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Sample records for spectral induced polarization

  1. Spectral Induced Polarization of Sandstones: Temperature Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binley, A.; Kruschwitz, S.; Lesmes, D.

    2007-12-01

    There is growing interest in the use of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for a wide range of environmental applications, in particular those focused on hydrogeological investigations. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that the mean relaxation time of electrical impedance spectra measured in sandstones is linked to the grain surface area and strongly correlated to some measure of a dominant pore throat size. Such empirically derived relationships lead to potential models of SIP - hydraulic conductivity, which has immense value for the hydrological community. Furthermore, the links between surface area and electrical response may lead to other, equally exciting, applications, such as in characterizing geochemical reactivity of sediments. However, there is a need to understand the fundamental behavior of SIP in such porous media in order for such models to be applied usefully. In an attempt to address this, we focus here on the influence of temperature on the SIP behavior of a range of sandstones. Classical models of dielectric dispersion in colloids have proposed direct inverse relationships between relaxation time and temperature. Through a series of experimental trials we have studied this behavior: examining the impedance spectra (in the 1 mHz to 1 kHz range) of four different sandstones over a temperature range of 5 to 30 degrees Celsius. Analysis of the spectra with the widely used Pelton Cole-Cole model has confirmed hypothesized effects on a mean relaxation time but revealed that the responses to temperature change is a function of physical properties of the sandstone. In addition, the analysis has illustrated how temperature effects on surface complex conductivity of the sandstones differ as a function of pore fluid and formation factor. The results add to the growing experimental evidence of controls on spectral impedance in porous media and help ascertain generalized petrophysical models for a wide range of applications.

  2. Spectral Induced Polarization of Goethite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, J. A.; Moradi, S.; Zimmermann, E.; Bosch, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Goethite nanoparticles are being considered as a tool to enhance in situ remediation of aquifers contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. Injection of goethite nanoparticles into the plume is expected to enhance microbial iron reduction and associated beneficial oxidation of hydrocarbons in a cost-effective manner. Amongst others, current challenges associated with this novel approach are the monitoring of nanoparticle delivery and the nanoparticle and contaminant concentration dynamics over time. Obviously, non-invasive monitoring of these properties would be highly useful. In this study, we aim to evaluate whether spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements of the complex electrical conductivity are suitable for such non-invasive characterization. In principle, this is not unreasonable because the electrical double layers of the goethite nanoparticles are expected to affect electrical polarization and thus the imaginary part of the complex electrical conductivity. In a first set of measurements, we determined the complex electrical conductivity of goethite nanoparticle suspensions with different nanoparticle concentrations, pH, and ionic strength in the mHz to kHz frequency range. In a second set of measurements, mixtures of sand and different concentrations of goethite nanoparticles and variable pH and ionic strengths were analyzed. Finally, flow experiments were monitored with SIP in a 1-m long laboratory column to investigate dynamic effects associated with goethite nanoparticle injection and delivery. The results showed that the imaginary part of the electrical conductivity was only affected in the high frequency range (Hz - kHz), which is expected from the small size of the goethite nanoparticles. Overall, we found that the goethite nanoparticles are associated with a small increase in the imaginary electrical conductivity at 1 kHz that can be measured in situ using recently improved borehole electrical impedance tomography measurement equipment that provides the required accuracy for frequencies above 100 Hz.

  3. Spectral Induced Polarization Signature of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Furman, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Although often composing a non-negligible fraction of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), the impact of soil organic matter (OM) on the electrical properties of soil has not been thoroughly investigated. In this research the impact of soil OM on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) signature of soil was investigated. Electrical and chemical measurements for two experiments using the same soil, one with calcium as the dominant cation and the other with sodium, with different concentration of OM were performed. Our results show that despite the high CEC of OM, a decrease in polarization and an increase in relaxation time with increasing concentration of OM is observed. For the soil with calcium as the dominant cation, the decreases in polarization and the increase in relaxation time were stronger. We explain these non-trivial results by accounting for the interactions between the OM and the soil minerals. We suggest that the formation of organo-mineral complexes reduce ionic mobility, explaining both the decrease in polarization and the increase in relaxation time. These results demonstrate the important role of OM on SIP response of soil, and call for a further research in order to establish a new polarization model that will include the impact of OM on soil polarization.

  4. On the spectral induced polarization signature of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Furman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although often composing a non-negligible fraction of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), the impact of soil organic matter (OM) on the electrical properties of soil has not been thoroughly investigated. In this research the impact of soil OM on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) signature of soil was investigated. Electrical and chemical measurements for two experiments using the same soil, one with calcium as the dominant cation and the other with sodium, with different concentration of OM were performed. Our results show that despite the high CEC of OM, a decrease in polarization and an increase in relaxation time with increasing concentration of OM is observed. For the soil with calcium as the dominant cation, the decreases in polarization and the increase in relaxation time were stronger. We explain these non-trivial results by accounting for the interactions between the OM and the soil minerals. We suggest that the formation of organo-mineral complexes reduce ionic mobility, explaining both the decrease in polarization and the increase in relaxation time. These results demonstrate the important role of OM on SIP response of soil, and call for a further research in order to establish a new polarization model that will include the impact of OM on soil polarization.

  5. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  6. Spectral induced polarization signatures of abiotic FeS precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Doherty, R.; Williams, K. H.

    2010-01-15

    In recent years, geophysical methods have been shown to be sensitive to microbial induced mineralization processes. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method appears to be very promising for monitoring mineralization and microbial processes. With this work, we study the links of mineralization and SIP signals, in the absence of microbial activity. We recorded the SIP response during abiotic FeS precipitation. We show that the SIP signals are diagnostic of FeS mineralization and can be differentiated from SIP signals from bio-mineralization processes. More specifically the imaginary conductivity shows almost linear dependence on the amount of FeS precipitating out of solution, above the threshold value 0.006 gr under our experimental conditions. This research has direct implications for the use of the SIP method as a monitoring, and decision making, tool for sustainable remediation of metals in contaminated soils and groundwater.

  7. Spectral Induced Polarization In Clean Water- Saturated Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, K.; Komarov, V.; Tarasov, V.; Levitski, A.

    A theoretical model of Spectral Induced Polarization (IP) of sand is proposed. In this model, contacts of sand grains and inter-grain solution-filled space are considered as electrical current passages of varying thickness, which differ in values of ion transport numbers. Ion-selective narrow passages are considered active zones, large passages - passive ones. The proposed model, called SShort Narrow PoreT(SNP) model, de- & cedil; scribes spectral IP characteristics for the medium where the length of passive zones is much greater than that of the active zones. Both time domain and frequency domain parameters were described. The SNP model predicts a growth of IP time constant with increase of length of the ion-selective zone. The parameters of Cole-Cole model cor- responding to the SNP model were found. The behaviour of the model parameters was compared with experimental data obtained on natural and sieved sands using the time domain technique. The spectra of natural sands correspond neither to the simple SNP model nor to the simple Cole-Cole model with single time constant. The constant phase angle model also cannot be applied. As long as the lengths of the ion-selective zones vary according to the grain size distribution, different values of time constant are produced, which explain the spectra behaviour. A comparison of the sieved sand spectra and the SNP model theoretical spectra reveals close correspondence between the experimental data and theoretical parameters. For four sieved sands, both the the- oretical and experimental data show that the time constant of IP is proportional to the square of the average grain size. This work was supported by INTAS, project No 32046.

  8. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. PMID:25528133

  9. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000 Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers.

  10. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the water phase, and therefore a decrease in the real part of the complex resistivity occurs.

  11. Temperature dependence of spectral induced polarization data: experimental results and membrane polarization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Katharina; Bücker, Matthias; Hördt, Andreas; Hinze, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements are affected by temperature variations due to a variety of temperature-dependent parameters that control the complex electrical conductivity. Most important is the influence of the ion mobility, which increases with increasing temperature. It is responsible for the increase of the conductivity of the fluid in the pores with temperature and influences the electrical double layer on the mineral surface. This work is based on laboratory measurements of 13 sandstone samples from different sources with different geological and petrophysical characteristics. We measured the complex impedance in a frequency range from 0.01 to 100 Hz and a temperature range from 0 to 40 °C. The main observation is a decrease of the characteristic time (defined by the inverse of the frequency, at which the phase shift is maximum) with increasing temperature. The strength of this decrease differs from one sample to another. The temperature dependence of the phase shift magnitude cannot easily be generalized, as it depends on the particular sample. The experimental findings suggest that neglecting the influence of temperature on complex conductivity may lead to significant errors when estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation time. We also simulate the temperature dependence with a theoretical model of membrane polarization and review some of the model properties, with an emphasis on the temperature dependence of the parameters. The model reproduces several features characterizing the measured data, including the temperature dependence of the characteristic times. Computed tomography and microscope images of the pore structure of three samples also allow us to associate differences in the geometrical parameters used in the modelling with pore scale parameters of the actual samples.

  12. Spectral Induced Polarization Signatures of Ethanol in Sand-Clay Medium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method has previously been investigated as a tool for detecting physicochemical changes occurring as result of clay-organic interactions in porous media. We performed SIP measurements with a dynamic signal analyzer (NI-4551) on laboratory ...

  13. Time-Domain Spectral Induced Polarization Based on Pseudo-random Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Wei, Wenbo; Luo, Weibin; Xu, Qindong

    2013-12-01

    To reduce noise during electrical prospecting, we hereby propose a new method using correlation identification technology and conventional electrical exploration devices. A correlation operation can be carried out with the transmitted pseudo-random sequence and received time signal to suppress the random noise, and the time-domain impulse response and frequency response of the frequency domain of the underground media can be obtained. At the same time, using a dual Cole-Cole model to fit a complex resistivity spectrum, which is close to the frequency response, we can get a variety of induced polarization parameters and electromagnetic parameters of subsurface, which can provide more useful information for the exploration of mineral resources. This time domain prospecting method can effectively improve the efficiency of the spectral induced polarization method. In this article, we have carried out theoretical calculations and a simulation to prove the feasibility of such a method.

  14. Spectral and polarization structure of field-induced photonic bands in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Geivandov, A. R.; Kasyanova, I. V.; Palto, V. S.

    2015-09-01

    Transmission of planar layers of cholesteric liquid crystals is studied in pulsed electric fields perpendicular to the helix axis at normal incidence of both linearly polarized and unpolarized light. Spectral and light polarization properties of the primary photonic band and the field-induced bands up to fourth order of Bragg selective reflection are studied in detail. In our experiments we have achieved an electric field strength several times higher than the theoretical values corresponding to the critical field of full helix unwinding. However, the experiments show that despite the high strength of the electric field applied the helix does not unwind, but strongly deforms, keeping its initial spatial period. Strong helix deformation results in distinct spectral band splitting, as well as very high field-induced selective reflectance that can be applied in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Peculiarities of inducing and splitting the bands are discussed in terms of the scattering coefficient approach. All observed effects are confirmed by numerical simulations. The simulations also show that liquid crystal surface anchoring is not the factor that prevents the helix unwinding. Thus, the currently acknowledged concept of continuous helix unwinding in the electric field should be reconsidered.

  15. Spectral and polarization structure of field-induced photonic bands in cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Palto, S P; Barnik, M I; Geivandov, A R; Kasyanova, I V; Palto, V S

    2015-09-01

    Transmission of planar layers of cholesteric liquid crystals is studied in pulsed electric fields perpendicular to the helix axis at normal incidence of both linearly polarized and unpolarized light. Spectral and light polarization properties of the primary photonic band and the field-induced bands up to fourth order of Bragg selective reflection are studied in detail. In our experiments we have achieved an electric field strength several times higher than the theoretical values corresponding to the critical field of full helix unwinding. However, the experiments show that despite the high strength of the electric field applied the helix does not unwind, but strongly deforms, keeping its initial spatial period. Strong helix deformation results in distinct spectral band splitting, as well as very high field-induced selective reflectance that can be applied in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Peculiarities of inducing and splitting the bands are discussed in terms of the scattering coefficient approach. All observed effects are confirmed by numerical simulations. The simulations also show that liquid crystal surface anchoring is not the factor that prevents the helix unwinding. Thus, the currently acknowledged concept of continuous helix unwinding in the electric field should be reconsidered. PMID:26465485

  16. Pore-scale spectral induced polarization (SIP) signaturesassociated with FeS biomineral transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Personna, Yves R.; Hubbard, Susan

    2007-10-01

    The authors measured Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) signatures in sand columns during (1) FeS biomineralization produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (D. vulgaris) under anaerboci conditions, and (2) subsequent biomineral dissolution upon return to an aerobic state. The low-frequency (0.1-10 Hz peak) relaxations produced during biomineralization can be modeled with a Cole-Cole formulation, from which the evolution of the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scale can be estimated. They find that the modeled time constant is consistent with the polarizable elements being biomineral encrused pores. Evolution of the model parameters is consistent with FeS surface area increases and pore-size reduction during biomineral growth, and subsequent biomineral dissolution (FeS surface area decreases and pore expansion) upon return to the aerobic state. They conclude that SIP signatures are diagnostic of pore-scale geometrical changes associated with FeS biomineralization by sulfate reducing bacteria.

  17. Pore-scale spectral induced polarization signatures associated with FeS biomineral transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Personna, Yves R.; Hubbard, Susan

    2007-11-01

    We measured spectral induced polarization (SIP) signatures in sand columns during (1) FeS biomineralization produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio vulgaris) under anaerobic conditions, and (2) subsequent biomineral dissolution upon return to an aerobic state. The low-frequency (0.1-10 Hz peak) relaxations produced during biomineralization can be modeled with a Cole-Cole formulation, from which the evolution of the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scale can be estimated. We find that the modeled time constant is consistent with the polarizable elements being biomineral encrusted pores. Evolution of the model parameters is consistent with FeS surface area increases and pore-size reduction during biomineral growth, and subsequent biomineral dissolution (FeS surface area decreases and pore expansion) upon return to the aerobic state. We conclude that SIP signatures are diagnostic of pore-scale geometrical changes associated with FeS biomineralization by sulfate reducing bacteria.

  18. Relating the permeability of quartz sands to their grain size and spectral induced polarization characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Kristof; Revil, Andr; Holliger, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Recently, Revil & Florsch proposed a novel mechanistic model based on the polarization of the Stern layer relating the permeability of granular media to their spectral induced polarization (SIP) characteristics based on the formation of polarized cells around individual grains. To explore the practical validity of this model, we compare it to pertinent laboratory measurements on samples of quartz sands with a wide range of granulometric characteristics. In particular, we measure the hydraulic and SIP characteristics of all samples both in their loose, non-compacted and compacted states, which might allow for the detection of polarization processes that are independent of the grain size. We first verify the underlying grain size/permeability relationship upon which the model of Revil & Florsch is based and then proceed to compare the observed and predicted permeability values for our samples by substituting the grain size characteristics by corresponding SIP parameters, notably the so-called Cole-Cole time constant. In doing so, we also asses the quantitative impact of an observed shift in the Cole-Cole time constant related to textural variations in the samples and observe that changes related to the compaction of the samples are not relevant for the corresponding permeability predictions. We find that the proposed model does indeed provide an adequate prediction of the overall trend of the observed permeability values, but underestimates their actual values by approximately one order-of-magnitude. This discrepancy in turn points to the potential importance of phenomena, which are currently not accounted for in the model and which tend to reduce the characteristic size of the prevailing polarization cells compared to the considered model, such as, for example, membrane polarization, contacts of double-layers of neighbouring grains, and incorrect estimation of the size of the polarized cells because of the irregularity of natural sand grains.

  19. Spectral Induced Polarization Signatures of Hydroxide Adsorption and Mineral Precipitation in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chi; Slater, Lee; Redden, George D.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Johnson, Timothy C.; Fox, Don

    2012-04-17

    The spectral induced polarization (SIP) technique is a promising approach for delineating subsurface physical and chemical property changes in a minimally invasive manner. To facilitate the understanding of position and chemical properties of reaction fronts that involve mineral precipitation in porous media, we investigated spatiotemporal variations in complex conductivity during evolution of urea hydrolysis and calcite precipitation reaction fronts within a silica gel column. The real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity were shown to be sensitive to changes in both solution chemistry and calcium carbonate precipitation. Distinct changes in imaginary conductivity coincided with increased hydroxide ion concentration during urea hydrolysis. In a separate experiment focused on the effect of hydroxide concentration on interfacial polarization of silica gel and well-sorted sand, we found a significant dependence of the polarization response on pH changes of the solution. We propose a conceptual model describing hydroxide ion adsorption behavior in silica gel and its control on interfacial polarizability. Our results demonstrate the utility of SIP for noninvasive monitoring of reaction fronts, and indicate its potential for quantifying geochemical processes that control the polarization responses of porous media at larger spatial scales in the natural environment.

  20. Spectral induced polarization signatures of hydroxide adsorption and mineral precipitation in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Chi Zhang; Lee Slater; George Redden; Yoshiko Fujita; Timothy Johnson; Don Fox

    2012-04-01

    The spectral induced polarization (SIP) technique is a promising approach for delineating subsurface physical and chemical property changes in a minimally invasive manner. We investigated spatiotemporal variations in complex conductivity during evolution of urea hydrolysis and calcite precipitation reaction fronts within a silica gel column. The real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity were shown to be sensitive to changes in both solution chemistry and calcium carbonate precipitation. Distinct changes in imaginary conductivity coincided with increased hydroxide ion concentration during urea hydrolysis. In a separate experiment focused on the effect of hydroxide concentration on interfacial polarization of silica gel and well-sorted sand, we found a strong dependence of the polarization response on pH changes of the solution. We propose a conceptual model describing hydroxide ion adsorption behavior in silica gel and its control on interfacial polarizability. Our results demonstrate the utility of SIP for non-invasive monitoring of reaction fronts, and indicate its potential for quantifying geochemical processes that control the polarization responses of porous media at larger spatial scales in the natural environment.

  1. Evaluation of Surface Sorption Processes Using Spectral Induced Polarization and a (22)Na Tracer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Na; Moysey, Stephen M J; Powell, Brian A; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-18

    We investigate mechanisms controlling the complex electrical conductivity of a porous media using noninvasive spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements of a silica gel during a pH dependent surface adsorption experiment. Sorption of sodium on silica gel surfaces was monitored as the pH of a column was equilibrated at 5.0 and then successively raised to 6.5 and 8.0, but the composition of the 0.01 M NaCl solution was otherwise unchanged. SIP measurements show an increase in the imaginary conductivity of the sample (17.82 0.07 ?S/cm) in response to the pH change, interpreted as deprotonation of silanol groups on the silica gel surface followed by sorption of sodium cations. Independent measurements of Na(+) accumulation on grain surfaces performed using a radioactive (22)Na tracer support the interpretation of pH-dependent sorption as a dominant process controlling the electrical properties of the silica gel (R(2) = 0.99) and confirms the importance of grain polarization (versus membrane polarization) in influencing SIP measurements of silicate minerals. The number of surface sorption sites estimated by fitting a mechanistic, triple-layer model for the complex conductivity to the SIP data (13.22 10(16) sites/m(2)) was 2.8 times larger than that estimated directly by a (22)Na mass balance (5.13 10(16) sites/m(2)), suggesting additional contributions to polarization exist. PMID:26191613

  2. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of biodegraded oil in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Aal, Gamal Z.; Atekwana, Estella A.

    2014-02-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of different oil saturation (0.2-0.8), wetting conditions (water-wet and oil-wet), and the addition of asphaltene on the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of biodegraded and fresh crude oil in sand columns. In the water-wet case, no significant differences were observed for both the fresh and biodegraded oil and both displayed an increase in the magnitude of the phase (?) and decrease in the magnitudes of the real (?') and imaginary (?'') conductivity components with increasing oil saturation. In this instance the SIP response is most likely controlled by the conduction and polarization of the electric double layer at the mineral-water interface. However, when oil is the wetting phase there were considerable differences in the magnitude of the SIP parameters between the fresh and biodegraded oil. The magnitude of ? and ?'' increased with increasing oil saturation, whereas ?' decreased. The magnitude of ?' and ?'' for the biodegraded oil-wetted sands were relatively higher compared to fresh oil-wetted sands. In experiments with fresh and biodegraded oil-wet sand, the addition of 1 per cent asphaltene increased ?' and ?'' with the biodegraded oil showing the highest magnitude. Asphaltenes are the most dipolar fraction of crude oil and increase in concentration with increasing biodegradation. Asphaltene creates a surface charge due to the ionization and complexation reactions of functional groups at interfaces. Therefore, the enhancement in the conduction and polarization observed with the biodegraded oil-wetted sands may be due to the increase in polar components (e.g. asphaltene) from the biodegradation process and the interactions of the polar components with the surfaces of water and mineral grains. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of other components in biodegraded oil such as resins, trace metals, biogenic metallic minerals (e.g. magnetite) and organic acids on the SIP response of porous media.

  3. Resolving spectral information from time domain induced polarization data through 2-D inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Binley, Andrew; Gazoty, Aurlie; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Auken, Esben

    2013-02-01

    Field-based time domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) surveys are usually modelled by taking into account only the integral chargeability, thus disregarding spectral content. Furthermore, the effect of the transmitted waveform is commonly neglected, biasing inversion results. Given these limitations of conventional approaches, a new 2-D inversion algorithm has been developed using the full voltage decay of the IP response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and receiver transfer function. This allows reconstruction of the spectral information contained in the TD decay series. The inversion algorithm is based around a 2-D complex conductivity kernel that is computed over a range of frequencies and converted to the TD through a fast Hankel transform. Two key points in the implementation ensure that computation times are minimized. First, the speed of the Jacobian computation, time transformed from frequency domain through the same transformation adopted for the forward response is optimized. Secondly, the reduction of the number of frequencies where the forward response and Jacobian are calculated: cubic splines are used to interpolate the responses to the frequency sampling necessary in the fast Hankel transform. These features, together with parallel computation, ensure inversion times comparable with those of direct current algorithms. The algorithm has been developed in a laterally constrained inversion scheme, and handles both smooth and layered inversions; the latter being helpful in sedimentary environments, where quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. In the layered inversion approach, a general method to derive the thickness derivative from the complex conductivity Jacobian is also proposed. One synthetic example of layered inversion and one field example of smooth inversion show the capability of the algorithm and illustrates a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters. With this new algorithm, in situ TD IP measurements give access to the spectral content of the polarization processes, opening up new applications in environmental and hydrogeophysical investigations.

  4. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  5. Spectral induced polarization and the hydraulic properties of New Zealand sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, S.; Ingham, M.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of spectral induced polarization (SIP) and permeability have been made on unconsolidated samples representative of shallow coastal aquifers in New Zealand. The samples consisted of sands sieved into different fractions ranging from a mean grain size of 1.0 mm to 0.125 mm. Although the occurrence in New Zealand natural sands of titomagnetite means that the magnitude of the SIP phase response is significantly greater than is generally found for "clean" sands, the peak in SIP phase shows a clear dependence on grain size. The SIP spectra have been represented in terms of a Cole-Cole model and the relaxation times derived from this show a strong linear correlation with the measured values of permeability. The SIP and permeability measurements are then extended to mixtures of sieved sands, sand with varying amount of clay, samples with varying amount of magnetic minerals and also natural samples from various locations in New Zealand.

  6. Temporal and spectral induced polarization contribution to ore body detection and differenciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Ghorbani, A.; Parisot, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show complementarity of temporal and spectral induced polarization, applied to ore body detection and differenciation. Study had been lead into well known geological background through borings, geochemical measurements, and also through some electrical resistivity tomographies. Temporal induced polarization (TIP) material and carry out: TIP had been carried out in a quite original way by employed device, and technique. Measurements had been done with SYSCAL PRO (Iris Instrument, Ltd.) transformed into ELREC PRO: this make it possible to differenciate transmitter device (with VIP generator manufactured by IRIS) from receiver one. The main interests are (i) to avoid internal coupling effects and between transmittor/receptor cables on soil, and (ii) to obtain higher electrical power (until 3000 watt) necessary to reach 30-40m depth. Voltage measurement is done through non-polarizable electrodes. Electrical chargeability and resistivity tomographies had been obtained by lateral device displacement. Pole-dipole device had been chosen because it is the best compromise between minimizing coupling effects, getting enough power to reach wanted depth, and necessary lateral resolution. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) material and carry out : SIP FUCHS II device (manufactured by Radic Research) had been used. As the device is not configurated into a multielectrode way, and as one sounding is very time consuming (about 7 hours), only 2 soundings had been done, located on major chargeability anomalies. First results: A a first analysis, a 3 lauer model can be observed: very resistivive level between 0 and 5m depth (up to 1000 ohm.m), more conductive between 5 and 20-25m depth (50 ohm.m), and finally an increasing resistivity. A finer analysis indicates some big conductive zone 50m wide (50 ohm.m) from surface until 30m depth. This could be exlplained by clay or ore body presence. Chargeability analysis indicate us values very high chargeabilities at resistivity anomaly zone (up to 80 mV/V), whereas everywhere else these values are less than 10mV/V. Such chargeability intensity may only be explained by ore body presence. At this stage we could think that there is only one kind of ore body (nevertheless geochemical analysis indicate 2 different types). Two SIP soundings had been done vertically to chargeability anomalies. There is no difference for resistivity values, but phase diagrams are very different (maximum phase is 3 Hz for one sounding and less than 0.1 Hz for the second). Some SIP modelling is now to be done to better characterize ore body nature. As a conclusion, the measurements of electrical resistivity, of chargeabilit and PPS are very complementary (fastness for the chargeability / strong capacity of differenciation for SIP).

  7. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28 of these electrodes were deployed at the SRS site in September of 2002. The project found that (1) currently available field instrumentation need to be faster by an order of magnitude for full SIP to be engaged for broadband characterization in the field, (2) some aspects of the capacitive coupling problem in borehole geometries can be solved by use of a high impedance receiver, (3) a careful investigation of ways to adequately compare inversion results to ground-truth data is warranted, (4) more laboratory studies should be directed to understand the influence of micro-organisms and long residence time of contaminants (aging) on spectral IP properties.

  8. Spectral induced polarization measurements for environmental purposes and predicting the hydraulic conductivity in sandy aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwa, M.; Günther, T.

    2013-04-01

    Low-frequency field and laboratory induced polarization measurements are carried out to characterize the hydrogeological conditions at Schillerslage test site in Germany. The laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) data are analyzed to derive an empirical relationship for predicting the hydraulic conductivity (K) in the field scale. On the other hand, the results from SIP sounding and profiling field data indicate that the method identifies the lithological layers with sufficient resolution to achieve our objectives. Two main Quaternary groundwater aquifers separated by a till layer can be well differentiated. Furthermore, the phase images are also capable of monitoring thin peat layers within the sandy groundwater aquifer. However, the field results show limitations of decreasing resolution with depth and/or low data coverage. Similarly, the SIP laboratory results show a certain shift in SIP response due to different compaction and sorting of the samples. The overall results obtained show that the integration of field and laboratory SIP measurements is an efficient tool to avoid a hydrogeological misinterpretation. In particular, two significant but weak correlations between individual real resistivities (ρ') and relaxation times (τ), based on a Debye decomposition (DD) model, with measured K are found for the upper groundwater aquifer. While the maximum relaxation time (τmax) and logarithmically weighted average relaxation time (τlw) show a better relation with K values than the median value τ50, however, the single relationships are weak. A combined power law relation between individual ρ' and/or τ with K is developed with an expression of A · (ρ')B · (τlw)C, where A, B and C are determined using a least-squares fit between the measured and predicted K. The suggested approach with the calculated coefficients of the first aquifer is applied for the second one. The results indicate a good correlation with the measured K and prove to be superior to single phase angle models as the Börner or Slater models.

  9. Preliminary results of spectral induced polarization measurements, Wadi Bidah District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Bruce D.; Tippens, C.L.; Flanigan, V.J.; Sadek, Hamdy

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements on 29 carbonaceous schist samples from the Wadi Bidah district show that most are associated with very long polarization decays or, equivalently, large time constants. In contrast, measurements on two massive sulfide samples indicate shorter polarization decays or smaller time constants. This difference in time constants for the polarization process results in two differences in the phase spectra in the frequency range of from 0.06 to 1Hz. First, phase values of carbonaceous rocks generally decrease as a function of increasing frequency. Second, phase values of massive sulfide-bearing rocks increase as a function of increasing frequency. These results from laboratory measurements agree well with those from other reported SIP measurements on graphites and massive sulfides from the Canadian Shield. Four SIP lines, measured by using a 50-m dipole-dipole array, were surveyed at the Rabathan 4 prospect to test how well the results of laboratory sample measurements can be applied to larger scale field measurements. Along one line, located entirely over carbonaceous schists, the phase values decreased as a function of increasing frequency. Along a second line, located over both massive sulfides and carbonaceous schists as defined by drilling, the phase values measured over carbonaceous schists decreased as a function of increasing frequency, whereas those measured over massive sulfides increased. In addition, parts of two lines were surveyed down the axes of the massive sulfide and carbonaceous units. The phase values along these lines showed similar differences between the carbonaceous schists and massive sulfides. To date, the SIP survey and the SIP laboratory measurements have produced the only geophysical data that indicate an electrical difference between the massive sulfide-bearing rocks and the surrounding carbonaceous rocks in the Wadi Bidah district. However, additional sample and field measurements in areas of known mineralization would fully evaluate the SIP method as applied to various geologic environments and styles of massive sulfide mineralization. Additionally, the efficiency of SIP surveys in delineating areas of sulfide mineralization might be improved by surveying lines down the axes of known electrical conductors. An evaluation of the applied research done on the SIP method to date suggests that this technique offers significant exploration applications to massive sulfide exploration in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  10. Spectral induced polarization measurements for predicting the hydraulic conductivity in sandy aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwa, M.; Günther, T.

    2013-10-01

    Field and laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements are integrated to characterize the hydrogeological conditions at the Schillerslage test site in Germany. The phase images are capable of monitoring thin peat layers within the sandy aquifers. However, the field results show limitations of decreasing resolution with depth. In comparison with the field inversion results, the SIP laboratory measurements show a certain shift in SIP response due to different compaction and sorting of the samples. The SIP data are analyzed to derive an empirical relationship for predicting the hydraulic conductivity (K). In particular, two significant but weak correlations between individual real resistivities (ρ') and relaxation times (τ), based on a Debye decomposition (DD) model, with measured K are found for the upper groundwater aquifer. The maximum relaxation time (τmax) and logarithmically weighted average relaxation time (τlw) show a better relation with K values than the median value τ50. A combined power law relation between individual ρ' and τ with K is developed with an expression of A · (ρ')B · (τlw)C, where A, B and C are determined using a least-squares fit between the measured and predicted K. The suggested approach with the calculated coefficients of the first aquifer is applied for the second. Results show good correlation with the measured K indicating that the derived relationship is superior to single phase angle models as Börner or Slater models.

  11. Spectral induced polarization monitoring of CO2 injection in saturated sands: a laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, T.; Schmutz, M.; Agrinier, P.; Maineult, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    During the last decade, the interest of induced polarization methods for environmental studies has undoubtly grown. Here, we present a set of laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the ability of spectral induced polarisation (SIP) method to detect and monitor CO2 transfers in the subsurface. The objectives were the quantification of the influence of various parameters on the SIP response, such as the water conductivity, the chemical reactivity of the solid and of the gas phases, and the injection rate. SIP measurements in the frequency range 50 mHz - 20 kHz were thus performed during gas (N2 or CO2) injections in a metric-scaled, cylindrical tank filled with unconsolidated granular material (quartz or carbonate sands) and fully saturated with water. The system was most reactive to gas injection in the high frequency range (>1 kHz). In quartz sand, the presence of gas in the medium tends to decrease the measured values of the phase angle. This effect becomes more important when increasing the injection rate, and thus the amount of gas trapped in the medium. The magnitude of this effect decreases when the water conductivity increases. Dissolution processes (CO2 in water and also solid matrix in the case of carbonate sand) were evidenced from chemical measurements (pH, conductivity and anionic concentrations). The increased ionic strength resulted in a decrease of the bulk resistivity and in an increase of the phase values at high frequency. An interesting parameter is the ratio of the increase in phase to the decrease in resistivity. When dissolution processes are involved, this ratio increases strongly with the initial conductivity of the saturating fluid. Hence, in some cases the measured phase values still bring measurable information on the system evolution even if resistivity variations are very small.

  12. The effect of organic acid on the spectral-induced polarization response of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Shalem, T.; Furman, A.

    2014-04-01

    In spectral-induced polarization (SIP) studies of sites contaminated by organic hydrocarbons, it was shown that biodegradation by-products in general, and organic acids in particular, significantly alter the SIP signature of the subsurface. Still a systematic study that considers the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical and electrical (SIP) properties of the soil is missing. The goal of this work is to relate between the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical properties of the soil, and the soil electrical properties. To do so, we measured the temporal changes of the soil chemical (ion content) and electrical (low-frequency SIP) properties in response to influx of organic acid at different concentrations, gradually altering the soil pH. Our results show that organic acid reduces the soil pH, enhances mineral weathering and consequently reduces both the in-phase and quadrature conductivity. At the pH range where mineral weathering is most significant (pH 6-4.5) a negative linear relation between the soil pH and the soil formation factor was found, suggesting that mineral weathering changes the pore space geometry and hence affecting the in-phase electrical conductivity. In addition, we attribute the reduction in the quadrature conductivity to an exchange process between the natural cation adsorbed on the mineral surface and hydronium, and to changes in the width of the pore bottleneck that results from the mineral weathering. Overall, our results allow a better understanding of the SIP signature of soil undergoing acidification process in general and as biodegradation process in particular.

  13. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) monitoring during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Jeffrey Heenan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Lee Slater Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark NJ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is an established, cost effective, method for enhancing tertiary oil recovery. Although not commonly used for shallow heavy oils, it could be a viable alternative since it can offer sustainable economic recovery and minimal environmental impact. A critical component of successful MEOR treatments is accurate, real time monitoring of the biodegradation processes resulting from the injection of microbial communities into the formation; results of recent biogeophysical research suggest that minimally-invasive geophysical methods could significantly contribute to such monitoring efforts. Here we present results of laboratory experiments, to assess the sensitivity of the spectral induced polarization method (SIP) to MEOR treatments. We used heavy oil, obtained from a shallow oilfield in SW Missouri, to saturate three sand columns. We then followed common industry procedures,and used a commercially available microbial consortia, to treat the oil columns. The active MEOR experiments were performed in duplicate while a control column maintained similar conditions, without promoting microbial activity and oil degradation. We monitored the SIP signatures, between 0.001 Hz and 1000 Hz, for a period of six months. To support the geophysical measurements we also monitored common geochemical parameters, including pH, Eh and fluid conductivity, and collected weekly fluid samples from the outflow and inflow for further analysis; fluid samples were analyzed to confirm that microbes actively degraded the heavy oils in the column while destructive analysis of the solid materials was performed upon termination of the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests that SIP is sensitive to MEOR processes. In both inoculated columns we recorded an increase in the low frequency polarization with time; measureable changes up to 3.5 mrads in the phase shift were recorded for both active columns, and for all electrode pairs. On the contrary, no change was observed in the control column for the duration of the experiment. These results may indicate that remote geophysical methods could successfully complement current MEOR monitoring schemes for promoting sustainable oil recovery.

  14. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements for monitoring toluene contamination in clayey soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustra, A.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method has previously shown potential for detecting hydrocarbons in the subsurface when clay minerals are present. However, results from recent studies of soils containing hydrocarbon contaminants are inconclusive, and further research is needed. In an effort to better constrain the sensitivity of SIP to toluene contamination in clayey soils, samples consisting of mixtures of quartzitic sand and montmorillonite (5 and 10% by weight) were contaminated with varying amounts of toluene (5, 10 and 20% by weight) and saturated with sodium nitrate solution (0.003 mol/L). The SIP response of the various samples was monitored for a period of about 40 days. An important aspect of this experimental work was to minimize measurement errors related with the experimental set up and uncertainty in the interpretation of effects of hydrocarbon presence that will result from any variations in sample packing. Errors from the experimental setup (electrodes, sample holder and data acquisition device) varied from 0.02 mrad (at 0.01 Hz) to 9 mrad (at 1000 Hz), as determined from calibration measurements on water samples with known electrical properties. Variations associated with the packing effect (based on repeated sample packs) were from 0.1 mrad (at 0.01 Hz) to 11 mrad (at 1000 Hz). The real and imaginary conductivities at specified frequencies and the integral chargeability and time constant (obtained from a Debye decomposition fitting) were correlated to toluene and clay content. Repeated SIP measurements suggest that the toluene contaminated samples may take significant time to come into equilibrium. Low frequency SIP measurements are significantly related to toluene content only during early stages of contamination, when the dependence of SIP on clay concentration is apparently suppressed. At later time, progress towards a steady state SIP response (interpreted to indicate equilibrium surface chemistry) results in loss of a significant relation between SIP measurements and toluene content; instead the low frequency SIP measurements are then significantly correlated with clay concentration. The results show only subtle low frequency SIP signals observed in relation to toluene concentration, which initially decreases the interfacial polarization. Unlike earlier work, our results do not support the use of the SIP method as a tool for investigating toluene contamination in clay soils.

  15. Unique Case of Highly Polarized Collision-Induced Light Scattering: The Very Far Spectral Wing by the Helium Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael; Guillot-Nol, Christophe; Le Duff, Yves

    2000-03-01

    Contrary to what has been observed thus far collision-induced light scattering (CILS) can be completely polarized. This exceptional behavior characterizes the very far wing of the binary CILS spectrum by gaseous helium. This conclusion is drawn from an experimental study of the depolarization ratio of He 2 in a much extended, previously unexplored, spectral domain. Our analysis shows that this property, unique thus far, is mainly due to an almost perfect cancellation between polarization and exchange pair polarizability contributions to the depolarized spectrum, taking place at internuclear distances shorter than the atomic diameter.

  16. Monitoring of CO2-induced geochemical changes in a shallow aquifer by time domain spectral induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders V.; Cahill, Aaron G.; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of potable groundwater by leaking CO2 is a potential risk of carbon sequestration. With the help of a field experiment, we investigate if surface monitoring of electrical resistivity and induced polarization can detect geochemical changes induced by CO2 in a shallow aquifer. For this purpose, we injected CO2 at a depth of 5 and 10 m and monitored its migration using 320 electrodes on a 126 m × 25 m surface grid. A fully automated acquisition system continuously collected direct current (DC) resistivity and full-decay induced polarization (IP) data and uploaded it into an online database. CO2 was injected for a period of 72 days and DC/IP monitoring started 20 days before and continued until 120 days after the beginning of the injection. The DC/IP data were supplemented by chemical analysis of water samples collected in 29 wells at time intervals of approximately 10 days. DC/IP data are inverted using a 2-D algorithm (AarhusInv) that incorporates the full voltage decay of the IP response to resolve DC resistivity, intrinsic chargeability and spectral IP content parameterized using the Cole-Cole model. Borehole information and a baseline inversion reveals the geology at the site consisting of aeolian sands near the surface, glacial sands between 5 and 10 m depth and marine sands below 10 m depth. Following the injection, we use a time-lapse inversion where differences in the DC/IP data are inverted for changes to the Cole-Cole parameters. Two different geochemical signatures that occur due to the injected CO2 are evident both in the geophysical inversions and the water samples. The first and clearest subsurface signal is a decrease in DC resistivity that moves advectively with the groundwater. The area of resistivity decrease expands with time in the direction of the groundwater flow and there is good correlation between geophysical and geochemical results. A chargeability decrease after the injection has been also observed, but in contrast to the decrease in DC resistivity, the chargeability anomaly remains localized around and slightly downstream of the injection wells throughout the experiment. This chargeability decrease correlates in space and time with a decrease in pH, which is observed in the water samples. Consequently, we attribute this change in chargeability to pH-induced changes to the grains surfaces. These results highlight the potential for monitoring of field scale geochemical changes by means of surface DC/IP measurements. Especially the different development of the DC resistivity and chargeability anomalies and the different associated geochemical processes, highlight the added value of induced polarization to resistivity monitoring.

  17. Monitoring microbial growth and activity using spectral induced polarization and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Keating, Kristina; Revil, Andre

    2015-04-01

    Microbes and microbial activities in the Earth's subsurface play a significant role in shaping subsurface environments and are involved in environmental applications such as remediation of contaminants in groundwater and oil fields biodegradation. Stimulated microbial growth in such applications could cause wide variety of changes of physical/chemical properties in the subsurface. It is critical to monitor and determine the fate and transportation of microorganisms in the subsurface during such applications. Recent geophysical studies demonstrate the potential of two innovative techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for monitoring microbial growth and activities in porous media. The SIP measures complex dielectric properties of porous media at low frequencies of exciting electric field, and NMR studies the porous structure of geologic media and characterizes fluids subsurface. In this laboratory study, we examined both SIP and NMR responses from bacterial growth suspension as well as suspension mixed with silica sands. We focus on the direct contribution of microbes to the SIP and NMR signals in the absence of biofilm formation or biomineralization. We used Zymomonas mobilis and Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1) for SIP and NMR measurements, respectively. The SIP measurements were collected over the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 kHz on Z. mobilis growth suspension and suspension saturated sands at different cell densities. SIP data show two distinct peaks in imaginary conductivity spectra, and both imaginary and real conductivities increased as microbial density increased. NMR data were collected using both CPMG pulse sequence and D-T2 mapping to determine the T2-distribution and diffusion properties on S. oneidensis suspension, pellets (live and dead), and suspension mixed with silica sands. NMR data show a decrease in the T2-distribution in S. oneidensis suspension saturated sands as microbial density increase. A clear distinction in the T2-distribution and D-T2 plots between live and dead cell pellets was also observed. These results will provide a basis for understanding the effect of microbes within geologic media on SIP and low-field NMR measurements. This research suggests that both SIP and NMR have the potential to monitor microbial growth and activities in the subsurface and could provide spatiotemporal variations in bacterial abundance in porous media.

  18. Characterizing structural and textural subsurface patterns using spectral induced polarization: Effects of saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breede, K.; Esser, O.; Zimmermann, E.; Huisman, J. A.; Kemna, A.

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater is a vulnerable resource that is endangered by pollutants and contaminants. Soil is an important protective buffer for groundwater and, therefore, the understanding of flow and transport processes in soils is very important. However, the prediction capabilities of unsaturated flow and transport models in the vadose zone are often limited due to an insufficient knowledge about the structural and textural heterogeneity of the soil. To obtain more information about soil structure, texture and heterogeneity, as well as hydraulic parameters, non-invasive electrical methods may be employed in field-scale studies. To investigate the potential of the approach, a laboratory measurement setup was developed which allows combined electrical and hydraulic measurements. The latter are conducted via a multi-step outflow device. Various pressure steps are applied to a saturated sample and the outflow is recorded. When equilibrium is reached, spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements are conducted before the next pressure step is applied. The electrical measurements are carried out with a high-accuracy impedance spectrometer. Combined electrical and hydraulic measurements were conducted on packed sand-clay mixtures. The measured resistivity magnitude and phase spectra and their dependence on water content are clearly different for each mixture. For pure sand, the phase values increase with decreasing water content over the entire frequency range and a phase peak is present for low water content. The increasing phase is due to the increasing resistivity and an associated increasing chargeability of the sample. The phase spectrum of a sand-clay mixture with 5 % clay shows the same behaviour like the pure sand; however, the shift of the phase peak to higher frequencies is much stronger. This shift suggests that relaxation time and length become smaller with decreasing water content, which is related to the smaller pores that are active at lower water content. The sand-clay mixture with 20 % clay shows a significantly different behaviour. At full saturation, the phase spectrum exhibits a weak peak at about 0.2 Hz. With decreasing saturation, first a distinct phase peak is formed at about 0.02 Hz; then phase values decrease, and simultaneously a shift to higher frequencies occurs. The phase values are also much smaller than for the other mixtures. This unique dataset is used to investigate relationships between electrical and hydraulic properties.

  19. Influence of oil saturation upon spectral induced polarization of oil-bearing sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.; Revil, A.; Vaudelet, P.; Batzle, M.; Viñao, P. Femenía; Werkema, D. D.

    2010-10-01

    The induced polarization model developed recently by Revil and Florsch to understand the complex conductivity of fully saturated granular materials has been extended to partial saturation conditions. It is an improvement over previous models like the Vinegar and Waxman model, which do not account explicitly for the effect of frequency. The Vinegar and Waxman model can be considered as a limiting case of the Revil and Florsch model in the limit where the distribution of relaxation times is very broad. The extended model is applied to the case of unconsolidated sands partially saturated with oil and water. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the influence of oil saturation, frequency, grain size, and conductivity of the pore water upon the complex resistivity response of oil-bearing sands. The low-frequency polarization (below 100 Hz) is dominated by the polarization of the Stern layer (the inner part of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the grains in contact with water). The phase exhibits a well-defined relaxation peak with a peak frequency that is dependent on the mean grain diameter as predicted by the model. Both the resistivity and the magnitude of the phase increase with the relative saturation of the oil. The imaginary (quadrature) component of the complex conductivity is observed to decrease with the oil saturation. All these observations are reproduced by the new model.

  20. Polarization in Spectral Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Landolfi, M.

    2004-08-01

    The scientific research based on spectropolarimetric techniques is undergoing a phase of rapid growth. Instruments of unprecedented sensitivity are nowadays available, particularly for solar observations. To fully exploit the rich diagnostic content of such observations, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanisms involved in the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in astrophysical (or laboratory) plasmas. After an introductory part based on classical physics, this book tackles the subject by a rigorous quantum-mechanical approach. The transfer equations for polarized radiation and the statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix are derived directly from the principles of Quantum Electrodynamics. The two sets of equations are then used to present a number of applications, mainly concerning the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields. This book is primarily addressed to scientists working in the field of spectropolarimetry. It may also serve as a textbook for a course at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-40109-22-33912609-0,00.html

  1. Accounting for the effects of pore fluid chemistry on spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements: the specific polarizability concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. D.; Weller, A.; Zhang, C.; Breede, K.; Johnson, T. J.; Nordsiek, S.; Redden, G. D.; Fox, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent spectral induced polarization (SIP) research has advanced our understanding of the controls of the physical and hydraulic properties of porous media on both the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scales in porous media. A critical current challenge is to improve our understanding of how pore fluid chemistry modifies the interfacial polarization measured with the SIP technique. We report results from two laboratory-scale experiments designed to advance this understanding. In the first experiment, we analyzed the influence of electrolyte concentration and valence on the interfacial polarization of three sandstones with differing porosity and permeability. A Debye decomposition (DD) approach was used to determine normalized chargeability and average relaxation time from spectral data. We find that SIP measurements of the polarization magnitude (single frequency imaginary conductivity and normalized chargeability derived from the DD) of sandstone samples can be described by the product of the pore space related internal surface and a quantity that represents the polarizability of the mineral-fluid interface and depends on electrolyte concentration and valence. We introduce a new parameter, the specific polarizability, describing this dependence. In the second experiment, we investigated the effect of pH and hydroxyl ion concentration on the interfacial polarization of both silica gel and well-sorted sand. We find a strong dependence of the polarization on pH in the silica gel. Evidence for the same dependence exists for the sand, although the signal is only just above the noise threshold (~0.1 mrad) of the instrument. We relate the weaker signal observed in the sands to the much smaller pore space related internal surface relative to silica gel, a unique substance with surface area in excess of 500 m2/g. These observations suggest that the specific polarizability is also a function of pH, although the pH dependence is likely to be weak in SIP measurements of porous media characterized by an internal surface typical of natural unconsolidated rocks and soils. Our findings provide a framework for quantifying structural characteristics of porous media from SIP data in the presence of variable fluid chemistry.

  2. Characterization of Shallow Subsurface Ice, Water, and Biosignatures on Mars Using Spectral Induced Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, R. E.; Stillman, D. E.

    2014-07-01

    The frequency and strength of electrical polarizations gives information on the identity and abundance of certain materials, analogous to classical spectroscopy. Geophysical implementation from Mars surface is sensitive to several meters depth.

  3. Observation and theory of reorientation-induced spectral diffusion in polarization-selective 2D IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Patrick L.; Nishida, Jun; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Tamimi, Amr; Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-05-01

    In nearly all applications of ultrafast multidimensional infrared spectroscopy, the spectral degrees of freedom (e.g., transition frequency) and the orientation of the transition dipole are assumed to be decoupled. We present experimental results which confirm that frequency fluctuations can be caused by rotational motion and observed under appropriate conditions. A theory of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) observable under various polarization conditions is introduced, and model calculations are found to reproduce the qualitative trends in FFCF rates. The FFCF determined with polarization-selective two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is a direct reporter of the frequency-rotational coupling. For the solute methanol in a room temperature ionic liquid, the FFCF of the hydroxyl (O-D) stretch decays due to spectral diffusion with different rates depending on the polarization of the excitation pulses. The 2D IR vibrational echo pulse sequence consists of three excitation pulses that generate the vibrational echo, a fourth pulse. A faster FFCF decay is observed when the first two excitation pulses are polarized perpendicular to the third pulse and the echo, , than in the standard all parallel configuration, , in which all four pulses have the same polarization. The 2D IR experiment with polarizations ("polarization grating" configuration) gives a FFCF that decays even more slowly than in the configuration. Polarization-selective 2D IR spectra of bulk water do not exhibit polarization-dependent FFCF decays; spectral diffusion is effectively decoupled from reorientation in the water system.

  4. Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) estimation of spectral induced polarization (SIP) as a distribution of simple Debye relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keery, J. S.; Binley, A.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Proposed empirical relationships between frequency dependent complex electrical resistivity and key physical properties, such as grain or pore throat size, may allow hydraulic conductivity to be indirectly estimated from variable frequency electrical measurements, often referred to as spectral induced polarization (SIP). The SIP response may be described by several models, each providing one or more estimated values of relaxation time and chargeability, and a variety of additional parameters. Recent interest has been shown in modelling the SIP response as the coupling of a large number of simple Debye responses, each fully described by the two parameters of relaxation time and chargeability, and with no requirement for additional model parameters. This deterministic approach allows the SIP response to be matched with high accuracy, but since the mean, mode and median relaxation times of the total chargeability may differ widely, none of these statistics is sufficient to summarise the SIP response adequately. We introduce a parsimonious set of descriptors which efficiently summarises the distribution of Debye relaxations, with minimal loss of the information content in the electrical measurements. Our method applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to provide a Bayesian estimation of the relaxation distribution parameters, and does not require an accurate prior estimation of DC resistivity. The distribution parameters may be combined with electrical-physical relationships identified in other studies, to give stochastic estimates of hydraulic conductivity. We apply our approach to electrical spectra measured in the laboratory and in field surveys, and we compare our results with those from deterministic methods.

  5. Influence of Surface Sorption Processes on Spectral Induced Polarization Evaluated Using in-Situ Monitoring of a Na-22 Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, N.; Moysey, S. M.; Powell, B. A.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) has been used to monitor subsurface biogeochemical processes in a variety of lab and field studies. However, there are several competing mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the SIP effect. This work targets the influence of ion sorption to mineral surfaces as a controlling factor on SIP utilizing a pH dependent surface adsorption experiment. In this experiment we use silica gel as an idealized medium where the number of available sites for cation sorption, which in this case is limited to Na+ and H+ ions, is influenced by changes in pH via protonation/deprotonation of silanol groups. The experiment uses 22Na as an in situ tracer as the radioactive decay of this nuclide can be continuously and non-invasively monitored using sensors placed outside of a column. The experiment was conducted by continuously pumping a 0.01M NaCl solution spiked with of 1?Ci/L 22Na in to the column under three pH conditions (pH 5.0, 6.0 and 8.0). In the experiment, we observed an increasing number of gamma counts caused by the accumulation of sorbed 22Na in the column as we increased the pH from 5.0 to 6.5, and finally to 8.0. Simultaneously, we observed a linearly correlated (R2 = 0.99) rise in the imaginary conductivity response of the SIP measurements. Using the triple layer electrochemical polarization model for grain polarization to simulate our experimental SIP responses, we found that the estimated surface site density is within a factor of two of that estimated from the mass accumulation of sodium. Since the accumulation of sodium on the silica gel surface is responsible for both the increase in gamma radiation and the change in the electrical response, these observations support the theory that mobile ions in the Stern layer of mineral surfaces provide the primary control on SIP signals in silicate materials.

  6. The effect of pH and redox active ions on the spectral induced polarization signatures of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, C. G.; West, L. J.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Shaw, S.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) is a promising technique for monitoring biogeochemically induced changes in porous subsurface media, such as biomineral formation during the remediation of contaminated sites. A primary mechanism responsible for low-frequency SIP signatures is the frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer (EDL) at the mineral-water interface. pH exerts a fundamental control on mineral-water interface properties, controlling the nature and number of charged surface functional groups. This in turn controls the surface complexation of ions sorbed to the mineral surface and, together with ionic strength, the thickness of the EDL and the distribution of ions in the diffuse and Stern layers of the EDL. Despite this, there are relatively few datasets on the effect of pH on SIP signatures. For electrically conductive minerals, such as magnetite, it has been further postulated that redox-active ions, such as Fe2+, enable charge-transfer from electrolytic to electronic conduction mechanisms. This process is often represented as a charge-transfer resistance and Warburg impedance and is thought to be an additional contribution to the SIP response. Here we report initial experimental results investigating the effect of pH and redox active ions on the SIP signature of magnetite grains (5 wt%) dispersed in Ottawa sand. Increasing the pH of a 2.5 mM FeCl2 solution from pH 4.5 to 8.0 made little difference to the resistivity or maximum phase angle magnitude of the magnetite-sand mixture but decreased the peak frequency from ~50 Hz to ~1 Hz. This has important implications for interpreting SIP data at contaminated sites where pH can vary across groundwater plumes and during/following remediation processes. We postulate that the shift in peak frequency reflects changes in the structure of the EDL as pH increases; this pH range overlaps with the published positions of both the point of zero charge (pzc) and the sorption edge of Fe2+ onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides. Ongoing experiments are being conducted to compare and contrast the observed pH dependent behaviour of Fe2+ with redox inactive ions and thereby help determine the importance of the charge-transfer mechanism for magnetite.

  7. Spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of potato leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, B. I.; Belyaev, Yu. V.; Chumakov, A. V.; Nekrasov, V. P.; Shuplyak, V. I.

    2000-07-01

    The results of laboratory investigations of the spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of radiation reflected from the leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum) of different varieties are discussed. During the vegetation season of 1997, the angular dependence of the degree and azimuth of polarization of radiation reflected from potato leaves as well as the scattering indicatrices in the range 380 1080 nm were determined by a specially developed method with the use of a laboratory goniometric setup. The relationship between the spectral polarization characteristics of radiation and biological parameters of the potato has been obtained with the help of different methods of statistical analysis and explained on the basis of the known physical mechanisms.

  8. Coded aperture snapshot spectral polarization imaging.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Brady, David J

    2013-04-01

    We describe a single-shot polarization spectral imager that combines two birefringent crystals with a binary coded aperture to encode the spatial, spectral and polarization data cube for compressive sampling on a two-dimensional (2D) detector array. We use a total variation prior to reconstruct the four-dimensional (4D) data cube from the single 2D measurement. The 4D data cube includes 15001240 pixels in the spatial domain, 19 wavelength channels between 400 and 680 nm and two Stokes parameters. PMID:23545971

  9. Spectral degree of polarization uniformity for polarization-sensitive OCT

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Bernhard; Zotter, Stefan; Pircher, Michael; Götzinger, Erich; Rauscher, Sabine; Glösmann, Martin; Lammer, Jan; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Gröger, Marion; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-01-01

    Depolarization of light can be measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and has been used to improve tissue discrimination as well as segmentation of pigmented structures. Most approaches to depolarization assessment for PS-OCT – such as the degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) – rely on measuring the uniformity of polarization states using spatial evaluation kernels. In this article, we present a different approach which exploits the spectral dimension. We introduce the spectral DOPU for the pixelwise analysis of polarization state variations between sub-bands of the broadband light source spectrum. Alongside a comparison with conventional spatial and temporal DOPU algorithms, we demonstrate imaging in the healthy human retina, and apply the technique for contrasting hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy and investigating the pigment epithelium of the rat iris. PMID:26689829

  10. A comparison between single- and multi-objective optimization to fit spectral induced polarization data from laboratory measurements on alluvial sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzoli, S.; Giudici, M.

    2015-11-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements on unconsolidated and saturated alluvial samples, sand-clay mixtures and well sorted sandy samples, are modelled with the generalized Cole-Cole phenomenological model and two simplified models: the standard Cole-Cole and the Cole-Davidson model. The goodness of fit is evaluated, as a first step, through the root mean square error, weighted on the data errors of the real and the imaginary component. At a later stage a multi-objective optimization is proposed, based on two different indicators for the resistivity amplitude and phase misfit. The analysis of the misfits variations among all the tested parameters associations is conducted to identify the Pareto set of optimal solutions. Both procedures lead to model parameter estimates comparable with literature values. However, the multi-objective approach provides information about the uncertainty of the parameter estimates and highlights the presence of more than one characteristic value for the relaxation time and the frequency exponent in many samples, thus suggesting the possible occurrence of different polarization processes in the investigated frequency range.

  11. A comparison between Gauss-Newton and Markov chain Monte Carlo basedmethods for inverting spectral induced polarization data for Cole-Coleparameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong; Kemna, Andreas; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2008-05-15

    We develop a Bayesian model to invert spectral induced polarization (SIP) data for Cole-Cole parameters using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. We compare the performance of the MCMC based stochastic method with an iterative Gauss-Newton based deterministic method for Cole-Cole parameter estimation through inversion of synthetic and laboratory SIP data. The Gauss-Newton based method can provide an optimal solution for given objective functions under constraints, but the obtained optimal solution generally depends on the choice of initial values and the estimated uncertainty information is often inaccurate or insufficient. In contrast, the MCMC based inversion method provides extensive global information on unknown parameters, such as the marginal probability distribution functions, from which we can obtain better estimates and tighter uncertainty bounds of the parameters than with the deterministic method. Additionally, the results obtained with the MCMC method are independent of the choice of initial values. Because the MCMC based method does not explicitly offer single optimal solution for given objective functions, the deterministic and stochastic methods can complement each other. For example, the stochastic method can first be used to obtain the means of the unknown parameters by starting from an arbitrary set of initial values and the deterministic method can then be initiated using the means as starting values to obtain the optimal estimates of the Cole-Cole parameters.

  12. Considerations on sample holder design and custom-made non-polarizable electrodes for Spectral Induced Polarization measurements on unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Chouteau, M. C.; Fauchard, C.; Cote, P.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) is a geophysical method sensitive to water content, saturation and grain size distribution. It could be used as an alternative to nuclear probes to assess the compaction of soils in road works. To evaluate the potential of SIP as a practical tool, we designed an experiment for complex conductivity measurements on unsaturated soil samples.Literature presents a large variety of sample holders and designs, each depending on the context. Although we might find some precise description about the sample holder, exact replication is not always possible. Furthermore, the potential measurements are often done using custom-made Ag/AgCl electrodes and very few indications are given on their reliability with time and temperature. Our objective is to perform complex conductivity measurements on soil samples compacted in a PVC cylindrical mould (10 cm-long, 5 cm-diameter) according to geotechnical standards. To expect homogeneous current density, electrical current is transmitted through the sample via chambers filled with agar gel. Agar gel is a good non-polarizable conductor within the frequency range (1 mHz -20kHz). Its electrical properties are slightly known. We measured increasing of agar-agar electrical conductivity in time. We modelled the influence of this variation on the measurement. If the electrodes are located on the sample, it is minimized. Because of the dimensions at stake and the need for simple design, potential electrodes are located outside the sample, hence the gel contributes to the measurements. Since the gel is fairly conductive, we expect to overestimate the sample conductivity. Potential electrodes are non-polarizable Ag/AgCl electrodes. To avoid any leakage, the KCl solution in the electrodes is replaced by saturated KCl-agar gel. These electrodes are low cost and show a low, stable, self-potential (<1mV). In addition, the technique of making electrode can be easily reproduced and storage and maintenance are simple. We measured a variation of less than 1 mS/m of the electrolyte conductivity during the time of measurement (~1h40) for a conductivity range 25-100 mS/m, showing no ionic contamination of the solution by the electrodes. An improvement to the cell design would be to control the internal temperature of the sample.

  13. [Research on Spectral Polarization Imaging System Based on Static Modulation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-bo; Li, Huan; Lin, Xu-ling; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    The main disadvantages of traditional spectral polarization imaging system are: complex structure, with moving parts, low throughput. A novel method of spectral polarization imaging system is discussed, which is based on static polarization intensity modulation combined with Savart polariscope interference imaging. The imaging system can obtain real-time information of spectral and four Stokes polarization messages. Compared with the conventional methods, the advantages of the imaging system are compactness, low mass and no moving parts, no electrical control, no slit and big throughput. The system structure and the basic theory are introduced. The experimental system is established in the laboratory. The experimental system consists of reimaging optics, polarization intensity module, interference imaging module, and CCD data collecting and processing module. The spectral range is visible and near-infrared (480-950 nm). The white board and the plane toy are imaged by using the experimental system. The ability of obtaining spectral polarization imaging information is verified. The calibration system of static polarization modulation is set up. The statistical error of polarization degree detection is less than 5%. The validity and feasibility of the basic principle is proved by the experimental result. The spectral polarization data captured by the system can be applied to object identification, object classification and remote sensing detection. PMID:26197616

  14. [Research on New Type of Spectral Modulation Polarization Measurement Technology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Zhou, Feng; Li, Huan; Zhao, Hai-bo

    2015-10-01

    Spectral Modulation Polarization Measurement technology (SMPM) is a new type of polarization modulation technology, with an achromatic /4 retarder, a multiple-order retarder and a polarizer the polarization information of incident light can be encoded into the spectral dimension, sinusoidal which amplitude scales with the degree of the linear polarization and phase scales with the angle of the linear polarization can be acquired directly. With a dedicated algorithm for the modulated spectrum, we can get degree and angle of the linear polarization, spectral information and radiation information of the target. This paper expounds the basic principle of SMPM and concrete implementation scheme is proposed. Demodulation algorithm is designed before experimental platform are set up. Experiment which verified the correctness on the SMPM has carried on. The experimental results show the correctness and feasibility of SMPM. Compared with traditional polarization modulate techniques no moving parts and electronic components are including in this scheme. It's also has the advantages of compact and low mass. We can get all the polarization information through one single measurement rather than get Stokes parameters for further calculations. This study provides a new kind of technological approaches for the development of new space polarization detecting sensor. PMID:26904842

  15. Formation of polarized spectral lines in atmospheres with horizontal inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, A.; Štěpán, J.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Kubát, J.

    2015-10-01

    We study the problem of the generation and transfer of spectral line intensity and polarization in models of stellar atmospheres with horizontal plasma inhomogeneities. We solve the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in full 3D geometry taking into account resonant scattering polarization and its modification by magnetic fields via the Hanle effect. We show that horizontal fluctuations of the thermodynamical conditions of stellar atmospheres can have a significant impact on the linear polarization of the emergent spectral line radiation and its center-to-limb variation.

  16. Spectral broadening of interacting pigments: polarized absorption by photosynthetic proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Somsen, O J; van Grondelle, R; van Amerongen, H

    1996-01-01

    Excitonic interaction between pigment molecules is largely responsible for the static and dynamic spectroscopic properties of photosynthetic pigment-proteins. This paper provides a new description of its effect on polarized absorption spectroscopy, in particular on circular dichroism (CD). We investigate excitonic spectra of finite width and use "spectral moments" to compare 1) inhomogeneously broadened excitonic spectra, 2) spectra that are (homogeneously broadened by vibrations or electron-phonon interaction, and 3) spectra that are simulated by applying convolution after the interaction has been evaluated. Two cases are distinguished. If the excitonic splitting is smaller than the width of the interacting absorption bands, the broadening of the excitonic spectrum can be approximated by a convolution approach, although a correction is necessary for CD spectra. If the excitonic splitting exceeds the bandwidth, the well-known exchange narrowing occurs. We demonstrate that this is accompanied by redistribution of dipole strength and spectral shifts. The magnitude of a CD spectrum is conveniently expressed by its first spectral moment. As will be shown, this is independent of spectral broadening as well as dispersive shifts induced by pigment-protein interactions. Consequently, it provides a simple tool to relate the experimental CD spectrum of a pigment complex to the excitonic interactions from which it originates. To illustrate the potential of the presented framework, the spectroscopy of the LH2 pigment-protein complex from purple bacteria is analyzed and compared for dimer-like and ring-like structures. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the variability of the CD of chlorosomes from green bacteria can be explained by small changes in the structure of their cylindrical bacteriochlorophyll c subunits. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:8889168

  17. Spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaux-Petel, Sbastien; Fidler, Christian; Pitrou, Cyril; Pettinari, Guido W.

    2014-03-01

    We compute the spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization induced by non-linear effects in the Compton interactions between CMB photons and the flow of intergalactic electrons. This signal is of the y-type and is dominated by contributions arising from the reionized era. We stress that it is not shadowed by the thermal SZ effect which has no equivalent for polarization. We decompose its angular dependence into E- and B-modes, and we calculate the corresponding power spectra, both exactly and using a suitable Limber approximation that allows a simpler numerical evaluation. We find that B-modes are of the same order of magnitude as E-modes. Both spectra are relatively flat, peaking around l = 280, and their overall amplitude is directly related to the optical depth to reionization. Moreover, we find this effect to be one order of magnitude larger than the non-linear kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in galaxy clusters. Finally, we discuss how to improve the detectability of our signal by cross-correlating it with other quantities sourced by the flow of intergalactic electrons.

  18. Spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Renaux-Petel, Sbastien; Fidler, Christian; Pitrou, Cyril; Pettinari, Guido W. E-mail: christian.fidler@port.ac.uk E-mail: g.pettinari@sussex.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We compute the spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization induced by non-linear effects in the Compton interactions between CMB photons and the flow of intergalactic electrons. This signal is of the y-type and is dominated by contributions arising from the reionized era. We stress that it is not shadowed by the thermal SZ effect which has no equivalent for polarization. We decompose its angular dependence into E- and B-modes, and we calculate the corresponding power spectra, both exactly and using a suitable Limber approximation that allows a simpler numerical evaluation. We find that B-modes are of the same order of magnitude as E-modes. Both spectra are relatively flat, peaking around ? = 280, and their overall amplitude is directly related to the optical depth to reionization. Moreover, we find this effect to be one order of magnitude larger than the non-linear kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in galaxy clusters. Finally, we discuss how to improve the detectability of our signal by cross-correlating it with other quantities sourced by the flow of intergalactic electrons.

  19. Study on backscattering spectral polarization characteristics of turbid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuezhen; Wang, Qinghua; Lai, Jiancheng; Li, Zhenhua

    2015-10-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose is the current international academic research focus. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is the most prospective method of the present study, however, with the flaw of insufficient specificity to glucose. Tissue polarimetry has recently received considerable attention due to its specificity to glucose. Thus the glucose predicting accuracy would be improved by combining spectral intensity and polarization characteristics. However the backscattering spectral polarization characteristics of turbid media have not been reported within the wavelength range from visible to near-infrared light. In this paper, we simulated the backscattering spectral Mueller matrix of turbid medium by vector Monte Carlo. And the polarization characteristics, which are linear/circular degree of polarization (DOP) and linear/circular diattenuation, can be extracted from the simulated Mueller matrix by polar decomposition. Circular diattenuation is not discussed because it remains almost zero on the backscattering plane. While reduced scattering coefficient increases linearly with increasing wavelength, the spectral curves show distinct wavelength dependencies. Interestingly, the wavelength dependencies at center position are different from those at off-center position for linear/circular DOP and linear diattenuation. As expected, it is shown that both linear DOP and linear diattenuation increase with the increasing wavelength. However it is not the case for linear DOP in the central area around the incident point. In this area linear DOP decays approximately exponentially with increasing wavelength. As for circular DOP, it varies with wavelength non-monotonically. These results should be meaningful when spectral polarization characteristics are used to combine with spectral intensity to extract glucose concentration by chemometrics.

  20. Is there spectral variation in the polarized reflectance of leaves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  1. Deep subsurface imaging in tissues using spectral and polarization filtering.

    PubMed

    Demos, S; Radousky, H; Alfano, R

    2000-07-01

    Deep subsurface imaging in tissues is demonstrated by employing both spectral and polarization discrimination of the backscattered photons. This technique provides enhancement in the visibility of subsurface structures via processing of the depolarized images obtained using polarized illumination at different wavelengths. The experimental results demonstrate detection and imaging of a high-scattering object located up to 1.5-cm beneath the surface of a host chicken tissue used as the model medium. PMID:19404365

  2. Comment on: Tarasov, A. & Titov, K., 2013, On the use of the Cole-Cole equations in spectral induced polarization, Geophys. J. Int., 195, 352-356

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnae, James

    2015-07-01

    A recent paper by Tarasov and Titov suggested that the Cole-Cole conductivity models should be preferred to the Pelton resistivity model in fitting induced polarization responses. Each model has four parameters: resistivity ? (or its inverse conductivity ?), chargeability m, time parameter ? and frequency dependence c. Tarasov and Titov showed that in fitting experimental data, 3 of the parameters directly correspond across the two formulations, but that there is a difference between the Pelton and Cole-Cole model in that parameter ? is only the same at low frequency, but is an entangled function with m and c at high frequencies in the Pelton formulation. This claim of inconsistent ? was based on using the Pelton complex resistivity formulation and the Cole-Cole complex conductivity equation to analyse complex conductivity data as a function of frequency. However, if Pelton and Cole-Cole models are used to fit complex resistivity, rather than fitting conductivity, then it is the Cole-Cole model that has an entangled parameter at high chargeability m values. Simple testing shows that a Pelton model used to fit resistivity has all four model parameters directly corresponding with conductivity data fitted with a Cole-Cole model. The conclusion is that Cole-Cole and Pelton models in fact require identical independent parameters that can fit experimental or synthetic data, provided the Pelton resistivity formulation is restricted to fitting to resistivity data, and the Cole-Cole conductivity formulation is restricted to fitting conductivity results.

  3. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  4. NON-ZEEMAN CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF MOLECULAR ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Martin; Jones, Scott; Rajabi, Fereshte; Hezareh, Talayeh

    2013-02-10

    We present measurements of circular polarization from rotational spectral lines of molecular species in Orion KL, most notably {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1), obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Four-Stokes-Parameter Spectral Line Polarimeter. We find levels of polarization of up to 1%-2% in general; for {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1) this level is comparable to that of linear polarization also measured for that line. We present a physical model based on resonant scattering in an attempt to explain our observations. We discuss how slight differences in scattering amplitudes for radiation polarized parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, responsible for the alignment of the scattering molecules, can lead to the observed circular polarization. We also show that the effect is proportional to the square of the magnitude of the plane of the sky component of the magnetic field and therefore opens up the possibility of measuring this parameter from circular polarization measurements of Zeeman insensitive molecules.

  5. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  6. An Integrated Imaging Detector of Polarization and Spectral Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Thompson, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of image detector has been designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The Integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a charge-coupled device (CCD), with signal-analysis circuitry and analog-to-digital converters, all integrated on a silicon chip. It should be capable of 1:10(exp 4) polarization discrimination. The IDID should simplify the design and operation of imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmospheric and solar research. Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved 512 x 1024-pixel imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 6) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout of both images at 10 million pixels per second each; (4) on-chip analog signal processing to produce polarization maps in real time; (5) on-chip 10-bit A/D conversion. When used with a lithium-niobate Fabry-Perot etalon or other color filter that can encode spectral information as polarization, the IDID can collect and analyze simultaneous images at two wavelengths. Precise photometric analysis of molecular or atomic concentrations in the atmosphere is one suggested application. When used in a solar telescope, the IDID will charge the polarization, which can then be converted to maps of the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface.

  7. Polarization of photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Yunguo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the quantum electrodynamics, we present a generic formalism of the polarization for beamed monochromatic photons scattered by electrons in any spectral distribution. The formulae reduce to the components of the Fano matrix when electrons are at rest. We mainly investigate the polarization in three scenarios, i.e., electrons at rest, isotropic electrons with a power-law spectrum, and thermal electrons. If the incident beam is polarized, the polarization is reduced significantly by isotropic electrons at large viewing angles; the degree of polarization caused by thermal electrons is about half of that caused by power-law electrons. If the incident bean is unpolarized, soft ?-rays can lead to about 15% polarization at viewing angles around ?/4. For isotropic electrons, one remarkable feature is that the polarization as a function of the incident photon energy always peaks roughly at 1 MeV; this is valid for both the thermal and power-law cases. This feature can be used to distinguish the model of the inverse Compton scattering from that of the synchrotron radiation.

  8. Spectral decomposition at a complex laser polarization configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-Feng; Gao, Wei; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Hong-Ping

    2013-05-01

    We study the role of laser polarization in the diamagnetic spectrum for the transition from the ground state to the highly excited Rydberg states through a single photon absorption. For simplicity, one usually polarizes the irradiation laser to the selected main quantum axis, which is along the applied external electric or magnetic field. The transition selection rule is simply expressed as Δm = 0, which corresponds to the π transition. When the polarization is circularly polarized around the main axis, the σ+ or σ- transition occurs, corresponding to the selection rule of Δm = 1 or Δm = -1, respectively. A slightly more complex case is that the laser is linearly polarized perpendicular to the main axis. The numerical calculation shows that we can decompose the transition into the sum of σ+ and σ- transitions, it is noted as the σ transition. For the more complex case in which the laser is linearly polarized with an arbitrary angle with respect to the main axis, we have to decompose the polarization into one along the main axis and the other one perpendicular to the main axis. They correspond to π and σ transitions, respectively. We demonstrate that these transitions in the diamagnetic spectrum and the above spectral decomposition well explain the experimentally observed spectra.

  9. Quantitative polarized light microscopy using spectral multiplexing interferometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose an interferometric spectral multiplexing method for measuring birefringent specimens with simple configuration and high sensitivity. The retardation and orientation of sample birefringence are simultaneously encoded onto two spectral carrier waves, generated interferometrically by a birefringent crystal through polarization mixing. A single interference spectrum hence contains sufficient information for birefringence determination, eliminating the need for mechanical rotation or electrical modulation. The technique is analyzed theoretically and validated experimentally on cellulose film. System simplicity permits the possibility of mitigating system birefringence background. Further analysis demonstrates the technique's exquisite sensitivity as high as ∼20  pm for retardation measurement. PMID:26030573

  10. Simultaneous Teleportation of the Spectral and Polarization States of a Photon

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P

    2008-01-01

    We describe how spectrally multimode, polarization-entangled photons simultaneously teleport quantum information encoded into the spectral and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon using sum frequency generation to implement a Bell-state measurement.

  11. Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Bailey, P. L.; Gille, J. C.; Lee, E. C.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.; Kumer, J. B.; Fishbein, E. F.; Waters, J. W.; Lahoz, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of Antarctic and midlatitude aerosol by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to demonstrate a technique that identifies the location of polar stratospheric clouds. The technique discussed uses the normalized area of the triangle formed by the aerosol extinctions at 925, 1257, and 1605/cm (10.8, 8.0, and 6.2 micrometers) to derive a spectral aerosol measure M of the aerosol spectrum. Mie calculations for spherical particles and T-matrix calculations for spheriodal particles are used to generate theoretical spectral extinction curves for sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles. The values of the spectral aerosol measure M for the sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles are shown to be different. Aerosol extinction data, corresponding to temperatures between 180 and 220 K at a pressure of 46 hPa (near 21-km altitude) for 18 August 1992, are used to demonstrate the technique. Thermodynamic calculations, based upon frost-point calculations and laboratory phase-equilibrium studies of nitric acid trihydrate, are used to predict the location of nitric acid trihydrate cloud particles.

  12. Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, S.T.; Bailey, P.L.; Gille, J.C.; Lee, E.C.; Mergenthaler, J.L.; Roche, A.E.; Kumer, J.B.; Fishbein, E.F.; Waters, J.W.; Lahoz, W.A.

    1994-10-15

    Multiwavelength observations of Antarctic and midlatitude aerosol by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to demonstrate a technique that identifies the location of polar stratospheric clouds. The technique discussed uses the normalized area of the triangle formed by the aerosol extinctions at 925, 1257, and 1605 cm{sup {minus}1} (10.8, 8.0, and 6.2 {mu}m) to derive a spectral aerosol measure M of the aerosol spectrum. Mie calculations for spherical particles and T-matrix calculations for spheroidal particles are used to generate theoretical spectral extinction curves for sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles. The values of the spectral aerosol measure M for the sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles are shown to be different. Aerosol extinction data, corresponding to temperatures between 180 and 220 K at a pressure of 46 hPa (near 21-km altitude) for 18 August 1992, are used to demonstrate the technique. Thermodynamic calculations, based upon frost-point calculation and laboratory phase-equilibrium studies of nitric acid trihydrate, are used to predict the location of nitric acid trihydrate cloud particles. 47 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Correlation-induced spectral changes in tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruoyu; Sridharan, Shamira; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-11-01

    We report experimental evidence of correlation-induced spectral changes in biological tissues. The overall spectral shift in our transmission measurements is to the red and the mean wavelength of the original spectrum is up 10% larger. These results indicate that the spectral changes due to elastic scattering are significant and likely to hinder all spectroscopic measurements based on the inelastic (i.e., emission and absorption) interaction between light and tissues. Thus, simultaneous morphology and spectral measurements are required for accurate measurements spectroscopic information. PMID:22048367

  14. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45-?-180-?) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-?-90x-?) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization. PMID:22365288

  15. Multilayer thin film design for far ultraviolet polarizers using an induced transmission and absorption technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    An explanation of induced transmission for spectral regions excluding the far ultraviolet (FUV) is given to better understand how induced transmission and absorption can be used to design effective polarizers in the FUV spectral region. We achieve high s-polarization reflectance and a high degree of polarization (P equals (Rs-Rp)/(Rs+Rp)) by means of a MgF2/Al/MgF2 three layer structure on an opaque thick film of Al as the substrate. For example, our polarizer designed for the Lyman-alpha line (lambda equals 121.6 nm) has 87.95 percent reflectance for the s-polarization case and 0.43 percent for the p-polarization case, with a degree of polarization of 99.03 percent. If a double reflection polarizer is made with this design, it will have a degree of polarization of 99.99 percent and s-polarization throughput of 77.35 percent.

  16. A Fourier-Legendre spectral element method in polar coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhouhua; Zeng, Zhong; Mei, Huan; Li, Liang; Yao, Liping; Zhang, Liangqi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new Fourier-Legendre spectral element method based on the Galerkin formulation is proposed to solve the Poisson-type equations in polar coordinates. The 1/ r singularity at r = 0 is avoided by using Gauss-Radau type quadrature points. In order to break the time-step restriction in the time-dependent problems, the clustering of collocation points near the pole is prevented through the technique of domain decomposition in the radial direction. A number of Poisson-type equations subject to the Dirichlet or Neumann boundary condition are computed and compared with the results in literature, which reveals a desirable result.

  17. Polarized spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Sobolev, V. Val.; Anisimov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral complexes of optical functions of monovalent mercury iodide Hg2I2 were determined for E ? c and E || c polarizations in the range from 2 to 5.5 eV at 4.2 K. The permittivity and characteristic electron energy loss spectra were expanded in simple components with the determination of their main parameters, including the energy of the maximum and the oscillator strength. The calculations were performed based on known reflectance spectra. Computer programs based on Kramers-Kronig relations and the improved parameter-free method of Argand diagrams were used.

  18. Spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emission from stratified jets

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Jin; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Tolstov, Alexey; Mao, Jirong; Dainotti, Maria; Mizuta, Akira

    2014-07-10

    We explore the spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emissions from stratified jets in which multiple components, separated by sharp velocity shear regions, are distributed in lateral directions. Propagation of thermal photons injected at a high optical depth region are calculated until they escape from the photosphere. It is found that the presence of the lateral structure within the jet leads to the nonthermal feature of the spectra and significant polarization signal in the resulting emission. The deviation from thermal spectra, as well as the polarization degree, tends to be enhanced as the velocity gradient in the shear region increases. In particular, we show that emissions from multicomponent jet can reproduce the typical observed spectra of gamma-ray bursts irrespective of the position of the observer when a velocity shear region is closely spaced in various lateral (θ) positions. The degree of polarization associated with the emission is significant (>few percent) at a wide range of observer angles and can be higher than 30%.

  19. Correlation-induced spectral changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Emil; James, Daniel F. V.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents a review of research, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the influence of coherence properties of fluctuating light sources and of correlation properties of scattering media on the spectra of radiated and scattered fields. Much of this research followed a discovery made in 1986, that the spectrum of light may change on propagation, even in free space. More than 100 papers on this topic have been published to date and many of them are reviewed, or at least mentioned, in this article. After an introduction and a summary of some of the main mathematical results relating to second-order coherence theory of statistically stationary optical fields, spectral changes that may take place on superposing fields produced by two partially correlated sources are discussed. Spectral effects in fields produced by two-dimensional secondary sources and by three-dimensional primary sources are then considered. The section which follows describes spectral changes that may arise when polychromatic light is scattered on media whose physical properties vary randomly either in space and/or in time. A review is also presented of recent research, which has revealed that under certain circumstances the changes in the spectrum of light scattered on random media may imitate the Doppler effect, even though the source, the medium and the observer are all at rest with respect to one another. In the final section a brief review is given of a new emerging technique sometimes called spatial-coherence spectroscopy. It is based on the discovery that it is possible, under certain circumstances, to determine field correlations from spectral measurements.

  20. Enhancement of spectral resolution and optical rejection ratio of Brillouin optical spectral analysis using polarization pulling.

    PubMed

    Preussler, Stefan; Zadok, Avi; Wiatrek, Andrzej; Tur, Moshe; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-06-18

    High-resolution, wide-bandwidth optical spectrum analysis is essential to the measuring and monitoring of advanced optical, millimeter-wave, and terahertz communication systems, sensing applications and device characterization. One category of high-resolution spectrum analyzers reconstructs the power spectral density of a signal under test by scanning a Brillouin gain line across its spectral extent. In this work, we enhance both the resolution and the optical rejection ratio of such Brillouin-based spectrometers using a combination of two techniques. First, two Brillouin loss lines are superimposed upon a central Brillouin gain to reduce its bandwidth. Second, the vector attributes of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard, weakly birefringent fibers are used to change the signal state of polarization, and a judiciously aligned output polarizer discriminates between amplified and un-amplified spectral contents. A frequency resolution of 3 MHz, or eight orders of magnitude below the central optical frequency, is experimentally demonstrated. In addition, a weak spectral component is resolved in the presence of a strong adjacent signal, which is 30 dB stronger and detuned by only 60 MHz. The measurement method involves low-bandwidth direct detection, and does not require heterodyne beating. The measurement range of the proposed method is scalable to cover the C + L bands, depending on the tunable pump source. The accuracy of the measurements requires that the pump frequencies are well calibrated. PMID:22714534

  1. Radiative interactions with micromachined surfaces: Spectral polarized emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Zemel, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The spectral, angular, polarized emittance (SAPE) is a simple means for observing the allowed electromagnetic energy states associated with periodic structures whose dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the observed light. Other methods for measuring absorption are far more time consuming when a broad survey is of interest. An extensive body of SAPE data was obtained on 350-- 400{degrees}C intrinsic silicon lamellar gratings. Current approximations to the vector wave equation such as guided wave, modal and Bloch wave methods provided insight into our experiments. A qualitative picture of the stationary electromagnetic states (SES) of lamellar gratings has been developed which agrees with experiment for a number of polarizations, and angular orientations of the emission k vector relative to the gratings. However, one type of emission does not fit any simple model we have examined and raises intriguing questions about emission from grating structures. A new, higher angular resolution emissometer (0.8{degrees} instead of 5{degrees}) has been completed. This system significantly increases the wavelength range from the current 3--14 {mu}m range to 2-25{mu}m, a doubling of the spectral regime. The system is currently in a shakedown'' mode. Preliminary data indicates that the new emissometer meets the design goals. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Induced polarization response of microbial induced sulfideprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Slater, Lee; Hubbard, Susan

    2004-06-04

    A laboratory scale experiment was conducted to examine the use of induced polarization and electrical conductivity to monitor microbial induced sulfide precipitation under anaerobic conditions in sand filled columns. Three columns were fabricated; one for electrical measurements, one for geochemical sampling and a third non-inoculated column was used as a control. A continual upward flow of nutrients and metals in solution was established in each column. Desulfovibrio vulgaris microbes were injected into the middle of the geochemical and electrical columns. Iron and zinc sulfides precipitated along a microbial action front as a result of sulfate reduction due by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The precipitation front initially developed near the microbial injection location, and subsequently migrated towards the nutrient inlet, as a result of chemotaxis by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Sampling during and subsequent to the experiment revealed spatiotemporal changes in the biogeochemical measurements associated with microbial sulfate reduction. Conductivity measurements were insensitive to all biogeochemical changes occurred within the column. Changes in the IP response (of up to 14 mrad)were observed to coincide in place and in time with the active microbe respiration/sulfide precipitation front as determined from geochemical sampling. The IP response is correlated with the lactate concentration gradient, an indirect measurement of microbial metabolism, suggesting the potential of IP as a method for monitoring microbial respiration/activity. Post experimental destructive sample analysis and SEM imaging verified the geochemical results and supported our hypothesis that microbe induced sulfide precipitation is directly detectable using electrical methods. Although the processes not fully understood, the IP response appears to be sensitive to this anaerobic microbial precipitation, suggesting a possible novel application for the IP method.

  3. Non-Zeeman circular polarization of molecular maser spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We apply the anisotropic resonant scattering model developed to explain the presence of non-Zeeman circular polarization signals recently detected in the {sup 12}CO (J = 2 ? 1) and (J = 1 ? 0) transitions in molecular clouds to Stokes V spectra of SiO v = 1 and v = 2, (J = 1 ? 0) masers commonly observed in evolved stars. It is found that the observed antisymmetric 'S'- and symmetric '?'- or '?'-shaped spectral profiles naturally arise when the maser radiation scatters off populations of foreground molecules located outside the velocity range covered by the background maser radiation. Using typical values for the relevant physical parameters, it is estimated that magnetic field strengths on the order of a few times 15 mG are sufficient to explain the observational results found in the literature.

  4. [Design of full-polarized and multi-spectral imaging system based on LCVR].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Hui-jie; Cheng, Xuan; Xiong, Sheng-jun

    2011-05-01

    A new full-polarized multi-spectral imaging system is described, which uses electronically controlled LCVR (liquid crystal variable retarder) to modulate the full-polarized state of light in the visible to IR range. The system consisted of optical lenses, LCVRs, filters and CCD. Firstly, the system structure, working theory and optical design are introduced in the present paper. A polarization calibration method is provided and the calibration system was set up, which realized high-precision polarization calibration using a small polarized source. Then, a field experiment with the imaging system was carried out. Polarized spectral images with higher spectral and spatial resolution were collected. Finally, the data acquired were rough processed to get polarization degree image of the targets. It is concluded that the experiment has proved that the imaging system is effective in obtaining full-polarized and multi- spectral data. The image captured by the system can be applied to object identification and object classification. PMID:21800604

  5. Optical Polarization and Spectral Variability in the M87 Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Adams, Steven C.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Harris, D. E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Simons, Raymond C.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability was also seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST -1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from approx 20% at minimum to > 40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-l's optical-UV spectrum is very hard (alpha(sub uv-0) approx. 0.5, F(sub v) varies as (v(exp -alpha)), and displays "hard lags" during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2alpha upper limits of 0.5 delta parsecs and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet PA, makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and 'looping' in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum ((alpha(sub uv-0) approx. 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  6. SDP_mharwit_1: Demonstration of HIFI Linear Polarization Analysis of Spectral Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, M.

    2010-03-01

    We propose to observe the polarization of the 621 GHz water vapor maser in VY Canis Majoris to demonstrate the capability of HIFI to make polarization observations of Far-Infrared/Submillimeter spectral lines. The proposed Demonstration Phase would: - Show that HIFI is capable of interesting linear polarization measurements of spectral lines; - Test out the highest spectral resolving power to sort out closely spaced Doppler components; - Determine whether the relative intensities predicted by Neufeld and Melnick are correct; - Record the degree and direction of linear polarization for the closely-Doppler shifted peaks.

  7. Exploration of polar lipid accumulation profiles in Euglena gracilis using LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral library constructed in silico.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takumi; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Rai; Nakazawa, Masami; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori; Ohta, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    A rapid protocol for polar lipid profiling was applied to Euglena gracilis lipid metabolism by LipidBlast, an MS/MS spectral similarity search tool. The similarity search results suggested anoxia-induced polar lipid metabolism in Euglena characterized by the accumulation of differential lipid classes, carbon chain lengths, and unsaturated bond numbers. The informatics-supported MS spectral search provides an alternative option for global lipid profiling studies. PMID:25036478

  8. Polar motion-induced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Variations in the geocentric position of the earth's rotation axis (polar motion) cause deformation within the earth. The effects of this deformation on surface gravity and on radial and horizontal positions of points on the earth's surface are estimated. The effects of the oceans and of the earth's anelasticity on this deformation are found to be negligible. Peak-to-peak variations in surface gravity of 10 microgals or more, and in radial motion of 1-2 cm are possible over six months or so. These numbers are small enough that they can probably not be used to learn about the earth; however, they are large enough to noticeably affect present high-quality geodetic observations.

  9. SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE INTERMEDIATE POLAR DQ HERCULIS

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, R. K.; Baptista, R.; Horne, K.; Martell, P.

    2010-06-15

    We report an eclipse-mapping study of the intermediate polar DQ Her based on time-resolved optical spectroscopy ({Delta}{lambda} {approx} 3800-5000 A) covering four eclipses. The spectra were sliced into 295 narrow passbands in the continuum and in the lines, and the corresponding light curves were analyzed to solve for a set of monochromatic maps of the disk brightness distribution and for the flux of an additional uneclipsed component in each band. Eclipse maps of the He II {lambda}4686 line indicate that an azimuthally and vertically extended bright spot at disk rim is an important source of the reprocessing of X-rays from the magnetic poles. The disk spectrum is flat with no Balmer or Helium lines in the inner regions, and shows double-peaked emission lines in the intermediate and outer disk regions, while the slope of the continuum becomes progressively redder with increasing radius. The inferred disk temperatures are in the range T {approx_equal} 13500-5000 K and can be reasonably well described by a steady-state disk with mass accretion rate of M-dot =(2.7{+-}1.0)x10{sup -9} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. A comparison of the radial intensity distribution for the Balmer lines reveals a linear correlation between the slope of the distribution and the transition energy. The spectrum of the uneclipsed light is dominated by Balmer and He I lines in emission (probably from the extended nova shell) with narrow absorption cores (likely from a collimated and optically thick wind from the accretion disk). The observed narrow and redshifted Ca II {lambda}3934 absorption line in the total light spectra plus the inverse P-Cygni profiles of the Balmer and He II {lambda}4686 emission lines in spectra of the asymmetric component indicate radial inflow of gas in the innermost disk regions and are best explained in terms of magnetically controlled accretion inside the white dwarf magnetosphere. We infer projected radial inflow velocities of {approx}200-500 km s{sup -1}, significantly lower than both the rotational and the free-fall velocities for the corresponding range of radii. A combined net emission He II plus H{beta} low-velocity eclipse map reveals a twisted dipole emitting pattern near disk center. This is interpreted as being the projection of accretion curtains onto the orbital plane at two specific spin phases, as a consequence of the selection in velocity provided by the spectral eclipse mapping.

  10. Induced polarization of ? (1116) in kaon electroproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielyan, M.; Raue, B. A.; Carman, D. S.; Park, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Baturin, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Sabati, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We have measured. the induced polarization of the ?(1116) in the reaction ep ?e'K+?, detecting the scattered e' and K+ in the final state along with the proton from the decay ? ?p?-. The present study used the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), which allowed for a large kinematic acceptance in invariant energy W (1.6?W?2.7 GeV) and covered the full range of the kaon production angle at an average momentum transfer Q2=1.90GeV2. In this experiment a 5.50-GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. We have mapped out the W and kaon production angle dependencies of the induced polarization and found striking differences from photoproduction data over most of the kinematic range studied. However, we also found that the induced polarization is essentially Q2 independent in our kinematic domain, suggesting that somewhere below the Q2 covered here there must be a strong Q2 dependence. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables, these data are needed for the development of models, such as effective field theories, and as input to coupled-channel analyses that can provide evidence of previously unobserved s-channel resonances.

  11. A Compact Imaging Detector of Polarization and Spectral Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Kumar, A.; Thompson, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of image detector will simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging Detector (IDID) consists of a polarizing beam splitter bonded to a charge-coupled device (CCD), with signal-analysis circuitry and analog-to-digital converters, all integrated on a silicon chip. The polarizing beam splitter can be either a Ronchi ruling, or an array of cylindrical lenslets, bonded to a birefringent wafer. The wafer, in turn, is bonded to the CCD so that light in the two orthogonal planes of polarization falls on adjacent pairs of pixels. The use of a high-index birefringent material, e.g., rutile, allows the IDID to operate at f-numbers as high as f/3.5. Other aspects of the detector are discussed.

  12. Induced Polarization methodology: application to a hydrocarbon contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, Amelie; Schmutz, Myriam; Tichane, Frederic; Franceschi, Michel; Carles, Margaux

    2013-04-01

    Induced Polarization (IP) is a promising method for environmental studies (Vaudelet et al., 2011; Abdel Aal et al., 2006). This method has already been successful for the study of contaminations in the laboratory scale (Vanhala, 1997; Revil et al., 2011; Schmutz et al., 2012) but is still not trivial on the field. Temporal IP seems relatively common for field studies. When contamination implies a significative change of the polarization parameters, successful studies have been lead (Fiandaca et al. 2012; Dahlin et al., 2002 on landfills). Otherwise hydrocarbon contamination may induce small changes on IP parameters (Vaudelet et al., 2011). Spectral induced polarization has not been widely used for field application yet: this method is sensitive to coupling effects and time consuming. Moreover, all the phenomenon responsible of the signal is not completely understood yet (Kemna et al., 2012). The main aim of our presentation is about IP methodology, applied on site affected by a hydrocarbon contamination. In this case, precautions have to be taken to get explicit answers from the contamination. Field investigations have been made: chargeability measurements in order to delineate the free phase contamination extension and spectral induced polarization soundings in order to characterize more precisely the contamination. We would like to provide recommendations to improve induced polarization measurements especially on three aspects, (i) propose a different measurement sequence to make chargeability measurements and (ii) evaluate the influence of the current injection time on chargeability measurements (iii) give general precautions to achieve SIP measurements. A different new chargeability sequence is proposed integrating the use of separated injection and measure cables to avoid coupling phenomena in multicore cables. Indeed, this kind of coupling can significantly decrease the signal / noise ratio (Dahlin et al., 2012). Direct and reverse measurements have been made in order to evaluate if the data and data quality are comparable. Different times of injection have also been tested to evaluate their influence on chargeability measurements: long injection times (4 and 8 seconds) indicate the same high chargeability trend, to the contrary to small injection time (2 seconds). Long injection time generate (i) the polarization of more elements (ii) a stronger polarization of polarizable elements. For environmental purposes, long injection times are recommended. Spectral induced polarization soundings have been made using the SIP Fuchs device, with an amplifier in order to stabilize the injected current (Radic 2004). Unpolarizable measurement electrodes have been connected to the apparatus with optic fiber and metallic injection electrodes have been link with a specific cable arrangement, both to reduce coupling effect with the ground (Vaudelet et al., 2011; Ghorbani et al., 2007). These precautions give good quality result and allow the inversion of the data to obtain Cole Cole parameters (Ghorbani et al., 2007), useful for hydrogeological interpretations.

  13. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOEpatents

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  14. Polarization studies of Zeeman affected spectral lines using the MSFC magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; West, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph records polarization images of absorption lines that are sensitive to magnetic fields. A method is presented for analyzing the Stokes spectral-line profiles of a photospheric Fe I absorption line (5250.2 A) which is influenced by the Zeeman effect. Using nonlinear least-square optimization, the observed Stokes profiles are compared with those generated from the theoretical solution of the polarized radiative transfer equations. The optimization process accounts for the spectral convolution of the source and the MSFC vector magnetograph. The resulting physical properties of the active region producing the polarized light are discussed.

  15. Recognition of camouflage targets with hyper-spectral polarization imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi-chao; Wang, Jia-chun; Zhao, Da-peng; Ma, Li-fang; Chen, Zong-sheng; Li, Zhi-gang

    2013-08-01

    On the basis of the principle of polarization detection, a hyper-spectral polarization imaging system, which is based on linear polarizer and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), was designed to detect and recognize camouflage target intelligently and rapidly in this paper. Our design has neither moving parts nor modulation, and has fast and electronically tuning property, so a quick scan of spectrum at 400 nm~1000 nm can be realized electronically. At the same time, it not only could obtain the intensity image, hyper-spectral information, but also could acquire polarization signatures of the scene. Then the spectral polarization experiment about aluminous plane which covered with the bottle green, shallow green and khaki camouflage pigments within meadow were conducted at specifically wavelength by the instrument. Finally, the polarization information of the man-made targets and natural background in the scene, and the fusion image based on HIS color space were deduced through processing the experiment data. The experimental result demonstrates that the polarization characteristics of camouflage pigments were different from that of natural background. As the contrast of target and background could be enhanced by polarization information, the camouflage target could be identified effectively from the image according to polarization information. On the other hand, the camouflage target is more obvious in the fused image. Therefore, the proposed method and the system in this paper are reasonable and effective. Consequently, the hyper-spectral polarization detection technique which relative to the classical intensity detection is of significance to improve the accuracy of recognition of camouflage targets in mixed background under proper detection condition.

  16. Sensing and compensation of femtosecond waveform distortion induced by all-order polarization mode dispersion at selected polarization states.

    PubMed

    Miao, Houxun; Weiner, Andrew M; Langrock, Carsten; Roussev, Rostislav V; Fejer, Martin M

    2007-02-15

    We demonstrate full characterization of femtosecond pulse distortion induced by all-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) at selected polarization states via second-harmonic generation (SHG) frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements at an average power of under 28 nW. By applying the inverse of the measured spectral phase via a programmable pulse shaper, we compress the distorted pulses from more than 3 ps to nearly bandwidth-limited durations of less than 500 fs. Our results show that SHG FROG measurements performed by using fiber-pigtailed aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguides can serve as a robust and sensitive tool for characterization of PMD-induced spectral phase. PMID:17356674

  17. Polarization spectral synthesis for Type Ia supernova explosion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, M.; Sim, S. A.; Kromer, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a Monte Carlo radiative transfer technique for calculating synthetic spectropolarimetry for multidimensional supernova explosion models. The approach utilizes `virtual-packets' that are generated during the propagation of the Monte Carlo quanta and used to compute synthetic observables for specific observer orientations. Compared to extracting synthetic observables by direct binning of emergent Monte Carlo quanta, this virtual-packet approach leads to a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise. This is not only vital for calculating synthetic spectropolarimetry (since the degree of polarization is typically very small) but also useful for calculations of light curves and spectra. We first validate our approach via application of an idealized test code to simple geometries. We then describe its implementation in the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code ARTIS and present test calculations for simple models for Type Ia supernovae. Specifically, we use the well-known one-dimensional W7 model to verify that our scheme can accurately recover zero polarization from a spherical model, and to demonstrate the reduction in Monte Carlo noise compared to a simple packet-binning approach. To investigate the impact of aspherical ejecta on the polarization spectra, we then use ARTIS to calculate synthetic observables for prolate and oblate ellipsoidal models with Type Ia supernova compositions.

  18. Smoking Induced Hemolysis: Spectral and microscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Masilamani, Vadivel; AlZahrani, Khalid; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; AlQahtani, Hadi; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the major causes of lifestyle associated mortality and morbidity such as cancer of the oral cavity and lungs, and also cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have provided evidences for the smoking-induced hemolysis using two methods: spectra of blood components and atomic force microscopic analysis of surface morphology. A total of 62 subjects (control = 31; smoker = 31: 21 male; 10 female in each set) were considered for the study. The findings indicate that smoking leads to potholes on the surface, swelling of shape, rupturing of erythrocytes, removal of hematoporphyrin and flushing into the plasma as metabolites of the erythrocyte. The overall morphology of the erythrocytes of the smoker group appears more like a Mexican hat. The mean surface roughness was 5.5 ± 3 nm for the smoker group, but 1.2 ± 0.2 nm for the control group. Such damages might help the toxins, (CO, peroxidants, aldehydes etc.,) to gain easy access and get strongly absorbed by the hemoglobin, leading to enhanced rates of hemolysis as shown by the spectral features of metabolites. This indicates that the average life span of the smoker's erythrocytes is significantly less than that of the control group. PMID:26891995

  19. Smoking Induced Hemolysis: Spectral and microscopic investigations

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Vadivel; AlZahrani, Khalid; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; AlQahtani, Hadi; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the major causes of lifestyle associated mortality and morbidity such as cancer of the oral cavity and lungs, and also cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have provided evidences for the smoking-induced hemolysis using two methods: spectra of blood components and atomic force microscopic analysis of surface morphology. A total of 62 subjects (control = 31; smoker = 31: 21 male; 10 female in each set) were considered for the study. The findings indicate that smoking leads to potholes on the surface, swelling of shape, rupturing of erythrocytes, removal of hematoporphyrin and flushing into the plasma as metabolites of the erythrocyte. The overall morphology of the erythrocytes of the smoker group appears more like a Mexican hat. The mean surface roughness was 5.5 ± 3 nm for the smoker group, but 1.2 ± 0.2 nm for the control group. Such damages might help the toxins, (CO, peroxidants, aldehydes etc.,) to gain easy access and get strongly absorbed by the hemoglobin, leading to enhanced rates of hemolysis as shown by the spectral features of metabolites. This indicates that the average life span of the smoker’s erythrocytes is significantly less than that of the control group. PMID:26891995

  20. Measured polarized spectral responsivity of JPSS J1 VIIRS using the NIST T-SIRCUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Young, James B.; Moyer, David; Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Recent pre-launch measurements performed on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) using the NIST T-SIRCUS monochromatic source have provided wavelength dependent polarization sensitivity for select spectral bands and viewing conditions. Measurements were made at a number of input linear polarization states (twelve in total) and initially at thirteen wavelengths across the bandpass (later expanded to seventeen for some cases). Using the source radiance information collected by an external monitor, a spectral responsivity function was constructed for each input linear polarization state. Additionally, an unpolarized spectral responsivity function was derived from these polarized measurements. An investigation of how the centroid, bandwidth, and detector responsivity vary with polarization state was weighted by two model input spectra to simulate both ground measurements as well as expected on-orbit conditions. These measurements will enhance our understanding of VIIRS polarization sensitivity, improve the design for future flight models, and provide valuable data to enhance product quality in the post-launch phase.

  1. Almost fully polarized collision-induced light scattering in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysos, M.; Rachet, F.; Guillot-Nol, C.; Le Duff, Y.

    2001-04-01

    For the first time in collision-induced light scattering (CILS), a CCD camera has been implemented for the detection of the He2 far spectral wing. We have thus been able to detect signals as low as one photoelectron per pixel and per week, i.e. signals weaker than the electronic noise of our detection device. With our recorded experimental spectra, depolarized and isotropic ones, the frequency domain probed by the thus far available in the literature experimental spectra has greatly been extended up to ?=680 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 respectively. The depolarization ratio has been found to attain values as low as 0.03 in the helium far wing, that is the signature of an almost fully polarized spectrum. This is a finding thus far unique in CILS by inert gases. Comparison with quantum mechanical computations (where use of up-to-date ab initio incremental polarizabilities has been made) has clearly shown that the origin of this striking property is an almost perfect, probably accidental, destructive interference between polarization and exchange spectral components in the depolarized intensities. In addition, what has been found is that the interference takes place in a very small interval of interatomic distances that are shorter than the diameter of the helium atom.

  2. Dual-polarization Raman spectral imaging to extract overlapping molecular fingerprints of living cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Liang-da; Palonpon, Almar F; Smith, Nicholas I; Kawata, Satoshi; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-07-01

    Raman spectral imaging is gaining more and more attention in biological studies because of its label-free characteristic. However, the discrimination of overlapping chemical contrasts has been a major challenge. In this study, we introduce an optical method to simultaneously obtain two orthogonally polarized Raman images from a single scan of the sample. We demonstrate how this technique can improve the quality and quantity of the hyperspectral Raman dataset and how the technique is expected to further extend the horizons of Raman spectral imaging in biological studies by providing more detailed chemical information. The dual-polarization Raman images of a HeLa cell. PMID:24733812

  3. Spectral Study of Polarity Reversals in the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbuena, C.; Gomez Perez, N.

    2013-05-01

    Self-consistent models of the dynamo process in the Earth's core have reached a state where they can be used to understand specific morphological and temporal properties of the geomagnetic field. In this work we study numerical dynamos in terms of the multipole components before, during and after polarity reversals. The numerical algorithm (MagIC 3.47) uses the Boussinesq approximation and was originally developed by G. Glatzmaier and most recently optimized by J. Wicht. Paleomagnetic studies provide limited information on the duration, intensity, geometry and orientation of the field during reversals and excursions. We will show how the magnitude of multipole components evolves in time. We will present how multipolar term magnitudes are correlated with the occurrence of geomagnetic reversals and excursions.

  4. Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1986-04-15

    An induced polarization logging tool is described for measuring parameters of a formation surrounding a borehole. The logging tool consists of: a non-conductive logging sonde; a plurality of electrodes disposed on the sonde, the electrodes including at least a survey current electrode and guard electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the survey current electrode, a non-polarizing voltage measuring electrode, a non-polarizing voltage reference electrode and a current return electrode, both the voltage reference and current return electrodes being located a greater distance from the survey current electrode than the guard electrodes; means connected to the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes for generating a signal representative of the potential difference in the formation between the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes; first control means directly coupled to the survey current electrode, the first control means controlling the current flow to the survey current electrode in response to the potential difference signal; a second control means directly coupled to the guard electrodes to control the current flow to the guard electrodes in response to the potential difference signal; a source of alternating current located at the surface, one end of the source being coupled to the two control means and the other to the current return electrode, the source supplying alternating current at various discrete frequencies between substantially 0.01 and 100 Hz; measurement means directly coupled to the voltage measurement and survey current electrodes to measure the amplitude and phase of the voltage induced in the formation and the amplitude and phase of the current flow to the survey electrode; and transmission means for transmitting the measurements to the surface.

  5. Spectral response of polarization properties of fiber Bragg grating under local pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yang; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Zhou, Hua; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A study of the spectral characterization of polarization properties of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented. The evolutions of the first Stokes (s1) parameter of a FBG as function of the incident angle, the load magnitude, the loaded position and the loaded length of the grating are investigated. The numerical simulation based on the modified transfer matrix method is used to calculate the s1 response and the state of polarization (SOP) of the FBG. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation demonstrate that the evolutions of polarization dependent parameters contain the information about the transverse load and have potential applications for distributed diametric load sensor.

  6. Noninvasive Contaminant Site Characterization Using Geophysical Induced Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, F.D.; Sogade, J.; Lesmes, D.; Coles, D.; Vichabian, Y.; Scira-Scappuzzo, F.; Shi, W.; Vandiver, A.; Rodi, W.

    2003-03-27

    Results of aspects of a broad foundational study of time domain IP (TDIP) and spectral IP (SIP) for contaminant site characterization are presented. This ongoing study encompassed laboratory studies of coupled effects of rock/soil microgeometry and contaminant chemistry on induced polarization (IP), an investigation of electromagnetic coupling (EMC) noise and development of 3D modeling and inversion codes. SIP requires extensions to higher frequencies (above the typical 100Hz threshold) and EMC becomes the major limitation for field implementation, because conventional correction methods are inadequate at required higher frequencies. A proposed methodology is outlined, based on a model of all EMC components, that addresses the EMC problem by coupling IP and electromagnetic induction in modeling and inversion. Examples of application of IP and SIP to contaminant mapping and detection for TDIP and SIP will be presented for FS-12 plume at Massachusetts Military Reservation and a suspected DNAPL plume at Savannah River Site.

  7. Reflective and transmissive broadband coating polarizers in a spectral range centered at 121.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruquert, Juan I.; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Aznrez, Jos A.; Rodrguez-de Marcos, Luis; Mndez, Jos A.; Miotti, Paolo; Frassetto, Fabio; Massone, Giuseppe; Nannarone, Stefano; Crescenzio, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fineschi, Silvano

    2014-12-01

    Polarimetry is a powerful tool for the interpretation of the role of the coronal plasma in the energy transfer processes from the inner parts of the Sun to the outer space. One of the key lines for observations is H I Lyman ? (121.6 nm) among few spectral lines in the far ultraviolet (FUV), and hence efficient linear polarizers at this line are demanded. New designs based on (Al/MgF2)n multilayer coatings have been developed to obtain the smallest possible reflectance in the parallel plane of polarization (Rpar) with a simultaneous high reflectance in the perpendicular plane of polarization (Rper). Samples stored in nitrogen for 8-17 months resulted in efficient polarizers at 121.6 nm, with Rpar 0.01-0.017 and Rper 0.69-0.725. The designs with a number n = 3-4 bilayers of Al/MgF2 result in a wider spectral range of efficient linear polarizers, compared to what can be obtained with n = 2. Coatings following various designs with good polarizing performance in a 7-8 nm wide FUV range were prepared. For the first time, a transmissive coating polarizer has been developed for this range, which has the benefit that it involves no deviation of the beam; it is based on another design of (Al/MgF2)3 multilayer coating. The transmissive polarizer has a good transmittance ratio between the two polarization components and, even though its figure of merit is not as high as that of the reflective polarizers, it incorporates filtering properties to reject wavelengths both below and above 121.6 nm; this property might enable a polarimeter for solar physics with an improved global figure of merit if a filter to isolate the H I Lyman ? line could be avoided.

  8. THE IMPACT OF THE SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF AN ACHROMATIC HALF-WAVE PLATE ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, C.; Gold, B.; Hanany, S.; Baccigalupi, C.; Leach, S.; Didier, J.; Johnson, B. R.; Miller, A.; Jaffe, A.; O'Dea, D.; Matsumura, T.

    2012-03-10

    We study the impact of the spectral dependence of the linear polarization rotation induced by an achromatic half-wave plate on measurements of cosmic microwave background polarization in the presence of astrophysical foregrounds. We focus on the systematic effects induced on the measurement of inflationary gravitational waves by uncertainties in the polarization and spectral index of Galactic dust. We find that for the experimental configuration and noise levels of the balloon-borne EBEX experiment, which has three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, a crude dust subtraction process mitigates systematic effects to below detectable levels for 10% polarized dust and tensor-to-scalar ratio of as low as r = 0.01. We also study the impact of uncertainties in the spectral response of the instrument. With a top-hat model of the spectral response for each band, characterized by band center and bandwidth, and with the same crude dust subtraction process, we find that these parameters need to be determined to within 1 and 0.8 GHz at 150 GHz; 9 and 2.0 GHz at 250 GHz; and 20 and 14 GHz at 410 GHz, respectively. The approach presented in this paper is applicable to other optical elements that exhibit polarization rotation as a function of frequency.

  9. Spectral polarization signature analysis and modeling in the infrared for the detection of landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Robert D.; Cathcart, J. Michael

    2004-07-01

    Current electro-optical based landmine detection techniques focus on exploiting phenomena across several wavebands. In particular, polarization signatures have and continue to be a focus of interest for this problem. Our research examined these signatures in the context of a real world environment; specifically, we examined the spectral polarization characteristics of landmines and soils within a complex radiative environment. Our initial results indicate that the optical properties of sand dominate the resultant signature for the buried and flush-buried cases. For surface landmines, the polarization results are dependent on the depth of the soil coating. Therefore, a spectral phenomenological model for the polarization signature of the combined sand-landmine system was developed for the infrared band (mid-wave and long-wave infrared) to study these issues in more detail. The modeling paradigm centered on a radiative transfer approach coupled with heat transfer results to account for incident and emitted radiation simultaneously. This paper will present a description of the physics-based model for the spectral polarization signatures of buried, flush, and surface land mines.

  10. TEMPORAL SPECTRAL SHIFT AND POLARIZATION OF A BAND-SPLITTING SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Lv, Maoshui; Kong, Xiangliang; Feng, Shiwei; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    In many type II solar radio bursts, the fundamental and/or the harmonic branches of the bursts can split into two almost parallel bands with similar spectral shapes and frequency drifts. However, the mechanisms accounting for this intriguing phenomenon remain elusive. In this study, we report a special band-splitting type II event in which spectral features appear systematically earlier on the upper band (with higher frequencies) than on the lower band (with lower frequencies) by several seconds. Furthermore, the emissions carried by the splitting band are moderately polarized with the left-hand polarized signals stronger than the right-hand ones. The polarization degree varies in a range of –0.3 to –0.6. These novel observational findings provide important constraints on the underlying physical mechanisms of band-splitting of type II radio bursts.

  11. Induced polarization and self-potential geophysical signature of bacterial activity in porous media (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.

    2013-12-01

    The first part of the presentation will be dedicated to the spectral induced polarization signature of bacteria in porous media. We developed a quantitative model to investigate frequency-domain induced polarization response of suspensions of bacteria and bacteria growth in porous media. Induced polarization of bacteria (alpha-polarization) is related to the properties of the electrical double layer of the bacteria. Surface conductivity and alpha-polarization are due to the Stern layer of counterions occurring in a brush of polymers coating the surface of the bacteria. These phenomena can be related to the cation exchange capacity of the bacteria. The mobility of the counterions in this Stern layer is found to be very small (4.710-10 m2s-1 V-1 at 25C). This implies a very low relaxation frequency for the alpha-polarization of the bacteria cells (typically around 0.1 to 5 Hertz) in agreement with experimental observations. This new model can be coupled to reactive transport modeling codes in which the evolution of bacterial populations are usually described by Monod kinetics. We show that the growth rate and endogenous decay coefficients of bacteria in a porous sand can be inferred non-intrusively from time lapse frequency-domain induced polarization data. The second part of the presentation will concern the biogeobattery mechanism showing new data, the concept of transient biogeobattery and the influence of the concentration of the electron acceptors in the process.

  12. Electric polarization induced by optical orientation of dipolar centers in non-polar piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Grachev, Alexander; Kamshilin, Alexei

    2005-10-17

    We predict new nonlinear optical phenomenon, static electric polarization induced in non-polar piezoelectric by linearly polarized light owing to orientation of the impurity centers with permanent dipole moment. Microscopic model of this effect for the crystals of cubic symmetry is proposed. Estimations of the model show that the induced polarization might be much higher than that caused by optical rectification. It is shown that a transient current Jd generated under non-steady-state illumination could be observed at extremely high modulation frequency. We expect that the effect could be applied for ultrafast optical signal processing. PMID:19498886

  13. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging of Nile red for measurements of intracellular polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, James A.; Chung, Pei-Hua; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging have been used to measure the polarity of lipid-rich regions in living HeLa cells stained with Nile red. The emission peak from the solvatochromic dye in lipid droplets is at a shorter wavelength than other, more polar, stained internal membranes, and this is indicative of a low polarity environment. We estimate that the dielectric constant, ɛ, is around 5 in lipid droplets and 25<ɛ<40 in other lipid-rich regions. Our spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data show that intracellular Nile red exhibits complex, multiexponential fluorescence decays due to emission from a short lifetime locally excited state and a longer lifetime intramolecular charge transfer state. We measure an increase in the average fluorescence lifetime of the dye with increasing emission wavelength, as shown using phasor plots of the FLIM data. We also show using these phasor plots that the shortest lifetime decay components arise from lipid droplets. Thus, fluorescence lifetime is a viable contrast parameter for distinguishing lipid droplets from other stained lipid-rich regions. Finally, we discuss the FLIM of Nile red as a method for simultaneously mapping both polarity and relative viscosity based on fluorescence lifetime measurements.

  14. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  15. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  16. Distinct dendritic cell subsets actively induce Th2 polarization

    PubMed Central

    Tjota, Melissa Y.; Sperling, Anne I.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which dendritic cells induce Th2 polarization (DCTh2 cells) have been controversial. Many have argued that DCTh2 cells are not a distinct functional DC subset, but rather, DC-induced polarization of Th2 cells is a default pathway that occurs in the absence of inflammatory signals leading to DC-induced polarization of Th1/Th17 cells. However, recent studies demonstrate that distinct subsets of tissue DCs actively polarize Th2 cells after stimulation with type-2 inducing stimuli. DC Th2 cells development is marked by the upregulation of specific transcription factors, cell surface molecules, and cytokines. These findings counter previous hypotheses that Th2 skewing by DCs is a passive response and support a model in which DCs are actively programed to induce Th2 differentiation. PMID:25290173

  17. GLOBAL SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN THE PROSPECT OF THE PLANCK SATELLITE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacIas-Perez, J. F.; Mayet, F.; Aumont, J.

    2010-03-01

    Within the framework of the Planck satellite polarization calibration, we present a study of the Crab Nebula spectral energy distribution (SED) over more than six decades in frequency ranging from 1 to 10{sup 6} GHz (from 299 to 2.99 x 10{sup -4} mm). The Planck satellite mission observes the sky from 30 to 857 GHz (from 9.99 to 0.3498 mm) and therefore we focus on the millimeter region. We use radio and submillimeter data from the WMAP satellite between 23 and 94 GHz (from 13 to 3.18 mm), from the Archeops balloon experiment between 143 (2.1 mm) and 545 GHz (0.55 mm), and a compendium of other Crab Nebula observations. The Crab SED is compared to models including three main components: synchrotron that is responsible for the emission at low and high frequencies, dust that explains the excess of flux observed by the IRAS satellite, and an extra component on the millimeter regime. From this analysis, we conclude that the unpolarized emission of the Crab Nebula at microwave and millimeter wavelengths is the same synchrotron emission as the one observed in the radio domain. Therefore, we expect the millimeter emission of the Crab Nebula to be polarized with the same degree of polarization and orientation as the radio emission. We set upper limits on the possible errors induced by any millimeter extra component on the reconstruction of the degree and angle of polarization at the percent level as a maximum. This result strongly supports the choice by the Planck collaboration of the Crab Nebula emission for performing polarization cross-checks in the range 30 (299 mm) to 353 GHz (0.849 mm).

  18. Time-Resolved Measurements of Polarized X-Ray Spectral Lines Emitted from Discharges of the Plasma-Focus Type

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Stanislawski, J.; Baronova, E. O.

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents results of experimental studies of the polarization of the X-ray spectral lines observed during high-current Plasma-Focus (PF) discharges. Time-resolved measurements of the highly-ionized argon lines were performed within the MAJA-PF facility operated at 44 kJ. The detailed studies confirmed considerable differences in relative intensities of the investigated spectral lines, what could be treated as an evidence of their different polarization.

  19. Spectral regularisation: induced gravity and the onset of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Max A.; Sakellariadou, Mairi E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-01-01

    Using spectral regularisation, we compute the Weyl anomaly and express the anomaly generating functional of the quantum effective action through a collective scalar degree of freedom of all quantum vacuum fluctuations. Such a formulation allows us to describe induced gravity on an equal footing with the anomaly-induced effective action, in a self-consistent way. We then show that requiring stability of the cosmological constant under loop quantum corrections, Sakharov's induced gravity and Starobinsky's anomaly-induced inflation are either both present or both absent, depending on the particle content of the theory.

  20. Influence of temporal-spectral effects on ultrafast fiber coherent polarization beam combining system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. L.; Ma, P. F.; Wang, X. L.; Su, R. T.; Zhou, P.; Chen, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    The active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) technique has been experimentally proved to be a promising approach for the energy and power scaling of ultrashort laser pulses, despite the tremendous challenge in temporal synchronization, dispersion management and nonlinearity control. In order to develop a comprehensive theoretical model to investigate the influence of temporal-spectral effects on ultrafast fiber active CPBC systems, a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation carrying spectral factors is used to depict the propagation of ultrashort pulses in fiber amplifier channels and ultrashort-pulsed Gaussian beams (PGBs) carrying temporal-spatial factors are utilized to picture the propagation of ultrashort pulses in the free space. To the best of our knowledge, the influence of different temporal-spectral effects has been segregated for the first time and corresponding analytical equations have been strictly derived to link the combining efficiency with specific factors. Based on our analysis, the optical path difference (OPD) has the most detrimental impact on the combining efficiency because of the high controlling accuracy and anti-interference requirements. For instance, the OPD must be controlled in ~  ±14 μm to achieve a combining efficiency of above 95% for combining ultrashort laser pulses with a 3 dB spectral bandwidth of 13 nm centered at 1064 nm. Besides, the analytical expression also demonstrates that the impact of self-phase modulation on the combining efficiency has no dependence on spectral bandwidth and only depends on the B integral difference if neglecting the direct influence of the peak power difference. Our analysis also indicates that the group velocity dispersion has relatively small influence on the combining efficiency. These formulas can be used to diagnose the influence of temporal-spectral effects and provide useful guidelines for the design or optimization of the active CPBC system of ultrafast fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers.

  1. Polarization-based balanced detection for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Black, Adam J; Akkin, Taner

    2015-08-20

    We present a new design for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography that allows balanced detection using a single camera. The design uses polarization optics to encode the light in reference and sample arms. Two parallel and highly aligned spectra, which carry out-of-phase interference signals, in-phase common noise, and auto-interference terms, are focused on the camera, which performs the digital balanced detection for each wavelength. The optical system is characterized and tested for tissue imaging. Results demonstrate consistent signal gains in depth and suppression of DC and sample auto-interference. The design could be further amended for polarization-sensitive imaging and might demonstrate a market for manufacturing dual-line cameras with analog-balanced detection capability. PMID:26368760

  2. Attometer resolution spectral analysis based on polarization pulling assisted Brillouin scattering merged with heterodyne detection.

    PubMed

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis is essential for measuring and monitoring advanced optical communication systems and the characterization of active and passive devices like amplifiers, filters and especially frequency combs. Conventional devices have a limited resolution or tuning range. Therefore, the true spectral shape of the signal remains hidden. In this work, a small part of the signal under test is preselected with help of the polarization pulling effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering where all unwanted spectral components are suppressed. Subsequently, this part is analyzed more deeply through heterodyne detection. Thereby, the local oscillator is generated from a narrow linewidth fiber laser which acts also as pump wave for Brillouin scattering. By scanning the pump wave together with the local oscillator through the signal spectrum, the whole signal is measured. The method is tunable over a broad wavelength range, is not affected by unwanted mixing products and utilizes a conventional narrow bandwidth photo diode. First proof of concept experiments show the measurement of the power spectral density function with a resolution in the attometer or lower kilohertz range at 1550 nm. PMID:26480198

  3. Antiresonance induced spin-polarized current generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Sun; Min, Wen-Jing; Gao, Kun; Xie, Shi-Jie; Liu, De-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    According to the one-dimensional antiresonance effect (Wang X R, Wang Y and Sun Z Z 2003 Phys. Rev. B 65 193402), we propose a possible spin-polarized current generation device. Our proposed model consists of one chain and an impurity coupling to the chain. The energy level of the impurity can be occupied by an electron with a specific spin, and the electron with such a spin is blocked because of the antiresonance effect. Based on this phenomenon our model can generate the spin-polarized current flowing through the chain due to different polarization rates. On the other hand, the device can also be used to measure the generated spin accumulation. Our model is feasible with today's technology.

  4. Ferroelectric domain wall motion induced by polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Del Campo, Adolfo; Marchet, Pascal; Fernndez, Jose F.

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous and stable polarization, which can usually be reoriented by an applied external electric field. The electrically switchable nature of this polarization is at the core of various ferroelectric devices. The motion of the associated domain walls provides the basis for ferroelectric memory, in which the storage of data bits is achieved by driving domain walls that separate regions with different polarization directions. Here we show the surprising ability to move ferroelectric domain walls of a BaTiO3 single crystal by varying the polarization angle of a coherent light source. This unexpected coupling between polarized light and ferroelectric polarization modifies the stress induced in the BaTiO3 at the domain wall, which is observed using in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy. This effect potentially leads to the non-contact remote control of ferroelectric domain walls by light. PMID:25779918

  5. Ferroelectric domain wall motion induced by polarized light.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Del Campo, Adolfo; Marchet, Pascal; Fernndez, Jose F

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous and stable polarization, which can usually be reoriented by an applied external electric field. The electrically switchable nature of this polarization is at the core of various ferroelectric devices. The motion of the associated domain walls provides the basis for ferroelectric memory, in which the storage of data bits is achieved by driving domain walls that separate regions with different polarization directions. Here we show the surprising ability to move ferroelectric domain walls of a BaTiO? single crystal by varying the polarization angle of a coherent light source. This unexpected coupling between polarized light and ferroelectric polarization modifies the stress induced in the BaTiO? at the domain wall, which is observed using in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy. This effect potentially leads to the non-contact remote control of ferroelectric domain walls by light. PMID:25779918

  6. High spectral resolution imager for solar induced fluorescence observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, A.; Guzzi, D.; Lastri, C.; Marcoionni, P.; Nardino, V.; Pippi, I.; Raimondi, V.; Sandri, P.

    2011-11-01

    The use of high-resolution imagers for determination of solar-induced fluorescence of natural bodies by observing the infilling of Fraunhofer lines has been frequently adopted as a tool for vegetation characterization. The option to perform those measurements from airborne platforms was addressed in the past. In-field observations gave evidence of the main requirements for an imaging spectrometer to be used for Sun-induced fluorescence measurements such as high spectral resolution and fine radiometric accuracy needed to resolve the shape of observed Fraunhofer lines with a high level of accuracy. In this paper, some solutions for the design of a high spectral resolution push-broom imaging spectrometer for Sun-induced fluorescence measurements are analysed. The main constraints for the optical design are a spectral resolution better than 0.01 nm and a wide field of view. Due to the fine instrumental spectral resolution, bidimensional focal plane arrays characterized by high quantum efficiency, low read-out noise, and high sensitivity are requested. The development of a lightweight instrument is a benefit for aerospace implementations of this technology. First results coming from laboratory measurements and optical simulations are presented and discussed taking into account their feasibility.

  7. White dwarf mass estimation with a new comprehensive X-ray spectral model of intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu

    A white dwarf (WD) mass is important astrophysical quantity because the WD explodes as a type Ia supernova when its mass reaches the Chandrasekhar mass limit of 1.4 solar mass. Many WD masses in intermediate polars (IPs) were measured with their X-ray spectra emitted from plasma flows channeled by strong magnetic fields of the WDs. For the WD mass estimation, multi-temperature X-ray spectral models have been used which made by summing up X-ray spectra emitted from the top to the bottom of the plasma flow. However, in previous studies, distributions of physical quantities such as temperature and density etc., which are base of the X-ray spectral model, were calculated with assumptions of accretion rate per unit area (call "specific accretion rate") a = 1 g cm(-2) s(-1) and cylindrical geometry for the plasma flows. In fact, a part of the WD masses estimated with the X-ray spectral model is not consistent with that dynamically measured. Therefore, we calculated the physical quantity distributions with the dipolar geometry and the wide range of the specific accretion rate a = 0.0001 - 100 g cm(-2) s(-1) . The calculations showed that the geometrical difference changes the physical quantity distributions and the lower specific accretion rate leads softer X-ray spectrum under a critical specific accretion rate. These results clearly indicate that the previous assumptions are not good approximation for low accretion IPs. We made a new spectral model of the plasma flow with our physical quantity distributions and applied that to Suzaku observations of high and low accretion rate IPs V1223 Sagittarii and EX Hydrae. As a results, our WD masses are almost consistent with the those dynamically measured. We will present the summary of our theoretical calculation and X-ray spectral model, and application to the {it Suzaku} observations.

  8. Inclination-induced polarization of scattered millimetre radiation from protoplanetary discs: the case of HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie; Stephens, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Spatially resolved polarized millimetre/submillimetre emission has been observed in the disc of HL Tau and two other young stellar objects. It is usually interpreted as coming from magnetically aligned grains, but can also be produced by dust scattering, as demonstrated explicitly by Kataoka et al. for face-on discs. We extend their work by including the polarization induced by disc inclination with respect to the line of sight. Using a physically motivated, semi-analytic model, we show that the polarization fraction of the scattered light increases with the inclination angle i, reaching 1/3 for edge-on discs. The inclination-induced polarization can easily dominate that intrinsic to the disc in the face-on view. It provides a natural explanation for the two main features of the polarization pattern observed in the tilted disc of HL Tau (i ˜ 45°): the polarized intensity concentrating in a region elongated more or less along the major axis, and polarization in this region roughly parallel to the minor axis. This broad agreement provides support to dust scattering as a viable mechanism for producing, at least in part, polarized millimetre radiation. In order to produce polarization at the observed level (˜1 per cent), the scattering grains must have grown to a maximum size of tens of microns. However, such grains may be too small to produce the opacity spectral index of β ≲ 1 observed in HL Tau and other sources; another population of larger, millimetre/centimetre-sized, grains may be needed to explain the bulk of the unpolarized continuum emission.

  9. Spectral Induced Polarization Measurements of Nanoparticles in Laboratory Column Experiments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano sized materials are prevalent in consumer goods, manufacturing, industrial processes, and remediation technologies. The intentional and accidental introduction of nanoparticles (NP) into the subsurface pose a potential risk to the environment and public health. This resea...

  10. Spectral Cloud-Filtering of AIRS Data: Non-Polar Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David; Barron, Diana

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating array spectrometer which covers the thermal infrared spectral range between 640 and 1700/cm. In order to retain the maximum radiometric accuracy of the AIRS data, the effects of cloud contamination have to be minimized. We discuss cloud filtering which uses the high spectral resolution of AIRS to identify about 100,000 of 500,000 non-polar ocean spectra per day as relatively "cloud-free". Based on the comparison of surface channels with the NCEP provided global real time sst (rtg.sst), AIRS surface sensitive channels have a cold bias ranging from O.5K during the day to 0.8K during the night. Day and night spatial coherence tests show that the cold bias is due to cloud contamination. During the day the cloud contamination is due to a 2-3% broken cloud cover at the 1-2 km altitude, characteristic of low stratus clouds. The cloud-contamination effects surface sensitive channels only. Cloud contamination can be reduced to 0.2K by combining the spectral filter with a spatial coherence threshold, but the yield drops to 16,000 spectra per day. AIRS was launched in May 2002 on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. Since September 2002 it has returned 4 million spectra of the globe each day.

  11. Spectral selective radio frequency emissions from laser induced breakdown of target materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vinoth Kumar, L.; Manikanta, E.; Leela, Ch.; Prem Kiran, P.

    2014-08-11

    The radio frequency emissions scanned over broad spectral range (30?MHz1?GHz) from single shot nanosecond (7?ns) and picosecond (30 ps) laser induced breakdown (LIB) of different target materials (atmospheric air, aluminum, and copper) are presented. The dominant emissions from ns-LIB, compared to those from the ps-LIB, indicate the presence and importance of atomic and molecular clusters in the plasma. The dynamics of laser pulse-matter interaction and the properties of the target materials were found to play an important role in determining the plasma parameters which subsequently determine the emissions. Thus, with a particular laser and target material, the emissions were observed to be spectral selective. The radiation detection capability was observed to be relatively higher, when the polarization of the input laser and the antenna is same.

  12. Influence of Solvent Polarity and DNA-Binding on Spectral Properties of Quaternary Benzo[c]phenanthridine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Rájecký, Michal; Šebrlová, Kristýna; Mravec, Filip; Táborský, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids are secondary metabolites of the plant families Papaveraceae, Rutaceae, and Ranunculaceae with anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Their spectral changes induced by the environment could be used to understand their interaction with biomolecules as well as for analytical purposes. Spectral shifts, quantum yield and changes in lifetime are presented for the free form of alkaloids in solvents of different polarity and for alkaloids bound to DNA. Quantum yields range from 0.098 to 0.345 for the alkanolamine form and are below 0.033 for the iminium form. Rise of fluorescence lifetimes (from 2–5 ns to 3–10 ns) and fluorescence intensity are observed after binding of the iminium form to the DNA for most studied alkaloids. The alkanolamine form does not bind to DNA. Acid-base equilibrium constant of macarpine is determined to be 8.2–8.3. Macarpine is found to have the highest increase of fluorescence upon DNA binding, even under unfavourable pH conditions. This is probably a result of its unique methoxy substitution at C12 a characteristic not shared with other studied alkaloids. Association constant for macarpine-DNA interaction is 700000 M-1. PMID:26091027

  13. Spin-Polarized Electron Induced Asymmetric Reactions in Chiral Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Richard A.

    Understanding the origin of chirality in nature has been an active area of research since the time of Pasteur. In this chapter we examine one possible route by which this asymmetry could have arisen, namely chiral-specific chemistry induced by spin-polarized electrons. The various sources of spin-polarized electrons (parity violation, photoemission, and secondary processes) are discussed. Experiments aimed at exploring these interactions are reviewed starting with those based on the Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis through recent studies of spin polarized secondary electrons from a magnetic substrate. We will conclude with a discussion of possible new avenues of research that could impact this area.

  14. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Mthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    On every arm of cuttlefish and squid there is a stripe of high-reflectance iridophores that reflects highly polarized light. Since cephalopods possess polarization vision, it has been hypothesized that these polarized stripes could serve an intraspecific communication function. We determined how polarization changes when these boneless arms move. By measuring the spectral and polarizing properties of the reflected light from samples at various angles of tilt and rotation, we found that the actual posture of the arm has little or no effect on partial polarization or the e-vector angle of the reflected light. However, when the illumination angle changed, the partial polarization of the reflected light also changed. The spectral reflections of the signals were also affected by the angle of illumination but not by the orientation of the sample. Electron microscope samples showed that these stripes are composed of several groups of multilayer platelets within the iridophores. The surface normal to each group is oriented at a different angle, which produces essentially constant reflection of polarized light over a range of viewing angles. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation. PMID:17921164

  15. Spectral albedo and emissivity of CO sub 2 in Martian polar caps: Model results

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.G. ); Wiscombe, W.J. ); Firestone, J.F. )

    1990-08-30

    A model originally developed to explain the spectral albedo and emissivity of terrestrial snow is extended to the case of carbon dioxide snow on Mars. The variation of albedo and emissivity with wavelength is caused by the spectral variation of the absorption coefficient of solid CO{sub 2}. The most important variables controlling the radiative properties are grain size and contamination by dust or water. Solar zenith angle and snowpack thickness are of less importance. The observation that red albedo is higher than blue albedo in the Martian south polar cap indicates that the snow is contaminated with red dust. The interband absorption coefficient of CO{sub 2} ice in the thermal infrared is 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of H{sub 2}O ice, due to the absence of hydrogen bonding in CO{sub 2}. This allows CO{sub 2} snow emissivity to be sensitive to grain size, emission angle, and impurities, in contrast to water snow which is nearly a blackbody under all conditions. The emissivity of CO{sub 2} snow varies substantially with wavelength, so energy budget modeling should be done in spectral detail. The addition of a thin layer of water frost over CO{sub 2} snow dramatically raises the thermal emissivity but causes little change to the spectrally averaged albedo unless the underlying CO{sub 2} snow is dirty. Remote sensing of CO{sub 2} grain size, H{sub 2}O content, and dust content may be possible. However, the design of a remote-sensing strategy awaits more accurate laboratory determination of the optical constants of CO{sub 2} ice.

  16. Spectral and polarized light sensitivity of photoreceptors in the compound eye of the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Zufall, F; Schmitt, M; Menzel, R

    1989-02-01

    Retinula cells in the compound eye of the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) were recorded intracellularly and stained with Lucifer yellow. Two different methods were used to determine the spectral sensitivity of these cells: a) the spectral scanning method, and b) the conventional flash method. Three spectral types, with S(lambda)-curves close to the rhodopsin-absorption functions, were found with lambda max at 332 nm (UV), 445 nm (blue) and 515 nm (green), respectively. Blue receptors were only recorded in the anatomically specialized dorsal rim area (DRA), and UV and green receptors in the dorsal region of the pigmented part of the eye, whereby green receptors were only found in the ventral eye. On the basis of these results, model calculations are presented for di- and trichromatic colour vision in the cricket. The fluorescence markings revealed green receptors whose axons project with short visual fibres to the lamina, and a UV receptor with a long visual fibre which projects through the lamina to the medulla. The blue receptors send their axons either to the lamina and medulla (long visual fibres) or only to the lamina (short visual fibres). The temporal dynamics of the three receptor types were examined. The blue receptors lack a phasic component of the receptor potential, and the time from stimulus on-set to peak potential is strongly increased compared to the UV and green receptors. Light adaptation reduces the latency to less than half of the dark adapted state. Spectral adaptation experiments revealed an 'unidirectional coupling' between UV and green receptors, and it was found that polarization sensitivity (PS) in blue cells was much higher (PS = 6.5 +/- 1.5) than that of UV (PS = 1.76 +/- 0.05) and green (2.26 +/- 0.57) receptors. The functional aspects of the three receptor types are discussed with respect to the presented physiological and morphological data. PMID:2709343

  17. Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2011-03-15

    The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.

  18. Assessing Cd-induced stress from plant spectral response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Georgiev, Georgi

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing plays a significant role in local, regional and global monitoring of land covers. Ecological concerns worldwide determine the importance of remote sensing applications for the assessment of soil conditions, vegetation health and identification of stress-induced changes. The extensive industrial growth and intensive agricultural land-use arise the serious ecological problem of environmental pollution associated with the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Soil contamination is a reason for degradation processes and temporary or permanent decrease of the productive capacity of land. Heavy metals are among the most dangerous pollutants because of their toxicity, persistent nature, easy up-take by plants and long biological half-life. This paper takes as its focus the study of crop species spectral response to Cd pollution. Ground-based experiments were performed, using alfalfa, spring barley and pea grown in Cd contaminated soils and in different hydroponic systems under varying concentrations of the heavy metal. Cd toxicity manifested itself by inhibition of plant growth and synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Multispectral reflectance, absorbance and transmittance, as well as red and far red fluorescence were measured and examined for their suitability to detect differences in plant condition. Statistical analysis was performed and empirical relationships were established between Cd concentration, plant growth variables and spectral response Various spectral properties proved to be indicators of plant performance and quantitative estimators of the degree of the Cd-induced stress.

  19. Spectral and polarization modulation of quantum dot emission in a one-dimensional liquid crystal photonic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodarte, Andrea; Gray, C.; Hirst, L. S.; Ghosh, S.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate spectral and polarization modulation of chemically synthesized core shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a one-dimensional photonic cavity formed by a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) matrix. A Cano-wedge cell varies the pitch of the CLC leading to the formation of Grandjean steps. This spatially tunes the photonic stop band, changing the resonance condition and continuously altering both the emission wavelength and polarization state of the QD ensemble. Using high resolution spatially- and spectrally-resolved photoluminescence measurements we find that the emission is elliptically polarized and that the tilt of the ellipse, while dependent on the emission wavelength, additionally varies with distance across the Grandjean steps. This work opens up the possibility of designing new QD based optical devices, such as tunable single photon sources, where spatial control of wavelength and polarization of the embedded QDs would allow great flexibility and added functionalities.

  20. Spectral and polarization modulation of quantum dot emission in a one-dimensional liquid crystal photonic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodarte, Andrea L.; Gray, C.; Hirst, L. S.; Ghosh, S.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate spectral and polarization modulation of chemically synthesized core shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a one-dimensional photonic cavity formed by a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) matrix. A Cano-wedge cell varies the pitch of the CLC leading to the formation of Grandjean steps. This spatially tunes the photonic stop band, changing the resonance condition and continuously altering both the emission wavelength and polarization state of the QD ensemble. Using high resolution spatially- and spectrally-resolved photoluminescence measurements we find that the emission is elliptically polarized and that the tilt of the ellipse, while dependent on the emission wavelength, additionally varies with distance across the Grandjean steps. This work opens up the possibility of designing new QD based optical devices, such as tunable single photon sources, where spatial control of wavelength and polarization of the embedded QDs would allow great flexibility and added functionalities.

  1. Spectral and polarization modulation of quantum dot emission in a one-dimensional liquid crystal photonic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodarte, A. L.; Gray, C.; Hirst, L. S.; Ghosh, S.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral and polarization modulation of chemically synthesized core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a one-dimensional photonic cavity formed by a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) matrix. A Cano-wedge cell varies the pitch of the CLC leading to the formation of Grandjean steps. This spatially tunes the photonic stop band, changing the resonance condition and continuously altering both the emission wavelength and polarization state of the QD ensemble. Using high resolution spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements, we find that the emission is elliptically polarized and that the tilt of the ellipse, while dependent on the emission wavelength, additionally varies with distance across the Grandjean steps. This work opens up the possibility of designing new QD based optical devices, such as tunable single photon sources, where spatial control of wavelength and polarization of the embedded QDs would allow great flexibility and added functionalities.

  2. Slippage in stacking of graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yanyu; Jiang, Wanrun; Dai, Xing; Song, Ruixia; Wang, Bo; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Spin polarization and stacking are interesting effects in complex molecular systems and are both presented in graphene-based materials. Their possible combination may provide a new perspective in understanding the intermolecular force. The nanoscale graphene structures with zigzag edges could possess spin-polarized ground states. However, the mechanical effect of spin polarization in stacking of graphene nanofragments is not clear. Here we demonstrate the displacement between two stacked rhombic graphene nanofragments induced by spin polarization, using first-principles density-functional methods. We found that, in stacking of two rhombic graphene nanofragments, a spin-polarized stacked conformation with zero total spin is energetically more favorable than the closed-shell stacking. The spin-polarized conformation gives a further horizontal interlayer displacement within 1 angstrom compared with the closed-shell structure. This result highlights that, besides the well-known phenomenologically interpreted van der Waals forces, a specific mechanism dependent on the monomeric spin polarization may lead to obvious mechanical effects in some intermolecular interactions. PMID:26078005

  3. Two dimensional spectral analyses of wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yucheng; Taylor, Michael J.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Randall, Cora; Bailey, Scott; Russell, J. M., III

    The primary goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (stocktickerAIM) satellite is to investigate the nature, formation and evolution of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (stocktickerPMC) near the high-latitude summer mesopause region. The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size experi-ment (CIPS) on stocktickerAIM is a four camera, wide-field (120 x 80 ) UV imager capable of measuring stocktickerPMC morphology and imaging extensive gravity wave events within the PMCs over a broad range of scale sizes with high spatial resolution (5 km). In this study, we present new results of a 2-D spectral analysis of wave structures imaged in the stocktickerPMC field during the northern hemisphere summer 2007 season. The data have been analyzed to investigate the occurrence of gravity waves with horizontal scales in the range of 20-600 km. The results reveal strong anisotropy in the wave alignments that varied during the course of the 2007 season as well as longitudinal variability in the averaged wave power of up to 15%. These measurements set the scene for an investigation of gravity waves and their potential sources in the summer polar mesosphere (in both hemispheres) using the extensive stocktickerAIM data set (2007-ongoing).

  4. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Shahidul; Oliveira, Michael C.; Wang, Yan; Henry, Francis P.; Randolph, Mark A.; Park, B. Hyle; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2012-05-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT, were used to image sciatic nerve structure with clear delineation of the nerve boundaries to muscle and adipose tissues. A long-known optical effect, bands of Fontana, was also observed. Postprocessing analysis of these images provided significant quantitative information, such as epineurium thickness, estimates of extinction coefficient and birefringence of nerve and muscle tissue, frequency of bands of Fontana at different stretch levels of nerve, and change in average birefringence of nerve under stretched condition. We demonstrate that PS-OCT combined with regular-intensity OCT (compared with OCT alone) allows for a clearer determination of the inner and outer boundaries of the epineurium and distinction of nerve and muscle based on their birefringence pattern. PS-OCT measurements on normal nerves show that the technique is promising for studies on peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Spectral invariance hypothesis study of polarized reflectance with Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Christine L.; Kupinski, Meredith; Diner, David J.; Xu, Feng; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-09-01

    Many models used to represent the boundary condition for the separation of atmospheric scattering from the surface reflectance in polarized remote sensing measurements assume that the polarized surface reflectance is spectrally neutral. The Spectral Invariance Hypothesis asserts that the magnitude and shape of the polarized bidirectional reflectance factor (pBRF) is equal for all wavelengths. In order to test this hypothesis, JPL's Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI) is used to measure polarization information of different outdoor surface types. GroundMSPI measures the linear polarization Stokes parameters (I, Q, U), at three wavelengths, 470 nm, 660 nm, and 865 nm. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal to accurately select the view azimuth and elevation directions. On clear sky days we acquired day-long scans of scenes that contain various surface types such as grass, dirt, cement, brick, and asphalt and placed a Spectralon panel in the camera field of view to provide a reflectance reference. Over the course of each day, changing solar position in the sky provides a large range of scattering angles for this study. The polarized bidirectional reflectance factor (pBRF) is measured for the three wavelengths and the best fit slope of the spectral correlation is reported. This work reports the range of best fit slopes measured for five region types.

  6. Gamma Induced Attenuation In Polarization Maintaining And Single Mode Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. M.; Barnes, C. E.; Greenwell, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation sensitivity of single mode polarization maintaining optical fibers have been studied using fibers optimized for operation at 850 and 1300 nm. These fibers have Ge doped cores and rely on stress induced birefringence for their polarization retention. We have also measured a non-polarization preserving (PP) single mode fiber of similar doping to the PP 850 fiber as a comparison. The response of the 850 nm fibers is consistent and is inverted with respect to temperature. Thermal annealing of the radiation damage is not the dominant recovery mechanism. The 1300 nm PP fiber shows normal temperature response. Induced attenuation is much higher in 850 than in 1300 nm fibers. For FOG applications with a radiation tolerance requirement, fiber selection beginning with fiber optimized for operation at 1300 nm is indicated.

  7. Spatial variations in the spectral index of polarized synchrotron emission in the 9 yr WMAP sky maps

    SciTech Connect

    Fuskeland, U.; Eriksen, H. K.; Nss, S. K.; Wehus, I. K. E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.no

    2014-08-01

    We estimate the spectral index, ?, of polarized synchrotron emission as observed in the 9 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps using two methods, linear regression ({sup T}-T plot{sup )} and maximum likelihood. We partition the sky into 24 disjoint sky regions and evaluate the spectral index for all polarization angles between 0 and 85 in steps of 5. Averaging over polarization angles, we derive a mean spectral index of ?{sup all-sky} = 2.99 0.01 in the frequency range of 23-33 GHz. We find that the synchrotron spectral index steepens by 0.14 from low to high Galactic latitudes, in agreement with previous studies, with mean spectral indices of ?{sup plane} = 2.98 0.01 and ?{sup high-lat} = 3.12 0.04. In addition, we find a significant longitudinal variation along the Galactic plane with a steeper spectral index toward the Galactic center and anticenter than toward the Galactic spiral arms. This can be well modeled by an offset sinusoidal, ?(l) = 2.85 + 0.17sin (2l 90). Finally, we study synchrotron emission in the BICEP2 field, in an attempt to understand whether the claimed detection of large-scale B-mode polarization could be explained in terms of synchrotron contamination. Adopting a spectral index of ? = 3.12, typical for high Galactic latitudes, we find that the most likely bias corresponds to about 2% of the reported signal (r = 0.003). The flattest index allowed by the data in this region is ? = 2.5, and under the assumption of a straight power-law frequency spectrum, we find that synchrotron emission can account for at most 20% of the reported BICEP2 signal.

  8. Spatial Variations in the Spectral Index of Polarized Synchrotron Emission in the 9 yr WMAP Sky Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuskeland, U.; Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    We estimate the spectral index, β, of polarized synchrotron emission as observed in the 9 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps using two methods, linear regression ("T-T plot") and maximum likelihood. We partition the sky into 24 disjoint sky regions and evaluate the spectral index for all polarization angles between 0° and 85° in steps of 5°. Averaging over polarization angles, we derive a mean spectral index of βall-sky = -2.99 ± 0.01 in the frequency range of 23-33 GHz. We find that the synchrotron spectral index steepens by 0.14 from low to high Galactic latitudes, in agreement with previous studies, with mean spectral indices of βplane = -2.98 ± 0.01 and βhigh-lat = -3.12 ± 0.04. In addition, we find a significant longitudinal variation along the Galactic plane with a steeper spectral index toward the Galactic center and anticenter than toward the Galactic spiral arms. This can be well modeled by an offset sinusoidal, β(l) = -2.85 + 0.17sin (2l - 90°). Finally, we study synchrotron emission in the BICEP2 field, in an attempt to understand whether the claimed detection of large-scale B-mode polarization could be explained in terms of synchrotron contamination. Adopting a spectral index of β = -3.12, typical for high Galactic latitudes, we find that the most likely bias corresponds to about 2% of the reported signal (r = 0.003). The flattest index allowed by the data in this region is β = -2.5, and under the assumption of a straight power-law frequency spectrum, we find that synchrotron emission can account for at most 20% of the reported BICEP2 signal.

  9. Debye decomposition of time-lapse spectral induced polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Kemna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spectral induced polarisation (SIP) measurements capture the low-frequency electrical properties of soils and rocks and provide a non-invasive means to access lithological, hydrogeological, and geochemical properties of the subsurface. The Debye decomposition (DD) approach is now increasingly being used to analyse SIP signatures in terms of relaxation time distributions due to its flexibility regarding the shape of the spectra. Imaging and time-lapse (monitoring) SIP measurements, capturing SIP variations in space and time, respectively, are now more and more conducted and lead to a drastic increase in the number of spectra considered, which prompts the need for robust and reliable DD tools to extract quantitative parameters from such data. We here present an implementation of the DD method for the analysis of a series of SIP data sets which are expected to only smoothly change in terms of spectral behaviour, such as encountered in many time-lapse applications where measurement geometry does not change. The routine is based on a non-linear least-squares inversion scheme with smoothness constraints on the spectral variation and in addition from one spectrum of the series to the next to deal with the inherent ill-posedness and non-uniqueness of the problem. By means of synthetic examples with typical SIP characteristics we elucidate the influence of the number and range of considered relaxation times on the inversion results. The source code of the presented routines is provided under an open source licence as a basis for further applications and developments.

  10. Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence for bioaerosols standoff detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Stadnyk, Laurie; Rowsell, Susan; Simard, Jean-Robert; Ho, Jim; Déry, Bernard; McFee, John

    2007-09-01

    An efficient standoff biological warfare detection capability could become an important asset for both defence and security communities based on the increasing biological threat and the limits of the presently existing protection systems. Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has developed, by the end of the 90s, a standoff bioaerosol sensor prototype based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). This LIDAR system named SINBAHD monitors the spectrally resolved LIF originating from inelastic interactions with bioaerosols present in atmospheric cells customizable in size and in range. SINBAHD has demonstrated the capability of near real-time detection and classification of bioaerosolized threats at multi-kilometre ranges. In spring 2005, DRDC has initiated the BioSense demonstration project, which combines the SINBAHD technology with a geo-referenced Near InfraRed (NIR) LIDAR cloud mapper. SINBAHD is now being used to acquire more signatures to add in the spectral library and also to optimize and test the new BioSense algorithm strategy. In September 2006, SINBAHD has participated in a two-week trial held at DRDC-Suffield where different open-air wet releases of live and killed bioagent simulants, growth media and obscurants were performed. An autoclave killing procedure was performed on two biological materials (Bacillus subtilis var globigii or BG, and Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt) before being aerosolized, disseminated and spectrally characterized with SINBAHD. The obtained results showed no significant impact of this killing process on their normalised spectral signature in comparison with their live counterparts. Correlation between the detection signals from SINBAHD, an array of slit samplers and a FLuorescent Aerosol Particle Sensor (C-FLAPS) was obtained and SINBAHD's sensitivity could then be estimated. At the 2006 trial, a detection limit of a few tens of Agent Containing Particles per Liter of Air (ACPLA) was obtained for a 15-m thick cloud of live BG located at a range of 400 m.

  11. DESIGN NOTE: Proposed design of a polarization modulator to simultaneously and independently induce low-level ellipticity and polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandi, F.

    2006-11-01

    The principles of operation and design of a compact original optical polarization modulator are described. The proposed device can simultaneously and independently induce small changes in the ellipticity and polarization plane direction of a polarized light beam. The use of the modulator for simultaneous detection of low-level linear birefringence and dichroism is presented.

  12. Induced polarization of Lambda(1116) in kaon electroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielyan, M.; Raue, B.A.; Carman, D.S.; Park, K.; Adhikari, K.P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M.J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N.A.; Battaglieri, M.; Baturin, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brooks, W.K.; Burkert, V.D.; Cao, T.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P.L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; ElFassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J.A.; Forest, T.A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Giovanetti, K.L.; Girod, F.X.; Goetz, J.T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R.W.; Griffioen, K.A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S.M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D.G.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H.S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F.J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Kuleshov, S.V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W.I.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C.A.; Mestayer, M.D.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moody, C.I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J.J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J.W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R.A.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G.D.; Sober, D.I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I.I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A.V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N.K.; Watts, D.P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L.B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured the induced polarization of the Λ(1116) in the reaction ep→e′K+Λ, detecting the scattered e′ and K+ in the final state along with the proton from the decay Λ→pπ−.The present study used the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), which allowed for a large kinematic acceptance in invariant energy W (1.6≤W≤2.7 GeV) and covered the full range of the kaon production angle at an average momentum transfer Q2=1.90 GeV2.In this experiment a 5.50 GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. We have mapped out the W and kaon production angle dependencies of the induced polarization and found striking differences from photoproduction data over most of the kinematic range studied. However, we also found that the induced polarization is essentially Q2 independent in our kinematic domain, suggesting that somewhere below the Q2 covered here there must be a strong Q2 dependence. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables, these data are needed for the development of models, such as effective field theories, and as input to coupled-channel analyses that can provide evidence of previously unobserved s-channel resonances.

  13. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary rocks. Attempts to use spectral IP characteristics to determine relative abundances of sulphides and graphite were not conclusive. The overall effectiveness of the screening technique however encouraged NBDOT to apply it to an additional 50 km of planned rock cuts along the corridor selected for the new Trans-Canada Highway.

  14. Field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions in relaxor ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Prosandeev, S; Wang, Dawei; Akbarzadeh, A R; Dkhil, B; Bellaiche, L

    2013-05-17

    A first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian is used to investigate low-temperature properties of Ba(Zr,Ti)O(3) relaxor ferroelectrics under an increasing dc electric field. This system progressively develops an electric polarization that is highly nonlinear with the dc field. This development leads to a maximum of the static dielectric response at a critical field, E(th), and involves four different field regimes. Each of these regimes is associated with its own behavior of polar nanoregions, such as shrinking, flipping, and elongation of dipoles or change in morphology. The clusters propagating inside the whole sample, with dipoles being parallel to the field direction, begin to form at precisely the E(th) critical field. Such a result, and further analysis we perform, therefore, reveal that field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions is the driving mechanism for the transition from the relaxor to ferroelectric state. PMID:25167451

  15. [Wavelength conversion and spectral analysis in periodically polarized lithium niobate waveguide].

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan-hong; Sun, Jun-qiang; Zhu, Yuan-xiang; Wang, Jian

    2008-06-01

    Wavelength conversion exploiting cascaded second harmonic and difference frequency generation (c(SHG/DFG)) in periodically polarized LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguides was experimentally researched. While wavelength converter was pumped with a pulsed wave, the pump pulse can be used to carry the information and wavelength conversion occurs between the pump wave and converted wave, thus wavelength conversion transferring the information from the pump wave to the converted waves includes two processes of second order nonlinear reaction: the first wavelength conversion from pump wave to SH wave occurs with SHG process, and the second wavelength conversion from SH wave to converted wave occurs with DFG process. In the first process the group velocities mismatching (GVM) for pulses at different wavelengths due to material property load the temporal walk-off between pump pulse and SH pulse located in the 1.5 microm band and in the 0.8 microm band, respectively, so that SH pulse slowly propagates compared with pump pulse, and SH pulse width is broadened along propagation length. As a result, in the second process the converted DF pulse generates waveform distortion owing to the broadening of SH pulse in the first process. Both the waveform and the spectrum of converted pulse in our experimental results testify to the fact that SH pulse possesses a narrow spectral width, which is consistent with a long SH pulse, and the spectral width of converted DF pulse is compressed but its temporal width is broadened correspondingly. Therefore the influence of walk-off between pulses demonstrates that the pulsed pumping wavelength conversion is disadvantageous to the transparence of the data format. However, pulsed pumping wavelength conversion also presents great potential that can be applied in future optical networks. Tunable wavelength conversion can be easily implemented by changing the wavelength of control CW, and single-to-multiple channel wavelength conversion can be realized by increasing the number of the CW lasing pump channels. This is very important and it enhances the flexibility in the management of the multi-channel WDM network. Finally, a tunable and single-to-dual channel wavelength converter based on the scheme of pulsed pumping wavelength conversion achieved by our experiment setup, and two channel converted pulses simultaneously replicate the bit rate carried on pump pulses. It is pointed out that the quality such the signal-to-noise ratio of converted pulse is affected by spectral width of control CW. PMID:18800689

  16. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lematre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhal; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10?3 degrees due to poor spinphoton coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spinphoton interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by 6 when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  17. Macroscopic rotation of photon polarization induced by a single spin.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christophe; Demory, Justin; Loo, Vivien; Lematre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Glazov, Mikhal; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loc

    2015-01-01

    Entangling a single spin to the polarization of a single incoming photon, generated by an external source, would open new paradigms in quantum optics such as delayed-photon entanglement, deterministic logic gates or fault-tolerant quantum computing. These perspectives rely on the possibility that a single spin induces a macroscopic rotation of a photon polarization. Such polarization rotations induced by single spins were recently observed, yet limited to a few 10(-3) degrees due to poor spin-photon coupling. Here we report the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of the spin-photon interaction, using a cavity quantum electrodynamics device. A single hole spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is deterministically coupled to a micropillar cavity. The cavity-enhanced coupling between the incoming photons and the solid-state spin results in a polarization rotation by 6 when the spin is optically initialized in the up or down state. These results open the way towards a spin-based quantum network. PMID:25687134

  18. Spectral properties of identified polarized-light sensitive interneurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Pfeiffer, Keram; Homberg, Uwe

    2007-04-01

    Many migrating animals employ a celestial compass mechanism for spatial navigation. Behavioral experiments in bees and ants have shown that sun compass navigation may rely on the spectral gradient in the sky as well as on the pattern of sky polarization. While polarized-light sensitive interneurons (POL neurons) have been identified in the brain of several insect species, there are at present no data on the neural basis of coding the spectral gradient of the sky. In the present study we have analyzed the chromatic properties of two identified POL neurons in the brain of the desert locust. Both neurons, termed TuTu1 and LoTu1, arborize in the anterior optic tubercle and respond to unpolarized light as well as to polarized light. We show here that the polarized-light response of both types of neuron relies on blue-sensitive photoreceptors. Responses to unpolarized light depended on stimulus position and wavelength. Dorsal unpolarized blue light inhibited the neurons, while stimulation from the ipsilateral side resulted in opponent responses to UV light and green light. While LoTu1 was inhibited by UV light and was excited by green light, one subtype of TuTu1 was excited by UV and inhibited by green light. In LoTu1 the sensitivity to polarized light was at least 2 log units higher than the response to unpolarized light stimuli. Taken together, the spatial and chromatic properties of the neurons may be suited to signal azimuthal directions based on a combination of the spectral gradient and the polarization pattern of the sky. PMID:17401118

  19. Model-free methods to study membrane environmental probes: a comparison of the spectral phasor and generalized polarization approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacrida, Leonel; Gratton, Enrico; Jameson, David M.

    2015-12-01

    In this note, we present a discussion of the advantages and scope of model-free analysis methods applied to the popular solvatochromic probe LAURDAN, which is widely used as an environmental probe to study dynamics and structure in membranes. In particular, we compare and contrast the generalized polarization approach with the spectral phasor approach. To illustrate our points we utilize several model membrane systems containing pure lipid phases and, in some cases, cholesterol or surfactants. We demonstrate that the spectral phasor method offers definitive advantages in the case of complex systems.

  20. Ex vivo assessment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced chronic injury using polarized light spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Manzoor; Ali, Safdar; Mehmood, Malik Sajjad; Ali, Hamid; Khurshid, Ahmat; Firdous, Shamaraz; Muhammad, Saleh; Ikram, Masroor

    2013-12-01

    The liver performs various functions, such as the production and detoxification of chemicals; therefore, it is susceptible to hepatotoxins such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), which causes chronic injury. Thus, assessment of injury and its status of severity are of prime importance. Current work reports an ex vivo study for probing the severance of hepatic injury induced by CCl4 with polarized light over the spectral range 400-800 nm. Different concentrations of CCl4 were used to induce varying severity of hepatic injury in a rat model. Linear retardance, depolarization rates, and diagonal Mueller matrix elements (m22, m33, and m44), were successfully used as the distinguishing criterion for normal and different liver injuries. Our results show that linear retardance for injured liver samples with lower doses of CCl4 tends to increase when compared with normal liver samples, while samples injured at higher doses of CCl4 offer almost no retardance. Total, linear, and circular depolarizations follow decreasing trends with increased liver injury severity over the entire investigated wavelength range. Linear polarization states were observed to be better maintained as compared to circular polarization states for all samples. Furthermore, numerical values of diagonal elements of the experimentally measured Mueller matrix also increase with increasing doses of CCl4. Liver fibroses, change in transport albedo, and the relative refractive index of the extracellular matrix caused by CCl4 are responsible for the observed differences. These results will provide a pathway to gauge the severity of injury caused by toxic chemicals. PMID:24359651

  1. Building Better Electrodes for Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, P. L.; La Brecque, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    In the third year of a project to understand and mitigate the systematic noise in resistivity and induced polarization measurements, we put a significant effort into understanding and developing better electrodes. The simple metal electrodes commonly used for both transmitting and receiving of electrical geophysical data are likely the Achilles" heal of the resistivity method. Even stainless steel, a commonly used electrode material because of its durability, showed only average results in laboratory tests for electrode noise. Better results have been found with non-polarizing metal-metal salt electrodes, which are widely used as surface electrodes and in IP surveys. But although they produce small measurement errors, they are not durable enough for in-situ borehole resistivity surveys, and often contain compounds that are toxic to the environment. They are also very seldom used as transmitters. In laboratory studies, we are exploring other materials and configurations for low-noise compound electrodes that will be nontoxic, inexpensive, and durable and can be used as both transmitters and receivers. Testing of the electrical noise levels of electrodes is an arduous task involving repeated measurements under varying conditions at field scales. Thus it is important to find methods of sorting out likely candidates from the mass of possible electrode configurations and construction methods. Testing of electrode impedance versus current density appears to provide simple criteria for predicting the suitability of electrodes. The best electrodes show relatively low overall contact impedance, relatively small changes in impedance with increased current density, and relatively small changes in impedance with time. Furthermore it can be shown that resistivity and induced polarization performance of electrodes is strongly correlated, so that methods of finding electrodes with low impedance and good direct current performance usually provide better quality induced polarization data and vice- versa.

  2. Current-induced spin polarization on metal surfaces probed by spin-polarized positron beam

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. J.; Yamamoto, S.; Fukaya, Y.; Maekawa, M.; Li, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Seki, T.; Saitoh, E.; Takanashi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Current-induced spin polarization (CISP) on the outermost surfaces of Au, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ta, and W nanoscaled films were studied using a spin-polarized positron beam. The Au and Cu surfaces showed no significant CISP. In contrast, the Pt, Pd, Ta, and W films exhibited large CISP (3~15% per input charge current of 105?A/cm2) and the CISP of Ta and W were opposite to those of Pt and Pd. The sign of the CISP obeys the same rule in spin Hall effect suggesting that the spin-orbit coupling is mainly responsible for the CISP. The magnitude of the CISP is explained by the Rashba-Edelstein mechanism rather than the diffusive spin Hall effect. This settles a controversy, that which of these two mechanisms dominates the large CISP on metal surfaces. PMID:24776781

  3. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  4. Absolute isotropic spectral intensities in collision-induced light scattering by helium pairs over a large frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachet, Florent; Le Duff, Yves; Guillot-Nol, Christophe; Chrysos, Michael

    2000-06-01

    We measured the polarized binary collision-induced light scattering spectrum from room-temperature gaseous helium over the greatly extended spectral domain ?=5-1200 cm-1, and then deduced the isotropic spectrum that we report in the interval ?=100-1200 cm-1. Our experimental results were calibrated on an absolute scale. These data were compared to those from quantum-mechanical computations, where use of advanced induced-polarizability incremental traces was made. This comparison enabled us to check several trace models and to show that for certain ab initio ones the computed spectra agree well with our measurements. As was borne out from our computations the main contributions to the spectral intensities come from the exchange component of the incremental trace and its negative mixing with the rest of the trace components.

  5. Eustatic sea level fluctuations induced by polar wander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabadini, Roberto; Doglioni, Carlo; Yuen, David A.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that polar wander of a viscoelastic, stratified earth can induce global sea level fluctuations comparable to the short-term component in eustatic sea-level curves. The sign of these fluctuations, which are very sensitive to the rheological stratification, depends on the geographical location of the observation point; rises and falls in sea level can thus be coeval in different parts of the world. This finding is a distinct contrast to the main assumption underlying the reconstruction of eustatic curves, namely that global sea-level events produce the same depositional sequence everywhere. It is proposed that polar wander should be added to the list of geophysical mechanisms that can control the third-order cycles in sea level.

  6. Polarization-induced resistive switching behaviors in complex oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Dong, Chunhui; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2015-09-01

    Complex oxide heterostructures are fabricated by growing La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films on ferroelectric 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (011) single-crystal substrates. The nonvolatile or pulsed resistive switching behaviors induced by an electric field are achieved simultaneously. Further analyses indicate that the different resistive switching behaviors are resulted from co-control of piezostrain and polarization current effects. With decreasing in-plane read current from 0.1 mA to 0.001 mA, the polarization current effect gradually begins to play a more important role than the piezostrain effect. Consequently, the nonvolatile resistive switching behavior is converted to pulse resistive switching behavior. The results further enhance the application of complex oxides in multifunctional memory devices.

  7. The Spectral Properties of (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate (EGCG) Fluorescence in Different Solvents: Dependence on Solvent Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Snitsarev, Vladislav; Young, Michael N.; Miller, Ross M. S.; Rotella, David P.

    2013-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) a molecule found in green tea and known for a plethora of bioactive properties is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a protein of interest as a target for cancer and neuroprotection. Determination of the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in environments similar to those of binding sites found in proteins provides an important tool to directly study protein-EGCG interactions. The goal of this study is to examine the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in an aqueous buffer (AB) at pH=7.0, acetonitrile (AN) (a polar aprotic solvent), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (a polar aprotic solvent), and ethanol (EtOH) (a polar protic solvent). We demonstrate that EGCG is a highly fluorescent molecule when excited at approximately 275 nm with emission maxima between 350 and 400 nm depending on solvent. Another smaller excitation peak was found when EGCG is excited at approximately 235 nm with maximum emission between 340 and 400 nm. We found that the fluorescence intensity (FI) of EGCG in AB at pH=7.0 is significantly quenched, and that it is about 85 times higher in an aprotic solvent DMSO. The Stokes shifts of EGCG fluorescence were determined by solvent polarity. In addition, while the emission maxima of EGCG fluorescence in AB, DMSO, and EtOH follow the Lippert-Mataga equation, its fluorescence in AN points to non-specific solvent effects on EGCG fluorescence. We conclude that significant solvent-dependent changes in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence emission shifts can be effectively used to distinguish EGCG in aqueous solutions from EGCG in environments of different polarity, and, thus, can be used to study specific EGCG binding to protein binding sites where the environment is often different from aqueous in terms of polarity. PMID:24278192

  8. Field-resolved measurement of reaction-induced spectral densities by polarizability response spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Andrew M.; Nome, Rene A.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2007-11-01

    The experimental design and theoretical description of a novel five-pulse laser spectroscopy is presented with an application to a pyridinium charge transfer complex in acetonitrile and methanol. In field-resolved polarizability response spectroscopy (PORS), an electronically resonant laser pulse first excites a solvated chromophore (reactant) and off-resonant Raman spectra of the resulting nuclear motions are measured as a function of the reaction time. The present apparatus differs from our earlier design by performing the Raman probe measurement (with fixed pulse delays) in the frequency domain. In addition, the full electric fields of the signals are measured by spectral interferometry to separate nonresonant and Raman responses. Our theoretical model shows how the PORS signal arises from nuclear motions that are displaced/driven by the photoinduced reaction. The field-resolved off-resonant (of the solute's electronic transitions) probing favors detection of solvent (as opposed to solute) dynamics coupled to the reaction. The sign of the signal represents the relative strengths of polarization responses associated with the ground and photoexcited solutions. Signatures of nonresonant and PORS signal contributions to the experimental results are analyzed with numerical calculations based on a theoretical model we have developed for reaction-induced PORS. Our model identifies two mechanisms of PORS signal generation: (i) structural relaxation induced resonance; (ii) dephasing induced resonance. In the charge transfer reaction investigated, the solvent-dependent and time-evolving (solvent) polarizability spectral density (PSD) is readily obtained. The general trend of an initial broadband inertial nuclear response followed by a decrease in the linewidth of the PSD establishes that the measured PSD is inconsistent with the approximation of a linear response. Furthermore, the explicit time evolution of the PSD is important for properly describing solvent control of reactions that do not satisfy the time-scale separability inherent to nonadiabatic kinetic models.

  9. Polarizers for a spectral range centered at 121.6 nm operating by reflectance or by transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larruquert, Juan I.; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Aznárez, José A.; Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Méndez, José A.; Miotti, Paolo; Frassetto, Fabio; Massone, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fineschi, Silvano; Nannarone, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Polarimetry is a powerful tool to interpret how the coronal plasma is involved in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's inner parts to the outer space. Space polarimetry in the far ultraviolet (FUV) provides essential information of processes governed by the Doppler and Hanle resonant electron scattering effects. Among the key FUV spectral lines to observe these processes, H I Lyman α (121.6 nm) is the most intense. Some developing or proposed solar physics missions, such as CLASP, SolmeX, and COMPASS, plan to perform polarimetry at 121.6 nm. Classical solutions, such as a parallel plate of a transparent material, either MgF2 or LiF, result in a modest efficiency of the passing polarization component. The development of more efficient linear polarizers at this wavelength will benefit future space instruments. A research has been conducted to develop polarizers based on (Al/MgF2)n multilayer coatings in a band containing 121.6 nm, to obtain a significant efficiency increase over plates. Coatings operating by reflectance resulted in a high efficiency after approximately one year of storage under nitrogen. In parallel, coating polarizers operating by transmittance have been prepared for the first time. Transmissive polarizers have the advantage that they involve no deviation of the beam. As a further benefit, the developed transmittance polarizers additionally incorporate filtering properties to help reject wavelengths both shortwards and longwards of a band containing 121.6 nm. Hence a polarizer combined with a filter is obtained with a single device. The combined polarizer-filter could enable a higher performance polarimeter for solar physics if the use of a separate filter to isolate Lyman α turns unnecessary.

  10. How much information on permeability can we expect from induced polarization methods? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binley, A. M.; Slater, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the significance of permeability heterogeneity on solute transport in groundwater, the determination of qualitative and quantitative information on permeability has been a major focus in the field of hydrogeophysics for some time. This drive has been particularly encouraged due to the minimal invasive method of most geophysical techniques, and the ability to produce spatially dense datasets of geophysical properties. Whilst DC resistivity, as a method, has matured into an extremely robust and flexible technique, and despite its wide use for mapping lithologies, translation of DC resistivity, as a property, to permeability is extremely limited, principally because of the sensitivity to pore fluid states (e.g. salinity) and grain surface electrical conductivity. Induced polarization (IP), in contrast, is sensitive to properties related to the grain surface and/or pore throat geometry, and thus it is intuitive to assume that the permeability and induced polarization response may be closely linked. Spectral IP (SIP) potentially adds further valuable information, given the measure of distribution of polarization length scales. In fact, IP as a tool for hydrogeological studies has been recognized for over 50 years, although it is only over the past two decades that significant advances have been made in both methodology (e.g. instruments, data inversion, etc.) and hydrogeological interpretation. Attempts to link IP (including SIP) and permeability have been explored through laboratory, field and model studies. Mechanistic models have been proposed, along with several empirical relationships. Despite these efforts, the ability to link permeability to IP measurements remains challenging. Formation-specific relationships have been demonstrated, and yet a universal link continues to be elusive. Here, we discuss the principal constraints, illustrated using laboratory and field datasets from a number of studies. We highlight specific challenges, including: questionable treatment of one overarching mechanism of polarization (grain or pore-based) that is applicable to a wide range of porous media (e.g. from coarse unconsolidated to fine consolidated sediments); the weak signal sensitivity to significant variation in formation properties that influence permeability; limitations in field-based imaging due to unsaturated zone effects, the necessary treatment of salinity effects within polarization models; inverse model errors; particular limitations when dealing with highly permeable cobble dominated formations; the lack of well-constrained field investigations; practical difficulties in obtaining spectral IP information at the field scale. Despite these challenges, we assert that valuable information about permeability can be obtained from IP investigations, and offer suggestions for optimum strategies to achieve this.

  11. LINE-INTERLOCKING EFFECTS ON POLARIZATION IN SPECTRAL LINES BY RAYLEIGH AND RAMAN SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-06-20

    The polarized spectrum of the Sun and stars is formed from the scattering of anisotropic radiation on atoms. Interpretation of this spectrum requires the solution of polarized line transfer in multilevel atomic systems. While sophisticated quantum theories of polarized line formation in multilevel atomic systems exist, they are limited by the approximation of complete frequency redistribution in scattering. The partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering is a necessary component in modeling the polarized spectra of strong lines. The polarized PRD line scattering theories developed so far confine themselves to a two-level or a two-term atom model. In this paper, we present a heuristic approach to the problem of polarized line formation in multilevel atoms taking into account the effects of PRD and a weak magnetic field. Starting from the unpolarized PRD multilevel atom approach of Hubeny et al., we incorporate the polarization state of the radiation field. However, the lower level polarization is neglected. Two iterative methods of solving the polarized PRD line transfer in multilevel atoms are also presented. Taking the example of a five-level Ca II atom model, we present illustrative results for an isothermal one-dimensional model atmosphere.

  12. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han-Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W; Mani, Ramesh G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. For circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ. PMID:26450679

  13. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han -Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-10-09

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. As a result, for circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ.

  14. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han-Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. For circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ. PMID:26450679

  15. Induced polarization of clay-sand mixtures. Experiments and modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, G.; Leroy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The complex conductivity of saturated unconsolidated sand-clay mixtures was experimentally investigated using two types of clay minerals, kaolinite and smectite (mainly Na-Montmorillonite) in the frequency range 1.4 mHz - 12 kHz. The experiments were performed with various clay contents (1, 5, 20, and 100 % in volume of the sand-clay mixture) and salinities (distilled water, 0.1 g/L, 1 g/L, and 10 g/L NaCl solution). Induced polarization measurements were performed with a cylindrical four-electrode sample-holder associated with a SIP-Fuchs II impedance meter and non-polarizing Cu/CuSO4 electrodes. The results illustrate the strong impact of the CEC of the clay minerals upon the complex conductivity. The quadrature conductivity increases steadily with the clay content. We observe that the dependence on frequency of the quadrature conductivity of sand-kaolinite mixtures is more important than for sand-bentonite mixtures. For both types of clay, the quadrature conductivity seems to be fairly independent on the pore fluid salinity except at very low clay contents. The experimental data show good agreement with predicted values given by our SIP model. This complex conductivity model considers the electrochemical polarization of the Stern layer coating the clay particles and the Maxwell-Wagner polarization. We use the differential effective medium theory to calculate the complex conductivity of the porous medium constituted of the grains and the electrolyte. The SIP model includes also the effect of the grain size distribution upon the complex conductivity spectra.

  16. Role of methyl-induced polarization in ion binding

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mariana; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Rempe, Susan B.; Varma, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    The chemical property of methyl groups that renders them indispensable to biomolecules is their hydrophobicity. Quantum mechanical studies undertaken here to understand the effect of point substitutions on potassium (K-) channels illustrate quantitatively how methyl-induced polarization also contributes to biomolecular function. K- channels regulate transmembrane salt concentration gradients by transporting K+ ions selectively. One of the K+ binding sites in the channel’s selectivity filter, the S4 site, also binds Ba2+ ions, which blocks K+ transport. This inhibitory property of Ba2+ ions has been vital in understanding K-channel mechanism. In most K-channels, the S4 site is composed of four threonine amino acids. The K channels that carry serine instead of threonine are significantly less susceptible to Ba2+ block and have reduced stabilities. We find that these differences can be explained by the lower polarizability of serine compared with threonine, because serine carries one less branched methyl group than threonine. A T→S substitution in the S4 site reduces its polarizability, which, in turn, reduces ion binding by several kilocalories per mole. Although the loss in binding affinity is high for Ba2+, the loss in K+ binding affinity is also significant thermodynamically, which reduces channel stability. These results highlight, in general, how biomolecular function can rely on the polarization induced by methyl groups, especially those that are proximal to charged moieties, including ions, titratable amino acids, sulfates, phosphates, and nucleotides. PMID:23878238

  17. Relationships between induced polarization relaxation time and hydraulic properties of sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Konstantin; Tarasov, Andrey; Ilyin, Yuri; Seleznev, Nikita; Boyd, Austin

    2010-03-01

    We investigated electrical and physical-chemical properties of six sandstone samples with contrasting mineralogical characteristics and with hydraulic conductivity varying in a wide range. The electrical data were obtained from time domain spectral induced polarization (IP) measurements. We inverted the IP decays to relaxation time distributions, and then compared the modal relaxation times with the dominant pore throat diameters obtained from the Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) data. We found a positive logarithmic relationship between the relaxation time and the pore throat diameter. Also, we found the normalized chargeability (an integral IP parameter) to be positively correlated with the clay content. These two results suggest that the polarization of our sandstones is controlled by the pore throat distribution, and by the clay content. The logarithmic relationship contradicts previous theories, and is not universal. Adopting an approach of Kruschwitz and her co-workers, we calculated the effective diffusivity from IP and MICP data, and we found the effective diffusivity values ranging from 2.9 10-13 to 1.6 10-10 m2s-1. High diffusivity values, typical of surface diffusion, were obtained for clean sandstones. Low diffusivity values were obtained for clayey sandstones, and they were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those characteristic of the surface diffusion. We proposed two mechanisms to explain the `slow' diffusion: (1) the effect of surface tortuosity of pore throats filled with clay minerals and (2) the effect of pore geometry. These two effects represent an obstacle in assessing the pore throat diameter and hydraulic conductivity of sandstones with large specific surface and clay content on the basis of spectral IP measurements. However, we believe that the sandstones featuring `slow' diffusion can be discriminated based on the integral polarization parameters, and that the relaxation time remains a valuable parameter for assessing hydraulic properties of clean sandstones.

  18. N-polar III-nitride quantum well light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai; Simon, John; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kosel, Thomas; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2011-10-24

    Nitrogen-polar III-nitride heterostructures present unexplored advantages over Ga(metal)-polar crystals for optoelectronic devices. This work reports N-polar III-nitride quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy that integrate polarization-induced p-type doping by compositional grading from GaN to AlGaN along N-face. The graded AlGaN layer simultaneously acts as an electron blocking layer while facilitating smooth injection of holes into the active region, while the built-in electric field in the barriers improves carrier injection into quantum wells. The enhanced doping, carrier injection, and light extraction indicate that N-polar structures have the potential to exceed the performance of metal-polar ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

  19. The spectral dependence of circular polarization in Grw + 70 deg 8247.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Landstreet, J. D.; Oke, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Observation of sharp changes in circular polarization with wavelength in new observations of Grw + 70 deg 8247 made with 80 A resolution. Some of the structure is associated with the Minkowski bands. Continued broadband measurements show that while the polarization below 6000 A appears to remain constant, above this wavelength there have been significant changes in the past year.

  20. Imaging ambipolar two-dimensional carriers induced by the spontaneous electric polarization of a polar semiconductor BiTeI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohsaka, Y.; Kanou, M.; Takagi, H.; Hanaguri, T.; Sasagawa, T.

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) mobile carriers are a wellspring of quantum phenomena. Among various 2D-carrier systems, such as field effect transistors and heterostructures, polar materials hold a unique potential; the spontaneous electric polarization in the bulk could generate positive and negative 2D carriers at the surface. Although several experiments have shown ambipolar carriers at the surface of a polar semiconductor BiTeI, their origin is yet to be specified. Here we provide compelling experimental evidences that the ambipolar 2D carriers at the surface of BiTeI are induced by the spontaneous electric polarization. By imaging electron standing waves with spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we find that positive or negative carriers with Rashba-type spin splitting emerge at the surface corresponding to the polar directions in the bulk. The electron densities at the surface are constant independently of those in the bulk, corroborating that the 2D carriers are induced by the spontaneous electric polarization. We also successfully image that lateral p -n junctions are formed along the boundaries of submicron-scale domains with opposite polar directions. Our study presents a means to endow nonvolatile, spin-polarized, and ambipolar 2D carriers as well as, without elaborate fabrication, lateral p -n junctions of those carriers at atomically sharp interfaces.

  1. Effects of Buflomedil and Pentoxifylline on Hamster Skin-Flap Microcirculation: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Orthogonal Polarization Spectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Coelho da Mota, Denise Salles; Furtado, Eliane; Bottino, Daniel Alexandre; Bouskela, Eliete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the effects of buflomedil and pentoxifylline, both of which are used in reconstructive surgery of hamster skin flap microcirculation, and evaluated the skin flap survival rate by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. METHOD Twenty-four adult male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three groups: a control (C, 0.1 ml 0.9% saline), buflomedil (B, 3 mg/kg/day), and pentoxifylline group (P, 14.5 mg/kg/day). Treatments administered intraperitoneally were initiated 1 hour before skin flap preparation and continued for 7 days post-operatively at 12-hour intervals. Preparations (skin flaps) were divided into 12 fields, which were organized into six bands. Functional capillary density (FCD, in mm/mm2), distance from the skin flap base to blood flow cessation (Distwith flow, in cm), percentage of viable skin (VA, in%), and qualitative analysis of blood flow by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging were performed at 1 and 24 hours and on the seventh post-operative day. RESULT Bands IV, V, and VI presented no flow independent of time. The functional capillary density group B was higher than that of groups C and P, primarily after 24 hours. All groups showed an increase in D with time but reached similar final distances (C = 2.73, B = 2.78 and P = 2.70 cm). Moreover, the percentage of viable areas remained at approximately 50%. The orthogonal polarization spectral imaging was useful to assess viability by counting fields with and without blood flow. CONCLUSIONS Functional capillary density values were higher in the buflomedil group compared to the control and pentoxifylline groups in this model. Functional capillary density did not influence D or the percentage of VA, and the technique showed favorable potential to assess/predict the viability of skin flaps within 1 h after surgery. PMID:19690666

  2. Satellite observations of polar mesospheric clouds by the solar backscattered ultraviolet spectral radiometer - Evidence of a solar cycle dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Gary E.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Jensen, Eric J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on eight years of satellite observations of the polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) by the SBUV spectral radiometer, showing that PMCs occur in the summertime polar cap regions of both hemispheres and that they exhibit year-to-year variability. It was also found that the increase in the PMC occurrence frequency was inversely correlated with solar activity. Two kinds of hemispherical asymmetries could be identified: (1) PMCs in the Northern Hemisphere were significantly brighter than in the Southern Hemisphere, in accordance with previous results derived from SME data; and (2) the solar cycle response in the south is more pronounced than in the north. The paper also describes the cloud detection algorithm.

  3. Spectral, kinetic and polarization characteristics of luminescence of acriflavine in polymeric matrix under pulsed excitation with different durations and intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputskaya, I. A.; Ermilov, E. A.; Tannert, S.; Rder, B.; Gorbatsevich, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Spectral, kinetic and polarization characteristics of fluorescence and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) of dye solid solutions have been investigated. It was shown that the increasing of the excitation pulse duration results in rise of TADF decay time, but an increasing of the long pulse excitation intensity results in a faster TADF decay. In the presence of Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) the fluorescence spectrum is shifting non-monotonically with time when the intensity of the excitation pulse is high. At the time moment when the excitation is switched off the polarization degree of luminescence of the concentrated dye solutions strongly reduces. The energy transfer from the molecules in the S 1 state to the molecules in the T 1 state reduces the depolarization of luminescence caused by FRET. Numerical simulations were made by means of Monte-Carlo integrations and results were compared with experimental data obtained for acriflavine in polyvinyl alcohol films.

  4. MAPPING THE LINEARLY POLARIZED SPECTRAL LINE EMISSION AROUND THE EVOLVED STAR IRC+10216

    SciTech Connect

    Girart, J. M.; Patel, N.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Rao, Ramprasad

    2012-05-20

    We present spectro-polarimetric observations of several molecular lines obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC+10216. We have detected and mapped the linear polarization of the CO 3-2, SiS 19-18, and CS 7-6 lines. The polarization arises at a distance of {approx_equal} 450 AU from the star and is blueshifted with respect to the Stokes I. The SiS 19-18 polarization pattern appears to be consistent with a locally radial magnetic field configuration. However, the CO 3-2 and CS 7-6 line polarization suggests an overall complex magnetic field morphology within the envelope. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using spectro-polarimetric observations to carry out tomographic imaging of the magnetic field in circumstellar envelopes.

  5. Cytoskeletal tension induces the polarized architecture of the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwee; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear lamina is a thin filamentous meshwork that provides mechanical support to the nucleus and regulates essential cellular processes such as DNA replication, chromatin organization, cell division, and differentiation. Isolated horizontal imaging using fluorescence and electron microscopy has long suggested that the nuclear lamina is composed of structurally different A-type and B-type lamin proteins and nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins that together form a thin layer that is spatially isotropic with no apparent difference in molecular content or density between the top and bottom of the nucleus. Chromosomes are condensed differently along the radial direction from the periphery of the nucleus to the nuclear center; therefore, chromatin accessibility for gene expression is different along the nuclear radius. However, 3D confocal reconstruction reveals instead that major lamin protein lamin A/C forms an apically polarized Frisbee-like dome structure in the nucleus of adherent cells. Here we show that both A-type lamins and transcriptionally active chromatins are vertically polarized by the tension exercised by the perinuclear actin cap (or actin cap) that is composed of highly contractile actomyosin fibers organized at the apical surface of the nucleus. Mechanical coupling between actin cap and lamina through LINC (linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) protein complexes induces an apical distribution of transcription-active subnucleolar compartments and epigenetic markers of transcription-active genes. This study reveals that intranuclear structures, such as nuclear lamina and chromosomal architecture, are apically polarized through the extranuclear perinuclear actin cap in a wide range of somatic adherent cells. PMID:25701041

  6. Self-consistent problem of induced polarization of electrokinetic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetov, B. S.; Ageev, V. V.; Karinskii, S. D.; Ageeva, O. A.

    2013-11-01

    In the first part of the paper, with some constraints, we find the analytical solution of the self-consistent problem of induced polarization (IP) for an electrokinetically polarized sphere. The stationary (on long time intervals) solution of the self-consistent problem is a set of the potential fields that are interconnected with each other: the exciting electric field, the extraneous hydrodynamical field (electroosmotic flow of a viscous incompressible fluid), and the resulting electromagnetic IP field. The extraneous field is the field of the osmotic flow of a charged liquid and the field of the charges that emerge due to the membrane effect in the narrowed segments of the pore channels. The calculations show that the IP fields derived by solving the self-consistent problem and by the Seigel-Komarov phenomenological approach are different. In the second part of the paper, by generalization of the obtained analytical solution, we formulate the self-consistent IP problem for isotropic ?-? media of arbitrary shape, which are bounded by a smooth surface. The problem can be solved by the numerical methods.

  7. Analysis the cross-polarized wave generation: Influence of the quadratic and cubic spectral phase with different pump energy fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lu, Feng; Liu, Hongjie; Wen, Xianlun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present the comprehensive study of the influence of quadratic and cubic spectral phase on cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation, including conversion efficiency, spectrum broadening, and duration shortening with different pump energy fluence, using a sub-30 fs laser pulse with 2-order supper Gaussian top-hat spectrum. This kind of broad top-hat spectrum, which would support very short fs pulse, can be obtained from acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) technique. Different nonlinear processes that contribute to the generation of cross-polarized wave, including conversion efficiency and spectrum broadening, are theoretically compared. In addition, unlike the results given by previous authors, our analysis shows that the amount of XPW spectrum broadening relative to input linear chirp is asymmetric with respect to the zero chirp point, and the negative chirped pulse will result more spectral broadening compared to the pulse that has the same amount but positive chirp. We believe, our analysis presented here would result more in-depth of understanding about the XPW technique.

  8. Self-induced spectral splits in supernova neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-10-15

    In the dense-neutrino region above the neutrino sphere of a supernova (r < or approx. 400 km), neutrino-neutrino refraction causes collective flavor transformations. They can lead to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} splits the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. Unless there is an ordinary MSW resonance in the dense-neutrino region, E{sub split} is determined by flavor-lepton number conservation alone. Spectral splits are created by an adiabatic transition between regions of large and small neutrino density. We solve the equations of motion in the adiabatic limit explicitly and provide analytic expressions for a generic example.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of time domain-induced polarization in water-saturated sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, K.; Komarov, V.; Tarasov, V.; Levitski, A.

    2002-07-01

    A theoretical model of spectral-induced polarization (IP) of sand is presented. In the proposed model, contacts of sand grains and intergrain solution-filled space are considered as electrical current passages of varying thickness, which differ in values of ion transport number. Ion-selective narrow passages are considered as active zones, large passages as passive. The proposed model describes spectral IP characteristics for the medium where the length of passive zones is much greater than the length of active ones. The model is called short narrow pores (SNP) model. The SNP model predicts a growth of IP time constant with increase of length of ion-selective zone. Both the time domain and frequency domain parameters are described. The parameters of Cole-Cole model corresponding to the SNP model were also found. The behaviour of model parameters is compared with experimental data obtained on natural and sieved sands using time domain technique. The natural sand spectra correspond neither to the simple SNP model nor simple Cole-Cole model with single time constant because the lengths of ion-selective zones vary, reflecting the grain-size distribution. The spectra of sieved sand compared with the theoretical SNP spectra reveal close correspondence between experimental data and theoretical parameters. For four sieved sands, both the theoretical and experimental data show that the time constant of the IP is proportional to the square of the average grain size.

  10. Parahydrogen Induced Polarization by Pairwise Replacement on Pt and Ir Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Clifford; Zhou, Ronghui; Zhao, Evan; Cheng, Wei; Neal, Luke; Weaver, Helena

    2015-03-01

    Parahydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP) is a robust and scalable method for production of bulk quantities of hyperpolarized fluids. The symmetrization order inherent in parahydrogen is transformed via symmetry breaking hydrogenation reaction into NMR-observable hyperpolarization. Spin polarization of order unity can be obtained. A key requirement of PHIP is pairwise hydrogenation by addition of H atoms originating from the same H2 molecule. PHIP using supported metal catalysts is a promising recent development because it exploits the advantages over homogeneous and supported metal complexes. The present work demonstrates a new PHIP mechanism involving the pairwise replacement of parahydrogen into propene (the substrate) over TiO2 supported Ir and Pt nanoparticle catalysts. Analysis of the stereoselectivity of the pairwise replacement process is facilitated by density matrix spectral simulations. The cis and trans dispositions of the symmetrization order give strikingly different PHIP spectra. The observed stereoselectivity of the pairwise replacement step, together with control experiments, rule out an alternative mechanism involving dehydrogenation of free propane over the catalyst.

  11. Strain-induced Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial (001) BiFeO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, J H; Baek, S H; Ortiz, D; Das, R; Folkman, C H; Chu, Y H; Shafer, Paul; Zhang, J X; S, Choudhury; Vaithyanathan, V; Chen, Y B; Felker, D A; Biegalski, Michael D; Rzchowski, M; Pan, X Q; Chen, Long-Qing; Schlom, Darrell; Ramesh, R.; Eom, Chang-Beom

    2008-01-01

    Direct measurement of the remanent polarization of high quality (001)-oriented epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films shows a strong strain-dependence, even larger than conventional (001)-oriented PbTiO3 films. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that a strain-induced polarization rotation mechanism is responsible for the large change in the out-of-plane polarization of (001) BiFeO3 with biaxial strain while the spontaneous polarization itself remains almost constant.

  12. FROST-INDUCED CHANGES IN SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAIN SORGHUM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near-infrared spectral properties of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were observed using wideband and hyperspectral radiometers in Arizona. Field measurements that were taken before and after the later-planted, 1998 crop was damaged by frost, displayed temporal dynamics that were correl...

  13. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles.

  14. Multiple-view spectrally resolved x-ray imaging observations of polar-direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, R. C.; Johns, H. M.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Nagayama, T.; Hsu, S. C.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Hakel, P.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2014-12-15

    We present spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved narrow- and broad-band x-ray images of polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on OMEGA. These self-emission images were obtained during the deceleration phase and bang time using several multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging instruments fielded along two or three quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight, including equatorial and polar views. The instruments recorded images based on K-shell lines from a titanium tracer located in the shell as well as continuum emission. These observations constitute the first such data obtained for PDD implosions. The image data show features attributed to laser imprinting and zero-order hydrodynamics. Equatorial-view images show a “double bun” structure that is consistent with synthetic images obtained from post-processing 2D and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment. Polar-view images show a pentagonal, petal pattern that correlates with the PDD laser illumination used on OMEGA, thus revealing a 3D aspect of PDD OMEGA implosions not previously observed. Differences are noted with respect to a PDD experiment performed at National Ignition Facility.

  15. Multiple-view spectrally resolved x-ray imaging observations of polar-direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, R. C.; Johns, H. M.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Nagayama, T.; Hsu, S. C.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Bradley, P. A.; Hakel, P.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatially, temporally, and spectrally resolved narrow- and broad-band x-ray images of polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on OMEGA. These self-emission images were obtained during the deceleration phase and bang time using several multiple monochromatic x-ray imaging instruments fielded along two or three quasi-orthogonal lines-of-sight, including equatorial and polar views. The instruments recorded images based on K-shell lines from a titanium tracer located in the shell as well as continuum emission. These observations constitute the first such data obtained for PDD implosions. The image data show features attributed to laser imprinting and zero-order hydrodynamics. Equatorial-view images show a "double bun" structure that is consistent with synthetic images obtained from post-processing 2D and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment. Polar-view images show a pentagonal, petal pattern that correlates with the PDD laser illumination used on OMEGA, thus revealing a 3D aspect of PDD OMEGA implosions not previously observed. Differences are noted with respect to a PDD experiment performed at National Ignition Facility.

  16. Time-resolved spectral investigations of laser light induced microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nánai, L.; Hevesi, I.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical and spectral properties of an optical breakdown microplasma created by pulses of different lasers on surfaces of insulators (KCI), metals (Cu) and semiconductors (V 2O 5), have been investigated. Experiments were carried out in air and vacuum using different wavelengths (λ = 0.694μm, type OGM-20,λ = 1.06μm with a home-made laser based on neodymium glass crystal, and λ = 10.6μm, similarly home-made) and pulse durations (Q-switched and free-running regimes). To follow the integral, dynamical and spectral characteristics of the luminous spot of microplasma we have used fast cameras (SFR-2M, IMACON-HADLAND), a high speed spectral camera (AGAT-2) and a spectrograph (STE-1). It has been shown that the microplasma consists of two parts: fast front (peak) with τ≈100 ns and slow front (tail) with τ≈1μs durations. The detonation front speed is of the order of ≈10 5 cm s -1 and follows the temporal dependence of to t0.4. It depends on the composition of the surrounding gas and its pressure and could be connected with quick evaporation of the material investigated (peak) and optical breakdown of the ambient gaseous atmosphere (tail). From the delay in appearance of different characteristic spectral lines of the target material and its gaseous surrounding we have shown that the evolution of the microplasma involves evaporation and ionization of the atoms of the parent material followed by optical breakdown due to the incident and absorbed laser light, together with microplasma expansion.

  17. Influence of pore fluid chemistry on the complex conductivity and induced polarization responses of Berea sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesmes, David P.; Frye, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    The spectral induced-polarization (IP) response of rocks and soils is a complex function of pore solution chemistry, sample microgeometry, and surface chemical properties. We measure the complex conductivity and the time domain IP responses of Berea sandstone as a function of pore fluid ionic strength and pH. Complex conductivity is measured over the frequency range 10-3 to 106 Hz, and chargeability is computed using a time window of 0.16 to 1.74 s. The field IP parameters: phase, percent frequency effect, and chargeability are functions of both the surface and bulk electrical properties of the sample and are observed to decrease with increasing solution conductivity. Dividing these parameters by the sample resistivity yields normalized IP parameters (quadrature conductivity, metal factor, normalized chargeability) that are proportional to the imaginary component of the complex surface conductivity. Normalized IP parameters increase with ionic strength up to concentrations of 10-1 M NaCl and show a reduced response at pH 3, the point of zero charge for quartz-dominated systems. For concentrations >10-1 M NaCl, the normalized parameters decrease with increasing concentration. This decrease in surface polarization may indicate a decrease in the effective mobility of polarizing charges at high solution concentration. Our data indicate that normalized IP parameters are directly related to the physiochemical parameters that control the surface conductivity responses of rocks and soils. Normalization of IP measurements in environmental investigations should increase the effectiveness of IP surveys, especially in high-conductivity environments.

  18. Quantifying microbe‐mineral interactions leading to remotely detectable induced polarization signals

    SciTech Connect

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine

    2013-11-14

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for spherical grains versus the actual geometry associated with the nano-pores in the silica gel, though other polarization processes, e.g., proton hopping along the surface (Skold et al., 2013), may also be a contributing factor. As an alternative model-independent approach to confirming the link between surface sorption and SIP we initiated a study that will continue (unfunded) beyond the completion of this project to independently measure the accumulation of gamma emitting isotopes on the silica gel during the SIP monitoring experiments. Though our analyses of the project data are ongoing, our preliminary analyses are generally supportive of the grain (Stern layer) polarization theory of SIP. Experiments focused on evaluating the impact of physical modifications of the medium on polarization included etching and biotic and abiotic facilitated precipitation of carbonate and iron oxides to alter the roughness and electrical conductivity of the surfaces. These experiments were performed for both silica gel and glass beads, the latter of which lacked the interior porosity and high surface area of the silica gel. The results appear to be more nuanced that the chemical modifications of the system. In general, however, it was found that deposition of iron oxides and etching had relatively minimal or negative impacts on the polarization response of the medium, whereas carbonate coatings increased the polarization response. These results were generally consistent with changes in surface charge observed via AFM. Abiotic and biotic column flow through experiments demonstrated that precipitation of carbonate within the medium significantly impacted the real and imaginary conductivity over time in a manner generally consistent with the carbonate precipitation as observed from the batch grain coating experiments. Biotic effects were not observed to provide distinctly different signatures, but may have contributed to differences in the rate of changes observed with SIP. AFM was used in a variety of different ways to investigate the grain surfaces throughout the course of the project. Standard imaging methods were used to evaluate surface roughness and charge density, which showed that these data could provide qualitative insights about consistency between surface trends and the electrical behavior at the column scale (for the case of glass beads). Polarization and conductive force microscopy (PCFM) measurements were developed by the original project PI (Treavor Kendall), which illustrated the importance of the initial few monolayers of water on the mineral surface for producing surface conductivity. The technique allowed for initial local estimates of complex electrical conductivity on mineral surfaces, but could not be pursued after Kendall left the project due to phase locking limitations with the AFM instrument at Clemson and an inability to perform measurements in solution, which limited their value for linking the measurements to column-scale SIP responses. As a result, co-PI Dean developed a new methodology for making AFM measurements within an externally applied electric field. In this method, the charged tip of an AFM probe is brought within the proximity of a polarization domain while an external electric field is applied to the sample. The premise of the approach is that the tip will be attracted to or rebound from charge accumulations on the surface, which allow for detection of the local polarization response. Initial experiments showed promise in terms of the general trends of responses observed, though we have not yet been able to develop a quantitative interpretation technique that can be applied to predicting column scale responses.

  19. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column‐scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain‐scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high‐quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process‐based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for spherical grains versus the actual geometry associated with the nano‐pores in the silica gel, though other polarization processes, e.g., proton hopping along the surface (Skold et al., 2013), may also be a contributing factor. As an alternative model‐independent approach to confirming the link between surface sorption and SIP we initiated a study that will continue (unfunded) beyond the completion of this project to independently measure the accumulation of gamma emitting isotopes on the silica gel during the SIP monitoring experiments. Though our analyses of the project data are ongoing, our preliminary analyses are generally supportive of the grain (Stern layer) polarization theory of SIP. Experiments focused on evaluating the impact of physical modifications of the medium on polarization included etching and biotic and abiotic facilitated precipitation of carbonate and iron oxides to alter the roughness and electrical conductivity of the surfaces. These experiments were performed for both silica gel and glass beads, the latter of which lacked the interior porosity and high surface area of the silica gel. The results appear to be more nuanced that the chemical modifications of the system. In general, however, it was found that deposition of iron oxides and etching had relatively minimal or negative impacts on the polarization response of the medium, whereas carbonate coatings increased the polarization response. These results were generally consistent with changes in surface charge observed via AFM. Abiotic and biotic column flow through experiments demonstrated that precipitation of carbonate within the medium significantly impacted the real and imaginary conductivity over time in a manner generally consistent with the carbonate precipitation as observed from the batch grain coating experiments. Biotic effects were not observed to provide distinctly different signatures, but may have contributed to differences in the rate of changes observed with SIP. AFM was used in a variety of different ways to investigate the grain surfaces throughout the course of the project. Standard imaging methods were used to evaluate surface roughness and charge density, which showed that these data could provide qualitative insights about consistency between surface trends and the electrical behavior at the column scale (for the case of glass beads). Polarization and conductive force microscopy (PCFM) measurements were developed by the original project PI (Treavor Kendall), which illustrated the importance of the initial few monolayers of water on the mineral surface for producing surface conductivity. The technique allowed for initial local estimates of complex electrical conductivity on mineral surfaces, but could not be pursued after Kendall left the project due to phase locking limitations with the AFM instrument at Clemson and an inability to perform measurements in solution, which limited their value for linking the measurements to column‐scale SIP responses. As a result, co‐PI Dean developed a new methodology for making AFM measurements within an externally applied electric field. In this method, the charged tip of an AFM probe is brought within the proximity of a polarization domain while an external electric field is applied to the sample. The premise of the approach is that the tip will be attracted to or rebound from charge accumulations on the surface, which allow for detection of the local polarization response. Initial experiments showed promise in terms of the general trends of responses observed, though we have not yet been able to develop a quantitative interpretation technique that can be applied to predicting column scale responses.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Examining A Tissue Using The Spectral Wing Emission Therefrom Induced By Visible To Infrared Photoexcitation.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Demos, Stavros G.; Zhang, Gang

    2003-12-16

    Method and an apparatus for examining a tissue using the spectral wing emission therefrom induced by visible to infrared photoexcitation. In one aspect, the method is used to characterize the condition of a tissue sample and comprises the steps of (a) photoexciting the tissue sample with substantially monochromatic light having a wavelength of at least 600 nm; and (b) using the resultant far red and near infrared spectral wing emission (SW) emitted from the tissue sample to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In one embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a continuous beam of light, and the resultant steady-state far red and near infrared SW emission from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a light pulse, and the resultant time-resolved far red and near infrared SW emission emitted from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In still another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a polarized light pulse, and the parallel and perpendicular components of the resultant polarized time-resolved SW emission emitted from the tissue sample are used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample.

  1. Digital dispersion compensation for ultrabroad-bandwidth single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Chhetri, Raghav K.

    2011-03-01

    Polarization-sensitive OCT is used to examine tissue microstructure by providing imaging of birefringent properties. Single-camera spectral-domain polarization-sensitive OCT has been of recent interest, whereby a custom spectrometer is employed to simultaneously measure orthogonal polarization states scattered from the sample. This avoids synchronization and triggering issues associated with multiple-camera setups. It also has the advantage that the optic axis can be extracted without polarization modulating the incident light. However, the disadvantage is that the line camera pixel-to-wavenumber nonlinearity requires either careful spectrometer alignment, or digital compensation. In fact, this problem is further exacerbated in high resolution PSOCT systems as they require compensation over larger bandwidths. Here we report the construction of an ultrabroad-bandwidth PSOCT system using a single camera spectrometer similar to Baumann et al. In order to enjoy the benefits of this instrument, we outline a method for digital dispersion compensation that removes the necessity for special camera alignment. We find that there are three non-negligible types of dispersion to consider: 1) the aforementioned camera pixel-to-wavenumber nonlinearity, 2) the refractive index dispersion in the sample itself, and 3) the dispersion imbalance between the arms of the OCT interferometer. The latter two were previously recognized for time-domain high-resolution OCT, where a digital dispersion compensation method was successfully employed to treat them both. For our SDOCT application, we find that dispersion types 1 and 2 have the same functional effect and can be combined into one compensation step, and as such, much of the previous compensation method can be used. However, we find that it is necessary to add two steps to the analysis technique whereby the relative scaling and positioning of the two polarization images is adjusted to align the scatterers. We also find that better results are achieved by fitting to larger polynomial orders. We show how our technique provides high-resolution PSOCT with precise alignment between the orthogonal polarization images.

  2. Phase-resolved X-ray spectroscopy and spectral energy distribution of the X-ray soft polar RS Caeli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, I.; Reinsch, K.; Schwope, A. D.; Schwarz, R.; Walter, F. M.; Burwitz, V.

    2014-02-01

    Context. RS Cae is the third target in our series of XMM-Newton observations of soft X-ray-dominated polars. Aims: Our observational campaign aims to better understand and describe the multiwavelength data, the physical properties of the system components, and the short- and long-term behavior of the component fluxes in RS Cae. Methods: We employ stellar atmosphere, stratified accretion-column, and widely used X-ray spectral models. We fit the XMM-Newton spectra, model the multiband light curves, and opt for a mostly consistent description of the spectral energy distribution. Results: Our XMM-Newton data of RS Cae are clearly dominated by soft X-ray emission. The X-ray light curves are shaped by emission from the main accretion region, which is visible over the whole orbital cycle, interrupted only by a stream eclipse. The optical light curves are formed by cyclotron and stream emission. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectra comprise a black-body-like and a plasma component at mean temperatures of 36 eV and 7 keV. The spectral fits give evidence of a partially absorbing and a reflection component. Multitemperature models, covering a broader temperature range in the X-ray emitting accretion regions, reproduce the spectra appropriately well. Including archival data, we describe the spectral energy distribution with a combination of models based on a consistent set of parameters and derive a lower limit estimate of the distance d ? 750 pc. Conclusions: The high bolometric soft-to-hard flux ratios and short-term variability of the (X-ray) light curves are characteristic of inhomogeneous accretion. RS Cae clearly belongs in the group of polars that show a very strong soft X-ray flux compared to their hard X-ray flux. The different black-body fluxes and similar hard X-ray and optical fluxes during the XMM-Newton and ROSAT observations show that soft and hard X-ray emission are not directly correlated. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging analysisof human oocytes and first polar bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Weier, Jingly F.; Oter Renom, Maria; Zheng,Xuezhong; Colls, Pere; Nureddin, Aida; Pham, Chau D.; Chu, Lisa W.; Racowsky, Catherine; Munne, Santiago

    2004-10-06

    We investigated the frequencies of abnormalities involving either chromosome 1, 16, 18 or 21 in failed-fertilized human oocytes.While abnormalities involving chromosome 16 showed an age-dependant increase, results for the other chromosomes did not show statistically significant differences between the three age groups <35 yrs, 35-39 yrs, and >39 yrs. The scoring of four chromosomes is likely to underestimate the true rate of aneuploid cells. Thus, for a pilot study investigating a more comprehensive analysis of oocytes and their corresponding first polar bodies (1PBs), we developed a novel 8-probe chromosome enumeration scheme using FISH and SIm.

  4. Ocean color spectral variability studies using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that chlorophyll-induced ocean color spectral variability can be studied using only a passive airborne spectroradiometer instrument, with solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence used as the standard against which all correlations are performed. The intraspectral correlation (ISC) method is demonstrated with results obtained during an airborne mapping mission in the New York Bight. The curvature algorithm is applied to the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence at about 690 nm, and good agreement is found with results obtained using active-passive correlation spectroscopy. The ISC method has application to spectral variability and resulting chlorophyll concentration measurement in different environmental conditions and in different water types.

  5. Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Michal; Beek, Johan F.; Stenback, Karin; Faber, Dirk J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Ince, Can

    2005-02-01

    Due to the limited number of suitable intravital microscopy techniques, relatively little is known about the opto-thermal (endo)vascular responses to selective photothermolysis, used as a default treatment modality for superficial vascular anomalies such as port wine stains, telangiectasias, and hemangiomas. In this preliminary study we present a novel microscopy technique for studying (endo)vascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo, in which conventional orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging is combined with darkfield (DF) illumination. DFOPS imaging of rat mesenteric vasculature irradiated at increasing powers revealed the following (tissular) responses: formation of translucent aggregates, retrograde flow, gradual and immediate hemostasis, reinstatement of flow, vessel disappearance, and perivascular collagen damage. DFOPS imaging therefore constitutes a useful tool for examining (endo)vascular events following selective photothermolysis.

  6. Fluorescent Phosphorus Dendrimer as a Spectral Nanosensor for Macrophage Polarization and Fate Tracking in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mishra, Manoj; Chu, Tak-Ho; Brideau, Craig; Cummins, Karen; Tsutsui, Shigeki; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Mignani, Serge; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Bryszewska, Maria; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter K; van Minnen, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Dendrimers and dendriplexes, highly branched synthetic macromolecules, have gained popularity as new tools for a variety of nanomedicine strategies due to their unique structure and properties. We show that fluorescent phosphorus dendrimers are well retained by bone marrow-derived macrophages and exhibit robust spectral shift in its emission in response to polarization conditions. Fluorescence properties of this marker can also assist in identifying macrophage presence and phenotype status at different time points after spinal cord injury. Potential use of a single dendrimer compound as a drug/siRNA carrier and phenotype-specific cell tracer offers new avenues for enhanced cell therapies combined with monitoring of cell fate and function in spinal cord injury. PMID:26175127

  7. Detection and calculation of reflected spectral shifts in fiber-Bragg gratings (FBG) in polarization maintaining optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Joel; Gonzalez, Virgilio

    2014-04-01

    Fiber-Bragg Gratings (FBG) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have been studied extensively as they offer electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, and multiple multiplexing schemes, as compared to conventional electricity based strain sensors. FBG sensors written in Polarization Maintaining (PM) optical fiber offer an additional dimension of strain measurement simplifying sensor implementation within a structure. This simplification however, adds complexity to the detection of the sensor's optical response to its corresponding applied strain. We propose a method that calculates spectral shifts caused by axial and traversal strains for PM FBG sensors. The system isolates the orthogonal propagating optical waves incident to the optical interrogators. The post-processing algorithm determines the wavelength shifts, and compares to a predetermined baseline then correlates the shift magnitudes to a respective strain. This exercise validates the method of optical detection and shift calculation of multi-axis sensors as an automated, integrated system.

  8. Polarization force-induced changes in the dust sheath formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayout, Saliha; Bentabet, Karima; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2015-09-01

    The modifications arising in the dusty plasma sheath structure due to the presence of polarization forces acting on the dust grains are investigated. The corresponding appropriate Bohm criterion for sheath formation is obtained. It is found that the critical Mach number, beyond which the dusty plasma electrostatic sheath sets in, decreases whenever the polarization effects become important. In addition, when the polarization force dominates over the electrical one, the dust plasma sheath cannot set in. This happens whenever the dust grain size exceeds a critical threshold. Moreover, the sheath electrostatic potential-gradient becomes abruptly steep, and the sheath thickness becomes broader as the polarization force effects strengthen.

  9. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han -Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-10-09

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. As a result, for circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response ismore » hardly sensitive to θ.« less

  10. Integrin-Induced PIP5K1C Kinase Polarization Regulates Neutrophil Polarization, Directionality, and in vivo Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenwen; Wang, Ping; Petri, Bjrn; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Wenwen; Sun, Le; Kress, Holger; Mann, Tom; Shi, Yan; Kubes, Paul; Wu, Dianqing

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils are important in innate immunity and acute inflammatory responses. However, the regulation of their recruitment to sites of inflammation has not been well characterized. Here, we investigated the kinase PIP5K1C and showed that PIP5K1C-deficiency impaired neutrophil recruitment due to an adhesion defect. PIP5K1C regulated the adhesion through facilitating RhoA GTPase and integrin activation by chemoattractants. Integrins could induce an isoform of PIP5K1C, PIP5K1C-90, polarization in neutrophils through intracellular vesicle transport independently of exogenous chemoattractant. PIP5K1C-90 polarization was required for polarized RhoA activation at uropods and provided an initial directional cue for neutrophil polarization on the endothelium. Importantly, the polarization was also required for circumventing the inhibition of lamellipodium formation by RhoA so that neutrophils could form leading edges required for transendothelial migration. Because integrins are not known to regulate neutrophil polarization, our study revealed a previously underappreciated role of integrin signaling in neutrophil regulation. PMID:20850356

  11. HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND POLARIZATION FRACTIONS OF SOURCES IN AN ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Sajina, Anna; Partridge, Bruce; Evans, Tyler; Vechik, Nicholas; Stefl, Shannon; Myers, Steve; Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phillip

    2011-05-01

    We present flux densities and polarization percentages of 159 radio galaxies based on nearly simultaneous Very Large Array observations at four frequencies, 4.86, 8.46, 22.46, and 43.34 GHz. This sample is selected from the high-frequency Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey and consists of all sources with flux density S{sub 20GHz} > 40 mJy in an equatorial field of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey. For a subset of 25 of these sources, we used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to obtain 90 GHz data. The goals of this program are: (1) a characterization of the spectra, polarization, and variability of high-frequency-selected radio sources, (2) extrapolating from the few GHz regime to the {approx}150 GHz regime of the ACT survey, allowing for more accurate removal of the radio source signal in our particular field, and (3) providing a data set that will allow more accurate modeling of the high-frequency radio source contamination in current and future Sunyaev-Zeldovich and cosmic microwave background experiments. We find that, as expected, this sample consists of flatter spectrum and more compact or point-like sources than low-frequency-selected samples. In the K band, variability is typically {approx}<20%, although there are exceptions. The higher frequency data are well suited to the detection of extreme gigahertz peak spectrum sources. The inclusion of the 43 GHz data causes the relative fraction of inverted spectrum sources to go down and of peaked spectrum sources to go up when compared with the AT20G survey results. The trend largely continues with the inclusion of the 90 GHz data, although {approx}10% of the sources with GBT data show a spectral upturn from 43 GHz to 90 GHz. The measured polarization fractions are typically <5%, although in some cases they are measured to be up to {approx}20%. For sources with detected polarized flux in all four bands, about 40% of the sample, the polarization fractions typically increase with frequency. This trend is stronger for steeper spectrum sources as well as for the lower flux density sources.

  12. Frequency response of current modulation induced polarization switching in VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Albert, Jan; Panajotov, Krassimir P.; Nagler, Bob; Peeters, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; Veretennicoff, Irina P.; Danckaert, Jan; Barbay, Sylvain; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Marin, Francesco

    2002-06-01

    We present an experimental and rate-equation based theoretical study of the current-driven polarization modulation properties of VCSELs. In such lasers a high-contrast polarization flip is often observed at a particular value of the pump current. When modulating the current around the polarization switching value, we measure the critical modulation amplitude necessary to force synchronized back-and-forward polarization flips, as a function of the modulation frequency. This yields the polarization modulation frequency response. For a proton-implanted VCSEL the shape of the measured response curve is characterized by time constants that are very long compared with the usual time scales of laser dynamics (such as photon and carrier lifetimes), and compatible with the measured thermal relaxation time. Indeed, both the polarization modulation and the thermal frequency response curves show a cut-off frequency of about 90kHz, independent of the particular value of the switching current. In the frequency response curve of an air-post VCSEL one clearly sees remnants of the thermal influence on the switching. However, one cannot say that a thermal cut-off inhibits polarization switching above a certain modulation frequency. Notwithstanding the difference in impact of thermal effects depending on the type of device under study, our results indicate that it is necessary to incorporate a temperature-dependent variable in realistic models describing the dynamical polarization properties of VCSELs.

  13. Experimental demonstrations of dual polarization CO-OFDM using mid-span spectral inversion for nonlinearity compensation.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Monir; Du, Liang B; Foo, Benjamin; Pelusi, Mark D; Corcoran, Bill; Lowery, Arthur J

    2014-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate fiber nonlinearity compensation in dual polarization coherent optical OFDM (DP CO-OFDM) systems using mid-span spectral inversion (MSSI). We use third-order nonlinearity between a pump and the signal in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) for MSSI. Maximum launch powers at FEC threshold for two 10 80-km 16-QAM OFDM systems were increased by 6.4 dB at a 121-Gb/s data rate and 2.8 dB at 1.2 Tb/s. The experimental results are the first demonstration of using MSSI for nonlinearity compensation in any dual polarization coherent system. Simulations show that these increases could support a 22% increase in total transmission distance at 1.2-Tb/s system without increasing the number of inline amplifiers, by extending the fiber spans from 90 to 110 km. When spans of 80 km are used, simulations reveal that MSSI system performance shows less degradation with increasing transmission distance, and an overall transmission distance increase of more than 70% is expected using MSSI. PMID:24921747

  14. Adaptation of the University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar for Polarization and Multiple Scattering Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.; Piironen, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative lidar measurements of aerosol scattering are hampered by the need for calibrations and the problem of correcting observed backscatter profiles for the effects of attenuation. The University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) addresses these problems by separating molecular scattering contributions from the aerosol scattering; the molecular scattering is then used as a calibration target that is available at each point in the observed profiles. While the HSRl approach has intrinsic advantages over competing techniques, realization of these advantages requires implementation of a technically demanding system which is potentially very sensitive to changes in temperature and mechanical alignments. This paper describes a new implementation of the HSRL in an instrumented van which allows measurements during field experiments. The HSRL was modified to measure depolarization. In addition, both the signal amplitude and depolarization variations with receiver field of view are simultaneously measured. This allows for discrimination of ice clouds from water clouds and observation of multiple scattering contributions to the lidar return.

  15. Rebuilding cytoskeleton roads: Active-transport-induced polarization of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, R. J.; Bnichou, O.; Piel, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2009-10-01

    Many cellular processes require a polarization axis which generally initially emerges as an inhomogeneous distribution of molecular markers in the cell. We present a simple analytical model of a general mechanism of cell polarization taking into account the positive feedback due to the coupled dynamics of molecular markers and cytoskeleton filaments. We find that the geometry of the organization of cytoskeleton filaments, nucleated on the membrane (e.g., cortical actin) or from a center in the cytoplasm (e.g., microtubule asters), dictates whether the system is capable of spontaneous polarization or polarizes only in response to external asymmetric signals. Our model also captures the main features of recent experiments of cell polarization in two considerably different biological systems, namely, mating budding yeast and neuron growth cones.

  16. Electron impact polarization of atomic spectral lines. I - A general theoretical scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Degl'innocenti, Egidio L.

    1992-01-01

    A suitable theoretical scheme able to describe, in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, the phenomenon of atomic line polarization by electron impact is developed. Starting from the general principles of quantum mechanics and assuming the Born approximation, the rate equations for the density matrix elements of a multilevel atomic system, interacting with a nonrelativistic electron beam having any kind of angular distribution, are derived in full generality. The resulting theory generalizes the previous ones by accounting for the collisional rates and the cross sections concerning both inelastic and superelastic collisions (in any geometrical situation), and, moreover, by taking into account the coherences among Zeeman sublevels split by a magnetic field. As an example of particular relevance, the general formulas derived in the first sections of the paper are subsequently particularized to the case of the electric dipole interaction.

  17. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4{alpha}-induced epithelial polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki . E-mail: hidchiba@sapmed.ac.jp; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4{alpha}-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4{alpha} led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4{alpha} provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization.

  18. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4alpha-induced epithelial polarization.

    PubMed

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4alpha-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4alpha led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4alpha provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization. PMID:16098509

  19. SPEAR-induced field-aligned irregularities observed from bi-static HF radio scattering in the polar ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kornienko, V. A.; Kalishin, A. S.; Robinson, T. R.; Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Baddeley, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results from SPEAR HF heating experiments in the polar ionosphere are examined. Bi-static scatter measurements of HF diagnostic signals were carried out on the Pori (Finland)-SPEAR-St. Petersburg path at operational frequencies of 11,755 and 15,400 kHz and the London-SPEAR-St. Petersburg path at frequencies of 12,095 and 17,700 kHz, using a Doppler spectral method. The SPEAR HF heating facility generates heater-induced artificial field-aligned small-scale irregularities (AFAIs), which can be detected by HF diagnostic bi-static radio scatter techniques at St. Petersburg at a distance of about 2000 km. In accordance with the Bragg condition, HF bi-static backscatters were sensitive to small-scale irregularities having spatial sizes of the order of 9-13 m across the geomagnetic field line. The properties and behaviour of AFAIs have been considered in the winter and summer seasons under quiet magnetic conditions and under various status of the polar ionosphere (the presence of "thick" and "thin" sporadic Es layers, different structures of the F2 layer). The experimental results obtained have shown that AFAIs can be excited in the F as well as in the E regions of the polar ionosphere. The excitation of a very intense wide-band spectral component with an abrupt increase in the spectral width up to 16-20 Hz has been found in the signals scattered from striations. Along with a wide-band component, a narrow-band spectral component can be also seen in the Doppler sonograms and in the average spectra of the signals scattered from the SPEAR-induced striations. AFAIs were excited even when the HF heater frequency was up to 0.5 MHz larger than the critical frequency. A simulation of the ray geometry for the diagnostic HF radio waves scattered from AFAIs in the polar ionosphere has been made for the geophysical conditions prevailing during experiments carried out in both the winter and summer seasons.

  20. Spectral albedo and emissivity of CO2 in Martian polar caps - Model results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Stephen G.; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Firestone, John F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a snow albedo model previously developed for terrestrial snow is extended to the case of CO2 snow on Mars. Pure CO2 snow is calculated to have high albedo at visible wavelengths but not as high as that of water snow. At any given wavelength, the primary variable controlling albedo and emissivity is the snow grain size, with albedo decreasing and emissivity increasing as grain size increases. Observations that red albedo is much higher than blue albedo in the Martian south polar cap indicates that the snow or the atmosphere is contaminated with red dust. The absorption coefficient of CO2 ice in the thermal infrared is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that measured for H2O ice. CO2 snow emissivity is therefore much lower than H2O snow, varying substantially with wavelength and quite sensitive to grain size and emission angle. Factors tending to increase emissivity are large grain size, small emission angle, and large concentrations of dust or water.

  1. A holistic view of a black hole binary: bringing together spectral, timing, and polarization analysis of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The microquasar Cygnus X-1 is a persistent high mass X-ray binary, consisting of an O-type supergiant and a stellar mass black hole, and therefore one of those systems which are often considered downscaled versions of AGN, an analogy supported in Cyg X-1 by observations of radio jets. The size and proximity of such systems allow us to observe phenomena on time-scales which are not accessible in their supermassive siblings. Cyg X-1 shows distinct X-ray states, characterized by X-ray spectral and timing properties. Radio behavior is strongly correlated with the X-ray states and a jet-break exists in the mid-IR range in the hard state. The source state is therefore essential for the interpretation of data at all wavelengths. For most observations lacking broadband X-ray coverage, however, the exact state determination proves challenging. In this work, I will present a recently developed novel approach that uses data from all sky monitors such as RXTE-ASM, MAXI, Swift-BAT, and Fermi-GBM to define states and state transitions on a timescales of a few hours over a period of more than 17 years. This approach can be used to investigate the context of high resolution observations of Cyg X-1 with Chandra and XMM, and to conduct state-resolved polarization analysis with INTEGRAL. I then combine spectral and model-independent X-ray timing analysis of over 1900 RXTE orbits over 14 years and investigate the evolution of Fourier-dependent timing parameters such as power spectra, coherence, and time lag at different photon energies over all spectral states. Results include a correlation between the shape of the power and time lag spectra in all hard and intermediate states, a photon-energy dependent increase of the fractional rms in the soft state, and a strong energy-dependency of the power spectra shapes during state transitions. The findings are crucial for constraining physical models for accretion and ejection in compact objects and for comparisons with other accreting objects, especially AGN, since timescales and energies in accreting black holes scale with mass so that observations at the same energies may probe different physical processes therefore show different spectral and timing behavior.

  2. Spin-Exchange-Induced Circularly-Polarized Molecular Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, T. J.

    2004-05-01

    We have measured the circular polarization of light emitted from both atomic H and molecular H2 after bombarding H2 with longitudinally polarized electrons [1]. For both atomic and molecular fluorescence near threshold we observe a circular polarization as great as 10electron polarization. Such polarization is comparable to that observed with alkali targets [2], and represents the first direct observation of spin transfer in electron-molecule collisions. Earlier experiments involving the scattering of polarized electrons by heavier (NO, O_2, N_2) molecules failed to observe significant exchange effects [2-4]. Possible explanations for the observation of such effects in H2 will be reviewed. [1] A.S.Green, G.A.Gallup, M.A.Rosenberry, and T.J.Gay, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press. [2] C P. Na?, M. Eller, N. Ludwig, E. Reichert, and M. Webersinke, Z. Phys. D 11,71 (1989). [3] T. Hegemann, M. Oberste-Vorth, R. Vogts, and G.F. Hanne, Phys. Rev. Lett.66,2968 (1991). [4] J.M. Ratliff, G.H. Rutherford, F.B. Dunning, G.K. Walters, Phys. Rev. A39,5584 (1989).

  3. Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Stanley H.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth.

  4. Spin polarization induced by an electric field in the presence of weak localization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerci, Daniele; Borge, Juan; Raimondi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the spin polarization (Edelstein or inverse spin galvanic effect) and the spin Hall current induced by an applied electric field by including the weak localization corrections for a two-dimensional electron gas. We show that the weak localization effects yield logarithmic corrections to both the spin polarization conductivity relating the spin polarization and the electric field and to the spin Hall angle relating the spin and charge currents. The renormalization of both the spin polarization conductivity and the spin Hall angle combine to produce a zero correction to the total spin Hall conductivity as required by an exact identity. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the effect are given.

  5. Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 um

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Bi, Lei; Baum, Bryan A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cole, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 microns. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA), the T-matrix method, and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM). The electromagnetic edge effect is incorporated into the extinction and absorption efficiencies computed from the IGOM. A full set of single-scattering properties is provided by considering three-dimensional random orientations for 11 ice crystal habits: droxtals, prolate spheroids, oblate spheroids, solid and hollow columns, compact aggregates composed of eight solid columns, hexagonal plates, small spatial aggregates composed of 5 plates, large spatial aggregates composed of 10 plates, and solid and hollow bullet rosettes. The maximum dimension of each habit ranges from 2 to 10,000 microns in 189 discrete sizes. For each ice crystal habit, three surface roughness conditions (i.e., smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened) are considered to account for the surface texture of large particles in the IGOM applicable domain. The data library contains the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, six independent nonzero elements of the phase matrix (P11, P12, P22, P33, P43, and P44), particle projected area, and particle volume to provide the basic single-scattering properties for remote sensing applications and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds. Furthermore, a comparison of satellite observations and theoretical simulations for the polarization characteristics of ice clouds demonstrates that ice cloud optical models assuming severely roughened ice crystals significantly outperform their counterparts assuming smooth ice crystals.

  6. Nonvolatile data storage using mechanical force-induced polarization switching in ferroelectric polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Lei; Shen, Qun-Dong; Guo, Xu; Ge, Hai-Xiong

    2015-01-26

    Ferroelectric polymers offer the promise of low-cost and flexible electronic products. They are attractive for information storage due to their spontaneous polarization which is usually switched by electric field. Here, we demonstrate that electrical signals can be readily written on ultra-thin ferroelectric polymer films by strain gradient-induced polarization switching (flexoelectric effect). A force with magnitude as small as 64nN is enough to induce highly localized (40?nm feature size) change in the polarization states. The methodology is capable of realizing nonvolatile memory devices with miniaturized cell size and storage density of tens to hundreds Gbit per square inch.

  7. Observation of linear-polarization-sensitivity in the microwave-radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, R. G.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Wegscheider, W.

    2011-08-01

    In the quasi two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs system, we investigate the effect of rotating in situ the electric field of linearly polarized microwaves relative to the current, on the microwave-radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations. We find that the frequency and the phase of the photoexcited magnetoresistance oscillations are insensitive to the polarization. On the other hand, the amplitudes of the magneto resistance oscillations are remarkably responsive to the relative orientation between the microwave antenna and the current-axis in the specimen. The results suggest a striking linear-polarization-sensitivity in the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations.

  8. Ultraviolet irradiation induced polarization restoration in electrically fatigued ferroelectric polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Shaosong; Hu Jinghang; Zhu Guodong; Yu Hao; Ding Shijin; Jiang Yulong; Cheng Qian

    2013-03-21

    Polarization fatigue is a kind of phenomenon usually observed in most ferroelectric films, which severely degrades the electrical performance of ferroelectric devices. How to restore those degraded polarization as well as how to improve fatigue endurance has been attracting much attention. Here, we report the observation of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced polarization restoration in ferroelectric polymer films. Large numbers of experiments indicate that the simultaneous application of UV irradiation and DC bias voltage will result in polarization restoration, which is dependent on both electrical polarity of DC bias and the UV intensity. Repeated fatigue and restoration measurements are also conducted. Based on fatigue mechanism in ferroelectric polymer films, UV-induced restoration is discussed.

  9. Spin motive force induced in Fe3O4 thin films with negative spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Masaki; Moriyama, Takahiro; Tanabe, Kenji; Tanaka, Kensho; Chiba, Daichi; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Hisamatsu, Yuki; Niizeki, Tomohiko; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Ono, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    Spin motive force (SMF) is induced by a time and spatial derivative of magnetizations and is dependent on spin polarization. We compare the SMF in FeNi with positive spin polarization with that in a magnetite (Fe3O4) with negative spin polarization. We observe the SMF induced by a nonuniform ferromagnetic resonance in Fe3O4 and find that the SMF in Fe3O4 is opposite to that in FeNi. This result originates from the negative spin polarization of Fe3O4. Our clear observation of the SMF depending on the sign of the spin polarization agrees well with the framework of the SMF theory.

  10. A new strategy for in vivo spectral editing. Application to GABA editing using selective homonuclear polarization transfer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Yang, Jehoon; Choi, In-Young; Li, Shizhe Steve; Chen, Zhengguang

    2004-10-01

    A novel single-shot in vivo spectral editing method is proposed in which the signal to be detected, is regenerated anew from the thermal equilibrium magnetization of a source to which it is J-coupled. The thermal equilibrium magnetization of the signal to be detected together with those of overlapping signals are suppressed by single-shot gradient dephasing prior to the signal regeneration process. Application of this new strategy to in vivo GABA editing using selective homonuclear polarization transfer allows complete suppression of overlapping creatine and glutathione while detecting the GABA-4 methylene resonance at 3.02 ppm with an editing yield similar to that of conventional editing methods. The NAA methyl group at 2.02 ppm was simultaneously detected and can be used as an internal navigator echo for correcting the zero order phase and frequency shifts and as an internal reference for concentration. This new method has been demonstrated for robust in vivo GABA editing in the rat brain and for study of GABA synthesis after acute vigabatrin administration.

  11. Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars. Spectral Energy Distribution Modeling and High-Energy Polarization Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Reimer, Anita; Zhang, Haocheng

    2013-12-01

    We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. The new model implementations are used to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars from the first LAT AGN catalogue. We find that the leptonic model is capable of producing acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with reasonable parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, our fits indicate that the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We also find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range 1047 - 1049 erg/s. As a potential way to distinguish between the leptonic and hadronic high-energy emission models considered here, we suggest diagnostics based on the predicted X-ray and γ-ray polarization, which are drastically different for the two types of models.

  12. Current-induced spin polarization in transition metals and Bi/Ag bilayers observed by spin-polarized positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjun; Yamamoto, Shunya; Fukaya, Yuki; Maekawa, Masaki; Li, Hui; Kawasuso, Atsuo; Seki, Takeshi; Saitoh, Eiji; Takanashi, Koki; JAEA Team; Tohoku Team

    2015-03-01

    Current-induced spin polarization (CISP) on the outermost surfaces of Au, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ta, and W films were studied by spin-polarized positron beam (SPPB). The Au and Cu surfaces showed no significant CISP. In contrast, the Pt, Pd, Ta, and W films exhibited large CISP (3 ~ 15% per charge current of 105 A/cm2) and the CISP of Ta and W were opposite to those of Pt and Pd. The sign of the CISP obeys the same rule in spin Hall effect suggesting that the spin-orbit coupling is mainly responsible for the CISP. The outermost spin poalrization of Bi/Ag/Al2O3andAg/Bi/Al2O3 (charge currents directly connected to Ag layers) were probed by SPPB. The opposite outermost spin polarization of Bi/Ag/Al2O3andAg/Bi/Al2O3 clarified the charge-to-spin conversion in Bi/Ag bilayers. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of the outermost spin polarization of Bi(0.3 ~5)/Ag(25)/Al2O3 (numbers in parentheses denote thickness in nm) and Ag(25 ~500)/Bi(8)/Al2O3 decrease exponentially with increasing Bi thickness and Ag thickness, respectively. This provides probably the first direct evidence for spin diffusion mechanism. Financial support from JSPS Kakenhi Grant 24310072.

  13. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  14. Continental lithospheric thickness and deglaciation induced true polar wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.; Wu, P.

    1983-03-01

    Geophysical data are presented which strongly suggest a continental lithospheric thickness in excess of 250 km. The data are based on the polar motion record collected by the International Latitude Service since 1900. It is found that the dominant oscillatory signal produced by the 7 year beat between the 14 month Chandler wobble and the 12 month annual wobble is superimposed upon a secular drift which analysis shows corresponds to a polar wander speed of approximately 0.95 degrees/10 to the 6th years with the vector directed towards the centroid of the ancient Laurentide ice sheet. It is determined that this secular drift can be understood as a consequence of the rotational forcing due to deglaciation and that in order to fit the observed drift speed and direction a continental lithospheric thickness somewhat in excess of 250 km is required.

  15. MSX3 Switches Microglia Polarization and Protects from Inflammation-Induced Demyelination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhongwang; Sun, Dingya; Feng, Jifeng; Tan, Weixing; Fang, Xue; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Xiaolin; Pu, Yingyan; Huang, Aijun; Xiang, Zhenghua; Cao, Li; He, Cheng

    2015-04-22

    The major challenge for progressive multiple sclerosis therapy is the promotion of remyelination from inflammation-induced demyelination. A switch from an M1- to an M2-dominant polarization of microglia is critical in these repair processes. In this study, we identified the homeobox gene msh-like homeobox-3 (Msx3) as a new pivotal regulator for microglial polarization. MSX3 was induced during microglia M2 polarization and repressed in M1 cells. The expression of MSX3 in microglia was dynamically regulated during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The overexpression of MSX3 in microglia promoted M2 but impeded M1 polarization. Interrupting MSX3 expression in microglia accelerated inflammation-induced demyelination and neurodegeneration. The conditioned medium from MSX3-transduced microglia promoted oligodendrocyte progenitor survival, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth. The adoptive transfer of MSX3-transduced microglia suppressed EAE and facilitated remyelination within the murine CNS in EAE and the LPC model. Mechanically, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also indicated that MSX3 directly regulated three key genes associated with microglia M2 polarization, including Pparg, Stat6, and Jak3. Importantly, we found that overexpression of MSX3 in human-derived microglia represents the M2 phenotype and ameliorated EAE after intraventricular injection. Our findings suggest a new homeobox protein-dependent mechanism for driving microglia M2 polarization and identify MSX3 as an attractive therapeutic approach for preventing inflammation-induced demyelination and promoting remyelination. PMID:25904788

  16. Birefringence measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography with Jones matrix based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanari, Masahiro; Miura, Masahiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2007-02-01

    Birefringence of retinal nerve fiber layer is measured by polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography using the B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method. Birefringence of the optical fiber and the cornea is compensated by Jones matrix based analysis. Three-dimensional phase retardation map around the optic nerve head and en-face phase retardation map of the retinal nerve fiber layer are shown. Unlike scanning laser polarimetry, our system can measure the phase retardation quantitatively without using bow-tie pattern of the birefringence in the macular region, which enables diagnosis of glaucoma even if the patients have macular disease.

  17. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-15

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N{sup 2}) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm.

  18. Interference of spin states in resonant photoemission induced by circularly polarized light from magnetized Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, N.; Khalil, T.; Pohl, M.; Uphues, T.; Heinzmann, U.; Polcik, M.; Rader, O.; Heigl, F.; Starke, K.; Fritzsche, S.; Kabachnik, N. M.

    2006-10-15

    We have observed the spin-state interference by measuring the photoelectron spin polarization in the resonant preedge 4d{yields}4f photoemission from magnetized Gd. The photoemission is induced by circularly polarized light which determines one preferential direction of electron spin orientation due to polarization transfer and spin-orbit interaction. Another direction perpendicular to the first one is determined by the target electron spin orientation connected with the target magnetization. We have measured the component of spin polarization perpendicular to those two directions which can only appear due to spin-state interference which implies coherence of the spin states produced by the two mechanisms of the photoelectron spin polarization.

  19. Passive polarization agile antenna based on the electromagnetically induced transparency-like effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Wu, Qun; Dong, Liang; Chen, Wan; Fu, Jia-Hui

    2014-10-01

    We propose a design method for a passive polarization agile antenna based on the electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) effect. Benefiting from strong dispersion properties governed by EIT-like effects, the proposed structure can endow electromagnetic waves transmitted through it with quite different polarization states at very close frequencies. The experimental measurement was conducted to demonstrate agile polarization controls by placing a designed EIT-like waveplate in front of a standard microwave horn antenna. Results show that the polarization state of radiated waves by the horn antenna with a waveplate can be easily transformed among linear, circular and elliptical polarizations through fine-tuning the operating frequency, which is extremely important for certain special applications, e.g. electronic countermeasures. Our scheme could also be utilized at higher operating frequencies by the simply scaling principle.

  20. The Polarity Protein Par6 Induces Cell Proliferation and Is Overexpressed in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Marissa E.; Aranda, Victoria; Lee, Sangjun; Lakshmi, Balasubramanian; Basu, Srinjan; Allred, D. Craig; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.

    2010-01-01

    The Polarity protein complex Par6/aPKC/Cdc42 regulates polarization processes during epithelial morphogenesis, astrocyte migration and axon specification. Others and we have demonstrated that this complex is also required for disruption of apical-basal polarity during the oncogene ErbB2-induced transformation and TGF?-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we report that expression of Par6 by itself in mammary epithelial cells induces epidermal growth factor independent cell proliferation and development of hyperplastic three-dimensional acini without affecting apical-basal polarity. This is dependent on the ability of Par6 to interact with aPKC and Cdc42 but not Lgl and Par3 and its ability to promote sustained activation of MEK/Erk signaling. Downregulation of Cdc42 or aPKC expression suppresses the ability of Par6 to induce proliferation, demonstrating that Par6 promotes cell proliferation by interacting with aPKC and Cdc42. We also show that Par6 is overexpressed in breast cancer derived cell lines and in both precancerous and advanced primary human breast cancers suggesting that Par6 overexpression regulates tumor initiation and progression. Thus, in addition to regulating cell polarization processes, Par6 is an inducer of cell proliferation in breast epithelial cells. PMID:18922891

  1. The application of induced polarization techniques to detect metal-bearing offshore anthropogenic waste and unexploded ordnance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Roberts, William

    2009-01-01

    Raw sewage and industrial waste have been dumped into sensitive estuaries, bays, and sounds for centuries. The full extents of the resulting sludge deposits are largely unknown, because they move in response to tidal and long‐shore currents, and because they are often buried by younger inert sediments. USGS field and laboratory measurements of toxic mine waste and organic effluent samples suggest that anthropogenic wastes typically contain finely‐divided metal and metal‐sulfide particles. The anoxic environment provided by anthropogenic wastes promotes the growth of anaerobic bacteria, creating a self‐reducing environment. We suggest that the finely‐divided metal and metal‐sulfide particles are the products of bacterial reduction and precipitation. The fine‐grained metallic precipitates are ideal targets for a surface‐effect electrochemical detection methodology called Induced Polarization (IP). A USGS‐patented (1998/2001) marine IP streamer technology has recently been commercialized and used to map “black smoker” sulfide deposits and their disseminated halos in the Bismarck Sea (2005), and titanium‐sand deposits offshore of South Africa (2007). The marine induced polarization system can do this mapping in three dimensions, more rapidly (it is towed at 3 knots), and with far higher resolution that land‐based measurements or vibracoring. Laboratory‐scale studies at the USGS suggest that anthropogenic wastes may display a specific multi‐frequency IP spectral signature that may be applicable to waste‐deposit mapping.

  2. Effects of polarization and p-type GaN resistivity on the spectral response of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, De-Gang; Jiang, De-Sheng; Liu, Zong-Shun; Chen, Ping; Li, Liang; Wu, Liang-Liang; Le, Ling-Cong; Li, Xiao-Jing; He, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Bao-Shun; Yang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Effects of polarization and p-type GaN resistivity on the spectral response of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells are investigated. It is found that due to the reduction of piezoelectric polarization and the enhancement of tunneling transport of photo-generated carriers in MQWs, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the solar cells increases in a low energy spectral range (? > 370 nm) when the barrier thickness value decreases from 15 nm to 7.5 nm. But the EQE decreases abruptly when the barrier thickness value decreases down to 3.75 nm. The reasons for these experimental results are analyzed. We are aware that the reduction of depletion width in MQW region, caused by the high resistivity of the p-type GaN layer may be the main reason for the abnormally low EQE value at long wavelengths (? > 370 nm).

  3. Femtosecond Raman induced polarization spectroscopy studies of coherent rotational dynamics in molecular fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Morgen, M M

    1997-05-01

    We develop a polarization-sensitive femtosecond pump probe technique, Raman induced polarization spectroscopy (RIPS), to study coherent rotation in molecular fluids. By observing the collisional dephasing of the coherently prepared rotational states, we are able to extract information concerning the effects of molecular interactions on the rotational motion. The technique is quite sensitive because of the zero background detection method, and is also versatile due to its nonresonant nature.

  4. Polarization induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric vinylidene-fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, S. Nakajima, T.; Hashizume, Y.; Okamura, S.

    2014-10-20

    We observed a clear polarization reversal-induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric Vinylidene-fluoride (VDF)/Trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymer thin films. Pt and Au were used as the bottom and top electrodes, respectively, and the thickness of the VDF/TrFE copolymer film was adjusted to be 10?nm. The conduction current was 100 times higher in the case of the spontaneous polarization of the VDF/TrFE film towards the Au electrode than that in the case of the opposite direction. This resistance switching was confirmed to be reproducible after 10 successive polarization reversals.

  5. Observation of linear-polarization-sensitivity in the microwave-radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, R. G.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    We examine the linear polarization sensitivity of the radiation- induced magneto-resistance oscillations by investigating the effect of rotating in-situ the electric field of linearly polarized microwaves relative to the current, in the GaAs/AlGaAs system. We find that the frequency and the phase of the photo-excited magneto-resistance oscillations are insensitive to the polarization. On the other hand, the amplitude of the resistance oscillations are strongly sensitive to the relative orientation between the microwave antenna and the current-axis in the specimen.

  6. Dynamic index modulation mechanism in polarization-maintained fiber Bragg gratings induced by transverse acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ren; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xue; Zhao, Jianhui; Liu, Xiaoming

    2009-08-20

    A novel index modulation mechanism of polarization-maintained fiber Bragg gratings based on the microbend of stress members induced by a transverse acoustic wave is proposed and investigated experimentally. The index modulation leads to a series of ghost gratings with specific polarization, whose wavelengths can be tuned by the acoustic wave frequency and whose intensities depend on the vibration direction of the transverse acoustic wave. Our method provides a novel way to achieve polarization-dependent narrowband acousto-optic tunable filters. PMID:19696859

  7. Geometrically induced polarization and alignment of cells on nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Bucaro, Michael; Hatton, Benjamin; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2012-02-01

    Topological features at the nano and microscale can trigger mammalian cell growth and differentiation. In this work, we describe geometrical tuning of ordered arrays of nanopillars and micropillars that elicit specialized morphologies in adherent cells. Systematic analysis of the effects of the pillar radius, height, and spacing reveals that stem cells assume either flattened, polarized, or stellate morphologies in direct response to interpillar spacing. Notably, on patterns of pitch near a critical spacing (dcrit = 2 ?m for C3H10T1/2 cells), cells exhibit rounding of the cell body, pronounced polarization, and extension of narrow axon-like cell projections aligned with the square or hexagonal lattice of the NP array. This morphology persists for various stem cell lines and primary mesenchymal stem cells. The neuron-like morphological characteristics suggest that NP arrays can be utilized in tissue engineering applications that require directed axon growth. The ability of nano and micropillars to support various morphogenetic trends will allow rational design of scaffolds that may be useful for stem cell lineage specification, formation of patterned neural networks, and enhancement of implant integration with adjoining tissue.

  8. Light-Induced Polar pH Changes in Leaves of Elodea canadensis1

    PubMed Central

    Elzenga, J. Theo M.; Prins, Hidde B. A.

    1989-01-01

    Leaves of the submerged aquatic Elodea canadensis Michx. exhibit a light induced polar pH reaction. In this study, the effects of light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration on this polar reaction were examined. At a light intensity of 100 watts per square meter the leaf showed a polar pH response when the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration was less than about 1 millimolar. The polar reaction was suppressed at a higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This suppression was not due to the buffering capacity of bicarbonate. Because another weak acid, acetate, did not inhibit the polarity, but even had a small stimulatory effect, the effect of bicarbonate is also not due to acidification of the cytoplasm. The suppression of the polar reaction by CO2/HCO3? was relieved when the light intensity was increased. Apparently there is competition for product(s) of the photosynthetic light reactions between processes generating the polar reaction and the carbon fixation reactions. The possibility that the redox state of the cell regulates the generation of the polar reaction is discussed. PMID:16667044

  9. Induced spin polarization effect in graphene by ferromagnetic nanocontact

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2015-03-07

    Chemically synthesized graphene contains large number of defects which act as localized spin moments at the defect sites. Cobalt nanosheets of variable thickness are grown on graphene surface to investigate spin/magnetotransport through graphene sheets containing large number of localized spins. Negative magnetoresistance (MR) is observed over the entire temperature range (5–300 K) for thin cobalt sheets, while a cross-over from negative to positive MR with increasing temperature is noticed for thicker cobalt sheets. The observed MR results are explained on the basis of recently reported spin polarization effect in graphene due to the presence of ferromagnetic atoms on the surface considering a spin valve like Co/graphene/Co nanostructures.

  10. Spin Manipulation in Graphene by Chemically Induced Pseudospin Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tuan, Dinh; Roche, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Spin manipulation is one of the most critical challenges to realize spin-based logic devices and spintronic circuits. Graphene has been heralded as an ideal material to achieve spin manipulation, but so far new paradigms and demonstrators are limited. Here we show that certain impurities such as fluorine adatoms, which locally break sublattice symmetry without the formation of strong magnetic moment, could result in a remarkable variability of spin transport characteristics. The impurity resonance level is found to be associated with a long-range sublattice pseudospin polarization, which by locally decoupling spin and pseudospin dynamics provokes a huge spin lifetime electron-hole asymmetry. In the dilute impurity limit, spin lifetimes could be tuned electrostatically from 100 ps to several nanoseconds, providing a protocol to chemically engineer an unprecedented spin device functionality.

  11. Contact-induced spin polarization in BNNT(CNT)/TM (TM=Co, Ni) nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzubov, Alexander A.; Kovaleva, Evgenia A. Avramov, Paul; Kuklin, Artem V.; Mikhaleva, Natalya S.; Tomilin, Felix N.; Sakai, Seiji; Entani, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-28

    The interaction between carbon and BN nanotubes (NT) and transition metal Co and Ni supports was studied using electronic structure calculations. Several configurations of interfaces were considered, and the most stable ones were used for electronic structure analysis. All NT/Co interfaces were found to be more energetically favorable than NT/Ni, and conductive carbon nanotubes demonstrate slightly stronger bonding than semiconducting ones. The presence of contact-induced spin polarization was established for all nanocomposites. It was found that the contact-induced polarization of BNNT leads to the appearance of local conductivity in the vicinity of the interface while the rest of the nanotube lattice remains to be insulating.

  12. Rho1-Wnd signaling regulates loss-of-cell polarity-induced cell invasion in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Chen, Y; Zhang, S; Xu, W; Shao, Y; Yang, Y; Li, W; Li, M; Xue, L

    2016-02-18

    Both cell polarity and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity are essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and disruption of either is commonly seen in cancer progression. Despite the established connection between loss-of-cell polarity and JNK activation, much less is known about the molecular mechanism by which aberrant cell polarity induces JNK-mediated cell migration and tumor invasion. Here we show results from a genetic screen using an in vivo invasion model via knocking down cell polarity gene in Drosophila wing discs, and identify Rho1-Wnd signaling as an important molecular link that mediates loss-of-cell polarity-triggered JNK activation and cell invasion. We show that Wallenda (Wnd), a protein kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, by forming a complex with the GTPase Rho1, is both necessary and sufficient for Rho1-induced JNK-dependent cell invasion, MMP1 activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, Wnd promotes cell proliferation and tissue growth through wingless production when apoptosis is inhibited by p35. Finally, Wnd shows oncogenic cooperation with Ras(V12) to trigger tumor growth in eye discs and causes invasion into the ventral nerve cord. Together, our data not only provides a novel mechanistic insight on how cell polarity loss contributes to cell invasion, but also highlights the value of the Drosophila model system to explore human cancer biology. PMID:25961917

  13. Birefringence-induced bifocusing for selection of radially or azimuthally polarized laser modes.

    PubMed

    Machavariani, Galina; Lumer, Yaakov; Moshe, Inon; Meir, Avi; Jackel, Steven; Davidson, Nir

    2007-06-01

    We develop a round-trip matrix diagonalization method for quantitative description of selection of radially or azimuthally polarized beams by birefringence-induced bifocusing in a simple laser resonator. We employ different focusing between radially and tangentially polarized light in thermally stressed laser rods to obtain low-loss stable oscillation in a radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian, LG(0,1)*, mode. We derive a free-space propagator for the radially and azimuthally polarized LG(0,1)* modes and explain basic principles of mode selection by use of a round-trip matrix diagonalization method. Within this method we calculate round-trip diffraction losses and intensity distributions for the lowest-loss transverse modes. We show that, for the considered laser configuration, the round-trip loss obtained for the radially polarized LG(0,1)* mode is significantly smaller than that of the azimuthally polarized mode. Our experimental results, obtained with a diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rod in a flat-convex resonator, confirm the theoretical predictions. We achieved a pure radially polarized LG(0,1)* beam with M(2)=2.5 and tens of watts of output power. PMID:17514287

  14. Dynamics of microvortices induced by ion concentration polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Valena, Joeri C.; Wagterveld, R. Martijn; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the coupled dynamics of the local hydrodynamics and global electric response of an electrodialysis system, which consists of an electrolyte solution adjacent to a charge selective membrane under electric forcing. Under a dc electric current, counterions transport through the charged membrane while the passage of co-ions is restricted, thereby developing ion concentration polarization (ICP) or gradients. At sufficiently large currents, simultaneous measurements of voltage drop and flow field reveal several distinct dynamic regimes. Initially, the electrodialysis system displays a steady Ohmic voltage difference (? Vohm ), followed by a constant voltage jump (? Vc) . Immediately after this voltage increase, microvortices set in and grow both in size and speed with time. After this growth, the resultant voltage levels off around a fixed value. The average vortex size and speed stabilize as well, while the individual vortices become unsteady and dynamic. These quantitative results reveal that microvortices set in with an excess voltage drop (above ? Vohm+? Vc ) and sustain an approximately constant electrical conductivity, destroying the initial ICP with significantly low viscous dissipation.

  15. Dynamics of microvortices induced by ion concentration polarization.

    PubMed

    de Valena, Joeri C; Wagterveld, R Martijn; Lammertink, Rob G H; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the coupled dynamics of the local hydrodynamics and global electric response of an electrodialysis system, which consists of an electrolyte solution adjacent to a charge selective membrane under electric forcing. Under a dc electric current, counterions transport through the charged membrane while the passage of co-ions is restricted, thereby developing ion concentration polarization (ICP) or gradients. At sufficiently large currents, simultaneous measurements of voltage drop and flow field reveal several distinct dynamic regimes. Initially, the electrodialysis system displays a steady Ohmic voltage difference (?V_{ohm}), followed by a constant voltage jump (?V_{c}). Immediately after this voltage increase, microvortices set in and grow both in size and speed with time. After this growth, the resultant voltage levels off around a fixed value. The average vortex size and speed stabilize as well, while the individual vortices become unsteady and dynamic. These quantitative results reveal that microvortices set in with an excess voltage drop (above ?V_{ohm}+?V_{c}) and sustain an approximately constant electrical conductivity, destroying the initial ICP with significantly low viscous dissipation. PMID:26465416

  16. Induced spin polarization in V:FenVm superlattices and thin V films on Fe substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, J.; Vega, A.; Elmouhssine, O.; Dreyss, H.; Demangeat, C.

    1999-06-01

    The spin polarization at the (100) and (110) Fe/V interfaces is investigated using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method. For both FenVm superlattices and thin Vm films on Fe substrates we consider epitaxial growth of V with in-plane interatomic distance equal to that of Fe and out-of-plane interatomic distance fitted to recover the volume of V bulk. We obtain a short-range induced spin polarization in V, as well as reduced Fe polarization at the Fe/V interface. In FenVm superlattices, V couples always antiferromagnetically with Fe. For thin V films grown on Fe(100) the V polarization presents oscillations (layered antiferromagnetic configuration). The magnetic moments of V and Fe depend on the crystallographic orientation of the sample. Our results are compared with the existing experimental observations.

  17. Polarization peculiarities of femtosecond laser induced harmonic generation from solid surface plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Ishizawa, A.; Kanai, T.; Ozaki, T.; Kuroda, H.

    2003-11-01

    Polarization characteristics of harmonic generation from solid surface plasma were studied using a femtosecond CPA Ti:S-Nd:glass laser. The ratios between the harmonics intensities produced by p-polarized and s-polarized pump were 25 and 6 for the second and fifth harmonics, respectively, at pump intensities ( I) below 10 17 W cm -2. The same ratios decreased to 2.4 and 1.5 for I>210 17 W cm -2. This decrease was explained by the rippling caused by Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability at the critical density surface, and Faraday rotation effect due to the influence of the spontaneous magnetic fields generated in plasma. Theoretical analysis of s- and p-polarization-induced harmonic generation was presented using LPIC code. The blueshift of the harmonics has been also observed. It was found that the blueshift increases with the harmonic order.

  18. Spin-transfer torque and current-induced switching in metallic spin valves with perpendicular polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baláž, Pavel; Zwierzycki, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-09-01

    We present a theoretical description of spin-transfer torque in a spin valve with perpendicularly magnetized polarizer. The polarizer consisting of several ultrathin layers is considered as a single interfacial magnetic scatterer between two nonmagnetic layers, and is included in the theory based on diffusive transport via appropriate boundary conditions. The model has been used to study systematically the spin-transfer torque and current-induced switching in a spin valve with both perpendicular and in-plane polarizers and with in-plane magnetized free layer. The wave-function matching ab initio calculations have been used to determine transport parameters of the perpendicular polarizer. Additionally, the effect of disorder on the spin-transfer torque has been examined.

  19. Optical Sensing of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes Combining Spectral Reflectance Indices with Solar Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huemmrich, K. F.; Corp, L.; Campbell, P. K.; Cook, B. D.; Middleton, E.; Cheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Russ, A.; Kustas, W. P.

    2013-12-01

    Optical sampling of spectral reflectance and solar induced fluorescence provide information on the physiological status of vegetation that can be used to infer stress responses and estimates of production. Multiple repeated observations can observe the effects of changing environmental conditions on vegetation. This study examines the use of optical signals to determine inputs to a light use efficiency (LUE) model describing productivity of a cornfield where repeated observations of carbon flux, spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected. Data were collected at the Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE3) fields (39.03N, 76.85W) at USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Agricultural Research Service researchers measured CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance methods throughout the growing season. Optical measurements were made from the nearby tower supporting the NASA FUSION sensors. This sensor system consists of two dual channel, upward and downward looking, spectrometers used to simultaneously collect high spectral resolution measurements of reflected and fluoresced light from vegetation canopies. Estimates of chlorophyll fluorescence, combined with measures of vegetation pigment content and the Photosynthetic Reflectance Index (PRI) derived from the spectral reflectance are compared with CO2 fluxes over diurnal periods for multiple days. PRI detects changes in Xanthophyll cycle pigments using reflectance at 531 nm compared to a reference band at 570 nm. The relationships among the different optical measurements indicate that they are providing different types of information on the vegetation and that combinations of these measurements provide improved retrievals of CO2 fluxes than any index alone.

  20. [Laser induced breakdown spectra of coal sample and self-absorption of the spectral line].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-yin; Ji, Hui; Jin, Yi-dong

    2014-12-01

    The LIBS of one kind of household fuel coal was obtained with the first harmonic output 532 nm of an NdYAG laser as radiation source. With the assignment of the spectral lines, it was found that besides the elements C, Si, Mg, Fe, Al, Ca, Ti, Na and K, which are reported to be contained in coal, the presented sample also contains trace elements, such as Cd, Co, Hf, Ir, Li, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, V, W, Zn, Zr etc, but the spectral lines corresponding to O and H elements did not appear in the spectra. This is owing to the facts that the transition probability of H and O atoms is small and the energy of the upper level for transition is higher. The results of measurement also show that the intensity of spectral line increases with the laser pulse energy and self-absorption of the spectral lines K766.493 nm and K769.921 nm will appear to some extent. Increasing laser energy further will make self-absorption more obvious. The presence of self-absorption can be attributed to two factors. One is the higher transition rate of K atoms, and the other is that the increase in laser intensity induces the enhancement of the particle number density in the plasma. PMID:25881446

  1. Selection of Spectral Data for Classification of Steels Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Haiyang; Sun, Lanxiang; Hu, Jingtao; Xin, Yong; Cong, Zhibo

    2015-11-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with artificial neural networks was used to classify the spectra of 27 steel samples acquired using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Three methods of spectral data selection, selecting all the peak lines of the spectra, selecting intensive spectral partitions and the whole spectra, were utilized to compare the influence of different inputs of PCA on the classification of steels. Three intensive partitions were selected based on experience and prior knowledge to compare the classification, as the partitions can obtain the best results compared to all peak lines and the whole spectra. We also used two test data sets, mean spectra after being averaged and raw spectra without any pretreatment, to verify the results of the classification. The results of this comprehensive comparison show that a back propagation network trained using the principal components of appropriate, carefully selected spectral partitions can obtain the best results. A perfect result with 100% classification accuracy can be achieved using the intensive spectral partitions ranging of 357367 nm. supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2012AA040608), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61473279, 61004131) and the Development of Scientific Research Equipment Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YZ201247)

  2. PORTA: A three-dimensional multilevel radiative transfer code for modeling the intensity and polarization of spectral lines with massively parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    t?pn, Ji?; Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2013-09-01

    The interpretation of the intensity and polarization of the spectral line radiation produced in the atmosphere of the Sun and of other stars requires solving a radiative transfer problem that can be very complex, especially when the main interest lies in modeling the spectral line polarization produced by scattering processes and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. One of the difficulties is that the plasma of a stellar atmosphere can be highly inhomogeneous and dynamic, which implies the need to solve the non-equilibrium problem of the generation and transfer of polarized radiation in realistic three-dimensional (3D) stellar atmospheric models. Here we present PORTA, an efficient multilevel radiative transfer code we have developed for the simulation of the spectral line polarization caused by scattering processes and the Hanle and Zeeman effects in 3D models of stellar atmospheres. The numerical method of solution is based on the non-linear multigrid iterative method and on a novel short-characteristics formal solver of the Stokes-vector transfer equation which uses monotonic Bzier interpolation. Therefore, with PORTA the computing time needed to obtain at each spatial grid point the self-consistent values of the atomic density matrix (which quantifies the excitation state of the atomic system) scales linearly with the total number of grid points. Another crucial feature of PORTA is its parallelization strategy, which allows us to speed up the numerical solution of complicated 3D problems by several orders of magnitude with respect to sequential radiative transfer approaches, given its excellent linear scaling with the number of available processors. The PORTA code can also be conveniently applied to solve the simpler 3D radiative transfer problem of unpolarized radiation in multilevel systems.

  3. Symmetry breaking and electrical frustration during tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cut of lithium niobate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Alikin, Denis O; Morozovska, A. N.; Varenyk, O. V.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kholkin, Andrei; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    Polarization switching in ferroelectric materials is governed by a delicate interplay between bulk polarization dynamics and screening processes at surfaces and domain walls. Here we explore the mechanism of tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cuts of uniaxial ferroelectrics. In this case, in-plane component of polarization vector switches, allowing for detailed observations of resultant domain morphologies. We observe surprising variability of resultant domain morphologies stemming from fundamental instability of formed charged domain wall and associated electric frustration. In particular, we demonstrate that controlling vertical tip position allows the polarity of the switching to be controlled. This represents very unusual form of symmetry breaking where mechanical motion in vertical direction controls the lateral domain growth. The implication of these studies for ferroelectric devices and domain wall electronics are discussed.

  4. Investigation of the electronic transport in polarization-induced nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcu, Camelia; Carnevale, Santino C.; Kent, Thomas F.; Akyol, Fatih; Phillips, Patrick J.; Mills, Michael J.; Rajan, Siddharth; Pelz, Jonathan P.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2013-03-01

    In the search to improve short wavelength light emitting diodes (LED's), where the dislocations limit their performance and hole doping (Mg) is a fundamental challenge, the III-Nitride polarization-induced nanowire LED provides a promising system to address these problems. The new type of pn diode, polarization-induced nanowire LED (PINLED), was developed by linearly grading AlGaN composition of the nanowires (from GaN to AlN and back to GaN) from 0% to 100% and back to 0% Al (Carnevale et al, Nano Lett., 12, 915 (2012)). In III-Nitrides (Ga,Al/N), the effects of polarization are commonly observed at the surfaces and interfaces. Thus, in the case of the polarization-induced nanowire LEDs, taking advantage of the bound polarization charge, due to the grading of the AlGaN, the pn diodes are formed. The polarity of the nanowires determines the carrier type in each graded region, and therefore the diode orientation (n/p vs p/n). We used conductive AFM to investigate polarity of the PINLED's as well as hole conductivity in PINLED's made of AlGaN with and without acceptor doping. The results reveal that most of the wires are n-top/p-bottom (N-face), but some are p-top/n-bottom (Ga-face). Also, we found that the current density is 3 orders of magnitude larger in the case of the doped nanowires than the nanowires with no impurity doping.

  5. Blue-light-induced PIN3 polarization for root negative phototropic response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun-Xiao; Xu, Heng-Hao; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-10-01

    Root negative phototropism is an important response in plants. Although blue light is known to mediate this response, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying root negative phototropism remain unclear. Here, we report that the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) 3 is involved in asymmetric auxin distribution and root negative phototropism. Unilateral blue-light illumination polarized PIN3 to the outer lateral membrane of columella cells at the illuminated root side, and increased auxin activity at the illuminated side of roots, where auxin promotes growth and causes roots bending away from the light source. Furthermore, root negative phototropic response and blue-light-induced PIN3 polarization were modulated by a brefeldin A-sensitive, GNOM-dependent, trafficking pathway and by phot1-regulated PINOID (PID)/PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) activity. Our results indicate that blue-light-induced PIN3 polarization is needed for asymmetric auxin distribution during root negative phototropic response. PMID:23888933

  6. Novel function of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin as an inducer of cell surface polarity.

    PubMed

    McNeill, H; Ozawa, M; Kemler, R; Nelson, W J

    1990-07-27

    Na+,K(+)-ATPase has distinctly different distributions in mesenchymal cells, where it has an unrestricted distribution over the entire cell surface, compared with polarized epithelial cells, where it is restricted to the basal-lateral membrane domain. The generation of this restricted distribution is important in mesenchyme to epithelia conversion in development and the function of transporting epithelia, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that expression of the epithelial CAM uvomorulin in transfected fibroblasts is sufficient to induce a redistribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase to sites of uvomorulin-mediated cell-cell contacts, similar to that in polarized epithelial cells. This restricted distribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase occurs in the absence of tight junctions but coincides with the reorganization of the membrane cytoskeleton. The results indicate a direct role for CAMs as inducers of cell surface polarity of selective cytoplasmic and membrane proteins. PMID:2164888

  7. Heuristic modeling of spectral plasma emission for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, Rolf; Noll, Reinhard

    2009-12-15

    A heuristic model was developed to describe the spectral emission of laser-induced plasmas generated for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under the assumption that the composition of the plasma and the plasma state is known. The plasma is described by a stationary spherical shell model surrounded by an ambient gas, which partially absorbs the emitted radiation. The radiation transport equation is used to calculate the spectrum emitted by the plasma. Simulations of a multiline iron spectrum and a self-reversed Al line are compared with experimental spectra. For the iron spectrum, the degree of congruence is moderate to good, which may be attributed to a lack of precise atomic and Stark broadening data as well as a simplified plasma model. The line profile of the Al resonance line with self reversal can be simulated with a high degree of agreement. Simulated spectra of a steel sample in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range demonstrate the strong influence of the ambient atmosphere in the spectral range between 178 and 194 nm. The number of free parameters of the plasma model of 8 can be further reduced down to 3, taking into account the integral parameters of the plasma that are accessible experimentally.

  8. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  9. Induced circularly polarized luminescence arising from anion or protein binding to racemic emissive lanthanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; Puckrin, Robert; McMahon, Brian K.; Pal, Robert; Parker, David; Plsson, Lars-Olof

    2014-06-01

    A circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectrometer has been built and used to study the binding interaction of lactate and four different proteins with racemic EuIII and TbIII complexes in aqueous solution. Lactate binding gives rise to strong induced CPL spectra, and the observed emission dissymmetry factors vary linearly with enantiomeric composition. Particularly strong induced TbIII CPL also characterizes the binding interaction of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein with a dissociation constant, Kd, of 2.5 ?M.

  10. Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data

    DOEpatents

    Ward, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth. 30 figs.

  11. Salmonella typhimurium-induced M1 macrophage polarization is dependent on the bacterial O antigen.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fengling; Sun, Xiaoming; Qu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolian

    2016-02-01

    Recently, macrophages were shown to be capable of differentiating toward two phenotypes after antigen stimulation: a classically activated (M1) or an alternatively activated phenotype (M2). To investigate the effect of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) on macrophage differentiation, we compared macrophage phenotypes after infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with wild-type S. typhimurium and its isogenic rfc mutant. S. typhimurium C5 induced M1 macrophage polarization and enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by macrophages; this induction was dependent on Toll-like receptor 4. In contrast, the ?rfc mutant (S. typhimurium C5 rfc::Km(r)) lost this function and induced an M2 response in the macrophages. Here, we propose that S. typhimurium C5 is capable of polarizing macrophages towards the M1 phenotype and that this polarization is dependent on the O antigen encoded by rfc. Our finding indicates that M1 macrophage polarization induced by S. typhimurium may be related to the ability of this intracellular bacterium to survive and replicate within macrophages, which is essential for systemic disease. PMID:26745982

  12. Spectral Broadening of Excitation induced by Ultralong-range Interaction in a Cold Gas of Rydberg Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Loboda, A. V.; Mischenko, E. V.; Gurnitskaya, E. P.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu.

    2008-10-22

    Preliminary results of calculating the broadening of spectral lines of excited atoms induced by ultralong- range (100 Bohr radii) interactions in a cold gas of Rb atoms within the 'own pressure' approximation and perturbation theory formalism are presented.

  13. Polarization and spectral properties of ion-implanted and oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, M. Yasin A.; Cao, Yang; Cooper, Guthrie H.; Aldwayyan, Abdullah; Wang, Charlie X.

    2002-03-01

    We conduct a comparative study of polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) from various sources, fabricated either by ion implantation or by the oxide-confinement method. An integrated test bench (ITB) for photonic devices is used to characterize the VCSELs. The ITB setup enabled simultaneous monitoring of the polarization state, transverse modes, wavelength spectrum, and optical power of the VCSELs under test. VCSELs commonly exhibit polarization noise, switching, and instability. The polarization behavior and related modal properties of various VCSELs are investigated based on aperture size, geometry, and fabrication processes. From the cw and pulsed pumping data, a general trend and inherent behavior is identified and polarization-related limitations are discussed.

  14. Polarization-Induced Charge Distribution at Homogeneous Zincblende/Wurtzite Heterostructural Junctions in ZnSe Nanobelts

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Jin, L.; Wang, J.; Smith, D. J.; Yin, W. J.; Yan, Y.; Sang, H.; Choy, W. C. H.; McCartney, M. R.

    2012-03-08

    Homogeneous heterostructural wurtzite (WZ)/zincblende (ZB) junctions are successfully fabricated in ZnSe nanobelts. Polarity continuity across the ZB/WZ interface is demonstrated. The saw-tooth-like potential profile induced by spontaneous polarization across the WZ/ZB/WZ interfaces is identified directly at the nanoscale. The polarization-induced charge distribution across the homogeneous heterostructural interfaces is proposed as a viable alternative approach towards charge tailoring in semiconductor nanostructures.

  15. Tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in ferroelectric amino acid glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedhosseini, E.; Bdikin, I.; Ivanov, M.; Vasileva, D.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2015-08-01

    Bioorganic ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics are becoming increasingly important in view of their intrinsic compatibility with biological environment and biofunctionality combined with strong piezoelectric effect and a switchable polarization at room temperature. Here, we study tip-induced domain structures and polarization switching in the smallest amino acid β-glycine, representing a broad class of non-centrosymmetric amino acids. We show that β-glycine is indeed a room-temperature ferroelectric and polarization can be switched by applying a bias to non-polar cuts via a conducting tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). Dynamics of these in-plane domains is studied as a function of an applied voltage and pulse duration. The domain shape is dictated by polarization screening at the domain boundaries and mediated by growth defects. Thermodynamic theory is applied to explain the domain propagation induced by the AFM tip. Our findings suggest that the properties of β-glycine are controlled by the charged domain walls which in turn can be manipulated by an external bias.

  16. Spectral analysis of photo-induced delayed luminescence from human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, Francesco; Lanzan, Luca; Privitera, Simona; Tudisco, Salvatore; Scordino, Agata

    2007-07-01

    The UVA induced Delayed Luminescence (DL), has been measured in vivo in the forearm skin of some healthy volunteers of different sex and age during several periods of the year. An innovative instrument able to detect, in single photon counting mode, the spectrum and the time trend of the DL emission has been used. The measured differences in the time trends of the spectral components may be related to the sex and the age. The potential development of a new analysis technique based on this phenomenon is discussed.

  17. Polarization-induced noise in a fiber-optic Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirror elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Santos, J. L.; Farahi, F.

    1995-10-01

    Faraday rotator mirror elements have been used in a number of applications as compensators for induced birefringence in retracing paths. In interferometric systems, such as the fiber-optic Michelson interferometer, this approach proved to be useful in providing maximum fringe visibility and insensitivity to the polarization state of light injected into the interferometer. However, it is found that, when the characteristics of the fiber coupler depend on the polarization state of the input beam, the efficiency of the Faraday mirror elements is limited. Theoretical analysis and experimental results in support of this statement are presented.

  18. Alternating spin-polarized current induces parametric resonance in spin valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Marcel G.; Coulibaly, Saliya; Laroze, David; Len, Alejandro O.; Nez, lvaro S.

    2015-06-01

    Ferromagnetic systems under the influence of spin-polarized currents exhibit rich spatiotemporal dynamics at nanoscales. We study spin-transfer nano-oscillators driven by the combination of alternating and direct spin-polarized electric currents. We show here that the alternating current induces parametric instabilities on spin valves, that is, the magnetization responses at half the forcing frequency. A spatial self-organization emerges as a result of the oscillatory current, which includes dissipative solitons and Faraday-type waves. The parametric regime is described analytically by means of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation, in good agreement with micromagnetic simulations including the full dipolar field.

  19. Kondo-induced electric polarization modulated by magnetic flux through a triangular triple quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.

    2015-03-01

    The Kondo effect plays an important role in emergence of electric polarization in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is point-contacted with a single lead, and a magnetic flux penetrates through the triangular loop. The Kondo-induced electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm type oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux. Our theoretical study shows various oscillation patterns associated with the field-dependent mixing of twofold orbitally degenerate ground states and their sensitivity to the point contact.

  20. Optical notch filter with tunable bandwidth based on guided-mode resonant polarization-sensitive spectral feature.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linyong; Zhang, Dawei; Dai, Bo; Wang, Qi; Huang, Yuanshen; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-07-13

    A novel bandwidth-tunable notch filter is proposed based on the guided-mode resonance effect. The notch is created due to the superposition spectra response of two guided-mode resonant filters. The compact, bandwidth tuning capability is realized by taking advantage the effect of spectra-to-polarization sensitivity in one-dimensional classical guided-mode resonance filter, and using a liquid crystal polarization rotator for precise and simple polarization control. The operation principle and the design of the device are presented, and we demonstrate it experimentally. The central wavelength is fixed at 766.4 nm with a relatively symmetric profile. The full width at half maximum bandwidth could be tuned from 8.6 nm to 18.2 nm by controlling the applied voltage in electrically-driving polarization rotator. PMID:26191886

  1. Spectral and polarization properties of a ‘cholesteric liquid crystal—phase plate—metal’ structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, S. Ya; Pyatnov, M. V.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the localized surface modes in a structure consisting of the cholesteric liquid crystal layer, a phase plate, and a metal layer. These modes are analogous to the optical Tamm states. The nonreciprocal transmission of polarized light propagating in the forward and backward directions is established. It is demonstrated that the transmission spectrum can be controlled by external fields acting on the cholesteric liquid crystal and by varying the plane of polarization of the incident light.

  2. Anion-dye-induced spectral sensitization of holographic microsystems core-silver halide shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. V.; Zhukov, S. A.; Churashov, V. P.; Bekshaev, A. Y.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied spectral sensitization with anionic dyes of holographic microsystems "core - silver halide shell" (CSHS), cores of which can be either nonsilver or silver halide compounds. Conditions under which dye sensitizers, being adsorbed on cores, remain under silver halide shells after their growing are considered. Comparison of results of sensitometric and low-temperature (T = 77 K) luminescent measurements have shown that these conditions are determined by the charge state of cations of microsystem cores. If the shell contains the same univalent component in its composition as the core does, as in the case in which the core is a silver halide compound, the anionic dye is displaced to the outer surface of the shell. If the core contains a divalent cationic component, as in the case in which the core is a nonsilver compound, the dye remains under the silver halide shell; i.e., it is overgrown by the shell. We have shown that the charge state of core cations affects the character of the core interaction with anionic dyes, which ensures differences in the spectral sensitization of CSHS microsystems, as well as differences in the dye photoexcitation relaxation in them. We have found that supersensitization of AgBr microcrystals sensitized by infrachromatic dye affects the interaction between the dye aggregates and the surface silver ions, which induces modification of the holographic microsystems' spectral sensitivity range.

  3. Dual-band wavelength tunable nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber lasers induced by birefringence variation and gain curvature alteration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Fong; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-09-01

    With the combining effects of the fiber birefringence induced round-trip phase variation and the gain profile reshaping induced spectral filtering in the Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity, the mechanism corresponding to the central wavelength tunability of the EDFL passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation is explored. Bending the intracavity fiber induces the refractive index difference between orthogonal axes, which enables the dual-band central wavelength shift of 2.9 nm at 1570 nm region and up to 10.2 nm at 1600 nm region. The difference between the wavelength shifts at two bands is attributed to the gain dispersion decided by the gain spectral curvature of the EDFA, and the spacing between two switchable bands is provided by the birefringence induced variation on phase delay which causes transmittance variation. In addition, the central wavelength shift can also be controlled by varying the pumping geometry. At 1570 nm regime, an offset of up to 5.9 nm between the central wavelengths obtained under solely forward or backward pumping condition is observed, whereas the bidirectional pumping scheme effectively compensates the gain spectral reshaping effects to minimize the central wavelength shift. In contrast, the wavelength offset shrinks to only 1.1 nm when mode-locking at 1600 nm under single-sided pumping, as the gain profile strongly depends on the spatial distribution of the excited erbium ions under different pumping schemes. Except the birefringence variation and the gain spectral filtering phenomena, the gain-saturation mechanism induced refractive index change and its influence to the dual-band central wavelength tunability are also observed and analyzed. PMID:25321587

  4. Eliminating spectral distinguishability in ultrafast spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Poh, Hou Shun; Lim, Jiaqing; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Marcikic, Ivan

    2009-10-15

    Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs with a precise timing through down-conversion of femtosecond pulses is often faced with a degraded polarization entanglement quality. In a previous experiment, we have shown that this degradation is induced by spectral distinguishability between the two decay paths, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Here, we present an experimental study of the spectral compensation scheme proposed and first implemented by Kim and Grice [J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309 (2002)]. By measuring the joint spectral properties of the polarization correlations of the photon pairs, we show that the spectral distinguishability between the down-converted components is eliminated. This scheme results in a polarization visibility of 97.9{+-}0.5% without any spectral filtering.

  5. Modeling and inversion Matlab algorithms for resistivity, induced polarization and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Minsley, B. J.; Werkema, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    M. Karaoulis (1), D.D. Werkema (3), A. Revil (1,2), A., B. Minsley (4), (1) Colorado School of Mines, Dept. of Geophysics, Golden, CO, USA. (2) ISTerre, CNRS, UMR 5559, Universit de Savoie, Equipe Volcan, Le Bourget du Lac, France. (3) U.S. EPA, ORD, NERL, ESD, CMB, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA . (4) USGS, Federal Center, Lakewood, 10, 80225-0046, CO. Abstract We propose 2D and 3D forward modeling and inversion package for DC resistivity, time domain induced polarization (IP), frequency-domain IP, and seismic refraction data. For the resistivity and IP case, discretization is based on rectangular cells, where each cell has as unknown resistivity in the case of DC modelling, resistivity and chargeability in the time domain IP modelling, and complex resistivity in the spectral IP modelling. The governing partial-differential equations are solved with the finite element method, which can be applied to both real and complex variables that are solved for. For the seismic case, forward modeling is based on solving the eikonal equation using a second-order fast marching method. The wavepaths are materialized by Fresnel volumes rather than by conventional rays. This approach accounts for complicated velocity models and is advantageous because it considers frequency effects on the velocity resolution. The inversion can accommodate data at a single time step, or as a time-lapse dataset if the geophysical data are gathered for monitoring purposes. The aim of time-lapse inversion is to find the change in the velocities or resistivities of each model cell as a function of time. Different time-lapse algorithms can be applied such as independent inversion, difference inversion, 4D inversion, and 4D active time constraint inversion. The forward algorithms are benchmarked against analytical solutions and inversion results are compared with existing ones. The algorithms are packaged as Matlab codes with a simple Graphical User Interface. Although the code is parallelized for multi-core cpus, it is not as fast as machine code. In the case of large datasets, someone should consider transferring parts of the code to C or Fortran through mex files. This code is available through EPA's website on the following link http://www.epa.gov/esd/cmb/GeophysicsWebsite/index.html Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  6. Spectral Induced Polarization Response of Unconsolidated Saturated Sand and Surfactant Solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL), such as chlorinated solvents, are common groundwater contaminants. Traditional pump-and-treat methods are often not effective at removing residual DNAPL from the subsurface. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is a promising remediatio...

  7. Influence of Oil Saturation Upon Spectral Induced Polarization of Oil Bearing Sands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of oil in an unconsolidated granular porous material such as sand changes both the resistivity of the material and the value of the phase shift between the low-frequency current and the voltage. The resistivity and the phase angle can be written as a complex-valued r...

  8. Surface polar states and pyroelectricity in ferroelastics induced by flexo-roto fields

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Chen, L. Q.; Gopalana, V.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analysis based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory is used to show that the joint action of flexoelectric effect and rotostriction leads to a large spontaneous in-plane polarization (1-5 lC/cm2) and pyroelectric coefficient (103 C/m2K) in the vicinity of surfaces of otherwise non-ferroelectric ferroelastics, such as SrTiO3, with static octahedral rotations. The origin of the improper polarization and pyroelectricity is an electric field we name flexo-roto field whose strength is proportional to the convolution of the flexoelectric and rotostriction tensors with octahedral tilts and their gradients. Flexo-roto field should exist at surfaces and interfaces in all structures with static octahedral rotations, and thus, it can induce surface polar states and pyroelectricity in a large class of otherwise nonpolar materials. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3701152

  9. Surface polar states and pyroelectricity in ferroelastics induced by flexo-roto field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Qing Chen, Long; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2012-04-01

    Theoretical analysis based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory is used to show that the joint action of flexoelectric effect and rotostriction leads to a large spontaneous in-plane polarization (˜1-5 μC/cm2) and pyroelectric coefficient (˜10-3 C/m2K) in the vicinity of surfaces of otherwise non-ferroelectric ferroelastics, such as SrTiO3, with static octahedral rotations. The origin of the improper polarization and pyroelectricity is an electric field we name flexo-roto field whose strength is proportional to the convolution of the flexoelectric and rotostriction tensors with octahedral tilts and their gradients. Flexo-roto field should exist at surfaces and interfaces in all structures with static octahedral rotations, and thus, it can induce surface polar states and pyroelectricity in a large class of otherwise nonpolar materials.

  10. Parahydrogen Induced Polarization with Rh-based Monodentate Ligand in Water

    PubMed Central

    Shchepin, Roman V.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Waddell, Kevin W.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2012-01-01

    Reported here is a water soluble Rh(I)-based catalyst for performing parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). The [Rh(I)(norbornadiene)(THP)2]+[BF4]- catalyst utilizes the monodentate phosphine ligand tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP). The monodentate PHIP catalyst is less susceptible to oxygenation by air and THP ligand and is significantly less expensive than bidentate water-soluble PHIP ligands. In situ PHIP detection with this monodentate Rh(I) based catalyst in water yielded 12% 13C polarization for the parahydrogen addition product, 2-hydroxyethyl 1-13C-propionate-d2,3,3 (HEP), with a 13C T1 relaxation of 108 seconds at 0.0475 T. PHIP polarization yields were high, reflecting efficient hydrogenation even under conditions of high content of the oxidized phosphine form of the THP ligand. PMID:23227297

  11. Design and building of new spin polarized Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Zheng Hui; Mishler, Michael; Joglekar, Prasad; Shastry, Karthik; Koymen, Ali; Sharma, Suresh; Weiss, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    We propose to develop a next generation high flux variable energy spin-polarized position beam facility for materials studies. This new system will have a higher efficiency than our current system, and it will also be the first in the world to combine spin polarization with a time of flight Positron Annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The spin polarized positrons are electromagnetically guided towards the sample with an axial magnetic field and perpendicular electric fields. These incident positrons get annihilated at the surface of the sample creating two gamma rays and auger electrons via Auger transitions. These signals are useful in characterizing material surface, surface magnetization, and energy sharing in valence band. This new spectrometer, which is currently under construction, will be a next generation positron system. NSF.

  12. Polarization and collision-induced coherence in the beam-foil light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Bashkin, S.; Church, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Monatomic systems were excited by the beam-foil method in order to re-examine the possibility that a particular magnetic substate was preferentially populated. O II, Ar II and He I levels were used. The results reveal that: (1) with a tilted foil substantial polarization (up to 15%) may be achieved, (2) the polarization is due to the foil, (3) the foil induces coherence among Zeeman substates with the appearance of quantum beats among these substates and that their coherence is due to the externally applied magnetic field perpendicular to the beam direction, and (4) the angular momentum of the emitted photon is perpendicular to the ion velocity. The possibility for detecting separate effects of alignment and polarization is noted.

  13. The role of crystal polarity in alpha-amino acid crystals for induced nucleation of ice.

    PubMed

    Gavish, M; Wang, J L; Eisenstein, M; Lahav, M; Leiserowitz, L

    1992-05-01

    The hydrophobic faces of single crystals of a series of pairs of racemic and chiral-resolved hydrophobic alpha-amino acids were used as a substrate, onto which water vapor has been cooled to freezing. The morphologies and molecular packing arrangements within each crystal pair are similar but only one of each pair exhibits a polar axis, parallel to the hydrophobic face exposed to water. Those crystals that have a polar axis induce a freezing point higher by 4 degrees to 5 degrees C than the corresponding crystals that do not have a polar axis. The results are interpreted in terms of an electric field mechanism that helps align the water molecules into ice-like clusters en route to crystallization. PMID:1589763

  14. Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanbing; Husko, Chad; Lefrancois, Simon; Rey, Isabella H; Krauss, Thomas F; Schrder, Jochen; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-01-11

    We analytically and experimentally investigate cross-phase modulation (XPM) in silicon waveguides. In contrast to the well known result in pure Kerr media, the spectral broadening ratio of XPM to self-phase modulation is not two in the presence of either two-photon absorption (TPA) or free carriers. The physical origin of this change is different for each effect. In the case of TPA, this nonlinear absorption attenuates and slightly modifies the pulse shape due to differential absorption in the pulse peak and wings. When free carriers are present two different mechanisms modify the dynamics. First, free-carrier absorption performs a similar role to TPA, but is additionally asymmetric due to the delayed free-carrier response. Second, free-carrier dispersion induces an asymmetric blue phase shift which competes directly with the symmetric Kerr-induced XPM red shift. We confirm this analysis with pump-probe experiments in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide. PMID:26832275

  15. MAUVE/SWIPE: an imaging instrument concept with multi-angular, -spectral, and -polarized capability for remote sensing of aerosols, ocean color, clouds, and vegetation from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Rothschild, Richard; Stephan, Edward; Leblanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Ghaemi, Tony; Riedi, Jrme

    2006-12-01

    The Monitoring Aerosols in the Ultraviolet Experiment (MAUVE) and the Short-Wave Infrared Polarimeter Experiment (SWIPE) instruments have been designed to collect, from a typical sun-synchronous polar orbit at 800 km altitude, global observations of the spectral, polarized, and directional radiance reflected by the earth-atmosphere system for a wide range of applications. Based on the heritage of the POLDER radiometer, the MAUVE/SWIPE instrument concept combines the merits of TOMS for observing in the ultra-violet, MISR for wide field-of-view range, MODIS, for multi-spectral aspects in the visible and near infrared, and the POLDER instrument for polarization. The instruments are camera systems with 2-dimensional detector arrays, allowing a 120-degree field-of-view with adequate ground resolution (i.e., 0.4 or 0.8 km at nadir) from satellite altitude. Multi-angle viewing is achieved by the along-track migration at spacecraft velocity of the 2-dimensional field-of-view. Between the cameras' optical assembly and detector array are two filter wheels, one carrying spectral filters, the other polarizing filters, allowing measurements of the first three Stokes parameters, I. Q, and V, of the incident radiation in 16 spectral bands optimally placed in the interval 350-2200 nm. The spectral range is 350-1050 nm for the MAUVE instrument and 1050-2200 nm for the SWIPE instrument. The radiometric requirements are defined to fully exploit the multi-angular, multi-spectral, and multi-polarized capability of the instruments. These include a wide dynamic range, a signal-to-noise ratio above 500 in all channels at maximum radiance level, i.e., when viewing a surface target of albedo equal to 1, and a noise-equivalent-differential reflectance better than 0.0005 at low signal level for a sun at zenith. To achieve daily global coverage, a pair of MAUVE and SWIPE instruments would be carried by each of two mini-satellites placed on interlaced orbits. The equator crossing time of the two satellites would be adjusted to allow simultaneous observations of the overlapping zone viewed from the two parallel orbits of the twin satellites. Using twin satellites instead of a single satellite would allow measurements in a more complete range of scattering angles. A MAUVE/SWIPE satellite mission would improve significantly the accuracy of ocean color observations from space, and will extend the retrieval of ocean optical properties to the ultra-violet, where they become very sensitive to detritus material and dissolved organic matter. It would also provide a complete description of the scattering and absorption properties of aerosol particles, as well as their size distribution and vertical distribution. Over land, the retrieved bidirectional reflectance function would allow a better classification of terrestrial vegetation and discrimination of surface types. The twin satellite concept, by providing stereoscopic capability, would offer the possibility to analyze the three-dimensional structure and radiative properties of cloud fields.

  16. Photo-induced Nanopattern Formation on Polarity Patterned Lithium Niobate with ZnO-Modified Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpuneet; Wang, Xingye; Eller, Brianna; Nemanich, Robert

    2015-03-01

    This research is focused on modifying the surface of polarity patterned lithium niobate (PPLN) templates with ultra thin layers of ZnO. Photo-induced nanopattern formation is employed to discern the effects of thin ZnO on PPLN. The spontaneous polarization of ZnO is intended to be used to enhance the photo-induced transport of electrons to the surface to reduce Ag + to Ag nanoparticles. The ZnO thin films were deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) at 150 C with 0.2 nm/cycle. Photo-induced Ag nanopatterns were deposited on bare PPLN and 1, 2, 3 and 10 nm ZnO-PPLN heterostructures, immersed on an aqueous AgNO3 solution and illumination with 254 nm UV light. The photo-induced deposition of 1nm ZnO/PPLN results in enhanced Ag nanoparticle formation at domain boundaries. The positive domain selectivity is not observed on 2nm ZnO/PPLN templates, and the deposition becomes the same on both domains. The nanoparticle patterns were not evident for ZnO films thicker than 3nm. The amorphous structure of thick ZnO on PPLN tends to reduce the effect of the ZnO polarization. The effect of polarity patterned thin PEALD ZnO films is discussed to understand photo-induced electron transfer and AgNO3 reduction on ZnO-PPLN heterostructures. This research is supported by the NSF through Grant DMR-1206935.

  17. Analysis and spectral assignments of mixed actinide oxide samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Barefield, James E; Judge, Elizabeth J; Berg, John M; Willson, Stephen P; Le, Loan A; Lopez, Leon N

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report for the first time the identification and assignments of complex atomic emission spectra of mixed actinide oxides using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Preliminary results of LIBS measurements on samples of uranium dioxide (UO2)/plutonium dioxide (PuO2) and UO2/PuO2/americium dioxide (AmO2)/neptunium dioxide (NpO2) simulated fuel pellets (or mixed actinide oxide samples) are reported and discussed. We have identified and assigned >800 atomic emission lines for a UO2/PuO2/AmO2/NpO2 fuel pellet thus far. The identification and assignments of spectral emission lines for U, Pu, and Am are consistent with wavelength data from the literature. However, only a few emission lines have been assigned with a high degree of confidence for Np compared with atomic emission data from the literature. We also indicate where atomic emission lines for Cm would most likely appear in the spectral regions shown. Finally, we demonstrate that a LIBS system with a resolving power of approximately 20,000 is adequate for analyzing complex mixtures of actinide elements within the same sample. PMID:23601543

  18. Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies of yeast tRNA/sup Phe/

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, E.F.; Morden, K.M.; Tinoco, I. Jr.; Boxer, S.G.

    1984-04-24

    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) has been observed from yeast tRNA/sup Phe/ following reaction with photoexcited riboflavin. At 20/sup 0/C, several resonances of tRNA in the native form show polarization; previous work predicts that only guanosine and its derivatives in single-stranded regions are likely to become polarized. The methyl protons of m/sub 2//sup 2/G-26 show strong negative spin polarization, indicating that this residue is accessible. The solvent accessibility of this residue has not been previously demonstrated. In addition, two positively polarized aromatic resonances are observed, which are likely due to two or more G(H8) protons, including those of G-20, m/sub 2//sup 2/G-26, and/or Gm-34. For temperatures below 50/sup 0/C, a negatively polarized signal in the aromatic region is shown to arise from cross relaxation with the methyl group protons of m/sub 2//sup 2/G-26. This indicates the proximity of an aromatic proton, probably H2 of A-44, to the methyl groups of m/sub 2//sup 2/G-26. At higher temperatures, the CIDNP spectra show polarization of several additional G resonances, including those of m/sup 2/G-10. These changes in the CIDNP spectra reflect melting of the tertiary and secondary structure of the tRNA. This work is the first use of CIDNP to study a large nucleic acid molecule and exemplifies the value of this technique in probing single-stranded and solvent-accessible regions of tRNA.

  19. Suppression of the antiferroelectric phase during polarization cycling of an induced ferroelectric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Tan, Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    The ceramic Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.57Sn0.43)0.92Ti0.08]0.98O3 can exist in either an antiferroelectric or a ferroelectric phase at room temperature, depending on the thermal and electrical history. The antiferroelectric phase can be partially recovered from the induced ferroelectric phase when the applied field reverses polarity. Therefore, polarization cycling of the ferroelectric phase in the ceramic under bipolar fields at room temperature is accompanied with repeated phase transitions. In this letter, the stability of the recovered antiferroelectric phase upon electrical cycling of the ceramic is investigated. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction reveals that bipolar cycling suppresses the antiferroelectric phase; this is indirectly supported by piezoelectric coefficient d33 measurements. It is speculated that the accumulated charged point defects during polarization cycling stabilize the polar ferroelectric phase. The findings presented are important to the fundamental studies of electric fatigue and field-induced phase transitions in ferroelectrics.

  20. CPT transients induced by rapid changes in laser polarization: validation of a semi-empirical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Coffer, J. G.; Camparo, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    In ultraminiature atomic physics (UAP), where the goal is to perform low-power, 'chip-scale' precision spectroscopy, stochastic-field/atom interactions can play a primary role in defining the limits of sensitivity. Unfortunately, the transient responses of a quantum system to random changes in the amplitude, phase or polarization of a resonant field are not well understood, forming the basis of what has come to be known as the stochastic-field/atom interaction problem. As the first step in understanding the more complicated stochastic problem, the present work considers the response of a coherent-population-trapping (CPT) signal to a sudden, step-function change in laser polarization. We find that the transient behaviour depends on both the redistribution of atomic population among the atom's Zeeman sublevels and the regeneration of atomic coherence between these sublevels. Despite the complicated nature of the dynamics, we develop and experimentally validate a semi-empirical, reasonably intuitive model of the CPT transient and demonstrate that in the 'typical' CPT signal the polarization-induced transients are dominated by redistribution of atomic population among the Zeeman sublevels. Further, the amplitudes of the polarization-induced transients are relatively large and could potentially 'swamp' the CPT signals of interest for UAP.

  1. Light Induced Polarity of Redox Reactions in Leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx 1

    PubMed Central

    Elzenga, J. Theo M.; Prins, Hidde B. A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports that extracellular reductase activity in leaves of Elodea canadensis, hitherto never associated with polar processes thought to be involved in bicarbonate utilization, also shows a very marked polarity in light. The effect of ferricyanide, applied to the lower side of illuminated leaves, was a depolarization of the membrane electrical potential of up to 110 millivolts, while no depolarization was induced when ferricyanide was applied to the upper side. In the dark ferricyanide induced a depolarization when applied to either the upper or to the lower side of the leaf. Staining with tetrazolium salts, specific indicators for reductase activity, resulted in the formation of a precipitate on the lower side of the leaf when illuminated and on both sides in the dark. The precipitate was only located along the plasmalemma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16665663

  2. B-mode polarization induced by gravitational waves from kinks on infinite cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Koichi; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the effect of the stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by kinks on infinite cosmic strings, whose spectrum was derived in our previous work, on the B-mode power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. We find that the B-mode polarization due to kinks is comparable to that induced by the motion of the string network and hence the contribution of GWs from kinks is important for estimating the B-mode power spectrum originating from cosmic strings. If the tension of cosmic strings {mu} is large enough, i.e., G{mu} > or approx. 10{sup -8}, B-mode polarization induced by cosmic strings can be detected by future CMB experiments.

  3. Measurement of the Induced Proton Polarization Pn in the 12C(e, e', p) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, R J; Barkhuff, David; Bertozzi, William; Chen, Jian-ping; Dale, Dan; Dodson, G; Dow, K A; Epstein, Marty; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Finn, Mike; Gilad, Shalev; Jones, Mark K; Joo, Kyungseon; Kelly, James; Kowalski, Stanley; Lourie, Bob; Madey, Richard; Margaziotis, Dimitri; Markowitz, Pete; McIntyre, Justin; Mertz, Christoph; Milbrath, Brian; Mitchell, Joseph; Perdrisat, Charles F; Punjabi, Vina; Rutt, Paul; Sarty, Adam; Tieger, D; Tschalaer, C; Turchinetz, William; Ulmer, Paul E; Van Verst, S P; Vellidis, C; Warren, Glen; Weinstein, Lawrence

    1998-01-19

    The first measurements of the induced proton polarization Pn for the 12C(e,e',p) reaction are reported. The experiment was performed at quasifree kinematics for energy and momentum transfer (w,q) = (294 MeV, 765 MeV/c) and sampled a missing momentum range of 0-250 MeV/c. The induced polarization arises from final-state interactions and for these kinematics is dominated by the real part of the spin-orbit optical potential. The distorted-wave impulse approximation provides good agreement with data for the 1 p3/2 shell. The data for the continuum suggest that both the 1s1/2 shell and underlying l > 1 configurations contribute.

  4. Diagnostics of the Raman spectral structure of the stretching vibrations of water by means of polarization CARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bunkin, A. F.; Maltsev, D. V.; Surskii, K. O.; Shapiro, Y. G.; Chernov, V. G.

    1988-09-01

    A method is proposed for decomposing into components by computer the partially resolved polarization CARS spectra of the /nu//sub OH/ Raman band of stretching vibrations of liquid water under various experimental conditions. The spectroscopic parameters of the /nu//sub OH/ band of the components at water temperatures of 5 /degree/C and 20 /degree/C are given. It is shown that single-mode-continuum models and mixed models of the structure of liquid water (in the 5--60 /degree/C range) contradict the results of experiments on polarization CARS.

  5. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Regulate Macrophage Polarization and Prevent LPS-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meiyan; Wu, Lujin; He, Zuowen; Zhang, Shasha; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xizhen; Wang, Peihua; Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wang, Dao Wen

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages, owning tremendous phenotypic plasticity and diverse functions, were becoming the target cells in various inflammatory, metabolic and immune diseases. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) metabolizes arachidonic acid to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which possess various beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EETs treatment on macrophage polarization and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated CYP2J2 expression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction, and sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In vitro studies showed that EETs (1?mol/L) significantly inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization and diminished the proinflammatory cytokines at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level; meanwhile it preserved M2 macrophage related molecules expression and upregulated antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, EETs down-regulated NF-?B activation and up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?/?) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, which play important roles in regulating M1 and M2 polarization. In addition, LPS treatment in mice induced cardiac dysfunction, heart tissue damage and infiltration of M1 macrophages, as well as the increase of inflammatory cytokines in serum and heart tissue, but rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 expression increased EETs generation in heart and significantly attenuated the LPS-induced harmful effects, which mechanisms were similar as the in vitro study. Taken together, the results indicate that CYP2J2/EETs regulates macrophage polarization by attenuating NF-?B signaling pathway via PPAR?/? and HO-1 activation and its potential use in treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25626689

  6. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  7. Detection of global tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica using thermal infrared spectral data observed by TANSO-FTS/GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Yu; Imasu, Ryoichi; Ota, Yoshifumi; Saitoh, Naoko

    2014-05-01

    Global tropospheric cloud distribution was derived from thermal infrared band data observed by Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT). It is expected that this band has ability to detect optically thin clouds compared with Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) which is the other sensor on GOSAT. In addition, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) which can be harder to detect than the tropospheric clouds because of high reflectivity or low temperature of the surface and their low optical thickness were also detected. We have modified CO2 slicing method which was developed as one of the cirrus cloud detection techniques using thermal infrared band data to detect thin clouds more stably. The pseudo spectral channels were defined as sets of several actual spectral channels between 700cm-1 and 750cm-1 which have weighting function peak height in a same height range for each 0.5km. These pseudo channels were optimized with simulation studies using a multi-scattering radiative transfer code, Polarized radiance System for Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation (Pstar) 3 for several temperature profile patterns prepared based on latitudes and temperature at 500hPa. GOSAT data was analyzed with the combination of these pseudo channels determined for each of observation points from these simulations and the results were compared with the observational results from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) / Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). The comparisons about global cloud are based on the coincident observations in 2010. Monthly occurrences of Antarctic PSCs were compared for each grid area from June to September in 2010. As a result, the correlation coefficients in each month are 0.76, 0.71, 0.75, and 0.61 relatively. Though that is low value in September, it can be explained by decrease of occurrences.

  8. Production of radially or azimuthally polarized beams in solid-state lasers and the elimination of thermally induced birefringence effects.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Inon; Jackel, Steven; Meir, Avi

    2003-05-15

    Production and amplification of radially and azimuthally (tangentially) polarized laser beams are demonstrated. Based on the different focusing between radially and tangentially polarized light in thermally stressed isotropic laser rods, Nd:YAG laser oscillators were developed to produce low-loss stable oscillation in a single polarization. Pure radially polarized light at 70 W with M2 = 2 and on-axis impure radially polarized light at 150 W with M2 = 2.5 were achieved. The radially polarized beams were then amplified while good beam quality and polarization purity were retained. Complete elimination of thermal-birefringence-induced aberrations was demonstrated. This should allow much better beam quality from rod-based high-power lasers. PMID:12779153

  9. A low cost design to eliminate polarization induced phase shift for dual Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Liang, Sheng; Liu, Qianzhe; Xiao, Wen

    2015-08-01

    In dual Mach-Zehnder interferometer (DMZI) system, polarization induced phase shift (PIPS) leads to a big location error. Traditional approaches adopt polarization controller (PC) to eliminate PIPS by controlling polarization state (PS) of light source. Through establishing the influence model of input light PS and equivalent polarization parameters of sensing cable on interference signals, an approach using a simplified polarization controller (PC) to obtain high location accuracy is proposed. The simplified PC is composed of a polarizer and a fiber-fused half-wave plate and can provide a linearly polarized light with azimuth angle controlled. Simulation and experiment indicate that the proposed method and PC design not only has capability of eliminating PIPS, but also has the benefits of low cost and easy control.

  10. Pentameric Thiophene-Based Ligands that Spectrally Discriminate Amyloid-β and Tau Aggregates Display Distinct Solvatochromism and Viscosity-Induced Spectral Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Rozalyn A; Shirani, Hamid; Åslund, K O Andreas; Bäck, Marcus; Haroutunian, Vahram; Gandy, Sam; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the deposition of multiple protein aggregates. Ligands for molecular characterization and discrimination of these pathological hallmarks are thus important for understanding their potential role in pathogenesis as well as for clinical diagnosis of the disease. In this regard, luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) have proven useful for spectral discrimination of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), two of the pathological hallmarks associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, the solvatochromism of a library of anionic pentameric thiophene-based ligands, as well as their ability to spectrally discriminate Aβ and tau aggregates, were investigated. Overall, the results from this study identified distinct solvatochromic and viscosity-dependent behavior of thiophene-based ligands that can be applied as indices to direct the chemical design of improved LCOs for spectral separation of Aβ and tau aggregates in brain tissue sections. The results also suggest that the observed spectral transitions of the ligands are due to their ability to conform by induced fit to specific microenvironments within the binding interface of each particular protein aggregate. We foresee that these findings might aid in the chemical design of thiophene-based ligands that are increasingly selective for distinct disease-associated protein aggregates. PMID:25111601

  11. Pentameric thiophene-based ligands that spectrally discriminate amyloid-? and tau aggregates display distinct solvatochromism and viscosity-induced spectral shifts.

    PubMed

    Simon, Rozalyn A; Shirani, Hamid; Aslund, K O Andreas; Bck, Marcus; Haroutunian, Vahram; Gandy, Sam; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2014-09-22

    A wide range of neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the deposition of multiple protein aggregates. Ligands for molecular characterization and discrimination of these pathological hallmarks are thus important for understanding their potential role in pathogenesis as well as for clinical diagnosis of the disease. In this regard, luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) have proven useful for spectral discrimination of amyloid-beta (A?) and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), two of the pathological hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease. Herein, the solvatochromism of a library of anionic pentameric thiophene-based ligands, as well as their ability to spectrally discriminate A? and tau aggregates, were investigated. Overall, the results from this study identified distinct solvatochromic and viscosity-dependent behavior of thiophene-based ligands that can be applied as indices to direct the chemical design of improved LCOs for spectral separation of A? and tau aggregates in brain tissue sections. The results also suggest that the observed spectral transitions of the ligands are due to their ability to conform by induced fit to specific microenvironments within the binding interface of each particular protein aggregate. We foresee that these findings might aid in the chemical design of thiophene-based ligands that are increasingly selective for distinct disease-associated protein aggregates. PMID:25111601

  12. The Two-Body and Three-Body Breakup of Polarized HELIUM-3 Induced by the Quasielastic Scattering of Polarized Protons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael Allen

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a study of the two-body and three-body breakup of polarized ^3{rm He} induced by quasi -elastic scattering of polarized protons. The analyzing powers, A_{n0} and A _{0n}, and the spin correlation parameter, A_{nn}, were measured for the quasi-elastic scattering reactions ^3vec{rm He}(vec{ rm p}, 2p), ^3vec {rm He}(vec{rm p}, pd) and ^3vec{rm He}(vec{rm p}, 2pd) at 197.3 MeV. The measurements were carried out using an internal metastability exchange optically pumped polarized ^3{rm He} target and the polarized proton beam of the Cooler storage ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. These were the first measurements made with an internal polarized target and a circulating polarized beam. The results are used to study the effective polarizations of protons and deuterons in ^3vec{rm He } and to explore the two-body and three-body breakup channels of the vec{rm p} + ^3vec{rm He} reaction.

  13. Multiphoton polarization and generalized polarization microscopy reveal oleic-acid-induced structural changes in intercellular lipid layers of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yen; Lo, Wen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2004-09-01

    We have demonstrated that both multiphoton polarization and generalized polarization (GP) microscopy may be combined to characterize the structural changes of intercellular lipids in skin. Both polarization and GP (at 440- and 490-nm emission) images obtained by analysis of Laurdan fluorescence suggest that the treatment of oleic acid results in a skin surface with a more random packing of lipid molecules, which allows easier water penetration. Our results show that combined polarization and GP microscopy can be used to characterize the physical and chemical changes in biological structures.

  14. Electronic spill-out induced spectral broadening in quantum hydrodynamic nanoplasmonics.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Hui; Weng, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lichao; Dou, Xiujie; Yang, Aiping; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-11-16

    The hydrodynamic theory is a powerful tool to study the nonlocal effects in metallic nanostructures that are too small to obey classical electrodynamics while still too large to be handled with a full quantum-mechanical theory. The existing hydrodynamic model can give accurate quantitative predictions for the plasmonic resonance shifts in metallic nanoplasmonics, yet is not able to predict the spectral width which is usually taken as a pre-set value instead. By taking account the fact that due to electron density spill-out from a surface, the Coulomb interaction screening is less efficient close the surface thus leads to a higher electron-electron scattering rate in this paper, we study how the electron-density-related damping rate induced by such Coulomb interaction will affect the plasmonic spectral broadening. We perform the simulation on a Na nanowire, which shows that the absorption spectra width is wider when the size of the nanowire becomes smaller. This result is consistent well with the reported experiment. Therefore, our theoretical model extends the existing hydrodynamic model and can provide much more quantum insight about nonlocal effects in metallic nanostructures. PMID:26698456

  15. An open-source, massively parallel code for non-LTE synthesis and inversion of spectral lines and Zeeman-induced Stokes profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.; de la Cruz Rodrguez, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Ruiz Cobo, B.

    2015-05-01

    With the advent of a new generation of solar telescopes and instrumentation, interpreting chromospheric observations (in particular, spectropolarimetry) requires new, suitable diagnostic tools. This paper describes a new code, NICOLE, that has been designed for Stokes non-LTE radiative transfer, for synthesis and inversion of spectral lines and Zeeman-induced polarization profiles, spanning a wide range of atmospheric heights from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The code features a number of unique features and capabilities and has been built from scratch with a powerful parallelization scheme that makes it suitable for application on massive datasets using large supercomputers. The source code is written entirely in Fortran 90/2003 and complies strictly with the ANSI standards to ensure maximum compatibility and portability. It is being publicly released, with the idea of facilitating future branching by other groups to augment its capabilities. The source code is currently hosted at the following repository: http://https://github.com/hsocasnavarro/NICOLE

  16. Ultrafast laser-induced damage and the influence of spectral effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulley, Jeremy R.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the prerequisite role of photoionization in ultrafast laser-induced damage (LID) of bulk dielectrics. This study examines the role of spectral width and instantaneous laser frequency in LID using a frequency dependent multiphoton ionization (MPI) model and numerical simulation of initially 800 nm laser pulses propagating through fused silica. Assuming a band gap of 9 eV, MPI by an 800 nm field is a six-photon process, but when the instantaneous wavelength is greater than 827 nm an additional photon is required for photoionization, reducing the probability of the event by many orders of magnitude. Simulation results suggest that this frequency dependence can significantly impact the onset of LID and ultrashort pulse filamentation in solids.

  17. Strain-Induced Spatial and Spectral Isolation of Quantum Emitters in Mono- and Bilayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are intriguing hosts for quantum light sources due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we report that strain gradients, either unintentionally induced or generated by substrate patterning, result in spatially and spectrally isolated quantum emitters in mono- and bilayer WSe2. By correlating localized excitons with localized strain variations, we show that the quantum emitter emission energy can be red-tuned up to a remarkable ∼170 meV. We probe the fine-structure, magneto-optics, and second-order coherence of a strained emitter. These results raise the prospect of strain-engineering quantum emitter properties and deterministically creating arrays of quantum emitters in two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:26480237

  18. Polarization induced effects in group-III-nitride heterostructures and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambacher, Oliver

    2001-03-01

    Two dimensional electron and hole gases in AlInGaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures suitable for high electron mobility transistors (HEMT´s) are induced by strong polarization effects. The sheet carrier concentration and the confinement of the two dimensional carrier gases located close to one of the AlInGaN/GaN interfaces are sensitive to a high number of different physical properties such as polarity, alloy composition, strain, thickness and doping of the barriers. We have investigated the structural quality, the carrier concentration profiles and electrical transport properties of undoped, silicon and magnesium doped structures by a combination of high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, PL-spectroscopy, Hall effect, C-V profiling and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. The investigated samples with N- and Ga-face polarity were grown by metalorganic vapor phase (MOCVD) or plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy (PIMBE) covering a broad range of alloy compositions, barrier and quantum well thicknesses. We have measured and calculated the polarization induced sheet charge based on different sets of piezoelectric constants available in the literature and the sheet carrier concentration for 2DEGS and 2DHGs self-consistently from a coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equation for different alloy compositions and degree of relaxation of the barrier. By comparison of theoretical and experimental results we demonstrate that the formation of two dimensional carrier gases in AlGaInN/GaN structures both rely on the difference of piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization between the AlGaInN and the GaN layer. In addition, the experimental evidence for accumulation of free carriers at interfaces of lattice matched AlInN/GaN heterostructures and pseudomorphic InGaN/GaN quatum well structures due to gradients in spontaneous or piezoelectric polarization will be presented. The influence and relevance of the resulting carrier distribution on the performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices will be discussed in detail. O. Ambacher, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31 (1998) 2653. O. Ambacher et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (1999) 3222. O. Ambacher et al., J. Appl. Phys. 87 (2000) 334.

  19. Large plasma-edge broadened magneto-optic-polar-Kerr-effect-based broadband incoherent detection of terahertz spectral frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, A.; Puri, A.

    2005-02-01

    A magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE)-based spectroscopic technique is proposed in the terahertz regime. This method relies on very large reflection edge splitting effects, which occur when the cyclotron frequency (CF) is of the same order of magnitude or greater than the plasma frequency. In the event of a very large reflection edge split, the Kerr rotation (KR) no longer occurs at the plasma edge, but instead occurs at Re (? +?- )?1, within the macroscopic framework of the Drude model. This implies that one can control the spectral occurrence of the MOKE resonance, simply by tuning the magnetic field strength. This phenomenon is unheard of for much shorter wavelengths, due to practical limitations on required magnetic field strengths and hence, can only be realized in the THz regime. A 3 T magnet can easily cover the proposed 0.5-5 THz spectral range for an InSb substrate. Our calculations show that in order to achieve good spectral resolution, the InSb substrate needs to be cooled to 77 K. The Kerr rotation obtained at 77 K for a CF of 1 THz is about 6.28, which can be increased to about 18.35 by coating a thin low refractive index material on the InSb substrate. A well established ellipsometric technique, which uses four incoherent detectors, is proposed, for fast-simultaneous measurement of KR, Kerr ellipticity and reflectivity.

  20. Study of xenon binding in cryptophane-A using laser-induced NMR polarization enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmer, M.; Goodson, B.M.; Song, Y.Q.; Laws, D.D.; Kaiser, L.; Pines, A.

    1999-04-14

    Xenon is chemically inert, yet exhibits NMR parameters that are highly sensitive to its chemical environment. Considerable work has therefore capitalized on the utility of {sup 129}Xe (I = 1/2) as a magnetic resonance probe of molecules, materials, and biological systems. In solution, spin-polarization transfer between laser-polarized xenon and the hydrogen nuclei of nearby molecules leads to signal enhancements in the resolved {sup 1}H NMR spectrum, offering new opportunities for probing the chemical environment of xenon atoms. Following binding of laser-polarized xenon to molecules of cryptophane-A, selective enhancements of the {sup 1}H NMR signals were observed. A theoretical framework for the interpretation of such experimental results is provided, and the spin polarization-induced nuclear Overhauser effects are shown to yield information about the molecular environment of xenon. The observed selective {sup 1}H enhancements allowed xenon-proton internuclear distances to be estimated. These distances reveal structural characteristics of the complex, including the preferred molecular conformations adopted by cryptophane-A upon binding of xenon.

  1. Measurement of the induced Lambda^0(1116) polarization in K^+ electroproduction at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gabrielyan, B. Raue, D. S. Carman, K. Park

    2012-04-01

    We are using the p(e,e'K{sup +}p){pi}{sup -} reaction to perform a measurement of the induced polarization of the electroproduced L(1116) using its p{pi}{sup -} parity-violating weak decay. This study uses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to detect the scattered electron, the kaon, and the decay proton over the kinematics 0.8 {le} Q{sup 2} {le} 3.5 GeV{sup 2}, 1.6 {le} W {le} 3.0 GeV, and the full kaon CM angle range. In this experiment a 5.5 GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. The goal is to map out the kinematic dependencies for this polarization observable to provide new constraints for models of the electromagnetic production of K-hyperon final states. Along with previously published photo- and electroproduction cross sections and polarization observables from CLAS, SAPHIR, LEPS, and GRAAL, these data are needed in a coupled-channel analysis to identify previously unobserved s-channel resonances. Preliminary polarization results will be presented.

  2. Induced polarized state in intentionally grown oxygen deficient KTaO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mota, D. A.; Romaguera-Barcelay, Y.; Tkach, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J.; Almeida, A.; Perez de la Cruz, J.; Vilarinho, P. M.; Tavares, P. B.

    2013-07-21

    Deliberately oxygen deficient potassium tantalate thin films were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Si/SiO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt substrates. Once they were structurally characterized, the effect of oxygen vacancies on their electric properties was addressed by measuring leakage currents, dielectric constant, electric polarization, and thermally stimulated depolarization currents. By using K{sub 2}O rich KTaO{sub 3} targets and specific deposition conditions, KTaO{sub 3-{delta}} oxygen deficient thin films with a K/Ta = 1 ratio were obtained. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns show that KTaO{sub 3-{delta}} thin films are under a compressive strain of 2.3% relative to KTaO{sub 3} crystals. Leakage current results reveal the presence of a conductive mechanism, following the Poole-Frenkel formalism. Furthermore, dielectric, polarization, and depolarization current measurements yield the existence of a polarized state below T{sub pol} {approx} 367 Degree-Sign C. A Cole-Cole dipolar relaxation was also ascertained apparently due to oxygen vacancies induced dipoles. After thermal annealing the films in an oxygen atmosphere at a temperature above T{sub pol}, the aforementioned polarized state is suppressed, associated with a drastic oxygen vacancies reduction emerging from annealing process.

  3. Influence of non-aqueous phase liquid configuration on induced polarization parameters: Conceptual models applied to a time-domain field case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Sara; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Dahlin, Torleif

    2015-12-01

    Resistivity and induced polarization (IP) measurements on soil contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) show a great variety in results in previous research. Several laboratory studies have suggested that the presence of NAPLs in soil samples generally decrease the magnitude of the IP-effect, while others have indicated the opposite. A number of conceptual models have been proposed suggesting that NAPLs can alter the pore space in different ways, e.g. by coating the grain surfaces and thus inhibiting grain polarization, or by changing the pore throat size and thus affecting the membrane polarization mechanism. The main aim of this paper is to review previously published conceptual models and to introduce some new concepts of possible residual NAPL configurations in the pore space. Time domain induced polarization measurements were performed at a NAPL contaminated field site, and the data were inverted using the Constant Phase Angle (CPA) model and the Cole-Cole model respectively. No significant phase anomalies were observed in the source area of the contamination when the CPA inverted profiles were compared with soil sampling results of free-phase contaminant concentrations. However, relatively strong phase and normalized phase anomalies appeared next to the source area, where residual free-phase presence could be expected according to the chemical data. We conclude that depending on the NAPL configuration, different spectral IP responses can be expected. In previous research, the NAPL configurations in different samples or field sites are often unknown, and this may to some extent explain why different results have been achieved by different authors. In our field case, we believe that the NAPL forms a more or less continuous phase in the pore space of the source zone leading to an absence of IP anomalies. The increase in phase and normalized phase angle observed next to the source zone is interpreted as a degradation zone. The ongoing biodegradation may have led to a fractionation of the continuous NAPL in the outer part of the original source zone, leading to residual presence of isolated NAPL droplets in the soil pores. With such NAPL configurations, an increased polarization can be expected according to the electrochemical- and membrane polarization mechanisms. More research is needed to confirm the effects of different NAPL configuration on spectral IP parameters.

  4. Heat-induced changes to lipid molecular structure in Vimy flaxseed: Spectral intensity and molecular clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav

    2011-06-01

    Autoclaving was used to manipulate nutrient utilization and availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize any changes of the functional groups mainly associated with lipid structure in flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum, cv. Vimy), that occurred on a molecular level during the treatment process using infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH 3 asymmetric (ca. 2959 cm -1), CH 2 asymmetric (ca. 2928 cm -1), CH 3 symmetric (ca. 2871 cm -1) and CH 2 symmetric (ca. 2954 cm -1) functional groups, lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group (ca. 1745 cm -1), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3010 cm -1) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Flaxseed samples were kept raw for the control or autoclaved in batches at 120 °C for 20, 40 or 60 min for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios showed a significant decrease ( P < 0.05) in the CH 2 asymmetric to CH 3 asymmetric stretching band peak intensity ratios for the flaxseed. There were linear and quadratic effects ( P < 0.05) of the treatment time from 0, 20, 40 and 60 min on the ratios of the CH 2 asymmetric to CH 3 asymmetric stretching vibration intensity. Autoclaving had no significant effect ( P > 0.05) on lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (with average spectral peak area intensities of 138.3 and 68.8 IR intensity units, respectively). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH 3 and CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2988-2790 cm -1). The results indicated that autoclaving had an impact to the mid-infrared molecular spectrum of flaxseed to identify heat-induced changes in lipid conformation. A future study is needed to quantify the relationship between lipid molecular structure changes and functionality/availability.

  5. Vasopressin-induced morphological changes in polarized rat hepatocyte multiplets: dual calcium-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Serrire, Valrie; Tran, Dien; Stelly, Nicole; Claret, Michel; Alonso, Grard; Tordjmann, Thierry; Guillon, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-mobilizing hormones and neurotransmitters are known to affect cell morphology and function including cell differentiation or division. In this study, we examined vasopressin (AVP)-induced morphological changes in a polarized system of rat hepatocytes. Light and electron microscope observations showed that AVP induced microvilli formation and a remodeling of the isolated hepatocyte F-actin submembrane cytoskeleton, these two events being correlated. We showed that these effects were rapid, reversible, observed at nanomolar AVP concentration and mediated by the V(1a) receptor. On polarized multicellular systems of hepatocytes, we observed a rapid reduction of the bile canaliculi lumen at the apical pole and micovilli formation at the basolateral domain with an enlarged F-actin cytoskeleton. Neither activation of protein kinase C nor A via phorbol ester or dibutyryl cAMP induced such rapid morphological changes, at variance with ionomycin, suggesting that AVP-induced intracellular calcium rise plays a crucial role in those effects. By using spectrofluorimetry and cytochemistry, we showed that calcium release from intracellular stores was involved in bile canaliculus contraction, while calcium entry from the extracellular space controlled microvilli formation. Taken together, AVP and calcium-mobilizing agonists differentially regulate physiological hepatocyte plasma membrane events at the basal and the apical domains via topographically specialized calcium-dependent mechanisms. PMID:17555812

  6. Polarization of macrophages induced by Toxoplasma gondii and its impact on abnormal pregnancy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lanting; Zhang, Qian; Chao, Jing; Wen, Huiqin; Zhang, Yihua; Chen, He; Pappoe, Faustina; Zhang, Aimei; Xu, Xiucai; Cai, Yihong; Li, Min; Luo, Qingli; Zhang, Linjie; Shen, Jilong

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is the leading cause of fetal intrauterine growth retardation among the five kinds of pathogens termed as TORCH, including Toxoplasma, Rubella virus, Cytomegalo virus, herpes virus and others during pregnancy. Pathogens infect the fetus through the placenta. T. gondii infection may result in congenital toxoplasmosis, miscarriage, stillbirth, and preemie, and increase pregnancy complications. Adaptive immune response induced by T. gondii infection stimulates T cells and macrophages to produce high levels of cytokines. Physiologically, the microenvironment of pregnancy was Th2-dominant. Here we set up a pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat model, and reported the polarization of macrophages induced by genotype Chinese 1 strain (Wh6) of Toxoplasma, and its adverse impact on pregnancy. The results showed that Wh6 infection pre- or in-gestation both led to abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Peritoneal macrophages in pre-gestation infection were polarized toward classically activated macrophages (M1), while in-gestation infection drove macrophages to polarize toward M2 activation. The Th2-dominant immune response in pregnant rat somewhat inhibits the excessive bias of the macrophages toward M1, and partially, toward M2. Infection of pre- and in-gestation may alter the physiological immune microenvironment in pregnant rats, giving rise to abnormal pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25496968

  7. Method and apparatus for determining shaliness and oil saturations in earth formations using induced polarization in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1982-11-16

    An apparatus is disclosed for borehole measurements of the induced polarization of earth formations. The apparatus consists of an induced polarization logger capable of measuring both in-phase and quadrature conductivities in the frequency domain. A method is described which uses these measurements to determine cation exchange capacity per unit pore volume, Qv, brine conductivity, Cw, and oil and water saturations, So and Sw, in shaly sands.

  8. Vector magnetometry based on electromagnetically induced transparency in linearly polarized light

    SciTech Connect

    Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Dudin, Y. O.; Velichansky, V. L.; Zibrov, A. S.; Zibrov, S. A.

    2010-09-15

    We develop a generalized principle of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) vector magnetometry based on high-contrast EIT resonances and the symmetry of atom-light interaction in the linearly polarized bichromatic fields. Operation of such vector magnetometer on the D{sub 1} line of {sup 87}Rb has been demonstrated. The proposed compass-magnetometer has an increased immunity to shifts produced by quadratic Zeeman and ac-Stark effects, as well as by atom-buffer gas and atom-atom collisions. In our proof-of-principle experiment the detected angular sensitivity to magnetic field orientation is 10{sup -3} deg/Hz{sup 1/2}, which is limited by laser intensity fluctuations, light polarization quality, and magnitude of the magnetic field.

  9. Four-wave mixing using polarization grating induced thermal grating in liquids exhibiting circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, J.A.; Tong, W.G.; Chandler, D.W.; Rahn, L.A.

    1995-04-01

    A novel four-wave mixing technique for the detection of circular dichroism in optically active liquid samples is demonstrated. When two cross-polarized laser beams are crossed at a small angle in a circular dichroic liquid a weak thermal grating is produced with a phase depending on the sign of the circular dichroism. The authors show that the polarization of one of the beams can be modified to allow coherent interference with an intensity-grating induced thermal grating. A probe beam scattering from the composite grating results in a signal that reveals the sign and magnitude of the circular dichroism. The use of this technique to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of scattered light and laser intensity noise is discussed.

  10. Flexoelectric polarization changes induced by light in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, D. S.; Rudquist, P.; Ichimura, K.; Kudo, K.; Komitov, L.; Lagerwall, S. T.

    1997-03-01

    In a nematic liquid crystal where the director field has a splay-bend deformation mediated by the boundary conditions there is a certain intrinsic polarization density distribution characteristic of the flexoelectric properties of the medium. By application of an electric field perpendicular to the director, a twist is induced which is a measure of the flexoelectric anisotropy [I. Dozov, Ph. Martinot-Lagarde, and G. Durand, J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 43, L-365 (1982)]. We show that in molecules susceptible to a photoinduced configurational change we may change the volume polarization by UV illumination and relate the change in flexoelectric coefficients to the configurational change in the molecule. In the experiment we use the British Drug House (Merck) nematic mixture E7 doped with 5 wt % of the dye 4-hexyloxy-(4'-hexyl)azobenzene. The photoinduced trans-cis configurational change leads to an increase by 40% in the flexoelectric anisotropy (es-eb)/K.

  11. Polarization dependent formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures near stepped features

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2014-06-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are formed near 110 nm-tall Au microstructured edges on Si substrates after single-pulse femtosecond irradiation with a 150 fs pulse centered near a 780 nm wavelength. We investigate the contributions of Fresnel diffraction from step-edges and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation to LIPSS formation on Au and Si surfaces. For certain laser polarization vector orientations, LIPSS formation is dominated by SPP excitation; however, when SPP excitation is minimized, Fresnel diffraction dominates. The LIPSS orientation and period distributions are shown to depend on which mechanism is activated. These results support previous observations of the laser polarization vector influencing LIPSS formation on bulk surfaces.

  12. 13C hyperpolarization of a barbituric acid derivative via parahydrogen induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Meike; Koch, Achim; Kindervater, Petra; Bargon, Joachim; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Mnnemann, Kerstin

    2010-05-01

    Significant 13C NMR signal enhancement by a factor of 5000 of a barbituric acid derivative (5-methyl-5-propenyl-barbituric acid) via parahydrogen induced polarization is presented. This hyperpolarization is achieved by hydrogenating 5-methyl-5-propargyl-barbituric acid with 98% enriched para-H 2 under elevated temperature and pressure and transferring the initially created 1H hyperpolarization with an INEPT-derived pulse sequence to 13C. The polarization can be selectively transferred to different carbons in the barbituric acid derivative by applying different pulse delays in the INEPT pulse sequence. These results demonstrate the potential of using hyperpolarized barbituric acid derivatives as " active" contrast agents in MRI and visualizing their pharmacokinetics in vivo.

  13. Growth and polarized spectral properties of Sm3+ doped in Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-09-01

    A Sm3+-doped Ca3La2(BO3)4 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. Its polarized absorption, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out at room temperature. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the spectroscopic parameters ?t (t = 2, 4, 6), radiative transition probabilities, radiative lifetime and fluorescence branching ratios were obtained. The stimulated emission cross section, the fluorescence lifetime and the quantum efficiency of the promising laser transition were also calculated and compared with other reported crystals. The results showed that Sm3+:Ca3La2(BO3)4 is a promising candidate for the orange-yellow laser emission.

  14. Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanari, Masahiro; Miura, Masahiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2007-07-01

    Phase retardation of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is measured by polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography (PS-SD-OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). In PS-SD-OCT, birefringence of the optical fiber and the cornea is compensated by Jones matrix based analysis. Three-dimensional phase retardation map around the optic nerve head and en face phase retardation map of the RNFL are shown. It is shown that the phase retardation curves around the optic nerve head measured by PS-SD-OCT and SLP have similar values. PS-SD-OCT can measure the cumulative phase retardation of RNFL as well as SLP and has a possibility to evaluate RNFL for glaucomatous eyes.

  15. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  16. The Spectral Emission Characteristics of Laser Induced Plasma on Tea Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Peichao; Shi, Minjie; Wang, Jinmei; Liu, Hongdi

    2015-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a useful technique for food security as well as determining nutrition contents. In this paper, optical emission studies of laser induced plasma on commercial tea samples were carried out. The spectral intensities of Mg, Mn, Ca, Al, C and CN vibration bands varying with laser energy and the detection delay time of an intensified charge coupled device were studied. In addition, the relative concentrations of six microelements, i.e., Mg, Mn, Ca, Al, Na and K, were analyzed semi-quantitatively as well as H, for four kinds of tea samples. Moreover, the plasma parameters were explored, including electron temperature and electron number density. The electron temperature and electron number density were around 11000 K and 1017 cm-3, respectively. The results show that it is reasonable to consider the LIBS technique as a new method for analyzing the compositions of tea leaf samples. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61205149), the Scientific and Technological Talents Training Project of Chongqing, China (No. CSTC2013kjrc-qnrc40002), the Scientific and Technological Project of Nan'an District (2011) and the Visiting Scholarship of State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology at Chongqing University, China (No. 2007DA10512714409)

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Deok Rim; Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik; Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee; Park, Won Sun; Lee, Min-Goo; Kim, Daejin; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min; Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  18. Cytokine responses induced by diesel exhaust particles are suppressed by PAR-2 silencing and antioxidant treatment, and driven by polar and non-polar soluble constituents.

    PubMed

    Bach, Nicolai; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Brinchmann, Bendik C; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Skuland, Tonje; Holme, Jørn A; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per E; Øvrevik, Johan

    2015-10-14

    Adsorbed soluble organics seem to be the main drivers of inflammatory responses induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP). The specific compounds contributing to this process and the cellular mechanisms behind DEP-induced inflammation are not well known. We have assessed pro-inflammatory effects of DEP and various soluble DEP fractions, in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). DEP increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL8. Silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by siRNA or pretreatment with AhR-antagonists did not attenuate DEP-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 responses. However, the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (HAH)-selective AhR antagonist CH223191 caused a considerable reduction in DEP-induced CYP1A1 expression indicating that this response may be due to dioxin or dioxin-like constituents in DEP. Knock-down of protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 attenuated IL-6 responses without affecting CXCL8. Antioxidants did not affect IL-6 expression after 4h DEP-exposure and only partly reduced CXCL8 expression. However, after 24h exposure antioxidant treatment partly suppressed IL-6 protein release and completely blocked CXCL8 release. Furthermore, a heptane-soluble (non-polar) extract of DEP induced both IL-6 and CXCL8 release, whereas a PBS-soluble (highly polar) extract induced only IL-6. Thus, pro-inflammatory responses in DEP-exposed epithelial cells appear to be the result of both reactive oxygen species and receptor signaling, mediated through combinatorial effects between both non-polar and polar constituents adhered to the particle surface. PMID:26160521

  19. Cytochalasin-Induced Actin Disruption of Polarized Enterocytes Can Augment Internalization of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Carol L.; van de Westerlo, Elisabeth M. A.; Jechorek, Robert P.; Haines, Holly M.; Erlandsen, Stanley L.

    1998-01-01

    Cytochalasin-induced actin disruption has often been associated with decreased bacterial internalization by cultured epithelial cells, although polarized enterocytes have not been systematically studied. In assays using confluent polarized HT-29 enterocytes, cytochalasin D appeared to increase internalization of wild-type Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. HeLa and HEp-2 epithelial cells, as well as HT-29 and Caco-2 enterocytes, were used to clarify this unexpected observation. Resulting data showed that cytochalasin D was associated with increased internalization of S. typhimurium and P. mirabilis by both HT-29 and Caco-2 enterocytes and with increased internalization of E. coli by HT-29 enterocytes; with either HeLa or HEp-2 cells, cytochalasin was associated with no change or a decrease in internalization of these same bacterial strains. Cytochalasin caused decreased internalization of Listeria monocytogenes by HT-29, Caco-2, HeLa, and HEp-2 cells, indicating that cytochalasin did not consistently augment bacterial internalization by polarized enterocytes. Fluorescein-labeled phalloidin confirmed marked disruption of filamentous actin in cytochalasin-treated HT-29, Caco-2, HeLa, and HEp-2 cells. Cytochalasin had no noticeable effect on epithelial viability but caused distorted apical microvilli, cell rounding, and separation of adjacent enterocytes in confluent cultures (with a corresponding decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance). Scanning electron microscopy showed that cytochalasin-induced enhanced bacterial internalization was associated with preferential bacterial adherence on the exposed enterocyte lateral surface. Colchicine, used to disrupt microtubules, had no noticeable effect on bacterial internalization by HT-29 or Caco-2 enterocytes. These data indicated that for HT-29 and Caco-2 enterocytes, cytochalasin-induced disruption of filamentous actin might augment internalization of some bacterial species by a mechanism that appeared to involve exposure of the enterocyte lateral surface. PMID:9596696

  20. M2 macrophage polarization modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cisplatin-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Cherng; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity leaded to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells (ECs) and tubulointerstitial fibrosis through ROS stress and inflammatory cytokines. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by cisplatin might be via activation of resident fibroblasts and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular ECs. Inflammatory niche was crucial for progression of fibroblast activation or EMT. It had been reported that M1/M2 macrophage polarization regulated pro-inflammation or pro-resolving phase in damage repairing. However, the role of macrophage polarization on cisplatin-induced EMT of tubular ECs had not been well elucidated. In this study, we used co-cultured cell model and condition medium to examine the interaction between tubular ECs, fibroblasts and M1/M2 macrophages. Our data showed that cisplatin alone induced incomplete EMT of tubular ECs, whereas fibroblasts co-cultured with cisplatin-treated ECs could lead to fibroblast activation by detection of α-SMA and collagen-1. Moreover, decrease of iNOS and increase of argenase-1 and CD206 expression indicated that macrophages co-cultured with cisplatin-treated ECs would turn to M2 phenotype. Finally, we found that condition medium of M2 macrophages could promote complete EMT of cisplatin-treated ECs. Taken together, cisplatin created an inflammatory niche via tubular ECs to activate fibroblasts and stimulated M2 macrophage polarization. M2 macrophages could turn back to promote EMT of cisplatin-treated ECs. These results revealed the cooperative roles of tubular ECs, fibroblast and M2 macrophages to facilitate the progression of renal fibroblasis. PMID:26872813

  1. Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tiam Tan, Swee; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Wei Sun, Xiao E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org; Volkan Demir, Hilmi E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org

    2014-06-16

    InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by the strong polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells, which is a fundamental problem intrinsic to the III-nitrides. Here, we show that the QCSE is self-screened by the polarization induced bulk charges enabled by designing quantum barriers. The InN composition of the InGaN quantum barrier graded along the growth orientation opportunely generates the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barrier, which well compensate the polarization induced interface charges, thus avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using polarization induced bulk charges opens up new possibilities for device engineering of III-nitrides not only in LEDs but also in other optoelectronic devices.

  2. A Comparison of Propofol- and Dexmedetomidine-induced Electroencephalogram Dynamics Using Spectral and Coherence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akeju, Oluwaseun; Pavone, Kara J.; Westover, M. Brandon; Vazquez, Rafael; Prerau, Michael J.; Harrell, Priscilla G.; Hartnack, Katharine E.; Rhee, James; Sampson, Aaron L.; Habeeb, Kathleen; Lei, Gao; Pierce, Eric T.; Walsh, John L.; Brown, Emery N.; Purdon, Patrick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electroencephalogram patterns observed during sedation with dexmedetomidine appear similar to those observed during general anesthesia with propofol. This is evident with the occurrence of slow (0.11 Hz), delta (14 Hz), propofol-induced alpha (812 Hz), and dexmedetomidine-induced spindle (1216 Hz) oscillations. However, these drugs have different molecular mechanisms and behavioral properties, and are likely accompanied by distinguishing neural circuit dynamics. Methods We measured 64-channel electroencephalogram under dexmedetomidine (n = 9) and propofol (n = 8) in healthy volunteers, 1836 years of age. We administered dexmedetomidine with a 1mcg/kg loading bolus over 10 minutes, followed by a 0.7mcg/kg/hr infusion. For propofol, we used a computer controlled infusion to target the effect-site concentration gradually from and 0 g/mL to 5 g/mL. Volunteers listened to auditory stimuli and responded by button-press to determine unconsciousness. We analyzed the electroencephalogram using multitaper spectral and coherence analysis. Results Dexmedetomidine was characterized by spindles with maximum power and coherence at ~13 Hz, (meanstd; power, ?10.8dB3.6; coherence, 0.80.08), while propofol was characterized with frontal alpha oscillations with peak frequency at ~11 Hz (power, 1.1dB4.5; coherence, 0.90.05). Notably, slow oscillation power during a general anesthetic state under propofol (power, 13.2dB2.4) was much larger than during sedative states under both propofol (power, ?2.5dB3.5) and dexmedetomidine (power, ?0.4dB3.1). Conclusion Our results indicate that dexmedetomidine and propofol place patients into different brain states, and suggests that propofol enables a deeper state of unconsciousness by inducing large amplitude slow oscillations that produce prolonged states of neuronal silence. PMID:25187999

  3. Altered Landscapes and Groundwater Sustainability — Exploring Impacts with Induced Polarization, DC Resistivity, and Thermal Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy-Miller, C.; Caldwell, R.; Wheeler, J.; McCarthy, P.; Binley, A. M.; Constantz, J. E.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically impacted landscapes constitute rising proportions of the Earth’s surface that are characterized by generally elevated nutrient and sediment loadings concurrent with increased consumptive water withdrawals. In recent years a growing number of hydraulically engineered riparian habitat restoration projects have attempted to ameliorate negative impacts of land use on groundwater-surface water systems resulting, e.g., from agricultural practices and urban development. Often the nature of groundwater-surface water interactions in pre- and minimally altered systems is poorly known, making it difficult to assess the impacts of land use and restoration projects on groundwater sustainability. Traditional assessments of surface water parameters (flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, biotic composition, etc.) can be complemented by hydraulic and thermal measurements to better understand the important role played by groundwater-surface water interactions. Hydraulic and thermal measurements are usually limited to point samples, however, making non-invasive and spatially extensive geophysical characterizations an attractive additional tool. Groundwater-surface water interactions along the Smith River, a tributary to the Missouri River in Montana, and Fish Creek and Flat Creek, tributaries to the Snake River in Wyoming, are being examined using a combination of hydraulic measurements, thermal tracing, and electrical-property imaging. Ninety-two direct-current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization cross sections were obtained at stream transects covering a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings ranging from shallow bedrock to thick alluvial sequences, nature of groundwater-surface water interactions (always gaining, always losing, or seasonally varying) and anthropogenic impacts (minimal low-intensity agriculture to major landscape engineering, including channel reconstruction). DC resistivity and induced polarization delineated mutually distinct features related to hydraulic architecture. For example, induced polarization imaging resolved channel-edge muck deposits that are presumed to be sites of low hydraulic conductivity, chemical reduction, and metal accumulation. DC resistivity delineated bedrock-alluvium contacts and showed potential for tracking changes in salinization. While electrical properties cannot substitute for hydraulic and thermal data, the addition of relatively rapidly acquired, spatially extensive resistivity and induced polarization imaging offers synergistic opportunities for interpretive hydrologic investigations.

  4. Nonlinear dissipation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the dissipation processes of circularly polarized Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas including beam components are numerically discussed by using a 2-D hybrid simulation code. Numerical results suggest that the parent Alfven waves are rapidly dissipated due to the presence of the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves, such as kinetic Alfven waves. The nonlinear wave-wave coupling is directly evaluated by using the induction equation for the parent wave. It is also observed both in the 1-D and 2-D simulations that the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves strongly suppresses the beam instabilities.

  5. Frequency-dependent polarization-angle-phase-shift in the microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Han-Chun; Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2015-02-14

    Linear polarization angle, θ, dependent measurements of the microwave radiation-induced oscillatory magnetoresistance, R{sub xx}, in high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron devices have shown a θ dependence in the oscillatory amplitude along with magnetic field, frequency, and extrema-dependent phase shifts, θ{sub 0}. Here, we suggest a microwave frequency dependence of θ{sub 0}(f) using an analysis that averages over other smaller contributions, when those contributions are smaller than estimates of the experimental uncertainty.

  6. Pressure-induced commensurate phase with potential giant polarization in YMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, M.; Hansen, T. C.; Fernandez-Diaz, M. T.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Porcher, F.; Mirebeau, I.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied multiferroic YMn2O5 by high-pressure neutron diffraction in a large pressure range from 0.5 to 6.3 GPa. We observe a pressure-induced commensurate (PCM) phase with a propagation vector (1/2 0 1/2 ) that is different from those observed at ambient pressure. It coexists with the ambient pressure phases up to the highest pressure, with an increased contribution as the pressure increases. The PCM phase, which is likely generic in the R Mn2O5 family, should be taken into account to understand the strong variation of the electric polarization under pressure.

  7. Observation of spectral composition and polarization of sub-terahertz emission from dense plasma during relativistic electron beamplasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Postupaev, V. V.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Burdakov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, D. E.; Kasatov, A. A.; Mekler, K. I.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Sklyarov, V. F.

    2014-08-15

    The paper presents results of measurements of sub-terahertz electromagnetic emission from magnetized plasma during injection of a powerful relativistic electron beam of microsecond duration in plasma with the density of 3??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?3}. It was found that the spectrum of the radiation concentrated in three distinct regions with high level of spectral power density. The first region is located near f{sub 1}?=?100?GHz; the second one is in the vicinity of 190?GHz, and the third region is in the frequency interval f{sub 3}?=?280340?GHz. Polarization vectors of the emission in the first and third regions (f{sub 1} and f{sub 3}) are directed mainly perpendicular to the magnetic field in the plasma. At the same time, the polarization of the radiation in the vicinity of f{sub 2}?=?190?GHz is parallel to the magnetic field. The most likely mechanism of electromagnetic wave generation in the frequency regions f{sub 1} and f{sub 2} is the linear conversion of the plasma oscillations into the electromagnetic waves on strong gradients of the plasma density. The third region is situated in the vicinity of second harmonic of electron plasma frequency, and we explain this emission by the coalescence of the upper-hybrid oscillations at high level turbulence in plasma.

  8. Fourier transform infrared spectral detection of life in polar subsurface environments and its application to Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Preston, Louisa J; Johnson, Diane; Cockell, Charles S; Grady, Monica M

    2015-09-01

    Cryptoendolithic lichen communities of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, survive in an extremely inhospitable environment, finding refuge in microscopic niches where conditions suitable for life exist. Such "within-rock" communities may have evolved on Mars when conditions for life on the surface deteriorated to such an extent that they could no longer survive. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of unprepared whole-rock Antarctic Beacon sandstones was used to vertically profile molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, and carboxylic acids created by endolithic communities. Spectral biosignatures were found localized to lichen-rich areas and were absent in crustal regions and the bulk rock substrate. These cryptoendolithic profiles will aid similar spectroscopic investigations of organic biosignatures during future Martian subsurface studies and will help in the identification of similar communities in other localities across the Earth. PMID:26414525

  9. Macro- and microscopic spectral-polarization characteristics of the structure of normal and abnormally located chordae tendianeae of left ventricular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyk, Yu. Yu.; Prydij, O. G.; Zymnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The morphological peculiarities of TS mitral valve of the heart of man in normal and abnormal spaced strings of the left ventricle and the study of their structural features depending on the location was studied. There are given the results of comparative statistics, correlation and fractal study population Mueller-matrix images (MMI) of healthy and abnormal (early forms that are not diagnosed by histological methods) BT normal and abnormally located tendon strings left ventricle of the human heart. Abnormalities in the structure of the wings, tendon strings (TS), mastoid muscle (MM) in inconsistencies elements and harmonized operation of all valve complex shown in the features of the polarization manifestations of it laser images.

  10. Electric field-induced polarization rotation and ultrahigh piezoelectricity in PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenhui; Hao, Aize

    2014-03-01

    Polarization rotation, phase changes, and piezoelectric property of PbTiO3 under high electric field have been investigated using a Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach. Electric field versus temperature phase diagram has been constructed. Tetragonal (T)-monoclinic (MA)-rhombohedral (R) phase transition occurs when electric field is applied along pseudo-cubic [111] axis, and piezoelectric coefficient d33 is remarkably enhanced near the critical electric field for MA-R transition. With electric field applied along pseudo-cubic [011] axis, the polarization rotation involves the other two monoclinic phases (MB and MC), and ultrahigh d33 over 8000 pC/N has been found at the monoclinic-orthorhombic (M-O) transition region. The critical field for M-O transition (1000 MV/m) can be greatly lowered under hydrostatic pressure. Based on the reported strain gradient induced polarization rotation in epitaxial film, flexoelectric coefficient ?12 of PbTiO3 is estimated to be 156-312 nC/m at room temperature.

  11. Breakdown-induced polarization buildup in porous fluoropolymer sandwiches: a thermally stable piezoelectret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z.; von Seggern, H.

    2006-01-01

    The buildup of air-breakdown-induced polarization in a one-side-metallized three-layer sandwich structure consisting of fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) / expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) / FEP has been studied utilizing a corona triode for voltage application. The FEP layers form structurally and electrically dense layers, whereas the ePTFE layer consists of 91% air and 9% fibrous PTFE. Upon negative corona charging, breakdown sets in within the pores of the ePTFE, as soon as the electric field strength exceeds the Paschen breakdown value of air. The resulting ion-plasma then separates in the strong electric field of the corona-deposited surface charges whereby ions of the two polarities drift towards opposite FEP layers, where they are trapped, and macroscopic dipoles are formed. These dipoles are responsible for a strong piezoelectricity. It will be demonstrated by thermally stimulated discharge currents that when poling is performed at elevated temperatures, for example, 150 C, the polarization is temperature stable, and consequently so is the piezoelectric d33 coefficient. The d33 coefficients, however, decay from 800 to 400 pC/N under atmospheric pressures within six days, and repeated loading also shows a similar loss of piezoelectricity, related to mechanical relaxation of the highly porous ePTFE.

  12. Magnetically-induced electric polarization in an organo-metallic magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Zapf, W S; Fabris, F W; Balakirev, F F; Francoual, S M; Kenzelmann, M; Chen, Y

    2009-01-01

    The coupling between magnetic order and ferroelectricity has been under intense investigation in a wide range of transition metal oxides. The strongest coupling is obtained in so-called magnetically induced multiferroics where ferroelectricity arises directly from magnetic order that breaks inversion symmetry. However, it has been difficult to find non-oxide based materials in which these effects occur. Here we present a study of copper dimethyl sulfoxide dichloride (CDC), an organometallic quantum magnet containing S =1/1 Cu spins, in which a switchable electric polarization arises from field-tuned magnetic order. Fast magnetic field pulses allow us to perform sensitive measurements of the electric polarization and demonstrate that the electric state is present only if the magnetic order is non-collinear. Furthermore, we show that the electric polarization can be switched in a stunning hysteretic fashion. Because the magnetic order in CDC is mediated by large organic molecules, our study shows that magnetoelectric interactions can exist in this important class of materials, opening the road to designing magnetoelectrics and multiferroics using large molecules as building blocks. Further, we demonstrate that CDC undergoes a magnetoelectric quantum phase transition -the first of its kind, where both ferroelectric and magnetic order emerge simultaneously as a function of magnetic field at very low temperatures.

  13. Integration of Induced Polarization Imaging, Ground Penetrating Radar and geochemical analysis to characterize hydrocarbon spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrian; Kreutzer, Ingrid; Bcker, Matthias; Nguyen, Frederic; Hofmann, Thilo; Dberl, Gernot

    2015-04-01

    Because of their capability to provide spatially continuous data, Induced Polarization (IP) Imaging and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) have recently emerged as alternative non-invasive methods for the characterization of contaminated sites. In particular, the IP method has demonstrated to be sensitive to both, changes in the chemical composition of groundwater as a result of dissolved pollutants, and to the geometry of the pore space due to the occurrence of contaminants in non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Although promising, an adequate interpretation of the IP imaging results requires geochemical information obtained from the analysis of soil and water samples. However, to date just rare studies have investigated the IP response at the field scale due to different contaminant concentrations. To demonstrate the advantages of an integrated geophysical and geochemical site investigation, we present studies from different hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. We observed a linear correlation between the polarization effect and the contaminant concentration for dissolved contaminants in the saturated zone. A negligible polarization effect was observed, however, in areas associated with the occurrence of contaminants in NAPL. Compared to the contaminant distribution obtained from the geochemical analysis only, the images obtained from time-domain IP measurements significantly improved the delineation of the contaminant plume. As a first step, GPR data collected along the same profiles provided complementary structural information and improved the interpretation of the IP images. The resolution of the electrical images was further improved using regularization constraints, based on the GPR and geochemical data, in the inversion of IP data.

  14. Detection of gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Chara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertically-oriented internodal cells of characean algae. The motive force that powers cytoplasmic streaming is generated at the ectoplasmic/endoplasmic interface. The velocity of streaming, which is about 100 micrometers/s at this interface, decreases with distance from the interface on either side of the cell to 0 micrometers/s near the middle. Therefore, when discussing streaming velocity it is necessary to specify the tangential plane through the cell in which streaming is being measured. This is easily done with a moderate resolution light microscope (which has a lateral resolution of 0.6 micrometers and a depth of field of 1.4 micrometers), but is obscured when using any low resolution technique, such as low magnification light microscopy or laser Doppler spectroscopy. In addition, the effect of gravity on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming declines with increasing physiological age of isolated cells. Using a classical mechanical analysis, we show that the effect of gravity on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming cannot result from the effect of gravity acting directly on individual cytoplasmic particles. We suggest that gravity may best be perceived by the entire cell at the plasma membrane-extracellular matrix junction.

  15. Mapping the chemical potential dependence of current-induced spin polarization in a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Sue; Richardella, Anthony; Hickey, Danielle Reifsnyder; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Samarth, Nitin

    2015-10-01

    We report electrical measurements of the current-induced spin polarization of the surface current in topological insulator devices where contributions from bulk and surface conduction can be disentangled by electrical gating. The devices use a ferromagnetic tunnel junction (permalloy/Al 2O3 ) as a spin detector on a back-gated (Bi,Sb ) 2Te3 channel. We observe hysteretic voltage signals as the magnetization of the detector ferromagnet is switched parallel or antiparallel to the spin polarization of the surface current. The amplitude of the detected voltage change is linearly proportional to the applied dc bias current in the (Bi,Sb ) 2Te3 channel. As the chemical potential is tuned from the bulk bands into the surface state band, we observe an enhancement of the spin-dependent voltages up to 300% within the range of the electrostatic gating. Using a simple model, we extract the spin polarization near charge neutrality (i.e., the Dirac point).

  16. Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies of guanosine in nucleotides, dinucleotides, and oligonucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, E.F.; Morden, K.M.; Pardi, A.; Tinoco, I. Jr.; Boxer, S.G.

    1984-04-24

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) has been used to study the reactions between photoexcited flavins and a wide variety of nucleotides, dinucleotides, and oligonucleotides. The greatest emphasis is placed on the purine nucleosides adenosine (A), inosine (I), and guanosine (G), particularly guanosine. The presence of G suppresses the CIDNP effect for A, although A by itself shows very strong CIDNP. Very intense CIDNP signals are observed for the H8 proton in G-containing mononucleotides, but no nuclear polarization is detected for the sugar H1' proton. In contrast, both H8 and H1' protons exhibit CIDNP for G in a wide range of dinucleotides and higher oligonucleotides. Several possible mechanisms are analyzed to explain the H1' polarization, and it is concluded that the sugar H1' proton probably obtains spin density through interaction with guanine nitrogen 3. The proximity of the H1' proton to N3 depends explicity on the glycosidic torsion angle, chi. CIDNP studies of several model compounds in which chi is fixed are consistent with this suggestion. CIDNP for the self-complementary tetramer ApGpCpU was studied as a function of temperature. Strong CIDNP from G is only observed at temperatures above the double-strand melting temperature, suggesting that CIDNP is only detected in single-stranded regions, where the base is accessible to solvent. The use of brominated riboflavin as the photoreagent in place of riboflavin is shown to selectively invert the sign of A, I, and 1-methylguanosine polarization, providing a convenient method for distinguishing the NMR spectra of these residues in complex oligonucleotides.

  17. Effect of pulse polarity and energy on ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage in adult rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzell, Leon A.; Zachary, James F.; O'Brien, William D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to further assess the role of inertial cavitation in ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage by examining the effect of pulse polarity at a common in situ (at the lung surface) peak rarefactional pressure [pr(in situ)] and at a common in situ pulse intensity integral (PIIin situ). A total of 60 rats was divided into three experimental groups of 20 animals per group and randomly exposed to pulsed ultrasound. The groups were exposed as follows: Group 1 to 0° polarity pulses (compression followed by rarefraction) at a pr(in situ) of 3.48 MPa and a PIIin situ of 4.78 Ws/m2, group 2 to 180° polarity pulses (rarefraction followed by compression) at a pr(in situ) of 3.72 MPa and a PIIin situ of 2.55 Ws/m2, and group 3 to 180° polarity pulses at a pr(in situ) of 4.97 MPa and a PIIin situ of 4.79 Ws/m2. For all experimental groups, the frequency was 2.46 MHz, the exposure duration was 240 s, the pulse repetition frequency was 2.5 kHz, and the pulse duration was 0.42 μs. Six sham animals were also randomly distributed among the experimental animals. The lesion surface area and depth were determined for each rat as well as lesion occurrence (percentage of rats with lesions) per group. It was found that lesion occurrence and size correlated better with PIIin situ than with pr(in situ), suggesting that a mechanism other than inertial cavitation was responsible for the damage.

  18. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence. PMID:26302781

  19. Wave trains induced by circularly polarized electric fields in cardiac tissues

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Juan-Mei; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, cardiac fibrillation caused by spiral and turbulent waves can be terminated by globally resetting electric activity in cardiac tissues with a single high-voltage electric shock, but it is usually associated with severe side effects. Presently, a promising alternative uses wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a sequence of low-voltage uniform electric field pulses. Nevertheless, this method can only emit waves locally near obstacles in turbulent waves and thereby requires multiple obstacles to globally synchronize myocardium and thus to terminate fibrillation. Here we propose a new approach using wave emission from heterogeneities induced by a low-voltage circularly polarized electric field (i.e., a rotating uniform electric field). We find that, this approach can generate circular wave trains near obstacles and they propagate outwardly. We study the characteristics of such circular wave trains and further find that, the higher-frequency circular wave trains can effectively suppress spiral turbulence. PMID:26302781

  20. Polarization induced 2D hole gas in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenbuchner, S.; Majewski, J. A.; Zandler, G.; Vogl, P.

    2001-09-01

    The generation of high density 2D hole gases is crucial for further progress in the electronic and optoelectronic nitride devices. In this paper, we present systematic theoretical studies of Mg-doped GaN/AlGaN gated heterostructures and superlattices. Our calculations are based on a self-consistent solution of the multiband k. p Schrödinger and Poisson equation and reveal that the hole 2D sheet density is mainly determined by the polarization induced interface charges. For an aluminium concentration of 30%, the induced hole density in the heterostructure can reach values up to 1.5×10 13 cm -2. In the GaN/AlGaN superlattices, the hole sheet density increases with the superlattice period and saturates for a period of 40 nm at a value of 1.5×10 13 cm -2.

  1. Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, A. V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, V. Ya.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2014-03-03

    In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here, we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

  2. Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications, and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

  3. Self-Induced Polar Order of Active Brownian Particles in a Harmonic Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Marc; Wolff, Katrin; Stark, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Hydrodynamically interacting active particles in an external harmonic potential form a self-assembled fluid pump at large enough Pclet numbers. Here, we give a quantitative criterion for the formation of the pump and show that particle orientations align in the self-induced flow field in surprising analogy to ferromagnetic order where the active Pclet number plays the role of inverse temperature. The particle orientations follow a Boltzmann distribution ?(p)exp(Apz) where the ordering mean field A scales with the active Pclet number and polar order parameter. The mean flow field in which the particles' swimming directions align corresponds to a regularized Stokeslet with strength proportional to swimming speed. Analytic mean-field results are compared with results from Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interactions included and are found to capture the self-induced alignment very well.

  4. Inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in rat brain by polar and non-polar extracts of Annatto (Bixa orellana) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akomolafe, Toyin L; Adefegha, Stephen A; Adetuyi, Abayomi O

    2011-03-01

    Annatto (Bixa orellana) seeds are widely distributed throughout the Tropics and have been used to provide both colour and flavour to food. This study sought to assess the ability of dietary inclusion of polar (water) and non-polar (chloroform) extracts of Annatto (B. orellana) seeds on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. The total phenol content and antioxidant activities of polar (water) and non-polar (chloroform) extracts of Annatto seeds were determined in vitro and in vivo. The results of the study showed that intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg of body weight) caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the brain; however, dietary inclusion of Annatto seed extracts (0.1% and 0.2%) caused dose-dependent significant decrease (P<0.05) in the MDA content of the brain. Likewise, the extracts also caused dose-dependent inhibition of the elevated serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. However, the non-polar extract had significantly higher inhibitory effects on the elevated MDA production in brain and serum liver function markers. This higher protective effect of the non-polar extract could be attributed to its higher antioxidant properties as typified by its significantly higher (P<0.05) reducing power, free-radical scavenging and Fe (II) chelating ability. Therefore, dietary inclusion of Annato seed extracts as food colourant could prevent oxidative stress occasioned by cyclophosphamide administration, but the non-polar extract is a better protectant. PMID:20137904

  5. Controlling pulse delay by light and low magnetic fields: slow light in emerald induced by transient spectral hole-burning.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rajitha Papukutty; Riesen, Hans; Rebane, Aleksander

    2013-11-15

    Slow light based on transient spectral hole-burning is reported for emerald, Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18):Cr(3+). Experiments were conducted in ? polarization on the R(1)( 3/2) line (E2 ? A(2)4) at 2.2 K in zero field and low magnetic fields B||c. The hole width was strongly dependent on B||c, and this allowed us to smoothly tune the pulse delay from 40 to 154 ns between zero field and B||c = 15.2 mT. The latter corresponds to a group velocity of 16 km/s. Slow light in conjunction with a linear filter theory can be used as a powerful and accurate technique in time-resolved spectroscopy, e.g., to determine spectral hole-widths as a function of time. PMID:24322070

  6. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c–axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c–axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  7. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c–axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c–axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics.

  8. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  9. Hierarchical Bayesian method for mapping biogeochemical hot spots using induced polarization imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Haruko M.; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Bücker, Matthias; Dafflon, Baptiste; Chen, Jinsong; Hubbard, Susan S.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    In floodplain environments, a naturally reduced zone (NRZ) is considered to be a common biogeochemical hot spot, having distinct microbial and geochemical characteristics. Although important for understanding their role in mediating floodplain biogeochemical processes, mapping the subsurface distribution of NRZs over the dimensions of a floodplain is challenging, as conventional wellbore data are typically spatially limited and the distribution of NRZs is heterogeneous. In this study, we present an innovative methodology for the probabilistic mapping of NRZs within a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface domain using induced polarization imaging, which is a noninvasive geophysical technique. Measurements consist of surface geophysical surveys and drilling-recovered sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy field site near Rifle, CO (USA). Inversion of surface time domain-induced polarization (TDIP) data yielded 3-D images of the complex electrical resistivity, in terms of magnitude and phase, which are associated with mineral precipitation and other lithological properties. By extracting the TDIP data values colocated with wellbore lithological logs, we found that the NRZs have a different distribution of resistivity and polarization from the other aquifer sediments. To estimate the spatial distribution of NRZs, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to integrate the geophysical and wellbore data. In addition, the resistivity images were used to estimate hydrostratigraphic interfaces under the floodplain. Validation results showed that the integration of electrical imaging and wellbore data using a Bayesian hierarchical model was capable of mapping spatially heterogeneous interfaces and NRZ distributions thereby providing a minimally invasive means to parameterize a hydrobiogeochemical model of the floodplain.

  10. Time lapse electrical resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of near-surface CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgre, V.; Kremer, T.; Williard, E.; Schmutz, M.; Maineult, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Field experiments were carried out to investigate the efficiency and the reliability of electrical geophysical methods to detect and monitor CO2 leakages at field scale. Each test consisted of injecting CO2 for approximately four hours at five meters depth, corresponding to a cumulative mass of gas of around six kilograms. Electrical resistivity tomography and temporal induced polarization were acquired at the surface before, during and after injections along profiles centered to the injection well. Time lapse measurements were compared to a reference acquisition performed before the injection. We observe that both methods are sensitive to variations in terms of gas saturation, the chargeability measurements being more sensitive to the presence of CO2 than electrical resistivity. During the injection, an increase of chargeability and a decrease of the measured resistivity are observed at depth in the vinicity of the injection well. Afterwards, the medium equilibrates and retrieves its original state, corresponding to the reference acquisition. The temporal variations of electrical resistivity and induced polarization responses are interpreted in terms of gas dissolution and water/gas saturation.

  11. The use of the multiple-gradient array for geoelectrical resistivity and induced polarization imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.; Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of most conventional electrode configurations in electrical resistivity survey is often time consuming and labour intensive, especially when using manual data acquisition systems. Often, data acquisition teams tend to reduce data density so as to speed up field operation thereby reducing the survey cost; but this could significantly degrade the quality and resolution of the inverse models. In the present work, the potential of using the multiple-gradient array, a non-conventional electrode configuration, for practical cost effective and rapid subsurface resistivity and induced polarization mapping was evaluated. The array was used to conduct 2D resistivity and time-domain induced polarization imaging along two traverses in a study site at Ota, southwestern Nigeria. The subsurface was characterised and the main aquifer delineated using the inverse resistivity and chargeability images obtained. The performance of the multiple-gradient array was evaluated by correlating the 2D resistivity and chargeability images with those of the conventional Wenner array as well as the result of some soundings conducted along the same traverses using Schlumberger array. The multiple-gradient array has been found to have the advantage of measurement logistics and improved image resolution over the Wenner array.

  12. Study case - Induced Polarization response from a BTEX contaminated site in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustra, A.; Elis, V.; Minozzo, M.

    2011-12-01

    A hydrocarbon contaminated site in Brazil was investigated using DC-resistivity and Induced Polarization (IP) methods. The study area is a chemical industry facility that manufactures paint for automobiles. The industrial process involves the use of many hydrocarbon derivative products, including BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene) and organic chlorides. The area was contaminated by some (not documented) accidental spills of BTEX throughout many years. Monitoring wells revealed concentrations from a few ppm to hundreds ppm of BTEX around the area, as well as other compounds. Two soil samples were collected from an area where some spills where known to have happened. Soil analyses of these samples found the presence of microbes, and therefore biodegradation is believed to be occurring at the site. The objective of this study is to relate the IP response distribution to the presence of contamination and/or microbial activity. The geophysical survey consisted in a rectangular mesh composed of 15 parallel lines with 60 meters of extension, using dipole-dipole array. Lines were spaced by 3 meters. Metallic electrodes were used for current injection, and non-polarizing electrodes (Cu/CuSO4) for potential measurement. Current was injected in cycles of 2 seconds. IP measurements were recorded after 160 milliseconds delay of current shut off, and integration time windows were 120, 220, 420, and 820 milliseconds. All data were concatenated into a single data set and submitted to 3D inversion routine. A conductive zone (resistivity less than 100 ohm.m and chargeability less than 2mV/V) was observed where microbes were found. This feature was interpreted as possibly due to natural biodegradation process, that increases total dissolved salts as a result of mineral weathering by organic acids produced in the degradation process. Normalized chargeability (chargeability divided by resistivity) showed an enhanced polarization zone where microbes were detected. This result was interpreted as possibly due to growth and attachment of microbes to grain surfaces, increasing grain surface area and therefore polarization. These results are in good agreement with published studies relating conductivity and polarization increase with microbial activity. However, further research is need on the effect of microbial activity on normalized chargeability, since this parameter is very sensitive to lithology and surface chemistry. The results from this work could assist the interpretation of IP surveys at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites undergoing natural degradation and at bioremediation sites.

  13. Macrophage Polarization in IL-10 Treatment of Particle-Induced Inflammation and Osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianhao; Jia, Tanghong; Gong, Weiming; Ning, Bin; Wooley, Paul H; Yang, Shang-You

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic influence and potential mechanism of IL-10 in ameliorating orthopedic debris particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis. A murine air pouch with bone implantation and polyethylene particles was also used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of IL-10. The data suggested that the particle challenges significantly promoted macrophage activation and osteoclastogenesis, with dramatically increased macrophage infiltration into the pouch membranes and elevated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell deposition. Immunohistochemical stains revealed a significantly higher ratio of induced nitric oxide synthase-expressing cells in the particle-challenged group; treatment with IL-10 resulted in marked switching to CD163(+) cells. Also, IL-10 effectively reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive stained cells in the pouch membranes, and minimized the bone mineral density loss compared with untreated samples. Real-time PCR and Western blot examination indicated that IL-10 treatment significantly diminished the particle-induced IL-1β expression but promoted expression of CD163, transforming growth factor-β1, and CCR2. Furthermore, IL-10 significantly inhibited the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene particle-elevated phospho-STAT1 and phospho-NF-κB p65 productions, and promoted phospho-STAT3 expression. Overall, the data indicate the pivotal effects of IL-10 on macrophage polarization. The effects of IL-10 in ameliorating local inflammation and osteolysis may be associated with macrophage polarization through the up-regulation of the Janus activating kinase/STAT3 signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of NF-κB and Janus activating kinase/STAT1 expression. PMID:26597885

  14. NOS Inhibition Modulates Immune Polarization and Improves Radiation-Induced Tumor Growth Delay.

    PubMed

    Ridnour, Lisa A; Cheng, Robert Y S; Weiss, Jonathan M; Kaur, Sukhbir; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Basudhar, Debashree; Heinecke, Julie L; Stewart, C Andrew; DeGraff, William; Sowers, Anastasia L; Thetford, Angela; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Roberts, David D; Young, Howard A; Mitchell, James B; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Wiltrout, Robert H; Wink, David A

    2015-07-15

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are important mediators of progrowth signaling in tumor cells, as they regulate angiogenesis, immune response, and immune-mediated wound healing. Ionizing radiation (IR) is also an immune modulator and inducer of wound response. We hypothesized that radiation therapeutic efficacy could be improved by targeting NOS following tumor irradiation. Herein, we show enhanced radiation-induced (10 Gy) tumor growth delay in a syngeneic model (C3H) but not immunosuppressed (Nu/Nu) squamous cell carcinoma tumor-bearing mice treated post-IR with the constitutive NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). These results suggest a requirement of T cells for improved radiation tumor response. In support of this observation, tumor irradiation induced a rapid increase in the immunosuppressive Th2 cytokine IL10, which was abated by post-IR administration of L-NAME. In vivo suppression of IL10 using an antisense IL10 morpholino also extended the tumor growth delay induced by radiation in a manner similar to L-NAME. Further examination of this mechanism in cultured Jurkat T cells revealed L-NAME suppression of IR-induced IL10 expression, which reaccumulated in the presence of exogenous NO donor. In addition to L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitors ODQ and thrombospondin-1 also abated IR-induced IL10 expression in Jurkat T cells and ANA-1 macrophages, which further suggests that the immunosuppressive effects involve eNOS. Moreover, cytotoxic Th1 cytokines, including IL2, IL12p40, and IFN?, as well as activated CD8(+) T cells were elevated in tumors receiving post-IR L-NAME. Together, these results suggest that post-IR NOS inhibition improves radiation tumor response via Th1 immune polarization within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25990221

  15. The X-ray spectrum and spectral energy distribution of FIRST J155633.8+351758: a LoBAL quasar with a probable polar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrington, Robert C.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Ganguly, Rajib; Shang, Zhaohui; DiPompeo, Michael; Chatterjee, Ritaban; Lacy, Mark; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    We report the results of a new 60 ks Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer S-array (ACIS-S) observation of the reddened, radio-selected, highly polarized `FeLoBAL' quasar FIRST J1556+3517. We investigated a number of models of varied sophistication to fit the 531-photon spectrum. These models ranged from simple power laws to power laws absorbed by hydrogen gas in differing ionization states and degrees of partial covering. Preferred fits indicate that the intrinsic X-ray flux is consistent with that expected for quasars of similarly high luminosity, i.e. an intrinsic, dereddened and unabsorbed optical to X-ray spectral index of -1.7. We cannot tightly constrain the intrinsic X-ray power-law slope, but find indications that it is flat (photon index ? = 1.7 or flatter at a >99 per cent confidence for a neutral hydrogen absorber model). Absorption is present, with a column density a few times 1023 cm-2, with both partially ionized models and partially covering neutral hydrogen models providing good fits. We present several lines of argument that suggest the fraction of X-ray emissions associated with the radio jet is not large. We combine our Chandra data with observations from the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution of FIRST J1556+3517 from radio to X-ray energies. We make corrections for Doppler beaming for the pole-on radio jet, optical dust reddening and X-ray absorption, in order to recover a probable intrinsic spectrum. The quasar FIRST J1556+3517 seems to be an intrinsically normal radio-quiet quasar with a reddened optical/UV spectrum, a Doppler-boosted but intrinsically weak radio jet and an X-ray absorber not dissimilar from that of other broad absorption line quasars.

  16. Current-induced nonequilibrium spin polarization in semiconductor-nanowire/s-wave superconductor junctions with strong spin–orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nai-Qing, Liu; Li-Jie, Huang; Rui-Qiang, Wang; Liang-Bin, Hu

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the characteristics of current-induced nonequilibrium spin polarization in semiconductor-nanowire/s-wave superconductor junctions with strong spin–orbit coupling. It was found that within some parameter regions the magnitude of the current-induced nonequilibrium spin polarization density in such structures will increase (or decrease) with the decrease (or increase) of the charge current density, in contrast to that found in normal spin–orbit coupled semiconductor structures. It was also found that the unusual characteristics of the current-induced nonequilibrium spin polarization in such structures can be well explained by the effect of the Andreev reflection. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106).

  17. Composition Changes in the Polar Stratosphere and Mesosphere Induced by the 2003 Solar Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Clarmann, T. V.; Fischer, H.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Hopfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Kaufmann, M.; Kiefer, M.; Koukouli, M. E.; Linden, A.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Milz, M.; Steck, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Wang, D. Y.; Dudhia, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a high-resolution limb sounder on board the European Space Agency ENVISAT satellite, successfully launched on March 1, 2002. MIPAS measures the atmospheric emission in the 4.15-14.6 ? m range with a spectral resolution of 0.05 cm-1 (apodised). The instrument scans the limb operationally from 6 km up to 68 km with a near-global latitude coverage both at day and nighttime. From MIPAS spectra many atmospheric constituents are retrieved, including O3, H2O, CH4, CO, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). We show in this paper the significant depletions measured in O3 at high latitudes above 35~km after the solar protons events of 28th October and 4th November 2003 in North and South polar caps. Depletions are also observed in water vapour. The temporal evolution of decreases in O3 of the changes in NOx (NO+NO2) and NOy (NOx, HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2) are shown. Increases of lower mesospheric NO2 of near 100 ppbv were measured by MIPAS. The temporal evolution of NO2, O3, and HNO3 along the winter 2003-2004 are also presented. The simultaneous measurements of such a large number of atmospheric species, with global coverage, obtained by MIPAS constitute an unprecedented dataset to study the atmospheric effects caused by large solar proton events.

  18. Orthogonal polarization mode coupling for pure twisted polarization maintaining fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Fang, Zujie; Pan, Zhengqing; Ye, Qing; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2012-12-17

    Spectral characteristics of orthogonal polarization mode coupling for pure twisted polarization maintaining fiber Bragg gratings (PM-FBG) are proposed and analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Different from the polarization mode coupling in PM-FBG due to side pressure, a resonant peak at the middle of two orthogonal polarization modes is found when the PM-FBG is twisted purely which is attributed to the cross coupling of polarization modes. Its intensity increases with the twisting rate. A new coupled mode equation is built to describe the pure twist polarization mode coupling, in which both the normal strain induced by strain-applied parts and the tangential strain induced by twisting are taken into consideration and expressed in a unified coordinate. The novel phenomenon and its explanation are believed to be helpful for PM-FBG applications in fiber sensor and laser technologies. PMID:23263124

  19. Power spectral analysis of hypoglossal nerve activity during intermittent hypoxia-induced long-term facilitation in mice.

    PubMed

    ElMallah, Mai K; Stanley, David A; Lee, Kun-Ze; Turner, Sara M F; Streeter, Kristi A; Baekey, David M; Fuller, David D

    2016-03-01

    Power spectral analyses of electrical signals from respiratory nerves reveal prominent oscillations above the primary rate of breathing. Acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia can induce a form of neuroplasticity known as long-term facilitation (LTF), in which inspiratory burst amplitude is persistently elevated. Most evidence indicates that the mechanisms of LTF are postsynaptic and also that high-frequency oscillations within the power spectrum show coherence across different respiratory nerves. Since the most logical interpretation of this coherence is that a shared presynaptic mechanism is responsible, we hypothesized that high-frequency spectral content would be unchanged during LTF. Recordings of inspiratory hypoglossal (XII) activity were made from anesthetized, vagotomized, and ventilated 129/SVE mice. When arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) was maintained >96%, the XII power spectrum and burst amplitude were unchanged for 90 min. Three, 1-min hypoxic episodes (SaO2 = 50 ± 10%), however, caused a persistent (>60 min) and robust (>400% baseline) increase in burst amplitude. Spectral analyses revealed a rightward shift of the signal content during LTF, with sustained increases in content above ∼125 Hz following intermittent hypoxia and reductions in power at lower frequencies. Changes in the spectral content during LTF were qualitatively similar to what occurred during the acute hypoxic response. We conclude that high-frequency content increases during XII LTF in this experimental preparation; this may indicate that intermittent hypoxia-induced plasticity in the premotor network contributes to expression of XII LTF. PMID:26683067

  20. Influence of physical parameters to time domain induced polarization (TDIP) response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatini, Santoso, D.; Laesanpura, A.; Sulistijo, B.

    2016-03-01

    Induced Polarization (IP) method is one of geophysical method. This method is develop the resistivity method with additional measurement in ability of the ground to store electrical charge. Electrode polarization process is a major factor to the IP response in medium that contain metallic minerals. The relationship between the metallic mineral content and TDIP will be quantized. The TDIP response is influenced by porosity, grainsize, clay and metallic mineral content. Measurement is performed of artificial samples that made of iron ore mixed with quartz and cement. The samples are varied in iron ore content (0%-80%), grainsize (65-300) micron and clay content (0%-25%). If Fe-total content greather, then rise exponentially in chargeability M=1.53exp(0.029Fe). When the density becomes larger, chargeability rise exponentially M=0.347exp(0.852Dens). The presence of clay will enlarge the chargeability and minimize resistivity exponentially Rho=15.06exp(0.02C). Chargeability is lower and resistivity is higher for larger grainsize. Increasing water saturation will reduce the value of resistivity Rho=600,7exp(-0.028W) and Rho=191.4exp(- 0.025W) for Fe-total content of 28.3% and 21.2%, respectively.

  1. Thermally induced birefringence changes in cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Jong-In; Vargas, Gracie; Ducros, Mathieu G.; Telenkov, Sergey A.; Wong, Brian J.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2001-07-01

    Thermodynamic induced changes in birefringence of nasal septal cartilage following Nd:YAG laser irradiation were investigated using a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) system. Birefringence in cartilage is due to the asymmetrical collagen fibril structure and may change if the underlying structure is disrupted due to local heat generation by absorption of laser radiation. A PSOCT instrument and an infrared imaging radiometer were used to record, respectively, depth-resolved images of the Stokes parameters of light backscattered from ex vivo porcine nasal septal cartilage and radiometric temperature following laser irradiation. PSOCT images of cartilage were recorded before (control), during, and after laser irradiation. From the measured Stokes parameters (I,Q,U, and V), an estimate of the relative phase retardation between two orthogonal polarizations was computed to determine birefringence in cartilage. Stokes parameter images of light backscattered from cartilage show significant changes due to laser irradiation. From our experiments we differentiate dehydration and thermal denaturation effects and observe the birefringence changes only in the dehydration effect. Therefore, a dynamic measurement of birefringence changes in cartilage using PSOCT as a feedback control methodology to monitor thermal denaturation is problematic in non-ablative surgical procedures such as laser assisted cartilage reshaping.

  2. Induced polarization dependence on pore space geometry: Empirical observations and mechanistic predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, A.; Slater, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    We use an extensive database to compare empirical observations and previously proposed empirical models against recently developed mechanistic formulations for the induced polarization (IP) response in porous media as a function of pore space geometry and interfacial chemistry. These comparisons support the argument that the pore-volume normalized internal surface (Spor) is the most important geometric parameter influencing the polarization. The specific polarizability derived from the empirical relationship between imaginary conductivity σ″ and Spor is independent of the porosity. By contrast, equivalent specific polarizability terms in recently proposed mechanistic models are found to be significantly correlated with porosity, and thus do not appear to represent an interfacial chemistry factor independent of the pore space geometry. Furthermore, the database shows no evidence for a significant decrease in the counterion mobility of clayey materials relative to clay-free materials, as postulated in recent studies. On the contrary, a single value of cp is consistent with no significant differences in ionic mobility given that all samples were saturated with a NaCl solution close to a common salinity of about 100 mS/m.

  3. Ligand Induced Circular Dichroism and Circularly Polarized Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K.; Porter, Ashlin G.; Bartko, Samuel G.; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M.; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by post-synthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The chirality was induced by the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand. PMID:24200288

  4. Spectral lineshapes of collision-induced absorption (CIA) and collision-induced light scattering (CILS) for molecular nitrogen using isotropic intermolecular potential. New insights and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kader, M. S. A.; Mostafa, S. I.; Bancewicz, T.; Maroulis, G.

    2014-08-01

    The rototranslational collision-induced absorption (CIA) at different temperatures and collision-induced light scattering (CILS) at room temperature of nitrogen gas are analyzed in terms of new isotropic intermolecular potential, multipole-induced dipole functions and interaction-induced pair polarizability models, using quantum spectral lineshape computations. The irreducible spherical form for the induced operator of light scattering mechanisms was determined. The high frequency wings are discussed in terms of the collision-induced rotational Rayleigh effect and estimates for the dipole-octopole polarizability E4, is obtained and checked with the ab initio theoretical value. The quality of the present potential has been checked by comparing between calculated and experimental thermo-physical and transport properties over a wide temperature range, which are found to be in good agreement.

  5. Red/blue spectral shifts of laser-induced fluorescence emission due to different nanoparticle suspensions in various dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Bavali, A; Parvin, P; Mortazavi, S Z; Mohammadian, M; Mousavi Pour, M R

    2014-08-20

    Red/blue shifts of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) are investigated using several guest dielectric nanoscatterers, such as TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, and SiO2, in the host Rd6G, RdB, Coumarin 4, and Coumarin 7 ethanolic solutions. A couple of inflection points are identified varying nanoparticle (NP) density into dye solutions based on LIF spectroscopy. The inflection of the spectral shift exhibits that the suspension of NPs in dye solutions significantly involves a couple of competitive chemical and optical mechanisms during photon traveling in scattering media regarding ballistic and diffusive transport. It is shown that the low, medium, and high NP additives in fluorescent suspension induce blue, red, and blue spectral shifts, respectively. PMID:25321111

  6. Precise extraction of the induced polarization in the {sup 4}He(e,e'p(pol){sup 3}H reaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Malace, S. P.; Paolone, M.; Strauch, S.; Albayrak, I.; Arrington, J.; Solvignon, P.; The E03-104 Collaboration

    2011-01-31

    We measured with unprecedented precision the induced polarization P{sub y} in {sup 4}He(e,e'p(pol)){sup 3}H at Q{sup 2} = 0.8 and 1.3 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The induced polarization is indicative of reaction-mechanism effects beyond the impulse approximation. Our results are in agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation calculation but are overestimated by a calculation with strong charge-exchange effects. Our data are used to constrain the strength of the spin-independent charge-exchange term in the latter calculation.

  7. A precise extraction of the induced polarization in the 4He(e,e'p)3H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Malace, M. Paolone, S. Strauch

    2011-01-01

    We measured with unprecedented precision the induced polarization Py in 4He(e,e'p)3H at Q^2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)^2 and 1.3 (GeV/c)^2. The induced polarization is indicative of reaction-mechanism effects beyond the impulse approximation. Our results are in agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation calculation but are over-estimated by a calculation with strong charge-exchange effects. Our data are used to constrain the strength of the spin independent charge-exchange term in the latter calculation.

  8. Creation of high mobility two-dimensional electron gases via strain induced polarization at an otherwise nonpolar complex oxide interface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunzhong; Trier, Felix; Kasama, Takeshi; Christensen, Dennis V; Bovet, Nicolas; Balogh, Zoltan I; Li, Han; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Zhang, Wei; Yazdi, Sadegh; Norby, Poul; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-03-11

    The discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3-based heterostructures provides new opportunities for nanoelectronics. Herein, we create a new type of oxide 2DEG by the epitaxial-strain-induced polarization at an otherwise nonpolar perovskite-type interface of CaZrO3/SrTiO3. Remarkably, this heterointerface is atomically sharp and exhibits a high electron mobility exceeding 60,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at low temperatures. The 2DEG carrier density exhibits a critical dependence on the film thickness, in good agreement with the polarization induced 2DEG scheme. PMID:25692804

  9. A simple inversion of induced-polarization data collected in the Haenam area of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hannuree; Park, Samgyu; Kim, Hee Joon

    2014-02-01

    We develop a two-stage method to invert induced polarization (IP) data. First, DC resistivity data are inverted to recover a background resistivity that is used to generate a sensitivity matrix for the IP inversion. The second stage accepts the background resistivity as the true resistivity of the medium and attempts to find a polarizability that satisfies the IP data. This is done by linearizing the equations for the background resistivity to produce a linear inverse problem that can be solved for the distribution of the subsurface polarizability. Smoothness and base-model constraints are used to stabilize the IP inversion process. These regularization methods are validated by inverting both synthetic and field data obtained in the Haenam epithermal mineralized area, Korea. As a result, the IP anomaly recovered from the base-model constraint indicates that fine-grained pyrite is disseminated in a shallow zone beneath the ridge of this site, which is confirmed by core samples.

  10. Mapping polarization induced surface band bending on the Rashba semiconductor BiTeI

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Christopher John; Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Hsu, Shih-Hao; Sankar, Raman; Lu, Chun-I; Lu, Hsin-Yu; Yang, Kui-Hon Ou; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Shu, Guo-Jiun; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    Surfaces of semiconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling are of great interest for use in spintronic devices exploiting the Rashba effect. BiTeI features large Rashba-type spin splitting in both valence and conduction bands. Either can be shifted towards the Fermi level by surface band bending induced by the two possible polar terminations, making Rashba spin-split electron or hole bands electronically accessible. Here we demonstrate the first real-space microscopic identification of each termination with a multi-technique experimental approach. Using spatially resolved tunnelling spectroscopy across the lateral boundary between the two terminations, a previously speculated on p-n junction-like discontinuity in electronic structure at the lateral boundary is confirmed experimentally. These findings realize an important step towards the exploitation of the unique behaviour of the Rashba semiconductor BiTeI for new device concepts in spintronics. PMID:24898943

  11. COMPLEX RESISTIVITY OF FAULT GOUGE AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR EARTHQUAKE LIGHTS AND INDUCED POLARIZATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, David A.; Byerlee, James D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured complex resistivity of 2 water-saturated San Andreas fault gouges from 10** minus **3 to 10**6 Hz and confining pressures of 0. 2 to 200 MPa. Consistent with earlier observations of clays and common rocks, large low-frequency permittivities were observed in all cases. Comparisons were made to induced polarization (IP) measurements by inversion of the data into the time domain, where it was found that principal features of the IP response curves were due to these large low-frequency permittivities. The results also suggest that following large earthquakes, significant electrical charge could remain for many seconds and could result in a variety of reported electromagnetic effects. Refs.

  12. Electric field induced spin and valley polarization within a magnetically confined silicene channel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yiman; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhou, Ma; Zhou, Guanghui; Long, Meng-Qiu

    2014-12-28

    We study the electronic structure and transport properties of Dirac electrons along a channel created by an exchange field through the proximity of ferromagnets on a silicene sheet. The multiple total internal reflection induces localized states in the channel, which behaves like an electron waveguide. An effect of spin- and valley-filtering originating from the coupling between valley and spin degrees is predicted for such a structure. Interestingly, this feature can be tuned significantly by locally applying electric and exchange fields simultaneously. The parameter condition for observing fully spin- and valley-polarized current is obtained. These findings may be observable in todays' experimental technique and useful for spintronic and valleytronic applications based on silicene.

  13. Theoretical analysis on polarization-induced resistance switching effects of polymer thin films including dead layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honmi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Yoichiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2015-10-01

    Polarization-induced resistance switching effects are analytically investigated. The electrostatic potential profile in metal is expressed by the Thomas-Fermi screening theory at the metal/ferroelectric interface. We estimate the current density using an assumed effective potential in metal/ferroelectric/metal junctions. Furthermore, we focus on the existence of a lower permittivity region such as a dead layer located at the boundary between the metal electrode and the ferroelectric material. In order to explain the ON/OFF ratio obtained in the experiment, we suggest that the dead layer near the smaller-work-function electrode side should be thicker by 2-3 than another electrode. Consequently, we propose a new hypothesis, that is, the thickness of the dead layer controls the ratio of resistance switching.

  14. Theory of magnetic-field-induced polarization flop in spin-spiral multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced 90? flop of ferroelectric polarization P in a spin-spiral multiferroic material TbMnO3 is theoretically studied based on a microscopic spin model. I find that the direction of the P flop or the choice of +Pa or -Pa after the flop is governed by magnetic torques produced by the applied magnetic field H acting on the Mn spins and thus is selected in a deterministic way, in contradistinction to the naively anticipated probabilistic flop. This mechanism resolves a puzzle of the previously reported memory effect in the P direction depending on the history of the magnetic-field sweep, and enables controlled switching of multiferroic domains by externally applied magnetic fields. My Monte-Carlo analysis also uncovers that the magnetic structure in the P ?a phase under H ?b is not a previously anticipated simple a b -plane spin cycloid but a conical spin structure.

  15. Contact-induced spin polarization in graphene/h-BN/Ni nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov, Pavel V.; Kuzubov, Alex A.; Sakai, Seiji; Ohtomo, Manabu; Entani, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Eleseeva, Natalia S.

    2012-12-01

    Atomic and electronic structure of graphene/Ni(111), h-BN/Ni(111) and graphene/h-BN/Ni(111) nanocomposites with different numbers of graphene and h-BN layers and in different mutual arrangements of graphene/Ni and h-BN/Ni at the interfaces was studied using LDA/PBC/PW technique. Using the same technique corresponding graphene, h-BN and graphene/h-BN structures without the Ni plate were calculated for the sake of comparison. It was suggested that C-top:C-fcc and N-top:B-fcc configurations are energetically favorable for the graphene/Ni and h-BN/Ni interfaces, respectively. The Ni plate was found to induce a significant degree of spin polarization in graphene and h-BN through exchange interactions of the electronic states located on different fragments.

  16. Laser-induced damage in nonlinear crystals on irradiation direction and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Fujita, Hisanori; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kamimura, Tomosumi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Sasaki, Takatomo; Miyamoto, Akio; Yoshida, Kunio

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear-optical crystals are attractive materials for the high-power frequency converter with high damage threshold, phase matching characteristics, wide transparency range, and large effective nonlinear coefficients. Especially as to the power laser applications, its laser-induced damage threshold determines the limit of performance in the optical system. The threshold depends not only on the intrinsic material parameters but also on the laser beam parameters is use. We have investigated the bulk damage threshold of several crystals at a single-shot operation for frequency converter depending on the laser irradiation direction and its polarization. For KDP and CLBO crystals, the damage threshold in the direction of c-axis is about tow times higher than that in the a- or b-axis at 1.064 micrometers of wavelength. This result is consistent with the molecular bonding structure in different directions of the crystal. The relation between the bulk damage pattern and the crystal structure is also discussed.

  17. Enhancing Inhibition-Induced Plasticity in Tinnitus – Spectral Energy Contrasts in Tailor-Made Notched Music Matter

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Junghoefer, Markus; Wollbrink, Andreas; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM). Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC) in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts. PMID:25951605

  18. Enhancing inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus--spectral energy contrasts in tailor-made notched music matter.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Junghoefer, Markus; Wollbrink, Andreas; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM). Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC) in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts. PMID:25951605

  19. Detector-level spectral characterization of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16.

    PubMed

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2015-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor data record (SDR) product achieved validated maturity status in March 2014 after roughly two years of on-orbit characterization (S-NPP spacecraft launched on 28 October 2011). During post-launch analysis the VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the daytime SST data. Daytime SST retrievals use the two VIIRS long-wave infrared bands: M15 (10.7?m) and M16 (11.8?m). To assess possible root causes due to detector-level spectral response function (SRF) effects, a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operational-band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The study used simulated hyperspectral blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean hyperspectral radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs and that if users require optimal radiometric performance, detector-level processing is recommended for both SDR and EDR products. Future work should investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs. PMID:26192672

  20. Field Trials of the Multi-Source Approach for Resistivity and Induced Polarization Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, D. J.; Morelli, G.; Fischanger, F.; Lamoureux, P.; Brigham, R.

    2013-12-01

    Implementing systems of distributed receivers and transmitters for resistivity and induced polarization data is an almost inevitable result of the availability of wireless data communication modules and GPS modules offering precise timing and instrument locations. Such systems have a number of advantages; for example, they can be deployed around obstacles such as rivers, canyons, or mountains which would be difficult with traditional 'hard-wired' systems. However, deploying a system of identical, small, battery powered, transceivers, each capable of injecting a known current and measuring the induced potential has an additional and less obvious advantage in that multiple units can inject current simultaneously. The original purpose for using multiple simultaneous current sources (multi-source) was to increase signal levels. In traditional systems, to double the received signal you inject twice the current which requires you to apply twice the voltage and thus four times the power. Alternatively, one approach to increasing signal levels for large-scale surveys collected using small, battery powered transceivers is it to allow multiple units to transmit in parallel. In theory, using four 400 watt transmitters on separate, parallel dipoles yields roughly the same signal as a single 6400 watt transmitter. Furthermore, implementing the multi-source approach creates the opportunity to apply more complex current flow patterns than simple, parallel dipoles. For a perfect, noise-free system, multi-sources adds no new information to a data set that contains a comprehensive set of data collected using single sources. However, for realistic, noisy systems, it appears that multi-source data can substantially impact survey results. In preliminary model studies, the multi-source data produced such startling improvements in subsurface images that even the authors questioned their veracity. Between December of 2012 and July of 2013, we completed multi-source surveys at five sites with depths of exploration ranging from 150 to 450 m. The sites included shallow geothermal sites near Reno Nevada, Pomarance Italy, and Volterra Italy; a mineral exploration site near Timmins Quebec; and a landslide investigation near Vajont Dam in northern Italy. These sites provided a series of challenges in survey design and deployment including some extremely difficult terrain and a broad range of background resistivity and induced values. Despite these challenges, comparison of multi-source results to resistivity and induced polarization data collection with more traditional methods support the thesis that the multi-source approach is capable of providing substantial improvements in both depth of penetration and resolution over conventional approaches.

  1. Vapor-liquid Equilibria and Polarization Behavior of the GCP Water Model: Gaussian Charge-on-spring versus Dipole Self-consistent Field approaches to induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Moucka, Filip; Vlcek, Lukas; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    We implemented the Gaussian charge-on-spring (GCOS) version of the original self-consistent field implementation of the Gaussian Charge Polarizable water model and test its accuracy to represent the polarization behavior of the original model involving smeared charges and induced dipole moments. For that purpose we adapted the recently developed multiple-particle-move (MPM) within the Gibbs and isochoric-isothermal ensembles Monte Carlo methods for the efficient simulation of polarizable fluids. We assessed the accuracy of the GCOS representation by a direct comparison of the resulting vapor-liquid phase envelope, microstructure, and relevant microscopic descriptors of water polarization along the orthobaric curve against the corresponding quantities from the actual GCP water model.

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibrium and polarization behavior of the GCP water model: Gaussian charge-on-spring versus dipole self-consistent field approaches to induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Moucka, Filip; Vlcek, Lukas; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-04-16

    We developed the Gaussian charge-on-spring (GCOS) version of the original self-consistent field implementation of the Gaussian Charge Polarizable water model and test its accuracy to represent the polarization behavior of the original model involving smeared charges and induced dipole moments. For that purpose we adapted the recently proposed multiple-particle-move (MPM) within the Gibbs and isochoric-isothermal ensembles Monte Carlo methods for the efficient simulation of polarizable fluids. We assessed the accuracy of the GCOS representation by a direct comparison of the resulting vapor-liquid phase envelope, microstructure, and relevant microscopic descriptors of water polarization along the orthobaric curve against the corresponding quantities from the actual GCP water model. PMID:25803267

  3. Effect of smoothing by spectral dispersion on flow induced laser beam deflection: The random phase modulation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, H.A.; Ghosal, S.

    1998-03-01

    Analytical results are presented for the effect of random phase modulated smoothing by spectral dispersion on flow induced laser beam deflection. It is shown that in the limit of a large number of color cycles, N{sub cc}, the effect is identical to that of the induced spatial incoherence method of temporal smoothing. For small N{sub cc}, the beam deflection rate may be significantly larger in the direction perpendicular to the dispersion, than in the parallel direction. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand.

    PubMed

    Maddur, Mohan S; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

  5. Laser induced infrared spectral shift of the MgB2:Cr superconductor films.

    PubMed

    AlZayed, N S; Kityk, I V; Soltan, S; El-Naggar, A M; Shahabuddin, M

    2014-10-28

    During illumination of the MgB2:Cr2O3 films it was established substantial spectral shift of the infrared spectra in the vicinity of 20-50cm(-1). The excitations were performed by nanosecond Er:glass laser operating at 1.54?m and by microsecond 10.6?m CO2 laser. The spectral shifts of the IR maxima were in opposite spectral directions for the two types of lasers. This one observed difference correlates well with spectral shift of their critical temperatures. The possible explanation is given by performance of DFT calculations of the charge density redistribution and the time kinetics of the photovoltaic response. To understand the kinetics of the photoinduced processes the time kinetics of photoresponse was done for the particular laser wavelengths. PMID:25467659

  6. Frequency-induced polarization bistability in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with orthogonal optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gatare, I.; Panajotov, K.; Sciamanna, M.

    2007-02-15

    We report theoretically on a pure frequency-induced polarization bistability in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the master laser light polarization is orthogonal to that of the slave VCSEL. As the frequency detuning is scanned from negative to positive values and for a fixed injected power, the VCSEL exhibits two successive and possibly bistable polarization switchings. The first switching (from the slave laser polarization to the injected light polarization) exhibits a bistable region whose width is maximum for a given value of the injected power. Such a dependency of hysteresis width on the injected power is similar to that recently found experimentally by Hong et al.[Electron. Lett. 36, 2019 (2000)]. The bistability accompanying the second switching (from the injected light polarization back to the slave laser free-running polarization) exhibits, however, significantly different features related to the occurrence of optical chaos. Interestingly, the width of the bistable region can be tuned over a large range not only by modifying the injection parameters but also by modifying the device parameters, in particular the VCSEL linewidth enhancement factor.

  7. Azimuthally polarized laser mode generation by multilayer mirror with wideband grating-induced TM leakage in the TE stopband.

    PubMed

    Kmpfe, Thomas; Tonchev, Svetlen; Tishchenko, Alexandre V; Gergov, Deyan; Parriaux, Olivier

    2012-02-27

    A new intracavity laser polarization-mode selection scheme relying upon a TE/TM diffractive dichroism principle in a grating multilayer mirror is proposed and demonstrated. The grating diffracts the first orders between the TE and TM band edges of the angular spectra of the laser mirror inducing a leakage of the TM polarization into the mirror substrate through the multilayer stack whereas TE diffraction into the substrate is forbidden. This mechanism is non-resonant, thus relatively wide-band. Applied with a circular-line grating in the 1.0 m - 1.1 m wavelength range, this mirror filters out the radially polarization mode and causes the emission of the azimuthally polarized mode. An original amorphous silicon grating technology was developed and the optical function demonstrated in a Nd:YAG laser. PMID:22418346

  8. Anisotropic refractive-index change in silica glass induced by self-trapped filament of linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Nishii, Junji; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2003-02-01

    Permanent refractive-index change can be induced by a self-trapped filament of intense ultrashort laser pulses in silica glass. We investigated the dependence of refractive-index change on polarization of incident laser pulses. As the region of refractive-index change can be selectively etched by hydrofluoric acid (HF), we first polished the sample and etched the cross section of the regions. The HF-etched cross section of refractive-index change that was induced by linearly polarized pulses was seen to be elliptical when observed with a scanning-electron microscope. By polarimetric analysis of diffraction from gratings fabricated by polarized ultrashort laser pulses, the index ellipsoid of refractive-index change was confirmed to be uniaxial and negative.

  9. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: rsainz@iac.es

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  10. Pressure-induced polar phases in multiferroic delafossite CuFeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Noriki; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Manuel, Pascal; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Radaelli, Paolo G.; Kitazawa, Hideaki

    2014-06-01

    The pressure effect on the frustrated magnetic system CuFeO2 exhibiting multiferroic behavior has been studied by means of time-of-flight single crystal neutron diffraction combined with a hybrid-anvil-type pressure cell. The nonpolar collinear magnetic ground state (CM1 phase) with propagation vector k =(0,1/2,1/2) turns into a proper screw magnetic ordering with incommensurate modulation k =(0,q,1/2;q?0.4) and a polar 21' magnetic point group (ICM2 phase), between 3 and 4 GPa. This spin structure is similar to the ferroelectric phase induced by magnetic field or chemical doping under ambient pressure. Above, 4 GPa, a magnetic phase (ICM3) appears, with an incommensurate propagation vector that is unique for the CuFeO2 system, k =(qa,qb,qc;qa?0,qb?0.34,qc?0.43). This propagation vector at the general point results in triclinic magnetic symmetry which implies an admixture of both cycloidal and proper screw spin configurations. The ICM3 phase is stable in a narrow pressure range, and above 6 GPa, the spin-density collinear structure (ICM1 phase), similar to the first ordered state at ambient pressure, takes place. Comparing the degree of lattice distortions among the magnetic phases observed at ambient pressure, we discuss the origin of the pressure-induced magnetic phase transitions in CuFeO2.

  11. Inducible Costimulator Protein (Icos) Controls T Helper Cell Subset Polarization after Virus and Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Manfred; Coyle, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Nicole; Barner, Marijke; Oxenius, Annette; Gallimore, Awen; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Bachmann, Martin F.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that certain pathogens can trigger efficient T cell responses in the absence of CD28, a key costimulatory receptor expressed on resting T cells. Inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) is an inducible costimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28. Here, we show that in the absence of CD28 both T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses were impaired but not abrogated after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Inhibition of ICOS in CD28-deficient mice further reduced Th1/Th2 polarization. Blocking of ICOS alone had a limited but significant capacity to downregulate Th subset development. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, which are regulated to a minor and major extent by CD28 after LCMV and VSV infection, respectively, remained unaffected by blocking ICOS. Together, our results demonstrate that ICOS regulates both CD28-dependent and CD28-independent CD4+ subset (Th1 and Th2) responses but not CTL responses in vivo. PMID:10880526

  12. Interferon Tau Alleviates Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Regulating Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wei; Kanameni, Srikanth; Chang, Cheng-An; Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Safe, Stephen; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zhou, Beiyan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic adipose tissue inflammation is a hallmark of obesity-induced insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory agents can benefit patients with obesity-associated syndromes. Currently available type I interferons for therapeutic immunomodulation are accompanied by high cytotoxicity and therefore in this study we have examined anti-inflammatory effects of interferon tau (IFNT), a member of the type I interferon family with low cellular toxicity even at high doses. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we observed enhanced insulin sensitivity in obese mice administered IFNT compared to control mice, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2) in adipose tissue. Further investigations revealed that IFNT is a potent regulator of macrophage activation that favors anti-inflammatory responses as evidenced by activation of associated surface antigens, production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and activation of selective cell signaling pathways. Thus, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that IFNT can significantly mitigate obesity-associated systemic insulin resistance and tissue inflammation by controlling macrophage polarization, and thus IFNT can be a novel bio-therapeutic agent for treating obesity-associated syndromes and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24905566

  13. Temperature dependence of carrier spin polarization determined from current-induced domain wall motion in a Co/Ni nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, K.; Koyama, T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Chiba, D.; Fukami, S.; Tanigawa, H.; Suzuki, T.; Ohshima, N.; Ishiwata, N.; Nakatani, Y.

    2012-05-14

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni nanowire at various temperatures and with various applied currents. The carrier spin polarization was estimated from the measured domain wall velocity. We found that it decreased more with increasing temperature from 100 K to 530 K than the saturation magnetization did.

  14. Over-limiting currents and deionization "shocks" in current-induced polarization: local-equilibrium analysis.

    PubMed

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy

    2012-11-15

    The problem is considered theoretically of dynamics of current-induced concentration polarization of interfaces between ideally perm-selective and non-ideally perm-selective ("leaky") ion-exchange media in binary electrolyte solutions under galvanostatic conditions and at negligible volume flow. In contrast to the previous studies, the analysis is systematically carried out in terms of local thermodynamic equilibrium in the approximation of local electric neutrality in virtual solution. For macroscopically homogeneous media, this enables one to obtain model-independent results in quadratures for the stationary state as well as an approximate scaling-form solution for the transient response to the step-wise increase in electric-current density. These results are formulated in terms of such phenomenological properties of the "leaky" medium as ion transport numbers, diffusion permeability to salt and specific chemical capacity. An easy-to-solve numerically 1D PDE is also formulated in the same terms. A systematic parametric study is carried out within the scope of fine-pore model of "leaky" medium in terms of such properties as volumetric concentration of fixed electric charges and diffusivities of ions of symmetrical electrolyte. While previous studies paid principal attention to the shape and propagation rate of the so-called deionization "shocks", we also consider in detail the time evolution of voltage drop and interface salt concentration. Our analysis confirms the previously predicted pattern of propagating deionization "shocks" within the "leaky" medium but also reveals several novel features. In particular, we demonstrate that the deionization-shock pattern is really pronounced only at intermediate ratios of fixed-charge concentration to the initial salt concentration and at quite high steady-state voltages where the model used in this and previous studies is applicable only at relatively early stages of concentration-polarization process. PMID:22947188

  15. Dynamically induced hemispheric differences in the seasonal cycle of the summer polar mesopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Erich; Knpfel, Rahel; Lbken, Franz-Josef

    2015-07-01

    A mechanistic atmospheric general circulation model from the surface up to the mesopause region with explicit representations of radiation and the tropospheric moisture cycle is employed to study hemispheric differences during the summer season with focus on dynamical coupling processes in the middle atmosphere. Hemispheric differences are imposed in the model by the geographical distributions of surface parameters. Consistent with reanalyses, we find that prior to summer solstice, the polar troposphere and lower stratosphere are significantly colder in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. This induces vertically altering wind and temperature differences between the two hemispheres that are consistent with the recently detected Intrahemispheric Coupling mechanism. In particular, in the southern hemisphere the model yields a high mesopause around solstice which propagates downward over the season. Such a behavior has recently been observed by lidar measurements in Antarctica and is different from the northern hemisphere where the polar mesopause stays at approximately the same altitude over the summer season. After summer solstice, the mesopause is significantly warmer in the southern hemisphere, which is in accordance with Interhemispheric Coupling, i.e., the hemispheric differences after summer solstice are influenced by the strong planetary Rossby-wave activity in the northern stratosphere during boreal winter. Also enhanced filtering of eastward GWs in the southern troposphere contributes to the behavior after solstice. Orbital eccentricity is found to enhance the importance of Intrahemispheric Coupling. A more quantitative description of the hemispheric differences in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere as seen in reanalyses is obtained by adding an additional westward gravity drag in the southern stratosphere. The vertical coupling mechanisms responsible for hemispheric differences apply also in this case.

  16. Resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of salt transport under natural hydraulic gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.D.; Sandberg, S.K.

    2000-04-01

    The authors demonstrate the use of resistivity/induced polarization (IP) monitoring of salt transport under natural hydraulic loads. Electrical monitoring of saline tracer transport during forced injection has been demonstrated previously. Detection of tracer transport under natural hydraulic loading is difficult because neither the hydraulic load nor the tracer resistivity can be controlled. In one study, the authors identify the electrical response to salt transport in a dynamic beach environment. Resistivity/IP imagine resolved the structure of the saltwater-freshwater interface and evidence for tide-induced groundwater transport. Resistivity increases in the near surface and at depth, upbeach of the high-tide mark, accompanied by tidal transgression. They attribute this to desaturation and decreasing salinity in the near surface and to decreasing salinity at depth, despite tidal transgression. Monitoring of groundwater levels indicates a phase lag between the tide level and groundwater level, supporting the electrical data. IP was insensitive to groundwater salinity variation. In a second study, the authors identify the electrical response to recharge-induced salt transport from a road-sale storage facility. Conductivity and IP models for monitoring lines, located on the basis of an EM31 survey, resolved the subsurface salt distribution, IP modeling resolved the sediment-bedrock interface. Modeling of monthly conductivity differences revealed conductivity increases and decreases at the locations of salt contamination, which correlate with the recharge pattern. They attribute near-surface conductivity increases after heavy rainfall to increasing saturation and ion dissolution. Corresponding conductivity decreases at depth are attributed to flushing of the bedrock with freshwater. Essentially, the opposite response was observed during a quiet monitoring period following heavy recharge. Near-surface IP changes are consistent with this interpretation. Salt transport occurring under natural hydraulic conditions was monitored with resistivity imaging. IP improved characterization of the hydrogeologic framework but was of limited value in monitoring salt transport in these environments.

  17. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredice, F.; Pacheco Martinez, P.; Snchez-Ak, C.; Villagrn-Muniz, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time ?t, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (?jlIj/gjAjl), where Ij is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, gj is the statistical weight of the level j, ?jl is the wavelength of the considered line and Ajl is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants Bi, and ?i, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of In(t)/In(t0), where In(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and In(t0) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants Bi and ?i and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal evolution of carbon lines obtained from a plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser. The plasma was produced in vacuum and was observed at different distances from the target. A good agreement between the temperature calculated by the traditional Boltzmann plot and by this method was obtained.

  18. Spectral anomalies of the light-induced drift of rubidium atoms caused by the velocity dependence of transport collision frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, A. I.; Shalagin, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The spectral features of the light-induced drift (LID) velocity for rubidium atoms (85Rb and 87Rb) in an argon buffer medium and in binary buffer mixtures of noble gases (Ne + Ar, Ne + Kr, Ne + Xe, He + Ar, He + Kr, and He + Xe) have been investigated theoretically. A strong temperature dependence of the spectral shape of the LID signal for Rb atoms in an Ar atmosphere is predicted in the temperature range 450 K < T < 800 K. It is shown that the anomalous LID of Rb atoms in binary buffer mixtures of noble gases can be observed at almost any temperature (including the room one) depending on the fractions of neon or helium in these mixtures. The results obtained enable a highly accurate testing of the interatomic interaction potentials used to calculate the drift velocity for anomalous LID in LID experiments.

  19. Application of the new comprehensive X-ray spectral model to the two brightest intermediate polars EX Hydrae and V1223 Sagittarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu

    2014-07-01

    We applied the new comprehensive X-ray spectral model for the post-shock accretion column (PSAC) of the intermediate polars (IPs) constructed by Hayashi and Ishida to the Suzaku data of the two brightest IPs EX Hydrae and V1223 Sagittarii. The white dwarf (WD) mass and the specific accretion rate of EX Hya are estimated to be M_WD= 0.63_{-0.14}^{+0.17} M? and a=0.049_{-0.035}^{+0.66} g cm-2 s-1. Our WD mass of EX Hya is greater than that of previous X-ray estimations (0.4-0.5 M?), where higher specific accretion rate than ours is assumed, and marginally consistent with 0.790 0.026 M? measured by Beuermann and Reinsch using a binary motion. On the other hand, with the aid of the PSAC height of V1223 Sgr hV1223 < 0.07RWD, we estimated M_WD= 0.87_{-0.06}^{+0.10} M_{?} and a > 2.0 g cm-2 s-1 for V1223 Sgr. We evaluated the fractional accreting area of EX Hya and V1223 Sgr at 0.0033_{-0.0030}^{+0.0067} and <0.007, respectively. Calculation of the hydrodynamical equations with these best-fitting parameters show that the PSAC height of EX Hya is 0.33 RWD = 2.8 108 cm. The maximum temperature of the EX Hya and V1223 Sgr are calculated at 18.0 keV and 43.1 keV, respectively. In EX Hya, the temperature distribution is flatter and the density at the top of the PSAC is smaller than those of the previous PSAC models because of its low specific accretion rate.

  20. Residual-Charge Induced Memory Effect of Electric Polarization in Multiferroic CuFe1-xGaxO2 as Seen via Polarized Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Taro; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroe; Matsuura, Masato

    2013-02-01

    We have investigated ferroelectric polarization memory effect in a magneto-electric (ME) multiferroic CuFe1-x GaxO2 (CFGO) with x=0.035, which exhibits a spin-driven ferroelectric phase below TC 7 K in zero magnetic field. In a previous study on CFGO(x=0.035), we have reported that the ferroelectric polarization induced by an applied electric field is retrieved after heating the sample to a non-ferroelectric high-temperature phase and then cooling down to the ferroelectric phase without electric field. [Mitsuda et al. Physica B 404 (2009) 2532] By measuring thermally stimulated electric current in detail, the previous study has elucidated that residual charges trapped in the sample are relevant to the memory effect. In the present study, we have performed polarized neutron diffraction measurements on CFGO(x=0.035) with applied electric fields, in order to investigate the multiferroic domain structure, which can reflect spatial distribution of internal electric fields due to the trapped charges. The present results have shown that the effect of the internal electric fields is significantly different from that of the ``uniform'' electric field applied on the first cooling. To explain the present results, we suggest a model that the residual charges are trapped on boundaries between the three types of magnetic domains originating from the trigonal symmetry of the crystal, implying that the presence of the bound charges of the ferroelectric polarization on the domain boundaries is a key to the memory effect in this system.

  1. Enhanced inline conversion of fiber Bragg grating spectra based on increased polarization controllability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Wook; Sung Koo, Ja; Wan Lee, Yong; Oh, Junghwan; Wook Lee, Yong

    2013-04-01

    We have demonstrated enhanced spectral conversion of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) incorporating a polarization-diversity loop configuration (PDLC) with increased degree of freedom (DOF) in polarization control through the addition of wave plates. The proposed apparatus for spectral conversion consists of a four-port polarization beam splitter for constructing the PDLC, an FBG, and three wave plates including one half-wave and two quarter-wave plates. In the previous study using only two wave plates, slight birefringence of single-mode fibers connecting optical elements within the polarization-diversity loop induced random changes of states of polarization (SOPs), resulting in the spectral degradation. In this approach, the increased number of wave plates could complement it by providing a higher DOF in controlling SOPs and significantly improve spectral performances of the fabricated filter such as an insertion loss, side-mode suppression ratio, and band-rejection ratio.

  2. Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian E; Lu, Jessica; Leips, Jeff; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Critical behaviours such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view objects against distinct environmental backgrounds, coexpress different pairs of opsins in an African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. This coexpression tunes the sensitivity of the retinal regions to the corresponding backgrounds and may aid in detection of dark objects, such as predators. Although intraretinal regionalization of spectral sensitivity in many animals correlates with their light environments, it is unknown whether variation in the light environment induces developmentally plastic alterations of intraretinal sensitivity regions. Here, we demonstrate with fluorescent insitu hybridization and qPCR that the spectrum and angle of environmental light both influence the development of spectral sensitivity regions by altering the distribution and level of opsins across the retina. Normally, M.zebra coexpresses LWS opsin with RH2A? opsin in double cones of the ventral but not the dorsal retina. However, when illuminated from below throughout development, adult M.zebra coexpressed LWS and RH2A? in double cones both dorsally and ventrally. Thus, environmental background spectra alter the spectral sensitivity pattern that develops across the retina, potentially influencing behaviours and related evolutionary processes such as courtship and speciation. PMID:26175094

  3. Modelling and experimental verification of tip-induced polarization in Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Dennis A.; Popok, Vladimir N.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-11-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy is a widely used technique for measuring surface potential distributions on the micro- and nanometer scale. The data are, however, often analyzed qualitatively, especially for dielectrics. In many cases, the phenomenon of polarization and its influence on the measured signals is disregarded leading to misinterpretation of the results. In this work, we present a model that allows prediction of the surface potential on a metal/polymer heterostructure as measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy by including the tip-induced polarization of the dielectric that arises during measurement. The model is successfully verified using test samples.

  4. Note: reducing polarization induced sidebands in Rayleigh backscattering spectra for accurate distributed strain measurement using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Li, Dingjie

    2013-02-01

    We describe a phenomenon called polarization-induced sidebands (PIS) in Rayleigh backscatter spectra (RBS) and discuss its deteriorating effects on the distributed strain measurement using an optical frequency-domain reflectometry. We propose using a special polarization diversity detection scheme to remove PIS and successfully demonstrate accurate distributed strain measurement in the range of 0.75 με-225 με in a 50 m standard single mode fiber, with a good linearity between the strain and the spectra shift in RBS. PMID:23464263

  5. Polarizing cytoskeletal tension to induce leader cell formation during collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Sebastian; Das, Tamal; Soin, Jrme R D; Hofmann, Tobias W; Boehm, Christian H J; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Boehm, Heike; Spatz, Joachim P

    2013-12-01

    The collective migration of cells is fundamental to epithelial biology. One of the hallmarks of collective behavior in migrating cohesive epithelial cell sheets is the emergence of so called leader cells. These cells exhibit a distinct morphology with a large and highly active lamellipodium. Although it is generally accepted that they play a crucial part in collective migration, the biophysical factors that regulate their formation remain unknown.Here we show that a geometry-based cue like local variation of curvature of the collective's perimeter is capable of triggering leader cell formation and promoting enhanced motility at defined positions. Remarkably, the extent of this effect scales with the magnitude of the curvature.Cytoskeletal tension was found to be important for geometry induced leader cell formation, as cells treated with tension reducing agents appeared less sensitive to local curvature variation. Accordingly, traction force microscopy revealed an increased level of shear stress at highly curved positions even before the cell migration had actually started, indicating the presence of a collective polarization induced by the geometry of the confinement.Together our findings suggest that high curvature leads to locally increased stress accumulation, mediated via cell-substrate interaction as well as via cytoskeleton tension. The stress accumulation in turn enhances the probability of leader cell formation as well as cell motility. This work defines the importance of geometric cue such as local curvature in the collective migration dynamics of epithelial cells and thus shows implications for the biophysical regulation of epithelium during wound healing, embryonic development, and oncogenesis. PMID:24706149

  6. Characterization of Natural Attenuation in a uranium-contaminated site by means of Induced Polarization Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Bücker, Matthias; Williams, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    Field experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Integrated Field Research Challenge site (IFRC) in Rifle, Colorado (USA) have repeatedly demonstrated the ability of microorganisms to reductively immobilize uranium (U) in U tailings-contaminated groundwater accompanying organic carbon amendment. At the same time, geophysical monitoring during such amendment experiments has proven that Induced Polarization (IP) datasets can provide valuable information regarding geochemical changes induced by stimulated microbial activity, such as precipitation of metallic minerals (e.g. FeS) and accumulation of reactive, electroactive ions (Fe[II]). Based on these findings, we present a novel, modified application of the IP imaging method. Specifically, we utilized an IP characterization approach to delineate areas where fluvially deposited organic material, within aquifer sediments, naturally stimulates the activity of subsurface microflora, leading to both the natural immobilization of uranium and accumulation of reduced end-products (minerals and pore fluids) capable of generating anomalous IP signatures. These so-called 'naturally reduced zones' (NRZ's) are characterized by elevated rates of microbial activity relative to sediments having a lower concentration of organic matter. As noted and based on our previous experiments at the site, the accumulation of metallic minerals represents suitable targets for the exploration with IP tomographic methods. Here, we explore the application of the IP imaging method for the characterization of NRZ's at the scale of the floodplain. We present imaging results obtained through the inversion of 70 independent lines distributed along the floodplain (~600 m2). Imaging results are validated through comparisons with lithological data obtained from wells drilled at the site and laboratory analysis of sediment and groundwater samples. Our results show the applicability of the IP method for characterizing regions of the subsurface having a greater propensity for elevated rates of microbial activity, with such regions (themselves often highly localized within a larger sedimentary matrix) exerting an outsized control on contaminant (e.g. U) fate and transport.

  7. Excitation mechanisms in 1 mJ picosecond laser induced low pressure He plasma and the resulting spectral quality enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Lahna, Kurnia; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Ramli, Muliadi; Suyanto, Hery; Marpaung, Alion Mangasi; Pardede, Marincan; Jobiliong, Eric; Hedwig, Rinda; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Lie, Zener Sukra; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Tjia, May On; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    We report in this paper the results of an experimental study on the spectral and dynamical characteristics of plasma emission induced by 1 mJ picoseconds (ps) Nd-YAG laser using spatially resolved imaging and time resolved measurement of the emission intensities of copper sample. This study has provided the experimental evidence concerning the dynamical characteristics of the excitation mechanisms in various stages of the plasma formation, which largely consolidate the basic scenarios of excitation processes commonly accepted so far. However, it is also clearly shown that the duration of the shock wave excitation process induced by ps laser pulses is much shorter than those observed in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy employing nanosecond laser at higher output energy. This allows the detection of atomic emission due exclusively to He assisted excitation in low pressure He plasma by proper gating of the detection time. Furthermore, the triplet excited state associated with He I 587.6 nm is shown to be the one most likely involved in the process responsible for the excellent spectral quality as evidenced by its application to spectrochemical analysis of a number of samples. The use of very low energy laser pulses also leads to minimal destructive effect marked by the resulted craters of merely about 10 ?m diameter and only 10 nm deep. It is especially noteworthy that the excellent emission spectrum of deuterium detected from D-doped titanium sample is free of spectral interference from the undesirable ubiquitous water molecules without a precleaning procedure as applied previously and yielding an impressive detection limit of less than 10 ?g/g. Finally, the result of this study also shows a promising application to depth profiling of impurity distribution in the sample investigated.

  8. Induced polarization of disseminated electronically conductive minerals: a semi-empirical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, Grigory; Titov, Konstantin; Ilyin, Yuri; Tarasov, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    We studied artificial ore models that contained galena, pyrite, magnetite, graphite and cryptomelane with the time domain induced polarization technique. The models were mixtures of sand and metallic-type, electronically conductive mineral particles. We varied the volumetric content of the particles, their mineral composition and average grain size, as well as the pore water salinity. Based on the Debye decomposition approach, we obtained relaxation time distributions, which contained peaks. From these distributions, we obtained the total chargeability and the peak relaxation time. We correlated these parameters with the particle mineral composition, grain size, particle content and the pore solution resistivity. We also compared the experimental data with the Wong model prediction, which was unable to explain the entire data set. The above-mentioned correlations, in conjunction with some previously published data, allowed us to formulate a new, semi-empirical model that links (1) the total chargeability with the volumetric content of the particles and the total chargeability of the host matrix and (2) the time constant with the particle mineralogy, the particle radius and the pore solution resistivity.

  9. 2.5D induced polarization forward modeling using the adaptive finite-element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yi-Xin; Li, Yu-Guo; Deng, Ju-Zhi; Li, Ze-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The conventional finite-element (FE) method often uses a structured mesh, which is designed according to the user's experience, and it is not sufficiently accurate and flexible to accommodate complex structures such as dipping interfaces and rough topography. We present an adaptive FE method for 2.5D forward modeling of induced polarization (IP). In the presented method, an unstructured triangulation mesh that allows for local mesh refinement and flexible description of arbitrary model geometries is used. Furthermore, the mesh refinement process is guided by dual error estimate weighting to bias the refinement towards elements that affect the solution at the receiver locations. After the final mesh is generated, the Jacobian matrix is used to obtain the IP response on 2D structure models. We validate the adaptive FE algorithm using a vertical contact model. The validation shows that the elements near the receivers are highly refined and the average relative error of the potentials converges to 0.4 % and 1.2 % for the IP response. This suggests that the numerical solution of the adaptive FE algorithm converges to an accurate solution with the refined mesh. Finally, the accuracy and flexibility of the adaptive FE procedure are also validated using more complex models.

  10. Subsidence-induced methane clouds in Titan's winter polar stratosphere and upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Barnes, J. W.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-11-01

    Titan's atmospheric methane most likely originates from lakes at the surface and subsurface reservoirs. Accordingly, it has been commonly assumed that Titan's tropopause region, where the vertical temperature profile is a minimum, acts as a cold trap for convecting methane, leading to the expectation that the formation of methane clouds in Titan's stratosphere would be rare. The additional assumption that Titan's tropopause temperatures are independent of latitude is also required. However, Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) and Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) data sets reveal colder temperatures in Titan's tropopause region near the winter pole than those at low latitudes and in the summer hemisphere. This, combined with the presence of a cross-equatorial meridional circulation with winter polar subsidence, as suggested by current general circulation models, implies the inevitable formation of Subsidence-Induced Methane Clouds (SIMCs) over Titan's winter pole. We verified this by retrieving the stratospheric methane mole fraction at 70N from the strength of the far infrared methane pure rotation lines observed by CIRS and by assuming the RSS-derived thermal profile at 74.1N. Our retrieved methane mole fraction of 1.50 0.15% allows for methane to condense and form SIMCs at altitudes between ?48 and ?20 km. Radiative transfer analyses of a color composite image obtained by the Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) during northern winter appear to corroborate the existence of these clouds.

  11. A photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization study of denatured states of lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, R.W.; Dobson, C.M.; Hore, P.J.; Radford, S.E.; Rees, M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) techniques have been used to examine denatured states of lysozyme produced under a variety of conditions. {sup 1}H CIDNP difference spectra of lysozyme denatured thermally, by the addition of 10 M urea, or by the complete reduction of its four disulfide bonds were found to differ substantially not only from the spectrum of the native protein but also from that expected for a completely unstructured polypeptide chain. Specifically, denatured lysozyme showed a much reduced enhancement of tryptophan relative to tyrosine than did a mixture of blocked amino acids with the same composition as the intact protein. By contrast, the CIDNP spectrum of lysozyme denatured in dimethyl sulfoxide solution was found to be similar to that expected for a random coil. It is proposed that nonrandom hydrophobic interactions are present within the denatured states of lysozyme in aqueous solution and that these reduce the reactivity of tryptophan residues relative to tyrosine residues. Characterization of such interactions is likely to be of considerable significance for an understanding of the process of protein folding.

  12. Dense resistivity and induced polarization profiling for a landfill restoration project at Hrlv, Southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Virginie; Dahlin, Torleif; Svensson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    A resistivity and time-domain induced polarization (IP) survey was conducted at a landfill site under restoration at Hrlv in Southern Sweden. The covering of the landfill had begun some years ago, without keeping precise records of the work done, as is usual in such procedures. The survey was conducted in two steps, on two adjacent areas. First, a number of geoelectrical sections were made on a partly covered area that had been investigated earlier by auger drilling, in order to assist restoration. Then, a second area that should have received its final cover was imaged, and some defects in the cover could be detected and repaired. The resistivity and time-domain IP results were consistent with the results of the geotechnical drillings, and they enabled quasi-continuous mapping along the profiles. Three-dimensional visualization showed the overall consistency of the two-dimensional lines, and helped to generate a global view of the site. In spite of some ambiguities, cover and waste could be distinguished in most cases. In particular, fine-grained cover materials could be clearly distinguished from other cover materials. PMID:17346007

  13. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; BIRI, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, West Hollywood, California 90048 ; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  14. Asymmetrical, agonist-induced fluctuations in local extracellular [Ca2+] in intact polarized epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Caroppo, Rosa; Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Kifor, Olga; Soybel, David I.; Brown, Edward M.; Hofer, Aldebaran M.; Curci, Silvana

    2001-01-01

    We recently proposed that extracellular Ca2+ ions participate in a novel form of intercellular communication involving the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR). Here, using Ca2+-selective microelectrodes, we directly measured the profile of agonist-induced [Ca2+]ext changes in restricted domains near the basolateral or luminal membranes of polarized gastric acid-secreting cells. The Ca2+-mobilizing agonist carbachol elicited a transient, La3+-sensitive decrease in basolateral [Ca2+] (average ?250M, but as large as 530M). Conversely, carbachol evoked an HgCl2-sensitive increase in [Ca2+] (average ?400M, but as large as 520M) in the lumen of single gastric glands. Both responses were significantly reduced by pre-treatment with sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump inhibitors or with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. Immunofluores cence experiments demonstrated an asymmetric localization of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), which appeared to be partially co-localized with CaR and the gastric H+/K+-ATPase in the apical membrane of the acid-secreting cells. Our data indicate that agonist stimulation results in local fluctuations in [Ca2+]ext that would be sufficient to modulate the activity of the CaR on neighboring cells. PMID:11707403

  15. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging. PMID:24784636

  16. Polarized linewidth-controllable double-trapping electromagnetically induced transparency spectra in a resonant plasmon nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luojia; Gu, Ying; Chen, Hongyi; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Yiping; Gerardot, Brian D.; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmons with ultrasmall optical mode volume and strong near field enhancement can be used to realize nanoscale light-matter interaction. Combining surface plasmons with the quantum system provides the possibility of nanoscale realization of important quantum optical phenomena, including the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which has many applications in nonlinear quantum optics and quantum information processing. Here, using a custom-designed resonant plasmon nanocavity, we demonstrate polarized position-dependent linewidth-controllable EIT spectra at the nanoscale. We analytically obtain the double coherent population trapping conditions in a double-Λ quantum system with crossing damping, which give two transparent points in the EIT spectra. The linewidths of the three peaks are extremely sensitive to the level spacing of the excited states, the Rabi frequencies and detunings of pump fields, and the Purcell factors. In particular the linewidth of the central peak is exceptionally narrow. The hybrid system may have potential applications in ultra-compact plasmon-quantum devices. PMID:24096943

  17. Dirac R-Matrix Modeling of Spin-Induced Asymmetry in the Scattering of Polarized Electrons from Polarized Cesium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Tahar, S.; Grant, I. P.; Norrington, P. H.

    1997-10-01

    Recent experiments by Baum, Raith, and co-workers to measure the spin-induced asymmetries in electron scattering from cesium have stimulated theoretical work to interpret these measurements. We present Dirac R-matrix calculations of the interference asymmetry function, and of the spin-orbit and spin-exchange asymmetries, for comparison with experimental data at 7 and 13.5 eV and with nonrelativistic predictions of the spin-exchange asymmetry from the convergent close coupling method. We find that a simple relativistic target model provides a basis for the understanding and analysis of ongoing experiments.

  18. Strain-induced coupling of electrical polarization and structural defects in SrMnO3 films.

    PubMed

    Becher, Carsten; Maurel, Laura; Aschauer, Ulrich; Lilienblum, Martin; Magn, Csar; Meier, Dennis; Langenberg, Eric; Trassin, Morgan; Blasco, Javier; Krug, Ingo P; Algarabel, Pedro A; Spaldin, Nicola A; Pardo, Jos A; Fiebig, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Local perturbations in complex oxides, such as domain walls, strain and defects, are of interest because they can modify the conduction or the dielectric and magnetic response, and can even promote phase transitions. Here, we show that the interaction between different types of local perturbations in oxide thin films is an additional source of functionality. Taking SrMnO3 as a model system, we use nonlinear optics to verify the theoretical prediction that strain induces a polar phase, and apply density functional theory to show that strain simultaneously increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies. These vacancies couple to the polar domain walls, where they establish an electrostatic barrier to electron migration. The result is a state with locally structured room-temperature conductivity consisting of conducting nanosized polar domains encased by insulating domain boundaries, which we resolve using scanning probe microscopy. Our 'nanocapacitor' domains can be individually charged, suggesting stable capacitance nanobits with a potential for information storage technology. PMID:26030653

  19. Polarization-insensitive plasmonic-induced transparency in planar metamaterial consisting of a regular triangle and a ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wudeng; Li, Yudong; Xu, Pengwei; Chen, Zongqiang; Chen, Jing; Qian, Jun; Qi, Jiwei; Sun, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we demonstrate plasmonic-induced optical transparency (PIT) in a planar metamaterial consisting of a metallic regular triangle (RT) embedded in a ring nanostructure. The interference between the bright dipole mode of the RT and the dark quadrupole mode of the ring leads to the emergence of a transparent window in the visible regime. By combining nanostructures with different degrees of symmetry, the PIT transmission properties of our metamaterial remain stable with respect to the incident polarization, showing polarization-insensitivity to the incident wave. The transmission efficiency of the PIT peak for different polarizations can be maintained at greater than 95.77% with a fluctuation range of 0.01% in our calculation accuracy.

  20. Strain-induced coupling of electrical polarization and structural defects in SrMnO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher, Carsten; Maurel, Laura; Aschauer, Ulrich; Lilienblum, Martin; Magén, César; Meier, Dennis; Langenberg, Eric; Trassin, Morgan; Blasco, Javier; Krug, Ingo P.; Algarabel, Pedro A.; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Pardo, José A.; Fiebig, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Local perturbations in complex oxides, such as domain walls, strain and defects, are of interest because they can modify the conduction or the dielectric and magnetic response, and can even promote phase transitions. Here, we show that the interaction between different types of local perturbations in oxide thin films is an additional source of functionality. Taking SrMnO3 as a model system, we use nonlinear optics to verify the theoretical prediction that strain induces a polar phase, and apply density functional theory to show that strain simultaneously increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies. These vacancies couple to the polar domain walls, where they establish an electrostatic barrier to electron migration. The result is a state with locally structured room-temperature conductivity consisting of conducting nanosized polar domains encased by insulating domain boundaries, which we resolve using scanning probe microscopy. Our ‘nanocapacitor’ domains can be individually charged, suggesting stable capacitance nanobits with a potential for information storage technology.

  1. Effects of polarization azimuth in dynamics of electrically assisted light-induced gliding of nematic liquid-crystal easy axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubtsov, A. V.; Shmeliova, D. V.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Kiselev, Alexei D.; Chigrinov, V. G.

    2012-04-01

    We experimentally study the reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid crystal easy axis at photoaligned azo-dye films under the combined action of in-plane electric field and linearly polarized reorienting UV light at varying polarization azimuth, ?p. At non-zero values of the azimuth, ?p?0, as opposed to the case where the polarization vector of the light is parallel to the initial easy axis (?p=0), the easy axis reorientation was observed to be most pronounced outside the interelectrode gaps. In the regions between electrodes with non-vanishing electric field, it is found that the dynamics of reorientation slows down with ?p and the sense of easy axis rotation is independent of the sign of ?p. A generalized version of the phenomenological model that was previously developed to describe the electrically assisted light-induced gliding is applied to interpret the experimental data.

  2. CTLA-4Ig immunotherapy of obesity-induced insulin resistance by manipulation of macrophage polarization in adipose tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Masakazu; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 ; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Sugiyama, Naonobu; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 ; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •CTLA-4Ig completely alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance. •CTLA-4Ig reduces epididymal and subcutaneous fat tissue weight and adipocyte size. •CTLA-4Ig alters ATM polarization from inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2. •CTLA-4Ig may lead to a novel anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent. •We identified the mechanism of the novel favorable effects of CTLA-4lg. -- Abstract: It has been established that obesity alters the metabolic and endocrine function of adipose tissue and, together with accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages, contributes to insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have reported that shifting the polarization of macrophages from M1 to M2 can alleviate adipose tissue inflammation, manipulation of macrophage polarization has not been considered as a specific therapy. Here, we determined whether cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4IgG1 (CTLA-4Ig) can ameliorate insulin resistance by induction of macrophages from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization in the adipose tissues of high fat diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. CTLA4-Ig treatment prevented insulin resistance by changing gene expression to M2 polarization, which increased the levels of arginase 1. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the alteration of polarization from CD11c (M1)- to CD206 (M2)-positive cells. Concomitantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in weight reductions of epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, which may be closely related to overexpression of apoptosis inhibitors in macrophages. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels decreased significantly. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and adiponectin expression increased significantly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. This novel mechanism of CTLA-4lg immunotherapy may lead to an ideal anti-obesity/inflammation/insulin resistance agent.

  3. Aluminum-induced changes in properties and fouling propensity of DOM solutions revealed by UV-vis absorbance spectral parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghao; Meng, Fangang

    2016-04-15

    The integration of pre-coagulation with ultrafiltration (UF) is expected to not only reduce membrane fouling but also improve natural organic matter (NOM) removal. However, it is difficult to determine the proper coagulant dosage for different water qualities. The objective of this study was to probe the potential of UV-vis spectroscopic analysis to reveal the coagulant-induced changes in the fouling potentials of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and to determine the optimal coagulant dosage. The Zeta potentials (ZPs) and average particle size of the four DOM solutions (Aldrich humic acid (AHA), AHA-sodium alginate (SA), AHA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AHA-dextran (DEX)) coagulated with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) were measured. Results showed that increasing the aluminum coagulant dosage induced the aggregation of DOM. Meanwhile, the addition of aluminum coagulant resulted in an increase in DSlope325-375 (the slope of the log-transformed absorbance spectra from 325 to 375 nm) and a decrease in S275-295 (the slope of the log-transformed absorption coefficient from 275 to 295 nm) and SR (the ratio of Slope275-295 and Slope350-400). The variations of these spectral parameters (i.e., DSlope325-375, S275-295 and SR) correlated well with the aluminum-caused changes in ZPs and average particle size. This implies that spectral parameters have the potential to indicate DOM aggregation. In addition, good correlations of spectral parameters and membrane fouling behaviors (i.e., unified membrane fouling index (UMFI)) suggest that the changes in DSlope325-375, S275-295 and SR were indicative of the aluminum-caused alterations of fouling potentials of all DOM solutions. Interestingly, the optimal dosage of aluminum (40 μM for AHA, AHA-BSA, and AHA-DEX) was obtained based on the relation between spectral parameters and fouling behaviors. Overall, the spectroscopic analysis, particularly for the utilization of spectral parameters, provided a convenient approach for the exploration of combined coagulation and UF systems for DOM removal. PMID:26900968

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Polarization of Human Macrophage Orchestrates the Formation and Development of Tuberculous Granulomas In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yang; Chen, Jie; Xiong, Guoliang; Peng, Yiping; Ye, Jianqing; Li, Junming

    2015-01-01

    The tuberculous granuloma is an elaborately organized structure and one of the main histological hallmarks of tuberculosis. Macrophages, which are important immunologic effector and antigen-presenting cells, are the main cell type found in the tuberculous granuloma and have high plasticity. Macrophage polarization during bacterial infection has been elucidated in numerous recent studies; however, macrophage polarization during tuberculous granuloma formation and development has rarely been reported. It remains to be clarified whether differences in the activation status of macrophages affect granuloma formation. In this study, the variation in macrophage polarization during the formation and development of tuberculous granulomas was investigated in both sections of lung tissues from tuberculosis patients and an in vitro tuberculous granuloma model. The roles of macrophage polarization in this process were also investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection was found to induce monocyte-derived macrophage polarization. In the in vitro tuberculous granuloma model, macrophage transformation from M1 to M2 was observed over time following M. tuberculosis infection. M2 macrophages were found to predominate in both necrotic and non-necrotic granulomas from tuberculosis patients, while both M1 and M2 polarized macrophages were found in the non-granulomatous lung tissues. Furthermore, it was found that M1 macrophages promote granuloma formation and macrophage bactericidal activity in vitro, while M2 macrophages inhibit these effects. The findings of this study provide insights into the mechanism by which M. tuberculosis circumvents the host immune system as well as a theoretical foundation for the development of novel tuberculosis therapies based on reprogramming macrophage polarization. PMID:26091535

  5. Polarization-induced two-dimensional electron gas at Zn 1-xMg xO/ZnO heterointerface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Mitsuaki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Koike, Kazuto; Sasa, Shigehiko; Inoue, Masataka; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Ohnishi, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Katsuhiko

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, PSP and PPE, in the c-axis direction of Zn 1-xMg xO/ZnO heterostructures are estimated by analyzing the density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) accumulated at the interface. The experimental data on 2DEGs indicated that positive sheet charges responsible for the 2DEG accumulation were induced at the interface by the polarization with a proportional increase to the x in Zn 1-xMg xO barrier layer. For the samples grown on a-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) , however, both of the PSP and PPE in a thin ZnO cap layer on thick Zn 1-xMg xO buffer layer were found to be negative due to the tensile-strained pseudomorphic growth in O polarity. Since negative polarization induces negative sheet charges at the Zn 1-xMg xO/ZnO interface, this result should indicate the larger contribution of the PSP discontinuity at Zn 1-xMg xO/ZnO interface than that of the PPE in ZnO cap layer, deducing the x-dependent PSP in Zn 1-xMg xO to be -(0.057+0.066 x) C/m 2. This interpretation is supported by the theoretical estimation of the PSP at Zn 0.5Mg 0.5O using a first-principals calculation.

  6. Tip-induced domain growth on the non-polar cuts of lithium niobate single-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alikin, D. O.; Turygin, A. P.; Lobov, A. I.; Shur, V. Ya.; Ievlev, A. V.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2015-05-04

    Currently, ferroelectric materials with designed domain structures are considered as a perspective material for new generation of photonic, data storage, and data processing devices. Application of external electric field is the most convenient way of the domain structure formation. Lots of papers are devoted to the investigation of domain kinetics on polar surface of crystals while the forward growth remains one of the most mysterious stages due to lack of experimental methods allowing to study it. Here, we performed tip-induced polarization reversal on X- and Y-non-polar cuts in single-crystal of congruent lithium niobate which allows us to study the forward growth with high spatial resolution. The revealed difference in the shape and length of domains induced on X- and Y-cuts is beyond previously developed theoretical approaches used for the theoretical consideration of the domains growth at non-polar ferroelectric surfaces. To explain experimental results, we used kinetic approach with anisotropy of screening efficiency along different crystallographic directions.

  7. Comparison of different polar compounds-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinwei; Li, Xiaodan; Cai, Wenci; Liu, Yuanfa

    2016-01-01

    Total polar compounds (TPC) formed during successive frying have the negative healthy effects. However, little researches focused on the cytotoxicity of different parts of TPC. The present study was carried out to elucidate the different polar compounds-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The polar compounds of frying oil named oxidized triglycerides oligo (TGO), oxidized triglycerides dimer (TGD), and oxidize triglycerides (ox-TG) were isolated and collected via HPLC. MTT assay was selected to determine the cell viability, and apoptosis rate of the cells was analyzed with the help of flow cytometry. The results indicated that TGO, TGD, or ox-TG could suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells and improve the cell apoptosis in the concentration- and time- dependent manner. Different polar compounds have the different activity of cytotoxicity and apoptosis (p?induced by ox-TG could reach 23.0% and 16.05%, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed that the inhibition of TGO, TGD, and ox-TG on HepG2 cells mainly occurred in S phase. PMID:26879050

  8. Three-dimensional hole gas induced by polarization in (0001)-oriented metal-face III-nitride structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Ding, K.; Yan, J. C.; Wang, J. X.; Zeng, Y. P.; Wei, T. B.; Li, Y. Y.; Sun, B. J.; Duan, R. F.; Li, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    Polarization-doping via graded AlGaN layer on N-face (0001¯) GaN has been demonstrated as an inspiring p-type doping method for wide-band-gap nitrides. However, the polarity of III-nitrides grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition is metal-face typically. In this paper, we show that three-dimensional mobile hole gas induced by polarization can be formed in (0001)-oriented metal-face III-nitride structure. The hole concentration of a Mg-doped AlxGa1-xN layer with graded Al composition from x =0.3 to 0 grown on AlN buffer layer is remarkably enhanced, compared with that of a Mg-doped GaN layer grown under the same conditions. In addition, the hole concentration in the graded AlGaN layer is absence of freezeout as the temperature decreases, indicating that the hole is induced by polarization. This p-type doping method paves a way for achieving high-efficiency in wide-band-gap semiconductor light-emitting devices with p-type doping problem.

  9. Water polarization induced by thermal gradients: The extended simple point charge model (SPC/E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. A.; Bresme, F.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the non-equilibrium response of extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water to thermal gradients. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that SPC/E water features the thermo-polarization orientation effect, namely, water becomes polarized as a response to a thermal gradient. The polarization field increases linearly with the thermal gradient, in agreement with predictions of non-equilibrium thermodynamics theory. This observation confirms the generality of the thermo-polarization effect, first reported using the Modified Central Force Model (MCFM), and shows this physical effect is present irrespective of the water model details, in particular, dipole moment magnitude and model flexibility. The magnitude of the effect is the same for both models, although the sign of the electrostatic field is reversed in going from the MCFM to the SPC/E model. We further analyze the impact that the molecular geometry and mass distribution has on the magnitude of the polarization. Our results indicate that the thermo-polarization effect should be observed in a wide range of polar fluids, including fluids where hydrogen bonding is not present. Using various molecular models, we show that the polarization of these fluids under appropriate thermodynamic conditions can be of the same order or stronger than in water.

  10. Airborne lidar observation of mountain-wave-induced polar stratospheric clouds during EASOE

    SciTech Connect

    Godin, S.; Megie, G.; David, C.; Haner, D. ); Flesia, C.; Emery, Y. )

    1994-06-22

    This article presents the results of airborne lidar measurements of aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) above Kiruna. Polarization measurements allow the distinction between volcanic aerosols, and PSC. They observed PSC formations near Kiruna on December 11, 1991, extending over 100's of km west and east.

  11. Interface-induced chiral domain walls, spin spirals and skyrmions revealed by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Kubetzka, Andr; Pietzsch, Oswald; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2014-10-01

    The spin textures of ultra-thin magnetic layers exhibit surprising variety. The loss of inversion symmetry at the interface of the magnetic layer and substrate gives rise to the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction which favors non-collinear spin arrangements with unique rotational sense. Here we review the application of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to such systems, which has led to the discovery of interface-induced chiral domain walls and spin spirals. Recently, different interface-driven skyrmion lattices have been found, and the writing as well as the deleting of individual skyrmions based on local spin-polarized current injection has been demonstrated. These interface-induced non-collinear magnetic states offer new exciting possibilities to study fundamental magnetic interactions and to tailor material properties for spintronic applications. PMID:25214495

  12. Evolution of the linear-polarization-angle-dependence of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance-oscillations with microwave power

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2014-11-10

    We examine the role of the microwave power in the linear polarization angle dependence of the microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system. The diagonal resistance R{sub xx} was measured at the fixed magnetic fields of the photo-excited oscillatory extrema of R{sub xx} as a function of both the microwave power, P, and the linear polarization angle, ?. Color contour plots of such measurements demonstrate the evolution of the lineshape of R{sub xx} versus ? with increasing microwave power. We report that the non-linear power dependence of the amplitude of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations distorts the cosine-square relation between R{sub xx} and ? at high power.

  13. Chlorine detection in cement with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the infrared and ultraviolet spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, Christoph Dominic; Wiens, Eugen; Noll, Reinhard; Wilsch, Gerd; Reichling, Kenji

    2009-10-01

    A significant parameter to monitor the status of concrete buildings like bridges or parking garages is the determination of the depth profile of the chlorine concentration below the exposed concrete surface. This information is required to define the needed volume of restoration for a construction. Conventional methods like wet chemical analysis are time- and cost-intensive so an alternative method is developed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The idea is to deploy LIBS to analyze drill cores by scanning the sample surface with laser pulses. Chlorine spectral lines in the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)-range were studied for chlorine detection in hydrated cement samples. The excitation energies of these spectral lines are above 9.2 eV. Hence high plasma temperatures and pulse energies in the range of some hundred millijoules are needed to induce sufficient line intensity levels at the required working distance. To further increase the line intensity and to lower the detection limit (LOD) of chlorine a measuring chamber is used where different ambient pressures and gases can be chosen for the measurements. The influences on the line intensity for pressures between 5 mbar and 400 mbar using helium as process gas and the influence of different laser burst modi like single and collinear double pulses are investigated. For the first time a LOD according to DIN 32 645 of 0.1 mass% was achieved for chlorine in hydrated cement using the UV line 134.72 nm.

  14. Simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency for two circularly polarized lasers coupled to the same linearly polarized laser in a four-level atomic system in the W scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrim, Cristian; Nelson, Chris

    2011-03-15

    Electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) can be produced in a four-level atomic system in the W scheme using a linearly polarized optical field for simultaneously slowing down two {sigma}{sup +} and {sigma}{sup -} circularly polarized optical fields. This four-level atomic system can be set up with a |{sup 1}S{sub 0}> ground state and three Zeeman levels of the |{sup 1}P{sub 1}> excited state of any alkali-metal atom placed in a weak magnetic field. We apply our W scheme to ultracold magnesium atoms for neglecting the collisional dephasing. Atomic coherences are reported after solving a density matrix master equation including radiative relaxations from Zeeman states of the |{sup 1}P{sub 1}> multiplet to the |{sup 1}S{sub 0}> ground state. The EIT feature is analyzed using the transit time between the normal dispersive region and the EIT region. The evolution of the EIT feature with the variation of the coupling field is discussed using an intuitive dressed-state representation. We analyze the sensitivity of an EIT feature to pressure broadening of the excited Zeeman states.

  15. Three-body spectral moments for collision-induced light scattering by octahedral and tetrahedral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kader, M. S. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.

    2001-04-01

    The zeroth and second moments of the three-body collision-induced light scattering spectra for SF6 and CF4 are computed at 295 k, using recent intermolecular-induced pair polarizability model. Comparisons were made with available experimental and calculated moments. The results show the very important role which is played by the choice of the potential and polarizability models.

  16. Challenges for Induced Polarization Measurements in Single and Cross Borehole Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Curatola, F.; Evdokimov, K.

    2013-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) surveys have been traditionally used for mineral exploration. These surveys involve large surface arrays, cover wide areas and target strong signals from metallic minerals (e.g. sulfides). In recent years, the IP method has increasingly been used for environmental applications where smaller arrays are employed to measure smaller signals. Due to its unique sensitivity to interfacial properties, the IP method might be used to track and identify processes associated with remediation efforts, and also characterize and delineate contaminant plumes. Recent laboratory experiments have significantly advanced the IP method, improving the detection and interpretation of relatively small signals. However, IP data acquisition from a borehole, either as a vertical profile down a string of electrodes installed in a well or in a cross borehole configuration is more challenging. This is in part due to higher noise levels associated with coupling effects between wiring and earth in the borehole. In this study, we simulated borehole conditions in the laboratory and examined sources of noise during borehole IP measurements. We simulated a vertical array of electrodes, with electrodes placed around a PVC pipe, and performed measurements in a 3D tank. While in traditional single borehole configurations (e.g. Wenner, Schlumberger) the IP data were contaminated with low frequency errors associated with electrode arrangement. Modifications on the electrode configurations and the potential electrode design, led to acquisition of high quality data comparable to that obtained in the laboratory. We show that, while borehole IP measurements can be challenging, appropriate consideration of electrode placement and design permits acquisition of high quality data that can be used to sense variations in interfacial properties around a borehole.

  17. Scaling depth-induced wave-breaking in two-dimensional spectral wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. E.; Holthuijsen, L. H.; Zijlema, M.; van Vledder, G. Ph.; Pietrzak, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    Wave breaking in shallow water is still poorly understood and needs to be better parameterized in 2D spectral wave models. Significant wave heights over horizontal bathymetries are typically under-predicted in locally generated wave conditions and over-predicted in non-locally generated conditions. A joint scaling dependent on both local bottom slope and normalized wave number is presented and is shown to resolve these issues. Compared to the 12 wave breaking parameterizations considered in this study, this joint scaling demonstrates significant improvements, up to ?50% error reduction, over 1D horizontal bathymetries for both locally and non-locally generated waves. In order to account for the inherent differences between uni-directional (1D) and directionally spread (2D) wave conditions, an extension of the wave breaking dissipation models is presented. By including the effects of wave directionality, rms-errors for the significant wave height are reduced for the best performing parameterizations in conditions with strong directional spreading. With this extension, our joint scaling improves modeling skill for significant wave heights over a verification data set of 11 different 1D laboratory bathymetries, 3 shallow lakes and 4 coastal sites. The corresponding averaged normalized rms-error for significant wave height in the 2D cases varied between 8% and 27%. In comparison, using the default setting with a constant scaling, as used in most presently operating 2D spectral wave models, gave equivalent errors between 15% and 38%.

  18. Multiparameter spectral representation of noise-induced competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Sargsyan, Khachik; Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of representing a stochastic forward model output with respect to a large number of input parameters is considered. The methodology is applied to a stochastic reaction network of competence dynamics in Bacillus subtilis bacterium. In particular, the dependence of the competence state on rate constants of underlying reactions is investigated. We base our methodology on Polynomial Chaos (PC) spectral expansions that allow effective propagation of input parameter uncertainties to outputs of interest. Given a number of forward model training runs at sampled input parameter values, the PC modes are estimated using a Bayesian framework. As an outcome, these PC modes are described with posterior probability distributions. The resulting expansion can be regarded as an uncertain response function and can further be used as a computationally inexpensive surrogate instead of the original reaction model for subsequent analyses such as calibration or optimization studies. Furthermore, the methodology is enhanced with a classification-based mixture PC formulation that overcomes the difficulties associated with representing potentially nonsmooth input-output relationships. Finally, the global sensitivity analysis based on the multiparameter spectral representation of an observable of interest provides biological insight and reveals the most important reactions and their couplings for the competence dynamics PMID:22868681

  19. Spectral evolution of Eu3+ doped Y3NbO7 niobate induced by temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-Y.; Durand, A.; Heintz, J.-M.; Veillere, A.; Jubera, V.

    2016-03-01

    A Eu3+ doped Y3NbO7 niobate powder was synthetized using a polymerizable complex route. It gave rise to nanometric particles that crystallized in the fluorine structure, corresponding to the Y3NbO7 phase. The thermal evolution of this powder was followed up to 1600 °C, using X-ray diffraction and optical characterizations. The fluorine structure was maintained in the whole temperature range. However, spectral evolution of the samples calcined above 900 °C showed a more complex situation. Emission spectra of powders heat treated at different temperatures showed an evolution of the emission lines that can be attributed first to a better crystallization of the niobate phase and second to its partial decomposition in favor of the formation of YNbO4 and Y2O3. Although the Y3NbO7 phase appeared stable up to 1650 °C, from X-ray diffraction analysis, spectral analysis showed that the local environment of the doping element is modified from 1100 °C.

  20. Studies of X-ray Spectral Lines Polarization in Correlation with the Emission of Supra-thermal Electrons in Plasma-Focus Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Baronova, E. O.

    2006-12-04

    The correlation of the emission of polarized X-ray lines from highly-ionized argon ions and the emission of intense electron pulses has been observed. The paper presents a review of research on the polarization of the selected X-ray lines and their correlation with pulsed electron beams investigated within the MAJA-PF facility at SINS in Swierk, Poland.

  1. Laser ablation-induced spectral plasma characteristics in optical far- and near fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, David J.; Jeon, Hojeong; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Yoo, Jong; Russo, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work is to elucidate the ablation-induced plasma physics for chemical species analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at higher spatial resolution. To accomplish this, the effect of the laser spot size on the laser ablation-induced plasma characteristics is experimentally investigated, both in optical far-field and near-field ablation configurations, utilizing a Cr thin film of {approx}200 nm thickness on quartz substrate as a target. The far-field ablation is affected under tight focusing conditions, wherein nanosecond laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength are focused to laser focal spot diameters of {approx}7 and 1.5 {mu}m. The measured results show that the ablation-induced plasma from sub-10 {mu}m ablation craters exhibits complex three-dimensional behavior, leading to greatly reduced laser-plasma interaction and an order of magnitude shorter plasma lifetime. Nanosecond laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength are also coupled to a pulled fiber based near-field scanning optical microscopy probe. Due to the sharp tip presence in close proximity of the ablation craters, entirely different plasma evolution behavior is observed, highlighted by orders of magnitude shorter plasma lifetime and strongly directional material ejection. The ablation-induced plasma from reduced lateral crater dimensions both in far- and near-field shows improved contrast of atomic transition signals with respect to the wide-spectrum background, hence confirming the potential for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with high spatial resolution.

  2. Experimental study of the spectral characteristics of laser-induced air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Zhaoxiang; Wu Jinquan; Sun Fenglou; Gong Shunsheng

    2010-05-01

    The characteristics of laser-induced air, N2, and O2 plasma spectra are investigated spectroscopically. The study concentrates mainly on the temporal behavior of laser-induced plasma after breakdown. We used delayed spectra and spectra evolution for this study. Except for the general one-beam laser-induced breakdown experiment, a second laser beam was added to further probe the behavior of plasma during its decay. We report the experimental results of spectra composition, spectra time evolution, and spectra affected by a second laser beam. We determined that all the laser-induced air plasma spectra are from a continuous spectrum and some line spectra superposed on the continuous spectrum. The stronger short wavelength continuous spectrum is caused by bremsstrahlung radiation of electrons in the plasma, and the weaker long wavelength continuous spectrum is caused by electron and ion recombination. Line spectra originate from excited molecules, atoms, and their first-order ions, but no line spectra form higher-order ions. The results show that the temporal behavior of some spectra is a decay-rise-redecay pattern. With the two laser beam experiment we found that all the spectra intensities are enhanced by the second laser beam, but the response of various spectra to the delay of the second laser beam is quite different, in particular, the intensity increments of some spectra increase with the delay of the second laser beam. Some microscopic processes of laser-induced plasma obtained from the experimental results are discussed. These results are useful for a better understanding of some laser-induced air plasma related applications, such as laser-guided lightning and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  3. Interesting polarization-independent SERS detection performance induced by the rotation symmetry of multiparticle nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2016-01-29

    In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360 range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting. PMID:26655083

  4. Interesting polarization-independent SERS detection performance induced by the rotation symmetry of multiparticle nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Jiang, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, on the basis of finite difference time domain simulations and group theory, by employing regular nanosphere trimers as the main examples, we analyse and discuss the polarization-independent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon arising from the rotation symmetry of coined metallic nanomultimers. The results demonstrate why the rotationally symmetrical nanomultimers can show polarization-independent SERS performance. Because of the dramatically hybridized polarization-independent SERS performance over the whole 360 range, rotationally symmetrical coined metal nanomultimers, such as regular trimers, regular triangular tetramers and regular pentamers, are reliable and reproducible SERS substrates, which have the potential for convenient and flexible practical SERS detection without the need for optimally incident polarization outside the laboratory setting.

  5. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Li, H.; Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Draxl, C.; Trampert, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  6. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

    PubMed

    Kong, X; Li, H; Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Sanchez-Garcia, M A; Calleja, E; Draxl, C; Trampert, A

    2016-02-12

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns. PMID:26759358

  7. Spectral anomalies of the light-induced drift effect caused by the velocity dependence of the collision broadening and shift of the absorption line

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, Anatolii M

    2013-02-28

    We have theoretically investigated the spectral features of the light-induced drift (LID) effect, arising due to the dependence of the collision broadening {gamma} and shift {Delta} of the absorption line on the velocity of resonance particles, {nu}. It is shown that under certain conditions, account of this dependence can radically change the spectral shape of the LID signal, up to the appearance of additional zeros in the dependence of the drift velocity on the radiation frequency. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Spectral anomalies of the light-induced drift effect caused by the velocity dependence of the collision broadening and shift of the absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, A. I.; Shalagin, Anatolii M.

    2013-02-01

    We have theoretically investigated the spectral features of the light-induced drift (LID) effect, arising due to the dependence of the collision broadening ? and shift ? of the absorption line on the velocity of resonance particles, ?. It is shown that under certain conditions, account of this dependence can radically change the spectral shape of the LID signal, up to the appearance of additional zeros in the dependence of the drift velocity on the radiation frequency.

  9. Arsenic- and selenium-induced changes in spectral reflectance and morphology of soybean plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, N.M.; Ager, C.M.; Eiswerth, B.A.; Power, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) plants were grown in hydroponic solutions treated with high concentrations of either arsenic or selenium. Spectral reflectance changes in arsenic-dosed plants included a shift to shorter wavelengths in the long-wavelength edge of the chlorophyll absorption band centered at 680 nm (the red edge) and higher reflectance in the 550-650 nm region. These results are consistent with vegetation reflectance anomalies observed in previous greenhouse experiments and in airborne radiometer studies. The selenium-dosed plants contrast, exhibited a shift to longer wavelengths of the red edge and lower reflectance between 550 nm and 650 wh when compared with control plants. Morphological effects of arsenic uptake included lower overall biomass, stunted and discolored roots, and smaller leaves oriented more vertically than leaves of control plants. Selenium-dosed plants also displayed morphological changes, but root and leaf biomass were less affected than were those of arsenic-dosed plants when compared to control plants. ?? 1989.

  10. Solar simulated radiation induced cell death depends on spectral distribution and irradiance but not output delivery.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Alanna; Lyng, Fiona M; Walsh, James E

    2010-07-01

    Photo-biological investigations are dependent on calibration and characterisation to determine the relevance of an artificial irradiator to the study at hand. The importance of this has been voiced in the literature. However, the importance of output delivery is relatively unknown. The biological relevance of a high-energy, rapidly pulsing solar simulator was investigated using the clonogenic assay and was found to be reciprocity law compliant despite an exaggerated ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in excess of 1600 W m(-2) delivered per pulse. In fact, it was found to be the least cytotoxic irradiator compared with a second solar simulator and a UVB fluorescent lamp with continuous UV irradiances of 55 and 6.4 W m(-2), respectively. The reduced survival observed with the continuous irradiators is attributed to differences in spectral irradiance and distribution, particularly in the UVB, which in the absence of thorough calibration and characterisation may have resulted in erroneous conclusions. PMID:20203123

  11. Control of nonlinear spectral phase induced by ultra-broadband optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hdrich, Steffen; Bromage, Jake; Limpert, Jens; Tnnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) impose an optical parametric phase (OPP) onto the amplified signal. It manifests itself as a spectral phase in the case of broadband signals and, therefore, hampers pulse compression. Here we present, for the first time, a complete experimental characterization of this OPP for different ultra-broadband noncollinear OPA configurations. This measurement allows us to compensate the OPP and to achieve Fourier-limited pulses as short as 1.9 optical cycles. A numerical model is in excellent agreement with our measurements and reveals the importance of high order phase compensation in the case of noncollinear phase matching. In contrast, operation at degeneracy enables almost complete compensation of the OPP by second-order dispersion only. PMID:23027236

  12. Interface-induced modulation of charge and polarization in thin film Fe(3)O(4).

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Verbeeck, Jo; Brck, Sebastian; Paul, Markus; Kufer, Dominik; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van

    2014-01-22

    Charge and polarization modulations in Fe3 O4 are controlled by taking advantage of interfacial strain effects.The feasibility of oxidation state control by strain modification is demonstratedand it is shown that this approach offers a stable configuration at room temperature. Direct evidence of how a local strain field changes the atomic coordination and introduces atomic displacements leading to polarization of Fe ions is presented. PMID:24167041

  13. Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-02-15

    We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarization dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.

  14. Polarizing cues.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cuesJohn McCain and Barack Obamaaffected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues. PMID:22400143

  15. Wire-grid polarizer using galvanic growth technology: demonstration of a wide spectral and angular bandwidth component with high extinction ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, Isabelle; Kämpfe, Thomas; Celle, Frederic; Cazier, Anthony; Guttmann, Markus; Matthis, Barbara; Laukkanen, Janne; Lacour, Frédéric; Veillas, Colette; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Parriaux, Olivier; Jourlin, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Functional demonstration of a wide band, wide angular width wire-grid polarizer has been made in the framework of a user project of the European project ACTMOST (Access To Micro-Optics Expertise, Services and Technologies). The polarization function relies on linear polarizers using the wire-grid polarizer principle by means of a metal grating of unusually large period, exhibiting a large extinction of the transmission of the TE polarization in the 850-nm wavelength range. This grating achieves a broadband and especially high angular aperture reflection with low loss and permits resorting to very low cost incoherent light sources for the transmitted TM polarization. This paper will describe the design, the modeling and optimization, as well as the complete technological process chain, that has been used, starting with the photoresist grating printing using phase-mask UV-based lithography to the uniform galvanic growth of a very shallow gold grating on transparent conductive layer deposited on a glass substrate. Transmission curves for both polarizations performed on the first demonstrators will be presented.

  16. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-01-19

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization-induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7%Al/nm to 4.95%Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} to 1.6 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30%Al/nm, the deep donor concentration is negligible and free hole concentrations roughly equal to the bound polarization charge density are achieved up to 1.6 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at a gradient of 4.95%Al/nm. Accurate grading lengths in the p- and n-side of the pn-junction are extracted from scanning transmission electron microscopy images and are used to support energy band calculation and capacitance modeling. These results demonstrate the robust nature of p-type polarization doping in nanowires and put an upper bound on the magnitude of deep donor compensation.

  17. Hyperoxia promotes polarization of the immune response in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, leading to a TH17 cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Nagato, Akinori C; Bezerra, Frank S; Talvani, André; Aarestrup, Beatriz J; Aarestrup, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that hyperoxia-induced stress and oxidative damage to the lungs of mice lead to an increase in IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β expression. Together, IL-6 and TGF-β have been known to direct T cell differentiation toward the TH17 phenotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperoxia promotes the polarization of T cells to the TH17 cell phenotype in response to ovalbumin-induced acute airway inflammation. Airway inflammation was induced in female BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal sensitization and intranasal introduction of ovalbumin, followed by challenge methacholine. After the methacholine challenge, animals were exposed to hyperoxic conditions in an inhalation chamber for 24 h. The controls were subjected to normoxia or aluminum hydroxide dissolved in phosphate buffered saline. After 24 h of hyperoxia, the number of macrophages and lymphocytes decreased in animals with ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, whereas the number of neutrophils increased after ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. The results showed that expression of Nrf2, iNOS, T-bet and IL-17 increased after 24 of hyperoxia in both alveolar macrophages and in lung epithelial cells, compared with both animals that remained in room air, and animals with ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Hyperoxia alone without the induction of airway inflammation lead to increased levels of TNF-α and CCL5, whereas hyperoxia after inflammation lead to decreased CCL2 levels. Histological evidence of extravasation of inflammatory cells into the perivascular and peribronchial regions of the lungs was observed after pulmonary inflammation and hyperoxia. Hyperoxia promotes polarization of the immune response toward the TH17 phenotype, resulting in tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and the migration of neutrophils to the lung and airways. Elucidating the effect of hyperoxia on ovalbumin-induced acute airway inflammation is relevant to preventing or treating asthmatic patients that require oxygen supplementation to reverse the hypoxemia. PMID:26417446

  18. Correlation between aging grade of T91 steel and spectral characteristics of the laser-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Lu, Jidong; Dai, Yuan; Dong, Meirong; Zhong, Wanli; Yao, Shunchun

    2015-08-01

    T91 steel with favorable mechanical performance has become the representative heat-resistant steel used as heat exchange surfaces in supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers. The organizational structure and mechanical properties change during the service period, called material aging, which affects the service life and the equipment safety. To develop a fast and easy aging predictive technique of heat exchange metal surfaces, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to investigate the plasma characteristics of T91 steel specimens with different aging grades. The metallographic structure, mechanical properties and spectral characteristics of the specimens were analyzed. Then, the correlations between the spectral characteristics and the aging grade were established. The analysis results show that the martensite substructure disappears, and the dimension of the carbide particles among the crystal lattices increases with aging. At the same time, the hardness of the samples gradually decreases. The peak intensities of both the matrix and the alloying element increases then decreases with aging, owing to the change of the metallography structure and mechanical properties. Furthermore, good unique value correlations between the intensity ratio of CrI/FeI, MoI/FeI and the aging grade are found. This demonstrates that LIBS is a possible new way to estimate the aging grade of metal materials.

  19. Chloroplast biogenesis47. Spectroscopic study of net spectral shifts induced by axial ligand coordination in metalated tetrapyrroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Faith C.; Rebeiz, Constantin A.

    Net absorption and fluorescence spectral shifts, directly induced by coordination of metalated tetrapyrroles to axial ligands, were calculated for the Soret and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. An examination of the calculated net spectral shifts confirmed the conclusions of several other investigators and revealed that the axial coordination potential of a metalated tetrapyrrole is strongly influenced (a) by functional group distribution around the periphery of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle; (b) by the temperature of the sample; (c) by the availability of adventitious ligands in the immediate environment of the metalated tetrapyrroles and (d) by the nature of the central metal atom of the metallotetrapyrrole. In general, electron withdrawing peripheral groups, low temperatures and the availability of unhindered Lewis bases all enhanced the formation of hexacoordinated complexes in Mg-tetrapyrroles. For example, in ether at room temperature, all Mg-tetrapyrroles coordinated to one axial ligand thus forming pentacoordinated complexes. At 77 K, all Mg-porphyrins with electron withdrawing side chains occurred mainly in the pentacoordinated state and to a much lesser extent in the hexacoordinated state. On the other hand in ether at 77 K, Mg-chlorins, such as monovinyl and divinyl chl(ide) a, coordinated to two axial ligands and occured predominantly in the hexacoordinated state. The relevance of these observations to the positive charge density on the central metal atom of metallotetrapyrroles and to the orientation and organization of Mg-tetrapyrroles in biological membranes is discussed.

  20. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David A.; Benelli, Katharine; Khoo, Cynthia; Harris, Ronny D.

    2005-02-01

    Several elements important to planetary geology (e.g. Br, C, Cl, P, S) and the human exploration of Mars (e.g. toxic elements such as As) have strong emission lines in the purge and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region (100 200 nm). This spectral region has not been extensively studied for space applications using geological samples. We studied emissions from the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma in this region using a sample chamber filled with 7 torr (930 Pa) of CO2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Pressures down to 0.02 torr were also used to evaluate the effect of the residual CO2 on the spectra and to begin investigating the use of VUV-LIBS for airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. Spectra were recorded using a 0.3-m vacuum spectrometer with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The effects of time delay and laser energy on LIBS detection at reduced pressure were examined. The effect of ambient CO2 on the detection of C in soil was also evaluated. Lines useful for the spectrochemical analysis of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S were determined and calibration curves were prepared for these elements. Although LIBS is being developed for stand-off analysis at many meters distance, the experiments reported here were aimed at in-situ (close-up) analysis.

  1. Sensing the Presence and Transport of Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated PorousMedia using Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-materials are emerging into the global marketplace. Engineered Nano-particles, and other throwaway nanodevices may constitute a whole new class of non-biodegradable pollutants of which scientists have very little understanding. Therefore, the production of significant quanti...

  2. MASS SPECTRAL FRAGMENTATION PATHWAYS IN NITRAMINES. A COLLISION-INDUCED DISSOCIATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A collision-induced dissociation (CID) study of five synthesized nitramines was carried out using a hybrid EBQQ mass spectrometer. ID spectra were obtained in two modes: /E linked-scan mode and MS/MS mode using the EB sector combination as the first mass spectrometer and the QQ a...

  3. Spectral analysis of paramagnetic centers induced in human tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, I. I.

    2010-03-01

    Based on study of spectral and relaxation characteristics, we have established that paramagnetic centers induced in tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation are identical in nature. We show that for the same exposure dose, the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by x-radiation with effective energy 34 keV is about an order of magnitude higher than the amplitude of the signal induced by gamma radiation. We have identified a three-fold attenuation of the EPR signal along the path of the x-radiation from the buccal to the lingual side of a tooth, which is evidence that the individual had undergone diagnostic x-ray examination of the dentition or skull. We have shown that the x-ray exposure doses reconstructed from the EPR spectra are an order of magnitude higher than the applied doses, while the dose loads due to gamma radiation are equal to the applied doses. The data obtained indicate that for adequate reconstruction of individual absorbed doses from EPR spectra of tooth enamel in the population subjected to the combined effect of x-radiation and accidental external gamma radiation as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, we need to take into account the contribution to the dose load from diagnostic x-rays in examination of the teeth, jaw, or skull.

  4. Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-01-13

    Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365 nm (3.4 eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240 nm (>5.2 eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

  5. Spectral State Dependence of the 0.4-2 MeV Polarized Emission in Cygnus X-1 Seen with INTEGRAL/IBIS, and Links with the AMI Radio Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jrme; Grinberg, Victoria; Laurent, Philippe; Cadolle Bel, Marion; Pottschmidt, Katja; Pooley, Guy; Bodaghee, Arash; Wilms, Jrn; Gouiffs, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Polarization of the ? 400 keV hard tail of the microquasar Cygnus X-1 has been independently reported by INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the INTEGRAL Satellite (IBIS), and INTEGRAL/SPectrometer on INTEGRAL and interpreted as emission from a compact jet. These conclusions were, however, based on the accumulation of all INTEGRAL data regardless of the spectral state. We utilize additional INTEGRAL exposure accumulated until 2012 December, and include the AMI/Ryle (15 GHz) radio data in our study. We separate the observations into hard, soft, and intermediate/transitional states and detect radio emission from a compact jet in hard and intermediate states (IS), but not in the soft. The 10-400 keV INTEGRAL (JEM-X and IBIS) state resolved spectra are well modeled with thermal Comptonization and reflection components. We detect a hard tail in the 0.4-2 MeV range for the hard state only. We extract the state dependent polarigrams of Cyg X-1, which are all compatible with no or an undetectable level of polarization except in the 400-2000 keV range in the hard state where the polarization fraction is 75% 32% and the polarization angle 40.0 14.3. An upper limit on the 0.4-2 MeV soft state polarization fraction is 70%. Due to the short exposure, we obtain no meaningful constraint for the IS. The likely detection of a \\gt 400 keV polarized tail in the hard state, together with the simultaneous presence of a radio jet, reinforce the notion of a compact jet origin of the \\gt 400 keV emission.

  6. Myeloid cell-derived inducible nitric oxide synthase suppresses M1 macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Geming; Zhang, Ruihua; Geng, Shuo; Peng, Liang; Jayaraman, Padmini; Chen, Chun; Xu, Feifong; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Qin; Zheng, Hao; Shen, Kimberly; Wang, Juan; Liu, Xiyu; Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Zihan; Qi, Chen-Feng; Si, Chuanping; He, John Cijiang; Liu, Kebin; Lira, Sergio A.; Sikora, Andrew G.; Li, Liwu; Xiong, Huabao

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that iNOS-deficient mice display enhanced classically activated M1 macrophage polarization without major effects on alternatively activated M2 macrophages. eNOS and nNOS mutant mice show comparable M1 macrophage polarization compared with wild-type control mice. Addition of N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine dihydrochloride, an iNOS inhibitor, significantly enhances M1 macrophage polarization while S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, a NO donor, suppresses M1 macrophage polarization. NO derived from iNOS mediates nitration of tyrosine residues in IRF5 protein, leading to the suppression of IRF5-targeted M1 macrophage signature gene activation. Computational analyses corroborate a circuit that fine-tunes the expression of IL-12 by iNOS in macrophages, potentially enabling versatile responses based on changing microenvironments. Finally, studies of an experimental model of endotoxin shock show that iNOS deficiency results in more severe inflammation with an enhanced M1 macrophage activation phenotype. These results suggest that NO derived from iNOS in activated macrophages suppresses M1 macrophage polarization. PMID:25813085

  7. Current-induced giant polarization rotation using a ZnO single crystal doped with nitrogen ions

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Naoya; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2015-01-01

    Giant polarization rotation in a ZnO single crystal was experimentally demonstrated based on a novel phenomenon occurring at the nanometric scale. The ZnO crystal was doped with N+ and N2+ ions serving as p-type dopants. By applying an in-plane current using a unique arrangement of electrodes on the device, current-induced polarization rotation of the incident light was observed. From the results of experimental demonstrations and discussions, it was verified that this novel behavior originates from a specific distribution of dopants and the corresponding lightmatter interactions in a nanometric space, which are allowed by the existence of such a dopant distribution. PMID:26246456

  8. Nonlinear magnetization-induced terms in garnet film polarization in the second-harmonic generation effect: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonda, A.; Uba, S.; Uba, L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the presence of nonlinear magnetization-induced terms in magnetically ordered crystals in the second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect. The nonlinear terms have been evidenced experimentally in magnetic garnet film and explained theoretically in the frame of a developed phenomenological model. In the model, nonlinear medium polarization up to third order in magnetization is taken into account. We show that all the observed peculiarities of the SHG intensity, measured as a function of the external magnetic field and sample orientation, are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the theoretical model applied to the (111)-oriented garnet film. It is shown that the amplitude of cubic term in magnetization, about one third of the linear term, is required for the explanation of the experiment. It is also shown that the measurements of SHG intensity as a function of both the magnetic field and the sample orientation are necessary to reveal the existence of nonlinear magnetic terms in medium polarization.

  9. Spectral anion sensing and γ-radiation induced magnetic modifications of polyphenol generated Ag-nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Zarina; Dhara, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Bilwadal; Saha, Abhijit; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    A fast one step bio-synthesis for in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles is proposed. The method involves reduction of AgNO3 with an aqueous extract of peanut skin, which is a good source of polyphenols. The silver nanoparticles thus synthesized were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Effect of low dose γ irradiation during the synthesis was studied and their physico-chemical properties were compared with those produced without irradiation. On the contrary to the diamagnetic behavior of bulk silver, the silver nanoparticles thus prepared show a significant ferromagnetic moment component. Variable time exposure to γ-irradiation results in an exponential decay of ferromagnetic component. A freshly prepared solution of silver nanoparticles shows selective spectral changes towards iodide ions at trace concentration (below 50μM) among a series of 16 other competing anions. The prepared nanoparticles are therefore suitable for anion sensing application. PMID:26654966

  10. Low Frequency Spectral Density of Ferrous Heme: Perturbations Induced by Axial Ligation and Protein Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gruia, Flaviu; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Kubo, Minoru; Champion, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond coherence spectroscopy is used to probe low frequency (20400 cm?1) modes of the ferrous heme group in solution, with and without 2-methyl imidazole (2MeIm) as an axial ligand. The results are compared to heme proteins (CPO, P450cam, HRP, Mb) where insertion of the heme into the protein results in redistribution of the low frequency spectral density and in (?60%) longer damping times for the coherent signals. The major effect of imidazole ligation to the ferrous heme is the softening of the low frequency force constants by a factor of ?0.6 0.1. The functional consequences of imidazole ligation are assessed and it is found that the enthalpic CO rebinding barrier is increased significantly when imidazole is bound. The force constant softening analysis, combined with the kinetics results, indicates that the iron is displaced by only ?0.2 from the heme plane in the absence of the imidazole ligand, whereas it is displaced by ?0.4 when imidazole (histidine) is present. This suggests that binding of imidazole (histidine) as an axial ligand, and the concomitant softening of the force constants, leads to an anharmonic distortion of the heme group that has significant functional consequences. PMID:17766351

  11. Spectral anion sensing and γ-radiation induced magnetic modifications of polyphenol generated Ag-nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Zarina; Dhara, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Bilwadal; Saha, Abhijit; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-03-01

    A fast one step bio-synthesis for in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles is proposed. The method involves reduction of AgNO3 with an aqueous extract of peanut skin, which is a good source of polyphenols. The silver nanoparticles thus synthesized were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Effect of low dose γ irradiation during the synthesis was studied and their physico-chemical properties were compared with those produced without irradiation. On the contrary to the diamagnetic behavior of bulk silver, the silver nanoparticles thus prepared show a significant ferromagnetic moment component. Variable time exposure to γ-irradiation results in an exponential decay of ferromagnetic component. A freshly prepared solution of silver nanoparticles shows selective spectral changes towards iodide ions at trace concentration (below 50 μM) among a series of 16 other competing anions. The prepared nanoparticles are therefore suitable for anion sensing application.

  12. A model for the spectral dependence of optically induced absorption in amorphous silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1990-01-01

    A model based on transitions from localized band tail states to states above the mobility edge is used to explain the broad band induced absorptions observed in recent pump-probe experiments. The model gives the observed decrease of absorption with frequency at subband gap photo energies and high carrier densities (of about 10 to the 20th/cu cm). At lower carrier densities, the absorption has a maximun which is sensitive to the spatial extent of the band tail states.

  13. Using multi-spectral imagery to detect and map stress induced by Russian wheat aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backoulou, Georges Ferdinand

    Scope and Method of Study. The rationale of this study was to assess the stress in wheat field induced by the Russian wheat aphid using multispectral imagery. The study was conducted to (a) determine the relationship between RWA and edaphic and topographic factors; (b) identify and quantify the spatial pattern of RWA infestation within wheat fields; (c) differentiate the stress induced by RWA from other stress causing factors. Data used for the analysis included RWA population density from the wheat field in, Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, Digital Elevation Model from the Unites States Geological Survey (USGS), soil data from the Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO), and multispectral imagery acquired in the panhandle of Oklahoma. Findings and Conclusions. The study revealed that the population density of the Russian wheat aphid was related to topographic and edaphic factors. Slope and sand were predictor variables that were positively related to the density of RWA at the field level. The study has also demonstrated that stress induced by the RWA has a specific spatial pattern that can be distinguished from other stress causing factors using a combination of landscape metrics and topographic and edaphic characteristics of wheat fields. Further field-based studies using multispectral imagery and spatial pattern analysis are suggested. The suggestions require acquiring biweekly multispectral imagery and collecting RWA, topographic and edaphic data at the sampling points during the phonological growth development of wheat plants. This is an approach that may pretend to have great potential for site specific technique for the integrated pest management.

  14. Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN mu