01-01

186

Enzyme Specific Activity in Functionalized Nanoporous Supports  

SciTech Connect

Enzyme specific activity can be increased or decreased to a large extent by changing protein loading density in functionalized nanoporous support, where organophosphorus hydrolase can display a constructive orientation and thus leave a completely open entrance for substrate even at higher protein loading density, but glucose oxidase can not.

Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

2008-03-26

187

BrainKnowledge: A Human Brain Function Mapping Knowledge-Base System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associating fMRI image datasets with the available literature is crucial for the analysis and interpretation of fMRI data.\\u000a Here, we present a human brain function mapping knowledge-base system (BrainKnowledge) that associates fMRI data analysis\\u000a and literature search functions. BrainKnowledge not only contains indexed literature, but also provides the ability to compare\\u000a experimental data with those derived from the literature. BrainKnowledge

Mei-Yu Hsiao; Chien-Chung Chen; Jyh-Horng Chen

2011-01-01

188

Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (PLD) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (Ie, defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOX) and a net positively charged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were entrapped spontaneously in NH2- and HOOC-functionalized mesoporous silica (300 Å, FMS) respectively. The specific activity of GOX entrapped in FMS increased with decreasing PLD. With decreasing PLD, Ie of GOX in FMS increased from<35% to>150%. Unlike GOX, OPH in HOOC-FMS showed increased specific activity with increasing PLD. With increasing PLD, the corresponding Ie of OPH in FMS increased from 100% to>200%. A protein structure-based analysis of the protein surface charges directing the electrostatic interaction-based orientation of the protein molecules in FMS demonstrates that substrate access to GOX molecules in FMS is limited at high PLD, consequently lowering the GOX specific activity. In contrast, substrate access to OPH molecules in FMS remains open at high PLD and may promote a more favorable confinement environment that enhances the OPH activity.

Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Jun; Ackerman, Eric J.

2008-03-01

189

NMDA receptor function, memory, and brain aging  

PubMed Central

An increasing level of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction within the brain is associated with memory and learning impairments, with psychosis, and ultimately with excitotoxic brain injury. As the brain ages, the NMDA receptor system becomes progressively hypofunctional, contributing to decreases in memory and learning performance. In those individuals destined to develop Alzheimer's disease, other abnormalities (eg, amyloidopathy and oxidative stress) interact to increase the NMDA receptor hypofunction (NRHypo) burden. In these vulnerable individuals, the brain then enters into a severe and persistent NRHypo state, which can lead to widespread neurodegeneration with accompanying mental symptoms and further cognitive deterioration. If the hypotheses described herein prove correct, treatment implications may be considerable. Pharmacological methods for preventing the overstimulation of vulnerable corticolimbic pyramidal neurons developed in an animal model may be applicable to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Newcomer, John W.; Farber, Nuri B.; Olney, John W.

2000-01-01

190

Proteomics Identification of Specifically Carbonylated Brain Proteins in APPNLh/APPNLh x PS-1P264L/PS-1P264L Human Double Mutant Knock-in Mice Model of Alzheimer Disease as a Function of Age  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), senile plaques (SPs), and loss of synapses. The main component of SP is amyloid-beta peptide (A?), a 39 to 43 amino acid peptide, generated by the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the action of beta- and gamma-secretases. The presenilins (PS) are components of the ?-secretase, which contains the protease active center. Mutations in PS enhance the production of the A?42 peptide. To date, more than 160 mutations in PS1 have been identified. Many PS mutations increase the production of the ?-secretase-mediated C-terminal (CT) 99 amino acid-long fragment (CT99), which is subsequently cleaved by ?-secretase to yield A? peptides. A? has been proposed to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previous studies from our laboratory and others showed an age-dependent increase in oxidative stress markers, loss of lipid asymmetry, and A? production and amyloid deposition in the brain of APP/PS1 mice. In the present study, we used APPNLh/APPNLh x PS-1P246L/PS-1P246L human double mutant knock-in APP/PS-1 mice to identify specific targets of brain protein carbonylation in an age-dependent manner. We found a number of proteins that are oxidatively modified in APP/PS1 mice compared to age-matched controls. The relevance of the identified proteins to the progression and pathogenesis of AD is discussed.

Sultana, Rukhsana; Robinson, Rena A. S.; Di Domenico, Fabio; Mohmmad Abdul, Hafiz; St. Clair, Daret K.; Markesbery, William R.; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M.; Butterfield, D. Allan

2011-01-01

191

Decoding brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most leading research in basic and clinical neuroscience has been carried out by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),\\u000a which detects the blood oxygenation level dependent signals associated with neural activities. Among new fMRI applications,\\u000a brain decoding is an emerging research area, which infers mental states from fMRI signals. Brain decoding using fMRI includes\\u000a classification, identification, and reconstruction of brain states.

Dongha Lee; Changwon Jang; Hae-Jeong Park

2011-01-01

192

Effects of MDMA on Complex Brain Function in Laboratory Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

FREDERICK, D.L. AND M.G. PAULE. Effects of MDMA on complex brain function in laboratory animals. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) 67–78, 1997.—This review surveys experiments that have examined the effects of acute and chronic MDMA exposure on schedule-controlled operant behaviors thought to engender responses that reflect the expression of complex brain functions. Such functions include time estimation, short-term memory, learning, motivation,

DAVID L FREDERICK; MERLE G PAULE

1997-01-01

193

Is heading a soccer ball injurious to brain function?  

PubMed

With the growing popularity of soccer both in the United States and worldwide, reports of adverse effects of 'heading' on brain function are a source of concern. This article reviews the related research literature on neurologic and neuropsychological findings. Neurologic and neuropsychological abnormalities have been reported in a significant minority of older former professional players in Norway. Purportedly unrelated to age, the most prominent findings were cerebral atrophy and impairment on intelligence test abilities that are particularly vulnerable to brain damage. Also noteworthy in these retired players were persistent physical, cognitive, and emotional complaints consistent with a postconcussive syndrome. Younger amateur players appear to be free of major abnormalities, although some report persistent difficulties with memory and concentration. The severity of these complaints may be related to a history of soccer-related head injuries and not necessarily specific to heading. Research findings specific to heading are not more than suggestive at best, and clarification of the risks of heading a soccer ball awaits more definitive studies. PMID:9575256

Baroff, G S

1998-04-01

194

Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain  

PubMed Central

In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the rig1ht auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance.

Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

2010-01-01

195

Hierarchical organization of brain functional networks during visual tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional network of the brain is known to demonstrate modular structure over different hierarchical scales. In this paper, we systematically investigated the hierarchical modular organizations of the brain functional networks that are derived from the extent of phase synchronization among high-resolution EEG time series during a visual task. In particular, we compare the modular structure of the functional network from EEG channels with that of the anatomical parcellation of the brain cortex. Our results show that the modular architectures of brain functional networks correspond well to those from the anatomical structures over different levels of hierarchy. Most importantly, we find that the consistency between the modular structures of the functional network and the anatomical network becomes more pronounced in terms of vision, sensory, vision-temporal, motor cortices during the visual task, which implies that the strong modularity in these areas forms the functional basis for the visual task. The structure-function relationship further reveals that the phase synchronization of EEG time series in the same anatomical group is much stronger than that of EEG time series from different anatomical groups during the task and that the hierarchical organization of functional brain network may be a consequence of functional segmentation of the brain cortex.

Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhang, Jie

2011-09-01

196

Delineating multiple functions of VEGF-A in the adult brain.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (abbreviated throughout this review as VEGF) is mostly known for its angiogenic activity, for its activity as a vascular permeability factor, and for its vascular survival activity [1]. There is a growing body of evidence, however, that VEGF fulfills additional less 'traditional' functions in multiple organs, both during development, as well as homeostatic functions in fully developed organs. This review focuses on the multiple roles of VEGF in the adult brain and is less concerned with the roles played by VEGF during brain development, functions described elsewhere in this review series. Most functions of VEGF that are essential for proper brain development are, in fact, dispensable in the adult brain as was clearly demonstrated using a conditional brain-specific VEGF loss-of-function (LOF) approach. Thus, in contrast to VEGF LOF in the developing brain, a process which is detrimental for the growth and survival of blood vessels and leads to massive neuronal apoptosis [2-4], continued signaling by VEGF in the mature brain is no longer required for maintaining already established cerebral vasculature and its inhibition does not cause appreciable vessel regression, hypoxia or apoptosis [4-7]. Yet, VEGF continues to be expressed in the adult brain in a constitutive manner. Moreover, VEGF is expressed in the adult brain in a region-specific manner and in distinctive spatial patterns incompatible with an angiogenic role (see below), strongly suggesting angiogenesis-independent and possibly also perfusion-independent functions. Here we review current knowledge on some of these 'non-traditional', often unexpected homeostatic VEGF functions, including those unrelated to its effects on the brain vasculature. These effects could be mediated directly (on non-vascular cells expressing cognate VEGF receptors) or indirectly (via the endothelium). Experimental approaches aimed at distinguishing between these possibilities for each particular VEGF function will be described. This review is only concerned with homeostatic functions of VEGF in the normal, non-injured brain. The reader is referred elsewhere in this series for a review on VEGF actions in response to various forms of brain injury and/or brain pathology. PMID:23475068

Licht, Tamar; Keshet, Eli

2013-03-12

197

Accurately Assessing the Risk of Schizophrenia Conferred by Rare Copy-Number Variation Affecting Genes with Brain Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators have linked rare copy number variation (CNVs) to neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. One hypothesis is that CNV events cause disease by affecting genes with specific brain functions. Under these circumstances, we expect that CNV events in cases should impact brain-function genes more frequently than those events in controls. Previous publications have applied “pathway” analyses to genes within neuropsychiatric

Soumya Raychaudhuri; Joshua M. Korn; Steven A A McCarroll; David Altshuler; Pamela Sklar; Shaun Purcell; Mark J. Daly

2010-01-01

198

The Effects of Brain Damage on Visual Functioning in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical and educational professionals arc working with a growing population of in- fants and children who have brain dam- age. This article reviews research on the effects of brain damage on visual function- ing in children, the tests that determine these effects, and the implications of these effects for prognosis and intervention. Background

P. K. Alexander

1990-01-01

199

Functional Brain Imaging Alterations in Acne Patients Treated With Isotretinoin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although there have been case reports suggesting a relationship be- tween treatment with the acne medica- tion isotretinoin and the development of depression and suicide, this topic remains controversial. In order for isotretinoin to cause depression, it must have an effect on the brain; however, the effects of isotretinoin on brain functioning in acne patients have not been established.

J. Douglas Bremner; Negar Fani; M. S. Ali Ashraf; John R. Votaw; Marijn E. Brummer; D. Thomas Cummins; Viola Vaccarino; Mark M. Goodman; D. Lai Reed; Sajid Siddiq; Charles B. Nemeroff

2005-01-01

200

Reliability of Individual Functional MRI Brain Mapping of Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of individual brain mapping for a single case study implicitly assumes that the pattern of activation obtained in a single session represents the subject's functional neuroanatomy. It is therefore essential to estimate the potential variability of brain activation in individuals. To this purpose, the authors compared the pattern of activation determined by statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) in

Hélène Otzenberger; Daniel Gounot; Corinne Marrer; Izzie Jacques Namer; Marie-Noëlle Metz-Lutz

2005-01-01

201

Mapping cognitive brain function with modern high-resolution electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. While electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range, which would seem to make it an ideal complement to other imaging modalities, traditional EEG technology and practice provides insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and

Alan Gevins; Harrison Leong; Michael E. Smith; Jian Le; Robert Du

1995-01-01

202

Alpha oscillations in brain functioning: an integrative theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old concept stating that EEG alpha (10-Hz) activity reflects passive or idling states of the brain is giving way to modern views of 10-Hz oscillations in relation to diverse brain functions comprising sensory, motor, and memory processes: (1) Spontaneous alpha activity is not pure noise as shown by methods of chaos analysis. (2) Evoked alpha oscillations patterns (precisely time-locked

E. Basar; M. Schurmann; C. Basar-eroglu; S. Karakas

1997-01-01

203

Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function. Human visual cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human brain activity are described. Task-induced changes in brain cognitive state were measured using high-speed MRI techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation. These techniques were used to generate the first functional MRI maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. The methodology

J. W. Belliveau; K. K. Kwong; D. N. Kennedy; J. R. Baker; C. E. Stern; R. Benson; D. A. Chesler; R. M. Weisskoff; M. S. Cohen; R. B. Tootell; P. T. Fox; T. J. Brady

1992-01-01

204

Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function  

ScienceCinema

The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

205

Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain Through Interactive Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the social brain. They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied—the emergence of social cognition and mentalizing computations

Mark H. Johnson; Tobias Grossmann; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh

2009-01-01

206

Correlation between cognitive brain function and electrical brain activity in dementia of Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Psychometric tests which assess cognitive brain function in dementia disorders are partly prone to artifacts, e.g., the experience of the investigator and the cooperation of the patient influences the results. An objective way to assess the degree of cognitive disturbance could be to measure neuronal activity represented by the electrical brain activity. The aim of the present study was

T. Dierks; L. Frölich; R. Ihl; K. Maurer

1995-01-01

207

BrainMap: A Database of Functional Neuroanatomy Derived from Human Brain Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the BrainMap project is to promote efficient compilation, analysis, and dissemination of the rapidly growing body of information about the functional organization of the human brain which can be provided by medical imaging techniques such as P...

1991-01-01

208

Images of the working brain: understanding human brain function with positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 15 years positron emission tomography (PET) has become a settled method of imaging the functioning human brain, both in normal volunteers and in patients with various disorders. Much of the work on sensory systems has been on the visual system, a conveniently studied and very important part of the brain. The motor system in health and disease

John D. G Watson

1997-01-01

209

Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.  

PubMed

Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management. PMID:22504276

Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

2012-04-06

210

Linking structure and function: Information processing in the brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Traditionally, theories of function in neuroscience have emerged from physiology. Physiologists have suggested a number of means by which information in the brain can be processed, yet the principles underlying the generation of these phenomena are not we...

M. A. V. Gremillion

1990-01-01

211

Functional Imaging of Dolphin Brain Metabolism and Blood Flow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the first use of magnetic resonance images (MRls) of living dolphins to register functional brain scans, allowing for the exploration of potential mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep. Diazepam has been shown to induce unihemispheric s...

S. Ridgway J. Finneran D. Carder M. Keogh W. Van Bonn

2006-01-01

212

RegionSpecific Tolerance Criteria for the Living Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can predict injury-induced brain deformation. However, predicting the biological consequences (i.e. cell death or dysfunction) of induced brain deformation requires tolerance criteria. Here, we present a tolerance criterion for the cortex which exhibits important differences from that of the hippocampus. Organotypic slice cultures of the rat cortex, which maintain tissue architecture and cell

Benjamin S. Elkin; Barclay Morrison

2007-01-01

213

Modulation of the functional state of the brain with the aid of focused ultrasonic action  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the possibility of modifying the functional state of the brain with the aid of focused ultrasound and studied various regimes of its action. A specific pattern in the effect of focused ultrasonic action was discovered with regard to its intensity: the effect is absent at low (less than 0.1 mW\\/cm2) intensities; activation of bioelectrical activity in the brain

V. A. Velling; S. P. Shklyaruk

1988-01-01

214

The substrate specificity of brain microsomal phospholipase D.  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitters activate a phospholipase D that is though to specifically hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme has a unique property known as transphosphatidylation: in the presence of an appropriate nucleophilic receptor such as an alcohol, phospholipase D will catalyse the production of phosphatidyl-alcohol. We have studied phospholipase D using an in vitro assay that uses [3H]butanol of high specific radioactivity (15 Ci/mmol) as an acceptor. In the presence of [3H]butanol and phosphatidylcholine, a microsomal membrane fraction from rat brain catalysed the production of phosphatidyl[3H]butanol. Phospholipase D activity was dependent upon the presence of a detergent; the optimal sodium oleate concentration was between 4 and 6 mM. The RF of the phosphatidyl[3H]butanol on t.l.c. was identical to the RF of the phosphatidylbutanol formed when [3H]phosphatidylcholine was incubated with 100 mM butanol. These data confirm the identity of phosphatidyl[3H]butanol. One important advantage of this assay is that the substrate does not need to be labelled. We have used this advantage to examine the substrate specificity of phospholipase D. Microsomal phospholipase D appears to hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine most efficiently. There is a relatively small but significant activity against phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine, and there is no significant activity against phosphatidylinositol. As the head-group becomes more like choline, the phospholipid becomes a better substrate for phospholipase D. The addition of one methyl group leads to a large increase in activity. Fatty acid composition does not play a role in determining the substrate specificity. This assay should be useful in furthering our understanding of this important enzyme. Images Figure 1

Horwitz, J; Davis, L L

1993-01-01

215

Gender Effect on Functional Networks in Resting Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have witnessed that complex brain networks have the properties of high global and local efficiency. In this\\u000a study, we investigated the gender effect on brain functional networks measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (fMRI). Our experimental results showed that there were no significant difference in global and local efficiency between male\\u000a and female. However, the gender-related effects on

Liang Wang; Chaozhe Zhu; Yong He; Qiuhai Zhong; Yufeng Zang

2007-01-01

216

Intrinsic functional architecture in the anaesthetized monkey brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach to studying brain function is to measure physiological responses to controlled sensory, motor and cognit- ive paradigms. However, most of the brain's energy consumption isdevotedtoongoingmetabolicactivitynotclearlyassociatedwith any particular stimulus or behaviour1. Functional magnetic res- onance imaging studies in humans aimed at understanding this ongoing activity have shown that spontaneous fluctuations of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal occur continuously in the

J. L. Vincent; G. H. Patel; M. D. Fox; A. Z. Snyder; J. T. Baker; D. C. Van Essen; J. M. Zempel; L. H. Snyder; M. Corbetta; M. E. Raichle

2007-01-01

217

Improvement of brain function in hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of brain function in hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin. To evaluate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on brain function, 15 chronic hemodialysis patients were studied by event-related P300, stimulus-related evoked potentials, and trailmaking before (hematocrit 22.7%) and after rHuEPO (hematocrit 30.6%). P300 peak latency elicited by a tone discrimination paradigm improved (391 before vs. 366 ms after;

Georg Grimm; Felix Stockenhuber; Bruno Schneeweiss; Christian Madl; Josef Zeitlhofer; Barbara Schneider

1990-01-01

218

Efficiency and Cost of Economical Brain Functional Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain anatomical networks are sparse, complex, and have economical small-world properties. We investigated the efficiency and cost of human brain functional networks measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a factorial design: two groups of healthy old (N ¼11; mean age ¼66.5 years) and healthy young (N ¼15; mean age ¼ 24.7 years) volunteers were each scanned twice in

Sophie Achard; Ed Bullmore

2007-01-01

219

Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a simple ``toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from

Dimitris Stassinopoulos; Per Bak

1995-01-01

220

Frontal brain asymmetry and immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between brain activity and the immune system was evaluated by assessing immune responses in 20 healthy women who manifested extreme differences in the asymmetry of frontal cortex activation. One group showed extreme and stable left frontal activation; the other group showed extreme and stable right frontal activation. As predicted, women with extreme right frontal activation had significantly lower

Duck-hee Kang; Richard J. Davidson; Christopher L. Coe; Robert E. Wheeler

1991-01-01

221

Pattern Classification of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks: Identification of Informative Neuroimaging Markers for Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate prediction of general neuropsychiatric disorders, on an individual basis, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a challenging task of great clinical significance. Despite the progress to chart the differences between the healthy controls and patients at the group level, the pattern classification of functional brain networks across individuals is still less developed. In this paper we identify two novel neuroimaging measures that prove to be strongly predictive neuroimaging markers in pattern classification between healthy controls and general epileptic patients. These measures characterize two important aspects of the functional brain network in a quantitative manner: (i) coordinated operation among spatially distributed brain regions, and (ii) the asymmetry of bilaterally homologous brain regions, in terms of their global patterns of functional connectivity. This second measure offers a unique understanding of brain asymmetry at the network level, and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously used in pattern classification of functional brain networks. Using modern pattern-recognition approaches like sparse regression and support vector machine, we have achieved a cross-validated classification accuracy of 83.9% (specificity: 82.5%; sensitivity: 85%) across individuals from a large dataset consisting of 180 healthy controls and epileptic patients. We identified significantly changed functional pathways and subnetworks in epileptic patients that underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of the impaired cognitive functions. Specifically, we find that the asymmetry of brain operation for epileptic patients is markedly enhanced in temporal lobe and limbic system, in comparison with healthy individuals. The present study indicates that with specifically designed informative neuroimaging markers, resting-state fMRI can serve as a most promising tool for clinical diagnosis, and also shed light onto the physiology behind complex neuropsychiatric disorders. The systematic approaches we present here are expected to have wider applications in general neuropsychiatric disorders.

Zhang, ZhiQiang; Lu, WenLian; Lu, GuangMing; Feng, Jianfeng

2012-01-01

222

Cell type-specific genes show striking and distinct patterns of spatial expression in the mouse brain  

PubMed Central

To characterize gene expression patterns in the regional subdivisions of the mammalian brain, we integrated spatial gene expression patterns from the Allen Brain Atlas for the adult mouse with panels of cell type-specific genes for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from previously published transcriptome profiling experiments. We found that the combined spatial expression patterns of 170 neuron-specific transcripts revealed strikingly clear and symmetrical signatures for most of the brain’s major subdivisions. Moreover, the brain expression spatial signatures correspond to anatomical structures and may even reflect developmental ontogeny. Spatial expression profiles of astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes also revealed regional differences; these defined fewer regions and were less distinct but still symmetrical in the coronal plane. Follow-up analysis suggested that region-based clustering of neuron-specific genes was related to (i) a combination of individual genes with restricted expression patterns, (ii) region-specific differences in the relative expression of functional groups of genes, and (iii) regional differences in neuronal density. Products from some of these neuron-specific genes are present in peripheral blood, raising the possibility that they could reflect the activities of disease- or injury-perturbed networks and collectively function as biomarkers for clinical disease diagnostics.

Ko, Younhee; Ament, Seth A.; Eddy, James A.; Caballero, Juan; Earls, John C.; Hood, Leroy; Price, Nathan D.

2013-01-01

223

Human Brain Language Areas Identified by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was used to identify candidate language processing areas in the intact hu- man brain. Language was defined broadly to include both phonological and lexical-semantic functions and to exclude sensory, motor, and general executive functions. The language activation task required phonetic and semantic analysis of aurally presented words and was compared with a control task involving

Jeffrey R. Binder; Julie A. Frost; Thomas A. Hammeke; Robert W. Cox; Stephen M. Rao; Thomas Prieto

1997-01-01

224

Predicting regional neurodegeneration from the healthy brain functional connectome  

PubMed Central

Summary Neurodegenerative diseases target large-scale neural networks. Four competing mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain network-based disease patterning: nodal stress, transneuronal spread, trophic failure, and shared vulnerability. Here, we used task-free fMRI to derive the healthy intrinsic connectivity patterns seeded by brain regions vulnerable to any of five distinct neurodegenerative diseases. These data enabled us to investigate how intrinsic connectivity in health predicts region-by-region vulnerability to disease. For each illness, specific regions emerged as critical network “epicenters” whose normal connectivity profiles most resembled the disease-associated atrophy pattern. Graph theoretical analyses in healthy subjects revealed that regions with higher total connectional flow and, more consistently, shorter functional paths to the epicenters, showed greater disease-related vulnerability. These findings best fit a transneuronal spread model of network-based vulnerability. Molecular pathological approaches may help clarify what makes each epicenter vulnerable to its targeting disease and how toxic protein species travel between networked brain structures.

Zhou, Juan; Gennatas, Efstathios D.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Seeley, William W.

2012-01-01

225

Selectionist and Evolutionary Approaches to Brain Function: A Critical Appraisal  

PubMed Central

We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse, and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise.

Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmary, Eors; Husbands, Phil

2012-01-01

226

Recovery of function after brain injury in man.  

PubMed

Late after-effects of cerebral trauma are difficult to study because patients tend to be seen for persisting symptoms, and not simply for their lesions. We have tried to avoid this bias by recalling periodically, over the years, 520 men with known brain injuries incurred in World War II or in Korea or Vietnam. These men are seen irrespective of clinical need and all undergo intensive behavioural and neurological assessment, which still continues. For such groups, recovery is impressive, though one third shows persistent intellectual loss. In addition, some tasks reveal specific deficits enduring unchanged, after th first 2-3 yr, for the 20-30 yr of follow-up (e.g. visual field defects, certain auditory discrimination losses, trouble on various complex perceptual tasks). These lasting deficits are linked to the site and size of focal injury, often representing remnants of more severe initially-present disorders. The extent of recovery is correlated with age at the time of trauma, the youngest faring best. Extension of such studies to cases of early brain damage (birth to five years), as indicated by hemiparesis, shows the familiar 'escape' of language after early left-hemisphere lesions but this is achieved at a price, the price being borne by non-verbal functions that normally depend on the integrity of the right hemisphere. PMID:1045991

Teuber, H L

1975-01-01

227

Selectionist and evolutionary approaches to brain function: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux's theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung's Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein's synaptic melioration, Adam's selfish synapse, and Calvin's replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price's covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise. PMID:22557963

Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

2012-04-26

228

Cerebral energy metabolism and the brain's functional network architecture: an integrative review.  

PubMed

Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have emphasized the contributions of synchronized activity in distributed brain networks to cognitive processes in both health and disease. The brain's 'functional connectivity' is typically estimated from correlations in the activity time series of anatomically remote areas, and postulated to reflect information flow between neuronal populations. Although the topological properties of functional brain networks have been studied extensively, considerably less is known regarding the neurophysiological and biochemical factors underlying the temporal coordination of large neuronal ensembles. In this review, we highlight the critical contributions of high-frequency electrical oscillations in the ?-band (30 to 100?Hz) to the emergence of functional brain networks. After describing the neurobiological substrates of ?-band dynamics, we specifically discuss the elevated energy requirements of high-frequency neural oscillations, which represent a mechanistic link between the functional connectivity of brain regions and their respective metabolic demands. Experimental evidence is presented for the high oxygen and glucose consumption, and strong mitochondrial performance required to support rhythmic cortical activity in the ?-band. Finally, the implications of mitochondrial impairments and deficits in glucose metabolism for cognition and behavior are discussed in the context of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by large-scale changes in the organization of functional brain networks. PMID:23756687

Lord, Louis-David; Expert, Paul; Huckins, Jeremy F; Turkheimer, Federico E

2013-06-12

229

Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

Luo, Qingming

2001-08-01

230

Cytochrome P450 in the brain: neuroendocrine functions.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of steroid hormone metabolites as sedatives and anesthetics has been known for many years. More recently, their interaction with neurotransmitter receptors has helped to elucidate their mechanism of action, but their physiological functions and their role in disturbances of behavior, anxiety, and sleep/wakefulness have yet to be elucidated. Until 1981 it was assumed that metabolites of steroid hormones arose from the adrenals and gonads and that their action on neurotransmitter receptors was a mechanism of communication between the brain and the periphery. The evidence that the brain could accumulate steroids independently of the adrenals and gonads in 1981 and later the evidence for the presence of the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in the brain have challenged this concept and stimulated a great deal of interest in the possibility that the brain could be making its own steroids from cholesterol for some as yet undefined purpose. In this review we examine the data pertaining to the role of brain P450 in the synthesis and degradation of neurosteroids. We summarize the data on the presence of P450scc in the brain and try to answer the following questions: (1) Does P450scc in the brain contribute significantly to the synthesis of GABAA receptor active steroids? (2) Can the P450scc in the brain account for the accumulation of pregnenolone in the brain? (3) Is there evidence for special functions of the pregnenolone synthesized in the brain? (4) Is there a role for other forms of brain P450 in neurosteroid action? PMID:7556851

Warner, M; Gustafsson, J A

1995-07-01

231

Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study  

PubMed Central

Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion. Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently concussed but asymptomatic individuals. Specifically, we report performance of spatial memory navigation tasks in a VR environment and fMRI data in 15 athletes suffering from MTBI and 15 neurologically normal, athletically active age matched controls. No differences in performance were observed between these two groups of subjects in terms of success rate (94 and 92%) and time to complete the spatial memory navigation tasks (mean = 19.5 and 19.7 s). Whole brain analysis revealed that similar brain activation patterns were observed during both encoding and retrieval among the groups. However, concussed athletes showed larger cortical networks with additional increases in activity outside of the shared region of interest (ROI) during encoding. Quantitative analysis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal revealed that concussed individuals had a significantly larger cluster size during encoding at parietal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right hippocampus. In addition, there was a significantly larger BOLD signal percent change at the right hippocampus. Neither cluster size nor BOLD signal percent change at shared ROIs was different between groups during retrieval. These major findings are discussed with respect to current hypotheses regarding the neural mechanism responsible for alteration of brain functions in a clinical setting.

Slobounov, Semyon M.; Zhang, K.; Pennell, D.; Ray, W.; Johnson, B.; Sebastianelli, W.

2010-01-01

232

Relationship Between Neurocognitive Function and Quality of Life After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastasis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the relationship between neurocognitive function (NCF) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain metastases after whole-brain radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: A total of 208 patients from the whole-brain radiotherapy arm of a Phase III trial (PCI-P120-9801), who underwent regular NCF and QOL (ADL [activities of daily living] and FACT-Br [Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain-specific]) testing, were analyzed. Spearman's rank correlation was calculated between NCF and QOL, using each patient's own data, at each time point. To test the hypothesis that NCF declines before QOL changes, the predictive effect of NCF from previous visits on QOL was studied with a linear mixed-effects model. Neurocognitive function or QOL deterioration was defined relative to each patient's own baseline. Lead or lag time, defined as NCF deterioration before or after the date of QOL decline, respectively, was computed. Results: At baseline, all NCF tests showed statistically significant correlations with ADL, which became stronger at 4 months. A similar observation was made with FACT-Br. Neurocognitive function scores from previous visits predicted ADL (p < 0.05 for seven of eight tests) or FACT-Br. Scores on all eight NCF tests deteriorated before ADL decline (net lead time 9-153 days); and scores on six of eight NCF tests deteriorated before FACT-Br (net lead time 9-82 days). Conclusions: Neurocognitive function and QOL are correlated. Neurocognitive function scores from previous visits are predictive of QOL. Neurocognitive function deterioration precedes QOL decline. The sequential association between NCF and QOL decline suggests that delaying NCF deterioration is a worthwhile treatment goal in brain metastases patients.

Li Jing; Bentzen, Soren M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Li Jialiang [Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Renschler, Markus [Oncology Clinical Development, Pharmacyclics, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)], E-mail: mehta@humonc.wisc.edu

2008-05-01

233

Evolving knowledge of sex differences in brain structure, function, and chemistry.  

PubMed

Clinical and epidemiologic evidence demonstrates sex differences in the prevalence and course of various psychiatric disorders. Understanding sex-specific brain differences in healthy individuals is a critical first step toward understanding sex-specific expression of psychiatric disorders. Here, we evaluate evidence on sex differences in brain structure, chemistry, and function using imaging methodologies, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mentally healthy individuals. MEDLINE searches of English-language literature (1980-November 2006) using the terms sex, gender, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, morphometry, neurochemistry, and neurotransmission were performed to extract relevant sources. The literature suggests that while there are many similarities in brain structure, function, and neurotransmission in healthy men and women, there are important differences that distinguish the male from the female brain. Overall, brain volume is greater in men than women; yet, when controlling for total volume, women have a higher percentage of gray matter and men a higher percentage of white matter. Regional volume differences are less consistent. Global cerebral blood flow is higher in women than in men. Sex-specific differences in dopaminergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic markers indicate that male and female brains are neurochemically distinct. Insight into the etiology of sex differences in the normal living human brain provides an important foundation to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders and to guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders. PMID:17544382

Cosgrove, Kelly P; Mazure, Carolyn M; Staley, Julie K

2007-06-04

234

Functional imaging of the brain with/sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose  

SciTech Connect

A techniques is reported by which it is possible to determine which regions of the human brain become functionally active in response to a specific stimulus. The method utilizes /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((/sup 18/F)-FDG) administered as a bolus. (/sup 18/F)-FDG is used as a tracer for the exchange of glucose between plasma and brain and its phosphorylation. The subject is then scanned during administration of a physiologic stimulus by position emission tomography and the three-dimensional distribution of /sup 18/F activity in the brain determined. (ACR)

Reivich, M; Greenberg, J; Alavi, A; Hand, P; Rintelmann, W; Rosenquist, A; Christman, D; Fowler, J; MacGregor, R; Wolf, A

1980-01-01

235

ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.  

PubMed

Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

2007-08-19

236

Locus-Specific Mutation Databases for Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases  

PubMed Central

The Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia (AD&FTLD) and Parkinson disease (PD) Mutation Databases make available curated information of sequence variations in genes causing Mendelian forms of the most common neurodegenerative brain disease AD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and PD. They are established resources for clinical geneticists, neurologists, and researchers in need of comprehensive, referenced genetic, epidemiologic, clinical, neuropathological, and/or cell biological information of specific gene mutations in these diseases. In addition, the aggregate analysis of all information available in the databases provides unique opportunities to extract mutation characteristics and genotype–phenotype correlations, which would be otherwise unnoticed and unexplored. Such analyses revealed that 61.4% of mutations are private to one single family, while only 5.7% of mutations occur in 10 or more families. The five mutations with most frequent independent observations occur in 21% of AD, 43% of FTLD, and 48% of PD families recorded in the Mutation Databases, respectively. Although these figures are inevitably biased by a publishing policy favoring novel mutations, they probably also reflect the occurrence of multiple rare and few relatively common mutations in the inherited forms of these diseases. Finally, with the exception of the PD genes PARK2 and PINK1, all other genes are associated with more than one clinical diagnosis or characteristics thereof. Hum Mutat 33:1340–1344, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cruts, Marc; Theuns, Jessie; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

2012-01-01

237

Micro-compartment specific T2* relaxation in the brain.  

PubMed

MRI at high field can be sensitized to the magnetic properties of tissues, which introduces a signal dependence on the orientation of white matter (WM) fiber bundles relative to the magnetic field. In addition, study of the NMR relaxation properties of this signal has indicated contributions from compartmentalized water environments inside and outside the myelin sheath that may be separable. Here we further investigated the effects of water compartmentalization on the MRI signal with the goal of extracting compartment-specific information. By comparing MRI measurements of human and marmoset brain at 7T with magnetic field modeling, we show that: (1) water between the myelin lipid bilayers, in the axonal, and in the interstitial space each experience characteristic magnetic field effects that depend on fiber orientation (2) these field effects result in characteristic relaxation properties and frequency shifts for these compartments; and (3) compartmental contributions may be separated by multi-component fitting of the MRI signal relaxation (i.e. decay) curve. We further show the potential application of these findings to the direct mapping of myelin content and assessment of WM fiber integrity with high field MRI. PMID:23528924

Sati, Pascal; van Gelderen, Peter; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S; Merkle, Hellmut; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

2013-03-22

238

Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

2011-01-01

239

THE ?-HYDROXYBUTYRATE SIGNALLING SYSTEM IN BRAIN: ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Hydroxybutyrate is a metabolite of GABA which is synthesized and accumulated by neurons in brain. This substance is present in micromolar quantities in all brain regions investigated as well as in several peripheral organs. Neuronal depolarization releases ?-hydroxybutyrate into the extracellular space in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate high-affinity receptors are present only in neurons, with a restricted specific distribution in

MICHEL MAITRE

1997-01-01

240

Identification of brain activity by fractal scaling analysis of functional MRI data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a pow- erful tool for studying brain function, especially related to disease and aging. One of the major tasks of fMRI data analysis is to find a few specific regions involved in certain functionality by studying huge but noisy 3-dimensional spa- tial plus 1-dimensional temporal data. Therefore, develop- ing simple and reliable signal\\/image processing

J. M. Lee; J. Hu; J. B. Gao; K. D. White; B. Crosson; C. E. Wierenga; K. McGregor; K. K. Peck

2005-01-01

241

Universal function-specificity of codon usage  

PubMed Central

Synonymous codon usage has long been known as a factor that affects average expression level of proteins in fast-growing microorganisms, but neither its role in dynamic changes of expression in response to environmental changes nor selective factors shaping it in the genomes of higher eukaryotes have been fully understood. Here, we propose that codon usage is ubiquitously selected to synchronize the translation efficiency with the dynamic alteration of protein expression in response to environmental and physiological changes. Our analysis reveals that codon usage is universally correlated with gene function, suggesting its potential contribution to synchronized regulation of genes with similar functions. We directly show that coexpressed genes have similar synonymous codon usages within the genomes of human, yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and Escherichia coli. We also demonstrate that perturbing the codon usage directly affects the level or even direction of changes in protein expression in response to environmental stimuli. Perturbing tRNA composition also has tangible phenotypic effects on the cell. By showing that codon usage is universally function-specific, our results expand, to almost all organisms, the notion that cells may need to dynamically alter their intracellular tRNA composition in order to adapt to their new environment or physiological role.

Najafabadi, Hamed Shateri; Goodarzi, Hani; Salavati, Reza

2009-01-01

242

Functional Brain Networks Develop from a “Local to Distributed” Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze

Damien A. Fair; Alexander L. Cohen; Jonathan D. Power; Nico U. F. Dosenbach; Jessica A. Church; Francis M. Miezin; Bradley L. Schlaggar; Steven E. Petersen

2009-01-01

243

Functional connectivity between brain areas estimated by analysis of gamma waves.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to investigate functional connectivity between different brain regions by analyzing the temporal relationship of the maxima of gamma waves recorded in multiple brain areas. Local field potentials were recorded from motor cortex, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and piriform cortex of rats. Gamma activity was filtered and separated into two bands; high (65-90Hz) and low (30-55Hz) gamma. Maxima for gamma activity waves were detected and functional connectivity between different brain regions was determined using Shannon entropy for perievent histograms for each pair channels. Significant Shannon entropy values were reported as connectivity factors. We defined a connectivity matrix based the connectivity factors between different regions. We found that maxima of low and high frequency gamma occur in strong temporal relationship between some brain areas, indicating the existence of functional connections between these areas. The spatial pattern of functional connections between brain areas was different for slow wave sleep and waking states. However for each behavioral state in the same animal the pattern of functional connections was stable over time within 30min of continuous analysis and over a 5 day period. With the same electrode montage the pattern of functional connectivity varied from one subject to another. Analysis of the temporal relationship of maxima of gamma waves between various brain areas could be a useful tool for investigation of functional connections between these brain areas. This approach could be applied for analysis of functional alterations occurring in these connections during different behavioral tasks and during processes related to learning and memory. The specificity in the connectivity pattern from one subject to another can be explained by the existence of unique functional networks for each subject. PMID:23376499

Kheiri, Farshad; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome

2013-01-31

244

Functional MRI and intraoperative brain mapping to evaluate brain plasticity in patients with brain tumours and hemiparesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo support the hypothesis about the potential compensatory role of ipsilateral corticofugal pathways when the contralateral pathways are impaired by brain tumours.METHODSRetrospective analysis was carried out on the results of functional MRI (fMRI) of a selected group of five paretic patients with Rolandic brain tumours who exhibited an abnormally high ipsilateral\\/contralateral ratio of activation—that is, movements of the paretic hand

F E Roux; K Boulanouar; D Ibarrola; M Tremoulet; F Chollet; I Berry

2000-01-01

245

On imputing function to structure from the behavioural effects of brain lesions.  

PubMed Central

What is the link, if any, between the patterns of connections in the brain and the behavioural effects of localized brain lesions? We explored this question in four related ways. First, we investigated the distribution of activity decrements that followed simulated damage to elements of the thalamocortical network, using integrative mechanisms that have recently been used to successfully relate connection data to information on the spread of activation, and to account simultaneously for a variety of lesion effects. Second, we examined the consequences of the patterns of decrement seen in the simulation for each type of inference that has been employed to impute function to structure on the basis of the effects of brain lesions. Every variety of conventional inference, including double dissociation, readily misattributed function to structure. Third, we tried to derive a more reliable framework of inference for imputing function to structure, by clarifying concepts of function, and exploring a more formal framework, in which knowledge of connectivity is necessary but insufficient, based on concepts capable of mathematical specification. Fourth, we applied this framework to inferences about function relating to a simple network that reproduces intact, lesioned and paradoxically restored orientating behaviour. Lesion effects could be used to recover detailed and reliable information on which structures contributed to particular functions in this simple network. Finally, we explored how the effects of brain lesions and this formal approach could be used in conjunction with information from multiple neuroscience methodologies to develop a practical and reliable approach to inferring the functional roles of brain structures.

Young, M P; Hilgetag, C C; Scannell, J W

2000-01-01

246

Chronic Stress and Sex-Specific Neuromorphological and Functional Changes in Limbic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic stress produces sex-specific neuromorphological changes in a variety of brain regions, which likely contribute to\\u000a the gender differences observed in stress-related illnesses and cognitive ability. Here, we review the literature investigating\\u000a the relationship between chronic stress and sex differences on brain plasticity and function, with an emphasis on morphological\\u000a changes in dendritic arborization and spines in the hippocampus, prefrontal

Katie J. McLaughlin; Sarah E. Baran; Cheryl D. Conrad

2009-01-01

247

The neural basis of functional brain imaging signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haemodynamic responses to neural activity that underlie the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain are often assumed to be driven by energy use, particularly in presynaptic terminals or glia. However, recent work has suggested that most brain energy is used to power postsynaptic currents and action potentials rather than presynaptic or glial

David Attwell; Costantino Iadecola

2002-01-01

248

Structure and function of the blood–brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural signalling within the central nervous system (CNS) requires a highly controlled microenvironment. Cells at three key interfaces form barriers between the blood and the CNS: the blood–brain barrier (BBB), blood–CSF barrier and the arachnoid barrier. The BBB at the level of brain microvessel endothelium is the major site of blood–CNS exchange. The structure and function of the BBB is

N. Joan Abbott; Adjanie A. K. Patabendige; Diana E. M. Dolman; Siti R. Yusof; David J. Begley

2010-01-01

249

Transforming Growth Factor-? in Brain Functions and Dysfunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?s (TGF-?s) belong to a superfamily of related peptides that play pivotal roles in intercellular\\u000a communication. Among these biological agents, TGF-?1 has been involved in a number of brain functions and dysfunctions throughout\\u000a life, ranging from neurogenesis to neurodegeneration. Animal models mimicking some aspects of human brain pathologies have\\u000a led to the idea that TGF-? may be a

Denis Vivien; Karim Benchenane; Carine Ali

250

Investigating brain dynamics and connectivity with functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans provide a record of ongoing neural processing through the measurement of changes in regional levels of blood oxygenation. While subjects are resting, fMRI has revealed networks of brain regions exhibiting synchronised 0.02-0.12 Hz fluctuations in spontaneous, low frequency brain activity. The physiology underlying these 'resting state' fluctuations is poorly understood. Our current research investigates

Eugene Duff; Gary Egan; Ross Cunnington; Iven Mareels; Binquan Wang; Peter Fox; Jinhu Xiong

2004-01-01

251

Drug addiction: Functional neurotoxicity of the brain reward systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by a compulsion to take a drug with loss of control over\\u000a drug intake. The hypothesis under discussion here is that chronic drug use produces long-lasting dysfunctions in neurons associated\\u000a with the brain reward circuitry, and this “functional neurotoxicity” of drugs of abuse leads to vulnerability to relapse and\\u000a continued drug

Friedbert Weiss; George F. Koob

2001-01-01

252

Functional brain imaging of nicotinic effects on higher cognitive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as

Paul A. Newhouse; Alexandra S. Potter; Julie A. Dumas; Christiane M. Thiel

2011-01-01

253

Imaging Body Structure and Mapping Brain Function: A Historical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now in its second decade, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes changes in blood oxygenation that occur in the brain when an individual performs a mental task. Physicians and scientists use fMRI not only to map sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, but also to study the neural correlates of a range of sensitive and potentially stigmatizing conditions, behaviors, and characteristics.

Stacey A. Tovino

2007-01-01

254

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) can provide detailed images of human brain that reflect localized changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation induced by sensory, motor, or cognitive tasks. This review presents methods for gradient-recalled echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Also included is a discussion of the hypothesized basis of FMRI, imaging hardware, a unique visual stimulation apparatus, image

Edgar A. DeYoe; Peter Bandettini; Jay Neitz; David Miller; Paula Winans

1994-01-01

255

Altered Sleep Brain Functional Connectivity in Acutely Depressed Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that problems in information processing within neural networks may underlie depressive disease. In this study, we investigated whether sleep functional brain net- works are abnormally organized during a major depressive episode (MDE). We characterized spatial patterns of functional connectivity by computing the ''synchronization likelihood'' (SL) of 19 sleep EEG channels in 11 acutely depressed patients (42 (20-51)

Samuël J. J. Leistedt; Nathalie Coumans; Martine Dumont; Jean-Pol Lanquart; Cornelis J. Stam; Paul Linkowski

2009-01-01

256

Executive Functioning and Adaptive Living Skills after Acquired Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive dysfunction is common following brain injury, with impairments involving attention, social pragmatics, higher-order thinking, judgment, and reasoning. Executive function impairments may have a direct impact on an individual's ability to return to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including employment, money management, driving, and maintaining a residence. Research has shown that neuropsychological executive function measures may be able to

Robert Perna; Ashlee R. Loughan; Kristin Talka

2012-01-01

257

Resting-State Brain Organization Revealed by Functional Covariance Networks  

PubMed Central

Background Brain network studies using techniques of intrinsic connectivity network based on fMRI time series (TS-ICN) and structural covariance network (SCN) have mapped out functional and structural organization of human brain at respective time scales. However, there lacks a meso-time-scale network to bridge the ICN and SCN and get insights of brain functional organization. Methodology and Principal Findings We proposed a functional covariance network (FCN) method by measuring the covariance of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in BOLD signals across subjects, and compared the patterns of ALFF-FCNs with the TS-ICNs and SCNs by mapping the brain networks of default network, task-positive network and sensory networks. We demonstrated large overlap among FCNs, ICNs and SCNs and modular nature in FCNs and ICNs by using conjunctional analysis. Most interestingly, FCN analysis showed a network dichotomy consisting of anti-correlated high-level cognitive system and low-level perceptive system, which is a novel finding different from the ICN dichotomy consisting of the default-mode network and the task-positive network. Conclusion The current study proposed an ALFF-FCN approach to measure the interregional correlation of brain activity responding to short periods of state, and revealed novel organization patterns of resting-state brain activity from an intermediate time scale.

Wang, Zhengge; Yuan, Cuiping; Jiao, Qing; Chen, Huafu; Biswal, Bharat B.; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Yijun

2011-01-01

258

Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish.

Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W.

2013-01-01

259

Control of a specific motor program by a small brain area in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Complex motor behaviors are thought to be coordinated by networks of brain nuclei that may control different elementary motor programs. Transparent zebrafish larvae offer the opportunity to analyze the functional organization of motor control networks by optical manipulations of neuronal activity during behavior. We examined motor behavior in transgenic larvae expressing channelrhodopsin-2 throughout many neurons in the brain. Wide-field optical stimulation triggered backward and rotating movements caused by the repeated execution of J-turns, a specific motor program that normally occurs during prey capture. Although optically-evoked activity was widespread, behavioral responses were highly coordinated and lateralized. 3-D mapping of behavioral responses to local optical stimuli revealed that J-turns can be triggered specifically in the anterior-ventral optic tectum (avOT) and/or the adjacent pretectum. These results suggest that the execution of J-turns is controlled by a small group of neurons in the midbrain that may act as a command center. The identification of a brain area controlling a defined motor program involved in prey capture is a step toward a comprehensive analysis of neuronal circuits mediating sensorimotor behaviors of zebrafish. PMID:23641200

Fajardo, Otto; Zhu, Peixin; Friedrich, Rainer W

2013-04-17

260

Inhaled anesthetics elicit region-specific changes in protein expression in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

Inhaled anesthetics bind specifically to many proteins in the mammalian brain. Within the subgroup of proteins whose activity is substantially modulated by anesthetic binding, it is reasonable to expect anesthetic-induced alterations in host expression level. Thus, in an attempt to define the group of functional targets for these commonly used drugs, we examined changes in protein expression after anesthetic exposure in both intact rodent brains and in neuronal cell culture. Differential in-gel electrophoresis was used to minimize variance, in order to detect small changes. Quantitative analysis shows that 5 h exposures to 1 minimum alveolar concentration (1 MAC) halothane caused changes in the expression of approximately 2% of detectable proteins, but only at 2-24 h after awakening, and only in the cortex. An equipotent concentration of isoflurane altered the expression of only approximately 1% of detectable proteins, and only in the hippocampus. Primary cortical neurons were exposed to three-fold higher concentrations of anesthetics with no evidence of cytotoxicity. Small changes in protein expression were elicited by both drugs. Despite the fact that anesthetics produce profound changes in neurobiology and behavior, we found only minor changes in brain protein expression. A pronounced degree of regional selectivity was noted, indicating an under appreciated degree of specificity for these promiscuous drugs. PMID:18655074

Pan, Jonathan Z; Xi, Jin; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

2008-07-01

261

Rapid visuomotor preparation in the human brain: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of human motor behaviour is anticipation and preparation. We report a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the neuronal activation patterns in the human brain that are associated with the rapid visuomotor preparation of discrete finger responses. Our imaging results reveal a large-scale distributed network of neural areas involved in fast visuomotor preparation, including specific areas in

Jos J. Adam; W. Backes; J. Rijcken; P. Hofman; H Kuipers; J Jolles

2003-01-01

262

Research report R apid visuomotor preparation in the human brain: a functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of human motor behaviour is anticipation and preparation. We report a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the neuronal activation patterns in the human brain that are associated with the rapid visuomotor preparation of discrete finger responses. Our imaging results reveal a large-scale distributed network of neural areas involved in fast visuomotor preparation, including specific areas in

Jos J. Adam; W. Backes; J. Rijcken; P. Hofman; H. Kuipers; J. Jolles

263

Rehabilitation of executive functioning in patients with frontal lobe brain damage with goal management training.  

PubMed

Executive functioning deficits due to brain disease affecting frontal lobe functions cause significant real-life disability, yet solid evidence in support of executive functioning interventions is lacking. Goal Management Training (GMT), an executive functioning intervention that draws upon theories concerning goal processing and sustained attention, has received empirical support in studies of patients with traumatic brain injury, normal aging, and case studies. GMT promotes a mindful approach to complex real-life tasks that pose problems for patients with executive functioning deficits, with a main goal of periodically stopping ongoing behavior to monitor and adjust goals. In this controlled trial, an expanded version of GMT was compared to an alternative intervention, Brain Health Workshop that was matched to GMT on non-specific characteristics that can affect intervention outcome. Participants included 19 individuals in the chronic phase of recovery from brain disease (predominantly stroke) affecting frontal lobe function. Outcome data indicated specific effects of GMT on the Sustained Attention to Response Task as well as the Tower Test, a visuospatial problem-solving measure that reflected far transfer of training effects. There were no significant effects on self-report questionnaires, likely owing to the complexity of these measures in this heterogeneous patient sample. Overall, these data support the efficacy of GMT in the rehabilitation of executive functioning deficits. PMID:21369362

Levine, Brian; Schweizer, Tom A; O'Connor, Charlene; Turner, Gary; Gillingham, Susan; Stuss, Donald T; Manly, Tom; Robertson, Ian H

2011-02-17

264

Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a simple ``toy`` brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ``critical`` state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught.

Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1995-05-01

265

Reorganization of functional brain networks during the recovery of stroke: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated that reorganization of the cortex after stroke contributed to the recovery of motor function. However, these studies paid much more attention to the reorganization of motor-related brain regions and motor executive network which only contained tens of brain regions, ignoring the change in brain-wide network during the restoration of motor function. Based on this consideration, this paper investigated the functional reorganization of brain-wide network during the recovery after stroke from the perspective of graph theory. At four time points (less than 10 days, around 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months) after stroke onset, we obtained the functional MRI (fMRI) data of stroke patients when they were doing finger tapping task. Based on the fMRI data, we constructed the brain-wide functional network which consisted of 264 putative functional areas for each subject at each time point. Then the topological parameters (e.g., characteristic path length and cluster coefficient) of these brain networks were examined. Results showed that the brain networks shifted towards a non-optimal topological configuration with low small-worldness during the process of recovery. And this finding may broaden our knowledge about the reorganization of brain function during recovery after stroke. PMID:23366837

Cheng, Lin; Wu, Zhiyuan; Fu, Yi; Miao, Fei; Sun, Junfeng; Tong, Shanbao

2012-01-01

266

Organization of Cognitive Functions in the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuropsychological research on the effects of hemispherectomy-the excision of one of the cerebral hemispheres-in children and adults adds to knowledge about the division of labor between the left cerebral hemisphere, which specializes in language and verbal cognitive functions, and the right hemisphere, which specializes in nonlanguage functions.…

Smith, Aaron

267

Regional brain atrophy development is related to specific aspects of clinical dysfunction in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to reflect irreversible tissue damage leading to persistent clinical deficit. Little is known about the rate of atrophy in specific brain regions in relation to specific clinical deficits.We determined the displacement of the brain surface between two T1-weighted MRI images obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 2.2 years for

Bas Jasperse; Hugo Vrenken; Ernesto Sanz-Arigita; Vincent de Groot; Stephen M. Smith; Chris H. Polman; Frederik Barkhof

2007-01-01

268

Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction  

PubMed Central

Background Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. Methods Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. Results Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (?24% with prefrontal and ?27% with parietal cortex). Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. Conclusions Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology.

Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca; Fornito, Alex; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

2013-01-01

269

Identification of Injury Specific Proteins in a Cell Culture Model of Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

The complicated secondary molecular and cellular mechanisms following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have used mass spectrometry to identify injury specific proteins in an in vitro model of TBI. A standardized injury was induced by scalpel cuts through a mixed cell culture of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. Twenty-four hours after the injury, cell culture medium and whole-cell fractions were collected for analysis. We found 53 medium proteins and 46 cell fraction proteins that were specifically expressed after injury and the known function of these proteins was elucidated by an extensive literature survey. By using time-lapse microscopy and immunostainings we could link a large proportion of the proteins to specific cellular processes that occur in response to trauma; including cell death, proliferation, lamellipodia formation, axonal regeneration, actin remodeling, migration and inflammation. A high percentage of the proteins uniquely expressed in the medium after injury were actin-related proteins, which normally are situated intracellularly. We show that two of these, ezrin and moesin, are expressed by astrocytes both in the cell culture model and in mouse brain subjected to experimental TBI. Interestingly, we found many inflammation-related proteins, despite the fact that cells were present in the culture. This study contributes with important knowledge about the cellular responses after trauma and identifies several potential cell-specific biomarkers.

Loov, Camilla; Shevchenko, Ganna; Geeyarpuram Nadadhur, Aishwarya; Clausen, Fredrik; Hillered, Lars; Wetterhall, Magnus; Erlandsson, Anna

2013-01-01

270

Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

271

Developmental and cell type-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse brain and in primary brain cells.  

PubMed

Cellular thyroid hormone uptake and efflux are mediated by transmembrane transport proteins. One of these, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is mutated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a severe mental retardation associated with abnormal thyroid hormone constellations. Since mice deficient in Mct8 exhibit a milder neurological phenotype than patients, we hypothesized that alternative thyroid hormone transporters may compensate in murine brain cells for the lack of Mct8. Using qPCR, Western Blot, and immunocytochemistry, we investigated the expression of three different thyroid hormone transporters, i.e., Mct8 and L-type amino acid transporters Lat1 and Lat2, in mouse brain. All three thyroid hormone transporters are expressed from corticogenesis and peak around birth. Primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes express Mct8, Lat1, and Lat2. Microglia specifically expresses Mct10 and Slco4a1 in addition to high levels of Lat2 mRNA and protein. As in vivo, a brain microvascular endothelial cell line expressed Mct8 and Lat1. 158N, an oligodendroglial cell line expressed Mct8 protein, consistent with delayed myelination in MCT8-deficient patients. Functional T(3)- and T(4)-transport assays into primary astrocytes showed K(M) values of 4.2 and 3.7 ?M for T(3) and T(4). Pharmacological inhibition of L-type amino acid transporters by BCH and genetic inactivation of Lat2 reduced astrocytic T(3) uptake to the same extent. BSP, a broad spectrum inhibitor, including Mct8, reduced T(3) uptake further suggesting the cooperative activity of several T(3) transporters in astrocytes. PMID:21264952

Braun, Doreen; Kinne, Anita; Bräuer, Anja U; Sapin, Remy; Klein, Marc O; Köhrle, Josef; Wirth, Eva K; Schweizer, Ulrich

2010-12-29

272

Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

2013-09-01

273

Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.  

PubMed

Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism). PMID:21878483

Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

2011-08-30

274

Linking structure and function: Information processing in the brain  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, theories of function in neuroscience have emerged from physiology. Physiologists have suggested a number of means by which information in the brain can be processed, yet the principles underlying the generation of these phenomena are not well understood. A complex systems approach would be to examine the overall structure and function of the system and to attempt to establish a common framework for information processing interactions. This paper will use the structure-function relationship as a basis for exploring units of information processing. It will examine the brain as a whole, first providing the non-specialists with an short overview of the structure and some of the functions or outputs of the brain. It then very briefly reviews three of the prominent theoretical concepts that have emerged in the last few decades: receptive fields, feature extraction, and parallel processing. Next, it addresses the question of information processing and outlines the structures which have traditionally been proposed to be the basic unit of information processing. An alternative unit on which information processing in the brain might be based is then proposed, and data outlined to support it. Finally, the implications of this different mode of processing are discussed, both for the brain and for other complex systems. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Gremillion, M.A.V.

1990-01-01

275

Characterizing dynamic functional connectivity in the resting brain using variable parameter regression and Kalman filtering approaches.  

PubMed

The cognitive activity of the human brain benefits from the functional connectivity of multiple brain regions that form specific, functional brain networks. Recent studies have indicated that the relationship between brain regions can be investigated by examining the temporal interaction (known as functional connectivity) of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals derived from resting-state functional MRI. Most of these studies plausibly assumed that inter-regional interactions were temporally stationary. However, little is known about the dynamic characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). In this study, we thoroughly examined this question within and between multiple functional brain networks. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned in a resting state. Several of the RSFC networks observed, including the default-mode, motor, attention, memory, auditory, visual, language and subcortical networks, were first identified using a conventional voxel-wise correlation analysis with predefined region of interests (ROIs). Then, a variable parameter regression model combined with the Kalman filtering method was employed to detect the dynamic interactions between each ROI and all other brain voxels within each of the RSFC maps extracted above. Experimental results revealed that the functional interactions within each RSFC map showed time-varying properties, and that approximately 10-20% of the voxels within each RSFC map showed significant functional connectivity to each ROI during the scanning session. This dynamic pattern was also observed for the interactions between different functional networks. In addition, the spatial pattern of dynamic connectivity maps obtained from neighboring time points had a high similarity. Overall, this study provides insights into the dynamic properties of resting-state functional networks. PMID:21420500

Kang, Jin; Wang, Liang; Yan, Chaogan; Wang, Jinhui; Liang, Xia; He, Yong

2011-03-21

276

Nutrition, Brain Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate...

H. R. Lieberman

2003-01-01

277

Development and brain delivery of chitosan-PEG nanoparticles functionalized with the monoclonal antibody OX26.  

PubMed

The inhibition of the caspase-3 enzyme is reported to increase neuronal cell survival following cerebral ischemia. The peptide Z-DEVD-FMK is a specific caspase inhibitor, which significantly reduces vulnerability to the neuronal cell death. However, this molecule is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to diffuse into the brain tissue. Thus, the development of an effective delivery system is needed to provide sufficient drug concentration into the brain to prevent cell death. Using the avidin (SA)-biotin (BIO) technology, we describe here the design of chitosan (CS) nanospheres conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) bearing the OX26 monoclonal antibody whose affinity for the transferrin receptor (TfR) may trigger receptor-mediated transport across the BBB. These functionalized CS-PEG-BIO-SA/OX26 nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized for their particle size, zeta potential, drug loading capacity, and release properties. Fluorescently labeled CS-PEG-BIO-SA/OX26 nanoparticles were administered systemically to mice in order to evaluate their efficacy for brain translocation. The results showed that an important amount of nanoparticles were located in the brain, outside of the intravascular compartment. These findings, which were also confirmed by electron microscopic examination of the brain tissue indicate that this novel targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery system was able to translocate into the brain tissue after iv administration. Consequently, these novel nanoparticles are promising carriers for the transport of the anticaspase peptide Z-DEVD-FMK into the brain. PMID:16287248

Akta?, Ye?im; Yemisci, Muge; Andrieux, Karine; Gürsoy, R Neslihan; Alonso, Maria Jose; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Novoa-Carballal, Ramón; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo; Sargon, Mustafa F; Celik, H Hamdi; Demir, Ayhan S; Hincal, A Atilla; Dalkara, Turgay; Capan, Yilmaz; Couvreur, Patrick

278

MR atlas of the baboon brain for functional neuroimaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical co-registration of functional image data (e.g., positron emission tomography, PET) to anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data allows for objective associations between function and anatomy. Baboons are often used as non-human primate models for functional neuroimaging studies. In this work, a digital MR-based high-resolution atlas of the baboon brain was generated and evaluated for PET. The atlas was generated

Phil J Greer; Victor L Villemagne; James Ruszkiewicz; Angela K Graves; Carolyn Cidis Meltzer; Chester A Mathis; Julie C Price

2002-01-01

279

Darwin's evolution theory, brain oscillations, and complex brain function in a new "Cartesian view".  

PubMed

Comparatively analyses of electrophysiological correlates across species during evolution, alpha activity during brain maturation, and alpha activity in complex cognitive processes are presented to illustrate a new multidimensional "Cartesian System" brain function. The main features are: (1) The growth of the alpha activity during evolution, increase of alpha during cognitive processes, and decrease of the alpha entropy during evolution provide an indicator for evolution of brain cognitive performance. (2) Human children younger than 3 years are unable to produce higher cognitive processes and do not show alpha activity till the age of 3 years. The mature brain can perform higher cognitive processes and demonstrates regular alpha activity. (3) Alpha activity also is significantly associated with highly complex cognitive processes, such as the recognition of facial expressions. The neural activity reflected by these brain oscillations can be considered as constituent "building blocks" for a great number of functions. An overarching statement on the alpha function is presented by extended analyzes with multiple dimensions that constitute a "Cartesian Hyperspace" as the basis for oscillatory function. Theoretical implications are considered. PMID:18805445

Ba?ar, Erol; Güntekin, Bahar

2008-07-31

280

Genetics of brain function and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is overwhelming evidence for the existence of substantial genetic influences on individ- ual differences in general and specific cognitive abilities, especially in adults. The actual local- ization and identification of genes underlying variation in cognitive abilities and intelligence has only just started, however. Successes are currently limited to neurological mutations with rather severe cognitive effects. The current approaches to

Geus de E. J. C; Margaret J. Wright; Nicholas G. Martin; Dorret I. Boomsma

2001-01-01

281

Loss of functional GABAA receptors in the Alzheimer diseased brain  

PubMed Central

The cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission systems are known to be severely disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). GABAergic neurotransmission, in contrast, is generally thought to be well preserved. Evidence from animal models and human postmortem tissue suggest GABAergic remodeling in the AD brain. Nevertheless, there is no information on changes, if any, in the electrophysiological properties of human native GABA receptors as a consequence of AD. To gain such information, we have microtransplanted cell membranes, isolated from temporal cortices of control and AD brains, into Xenopus oocytes, and recorded the electrophysiological activity of the transplanted GABA receptors. We found an age-dependent reduction of GABA currents in the AD brain. This reduction was larger when the AD membranes were obtained from younger subjects. We also found that GABA currents from AD brains have a faster rate of desensitization than those from non-AD brains. Furthermore, GABA receptors from AD brains were slightly, but significantly, less sensitive to GABA than receptors from non-AD brains. The reduction of GABA currents in AD was associated with reductions of mRNA and protein of the principal GABA receptor subunits normally present in the temporal cortex. Pairwise analysis of the transcripts within control and AD groups and analyses of the proportion of GABA receptor subunits revealed down-regulation of ?1 and ?2 subunits in AD. In contrast, the proportions of ?2, ?1, and ?1 transcripts were up-regulated in the AD brains. Our data support a functional remodeling of GABAergic neurotransmission in the human AD brain.

Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Miledi, Ricardo

2012-01-01

282

Fluctuations in Neuronal Activity: Clues to Brain Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as ``noise''. Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the ``meaningful'' neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.

Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis

2005-08-01

283

Interhemispheric functional connectivity following pre- or perinatal brain injury predicts receptive language outcome  

PubMed Central

Early brain injury alters both structural and functional connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres. Despite increasing knowledge on the individual hemispheric contributions to recovery from such injury, we know very little about how their interactions affect this process. In the present study, we related interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity to receptive language outcome following early left hemisphere stroke. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 14 people with neonatal brain injury, and 25 age-matched controls during passive story comprehension. With respect to structural connectivity, we found that increased volume of the corpus callosum predicted good receptive language outcome, but that this is not specific to people with injury. By contrast, we found that increased posterior superior temporal gyrus interhemispheric functional connectivity during story comprehension predicted better receptive language performance in people with early brain injury, but worse performance in typical controls. This suggests that interhemispheric functional connectivity is one potential compensatory mechanism following early injury. Further, this pattern of results suggests refinement of the prevailing notion that better language outcome following early left hemisphere injury relies on the contribution of the contralesional hemisphere (i.e., the “right-hemisphere-take-over” theory). This pattern of results was also regionally specific; connectivity of the angular gyrus predicted poorer performance in both groups, independent of brain injury. These results present a complex picture of recovery—in some cases, such recovery relies on increased cooperation between the injured hemisphere and homologous regions in the contralesional hemisphere, but in other cases, the opposite appears to hold.

Dick, Anthony Steven; Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

2013-01-01

284

Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.  

PubMed

The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 ?M and 3 ?M. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 ?M and 3.1 ?M. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. PMID:22426196

Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

2012-03-09

285

Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity.  

PubMed

Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, and default mode networks: SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN, and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable, with no significant changes of subjects' pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula, and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to interindividual differences in pain sensitivity. PMID:23718988

Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Gollub, Randy L; Napadow, Vitaly

2013-04-11

286

Large-scale functional brain network abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease: Insights from functional neuroimaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional MRI (fMRI) studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other

Bradford C. Dickerson; Reisa A. Sperling

287

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization  

PubMed Central

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the “global workspace” theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration.

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M.

2012-01-01

288

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization.  

PubMed

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the "global workspace" theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration. PMID:22973209

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M

2012-08-28

289

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function.  

PubMed Central

The techniques of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy have been established over the past two decades. Recent applications of these methods to study human brain function have become a rapidly growing area of research. The development of methods using standard MR contrast agents within the cerebral vasculature has allowed measurements of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which are activity dependent. Subsequent investigations linked the MR relaxation properties of brain tissue to blood oxygenation levels which are also modulated by consumption and blood flow (rCBF). These methods have allowed mapping of brain activity in human visual and motor cortex as well as in areas of the frontal lobe involved in language. The methods have high enough spatial and temporal sensitivity to be used in individual subjects. MR spectroscopy of proton and carbon-13 nuclei has been used to measure rates of glucose transport and metabolism in the human brain. The steady-state measurements of brain glucose concentrations can be used to monitor the glycolytic flux, whereas subsequent glucose metabolism--i.e., the flux into the cerebral glutamate pool--can be used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Under visual stimulation the concentration of lactate in the visual cortex has been shown to increase by MR spectroscopy. This increase is compatible with an increase of anaerobic glycolysis under these conditions as earlier proposed from positron emission tomography studies. It is shown how MR spectroscopy can extend this understanding of brain metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Shulman, R G; Blamire, A M; Rothman, D L; McCarthy, G

1993-01-01

290

Modulatory interactions of resting-state brain functional connectivity.  

PubMed

The functional brain connectivity studies are generally based on the synchronization of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. Functional connectivity measures usually assume a stable relationship over time; however, accumulating studies have reported time-varying properties of strength and spatial distribution of functional connectivity. The present study explored the modulation of functional connectivity between two regions by a third region using the physiophysiological interaction (PPI) technique. We first identified eight brain networks and two regions of interest (ROIs) representing each of the networks using a spatial independent component analysis. A voxel-wise analysis was conducted to identify regions that showed modulatory interactions (PPI) with the two ROIs of each network. Mostly, positive modulatory interactions were observed within regions involved in the same system. For example, the two regions of the dorsal attention network revealed modulatory interactions with the regions related to attention, while the two regions of the extrastriate network revealed modulatory interactions with the regions in the visual cortex. In contrast, the two regions of the default mode network (DMN) revealed negative modulatory interactions with the regions in the executive network, and vice versa, suggesting that the activities of one network may be associated with smaller within network connectivity of the competing network. These results validate the use of PPI analysis to study modulation of resting-state functional connectivity by a third region. The modulatory effects may provide a better understanding of complex brain functions. PMID:24023609

Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B

2013-08-30

291

The change of functional connectivity specificity in rats under various anesthesia levels and its neural origin.  

PubMed

Spatiotemporal correlations of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals measured in the resting brain have been found to imply many resting-state coherent networks under both awake/conscious and anesthetized/unconscious conditions. To understand the resting-state brain networks in the unconscious state, spontaneous BOLD signals from the rat sensorimotor cortex were studied across a wide range of anesthesia levels induced by isoflurane. Distinct resting-state networks covering functionally specific sub-regions of the sensorimotor system were observed under light anesthesia with 1.0% isoflurane; however, they gradually merged into a highly synchronized and spatially less-specific network under deep anesthesia with 1.8% isoflurane. The EEG power correlations recorded using three electrodes from a separate group of rats showed similar dependency on anesthesia depth, suggesting the neural origin of the change in functional connectivity specificity. The specific-to-less-specific transition of resting-state networks may reflect a functional reorganization of the brain at different anesthesia levels or brain states. PMID:23208517

Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Wei

2012-12-04

292

Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meditation is a conscious mental process that induces a set of integrated physiologic changes termed the relaxation response. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and characterize the brain regions that are active during a simple form of meditation. Significant ( p , 10?7) signal increases were observed in the group-averaged data in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal

Sara W. Lazar; George Bush; Randy L. Gollub; Gregory L. Fricchione; Gurucharan Khalsa; Herbert Benson

2000-01-01

293

Function Testing for Chemical Brain Damage: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of neurobehavioral functions for evaluation of the effects of chemicals on the human brain from community (i.e., environmental) exposures is logical and may be a preferred initial step. Sensitivity is improved (1) by adjusting individual tests for influential factors, found by regression modeling and by retaining significant coefficients; and (2) by the calculation of predicted values for each test

Kaye H. Kilburn

2001-01-01

294

Complexity in Quantum System and Its Application to Brain Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity and the chaos degree can be used to examine the chaotic aspects of not only several nonlinear classical and quantum physical physics but also life sciences. We will construct a model describing the function of brain in the context of Quantum Information Dynamics.

Masanori Ohya

2004-01-01

295

An Examination of the Functional Relationship between Brain and Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the structure/function relationship of the brain and language. Reviews the basic theories concerning cortical structures and language representation. Presents a call that highlights the need to examine the areas of listening, memory, and information retrieval for a more sophisticated analysis of the complex relationship between cortical…

McQuillen, Jeffrey S.; Strong, William F.

2000-01-01

296

Steroid Hormones: Effect on Brain Development and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones secreted by the adrenals, gonads and thyroid play an important role in mediating how the environment shapes the structure and function of the brain during early development, adult life and senescence. Many of these hormone effects occur at the level of gene transcription, via the actions of intracellular hormone receptors which are DNA-binding proteins. Other effects occur at the

B. S. McEwen

1992-01-01

297

An Examination of the Functional Relationship between Brain and Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the structure/function relationship of the brain and language. Reviews the basic theories concerning cortical structures and language representation. Presents a call that highlights the need to examine the areas of listening, memory, and information retrieval for a more sophisticated analysis of the complex relationship between…

McQuillen, Jeffrey S.; Strong, William F.

2000-01-01

298

Binding in models of perception and brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the concept of feature binding as fundamental to neural dynamics has made possible recent advances in the modeling of difficult problems of perception and brain function. Major weaknesses of past neural modeling (most prominently its inability to work with natural stimuli and its ‘learning-time’ barrier) have been traced back to improper treatment of the binding issue. Signal

Christoph von der Malsburg

1995-01-01

299

Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in cluster headaches.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks ('in attack') and headache-free intervals ('out of attack') using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during 'in attack' and 'out of attack' periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals. PMID:23460913

Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan

2013-02-27

300

Abnormal Brain Functional Connectivity of the Hypothalamus in Cluster Headaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks (‘in attack’) and headache-free intervals (‘out of attack’) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during ‘in attack’ and ‘out of attack’ periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.

Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan

2013-01-01

301

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

1998-12-01

302

Metallothionein-I induction by stress in specific brain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of metallothionein-I (MT) in several areas of the brain and its induction by immobilization stress has been studied in the rat. MT content was highest in hippocampus and midbrain and lowest in frontal cortex and pons plus medulla oblongata. Immobilization stress for 18 hours (which was accompanied by food and water deprivation) significantly increased MT levels in the

Juan Hidalgo; Luis Campmany; Octavi Martí; Antonio Armario I

1991-01-01

303

Specific Ways Brain SPECT Imaging Enhances Clinical Psychiatric Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to ascertain in a prospective case series how often brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) neuroimaging adds relevant information for diagnosis and\\/or treatment beyond current standard assessment tools in complex psychiatric cases. Charts of 109 consecutively evaluated outpatients from four psychiatrics clinics that routinely utilize SPECT imaging for complex cases were analyzed in two stages. In

Daniel G. Amen; Diane Highum; Robert Licata; Joseph A. Annibali; Lillian Somner; H. Edmund Pigott; Derek V. Taylor; Manuel Trujillo; Andrew Newberg; Theodore Henderson; Kristen Willeumier

2012-01-01

304

Distribution and Function of Melanocortin Receptors within the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Biological responses to pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides administered in the brain were documented in the 1950s\\u000a but their molecular mechanisms of action only began to be resolved with the mapping of melanocortin receptor subtypes to specific\\u000a brain regions in the 1990s. Out of the five melanocortin receptor subtypes, MC3R and MC4R are widely recognised as ‘neural’\\u000a melanocortin receptors. In situ hybridization

Kathleen G. Mountjoy

305

Subcortical aphasia and the problem of attributing functional responsibility to parts of distributed brain processes.  

PubMed

N&C's discussion is, in places, an exemplar of the sort of rigor and attention to detail that will bring us closer to an understanding of the functional organization of the brain. Indeed, it is this level of work that pushes us to reflect on the assumptions that undergird our research efforts. Our criticisms have developed four main points. First, the level of rigor applied to the consideration of basal ganglionic aphasia should extend to each application of the CPC method (thalamic aphasia included). Second, in our haste to identify specific brain systems with distinct cognitive functions we should not neglect the more basic question of the causal mechanisms by which the brain organizes behavior. Questions of "direct" versus "indirect" involvement of a particular organ in a cognitive function are only likely to distract our attention from this more basic and less inferentially perilous issue. Third, pure cases should no longer be considered touchstones against which all behavioral disturbances are measured. Reifying such ideals is more likely to shroud than reveal the brain's true complexity. Finally, the functions that we enshrine in particular brain regions should explain the particular character of the symptoms observed when they are damaged and should admit of independent verification. PMID:9222523

Craver, C F; Small, S L

1997-07-01

306

Functional Brain Image Analysis Using Joint Function-Structure Priors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a new method for context-driven analysis of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) that incorporates spatial\\u000a relationships between functional parameter clusters and anatomical structure directly for the first time. We design a parametric\\u000a scheme that relates functional and structural spatially-compact regions in a single unified manner. Our method is motivated\\u000a by the fact that the fMRI and anatomical MRI

Jing Yang; Xenophon Papademetris; Lawrence H. Staib; Robert T. Schultz; James S. Duncan

2004-01-01

307

Functional Brain Imaging of Young, Nondemented, and Demented Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain imaging based on functional MRI (fMRI) provides a powerful tool for characterizing age-related changes in functional anatomy. However, between-population comparisons confront potential differences in measurement properties. The present experiment explores the feasibility of conducting fMRI studies in nondemented and demented older adults by measuring hemodynamic response properties in an event-related design. A paradigm involving repeated presentation of sensory-motor response

Randy L. Buckner; Abraham Z. Snyder; Amy L. Sanders; Marcus E. Raichle; John C. Morris

2000-01-01

308

The automatic brain: studies on practice and brain function in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practice makes perfect. The neural mechanisms behind the behavioral improvement of practice (automatization) however are largely unknown. Here we investigate how practice changes brain function and how this can improve our processing capacity. We also examine whether a deficit in automatization can explain the severely limited processing capacity in schizophrenia. Previous research implicates working memory (WM) in the development of

T. R. van Raalten

2009-01-01

309

Moderate doses of alcohol disrupt the functional organization of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute alcohol administration decreases overall brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain activity. The behavioral effects of alcohol, however, are likely to reflect not only changes in regional brain activity but also the patterns of brain functional organization. Here we assessed the effects of a moderate dose of alcohol on the patterns of brain activity and cerebral

Nora D. Volkow; Yeming Ma; Wei Zhu; Joanna S. Fowler; Juan Li; Manlong Rao; Klaus Mueller; Kith Pradhan; Christopher Wong; Gene-Jack Wang

2008-01-01

310

Functional Bimodality in the Brain Networks of Preterm and Term Human Newborns.  

PubMed

The spontaneous brain activity exhibits long-range spatial correlations detected using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in newborns when (1) long neuronal pathways are still developing, and (2) the electrical brain activity consists of developmentally unique, intermittent events believed to guide activity-dependent brain wiring. We studied this spontaneous electrical brain activity using multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) of premature and fullterm babies during sleep to assess the development of spatial integration during last months of gestation. Correlations of frequency-specific amplitudes were found to follow a robust bimodality: During low amplitudes (low mode), brain activity exhibited very weak spatial correlations. In contrast, the developmentally essential high-amplitude events (high mode) showed strong spatial correlations. There were no clear spatial patterns in the early preterm, but clear frontal and parieto-occipital modules at term age. A significant fronto-occipital gradient was also seen in the development of the graph measure clustering coefficient. Strikingly, no bimodality was found in the fMRI recordings of the fullterm babies, suggesting that early EEG activity and fMRI signal reflect different mechanisms of spatial coordination. The results are compatible with the idea that early developing human brain exhibits intermittent long-range spatial connections that likely provide the endogenous guidance for early activity-dependent development of brain networks. PMID:23650289

Omidvarnia, Amir; Fransson, Peter; Metsäranta, Marjo; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

2013-05-01

311

Suicidal brains: a review of functional and structural brain studies in association with suicidal behaviour.  

PubMed

Evidence of an association between a vulnerability to suicidal behaviour and neurobiological abnormalities is accumulating. Post-mortem studies have demonstrated structural and biochemical changes in the brains of suicide victims. More recently, imaging techniques have become available to study changes in the brain in vivo. This systematic review of comparative imaging studies of suicidal brains shows that changes in the structure and functions of the brain in association with suicidal behaviour are mainly found in the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral parts of the prefrontal cortex. Correlational studies suggest that these changes relate to neuropsychological disturbances in decision-making, problem solving and fluency, respectively. As a consequence, the findings from these studies suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with (1) a particular sensitivity to social disapproval (2) choosing options with high immediate reward and (3) a reduced ability to generate positive future events. Further study is needed to elaborate these findings and to investigate to what extent changes in the structure and function of suicidal brains are amenable to psychological and/or biological interventions. PMID:20826179

van Heeringen, C; Bijttebier, S; Godfrin, K

2010-09-06

312

Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Regional-specific average time courses of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI contrast at 9.4T in lightly anesthetized resting rat brain are formed, and correlation coefficients between time course pairs are interpreted as measures of connectivity. A hierarchy of regional pairwise correlation coefficients (RPCCs) is observed, with the highest values found in the thalamus and cortex, both intra- and interhemisphere, and lower values between cortex and thalamus. Independent sensory networks are distinguished by two methods: data driven, where task activation defines regions of interest (ROI), and hypothesis driven, where regions are defined by the rat histological atlas. Success in these studies is attributed in part to the use of medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitor) for anesthesia. Consistent results in two different rat-brain systems, the sensorimotor and visual, strongly support the hypothesis that resting-state BOLD fluctuations are conserved across mammalian species and can be used to map brain systems.

Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Kao, Dennis S.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Schulte, Marie L.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Hyde, James S.

2008-01-01

313

Covert brand recognition engages emotion-specific brain networks.  

PubMed

Consumer goods' brands have become a major driver of consumers' choice: they have got symbolic, relational and even social properties that add substantial cultural and affective value to goods and services. Therefore, measuring the role of brands in consumers' cognitive and affective processes would be very helpful to better understand economic decision making. This work aimed at finding the neural correlates of automatic, spontaneous emotional response to brands, showing how deeply integrated are consumption symbols within the cognitive and affective processes of individuals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was measured during a visual oddball paradigm consisting in the presentation of scrambled pictures as frequent stimuli, colored squares as targets, and brands and emotional pictures (selected from the International Affective Picture System [IAPS]) as emotionally-salient distractors. Affective rating of brands was assessed individually after scanning by a validated questionnaire. Results showed that, similarly to IAPS pictures, brands activated a well-defined emotional network, including amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, highly specific of affective valence. In conclusion, this work identified the neural correlates of brands within cognitive and affective processes of consumers. PMID:23479459

Casarotto, Silvia; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Romani, Simona; Dalli, Daniele; Pietrini, Pietro

2012-12-01

314

Whole brain functional connectivity in the early blind.  

PubMed

Early visual deprivation can lead to changes in the brain, which may be explained by either of two hypotheses. The general loss hypothesis has been proposed to explain maladjustments, while the compensatory plasticity hypothesis may explain a superior ability in the use of the remaining senses. Most previous task-based functional MRI (fMRI) studies have supported the compensatory plasticity hypothesis, but it has been difficult to provide evidence to support the general loss hypothesis, since the blind cannot execute visual tasks. The study of resting state fMRI data may provide an opportunity to simultaneously detect the two aspects of changes in the blind. In this study, using a whole brain perspective, we investigated the decreased and increased functional connectivities in the early blind using resting state fMRI data. The altered functional connectivities were identified by comparing the correlation coefficients of each pair of brain regions of 16 early blind subjects (9 males; age range: 15.6-29.3 years, mean age: 22.1 years) with the corresponding coefficients of gender- and age-matched sighted volunteers. Compared with the sighted subjects, the blind demonstrated the decreased functional connectivities within the occipital visual cortices as well as between the occipital visual cortices and the parietal somatosensory, frontal motor and temporal multisensory cortices. Such differences may support the general loss hypothesis. However, we also found that the introduction of Braille earlier in life and for longer daily practice times produced stronger functional connectivities between these brain areas. These findings may support the compensatory plasticity hypothesis. Additionally, we found several increased functional connectivities between the occipital cortices and frontal language cortices in those with early onset of blindness, which indicate the predominance of compensatory plasticity. Our findings indicate that changes in the functional connectivities in the resting state may be an integrated reflection of general loss and compensatory plasticity when a single sensory modality is deprived. PMID:17533167

Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Liang, Meng; Li, Jun; Tian, Lixia; Zhou, Yuan; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi

2007-05-28

315

Traumatic brain injury shows better functional recovery than brain tumor: a rehabilitative perspective.  

PubMed

Background: The similar symptoms seen in the brain tumor (BT) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) population. However, functional comparisons between these two diagnostic groups have been limited. Aim: To compare functional outcomes in patients with supratentorial BT and TBI after early rehabilitation. Design: This was a retrospective database analysis. Setting. Patients admitted to an Acute Care Unit as inpatient (Hacettepe Hospital, Ankara-Turkey). Population. The population included patients with BT and TBI. Methods: Thirty-four patients with BT and TBI were matched one-to-one by lesion side and sex. The Barthel Index was used to assess functional status at the pre- and postrehabilitation. The change rate and efficiency in BI were also calculated. The time between injury onset and admission to rehabilitation (the onset to admission interval, OAI) and length of stay in rehabilitation (LOS rehab) were recorded. In addition, the influence of lesion side (left and right) and age on functional outcome were analyzed. Results: The functional level was significantly lower in TBI patients than in patients BT before rehabilitation (P<0.05). The post-rehabilitation BI score was similar in patients with BT and TBI (P>0.05). Patients with TBI had greater the change rate and efficiency in BI (P<0.05). The OAI and LOS rehab was longer in patients with TBI (P<0.05). In terms of lesion side comparisons, no differences were found (P>0.05). The age had no effect on functional outcome in patients with TBI and BT (P>0.05), expect the age group 45-59 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The early rehabilitation program improved functional ability of patients with brain tumors, as well as patients with traumatic brain injury. Despite the lower functional status, patients with TBI displayed better functional recovery than patients with BT. Lesion side had no effect on functional outcome in patients with TBI and BT. Differences in functional status begin to appear even in patients with TBI between 45 and 59 years. Further investigations with more detailed outcome instruments are required to better understand the qualitative limitations of a patient's recovery. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact: Patients with TBI will make functional gains comparable with patients with brain tumors in a similar rehabilitation setting. PMID:23558698

Bilgin, S; Kose, N; Karakaya, J; Mut, M

2013-04-05

316

Maturation of Brain Function Associated With Response Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the developmental trajectory of response inhibition and, more specifically, whether there is a dissociation of function in the prefrontal cortex over the course of development of executive function and associated response inhibition abilities.

LEANNE TAMM; VINOD MENON; ALLAN L. REISS

2002-01-01

317

A Role for REM Sleep in Recalibrating the Sensitivity of the Human Brain to Specific Emotions  

PubMed Central

Although the impact of sleep on cognitive function is increasingly well established, the role of sleep in modulating affective brain processes remains largely uncharacterized. Using a face recognition task, here we demonstrate an amplified reactivity to anger and fear emotions across the day, without sleep. However, an intervening nap blocked and even reversed this negative emotional reactivity to anger and fear while conversely enhancing ratings of positive (happy) expressions. Most interestingly, only those subjects who obtained rapid eye movement (REM) sleep displayed this remodulation of affective reactivity for the latter 2 emotion categories. Together, these results suggest that the evaluation of specific human emotions is not static across a daytime waking interval, showing a progressive reactivity toward threat-related negative expressions. However, an episode of sleep can reverse this predisposition, with REM sleep depotentiating negative reactivity toward fearful expressions while concomitantly facilitating recognition and ratings of reward-relevant positive expressions. These findings support the view that sleep, and specifically REM neurophysiology, may represent an important factor governing the optimal homeostasis of emotional brain regulation.

Gujar, Ninad; McDonald, Steven Andrew; Nishida, Masaki

2011-01-01

318

The Brain-Specific Beta4 Subunit Downregulates BK Channel Cell Surface Expression  

PubMed Central

The large-conductance K+ channel (BK channel) can control neural excitability, and enhanced channel currents facilitate high firing rates in cortical neurons. The brain-specific auxiliary subunit ?4 alters channel Ca++- and voltage-sensitivity, and ?4 knock-out animals exhibit spontaneous seizures. Here we investigate ?4's effect on BK channel trafficking to the plasma membrane. Using a novel genetic tag to track the cellular location of the pore-forming BK? subunit in living cells, we find that ?4 expression profoundly reduces surface localization of BK channels via a C-terminal ER retention sequence. In hippocampal CA3 neurons from C57BL/6 mice with endogenously high ?4 expression, whole-cell BK channel currents display none of the characteristic properties of BK?+?4 channels observed in heterologous cells. Finally, ?4 knock-out animals exhibit a 2.5-fold increase in whole-cell BK channel current, indicating that ?4 also regulates current magnitude in vivo. Thus, we propose that a major function of the brain-specific ?4 subunit in CA3 neurons is control of surface trafficking.

Shruti, Sonal; Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Fitzpatrick, James A.; Brenner, Robert; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Barth, Alison L.

2012-01-01

319

Increased serum creatine kinase BB and neuron specific enolase following head injury indicates brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to examine whether an increase in the serum concentrations of the two brain enzymes creatine kinase BB (CK-BB) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) can be demonstrated in patiens with acute head injury and whether such an increase reflects release from damaged brain tissue. In 60 patients who had suffered minor to severe head

I. M. Skogseid; H. K. Nordby; P. Urdal; E. Paus; F. Lilleaas

1992-01-01

320

Identification of cell-type-specific promoters within the brain using lentiviral vectors.  

PubMed

The development of cell-type-specific mini-promoters for genetic studies is complicated by a number of issues. Here, we describe a general method for the relatively rapid screening of specific promoter activity in cell culture, in acute brain slice preparations and in vivo. Specifically, we examine the activity of an approximately 3 kb promoter region from the neuroactive peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) compared to the commonly used cytomegalovirus promoter. We find a high degree of cell-type selectivity in vivo using lentiviral approaches in rats and traditional transgenic approaches in mice. Appropriate colocalization of Cre-recombinase and CCK gene expression is found within the hippocampus, when the CCK promoter is driving either the expression of Cre-recombinase or green fluorescent protein. We also demonstrate fluorescent identification of CCK-positive interneurons that allows for cell-type-specific electrophysiologic studies in rats and mice. In conclusion, these studies identify a functional mini-promoter for the CCK gene and outline a novel and sensitive general method to test activity of selective promoters in vitro and in vivo. This approach may allow for the more rapid identification of specific promoters for use with transgenic animals, in genetically modified viruses, and in the design of targeted, therapeutic gene-delivery systems. PMID:17235291

Chhatwal, J P; Hammack, S E; Jasnow, A M; Rainnie, D G; Ressler, K J

2007-01-18

321

Identification of cell-type-specific promoters within the brain using lentiviral vectors  

PubMed Central

The development of cell-type-specific mini-promoters for genetic studies is complicated by a number of issues. Here, we describe a general method for the relatively rapid screening of specific promoter activity in cell culture, in acute brain slice preparations and in vivo. Specifically, we examine the activity of an ~3 kb promoter region from the neuroactive peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) compared to the commonly used cytomegalovirus promoter. We find a high degree of cell-type selectivity in vivo using lentiviral approaches in rats and traditional transgenic approaches in mice. Appropriate colocalization of Cre-recombinase and CCK gene expression is found within the hippocampus, when the CCK promoter is driving either the expression of Cre-recombinase or green fluorescent protein. We also demonstrate fluorescent identification of CCK-positive inter-neurons that allows for cell-type-specific electrophysiologic studies in rats and mice. In conclusion, these studies identify a functional mini-promoter for the CCK gene and outline a novel and sensitive general method to test activity of selective promoters in vitro and in vivo. This approach may allow for the more rapid identification of specific promoters for use with transgenic animals, in genetically modified viruses, and in the design of targeted, therapeutic gene-delivery systems.

Chhatwal, JP; Hammack, SE; Jasnow, AM; Rainnie, DG; Ressler, KJ

2008-01-01

322

The functional neuroanatomy of working memory: Contributions of human brain lesion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of patients with focal brain lesions remain critical components of research programs attempting to understand human brain function. Whereas functional imaging typically reveals activity in distributed brain regions that are involved in a task, lesion studies can define which of these brain regions are necessary for a cognitive process. Further, lesion studies are less critical regarding the selection of

N. G. Müller; R. T. Knight

2006-01-01

323

In Vivo Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Neuropathology with Structural and Functional Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

Quantitative neuroimaging is increasingly used to study the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain structure and function. This paper reviews quantitative structural and functional neuroimaging studies of patients with TBI, with an emphasis on the effects of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), the primary neuropathology in TBI. Quantitative structural neuroimaging has evolved from simple planometric measurements through targeted region-of-interest analyses to whole-brain analysis of quantified tissue compartments. Recent studies converge to indicate widespread volume loss of both gray and white matter in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. These changes can be documented even when patients with focal lesions are excluded. Broadly speaking, performance on standard neuropsychological tests of speeded information processing are related to these changes, but demonstration of specific brain-behavior relationships requires more refined experimental behavioral measures. The functional consequences of these structural changes can be imaged with activation functional neuroimaging. Although this line of research is at an early stage, results indicate that TBI causes a more widely dispersed activation in frontal and posterior cortices. Further progress in analysis of the consequences of TBI on neural structure and function will require control of variability in neuropathology and behavior.

LEVINE, BRIAN; FUJIWARA, ESTHER; O'CONNOR, CHARLENE; RICHARD, NADINE; KOVACEVIC, NATASA; MANDIC, MARINA; RESTAGNO, ADRIANA; EASDON, CRAIG; ROBERTSON, IAN H.; GRAHAM, SIMON J.; CHEUNG, GORDON; GAO, FUQIANG; SCHWARTZ, MICHAEL L.; BLACK, SANDRA E.

2007-01-01

324

Effect of brain shift on the creation of functional atlases for deep brain stimulation surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose In the recent past many groups have tried to build functional atlases of the deep brain using intra-operatively acquired information such as stimulation responses or micro-electrode recordings. An underlying assumption in building such atlases is that anatomical structures do not move between pre-operative imaging and intra-operative recording. In this study, we present evidences that this assumption is not valid. We quantify the effect of brain shift between pre-operative imaging and intra-operative recording on the creation of functional atlases using intra-operative somatotopy recordings and stimulation response data. Methods A total of 73 somatotopy points from 24 bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) implantations and 52 eye deviation stimulation response points from 17 bilateral STN implantations were used. These points were spatially normalized on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas using a fully automatic non-rigid registration algorithm. Each implantation was categorized as having low, medium or large brain shift based on the amount of pneumocephalus visible on post-operative CT. The locations of somatotopy clusters and stimulation maps were analyzed for each category. Results The centroid of the large brain shift cluster of the somatotopy data (posterior, lateral, inferior: 3.06, 11.27, 5.36 mm) was found posterior, medial and inferior to that of the medium cluster (2.90, 13.57, 4.53 mm) which was posterior, medial and inferior to that of the low shift cluster (1.94, 13.92, 3.20 mm). The coordinates are referenced with respect to the mid-commissural point. Euclidean distances between the centroids were 1.68, 2.44 and 3.59 mm, respectively for low-medium, medium-large and low-large shift clusters. We found similar trends for the positions of the stimulation maps. The Euclidian distance between the highest probability locations on the low and medium-large shift maps was 4.06 mm. Conclusion The effect of brain shift in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery has been demonstrated using intra-operative somatotopy recordings as well as stimulation response data. The results not only indicate that considerable brain shift happens before micro-electrode recordings in DBS but also that brain shift affects the creation of accurate functional atlases. Therefore, care must be taken when building and using such atlases of intra-operative data and also when using intra-operative data to validate anatomical atlases.

Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Remple, Michael S.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Kao, Chris; Konrad, Peter E.; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois

2011-01-01

325

The extrinsic and intrinsic functional architectures of the human brain are not equivalent.  

PubMed

The brain's intrinsic functional architecture, revealed in correlated spontaneous activity, appears to constitute a faithful representation of its repertoire of evoked, extrinsic functional interactions. Here, using broad task contrasts to probe evoked patterns of coactivation, we demonstrate tight coupling between the brain's intrinsic and extrinsic functional architectures for default and task-positive regions, but not for subcortical and limbic regions or for primary sensory and motor cortices. While strong correspondence likely reflects persistent or recurrent patterns of evoked coactivation, weak correspondence may exist for regions whose patterns of evoked functional interactions are more adaptive and context dependent. These findings were independent of task. For tight task contrasts (e.g., incongruent vs. congruent trials), evoked patterns of coactivation were unrelated to the intrinsic functional architecture, suggesting that high-level task demands are accommodated by context-specific modulations of functional interactions. We conclude that intrinsic approaches provide only a partial understanding of the brain's functional architecture. Appreciating the full repertoire of dynamic neural responses will continue to require task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging approaches. PMID:22298730

Mennes, Maarten; Kelly, Clare; Colcombe, Stan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

2012-01-31

326

Effective treatment of chronic low back pain in humans reverses abnormal brain anatomy and function.  

PubMed

Chronic pain is associated with reduced brain gray matter and impaired cognitive ability. In this longitudinal study, we assessed whether neuroanatomical and functional abnormalities were reversible and dependent on treatment outcomes. We acquired MRI scans from chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients before (n = 18) and 6 months after (spine surgery or facet joint injections; n = 14) treatment. In addition, we scanned 16 healthy controls, 10 of which returned 6 months after the first visit. We performed cortical thickness analysis on structural MRI scans, and subjects performed a cognitive task during the functional MRI. We compared patients and controls, as well as patients before versus after treatment. After treatment, patients had increased cortical thickness in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which was thinner before treatment compared with controls. Increased DLPFC thickness correlated with the reduction of both pain and physical disability. Additionally, increased thickness in primary motor cortex was associated specifically with reduced physical disability, and right anterior insula was associated specifically with reduced pain. Left DLPFC activity during an attention-demanding cognitive task was abnormal before treatment, but normalized following treatment. These data indicate that functional and structural brain abnormalities-specifically in the left DLPFC-are reversible, suggesting that treating chronic pain can restore normal brain function in humans. PMID:21593339

Seminowicz, David A; Wideman, Timothy H; Naso, Lina; Hatami-Khoroushahi, Zeinab; Fallatah, Summaya; Ware, Mark A; Jarzem, Peter; Bushnell, M Catherine; Shir, Yoram; Ouellet, Jean A; Stone, Laura S

2011-05-18

327

Nanoparticle-Mediated Brain-Specific Drug Delivery, Imaging, and Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases represent the largest and fastest-growing area of unmet medical need. Nanotechnology\\u000a plays a unique instrumental role in the revolutionary development of brain-specific drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis.\\u000a With the aid of nanoparticles of high specificity and multifunctionality, such as dendrimers and quantum dots, therapeutics,\\u000a imaging agents, and diagnostic molecules can be delivered to the brain

Hu Yang

2010-01-01

328

Voxel scale complex networks of functional connectivity in the rat brain: neurochemical state dependence of global and local topological properties.  

PubMed

Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine) to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited. PMID:22919431

Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro; Chessa, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo

2012-07-31

329

Revealing Topological Organization of Human Brain Functional Networks with Resting-State Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background The human brain is a highly complex system that can be represented as a structurally interconnected and functionally synchronized network, which assures both the segregation and integration of information processing. Recent studies have demonstrated that a variety of neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography can be employed to explore the topological organization of human brain networks. However, little is known about whether functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a relatively new optical imaging technology, can be used to map functional connectome of the human brain and reveal meaningful and reproducible topological characteristics. Results We utilized resting-state fNIRS (R-fNIRS) to investigate the topological organization of human brain functional networks in 15 healthy adults. Brain networks were constructed by thresholding the temporal correlation matrices of 46 channels and analyzed using graph-theory approaches. We found that the functional brain network derived from R-fNIRS data had efficient small-world properties, significant hierarchical modular structure and highly connected hubs. These results were highly reproducible both across participants and over time and were consistent with previous findings based on other functional imaging techniques. Conclusions Our results confirmed the feasibility and validity of using graph-theory approaches in conjunction with optical imaging techniques to explore the topological organization of human brain networks. These results may expand a methodological framework for utilizing fNIRS to study functional network changes that occur in association with development, aging and neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Zhao, Tengda; Shu, Ni; He, Yong

2012-01-01

330

Modulation of specific brain activity by the perceptual analysis of very subtle geometrical relationships of the Mangina-Test stimuli: A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation in young healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mangina-Test provides a neuropsychometric assessment of varying degrees of “Analytical-Specific Visual Perception”, i.e., the ability to identify simple stimuli inserted into more complex ones according to their exact geometrical properties in a limited span of time. Perceptual analysis of stimuli dealing with the exact discrimination of size and dimension is related more to mathematical abilities (MATH), while perceptual analysis

Constantine A. Mangina; Helen Beuzeron-Mangina; Silvia Casarotto; Giuseppe A. Chiarenza; Pietro Pietrini; Emiliano Ricciardi

2009-01-01

331

Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model  

SciTech Connect

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-? pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of proteome changes underlying both nigrostriatal pathways and other brain regions potentially involved in MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. The observed molecular changes provide a valuable reference resource for future hypothesis-driven functional studies of PD.

Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Wood, Stephen A.; Melega, William P.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

2010-02-15

332

Executive control function, brain activation and white matter hyperintensities in older adults  

PubMed Central

Context Older adults responding to executive control function (ECF) tasks show greater brain activation on functional MRI (fMRI). It is not clear whether greater fMRI activation indicates a strategy to compensate for underlying brain structural abnormalities while maintaining higher performance. Objective To identify the patterns of fMRI activation in relationship with ECF performance and with brain structural abnormalities. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Main variables of interest: fMRI activation, accuracy while performing an ECF task (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), volume of white matter hyperintensities and of total brain atrophy. Setting Cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Participants Data were obtained on 25 older adults (20 women, 81 years mean age). Outcome Measure Accuracy (number of correct response / total number of responses) while performing the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Results Greater accuracy was significantly associated with greater peak fMRI activation, from ECF regions, including left middle frontal gyrus and right posterior parietal cortex. Greater WMH was associated with lower activation within accuracy-related regions. The interaction of accuracy by white matter hyperintensities volume was significant within the left posterior parietal region. Specifically, the correlation of white matter hyperintensities volume with fMRI activation varied as a function of accuracy and it was positive for greater accuracy. Associations with brain atrophy were not significant. Conclusions Recruitment of additional areas and overall greater brain activation in older adults is associated with higher performance. Posterior parietal activation may be particularly important to maintain higher accuracy in the presence of underlying brain connectivity structural abnormalities.

Venkatraman, Vijay K.; Aizenstein, Howard; Guralnik, Jack; Newman, Anne B.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher; Studenski, Stephanie; Launer, Lenore; Pahor, Marco; Williamson, Jeff; Rosano, Caterina

2009-01-01

333

Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain.  

PubMed

Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that in the children's group, short-range coherence within frontal areas was stronger, and long-range coherence between frontal and parietal areas was weaker, compared to adults. Our findings show that in children aged from 4 to 6years fronto-parietal brain maturation plays a crucial part in the cognitive development of response inhibition. PMID:23265620

Mehnert, Jan; Akhrif, Atae; Telkemeyer, Silke; Rossi, Sonja; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth; Neufang, Susanne

2012-12-21

334

Alteration and Reorganization of Functional Networks: A New Perspective in Brain Injury Study  

PubMed Central

Plasticity is the mechanism underlying the brain’s potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown how functional connections among the brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various areas of the brain and it could be an essential tool for brain functional studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives, and clinical uses in brain injury studies.

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bajo, Ricardo; Cuesta, Pablo; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose Antonio; Paul, Nuria; Garcia-Prieto, Juan; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2011-01-01

335

A biomedical information system for neuroimaging and brain function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to solve the database interoperability and neuroscientific information integration, we have built an internet-accessible Biomedical Information System (BMIS) for neuroimaging and brain function research. BMIS is a multi-purpose academic periodical full-text literature platform; it safeguards the literature involving Neuroscience, Biomedical Photonics, Medical Imaging, Bioinformatics and so on, and can carry on the input, retrieval and maintenance of the literature data. Based on the cluster system of TS10000 and new data processing technologies, the establishment of this integrated, individualized and extensible system will provide the massive data set needed for knowledge discovery and will serve as a foundation for future hypothesis-driven experiments, which begin with a special problem of substantial scientific interest about neuroimaging and brain function.

You, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Qingming

2007-05-01

336

Patching the glia reveals the functional organisation of the brain.  

PubMed

The neuroglia was initially conceived by Rudolf Virchow as a non-cellular connective tissue holding neurones together. In 1894, Carl Ludwig Schleich proposed a hypothesis of fully integrated and interconnected neuronal-glial circuits as a substrate for brain function. This hypothesis received direct experimental support only hundred years later, after several physiological techniques, and most notably the patch-clamp method, were applied to glial cells. These experiments have demonstrated the existence of active and bi-directional neuronal-glial communications, integrating neuronal networks and glial syncytium into one functional circuit. The data accumulated during last 15 years prompt rethinking of the neuronal doctrine towards more inclusive concept, which regards both neurones and glia as equally responsible for information processing in the brain. PMID:16775706

Verkhratsky, Alexei

2006-06-15

337

TE-Dependent Spatial and Spectral Specificity of Functional Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that spontaneous fluctuations in the resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) signal may reflect fluctuations in transverse relaxation time (T2*) rather than spin density (S0). However, such S0 and T2* features have not been well characterized. In this study, spatial and spectral characteristics of functional connectivity on sensorimotor, default-mode, dorsal attention, and primary visual systems were examined using a multiple gradient-echo sequence at 3T. In the spatial domain, we found broad, local correlations at short echo times (TE ? 14 ms) due to dominant S0 contribution, whereas long-range connections mediated by T2* became explicit at TEs longer than 22 ms. In the frequency domain, compared with the flat spectrum of S0, spectral power of the T2*-weighted signal elevated significantly with increasing TE, particularly in the frequency ranges of 0.008-0.023 Hz and 0.037-0.043 Hz. Using the S0 spectrum as a reference, we propose two indices to measure spectral signal change (SSC) and spectral contrast-to-noise ratio (SCNR), respectively, for quantifying the RS-fMRI signal. These indices demonstrated TE dependency of connectivity-related fluctuation strength, resembling functional contrasts in activation-based fMRI. These findings further confirm that large-scale functional circuit connectivity based on BOLD contrast may be constrained within specific frequency ranges in every brain network, and the spectral features of S0 and T2* could be valuable for interpreting and quantifying RS-fMRI data.

Wu, Changwei W.; Gu, Hong; Zou, Qihong; Lu, Hanbing; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong

2012-01-01

338

Quantitative analysis of group-specific brain tissue probability map for schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

We developed group-specific tissue probability map (TPM) for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the common spatial coordinates of an averaged brain atlas derived from normal controls (NC) and from schizophrenic patients (SZ). To identify differences in group-specific TPMs, we used quantitative evaluation methods based on differences in probabilistic distribution as a global criterion, and the mean probability and the similarity index (SI) by lobe as regional criteria. The SZ group showed more spatial variation with a lower mean probability than NC subjects. And, for the right temporal and left parietal lobes, the SI between each group was lower than the other lobes. It can be said that there were significant differences in spatial distribution between controls and schizophrenic patients at those areas. In case of female group, although group differences in the volumes of GM and WM were not significant, global difference in the probabilistic distribution of GM was more prominent and the SI was lower and its descent rate was greater in all lobes, compared with the male group. If these morphological differences caused by disease or group-specific features were not considered in TPM, the accuracy and certainty of specific group studies would be greatly reduced. Therefore, suitable TPM is required as a common framework for functional neuroimaging studies and an a priori knowledge of tissue classification. PMID:15907307

Yoon, Uicheul; Lee, Jong-Min; Koo, B B; Shin, Yong-Wook; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, In Young; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Sun I

2005-04-07

339

A biomedical information system for neuroimaging and brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the database interoperability and neuroscientific information integration, we have built an internet-accessible Biomedical Information System (BMIS) for neuroimaging and brain function research. BMIS is a multi-purpose academic periodical full-text literature platform; it safeguards the literature involving Neuroscience, Biomedical Photonics, Medical Imaging, Bioinformatics and so on, and can carry on the input, retrieval and maintenance of the

Jun You; Jie Zhang; Qingming Luo

2007-01-01

340

Automated Talairach Atlas labels for functional brain mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated coordinate-based system to retrieve brain labels from the 1988 Talairach Atlas, called the Talairach Daemon (TD), was previously introduced (Lancaster et al., 1997). In the present study, the TD system and its 3-D database of labels for the 1988 Talairach atlas were tested for labeling of functional activation foci. TD system labels were compared with author-designated labels of

Jack L. Lancaster; Marty G. Woldorff; Lawrence M. Parsons; Mario Liotti; Catarina S. Freitas; Lacy Rainey; Peter V. Kochunov; Dan Nickerson; Shawn A. Mikiten; Peter T. Fox

2000-01-01

341

Exploiting Temporal Information in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) has enabled scientists to look into the active human brain, leading to a flood of new data, thus encouraging the development of new data analysis methods. In this paper, we contribute a comprehensive framework for spatial and tem- poral exploration of fMRI data, and apply it to a challenging case study: separating drug addicted subjects from

Lei Zhang; Dimitris Samaras; Dardo Tomasi; Nelly Alia-klein; Lisa Cottone; Andreana Leskovjan; Nora D. Volkow; Rita Goldstein

2005-01-01

342

Normalizing hematocrit in dialysis patients improves brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment has been shown to improve brain and cognitive function in anemic dialysis patients. Significant debate continues, however, regarding the appropriate target hematocrit (Hct) that will lead to the greatest benefits while considering possible side effects and costs of rHuEPO. Current practice results in an Hct averaging only 31% to 32% in dialysis patients, a level

Janiece L. Pickett; David C. Theberge; Warren S. Brown; Suzanne U. Schweitzer; Allen R. Nissenson

1999-01-01

343

Patching the glia reveals the functional organisation of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroglia was initially conceived by Rudolf Virchow as a non-cellular connective tissue holding neurones together. In\\u000a 1894, Carl Ludwig Schleich proposed a hypothesis of fully integrated and interconnected neuronal-glial circuits as a substrate\\u000a for brain function. This hypothesis received direct experimental support only hundred years later, after several physiological\\u000a techniques, and most notably the patch-clamp method, were applied to

Alexei Verkhratsky

2006-01-01

344

Functionally Specific Reorganization in Human Premotor Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY After unilateral stroke, the dorsal premotor cor- tex (PMd) in the intact hemisphere is often more active during movement of an affected limb. Whether this contributes to motor recovery is unclear. Functional magnetic resonance imag- ing (fMRI) was used to investigate short-term reorganization in right PMd after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) disrupted the dom- inant left PMd, which is

Jacinta O'Shea; Heidi Johansen-Berg; Danielle Trief; Silke Göbel; Matthew F. S. Rushworth

2007-01-01

345

Tracing Activity Across the Whole Brain Neural Network with Optogenetic Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Despite the overwhelming need, there has been a relatively large gap in our ability to trace network level activity across the brain. The complex dense wiring of the brain makes it extremely challenging to understand cell-type specific activity and their communication beyond a few synapses. Recent development of the optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI) provides a new impetus for the study of brain circuits by enabling causal tracing of activities arising from defined cell types and firing patterns across the whole brain. Brain circuit elements can be selectively triggered based on their genetic identity, cell body location, and/or their axonal projection target with temporal precision while the resulting network response is monitored non-invasively with unprecedented spatial and temporal accuracy. With further studies including technological innovations to bring ofMRI to its full potential, ofMRI is expected to play an important role in our system-level understanding of the brain circuit mechanism.

Lee, Jin Hyung

2011-01-01

346

Large-scale functional brain networks in human non-rapid eye movement sleep: insights from combined electroencephalographic/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the existing body of knowledge on the neural correlates of spontaneous oscillations, functional connectivity and brain plasticity in human non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The first section reviews the evidence that specific sleep events as slow waves and spindles are associated with transient increases in regional brain activity. The second section describes the changes in functional connectivity during NREM sleep, with a particular focus on changes within a low-frequency, large-scale functional brain network. The third section will discuss the possibility that spontaneous oscillations and differential functional connectivity are related to brain plasticity and systems consolidation, with a particular focus on motor skill acquisition. Implications for the mode of information processing per sleep stage and future experimental studies are discussed. PMID:21893524

Spoormaker, Victor I; Czisch, Michael; Maquet, Pierre; Jäncke, Lutz

2011-10-13

347

Structural and functional neuroimaging studies of the suicidal brain.  

PubMed

Suicidality is a major challenge for today's health care. Evidence suggests that there are differences in cognitive functioning of suicidal patients but the knowledge about the underlying neurobiology is limited. Brain imaging offers the advantage of a non-invasive in vivo direct estimation of detailed brain structure, regional brain functioning and estimation of molecular processes in the brain. We have reviewed the literature on neuroimaging studies of the suicidal brain. This article contains studies on structural imaging such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and functional imaging, consisting of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI). We classified the results of the different imaging modalities in structural and functional imaging. Within our research, we found no significant differences in the suicidal brain demonstrated by Computed Tomography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies in subjects with a history of suicide attempt on the other hand deliver differing results, mostly pointing at a higher prevalence of white (especially deep white matter and periventricular) and grey matter hyperintensities in the frontal, temporal and/or parietal lobe and decreased volumes in the frontal and temporal lobe. There seems to be a trend towards findings of reduced grey matter volume in the frontal lobe. Overall, there is no consensus of opinion on structural imaging of the suicidal brain. Research on functional imaging is further divided into studies in resting state, studies in activation conditions and studies on brain neurotransmitters, transporters and receptors. A common finding in functional neuroimaging in resting conditions is a decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex of suicidal patients. During cognitive activation, perfusion deficits in the prefrontal cortex have been observed. After fenfluramine challenge, the prefrontal cortex metabolism seems to be inversely correlated to the lethality of previous suicide attempt. The few studies that examined the serotonin transporter in suicide found no significant differences in binding potential. In suicide attempters there seems to be a negative correlation between impulsivity and SERT binding. Our group found a reduced 5-HT(2A) binding in the frontal cortex in patients with a recent suicide attempt. The binding index was significantly lower in the deliberate self injury patients compared to the deliberate self poisoning patients. The few authors that examined DAT binding in suicide found no significant DAT differences between patients and controls. However they demonstrated significant negative correlations between DAT binding potential and mental energy among suicide attempters, but not in healthy control subjects. We did not find studies measuring the binding potential of the noradrenalin or gamma amino butyric acid transporter or receptor in suicidal subjects. Several reports have suggested abnormalities of GABA neurotransmission in depression. During our literature search, we have focused on neuroimaging studies in suicidal populations, but in the absence of evidence in the literature on this group or when further collateral evidence is appropriate, this overview expands to results in impulsive aggressive or in depressed subjects. PMID:21216267

Desmyter, S; van Heeringen, C; Audenaert, K

2011-01-06

348

Executive Function Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children: A Five Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in very young children. This study used a prospective, cross-sectional design to investigate the impact of TBI on executive function (EF) outcomes in children who sustained a TBI before the age of seven. The study aimed to identify specific or global EF deficits five years post-TBI, and to

Caroline Nadebaum; Vicki Anderson; Cathy Catroppa

2007-01-01

349

Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure  

PubMed Central

Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a ‘sex phenotype’ in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs.

Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

2012-01-01

350

Community structure in networks of functional connectivity: resolving functional organization in the rat brain with pharmacological MRI.  

PubMed

In the study of functional connectivity, fMRI data can be represented mathematically as a network of nodes and links, where image voxels represent the nodes and the connections between them reflect a degree of correlation or similarity in their response. Here we show that, within this framework, functional imaging data can be partitioned into 'communities' of tightly interconnected voxels corresponding to maximum modularity within the overall network. We evaluated this approach systematically in application to networks constructed from pharmacological MRI (phMRI) of the rat brain in response to acute challenge with three different compounds with distinct mechanisms of action (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine) as well as vehicle (physiological saline). This approach resulted in bilaterally symmetric sub-networks corresponding to meaningful anatomical and functional connectivity pathways consistent with the purported mechanism of action of each drug. Interestingly, common features across all three networks revealed two groups of tightly coupled brain structures that responded as functional units independent of the specific neurotransmitter systems stimulated by the drug challenge, including a network involving the prefrontal cortex and sub-cortical regions extending from the striatum to the amygdala. This finding suggests that each of these networks includes general underlying features of the functional organization of the rat brain. PMID:19345737

Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo

2009-04-02

351

Functional Specificity of Superior Parietal Mediation of Spatial Shifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we determined how brain activity changes when an attended target shifts its location. In the main experiment, a white square could appear at 10 possible eccentricities along the horizontal meridian. It remained on the screen for a variable period of time and then changed location. At any time the stimulus could dim briefly.

R. Vandenberghe; D. R. Gitelman; T. B. Parrish; M. M. Mesulam

2001-01-01

352

Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups.  

PubMed

The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus) is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behavior. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method) in 8-day-old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A) pups together with parents and siblings (control), (B) separation of the litter from the parents, (C) individual separation from parents and siblings, and (D) individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B) significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C), where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D) maternal vocalizations "reactivated" brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, NAcc, and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex (IL) and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other conditions. PMID:22590453

Bock, Jörg; Riedel, Anett; Braun, Katharina

2012-05-10

353

Differential changes of metabolic brain activity and interregional functional coupling in prefronto-limbic pathways during different stress conditions: functional imaging in freely behaving rodent pups  

PubMed Central

The trumpet-tailed rat or degu (Octodon degus) is an established model to investigate the consequences of early stress on the development of emotional brain circuits and behavior. The aim of this study was to identify brain circuits, that respond to different stress conditions and to test if acute stress alters functional coupling of brain activity among prefrontal and limbic regions. Using functional imaging (2-Fluoro-deoxyglucose method) in 8-day-old male degu pups the following stress conditions were compared: (A) pups together with parents and siblings (control), (B) separation of the litter from the parents, (C) individual separation from parents and siblings, and (D) individual separation and presentation of maternal calls. Condition (B) significantly downregulated brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and sensory areas compared to controls. Activity decrease was even more pronounced during condition (C), where, in contrast to all other regions, activity in the PAG was increased. Interestingly, brain activity in stress-associated brain regions such as the amygdala and habenula was not affected. In condition (D) maternal vocalizations “reactivated” brain activity in the cingulate and precentral medial cortex, NAcc, and striatum and in sensory areas. In contrast, reduced activity was measured in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex (IL) and in the hippocampus and amygdala. Correlation analysis revealed complex, region- and situation-specific changes of interregional functional coupling among prefrontal and limbic brain regions during stress exposure. We show here for the first time that early life stress results in a widespread reduction of brain activity in the infant brain and changes interregional functional coupling. Moreover, maternal vocalizations can partly buffer stress-induced decrease in brain activity in some regions and evoked very different functional coupling patterns compared to the three other conditions.

Bock, Jorg; Riedel, Anett; Braun, Katharina

2012-01-01

354

Brain potential and functional MRI evidence for how to handle two languages with one brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilingual individuals need effective mechanisms to prevent interference from one language while processing material in the other. Here we show, using event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that words from the non-target language are rejected at an early stage before semantic analysis in bilinguals. Bilingual Spanish\\/Catalan and monolingual Spanish subjects were instructed to press a button when

Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells; Michael Rotte; Hans-Jochen Heinze; Tömme Nösselt; Thomas F. Münte

2002-01-01

355

Identification of Brain-Specific Angiogenesis Inhibitor 2 as an Interaction Partner of Glutaminase Interacting Protein  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80–100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, Glutaminase Interacting Protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signalling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interact with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, ?-Catenin, FAS, HTLV Tax, HPV E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified Brain-specific Angiogenesis Inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

2011-01-01

356

Early functional brain development in autism and the promise of sleep fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful tool for examining brain function but has yet to be systematically applied to the study of brain development in autism. Recently, however, scientists have begun to apply fMRI during natural sleep as a mechanism to study function in the developing brain. When considering the study of autism, this method opens considerable doors

Karen Pierce

2011-01-01

357

Modeling and function assessing with meditation training on brain functional memory network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling on memory network is an important way to understand the memory mechanism in brain functional complex network. Function assessing is a necessary channel to verify the accuracy of the results that will be applied to the theory strengthening and practice conductions, also the clinical remedy. In order to get abstract memory model, we present the theoretical analysis method by

Lanhua Zhang; Jin Wang; Xiujuan Wang; Shaowei Xue

2012-01-01

358

Neurobehavioral abnormalities in a brain-specific NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase knockout mouse model  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to test a new hypothesis that brain cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and CPR-dependent enzymes play important roles in behavioral performance. A mouse model with brain neuron-specific deletion of the Cpr gene (brain-Cpr-null) was recently generated. Brain-Cpr-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were compared in a variety of behavioral assays. Notable differences were found in the exploratory behavior assay: for both males and females, activity in the center of the chamber was significantly higher for brain-Cpr-null than for WT mice on days 2 and 3 of the assay, although no significant difference was found between the two groups in anxiety-like behavior in the elevated zero maze. Furthermore, in the fear-conditioning assay, brain-Cpr-null mice exhibited significantly less activity suppression than did WT controls. This deficit in activity suppression was not accompanied by any difference between WT and brain-Cpr-null mice in nociceptive responses to foot shocks. Abnormal activity suppression was also observed in both male and female brain-Cpr-null mice during the contextual memory test. However, in the Morris water maze assay, the brain-Cpr-null and WT mice were indistinguishable, indicating normal spatial memory in the mutant mice. These data collectively indicate a novel role of the Cpr gene in fear conditioning and memory.

Fang, Cheng; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Gu, Jun; Yang, Weizhu; Zeitlin, Scott O.; Ding, Xinxin

2012-01-01

359

A pregnancy-specific glycoprotein is expressed in the brain and serves as a receptor for mouse hepatitis virus.  

PubMed Central

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus known to cause encephalitis and demyelination, uses murine homologues of carcinoembryonic antigens as receptors. However, the expression of these receptors is extremely low in the brain. By low-stringency screening of a mouse brain cDNA library, we have identified a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene family. Unlike other PSG that are expressed in the placenta, it is expressed predominantly in the brain. Transfection of the cDNA into COS-7 cells, which lack a functional MHV receptor, conferred susceptibility to infection by some MHV strains, including A59, MHV-2, and MHV-3, but not JHM. Thus, this is a virus strain-specific receptor. The detection of multiple receptors for MHV suggests the flexibility of this virus in receptor utilization. The identification of this virus in receptor utilization. The identification of a PSG predominantly expressed in the brain also expands the potential functions of these molecules. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Chen, D S; Asanaka, M; Yokomori, K; Wang, F; Hwang, S B; Li, H P; Lai, M M

1995-01-01

360

Brain function in epilepsy: midbrain, medullary, and cerebellar interaction with the rostral forebrain.  

PubMed Central

Against the background previous findings in epileptic patients, in whom electroencephalographic recordings were obtained from numerous deep and surface brain sites during seizures, rhesus monkeys with electrodes implanted into specific brain sites were used to demonstrate anatomical connections by evoked potential techniques and to serve as models of experimental epilepsy. In the animals, many monosynaptic connections were revealed between forebrain sites consistently involved in seizures in patients and more caudal brain sites subserving functions of sensory perception, eye movement, synaptic chemical transmission, and motor coordination. Further, the participation of these interrelated sites during seizures was demonstrated. The findings provide an anatomical-physiological explanation for many of the clinical phenomena observed in epileptic patients and a rationale for the use of cerebellar stimulation as a treatment.

Heath, R G

1976-01-01

361

Patient-Specific Analysis of the Volume of Tissue Activated During Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Despite the clinical success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of movement disorders, many questions remain about its effects on the nervous system. We have developed a methodology to predict the volume of tissue activated (VTA) by DBS on a patient-specific basis. Our goals are to identify the intersection between the VTA and surrounding anatomical structures and to compare activation of these structures with clinical outcomes. The model system consists of three fundamental components: 1) a 3D anatomical model of the subcortical nuclei and DBS electrode position in the brain, each derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 2) a finite element model of the DBS electrode and electric field transmitted to the brain, with tissue conductivity properties derived from diffusion tensor MRI; 3) VTA prediction derived from the response of myelinated axons to the applied electric field, which is a function of the stimulation parameters (contact, impedance, voltage, pulse width, frequency). We used this model system to analyze the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS in a patient with Parkinson’s disease. Quantitative measurements of bradykinesia, rigidity, and corticospinal tract (CST) motor thresholds were evaluated over a range of stimulation parameter settings. Our model predictions showed good agreement with CST thresholds. Additionally, stimulation through electrode contacts that improved bradykinesia and rigidity generated VTAs that overlapped the zona incerta / fields of Forel (ZI/H2). Application of DBS technology to various neurological disorders has preceded scientific characterization of the volume of tissue directly affected by the stimulation. Synergistic integration of clinical analysis, neuroimaging, neuroanatomy, and neurostimulation modeling provides the opportunity to address wide ranging questions on the factors linked with the therapeutic benefits and side effects of DBS.

Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

2007-01-01

362

Altered functional brain networks in Prader-Willi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder characterized mainly by hyperphagia and early childhood obesity. Previous functional neuroimaging studies used visual stimuli to examine abnormal activities in the eating-related neural circuitry of patients with PWS. It was found that patients with PWS exhibited both excessive hunger and hyperphagia consistently, even in situations without any food stimulation. In the present study, we employed resting-state functional MRI techniques to investigate abnormal brain networks related to eating disorders in children with PWS. First, we applied amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation analysis to define the regions of interest that showed significant alterations in resting-state brain activity levels in patients compared with their sibling control group. We then applied a functional connectivity (FC) analysis to these regions of interest in order to characterize interactions among the brain regions. Our results demonstrated that patients with PWS showed decreased FC strength in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)/inferior parietal lobe (IPL), MPFC/precuneus, IPL/precuneus and IPL/hippocampus in the default mode network; decreased FC strength in the pre-/postcentral gyri and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the motor sensory network and prefrontal cortex network, respectively; and increased FC strength in the anterior cingulate cortex/insula, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)/OFC and DLPFC/VLPFC in the core network and prefrontal cortex network, respectively. These findings indicate that there are FC alterations among the brain regions implicated in eating as well as rewarding, even during the resting state, which may provide further evidence supporting the use of PWS as a model to study obesity and to provide information on potential neural targets for the medical treatment of overeating.

Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Qiu, Siyou; Tian, Jie; Wen, Xiaotong; Miller, Jennifer L.; von Deneen, Karen M.; Zhou, Zhenyu; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

2013-01-01

363

Multifaceted Genomic Risk for Brain Function in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Recently, deriving candidate endophenotypes from brain imaging data has become a valuable approach to study genetic influences on schizophrenia (SZ), whose pathophysiology remains unclear. In this work we utilized a multivariate approach, parallel independent component analysis, to identify genomic risk components associated with brain function abnormalities in SZ. 5157 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from genome-wide array based on their possible connections with SZ and further investigated for their associations with brain activations captured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a sensorimotor task. Using data from 92 SZ patients and 116 healthy controls, we detected a significant correlation (r= 0.29; p= 2.41×10?5) between one fMRI component and one SNP component, both of which significantly differentiated patients from controls. The fMRI component mainly consisted of precentral and postcentral gyri, the major activated regions in the motor task. On average, higher activation in these regions was observed in participants with higher loadings of the linked SNP component, predominantly contributed to by 253 SNPs. 138 identified SNPs were from known coding regions of 100 unique genes. 31 identified SNPs did not differ between groups, but moderately correlated with some other group-discriminating SNPs, indicating interactions among alleles contributing towards elevated SZ susceptibility. The genes associated with the identified SNPs participated in four neurotransmitter pathways: GABA receptor signaling, dopamine receptor signaling, neuregulin signaling and glutamate receptor signaling. In summary, our work provides further evidence for the complexity of genomic risk to the functional brain abnormality in SZ and suggests a pathological role of interactions between SNPs, genes and multiple neurotransmitter pathways.

Chen, Jiayu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Turner, Jessica A.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H.; Michael, Andrew M; Liu, Jingyu

2012-01-01

364

Altered functional brain networks in Prader-Willi syndrome.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder characterized mainly by hyperphagia and early childhood obesity. Previous functional neuroimaging studies used visual stimuli to examine abnormal activities in the eating-related neural circuitry of patients with PWS. It was found that patients with PWS exhibited both excessive hunger and hyperphagia consistently, even in situations without any food stimulation. In the present study, we employed resting-state functional MRI techniques to investigate abnormal brain networks related to eating disorders in children with PWS. First, we applied amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation analysis to define the regions of interest that showed significant alterations in resting-state brain activity levels in patients compared with their sibling control group. We then applied a functional connectivity (FC) analysis to these regions of interest in order to characterize interactions among the brain regions. Our results demonstrated that patients with PWS showed decreased FC strength in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)/inferior parietal lobe (IPL), MPFC/precuneus, IPL/precuneus and IPL/hippocampus in the default mode network; decreased FC strength in the pre-/postcentral gyri and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the motor sensory network and prefrontal cortex network, respectively; and increased FC strength in the anterior cingulate cortex/insula, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)/OFC and DLPFC/VLPFC in the core network and prefrontal cortex network, respectively. These findings indicate that there are FC alterations among the brain regions implicated in eating as well as rewarding, even during the resting state, which may provide further evidence supporting the use of PWS as a model to study obesity and to provide information on potential neural targets for the medical treatment of overeating. PMID:23335390

Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Qiu, Siyou; Tian, Jie; Wen, Xiaotong; Miller, Jennifer L; von Deneen, Karen M; Zhou, Zhenyu; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

2013-01-21

365

Brain-specific homeobox factor as a target selector for glucocorticoid receptor in energy balance.  

PubMed

The molecular basis underlying the physiologically well-defined orexigenic function of glucocorticoid (Gc) is unclear. Brain-specific homeobox factor (Bsx) is a positive regulator of the orexigenic neuropeptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in AgRP neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we show that in response to fasting-elevated Gc levels, Gc receptor (GR) and Bsx synergize to direct activation of AgRP transcription. This synergy is dictated by unique sequence features in a novel Gc response element in AgRP (AgRP-GRE). In contrast to AgRP-GRE, Bsx suppresses transactivation directed by many conventional GREs, functioning as a gene context-dependent modulator of GR actions or a target selector for GR. Consistent with this finding, AgRP-GRE drives fasting-dependent activation of a target gene specifically in GR(+) Bsx(+) AgRP neurons. These results define AgRP as a common orexigenic target gene of GR and Bsx and provide an opportunity to identify their additional common targets, facilitating our understanding of the molecular basis underlying the orexigenic activity of Gc and Bsx. PMID:23671185

Lee, Bora; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Kim, Juhee; Choi, Kwan Yong; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

2013-05-13

366

Spatial expression and functional flexibility of monocarboxylate transporter isoforms in the zebrafish brain.  

PubMed

The present study provides in vivo evidence to prove the functional plasticity of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in brains of vertebrates using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model. In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), energy demands are largely met by oxidation of glucose. In recent studies, in addition to glucose, lactate is also considered an energy substrate for the CNS. Astrocytes were demonstrated to play an important role in transporting lactate as metabolic substrate from capillaries to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The present study was to use zebrafish as an in vivo model to test the hypothesis of whether the various MCT homologs play differential roles in the development and functioning of the CNS. Using RT-PCR and double in situ hybridization coupling with immunocytochemical staining experiments, zebrafish MCTs1-4 were all found to be expressed in brains of embryos, and were further elucidated to be localized in both neurons and astrocytes. Loss-of-functions by morpholino knockdown further provided in vivo evidences to infer that zMCTs1, -2, and -4 may be involved in metabolite transport and functioning in the developing brain. Subsequent rescue experiments with capped mRNAs of specific isoforms further indicated that zMCT2 is an indispensable monocarboxylate-transporting route for CNS development and function in zebrafish. This information is essential for identifying proper candidates of MCT isoforms that are involved in the development and functioning of the CNS. PMID:23384686

Tseng, Yung-Che; Kao, Zhi-Jie; Liu, Sian-Tai; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Hwang, Pung-Pung

2013-02-04

367

Age-related adaptations of brain function during a memory task are also present at rest.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated age-related regional differences in the magnitude of the BOLD signal using task-based fMRI. It has been suggested that functional changes reflect either compensatory or de-differentiation mechanisms, both of which assume response to a specific stimulus. Here, we have tested whether ageing affects both task-based and resting brain function, and the extent to which functional changes are mediated by reductions in grey matter (GM) volume. Two groups, of 22 healthy younger and 22 older volunteers, underwent an imaging protocol involving structural and functional MRI, both during a memory task and at rest. The two groups had similar socio-demographical characteristics and cognitive performance. Image analysis revealed both structural and functional differences. Increased BOLD signal in older relative to younger volunteers was mainly observed in the frontal lobes, both during the task and at rest. Functional changes in the frontal lobes were largely located in brain regions spared from GM loss, and adding GM covariates to the fMRI analysis did not significantly alter the group differences. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that, during normal ageing, the brain responds to neuronal loss by fine-tuning connections between spared neurons. Longitudinal studies will be necessary to fully test this hypothesis. PMID:22155375

Filippini, N; Nickerson, L D; Beckmann, C F; Ebmeier, K P; Frisoni, G B; Matthews, P M; Smith, S M; Mackay, C E

2011-12-01

368

Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families. PMID:24033573

Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena

2013-08-07

369

Heritability of human brain functioning as assessed by electroencephalography.  

PubMed Central

To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG was recorded on 14 scalp positions during quiet resting with eyes closed. Spectral powers were calculated for four frequency bands: delta, theta, alpha, and beta. Twin correlations pointed toward high genetic influences for all these powers and scalp locations. Model fitting confirmed these findings; the largest part of the variance of the EEG is explained by additive genetic factors. The averaged heritabilites for the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies was 76%, 89%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Multivariate analyses suggested that the same genes for EEG alpha rhythm were expressed in different brain areas in the left and right hemisphere. This study shows that brain functioning, as indexed by rhythmic brain-electrical activity, is one of the most heritable characteristics in humans.

van Beijsterveldt, C. E.; Molenaar, P. C.; de Geus, E. J.; Boomsma, D. I.

1996-01-01

370

Crayfish brain-protocerebrum and retina show serotonergic functional relationship.  

PubMed

The results from various studies have indicated possible functional relationships between crayfish electroretinogram (ERG) rhythmic amplitude changes and the serotonergic pathways projecting from the central brain through the optic neuropils to the eye, but to date, this functional interaction has not been proven. Here, in a set of experiments using an isolated eyestalk-brain preparation, we investigated whether there is a circadian input from the brain to retina that regulates this rhythm. We sought to determine whether the protocerebral bridge (PB) stimulation affects the ERG amplitude in accordance with the zeitgeber time (ZT) and whether 5-HT modulates the associate input. Our results showed that photic stimulation of retina produced changes in both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous electrical activity in the protocerebral neuropils. In addition, electrical stimulation of the medial protocerebrum, particularly the PB, produced statistically significant changes in the ERG that depended on both the time of day and the level of serotonin. This suggests that pathways between retina and PB seem to be serotonergic. PMID:21911207

Valdés-Fuentes, Marlen; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

2011-08-19

371

Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is applied to functional brain imaging in living mice. A near-diffraction-limited bright-field optical illumination is employed to achieve micrometer lateral resolution, and a dual-wavelength measurement is utilized to extract the blood oxygenation information. The variation in hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) along vascular branching has been imaged in a precapillary arteriolar tree and a postcapillary venular tree, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on in vivo volumetric imaging of brain microvascular morphology and oxygenation down to single capillaries through intact mouse skulls. It is anticipated that: (i) chronic imaging enabled by this minimally invasive procedure will advance the study of cortical plasticity and neurological diseases; (ii) revealing the neuroactivity-dependent changes in hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation will facilitate the understanding of neurovascular coupling at the capillary level; and (iii) combining functional OR-PAM and high-resolution blood flowmetry will have the potential to explore cellular pathways of brain energy metabolism.

Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Wang, Lihong V.

2009-07-01

372

Modularity and Self-Organized Functional Architectures in the Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally believed that cognition involves the self-organization of coherent dy- namic functional networks across several brain regions in response to incoming stimulus and internal modulation. These context-dependent networks arise continually from the spatiotemporally multi-scale structural substrate of the brain configured by evolution, development and previous experience, persisting for 100-200 ms and generating re- sponses such as imagery, recall and motor action. In the current paper, we show that a system of interacting modular attractor networks can use a selective mechanism for assembling functional networks from the modular substrate. We use the approach to develop a model of idea-generation in the brain. Ideas are modeled as combinations of concepts organized in a recurrent network that reflects previous associations between them. The dynamics of this network, resulting in the transient co-activation of concept groups, is seen as a search through the space of ideas, and attractor dynamics is used to "shape" this search. The process is required to encompass both rapid retrieval of old ideas in familiar contexts and efficient search for novel ones in unfamiliar situations (or during brainstorming). The inclusion of an adaptive modulatory mechanism allows the network to balance the competing requirements of exploiting previous learning and exploring new possibilities as needed in different contexts.

Iyer, Laxmi; Minai, Ali A.; Doboli, Simona; Brown, Vincent R.

373

Roles of Brain Angiotensin II in Cognitive Function and Dementia  

PubMed Central

The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been highlighted as having a pathological role in stroke, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. Particularly, in dementia, epidemiological studies indicate a preventive effect of RAS blockade on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, basic experiments suggest a role of brain angiotensin II in neural injury, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function and that RAS blockade attenuates cognitive impairment in rodent dementia models of AD. Therefore, RAS regulation is expected to have therapeutic potential for AD. Here, we discuss the role of angiotensin II in cognitive impairment and AD. Angiotensin II binds to the type 2 receptor (AT2) and works mainly by binding with the type 1 receptor (AT1). AT2 receptor signaling plays a role in protection against multiple-organ damage. A direct AT2 receptor agonist is now available and is expected to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and enhance cell differentiation. We and other groups reported that AT2 receptor activation enhances neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the brain. Here, we also review the effect of the AT2 receptor on cognitive function. RAS modulation may be a new therapeutic option for dementia including AD in the future.

Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2012-01-01

374

Brain-specific Proteins Decline in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Humans with Huntington Disease*S?  

PubMed Central

We integrated five sets of proteomics data profiling the constituents of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived from Huntington disease (HD)-affected and -unaffected individuals with genomics data profiling various human and mouse tissues, including the human HD brain. Based on an integrated analysis, we found that brain-specific proteins are 1.8 times more likely to be observed in CSF than in plasma, that brain-specific proteins tend to decrease in HD CSF compared with unaffected CSF, and that 81% of brain-specific proteins have quantitative changes concordant with transcriptional changes identified in different regions of HD brain. The proteins found to increase in HD CSF tend to be liver-associated. These protein changes are consistent with neurodegeneration, microgliosis, and astrocytosis known to occur in HD. We also discuss concordance between laboratories and find that ratios of individual proteins can vary greatly, but the overall trends with respect to brain or liver specificity were consistent. Concordance is highest between the two laboratories observing the largest numbers of proteins.

Fang, Qiaojun; Strand, Andrew; Law, Wendy; Faca, Vitor M.; Fitzgibbon, Matthew P.; Hamel, Nathalie; Houle, Benoit; Liu, Xin; May, Damon H.; Poschmann, Gereon; Roy, Line; Stuhler, Kai; Ying, Wantao; Zhang, Jiyang; Zheng, Zhaobin; Bergeron, John J. M.; Hanash, Sam; He, Fuchu; Leavitt, Blair R.; Meyer, Helmut E.; Qian, Xiaohong; McIntosh, Martin W.

2009-01-01

375

kappa-Opioid receptor signaling and brain reward function.  

PubMed

The dynorphin-like peptides have profound effects on the state of the brain reward system and human and animal behavior. The dynorphin-like peptides affect locomotor activity, food intake, sexual behavior, anxiety-like behavior, and drug intake. Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors, the endogenous receptor for the dynorphin-like peptides, inhibits dopamine release in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen) and induces a negative mood state in humans and animals. The administration of drugs of abuse increases the release of dopamine in the striatum and mediates the concomitant release of dynorphin-like peptides in this brain region. The reviewed studies suggest that chronic drug intake leads to an upregulation of the brain dynorphin system in the striatum and in particular in the dorsal part of the striatum/caudate putamen. This might inhibit drug-induced dopamine release and provide protection against the neurotoxic effects of high dopamine levels. After the discontinuation of chronic drug intake these neuroadaptations remain unopposed which has been suggested to contribute to the negative emotional state associated with drug withdrawal and increased drug intake. kappa-Opioid receptor agonists have also been shown to inhibit calcium channels. Calcium channel inhibitors have antidepressant-like effects and inhibit the release of norepinephrine. This might explain that in some studies kappa-opioid receptor agonists attenuate nicotine and opioid withdrawal symptomatology. A better understanding of the role of dynorphins in the regulation of brain reward function might contribute to the development of novel treatments for mood disorders and other disorders that stem from a dysregulation of the brain reward system. PMID:19804796

Bruijnzeel, Adrie W

2009-10-02

376

Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2010-01-01

377

Alteration and reorganization of functional networks: a new perspective in brain injury study.  

PubMed

Plasticity is the mechanism underlying the brain's potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown how functional connections among the brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various areas of the brain and it could be an essential tool for brain functional studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives, and clinical uses in brain injury studies. PMID:21960965

Castellanos, Nazareth P; Bajo, Ricardo; Cuesta, Pablo; Villacorta-Atienza, José Antonio; Paúl, Nuria; Garcia-Prieto, Juan; Del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

2011-09-21

378

Polyex: A Functional Database Programming Environment: Definition and Functional Specification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyex is an application-oriented functional database programming (FDBP) language environment for the computer aided control system design (CACSD), and computer aided engineering (CAE) in general. It is a high level declarative programming language based ...

J. D. M. Kinyua

1991-01-01

379

Development of polyclonal antibodies specific to ATP-binding cassette transporters human ABCG4 and mouse Abcg4: site-specific expression of mouse Abcg4 in brain.  

PubMed

In our recent study on seeking new mouse ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters of the G subfamily, we succeeded in cloning mouse Abcg4 from a cDNA library of mouse brain, and we characterized the tissue-specific expression and chromosomal localization of the mouse Abcg4 gene. To further characterize the physiological function of mouse Abcg4 protein and to compare its function with that of ABCG2, in the present study, we developed polyclonal antibodies against mouse Abcg4 and established the Abcg4-expression system. To raise antibodies, we selected three different epitope peptides that correspond to the amino acid residues of 46-60, 465-479, and 600-613 in mouse Abcg4 protein. The antibody raised against the epitope encoding the amino acids 46-60 was found to be specific to mouse Abcg4, exhibiting a band with molecular weight of 63,000 on immunoblotting, whereas this band was dose-dependently diminished by adding the corresponding epitope peptide into the immunoblot medium. Use of the antibody for immunoblot detection in mouse normal tissues revealed that the Abcg4 protein is expressed in brain, spleen, and testis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that mouse Abcg4 is site-specifically expressed in the cerebral cortex and medulla of mouse brain. These results suggest that mouse Abcg4 plays a certain physiological role in the brain. It is of importance to note that the sequence of amino acids 46-60 is completely identical between mouse Abcg4 and human ABCG4. Thus, this antibody is applicable to the detection of human ABCG4 as well as mouse Abcg4. PMID:18038765

Koshiba, Shoko; Ito, Takehito; Shiota, Akira; Wakabayashi, Kanako; Ueda, Masatsugu; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

2007-01-01

380

Domain-Specific Knowledge Systems in the Brain: The Animate-Inanimate Distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We claim that the animate and inanimate conceptual categories represent evolutionarily adapted domain-specific knowledge systems that are subserved by distinct neural mechanisms, thereby allowing for their selective impairment in conditions of brain damage. On this view, (some of) the category-specific deficits that have recently been reported in the cognitive neuropsychological literaturefor example, the selective damage or sparing of knowledge about

Alfonso Caramazza; Jennifer R. Shelton

1998-01-01

381

PROTEIN III, A NEURON-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOPROTEIN: VARIANT FORMS FOUND IN HUMAN BRAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent work in the laboratory has shown the presence of many neuron-specific phosphoproteins in the mammalian nervous system. Two of these proteins, Protein III and Synapsin I, are specifically associated with synaptic vesicles in neurons throughout the brain. Protein III consist...

382

STRENGTHENED FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY IN THE BRAIN DURING MUSCLE FATIGUE  

PubMed Central

Fatigue caused by sustaining submaximal-intensity muscle contraction(s) involves increased activation in the brain such as primary motor cortex (M1), primary sensory cortex (S1), Premotor and supplementary motor area (PM&SMA) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The synchronized increases in activation level in these cortical areas suggest fatigue-related strengthening of functional coupling within the motor control network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using the cross-correlation based functional connectivity (FC) analysis method. Ten subjects performed a 20-minute intermittent (3.5s ON/6.5s OFF, 120 trials total) handgrip task using the right hand at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force level while their brain was scanned by a 3T Siemens Trio scanner using echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. A representative signal time course of the left M1 was extracted by averaging the time course data of a 2-mm cluster of neighboring voxels of local maximal activation foci, which was identified by a general linear model. Two FC activation maps were created for each subject by cross-correlating the time course data of the minimal (the first 10 trials) and significant (the last 10 trials) fatigue stages across all the voxels in the brain to the corresponding representative time course. Histogram and quantile regression analysis were used to compare the FC between the minimal and significant fatigue stages and the results showed a significant increase in FC among multiple cortical regions, including right M1 and bilateral PM&SMA, S1 and PFC. This strengthened FC indicates that when muscle fatigue worsens, many brain regions increase their coupling with the left M1, the primary motor output control center for the right handgrip, to compensate for diminished force generating capability of the muscle in a coordinated fashion by enhancing the descending command for greater muscle recruitment to maintain the same force.

Jiang, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna; Yan, Jin H; Yue, Guang H

2012-01-01

383

Brain and egg tubulins from antarctic fishes are functionally and structurally distinct.  

PubMed

The multitubulin hypothesis proposes that chemically distinct tubulins may possess different polymerization properties or may form functionally different microtubules. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the functional properties and the structures of singlet-specific nonneural and neural tubulins from Antarctic fishes. Tubulins were purified from eggs of Notothenia coriiceps neglecta, and from brain tissues of N. coriiceps neglecta or N. gibberifrons, by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography and cycles of microtubule assembly/disassembly. At temperatures between 0 and 20 degrees C, each of these tubulins polymerized efficiently in vitro to yield microtubules of normal morphology. Critical concentrations for polymerization of egg tubulin ranged from 0.057 mg/ml at 3 degrees C to 0.002 mg/ml at 18 degrees C, whereas those for brain tubulin at like temperatures were 4-10-fold larger. Polymerization of both tubulins was entropically driven, but the apparent standard enthalpy and entropy changes for microtubule elongation by egg tubulin (delta Happ0 = +33.9 kcal/mol, delta Sapp0 = +151 entropy units) were significantly greater than values observed for brain tubulin (delta Happ0 = +26.5 kcal/mol, delta Sapp0 = +121 entropy units). Egg tubulin was composed of approximately six alpha and two beta chains and lacked the beta III isotype, whereas brain tubulin was more complex (greater than or equal to 10 of each chain type). Furthermore, egg alpha tubulins were more basic, and their carboxyl termini more resistant to cleavage by subtilisin, than were the alpha chains of brain. We conclude that brain and egg tubulins from the Antarctic fishes are functionally distinct in vitro, due either to qualitative or quantitative differences in isotypic composition, to differential posttranslational modification of shared isotypes, or to both. PMID:1527007

Detrich, H W; Fitzgerald, T J; Dinsmore, J H; Marchese-Ragona, S P

1992-09-15

384

Reactivation of Context-Specific Brain Regions during Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The neural correlates of recollection were examined using event-related functional MRI. We examined how the presence of different visual context information during encoding of target words influenced later recollection for the words presented alone at retrieval. Participants studied words presented with different pictures of faces or scrambled…

Skinner, Erin I.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Fernandes, Myra A.

2010-01-01

385

Measures for characterizing directionality specific volume changes in TBM of brain growth  

PubMed Central

Tensor based morphology (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods are unable to present direction-specific analysis of volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying brain developmental patterns in fetuses. Results show that this approach detects early changes local growth that are related to the early stages of sulcal and gyral formation.

Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

2012-01-01

386

Extracting MRS discriminant functional features of brain tumors.  

PubMed

The current challenge in automatic brain tumor classification based on MRS is the improvement of the robustness of the classification models that explicitly account for the probable breach of the independent and identically distributed conditions in the MRS data points. To contribute to this purpose, a new algorithm for the extraction of discriminant MRS features of brain tumors based on a functional approach is presented. Functional data analysis based on region segmentation (RSFDA) is based on the functional data analysis formalism using nonuniformly distributed B splines according to spectral regions that are highly correlated. An exhaustive characterization of the method is presented in this work using controlled and real scenarios. The performance of RSFDA was compared with other widely used feature extraction methods. In all simulated conditions, RSFDA was proven to be stable with respect to the number of variables selected and with respect to the classification performance against noise and baseline artifacts. Furthermore, with real multicenter datasets classification, RSFDA and peak integration (PI) obtained better performance than the other feature extraction methods used for comparison. Other advantages of the method proposed are its usefulness in selecting the optimal number of features for classification and its simplified functional representation of the spectra, which contributes to highlight the discriminative regions of the MR spectrum for each classification task. PMID:23239454

Fuster-Garcia, Elies; Tortajada, Salvador; Vicente, Javier; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

2012-12-12

387

Neurothelin: an inducible cell surface glycoprotein of blood-brain barrier-specific endothelial cells and distinct neurons  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier is characterized by still poorly understood barrier and transport functions performed by specialized endothelial cells. Hybridoma technology has been used to identify a protein termed neurothelin that is specific for these endothelial cells. Neurothelin is defined by the species-specific mouse mAb 1W5 raised against lentil- lectin-binding proteins of neural tissue from embryonic chick. In the posthatch chick, neurothelin expression is found on endothelial cells within the brain but not on those of the systemic vascular system. Injection of the monoclonal antibody in vivo leads to labeling of brain capillaries, indicating that the corresponding antigen is expressed on the luminal surface of brain endothelial cells. Transplantation of embryonic mouse brain onto the chick chorioallantoic membrane results in rodent brain vascularization by the avian vascular system. Subsequently, normally mAb 1W5-negative endothelial cells, originating from blood vessels of the chick chorioallantoic membrane, are induced to express neurothelin when they are in contact with mouse neural tissue. In contrast to differentiated brain neurons that do not express neurothelin, neurons of the nonvascularized chick retina synthesize neurothelin. However, neurothelin is not found on retinal ganglion cell axons terminating on 1W5-negative brain cells. 1W5 immunoreactivity was also found in the pigment epithelium that forms the blood-eye barrier. Putting epithelial cells into culture results in concentration of neurothelin at cell-cell contact sites, leaving other cell surface areas devoid of antigen. Therefore, the distribution of neurothelin appears to be regulated by cell-cell interactions. In Western blot analysis, neurothelin was identified as a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 43 kD. The protein bears at least one intramolecular disulfide bridge and sulfated glucuronic acid as well as alpha-D- substituted mannose/glucose moieties. The exclusive neurothelin expression in the posthatch chick on endothelial cells of the central nervous system but not on systemic endothelial cells makes neurothelin a marker specific for blood-brain barrier-forming endothelial cells. The spatiotemporally regulated neurothelin expression in neurons suggests an interaction between vascularization and neuronal differentiation.

1990-01-01

388

Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (??Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. Conclusions Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted.

2012-01-01

389

Asymmetry brain function in auditory cortex: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can measure the change of hemodynamic response, it enables to determine the concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin. The aim in this paper is to investigate the forms of lateralization or asymmetry brain function in auditory cortex using fNIRS. This technique shows good promise for assessment of asymmetry functions in the auditory cortex. PMID:24110054

Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Keum-Shik

2013-07-01

390

Brain growth across the life span in autism: Age-specific changes in anatomical pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is marked by overgrowth of the brain at the earliest ages but not at older ages when decreases in structural volumes and neuron numbers are observed instead. This has led to the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism. Here we report age-related changes in brain size in autistic and typical subjects from 12months to 50years of age based

Eric Courchesne; Kathleen Campbell; Stephanie Solso

2011-01-01

391

Female-specific target sites for both oestrogen and androgen in the teleost brain.  

PubMed

To dissect the molecular and cellular basis of sexual differentiation of the teleost brain, which maintains marked sexual plasticity throughout life, we examined sex differences in neural expression of all subtypes of nuclear oestrogen and androgen receptors (ER and AR) in medaka. All receptors were differentially expressed between the sexes in specific nuclei in the forebrain. The most pronounced sex differences were found in several nuclei in the ventral telencephalic and preoptic areas, where ER and AR expression were prominent in females but almost completely absent in males, indicating that these nuclei represent female-specific target sites for both oestrogen and androgen in the brain. Subsequent analyses revealed that the female-specific expression of ER and AR is not under the direct control of sex-linked genes but is instead regulated positively by oestrogen and negatively by androgen in a transient and reversible manner. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that sex-specific target sites for both oestrogen and androgen occur in the brain as a result of the activational effects of gonadal steroids. The consequent sex-specific but reversible steroid sensitivity of the adult brain probably contributes substantially to the process of sexual differentiation and the persistent sexual plasticity of the teleost brain. PMID:23075834

Hiraki, Towako; Takeuchi, Akio; Tsumaki, Takayasu; Zempo, Buntaro; Kanda, Shinji; Oka, Yoshitaka; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Kataaki

2012-10-17

392

Interhemispheric functional connectivity following prenatal or perinatal brain injury predicts receptive language outcome.  

PubMed

Early brain injury alters both structural and functional connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres. Despite increasing knowledge on the individual hemispheric contributions to recovery from such injury, we know very little about how their interactions affect this process. In the present study, we related interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity to receptive language outcome following early left hemisphere stroke. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 14 people with neonatal brain injury, and 25 age-matched controls during passive story comprehension. With respect to structural connectivity, we found that increased volume of the corpus callosum predicted good receptive language outcome, but that this is not specific to people with injury. In contrast, we found that increased posterior superior temporal gyrus interhemispheric functional connectivity during story comprehension predicted better receptive language performance in people with early brain injury, but worse performance in typical controls. This suggests that interhemispheric functional connectivity is one potential compensatory mechanism following early injury. Further, this pattern of results suggests refinement of the prevailing notion that better language outcome following early left hemisphere injury relies on the contribution of the contralesional hemisphere (i.e., the "right-hemisphere-take-over" theory). This pattern of results was also regionally specific; connectivity of the angular gyrus predicted poorer performance in both groups, independent of brain injury. These results present a complex picture of recovery, and in some cases, such recovery relies on increased cooperation between the injured hemisphere and homologous regions in the contralesional hemisphere, but in other cases, the opposite appears to hold. PMID:23536076

Dick, Anthony Steven; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L

2013-03-27

393

Functional Brain Networks Develop from a "Local to Distributed" Organization  

PubMed Central

The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward ‘segregation’ (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and ‘integration’ (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more “distributed” architecture in young adults. We argue that this “local to distributed” developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing “small-world”-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems in divergent ways.

Power, Jonathan D.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Church, Jessica A.; Miezin, Francis M.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

2009-01-01

394

cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases expression in Alzheimer's disease brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic nucleotide signaling controls a wide variety of cellular functions. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP, thus playing an important role in signal transduction. It has been observed that PDE4 inhibition is important for the regulation of cAMP levels in most cells involved in inflammatory processes. It has been hypothesized that inflammation is a primary process

S. Pérez-Torres; G. Mengod

2003-01-01

395

Multiphasic modification of intrinsic functional connectivity of the rat brain during increasing levels of propofol.  

PubMed

The dose-dependent effects of anesthetics on brain functional connectivity are incompletely understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is widely used to assess the functional connectivity in humans and animals. Propofol is an anesthetic agent with desirable characteristics for functional neuroimaging in animals but its dose-dependent effects on rsfMRI functional connectivity have not been determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity undergoes specific changes in distinct neural networks at anesthetic depths associated with loss of consciousness. We acquired spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals simultaneously with electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from rats under steady-state, intravenously administered propofol at increasing doses from light sedation to deep anesthesia (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg/kg/h IV). Power spectra and burst suppression ratio were calculated from the EEG to verify anesthetic depth. Functional connectivity was determined from the whole brain correlation of BOLD data in regions of interest followed by a segmentation of the correlation maps into anatomically defined regional connectivity. We found that propofol produced multiphasic, dose dependent changes in functional connectivity of various cortical and subcortical networks. Cluster analysis predicted segregation of connectivity into two cortical and two subcortical clusters. In one cortical cluster (somatosensory and parietal), the early reduction in connectivity was followed by transient reversal; in the other cluster (sensory, motor and cingulate/retrosplenial), this rebound was absent. The connectivity of the subcortical cluster (brainstem, hippocampal and caudate) was strongly reduced, whereas that of another (hypothalamus, medial thalamus and n. basalis) did not. Subcortical connectivity increased again in deep anesthesia associated with EEG burst suppression. Regional correlation analysis confirmed the breakdown of connectivity within and between specific cortical and subcortical networks with deepening propofol anesthesia. Cortical connectivity was suppressed before subcortical connectivity at a critical propofol dose associated with loss of consciousness. PMID:23851326

Liu, Xiping; Pillay, Siveshigan; Li, Rupeng; Vizuete, Jeannette A; Pechman, Kimberly R; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Hudetz, Anthony G

2013-07-10

396

Using computational models to relate structural and functional brain connectivity  

PubMed Central

Modern imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional brain connectivity. This has lead to the identification of disease-related alterations affecting functional connectivity. The mechanism of how such alterations in functional connectivity arise in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which this can arise and to highlight the important role that local population dynamics can have in shaping emergent spatial functional connectivity patterns. The local dynamics for a neural population is taken to be of the Wilson–Cowan type, whilst the structural connectivity patterns used, describing long-range anatomical connections, cover both realistic scenarios (from the CoComac database) and idealized ones that allow for more detailed theoretical study. We have calculated graph–theoretic measures of functional network topology from numerical simulations of model networks. The effect of the form of local dynamics on the observed network state is quantified by examining the correlation between structural and functional connectivity. We document a profound and systematic dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters controlling the dynamics. Importantly, we show that a weakly coupled oscillator theory explaining these correlations and their variation across parameter space can be developed. This theoretical development provides a novel way to characterize the mechanisms for the breakdown of functional connectivity in diseases through changes in local dynamics.

Hlinka, Jaroslav; Coombes, Stephen

2012-01-01

397

Detecting brain state changes via fiber-centered functional connectivity analysis.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been widely used to study structural and functional brain connectivity in recent years. A common assumption used in many previous functional brain connectivity studies is the temporal stationarity. However, accumulating literature evidence has suggested that functional brain connectivity is under temporal dynamic changes in different time scales. In this paper, a novel and intuitive approach is proposed to model and detect dynamic changes of functional brain states based on multimodal fMRI/DTI data. The basic idea is that functional connectivity patterns of all fiber-connected cortical voxels are concatenated into a descriptive functional feature vector to represent the brain's state, and the temporal change points of brain states are decided by detecting the abrupt changes of the functional vector patterns via the sliding window approach. Our extensive experimental results have shown that meaningful brain state change points can be detected in task-based fMRI/DTI, resting state fMRI/DTI, and natural stimulus fMRI/DTI data sets. Particularly, the detected change points of functional brain states in task-based fMRI corresponded well to the external stimulus paradigm administered to the participating subjects, thus partially validating the proposed brain state change detection approach. The work in this paper provides novel perspective on the dynamic behaviors of functional brain connectivity and offers a starting point for future elucidation of the complex patterns of functional brain interactions and dynamics. PMID:22941508

Li, Xiang; Lim, Chulwoo; Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

2013-04-01

398

Functional community analysis of brain: a new approach for EEG-based investigation of the brain pathology.  

PubMed

Analysis of structure of the brain functional connectivity (SBFC) is a fundamental issue for understanding of the brain cognition as well as the pathology of brain disorders. Analysis of communities among sub-parts of a system is increasingly used for social, ecological, and other networks. This paper presents a new methodology for investigation of the SBFC and understanding of the brain based on graph theory and community pattern analysis of functional connectivity graph of the brain obtained from encephalograms (EEGs). The methodology consists of three main parts: fuzzy synchronization likelihood (FSL), community partitioning, and decisions based on partitions. As an example application, the methodology is applied to analysis of brain of patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the problem of discrimination of ADHD EEGs from healthy (non-ADHD) EEGs. PMID:21586331

Ahmadlou, Mehran; Adeli, Hojjat

2011-05-07

399

Functional brain mapping during free viewing of natural scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous imaging studies have used mostly perceptually abstracted, idealized, or static stimuli to show segregation of function in the cerebral cortex. We wanted to learn whether functional segregation is maintained during more natural, complex, and dynamic conditions when many features have to be processed simultaneously, and identify regions whose activity correlates with the perception of specific features. To achieve this,

Andreas Bartels; Semir Zeki

2004-01-01

400

Support vector machine classification and characterization of age-related reorganization of functional brain networks.  

PubMed

Most of what is known about the reorganization of functional brain networks that accompanies normal aging is based on neuroimaging studies in which participants perform specific tasks. In these studies, reorganization is defined by the differences in task activation between young and old adults. However, task activation differences could be the result of differences in task performance, strategy, or motivation, and not necessarily reflect reorganization. Resting-state fMRI provides a method of investigating functional brain networks without such confounds. Here, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used in an attempt to differentiate older adults from younger adults based on their resting-state functional connectivity. In addition, the information used by the SVM was investigated to see what functional connections best differentiated younger adult brains from older adult brains. Three separate resting-state scans from 26 younger adults (18-35 yrs) and 26 older adults (55-85) were obtained from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) dataset made publically available in the 1000 Functional Connectomes project www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000. 100 seed-regions from four functional networks with 5mm(3) radius were defined based on a recent study using machine learning classifiers on adolescent brains. Time-series for every seed-region were averaged and three matrices of z-transformed correlation coefficients were created for each subject corresponding to each individual's three resting-state scans. SVM was then applied using leave-one-out cross-validation. The SVM classifier was 84% accurate in classifying older and younger adult brains. The majority of the connections used by the classifier to distinguish subjects by age came from seed-regions belonging to the sensorimotor and cingulo-opercular networks. These results suggest that age-related decreases in positive correlations within the cingulo-opercular and default networks, and decreases in negative correlations between the default and sensorimotor networks, are the distinguishing characteristics of age-related reorganization. PMID:22227886

Meier, Timothy B; Desphande, Alok S; Vergun, Svyatoslav; Nair, Veena A; Song, Jie; Biswal, Bharat B; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

2011-12-28

401

Functional Connectivity Targeting for Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Deep brain stimulation of the thalamus has become a valuable treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor, but current targeting provides for only a limited ability to account for individual anatomic variability. We examined whether functional connectivity measurements between the motor cortex, superior cerebellum, and thalamus would allow discrimination of precise targets useful for image guidance of neurostimulator placement. Materials and Methods Resting BOLD images (8 minutes) were obtained in 58 healthy adolescent and adult volunteers. ROI’s were identified from an anatomic atlas and a finger movement task in each subject in the primary motor cortex and motor activation region of bilateral superior cerebellum. Correlation was measured in the time series of each thalamic voxel with the 4 seeds. An analogous procedure was performed on a single subject imaged for 10 hours to constrain time needed for single subject optimization of thalamic targets. Results Mean connectivity images from 58 subjects showed precisely localized targets within the expected location of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, within a single voxel of currently used deep brain stimulation anatomic targets. These targets could be mapped with single voxel accuracy in a single subject with 3 hours of imaging time, although targets were reproduced in different locations for the individual than for the group averages. Conclusion Interindividual variability likely exists in optimal placement for thalamic deep brain stimulation targeting of the cerebellar thalamus for essential tremor. Individualized thalamic targets can be precisely estimated for image guidance with sufficient imaging time.

Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Dhatt, Harpreet S.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Lopez-Larson, Melissa; Schrock, Lauren E.; House, Paul A.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

2011-01-01

402

Operating characteristics of executive functioning tests following traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The primary purposes of this study were to determine if controls, and mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients performed differently on a battery of executive functioning (EF) tests, and to identify the operating characteristics of EF tests in this population. Participants consisted of 46 brain-injured individuals and 24 healthy controls. All participants completed an extensive battery of EF tests. Results showed that mild TBI participants performed worse than controls on the Trail Making Test Part B, and that moderate/severe TBI participants consistently performed worse than either group on a variety of EF measures. Tests of EF exhibited a wide range of operating characteristics, suggesting that some EF tests are better than others in identifying TBI-related neurocognitive impairment. Predictive values were better for individuals with moderate/severe TBI than mild TBI. Overall, the Digit Span Backward Test showed the best positive predictive power in differentiating TBI. Our results provide useful data that may guide test selection in evaluating EF in patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:21069617

Demery, Jason A; Larson, Michael J; Dixit, Neha K; Bauer, Russell M; Perlstein, William M

2010-11-01

403

Operating Characteristics of Executive Functioning Tests Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

The primary purposes of this study were to determine if controls, mild, and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients performed differently on a battery of executive functioning (EF) tests, and to identify the operating characteristics of EF tests in this population. Participants consisted of 46 brain injured individuals and 24 healthy controls. All participants completed an extensive battery of EF tests. Results showed that mild TBI participants performed worse than controls on the Trail Making Test Part B, and that moderate/severe TBI participants consistently performed worse than either group on a variety of EF measures. Tests of EF exhibited a wide range of operating characteristics, suggesting that some EF tests are better than others in identifying TBI-related neurocognitive impairment. Predictive values were better for individuals with moderate/severe TBI than mild TBI. Overall, the Digit Span Backward Test showed the best positive predictive power in