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Sample records for speech

  1. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  2. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... W View More… Donate Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Speech Development skip to submenu ... Lip and Palate . Bzoch (1997). Cleft Palate Speech Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Shprintzen, Bardach (1995). Cleft Palate: ...

  3. VISIBLE SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTER, RALPH K.; AND OTHERS

    A CORRECTED REPUBLICATION OF THE 1947 EDITION, THE BOOK DESCRIBES A FORM OF VISIBLE SPEECH OBTAINED BY THE RECORDING OF AN ANALYSIS OF SPEECH SOMEWHAT SIMILAR TO THE ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY THE EAR. ORIGINALLY INTENDED TO PRESENT AN EXPERIMENTAL TRAINING PROGRAM IN THE READING OF VISIBLE SPEECH AND EXPANDED TO INCLUDE MATERIAL OF INTEREST TO VARIOUS…

  4. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty

    The communications approach to teaching speech to high school students views speech as the study of the communication process in order to develop an awareness of and a sensitivity to the variables that affect human interaction. In using this approach the student is encouraged to try out as many types of messages using as many techniques and…

  5. Speech Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Designed to assist deaf and hearing impaired-persons in achieving better speech, Resnick Worldwide Inc.'s device provides a visual means of cuing the deaf as a speech-improvement measure. This is done by electronically processing the subjects' sounds and comparing them with optimum values which are displayed for comparison.

  6. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  7. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  8. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  9. Speech analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A speech signal is analyzed by applying the signal to formant filters which derive first, second and third signals respectively representing the frequency of the speech waveform in the first, second and third formants. A first pulse train having approximately a pulse rate representing the average frequency of the first formant is derived; second and third pulse trains having pulse rates respectively representing zero crossings of the second and third formants are derived. The first formant pulse train is derived by establishing N signal level bands, where N is an integer at least equal to two. Adjacent ones of the signal bands have common boundaries, each of which is a predetermined percentage of the peak level of a complete cycle of the speech waveform.

  10. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  11. Speech Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Morton J.

    This book serves as a guide for the native and non-native speaker of English in overcoming various problems in articulation, rhythm, and intonation. It is also useful in group therapy speech programs. Forty-five practice chapters offer drill materials for all the vowels, diphthongs, and consonants of American English plus English stress and…

  12. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  13. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  14. Speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  15. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and ...

  16. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... disorders develop gradually, but anyone can develop a speech and ... suddenly, usually in a trauma. APHASIA Alzheimer disease ...

  17. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is ... understand or express spoken or written language. It commonly ...

  18. Speech research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Phonology is traditionally seen as the discipline that concerns itself with the building blocks of linguistic messages. It is the study of the structure of sound inventories of languages and of the participation of sounds in rules or processes. Phonetics, in contrast, concerns speech sounds as produced and perceived. Two extreme positions on the relationship between phonological messages and phonetic realizations are represented in the literature. One holds that the primary home for linguistic symbols, including phonological ones, is the human mind, itself housed in the human brain. The second holds that their primary home is the human vocal tract.

  19. Speech recognition and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  20. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  1. Careers in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speech Communication Association, New York, NY.

    Brief discussions in this pamphlet suggest educational and career opportunities in the following fields of speech communication: rhetoric, public address, and communication; theatre, drama, and oral interpretation; radio, television, and film; speech pathology and audiology; speech science, phonetics, and linguistics; and speech education.…

  2. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R

    1995-01-01

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  3. Speech research directions

    SciTech Connect

    Atal, B.S.; Rabiner, L.R.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current activities in speech research. The authors discuss the state of the art in speech coding, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition. In the speech coding area, current algorithms perform well at bit rates down to 9.6 kb/s, and the research is directed at bringing the rate for high-quality speech coding down to 2.4 kb/s. In text-to-speech synthesis, what we currently are able to produce is very intelligible but not yet completely natural. Current research aims at providing higher quality and intelligibility to the synthetic speech that these systems produce. Finally, today's systems for speech and speaker recognition provide excellent performance on limited tasks; i.e., limited vocabulary, modest syntax, small talker populations, constrained inputs, etc.

  4. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  5. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  6. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder ... The following tests can help diagnose speech disorders: Denver ... Peabody Picture Test Revised A hearing test may also be done.

  7. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum ...

  8. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. Three common speech ... are disorders in which a person repeats a sound, word, or phrase. Stuttering may be the most ...

  9. Speech imagery recalibrates speech-perception boundaries.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The perceptual boundaries between speech sounds are malleable and can shift after repeated exposure to contextual information. This shift is known as recalibration. To date, the known inducers of recalibration are lexical (including phonotactic) information, lip-read information and reading. The experiments reported here are a proof-of-effect demonstration that speech imagery can also induce recalibration. PMID:27068050

  10. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  11. Speech 7 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7 through 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Speech. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Following the foreward, philosophy and objectives, this guide presents a speech curriculum. The curriculum covers junior high and Speech I, II, III (senior high). Thirteen units of study are presented for junior high, each unit is divided into…

  12. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  13. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  14. The Tao of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dance, Frank E. X.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that the study of speech may present the characteristics of a "tao"--a path leading to an increase in humane being. Calls for speech teachers to profess the primacy of speech: "...the source of life of the human mind, the source of the compassion of the human spirit." (PD)

  15. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  16. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  17. Speech input and output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, F.; Mangold, H.; Stall, D.; Zelinski, R.

    1981-12-01

    Possibilities for acoustical dialogs with electronic data processing equipment were investigated. Speech recognition is posed as recognizing word groups. An economical, multistage classifier for word string segmentation is presented and its reliability in dealing with continuous speech (problems of temporal normalization and context) is discussed. Speech synthesis is considered in terms of German linguistics and phonetics. Preprocessing algorithms for total synthesis of written texts were developed. A macrolanguage, MUSTER, is used to implement this processing in an acoustic data information system (ADES).

  18. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  19. Distributed processing for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

  20. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Speech-Language Therapy Print ... with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech disorder refers ...

  1. Time-expanded speech and speech recognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Nancy E; Furukawa, Izumi; Balasingam, Nirmala; Mortz, Margaret; Fausti, Stephen A

    2002-01-01

    Speech understanding deficits are common in older adults. In addition to hearing sensitivity, changes in certain cognitive functions may affect speech recognition. One such change that may impact the ability to follow a rapidly changing speech signal is processing speed. When speakers slow the rate of their speech naturally in order to speak clearly, speech recognition is improved. The acoustic characteristics of naturally slowed speech are of interest in developing time-expansion algorithms to improve speech recognition for older listeners. In this study, we tested younger normally hearing, older normally hearing, and older hearing-impaired listeners on time-expanded speech using increased duration and increased intensity of unvoiced consonants. Although all groups performed best on unprocessed speech, performance with processed speech was better with the consonant gain feature without time expansion in the noise condition and better at the slowest time-expanded rate in the quiet condition. The effects of signal processing on speech recognition are discussed. PMID:17642020

  2. Free Speech Yearbook 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The articles collected in this annual address several aspects of First Amendment Law. The following titles are included: "Freedom of Speech As an Academic Discipline" (Franklyn S. Haiman), "Free Speech and Foreign-Policy Decision Making" (Douglas N. Freeman), "The Supreme Court and the First Amendment: 1975-1976" (William A. Linsley), "'Arnett v.…

  3. Migrations in Speech Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolinsky, Regine; Morais, Jose

    1996-01-01

    Describes a new paradigm that may be appropriate for uncovering speech perceptual codes. Illusory words are detected by blending two dichotic stimuli. The paradigm's design allows for comparison of different speech units by the manipulation of the distribution of information between two inputs. (23 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  5. Teaching Freedom of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaffey, Ruth

    1983-01-01

    The speech communication department at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, provides a rigorous and legally oriented course in freedom of speech. The objectives of the course are to help students gain insight into the historical and philosophical foundations of the First Amendment, the legal/judicial processes concerning the First Amendment, and…

  6. Free Speech Yearbook 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…

  7. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the production…

  8. Free Speech. No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds Voted For Schorr Inquiry" by Richard Lyons, "Erosion of the…

  9. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  10. Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupat, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Indian orators have been saying good-bye for more than three hundred years. John Eliot's "Dying Speeches of Several Indians" (1685), as David Murray notes, inaugurates a long textual history in which "Indians... are most useful dying," or, as in a number of speeches, bidding the world farewell as they embrace an undesired but apparently inevitable…

  11. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  12. Speech processing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    Speech processing standards are given for 64, 32, 16 kb/s and lower rate speech and more generally, speech-band signals which are or will be promulgated by CCITT and NATO. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the International body which deals, among other things, with speech processing within the context of ISDN. Within NATO there are also bodies promulgating standards which make interoperability, possible without complex and expensive interfaces. Some of the applications for low-bit rate voice and the related work undertaken by CCITT Study Groups which are responsible for developing standards in terms of encoding algorithms, codec design objectives as well as standards on the assessment of speech quality, are highlighted.

  13. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  14. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  15. Speech Correction in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenson, Jon; Ogilvie, Mardel

    An introduction to the problems and therapeutic needs of school age children whose speech requires remedial attention, the text is intended for both the classroom teacher and the speech correctionist. General considerations include classification and incidence of speech defects, speech correction services, the teacher as a speaker, the mechanism…

  16. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  17. Speech Pathology Assistant. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Hearing and Speech Action, Silver Spring, MD.

    Part of an instructional set which includes an instructor's guide, this trainee manual is designed to provide speech pathology students with some basic and essential knowledge about the communication process. The manual contains nine modules: (1) speech pathology assistant, (2) the bases of speech (structure and function of the speech mechanism,…

  18. Speech Delay: Its Treatment by Speech Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Michael

    Directed to parents, the text discusses normal and delayed speech development and considers the causes of delay. Suggestions are given for helping deaf, emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, and physically handicapped children. Additional suggestions are provided for parents of twins, of stutterers, and of mongoloid or multiply handicapped…

  19. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  20. The Effect of SpeechEasy on Stuttering Frequency, Speech Rate, and Speech Naturalness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armson, Joy; Kiefte, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The effects of SpeechEasy on stuttering frequency, stuttering severity self-ratings, speech rate, and speech naturalness for 31 adults who stutter were examined. Speech measures were compared for samples obtained with and without the device in place in a dispensing setting. Mean stuttering frequencies were reduced by 79% and 61% for the device…

  1. Speech perception as categorization

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition. PMID:20601702

  2. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  3. Computer-generated speech

    SciTech Connect

    Aimthikul, Y.

    1981-12-01

    This thesis reviews the essential aspects of speech synthesis and distinguishes between the two prevailing techniques: compressed digital speech and phonemic synthesis. It then presents the hardware details of the five speech modules evaluated. FORTRAN programs were written to facilitate message creation and retrieval with four of the modules driven by a PDP-11 minicomputer. The fifth module was driven directly by a computer terminal. The compressed digital speech modules (T.I. 990/306, T.S.I. Series 3D and N.S. Digitalker) each contain a limited vocabulary produced by the manufacturers while both the phonemic synthesizers made by Votrax permit an almost unlimited set of sounds and words. A text-to-phoneme rules program was adapted for the PDP-11 (running under the RSX-11M operating system) to drive the Votrax Speech Pac module. However, the Votrax Type'N Talk unit has its own built-in translator. Comparison of these modules revealed that the compressed digital speech modules were superior in pronouncing words on an individual basis but lacked the inflection capability that permitted the phonemic synthesizers to generate more coherent phrases. These findings were necessarily highly subjective and dependent on the specific words and phrases studied. In addition, the rapid introduction of new modules by manufacturers will necessitate new comparisons. However, the results of this research verified that all of the modules studied do possess reasonable quality of speech that is suitable for man-machine applications. Furthermore, the development tools are now in place to permit the addition of computer speech output in such applications.

  4. Auditory speech preprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Zweig, G.

    1989-01-01

    A nonlinear transmission line model of the cochlea (Zweig 1988) is proposed as the basis for a novel speech preprocessor. Sounds of different intensities, such as voiced and unvoiced speech, are preprocessed in radically different ways. The Q's of the preprocessor's nonlinear filters vary with input amplitude, higher Q's (longer integration times) corresponding to quieter sounds. Like the cochlea, the preprocessor acts as a ''subthreshold laser'' that traps and amplifies low level signals, thereby aiding in their detection and analysis. 17 refs.

  5. Robust Speech Rate Estimation for Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct method for speech rate estimation from acoustic features without requiring any automatic speech transcription. We compare various spectral and temporal signal analysis and smoothing strategies to better characterize the underlying syllable structure to derive speech rate. The proposed algorithm extends the methods of spectral subband correlation by including temporal correlation and the use of prominent spectral subbands for improving the signal correlation essential for syllable detection. Furthermore, to address some of the practical robustness issues in previously proposed methods, we introduce some novel components into the algorithm such as the use of pitch confidence for filtering spurious syllable envelope peaks, magnifying window for tackling neighboring syllable smearing, and relative peak measure thresholds for pseudo peak rejection. We also describe an automated approach for learning algorithm parameters from data, and find the optimal settings through Monte Carlo simulations and parameter sensitivity analysis. Final experimental evaluations are conducted based on a portion of the Switchboard corpus for which manual phonetic segmentation information, and published results for direct comparison are available. The results show a correlation coefficient of 0.745 with respect to the ground truth based on manual segmentation. This result is about a 17% improvement compared to the current best single estimator and a 11% improvement over the multiestimator evaluated on the same Switchboard database. PMID:20428476

  6. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  7. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    2000-04-18

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  8. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  9. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  10. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  11. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; Mccartney, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  12. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell.org American Speech-Language-Hearing Association -- www.asha.org/public Center for ...

  13. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  14. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  15. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  16. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  17. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  18. Microphones for speech and speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, James E.

    2004-10-01

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) requires about a 15- to 20-dB signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for high accuracy even for small vocabulary systems. This S/N is generally achievable using a telephone handset in normal office or home environments. In the early 1990s ATT and the regional telephone companies began using speaker-independent ASR to replace several operator services. The variable distortion in the carbon microphone was not transparent and resulted in reduced ASR accuracy. The linear electret condenser microphone, common in most modern telephones, improved handset performance both in sound quality and ASR accuracy. Hands-free ASR in quiet conditions is a bit more complex because of the increased distance between the microphone and the speech source. Cardioid directional microphones offer some improvement in noisy locations when the noise and desired signals are spatially separated, but this is not the general case and the resulting S/N is not adequate for seamless machine translation. Higher-order directional microphones, when properly oriented with respect to the talker and noise, have shown good improvement over omni-directional microphones. Some ASR results measured in simulated car noise will be presented.

  19. Speech transmission index from running speech: A neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. F.; Cox, T. J.

    2003-04-01

    Speech transmission index (STI) is an important objective parameter concerning speech intelligibility for sound transmission channels. It is normally measured with specific test signals to ensure high accuracy and good repeatability. Measurement with running speech was previously proposed, but accuracy is compromised and hence applications limited. A new approach that uses artificial neural networks to accurately extract the STI from received running speech is developed in this paper. Neural networks are trained on a large set of transmitted speech examples with prior knowledge of the transmission channels' STIs. The networks perform complicated nonlinear function mappings and spectral feature memorization to enable accurate objective parameter extraction from transmitted speech. Validations via simulations demonstrate the feasibility of this new method on a one-net-one-speech extract basis. In this case, accuracy is comparable with normal measurement methods. This provides an alternative to standard measurement techniques, and it is intended that the neural network method can facilitate occupied room acoustic measurements.

  20. Speech to schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. Austen

    2013-02-01

    Prof. C. A. Angell from Arizona State University read the following short and simple speech, saying the sentences in Italics in the best Japanese he could manage (after earnest coaching from a Japanese colleague). The rest was translated on the bus ride, and then spoken, as I spoke, by Ms. Yukako Endo- to whom the author is very grateful.

  1. Free Speech Yearbook 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    The first article in this collection examines civil disobedience and the protections offered by the First Amendment. The second article discusses a study on antagonistic expressions in a free society. The third essay deals with attitudes toward free speech and treatment of the United States flag. There are two articles on media; the first examines…

  2. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  3. Packet speech systems technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, C. J.; Blankenship, P. E.

    1982-09-01

    The long-range objectives of the Packet Speech Systems Technology Program are to develop and demonstrate techniques for efficient digital speech communications on networks suitable for both voice and data, and to investigate and develop techniques for integrated voice and data communication in packetized networks, including wideband common-user satellite links. Specific areas of concern are: the concentration of statistically fluctuating volumes of voice traffic, the adaptation of communication strategies to varying conditions of network links and traffic volume, and the interconnection of wideband satellite networks to terrestrial systems. Previous efforts in this area have led to new vocoder structures for improved narrowband voice performance and multiple-rate transmission, and to demonstrations of conversational speech and conferencing on the ARPANET and the Atlantic Packet Satellite Network. The current program has two major thrusts: i.e., the development and refinement of practical low-cost, robust, narrowband, and variable-rate speech algorithms and voice terminal structures; and the establishment of an experimental wideband satellite network to serve as a unique facility for the realistic investigation of voice/data networking strategies.

  4. Perceptual Learning in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g.,…

  5. Free Speech Yearbook 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The seven articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics covered are: the United States Supreme Court, motion picture censorship, and the color line; judicial decision making; the established scientific community's suppression of the ideas of Immanuel Velikovsky; the problems of avant-garde jazz,…

  6. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  7. Hearing speech in music.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01). Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01) and SPN (P<.05). Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01), but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01). It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings. PMID:21768731

  8. On Curbing Racial Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Mary Ellen

    1991-01-01

    An alternative interpretation of the First Amendment guarantee of free speech suggests that universities may prohibit and punish direct verbal assaults on specific individuals if the speaker intends to do harm and if a reasonable person would recognize the potential for serious interference with the victim's educational rights. (MSE)

  9. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... SLP) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the ... ASHA | American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Information in Spanish | Información en español. 1.800.638.8255 | actioncenter@ ...

  10. Free Speech Yearbook, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    A collection of essays on free speech and communication is contained in this book. The essays include "From Fairness to Access and Back Again: Some Dimensions of Free Expression in Broadcasting"; "Local Option on the First Amendment?"; "A Look at the Fire Symbol Before and After May 4, 1970"; "Freedom to Teach, to Learn, and to Speak: Rhetorical…

  11. Speech and Hearing Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakata, Reiko; Sakata, Robert

    1978-01-01

    In the public school, the speech and hearing therapist attempts to foster child growth and development through the provision of services basic to awareness of self and others, management of personal and social interactions, and development of strategies for coping with the handicap. (MM)

  12. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  13. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  14. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710

  15. The cortical representation of the speech envelope is earlier for audiovisual speech than audio speech.

    PubMed

    Crosse, Michael J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-04-01

    Visual speech can greatly enhance a listener's comprehension of auditory speech when they are presented simultaneously. Efforts to determine the neural underpinnings of this phenomenon have been hampered by the limited temporal resolution of hemodynamic imaging and the fact that EEG and magnetoencephalographic data are usually analyzed in response to simple, discrete stimuli. Recent research has shown that neuronal activity in human auditory cortex tracks the envelope of natural speech. Here, we exploit this finding by estimating a linear forward-mapping between the speech envelope and EEG data and show that the latency at which the envelope of natural speech is represented in cortex is shortened by >10 ms when continuous audiovisual speech is presented compared with audio-only speech. In addition, we use a reverse-mapping approach to reconstruct an estimate of the speech stimulus from the EEG data and, by comparing the bimodal estimate with the sum of the unimodal estimates, find no evidence of any nonlinear additive effects in the audiovisual speech condition. These findings point to an underlying mechanism that could account for enhanced comprehension during audiovisual speech. Specifically, we hypothesize that low-level acoustic features that are temporally coherent with the preceding visual stream may be synthesized into a speech object at an earlier latency, which may provide an extended period of low-level processing before extraction of semantic information. PMID:24401714

  16. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  17. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  18. Hate Speech: Power in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jack B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of hate speech and freedom of speech on college campuses examines the difference between hate speech from normal, objectionable interpersonal comments and looks at Supreme Court decisions on the limits of student free speech. Two cases specifically concerning regulation of hate speech on campus are considered: Chaplinsky v. New…

  19. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  20. TEACHER'S GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENKINSON, EDWARD B., ED.

    THIS GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH FOCUSES ON SPEECH AS ORAL COMPOSITION, STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEAR THINKING AND COMMUNICATION. THE PROPOSED 1-SEMESTER BASIC COURSE IN SPEECH ATTEMPTS TO IMPROVE THE STUDENT'S ABILITY TO COMPOSE AND DELIVER SPEECHES, TO THINK AND LISTEN CRITICALLY, AND TO UNDERSTAND THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF SPEECH. IN ADDITION…

  1. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  2. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  3. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  4. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  5. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  6. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  7. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  8. [Speech changes in dementia].

    PubMed

    Benke, T; Andree, B; Hittmair, M; Gerstenbrand, F

    1990-06-01

    This review analyzes the spectrum of language deficits commonly encountered in dementia. A specific communication profile is found in dementia of the "cortical" type, such as Alzheimer's disease. With advancing disease lexical, comprehension and pragmatic functions deteriorate, whereas syntax and phonology tend to be preserved. This pattern bears some resemblance to aphasia types like transcortical and Wernicke's aphasia, however, a much broader range of communicative functions is impaired in Alzheimer's disease than in aphasia. Differentiation of dementia and aphasia, especially in elderly patients requires careful neuropsychological assessment of language, memory and other psychological functions. "Subcortical" dementia commonly presents with dysarthria as the leading symptom and linguistic impairment is rarely of crucial importance until late stages. Thus, the interetiologic dissociation of language and speech impairment can be used for dementia differentiation. Aphasia batteries are not sufficient to comprehend the range of language deficits in demented patients. Testing the communication impairment in dementia requires specific tasks for spontaneous speech, naming, comprehension, reading, writing, repetition and motor speech functions. Tasks for verbal learning and metalinguistic abilities should also be performed. Language deficits are frequent initial symptoms of dementia, thus language assessment may be of diagnostic relevance. Many data support the concept that the communication deficit in dementia results from a particular impairment of semantic memory. PMID:1695887

  9. Somatosensory function in speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takayuki; Tiede, Mark; Ostry, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Somatosensory signals from the facial skin and muscles of the vocal tract provide a rich source of sensory input in speech production. We show here that the somatosensory system is also involved in the perception of speech. We use a robotic device to create patterns of facial skin deformation that would normally accompany speech production. We find that when we stretch the facial skin while people listen to words, it alters the sounds they hear. The systematic perceptual variation we observe in conjunction with speech-like patterns of skin stretch indicates that somatosensory inputs affect the neural processing of speech sounds and shows the involvement of the somatosensory system in the perceptual processing in speech. PMID:19164569

  10. Evaluation of NASA speech encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Techniques developed by NASA for spaceflight instrumentation were used in the design of a quantizer for speech-decoding. Computer simulation of the actions of the quantizer was tested with synthesized and real speech signals. Results were evaluated by a phometician. Topics discussed include the relationship between the number of quantizer levels and the required sampling rate; reconstruction of signals; digital filtering; speech recording, sampling, and storage, and processing results.

  11. Somatosensory basis of speech production.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Stéphanie; Shiller, Douglas M; Ostry, David J

    2003-06-19

    The hypothesis that speech goals are defined acoustically and maintained by auditory feedback is a central idea in speech production research. An alternative proposal is that speech production is organized in terms of control signals that subserve movements and associated vocal-tract configurations. Indeed, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory inputs related to movement play a role in speech production-but studies that might have documented a somatosensory component have been equivocal. For example, mechanical perturbations that have altered somatosensory feedback have simultaneously altered acoustics. Hence, any adaptation observed under these conditions may have been a consequence of acoustic change. Here we show that somatosensory information on its own is fundamental to the achievement of speech movements. This demonstration involves a dissociation of somatosensory and auditory feedback during speech production. Over time, subjects correct for the effects of a complex mechanical load that alters jaw movements (and hence somatosensory feedback), but which has no measurable or perceptible effect on acoustic output. The findings indicate that the positions of speech articulators and associated somatosensory inputs constitute a goal of speech movements that is wholly separate from the sounds produced. PMID:12815431

  12. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  13. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca’s area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  14. A Cool Approach to Probing Speech Cortex.

    PubMed

    Flinker, Adeen; Knight, Robert T

    2016-03-16

    In this issue of Neuron, Long et al. (2016) employ a novel technique of intraoperative cortical cooling in humans during speech production. They demonstrate that cooling Broca's area interferes with speech timing but not speech quality. PMID:26985719

  15. General American Speech and Phonic Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    General American Symbols, speech and phonic symbols adapted from the Northampton symbols, are presented as a simplified system for teaching reading and speech to deaf children. Ways to use symbols for indicating features of speech production are suggested. (Author)

  16. Speech systems research at Texas Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddington, George R.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of automatic speech processing technology is presented. Fundamental problems in the development and the deployment of automatic speech processing systems are defined and a technology forecast for speech systems is presented.

  17. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the course of the disease. What do speech-language pathologists do when working with people with Huntington's ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  18. Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Swallowing / Development Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development Birth to 2 Years Encourage your baby ... or light) of the packages. Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech ...

  19. What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Development What Is Language? What Is Speech? [ en Español ] Kelly's 4-year-old son, Tommy, has speech and language problems. Friends and family have a hard time ...

  20. Enhancing Peer Feedback and Speech Preparation: The Speech Video Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In the typical public speaking course, instructors or assistants videotape or digitally record at least one of the term's speeches in class or lab to offer students additional presentation feedback. Students often watch and self-critique their speeches on their own. Peers often give only written feedback on classroom presentations or completed…

  1. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  2. Speech-in-Speech Recognition: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify aspects of speech-in-noise recognition that are susceptible to training, focusing on whether listeners can learn to adapt to target talkers ("tune in") and learn to better cope with various maskers ("tune out") after short-term training. Listeners received training on English sentence recognition in speech-shaped noise…

  3. Of Speech and Time: Temporal Speech Patterns in Interpersonal Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieqman, Aron W., Ed.; Feldstein, Stanley, Ed.

    The temporal patterning of speech, primarily within the context of interpersonal exchanges, is traced in this cross-section of research exploring the major directions such studies have taken. Eighteen authors contributed selections to support the thesis that time as a dimension of speech reflects many of the important processes that occur during…

  4. Auditory detection of non-speech and speech stimuli in noise: Native speech advantage.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuting; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Mingshuang; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Detection thresholds of Chinese vowels, Korean vowels, and a complex tone, with harmonic and noise carriers were measured in noise for Mandarin Chinese-native listeners. The harmonic index was calculated as the difference between detection thresholds of the stimuli with harmonic carriers and those with noise carriers. The harmonic index for Chinese vowels was significantly greater than that for Korean vowels and the complex tone. Moreover, native speech sounds were rated significantly more native-like than non-native speech and non-speech sounds. The results indicate that native speech has an advantage over other sounds in simple auditory tasks like sound detection. PMID:27250202

  5. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  6. Speech Restoration: An Interactive Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grataloup, Claire; Hoen, Michael; Veuillet, Evelyne; Collet, Lionel; Pellegrino, Francois; Meunier, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the ability to understand degraded speech signals and explores the correlation between this capacity and the functional characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Method: The authors evaluated the capability of 50 normal-hearing native French speakers to restore time-reversed speech. The task required them…

  7. SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

  8. Interpersonal Orientation and Speech Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)

  9. American Studies through Folk Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, E. Martin

    1993-01-01

    American slang reflects diversity, imagination, self-confidence, and optimism of the American people. Its vitality is due in part to the guarantee of free speech and lack of a national academy of language or of any official attempt to purify American speech, in part to Americans' historic geographic mobility. Such "folksay" includes riddles and…

  10. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  11. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  12. Speech Training for Inmate Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Michael G.; Dobkins, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Using a computerized content analysis, the authors demonstrate changes in speech behaviors of prison inmates. They conclude that two to four hours of public speaking training can have only limited effect on students who live in a culture in which "prison speech" is the expected and rewarded form of behavior. (PD)

  13. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  14. Taking a Stand for Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wayne D.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that freedom of speech issues were among the first major confrontations in U.S. constitutional law. Maintains that lessons from the controversies surrounding the Sedition Act of 1798 have continuing practical relevance. Describes and discusses the significance of freedom of speech to the U.S. political system. (CFR)

  15. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  16. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues. PMID:25794478

  17. Hate Speech or Free Speech: Can Broad Campus Speech Regulations Survive Current Judicial Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Gregory M.; Rossow, Lawrence F.

    1993-01-01

    Federal courts have found speech regulations overbroad in suits against the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin System. Attempts to assess the theoretical justification and probable fate of broad speech regulations that have not been explicitly rejected by the courts. Concludes that strong arguments for broader regulation will…

  18. Hate Speech/Free Speech: Using Feminist Perspectives To Foster On-Campus Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Nancy; Orbe, Mark P.; Warren, Kiesha

    1999-01-01

    Explores the complex issues inherent in the tension between hate speech and free speech, focusing on the phenomenon of hate speech on college campuses. Describes the challenges to hate speech made by critical race theorists and explains how a feminist critique can reorient the parameters of hate speech. (SLD)

  19. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?

    PubMed

    Shannon, Robert V

    2016-04-01

    Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. PMID:26944220

  20. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  1. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" is the communication medium, published four times each academic year, of the Freedom of Speech Interest Group, Western Speech Communication Association. Articles included in this issue are "What Is Academic Freedom For?" by Ralph Ross, "A Sociology of Free Speech" by Ray Heidt, "A Queer Interpretation fo the…

  2. Multifractal nature of unvoiced speech signals

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyemi, O.A.; Hartt, K.; Boudreaux-Bartels, G.F.

    1996-06-01

    A refinement is made in the nonlinear dynamic modeling of speech signals. Previous research successfully characterized speech signals as chaotic. Here, we analyze fricative speech signals using multifractal measures to determine various fractal regimes present in their chaotic attractors. Results support the hypothesis that speech signals have multifractal measures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  4. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  5. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  6. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  7. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  8. Metrical perception of trisyllabic speech rhythms.

    PubMed

    Benadon, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The perception of duration-based syllabic rhythm was examined within a metrical framework. Participants assessed the duration patterns of four-syllable phrases set within the stress structure XxxX (an Abercrombian trisyllabic foot). Using on-screen sliders, participants created percussive sequences that imitated speech rhythms and analogous non-speech monotone rhythms. There was a tendency to equalize the interval durations for speech stimuli but not for non-speech. Despite the perceptual regularization of syllable durations, different speech phrases were conceived in various rhythmic configurations, pointing to a diversity of perceived meters in speech. In addition, imitations of speech stimuli showed more variability than those of non-speech. Rhythmically skilled listeners exhibited lower variability and were more consistent with vowel-centric estimates when assessing speech stimuli. These findings enable new connections between meter- and duration-based models of speech rhythm perception. PMID:23417710

  9. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  10. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  11. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  12. Silog: Speech Input Logon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, Sergio; Allen, Tony; Sherkat, Nasser

    Silog is a biometrie authentication system that extends the conventional PC logon process using voice verification. Users enter their ID and password using a conventional Windows logon procedure but then the biometrie authentication stage makes a Voice over IP (VoIP) call to a VoiceXML (VXML) server. User interaction with this speech-enabled component then allows the user's voice characteristics to be extracted as part of a simple user/system spoken dialogue. If the captured voice characteristics match those of a previously registered voice profile, then network access is granted. If no match is possible, then a potential unauthorised system access has been detected and the logon process is aborted.

  13. Speech in the Marxist State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael; Berger, Lothar

    1979-01-01

    Describes the field of speech communication in East Germany with emphasis on the influence of the ideology of Marxism upon its nature and status in academic settings. Contrasts the East German system with the American. (JMF)

  14. Speech processing: An evolving technology

    SciTech Connect

    Crochiere, R.E.; Flanagan, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    As we enter the information age, speech processing is emerging as an important technology for making machines easier and more convenient for humans to use. It is both an old and a new technology - dating back to the invention of the telephone and forward, at least in aspirations, to the capabilities of HAL in 2001. Explosive advances in microelectronics now make it possible to implement economical real-time hardware for sophisticated speech processing - processing that formerly could be demonstrated only in simulations on main-frame computers. As a result, fundamentally new product concepts - as well as new features and functions in existing products - are becoming possible and are being explored in the marketplace. As the introductory piece to this issue, the authors draw a brief perspective on the evolving field of speech processing and assess the technology in the the three constituent sectors: speech coding, synthesis, and recognition.

  15. Perceptual Learning of Interrupted Speech

    PubMed Central

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The intelligibility of periodically interrupted speech improves once the silent gaps are filled with noise bursts. This improvement has been attributed to phonemic restoration, a top-down repair mechanism that helps intelligibility of degraded speech in daily life. Two hypotheses were investigated using perceptual learning of interrupted speech. If different cognitive processes played a role in restoring interrupted speech with and without filler noise, the two forms of speech would be learned at different rates and with different perceived mental effort. If the restoration benefit were an artificial outcome of using the ecologically invalid stimulus of speech with silent gaps, this benefit would diminish with training. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners were trained, one with interrupted sentences with the filler noise, and the other without. Feedback was provided with the auditory playback of the unprocessed and processed sentences, as well as the visual display of the sentence text. Training increased the overall performance significantly, however restoration benefit did not diminish. The increase in intelligibility and the decrease in perceived mental effort were relatively similar between the groups, implying similar cognitive mechanisms for the restoration of the two types of interruptions. Training effects were generalizable, as both groups improved their performance also with the other form of speech than that they were trained with, and retainable. Due to null results and relatively small number of participants (10 per group), further research is needed to more confidently draw conclusions. Nevertheless, training with interrupted speech seems to be effective, stimulating participants to more actively and efficiently use the top-down restoration. This finding further implies the potential of this training approach as a rehabilitative tool for hearing-impaired/elderly populations. PMID:23469266

  16. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

  17. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  18. Sparse representation in speech signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Te-Won; Jang, Gil-Jin; Kwon, Oh-Wook

    2003-11-01

    We review the sparse representation principle for processing speech signals. A transformation for encoding the speech signals is learned such that the resulting coefficients are as independent as possible. We use independent component analysis with an exponential prior to learn a statistical representation for speech signals. This representation leads to extremely sparse priors that can be used for encoding speech signals for a variety of purposes. We review applications of this method for speech feature extraction, automatic speech recognition and speaker identification. Furthermore, this method is also suited for tackling the difficult problem of separating two sounds given only a single microphone.

  19. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Maureen

    The present study sought an acoustic signature for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for a radiological rating of cerebellar involvement in six cerebellar ataxic dysarthric speakers. Acoustic measures of the [pap] syllables in contrastive prosodic conditions and of normal vs. brain-damaged patients were used to further our understanding both of the speech degeneration that accompanies cerebellar pathology and of speech motor control and movement in general. Pair-wise comparisons of the prosodic conditions within the normal group showed statistically significant differences for four prosodic contrasts. For three of the four contrasts analyzed, the normal speakers showed both longer durations and higher formant and fundamental frequency values in the more prominent first condition of the contrast. The acoustic measures of the normal prosodic contrast values were then used as a model to measure the degree of speech deterioration for individual cerebellar subjects. This estimate of speech deterioration as determined by individual differences between cerebellar and normal subjects' acoustic values of the four prosodic contrasts was used in correlation analyses with MRI ratings. Moderate correlations between speech deterioration and cerebellar atrophy were found in the measures of syllable duration and f0. A strong negative correlation was found for F1. Moreover, the normal model presented by these acoustic data allows for a description of the flexibility of task- oriented behavior in normal speech motor control. These data challenge spatio-temporal theory which explains movement as an artifact of time wherein longer durations predict more extreme movements and give further evidence for gestural internal dynamics of movement in which time emerges from articulatory events rather than dictating those events. This model provides a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  1. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  2. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  3. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  4. Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either “pure” background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials. PMID:24993234

  5. Nonsensory factors in speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Rachael F.; Carney, Arlene E.

    2001-05-01

    The nature of developmental differences was examined in a speech discrimination task, the change/no-change procedure, in which a varying number of speech stimuli are presented during a trial. Standard stimuli are followed by comparison stimuli that are identical to or acoustically different from the standard. Fourteen adults and 30 4- and 5-year-old children were tested with three speech contrast pairs at a variety of signal-to-noise ratios using various numbers of standard and comparison stimulus presentations. Adult speech discrimination performance followed the predictions of the multiple looks hypothesis [N. F. Viemeister and G. H. Wakefield, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 858-865 (1991)] there was an increase in d by a factor of 1.4 for a doubling in the number of standard and comparison stimulus presentations near d values of 1.0. For children, increasing the number of standard stimuli improved discrimination performance, whereas increasing the number of comparisons did not. The multiple looks hypothesis did not explain the children's data. They are explained more parsimoniously by the developmental weighting shift [Nittrouer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 2253-2266 (1993)], which proposes that children attend to different aspects of speech stimuli from adults. [Work supported by NIDCD and ASHF.

  6. MENDING THE CHILD'S SPEECH. THE INSTRUCTOR HANDBOOK SERIES, NUMBER 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDBERG, EDITH B.

    THIS GUIDE FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOM TEACHER DISCUSSES HER ROLE IN A PROGRAM OF SPEECH THERAPY OR SPEECH IMPROVEMENT, WHETHER IN COOPERATION WITH A SPEECH THERAPIST OR ALONE. GOOD SPEECH AND DEFECTIVE SPEECH ARE DEFINED, AND ACTIVITIES TO ENCOURAGE SPEECH IN THE CLASSROOM ARE LISTED. SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND THERAPEUTIC…

  7. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: A case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E.; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. However, the exact role of the motor system in auditory speech processing remains elusive. Here we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. The patient’s spontaneous speech was marked by frequent phonological/articulatory errors, and those errors were caused, at least in part, by motor-level impairments with speech production. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two nonwords that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the nonword stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labeling impairment. These data suggest that the identification (i.e. labeling) of nonword speech sounds may involve the speech motor system, but that the perception of speech sounds (i.e., discrimination) does not require the motor system. This means that motor processes are not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, and suggest that the motor system may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  8. Determining the threshold for usable speech within co-channel speech with the SPHINX automated speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, William T.; Yantorno, Robert E.

    2004-10-01

    Much research has been and is continuing to be done in the area of separating the original utterances of two speakers from co-channel speech. This is very important in the area of automated speech recognition (ASR), where the current state of technology is not nearly as accurate as human listeners when the speech is co-channel. It is desired to determine what types of speech (voiced, unvoiced, and silence) and at what target to interference ratio (TIR) two speakers can speak at the same time and not reduce speech intelligibility of the target speaker (referred to as usable speech). Knowing which segments of co-channel speech are usable in ASR can be used to improve the reconstruction of single speaker speech. Tests were performed using the SPHINX ASR software and the TIDIGITS database. It was found that interfering voiced speech with a TIR of 6 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech. It was further found that interfering unvoiced speech with a TIR of 18 dB or greater (on a per frame basis) did not significantly reduce the intelligibility of the target speaker in co-channel speech.

  9. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  10. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  11. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  12. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  13. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  14. Speech Rate Acceptance Ranges as a Function of Evaluative Domain, Listener Speech Rate, and Communication Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Brady, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Speech rate appears to be an important communicative dimension upon which people evaluate the speech of others. Findings of this study indicate that speech rates at moderate through fast levels generated more favorable impressions of competence and social attractiveness than did slow speech. (PD)

  15. Speech perception and production in severe environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisoni, David B.

    1990-09-01

    The goal was to acquire new knowledge about speech perception and production in severe environments such as high masking noise, increased cognitive load or sustained attentional demands. Changes were examined in speech production under these adverse conditions through acoustic analysis techniques. One set of studies focused on the effects of noise on speech production. The experiments in this group were designed to generate a database of speech obtained in noise and in quiet. A second set of experiments was designed to examine the effects of cognitive load on the acoustic-phonetic properties of speech. Talkers were required to carry out a demanding perceptual motor task while they read lists of test words. A final set of experiments explored the effects of vocal fatigue on the acoustic-phonetic properties of speech. Both cognitive load and vocal fatigue are present in many applications where speech recognition technology is used, yet their influence on speech production is poorly understood.

  16. On-Line Measurement of Aphasic Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packman, Ann; Ingham, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    The spontaneous speech of five aphasic Ss (47-70 years old) was rated on-line by four clinicians to test the reliability of seven response categories (devised for the concurrent evaluation of aphasic speech). (Author/PHR)

  17. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  18. Speech Recognition: Its Place in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szul, Linda F.; Bouder, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Suggests uses of speech recognition devices in the classroom for students with disabilities. Compares speech recognition software packages and provides guidelines for selection and teaching. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  19. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health professionals have milestones for what's normal. ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Language disorders can mean that the child ...

  20. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  1. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  2. Auditory-visual speech perception and synchrony detection for speech and nonspeech signals

    PubMed Central

    Conrey, Brianna; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has identified a “synchrony window” of several hundred milliseconds over which auditory-visual (AV) asynchronies are not reliably perceived. Individual variability in the size of this AV synchrony window has been linked with variability in AV speech perception measures, but it was not clear whether AV speech perception measures are related to synchrony detection for speech only or for both speech and nonspeech signals. An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between measures of AV speech perception and AV synchrony detection for speech and nonspeech signals. Variability in AV synchrony detection for both speech and nonspeech signals was found to be related to variability in measures of auditory-only (A-only) and AV speech perception, suggesting that temporal processing for both speech and nonspeech signals must be taken into account in explaining variability in A-only and multisensory speech perception. PMID:16838548

  3. Vygotskian Inner Speech and the Reading Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of Vygotskian influenced inner speech research in relation to the reading process. Those few studies which have examined Vygotskian inner speech from a reading perspective tend to support the notion that inner speech is an important covert function that is crucial to the reading process and to reading acquisition in general.…

  4. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  5. Hate Speech on Campus: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Looks at arguments concerning hate speech and speech codes on college campuses, arguing that speech codes are likely to be of limited value in achieving civil rights objectives, and that there are alternatives less harmful to civil liberties and more successful in promoting civil rights. Identifies specific goals, and considers how restriction of…

  6. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  8. Characteristics of Speech Motor Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostry, David J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Pulsed ultrasound was used to study tongue movements in the speech of children from 3 to 11 years of age. Speech data attained were characteristic of systems that can be described by second-order differential equations. Relationships observed in these systems may indicate that speech control involves tonic and phasic muscle inputs. (Author/RH)

  9. Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing, and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minifie, Fred. D., Ed.; And Others

    This book is written as a guide to the understanding of the processes involved in human speech communication. Ten authorities contributed material to provide an introduction to the physiological aspects of speech production and reception, the acoustical aspects of speech production and transmission, the psychophysics of sound reception, the nature…

  10. Speech sounds alter facial skin sensation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between auditory and somatosensory information are relevant to the neural processing of speech since speech processes and certainly speech production involves both auditory information and inputs that arise from the muscles and tissues of the vocal tract. We previously demonstrated that somatosensory inputs associated with facial skin deformation alter the perceptual processing of speech sounds. We show here that the reverse is also true, that speech sounds alter the perception of facial somatosensory inputs. As a somatosensory task, we used a robotic device to create patterns of facial skin deformation that would normally accompany speech production. We found that the perception of the facial skin deformation was altered by speech sounds in a manner that reflects the way in which auditory and somatosensory effects are linked in speech production. The modulation of orofacial somatosensory processing by auditory inputs was specific to speech and likewise to facial skin deformation. Somatosensory judgments were not affected when the skin deformation was delivered to the forearm or palm or when the facial skin deformation accompanied nonspeech sounds. The perceptual modulation that we observed in conjunction with speech sounds shows that speech sounds specifically affect neural processing in the facial somatosensory system and suggest the involvement of the somatosensory system in both the production and perceptual processing of speech. PMID:22013241

  11. Freedom of Speech as an Academic Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    Since its formation, the Speech Communication Association's Committee on Freedom of Speech has played a critical leadership role in course offerings, research efforts, and regional activities in freedom of speech. Areas in which research has been done and in which further research should be carried out include: historical-critical research, in…

  12. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  13. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  14. The Mutual Intelligibility of L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.; Morton, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    When understanding or evaluating foreign-accented speech, listeners are affected not only by properties of the speech itself but by their own linguistic backgrounds and their experience with different speech varieties. Given the latter influence, it is not known to what degree a diverse group of listeners might share a response to second language…

  15. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  16. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  17. Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlin, Willard R.

    Written for those interested in speech pathology and audiology, the text presents the anatomical, physiological, and neurological bases for speech and hearing. Anatomical nomenclature used in the speech and hearing sciences is introduced and the breathing mechanism is defined and discussed in terms of the respiratory passage, the framework and…

  18. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  19. Syllable Structure in Dysfunctional Portuguese Children's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candeias, Sara; Perdigao, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate whether children with speech dysfunctions (SD) show a deficit in planning some Portuguese syllable structures (PSS) in continuous speech production. Knowledge of which aspects of speech production are affected by SD is necessary for efficient improvement in the therapy techniques. The case-study is focused…

  20. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  1. The Varieties of Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…

  2. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made lexical…

  3. Speech Synthesis Applied to Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    The experimental addition of speech output to computer-based Esperanto lessons using speech synthesized from text is described. Because of Esperanto's phonetic spelling and simple rhythm, it is particularly easy to describe the mechanisms of Esperanto synthesis. Attention is directed to how the text-to-speech conversion is performed and the ways…

  4. SPEECH DURATIONS OF ASTRONAUT AND GROUND COMMUNICATOR.

    PubMed

    MATARAZZO, J D; WIENS, A N; SASLOW, G; DUNHAM, R M; VOAS, R B

    1964-01-10

    Laboratory studies suggest that an interviewer can influence the speech duration of an interviewee by modifications in his own speech duration. What appears to be a related association between the speech duration of communicators on the ground and an astronaut in orbital flight was found. PMID:14075727

  5. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  6. Research in continuous speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. M.; Chow, Y. L.; Makhoul, J.

    1983-12-01

    This annual report describes the work performed during the past year in an ongoing effort to design and implement a system that performs phonetic recognition of continuous speech. The general approach used it to develop a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) of speech parameter movements, which can be used to distinguish among the different phonemes. The resulting phoneme models incorporate the contextural effects of neighboring phonemes. One main aspect of this research is to incorporate both spectral parameters and acoustic-phonetic features into the HMM formalism.

  7. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  8. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  9. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…

  10. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  11. Speech Perception in Children with Speech Output Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of speech production pathology is dominated by describing deficits in output. However, perceptual problems might underlie, precede, or interact with production disorders. The present study hypothesizes that the level of the production disorders is linked to level of perception disorders, thus lower-order production problems…

  12. Speech Priming: Evidence for Rate Persistence in Unscripted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungers, Melissa K.; Hupp, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown evidence for priming of rate in scripted speech. Two experiments examined the persistence of rate in production of unscripted picture descriptions. In Experiment 1, speakers heard and repeated priming sentences presented at a fast or slow rate and in a passive or active form. Speakers then described a new picture. The…

  13. Audiovisual Speech Synchrony Measure: Application to Biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredin, Hervé; Chollet, Gérard

    2007-12-01

    Speech is a means of communication which is intrinsically bimodal: the audio signal originates from the dynamics of the articulators. This paper reviews recent works in the field of audiovisual speech, and more specifically techniques developed to measure the level of correspondence between audio and visual speech. It overviews the most common audio and visual speech front-end processing, transformations performed on audio, visual, or joint audiovisual feature spaces, and the actual measure of correspondence between audio and visual speech. Finally, the use of synchrony measure for biometric identity verification based on talking faces is experimented on the BANCA database.

  14. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  15. Feasibility of Technology Enabled Speech Disorder Screening.

    PubMed

    Duenser, Andreas; Ward, Lauren; Stefani, Alessandro; Smith, Daniel; Freyne, Jill; Morgan, Angela; Dodd, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    One in twenty Australian children suffers from a speech disorder. Early detection of such problems can significantly improve literacy and academic outcomes for these children, reduce health and educational burden and ongoing social costs. Here we present the development of a prototype and feasibility tests of a screening and decision support tool to assess speech disorders in young children. The prototype incorporates speech signal processing, machine learning and expert knowledge to automatically classify phonemes of normal and disordered speech. We discuss these results and our future work towards the development of a mobile tool to facilitate broad, early speech disorder screening by non-experts. PMID:27440284

  16. The Ontogenesis of Speech Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Jerome S.

    1975-01-01

    A speech act approach to the transition from pre-linguistic to linguistic communication is adopted in order to consider language in relation to behavior and to allow for an emphasis on the use, rather than the form, of language. A pilot study of mothers and infants is discussed. (Author/RM)

  17. Free Speech Advocates at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, William A.; Whittaker, David

    1966-01-01

    This study compares highly committed members of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley with the student population at large on 3 sociopsychological foci: general biographical data, religious orientation, and rigidity-flexibility. Questionnaires were administered to 172 FSM members selected by chance from the 10 to 1200 who entered and "sat-in"…

  18. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the milestones for speech and language development? The first signs of communication occur when an infant learns that a cry will bring food, comfort, and companionship. Newborns also begin to recognize important sounds in their environment, such as the voice of their mother or ...

  19. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-05-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  20. Models for Teaching Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deethardt, John F., II

    Intended for use by educators of preservice speech communications teachers, this description of a methods course is geared towards high school and college level pedagogy. The philosophy of the guide rejects the typical textbook style, in which generalizations are given to students as unqualified positive statements rather than made objects of…

  1. Speech Research. Interim Scientific Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Franklin S.

    The status and progress of several studies dealing with the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and instrumentation for practical applications is reported on. The period of January 1 through June 30, 1969 is covered. Extended reports and manuscripts cover the following topics: programing for the Glace-Holmes synthesizer,…

  2. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  3. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  4. Linguistic aspects of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J

    1995-01-01

    The conversion of text to speech is seen as an analysis of the input text to obtain a common underlying linguistic description, followed by a synthesis of the output speech waveform from this fundamental specification. Hence, the comprehensive linguistic structure serving as the substrate for an utterance must be discovered by analysis from the text. The pronunciation of individual words in unrestricted text is determined by morphological analysis or letter-to-sound conversion, followed by specification of the word-level stress contour. In addition, many text character strings, such as titles, numbers, and acronyms, are abbreviations for normal words, which must be derived. To further refine these pronunciations and to discover the prosodic structure of the utterance, word part of speech must be computed, followed by a phrase-level parsing. From this structure the prosodic structure of the utterance can be determined, which is needed in order to specify the durational framework and fundamental frequency contour of the utterance. In discourse contexts, several factors such as the specification of new and old information, contrast, and pronominal reference can be used to further modify the prosodic specification. When the prosodic correlates have been computed and the segmental sequence is assembled, a complete input suitable for speech synthesis has been determined. Lastly, multilingual systems utilizing rule frameworks are mentioned, and future directions are characterized. PMID:7479807

  5. Sociolinguistic Factors in Speech Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuy, Roger W.; And Others

    The first of two experiments conducted in Detroit investigated the relationship between class and ethnic membership and identification of class and ethnicity; the role age and sex of respondent play in accuracy of speaker identification; and attitudes toward various socioethnic speech patterns. The second study was concerned with the attitudes of…

  6. Linguistic aspects of speech synthesis.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1995-10-24

    The conversion of text to speech is seen as an analysis of the input text to obtain a common underlying linguistic description, followed by a synthesis of the output speech waveform from this fundamental specification. Hence, the comprehensive linguistic structure serving as the substrate for an utterance must be discovered by analysis from the text. The pronunciation of individual words in unrestricted text is determined by morphological analysis or letter-to-sound conversion, followed by specification of the word-level stress contour. In addition, many text character strings, such as titles, numbers, and acronyms, are abbreviations for normal words, which must be derived. To further refine these pronunciations and to discover the prosodic structure of the utterance, word part of speech must be computed, followed by a phrase-level parsing. From this structure the prosodic structure of the utterance can be determined, which is needed in order to specify the durational framework and fundamental frequency contour of the utterance. In discourse contexts, several factors such as the specification of new and old information, contrast, and pronominal reference can be used to further modify the prosodic specification. When the prosodic correlates have been computed and the segmental sequence is assembled, a complete input suitable for speech synthesis has been determined. Lastly, multilingual systems utilizing rule frameworks are mentioned, and future directions are characterized. PMID:7479807

  7. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  8. Phrase-programmable digital speech system

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, W.J.; Morgan, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a phrase speaking computer system having a programmable digital computer and a speech processor, the speech processor comprising: a voice synthesizer; a read/write speech data segment memory; a read/write command memory; control processor means including processor control programs and logic connecting to the memories and to the voice synthesizer. It is arranged to scan the command memory and to respond to command data entries stored therein by transferring corresponding speech data segments from the speech data segment memory to the voice synthesizer; data conveyance means, connecting the computer to the command memory and the speech data segment memory, for transferring the command data entries supplied by the computer into the command memory and for transferring the speech data segments supplied by the computer into the speech data segment memory; and an enable signal line connecting the computer to the speech processor and arranged to initiate the operation of the processor control programs and logic when the enable signal line is enabled by the computer; the programmable computer including speech control programs controlling the operation of the computer including data conveyance command sequences that cause the computer to supply command data entries to the data conveyance means and speech processor enabling command sequences that cause computer to energize the enable signal line.

  9. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  10. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  11. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  12. Temporal characteristics of speech: the effect of age and speech style.

    PubMed

    Bóna, Judit

    2014-08-01

    Aging affects temporal characteristics of speech. It is still a question how these changes occur in different speech styles which require various cognitive skills. In this paper speech rate, articulation rate, and pauses of 20 young and 20 old speakers are analyzed in four speech styles: spontaneous narrative, narrative recalls, a three-participant conversation, and reading aloud. Results show that age has a significant effect only on speech rate, articulation rate, and frequency of pauses. Speech style has a higher effect on temporal parameters than speakers' age. PMID:25096134

  13. A hardware preprocessor for use in speech recognition: Speech Input Device SID3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, R. E.; Manning, D. R.

    1983-05-01

    A device which reduces the amount of data sent to the computer for speech recognition, by extracting from the speech signal the information that conveys the meaning of the speech, all other data being discarded is presented. The design includes signal to noise ratios as low as 10 dB, public telephone frequency bandwidth and unconstrained speech. It produces continuously at its output 64 bits of digital information, which represents the way 16 speech parameters vary. The parameters cover speech quality, voice pitch, resonant frequency, level of resonance and unvoiced spectrum color. The receiving computer must have supporting software containing recognition algorithms adapted to SID3 parameters.

  14. Speech Enhancement Using Microphone Arrays.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, Eneyew

    Arrays of sensors have been employed effectively in communication systems for the directional transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. Among the numerous benefits, this helps improve the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of the signal at the receiver. Arrays have since been used in related areas that employ propagating waves for the transmission of information. Several investigators have successfully adopted array principles to acoustics, sonar, seismic, and medical imaging. In speech applications the microphone is used as the sensor for acoustic data acquisition. The performance of subsequent speech processing algorithms--such as speech recognition or speaker recognition--relies heavily on the level of interference within the transduced or recorded speech signal. The normal practice is to use a single, hand-held or head-mounted, microphone. Under most environmental conditions, i.e., environments where other acoustic sources are also active, the speech signal from a single microphone is a superposition of acoustic signals present in the environment. Such cases represent a lower SIR value. To alleviate this problem an array of microphones--linear array, planar array, and 3-dimensional arrays--have been suggested and implemented. This work focuses on microphone arrays in room environments where reverberation is the main source of interference. The acoustic wave incident on the array from a point source is sampled and recorded by a linear array of sensors along with reflected waves. Array signal processing algorithms are developed and used to remove reverberations from the signal received by the array. Signals from other positions are considered as interference. Unlike most studies that deal with plane waves, we base our algorithm on spherical waves originating at a source point. This is especially true for room environments. The algorithm consists of two stages--a first stage to locate the source and a second stage to focus on the source. The first part

  15. Speech entrainment compensates for Broca's area damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to SE. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during SE versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of SE to improve speech production and may help select patients for SE treatment. PMID:25989443

  16. Speech and language delay in children.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Maura R

    2011-05-15

    Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252

  17. Loss tolerant speech decoder for telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieto, Jr., Jaime L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and device for extrapolating past signal-history data for insertion into missing data segments in order to conceal digital speech frame errors. The extrapolation method uses past-signal history that is stored in a buffer. The method is implemented with a device that utilizes a finite-impulse response (FIR) multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network that is trained by back-propagation for one-step extrapolation of speech compression algorithm (SCA) parameters. Once a speech connection has been established, the speech compression algorithm device begins sending encoded speech frames. As the speech frames are received, they are decoded and converted back into speech signal voltages. During the normal decoding process, pre-processing of the required SCA parameters will occur and the results stored in the past-history buffer. If a speech frame is detected to be lost or in error, then extrapolation modules are executed and replacement SCA parameters are generated and sent as the parameters required by the SCA. In this way, the information transfer to the SCA is transparent, and the SCA processing continues as usual. The listener will not normally notice that a speech frame has been lost because of the smooth transition between the last-received, lost, and next-received speech frames.

  18. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  19. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  20. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  1. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  2. THE COMPREHENSION OF RAPID SPEECH BY THE BLIND, PART III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOULKE, EMERSON

    A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH ON THE COMPREHENSION OF RAPID SPEECH BY THE BLIND IDENTIFIES FIVE METHODS OF SPEECH COMPRESSION--SPEECH CHANGING, ELECTROMECHANICAL SAMPLING, COMPUTER SAMPLING, SPEECH SYNTHESIS, AND FREQUENCY DIVIDING WITH THE HARMONIC COMPRESSOR. THE SPEECH CHANGING AND ELECTROMECHANICAL SAMPLING METHODS AND THE NECESSARY APPARATUS HAVE…

  3. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  4. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  5. Modeling Interactions between Speech Production and Perception: Speech Error Detection at Semantic and Phonological Levels and the Inner Speech Loop

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Bernd J.; Crawford, Eric; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) is followed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current study seeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing a biologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the first experiment we induce simulated speech errors semantically and phonologically. In the second experiment, we simulate a picture naming and halt task. Target-distractor word pairs were balanced with respect to variation of phonological and semantic similarity. The results of the first experiment show that speech errors are successfully detected by a monitoring component in the inner speech loop. The results of the second experiment show that the model correctly reproduces human behavioral data on the picture naming and halt task. In particular, the halting rate in the production of target words was lower for phonologically similar words than for semantically similar or fully dissimilar distractor words. We thus conclude that the neural architecture proposed here to model the inner speech loop reflects important interactions in production and perception at phonological and semantic levels. PMID:27303287

  6. Modeling Interactions between Speech Production and Perception: Speech Error Detection at Semantic and Phonological Levels and the Inner Speech Loop.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Bernd J; Crawford, Eric; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) is followed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current study seeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing a biologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the first experiment we induce simulated speech errors semantically and phonologically. In the second experiment, we simulate a picture naming and halt task. Target-distractor word pairs were balanced with respect to variation of phonological and semantic similarity. The results of the first experiment show that speech errors are successfully detected by a monitoring component in the inner speech loop. The results of the second experiment show that the model correctly reproduces human behavioral data on the picture naming and halt task. In particular, the halting rate in the production of target words was lower for phonologically similar words than for semantically similar or fully dissimilar distractor words. We thus conclude that the neural architecture proposed here to model the inner speech loop reflects important interactions in production and perception at phonological and semantic levels. PMID:27303287

  7. Training speech pathologists through microtherapy.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R B

    1981-03-01

    Two microtraining methods were evaluated for training speech pathologists in the acquisition of skills utilized in treating misarticulations. Fifteen subjects in an introductory class in speech pathology were randomly placed in two groups (modeling, video replay, and counseling versus video replay and counseling). The training included reading a manual about the skills and a sequence of three teach sessions. The control group did not view the video model. According to the results, the model group made a greater gain score (M = 8.38) than the nonmodel group (M = 3.88). Significant gains were made for both experimental groups between teach sessions one and two, but no significant gains were made between the second and third teach sessions. PMID:7019270

  8. Apraxia of speech: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogar, Jennifer; Slama, Hilary; Dronkers, Nina; Amici, Serena; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2005-12-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder that can occur in the absence of aphasia or dysarthria. AOS has been the subject of some controversy since the disorder was first named and described by Darley and his Mayo Clinic colleagues in the 1960s. A recent revival of interest in AOS is due in part to the fact that it is often the first symptom of neurodegenerative diseases, such as primary progressive aphasia and corticobasal degeneration. This article will provide a brief review of terminology associated with AOS, its clinical hallmarks and neuroanatomical correlates. Current models of motor programming will also be addressed as they relate to AOS and finally, typical treatment strategies used in rehabilitating the articulation and prosody deficits associated with AOS will be summarized. PMID:16393756

  9. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  10. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.