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Sample records for sphingomyelins

  1. Inhibitors of the sphingomyelin cycle: Sphingomyelin synthases and sphingomyelinases.

    PubMed

    Adada, Mohamad; Luberto, Chiara; Canals, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Sphingolipids are a class of bioactive lipids, which are key modulators of an increasing number of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes that include cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, stress and inflammatory responses. Sphingomyelin is an important structural component of biological membranes, and one of the end-points in the synthesis of sphingolipids. Mainly synthetized in the Golgi apparatus, sphingomyelin is transported to all other biological membranes. Upon stimulation, sphingomyelin can be hydrolyzed to ceramide by 5 different sphingomyelinases. The diversity and cellular topology of ceramide allow it to exert multiple biologies. Furthermore, ceramide can be metabolized to many other bioactive sphingolipids. Ceramide, coming from sphingomyelin or other complex sphingolipids, can be hydrolyzed to sphingosine, which can easily change cellular localization. In turn, sphingosine can be recycled to ceramide and to sphingomyelin in the endoplasmic reticulum, completing the sphingomyelin cycle. Our understanding of the roles of various sphingolipids in the regulation of different cellular processes has come from studying the enzymes that regulate these sphingolipids, and their manipulation. The use of pharmacologic inhibitors has been critical for their study, as well as being promising bullets for disease treatment. Some of these diseases involving the sphingomyelin cycle include cancer, inflammation, atherosclerosis, diabetes and some rare diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease. This review will focus on the enzymes involved in the sphingomyelin cycle, their history, and their involvement in pathophysiological processes. Finally, it will describe in details all the small molecules that are being used to inhibit these enzymes and their use in therapeutics. PMID:26200918

  2. Regulation of sphingomyelin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bienias, Kamil; Fiedorowicz, Anna; Sadowska, Anna; Prokopiuk, Sławomir; Car, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids (SFs) represent a large class of lipids playing diverse functions in a vast number of physiological and pathological processes. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant SF in the cell, with ubiquitous distribution within mammalian tissues, and particularly high levels in the Central Nervous System (CNS). SM is an essential element of plasma membrane (PM) and its levels are crucial for the cell function. SM content in a cell is strictly regulated by the enzymes of SM metabolic pathways, which activities create a balance between SM synthesis and degradation. The de novo synthesis via SM synthases (SMSs) in the last step of the multi-stage process is the most important pathway of SM formation in a cell. The SM hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases (SMases) increases the concentration of ceramide (Cer), a bioactive molecule, which is involved in cellular proliferation, growth and apoptosis. By controlling the levels of SM and Cer, SMSs and SMases maintain cellular homeostasis. Enzymes of SM cycle exhibit unique properties and diverse tissue distribution. Disturbances in their activities were observed in many CNS pathologies. This review characterizes the physiological roles of SM and enzymes controlling SM levels as well as their involvement in selected pathologies of the Central Nervous System, such as ischemia/hypoxia, Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), depression, schizophrenia and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). PMID:26940196

  3. Lysosomal involvement in cellular turnover of plasma membrane sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Sutrina, S L; Chen, W W

    1984-04-18

    At least two isoenzymes of sphingomyelinase (sphingomyelin cholinephosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.12), including lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase and nonlysosomal magnesium-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase, catalyse the degradation of sphingomyelin in cultured human skin fibroblasts. A genetically determined disorder of sphingomyelin metabolism, type A Niemann-Pick disease, is characterized by a deficiency of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. To investigate the involvement of lysosomes in the degradation of cellular membrane sphingomyelin, we have undertaken studies to compare the turnover of plasma membrane sphingomyelin in fibroblasts from a patient with type A Niemann-Pick disease, which completely lack acid sphingomyelinase activity but retain nonlysosomal neutral sphingomyelinase activity, with turnover in fibroblasts from normal individuals. Plasma membrane sphingomyelin was labeled by incubating cells at low temperature with phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing radioactive sphingomyelin. A fluorescent analog of sphingomyelin, N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazoleaminocaproyl sphingosylphosphorylcholine (NBD-sphingomyelin) is seen to be readily transferred at low temperature from phosphatidylcholine liposomes to the plasma membranes of cultured human fibroblasts. Moreover, when kinetic studies were done in parallel, a constant ratio of [14C]oleoylsphingosylphosphorylcholine ( [14C]sphingomyelin) to NBD-sphingomyelin was taken up at low temperature by the fibroblast cells, suggesting that [14C]sphingomyelin undergoes a similar transfer. The comparison of sphingomyelin turnover at 37 degrees C in normal fibroblasts compared to Niemann-Pick diseased fibroblasts shows that a rapid turnover of plasma membrane-associated sphingomyelin within the first 30 min appears to be similar in both normal and Niemann-Pick diseased cells. This rapid turnover appears to be primarily due to rapid removal of the [14C]sphingomyelin from the cell surface into the incubation medium. During

  4. Detection of Sphingomyelin Clusters by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Koichiro; Yagi, Kiyoshi; Inaba, Takehiko; Li, Pai-Chi; Murata, Michio; Sugita, Yuji; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-09-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is a major sphingolipid in mammalian cells that forms specific lipid domains in combination with cholesterol (Chol). Using molecular-dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation, we identified a characteristic Raman band of SM at ∼1643 cm(-1) as amide I of the SM cluster. Experimental results indicate that this band is sensitive to the hydration of SM and the presence of Chol. We showed that this amide I Raman band can be utilized to examine the membrane distribution of SM. Similarly to SM, ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CerPE) exhibited an amide I Raman band in almost the same region, although CerPE lacks three methyl groups in the phosphocholine moiety of SM. In contrast to SM, the amide I band of CerPE was not affected by Chol, suggesting the importance of the methyl groups of SM in the SM-Chol interaction. PMID:27602727

  5. Cholesterol interactions with ceramide and sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    García-Arribas, Aritz B; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Felix M

    2016-09-01

    Sphingolipids contain in their polar heads chemical groups allowing them to establish a complex network of H-bonds (through different OH and NHgroups) with other lipids in the bilayer. In the recent years the specific interaction of sphingomyelin (SM) with cholesterol (Chol) has been examined, largely in the context of the "lipid raft" hypothesis. Formation of SM-Ceramide (Cer) complexes, proposed to exist in cell membranes in response to stress, has also been described. More recently, a delicate balance of phase formation and transformation in ternary mixtures of SM, Chol and Cer, with mutual displacement of Chol and Cer from their interaction with SM is considered to exist. In addition, data demonstrating direct Chol-Cer interaction are becoming available. PMID:27132117

  6. Inhibition of endothelial lipase activity by sphingomyelin in the lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Belikova, Natalia A; Billheimer, Jeff; Rader, Daniel J; Hill, John S; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of plasma HDL concentration, its activity being inversely proportional to HDL levels. Although it is known that it preferentially acts on HDL compared to LDL and VLDL, the basis for this specificity is not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin, a major phospholipid in lipoproteins is a physiological inhibitor of EL, and that the preference of the enzyme for HDL may be due to low sphingomyelin/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) ratio in HDL, compared to other lipoproteins. Using recombinant human EL, we showed that sphingomyelin inhibits the hydrolysis of PtdCho in the liposomes in a concentration-dependent manner. While the enzyme showed lower hydrolysis of LDL PtdCho, compared to HDL PtdCho, this difference disappeared after the degradation of lipoprotein sphingomyelin by bacterial sphingomyelinase. Analysis of molecular species of PtdCho hydrolyzed by EL in the lipoproteins showed that the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PtdCho containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as 22:6, 20:5, 20:4 at the sn-2 position, generating the corresponding PUFA-lyso PtdCho. This specificity for PUFA-PtdCho species was not observed after depletion of sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase. These results show that sphingomyelin not only plays a role in regulating EL activity, but also influences its specificity towards PtdCho species. PMID:25167836

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of sphingomyelin bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzik, K.S.; Sobon, B.; Salamonczyk, G.M. )

    1990-04-24

    Bilayers of D-erythro-(N-stearoylsphingosyl)-1-phosphocholine (C{sub l8}-SPM), previously characterized by differential scanning calorimetry in various phases, were studied by means of wide-line {sup 31}P, {sup 2}H, high-resolution {sup 13}C CP-MAS, and {sup 1}H MAS NMR. The fully relaxed gel phase of C{sub 18}-SPM at temperatures below 306 K displayed {sup 31}P NMR spectra characteristic of the rigid phase with frozen rotation of the phosphocholine head group. Three other gel phases existing in the temperature range 306-318 K displayed spectra with incompletely averaged axially symmetric powder line shapes and were difficult to differentiate on the basis of their {sup 31}P NMR spectra. The gel-to-gel transition at 306 K was found to be fully reversible. The main phase transition at 318 K resulted in the formation of the liquid-crystalline phase for which spectra with axially symmetric line shapes of uniform width were obtained, regardless of the nature of the starting gel phase. {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR spectra revealed significant differences in the molecular dynamics of sphingomyelin in various phases. All carbon atoms of the polar head group in the liquid-crystalline phase gave rise to a separate resonance lines. Numerous carbon atom signals were doubled in the stable phase, demonstrating the existence of two slowly interconverting conformers.

  8. Excess sphingomyelin disturbs ATG9A trafficking and autophagosome closure

    PubMed Central

    Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Vindeløv, Signe Diness; Hämälistö, Saara; Mograbi, Baharia; Keldsbo, Anne; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Favaro, Elena; Adam, Dieter; Szyniarowski, Piotr; Hofman, Paul; Krautwald, Stefan; Farkas, Thomas; Petersen, Nikolaj H.T.; Rohde, Mikkel; Linkermann, Andreas; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sphingomyelin is an essential cellular lipid that traffics between plasma membrane and intracellular organelles until directed to lysosomes for SMPD1 (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1)-mediated degradation. Inactivating mutations in the SMPD1 gene result in Niemann-Pick diseases type A and B characterized by sphingomyelin accumulation and severely disturbed tissue homeostasis. Here, we report that sphingomyelin overload disturbs the maturation and closure of autophagic membranes. Niemann-Pick type A patient fibroblasts and SMPD1-depleted cancer cells accumulate elongated and unclosed autophagic membranes as well as abnormally swollen autophagosomes in the absence of normal autophagosomes and autolysosomes. The immature autophagic membranes are rich in WIPI2, ATG16L1 and MAP1LC3B but display reduced association with ATG9A. Contrary to its normal trafficking between plasma membrane, intracellular organelles and autophagic membranes, ATG9A concentrates in transferrin receptor-positive juxtanuclear recycling endosomes in SMPD1-deficient cells. Supporting a causative role for ATG9A mistrafficking in the autophagy defect observed in SMPD1-deficient cells, ectopic ATG9A effectively reverts this phenotype. Exogenous C12-sphingomyelin induces a similar juxtanuclear accumulation of ATG9A and subsequent defect in the maturation of autophagic membranes in healthy cells while the main sphingomyelin metabolite, ceramide, fails to revert the autophagy defective phenotype in SMPD1-deficient cells. Juxtanuclear accumulation of ATG9A and defective autophagy are also evident in tissues of smpd1-deficient mice with a subsequent inability to cope with kidney ischemia-reperfusion stress. These data reveal sphingomyelin as an important regulator of ATG9A trafficking and maturation of early autophagic membranes. PMID:27070082

  9. Excess sphingomyelin disturbs ATG9A trafficking and autophagosome closure.

    PubMed

    Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Vindeløv, Signe Diness; Hämälistö, Saara; Mograbi, Baharia; Keldsbo, Anne; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Favaro, Elena; Adam, Dieter; Szyniarowski, Piotr; Hofman, Paul; Krautwald, Stefan; Farkas, Thomas; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Rohde, Mikkel; Linkermann, Andreas; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-05-01

    Sphingomyelin is an essential cellular lipid that traffics between plasma membrane and intracellular organelles until directed to lysosomes for SMPD1 (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1)-mediated degradation. Inactivating mutations in the SMPD1 gene result in Niemann-Pick diseases type A and B characterized by sphingomyelin accumulation and severely disturbed tissue homeostasis. Here, we report that sphingomyelin overload disturbs the maturation and closure of autophagic membranes. Niemann-Pick type A patient fibroblasts and SMPD1-depleted cancer cells accumulate elongated and unclosed autophagic membranes as well as abnormally swollen autophagosomes in the absence of normal autophagosomes and autolysosomes. The immature autophagic membranes are rich in WIPI2, ATG16L1 and MAP1LC3B but display reduced association with ATG9A. Contrary to its normal trafficking between plasma membrane, intracellular organelles and autophagic membranes, ATG9A concentrates in transferrin receptor-positive juxtanuclear recycling endosomes in SMPD1-deficient cells. Supporting a causative role for ATG9A mistrafficking in the autophagy defect observed in SMPD1-deficient cells, ectopic ATG9A effectively reverts this phenotype. Exogenous C12-sphingomyelin induces a similar juxtanuclear accumulation of ATG9A and subsequent defect in the maturation of autophagic membranes in healthy cells while the main sphingomyelin metabolite, ceramide, fails to revert the autophagy defective phenotype in SMPD1-deficient cells. Juxtanuclear accumulation of ATG9A and defective autophagy are also evident in tissues of smpd1-deficient mice with a subsequent inability to cope with kidney ischemia-reperfusion stress. These data reveal sphingomyelin as an important regulator of ATG9A trafficking and maturation of early autophagic membranes. PMID:27070082

  10. Interaction of cholesterol with sphingomyelin in bilayer membranes: Evidence that the hydroxy group of sphingomyelin does not modulate the rate of cholesterol exchange between vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Chucheng Kan; Zhongshi Ruan; Bittman, R. )

    1991-08-06

    Cholesterol undergoes exchange between membranes containing sphingomyelin at a much slower rate than between membranes lacking sphingomyelin. To investigate the role of the hydroxy group at the 3-position of sphingomyelin in the interaction between sphingomyelin and cholesterol, the authors have measured the rates of (4-{sup 14}C)cholesterol exchange between unilamellar vesicles prepared with N-alkyl group or with hydrogen. Vesicles prepared from 3-deoxy- and 3-0-methyl-N-stearoylsphingomyelin had the same rate of ({sup 14}C) cholesterol desorption. The half-times for exchange from vesicles prepared with 3-0-methyl- and 3-deoxy-N-stearoylsphingomyelins and 10 mol% of cholesterol were only slightly faster than that found from vesicles prepared from N-stearoylsphingomyelin and 10 mol% cholesterol. The rate of cholesterol desorption from vesicles could be accelerated by preparing vesicles from bulky 3-0-alkyl analogues of sphingomyelin. These data indicate that insertion of sterically bulky groups at the 3-position of sphingomyelin in place of hydroxy interferes markedly with the molecular packing of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in bilayer membranes; however, the hydroxy group of sphingomyelin is not critical for the strong interaction of cholesterol with sphingomyelin. These results suggest that van der Waals interactions are more important than hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the hydroxy group in contributing to tight lateral packing of cholesterol with sphingomyelin.

  11. Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios centrifuged and uncentrifuged amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Railsback, K P; Haller, W S

    1978-09-01

    The literature suggests that the presence of cellular debris and sediment in amniotic fluid samples may alter the value of the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratios, with a loss of as much as 75 percent of the surface-active lecithin1 and consequently a marked change in the L/S ratio. We wish to report our findings on 22 amniotic fluids obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis and analyzed with and without preliminary centrifugation. We find the L/S ratio is indeed unaltered by centrifugation. However, the actual amounts of lecithin and sphingomyelin appear to be lower in centrifuged samples. PMID:568387

  12. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure...

  17. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  18. Deficiency of sphingomyelin synthase-1 but not sphingomyelin synthase-2 causes hearing impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-Hong; Takemoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Ken; Luo, Huan; Nishimura, Masataka; Yano, Masato; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Okazaki, Toshiro; Oike, Yuichi; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-08-15

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is a sphingolipid reported to function as a structural component of plasma membranes and to participate in signal transduction. The role of SM metabolism in the process of hearing remains controversial. Here, we examined the role of SM synthase (SMS), which is subcategorized into the family members SMS1 and SMS2, in auditory function. Measurements of auditory brainstem response (ABR) revealed hearing impairment in SMS1−/− mice in a low frequency range (4–16 kHz). As a possible mechanism of this impairment, we found that the stria vascularis (SV) in these mice exhibited atrophy and disorganized marginal cells. Consequently, SMS1−/− mice exhibited significantly smaller endocochlear potentials (EPs). As a possible mechanism for EP reduction, we found altered expression patterns and a reduced level of KCNQ1 channel protein in the SV of SMS1−/− mice. These mice also exhibited reduced levels of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Quantitative comparison of the SV atrophy, KCNQ1 expression, and outer hair cell density at the cochlear apical and basal turns revealed no location dependence, but more macrophage invasion into the SV was observed in the apical region than the basal region, suggesting a role of cochlear location-dependent oxidative stress in producing the frequency dependence of hearing loss in SMS1−/− mice. Elevated ABR thresholds, decreased EPs, and abnormal KCNQ1 expression patterns in SMS1−/− mice were all found to be progressive with age. Mice lacking SMS2, however, exhibited neither detectable hearing loss nor changes in their EPs. Taken together, our results suggest that hearing impairments occur in SMS1−/− but not SMS2−/− mice. Defects in the SV with subsequent reductions in EPs together with hair cell dysfunction may account, at least partially, for hearing impairments in SMS1−/− mice. PMID:22641779

  19. Degradation of Host Sphingomyelin Is Essential for Leishmania Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ou; Wilson, Mattie C.; Xu, Wei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Kuhlmann, F. Matthew; Wang, Yingwei; Soong, Lynn; Key, Phillip; Beverley, Stephen M.; Zhang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, sphingolipids (SLs) are important membrane components and powerful signaling molecules. In Leishmania, the major group of SLs is inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC), which is common in yeast and Trypanosomatids but absent in mammals. In contrast, sphingomyelin is not synthesized by Leishmania but is abundant in mammals. In the promastigote stage in vitro, Leishmania use SL metabolism as a major pathway to produce ethanolamine (EtN), a metabolite essential for survival and differentiation from non-virulent procyclics to highly virulent metacyclics. To further probe SL metabolism, we identified a gene encoding a putative neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) and/or IPC hydrolase (IPCase), designated ISCL (Inositol phosphoSphingolipid phospholipase C-Like). Despite the lack of sphingomyelin synthesis, L. major promastigotes exhibited a potent SMase activity which was abolished upon deletion of ISCL, and increased following over-expression by episomal complementation. ISCL-dependent activity with sphingomyelin was about 20 fold greater than that seen with IPC. Null mutants of ISCL (iscl−) showed modest accumulation of IPC, but grew and differentiated normally in vitro. Interestingly, iscl− mutants did not induce lesion pathology in the susceptible BALB/c mice, yet persisted indefinitely at low levels at the site of infection. Notably, the acute virulence of iscl− was completely restored by the expression of ISCL or heterologous mammalian or fungal SMases, but not by fungal proteins exhibiting only IPCase activity. Together, these findings strongly suggest that degradation of host-derived sphingomyelin plays a pivotal role in the proliferation of Leishmania in mammalian hosts and the manifestation of acute disease pathology. PMID:20011126

  20. Reducing Plasma Membrane Sphingomyelin Increases Insulin Sensitivity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hongqi; Liu, Jing; Liang, Chien-Ping; Li, Yan; Li, Yue; Teitelman, Gladys; Beyer, Thomas; Bui, Hai H.; Peake, David A.; Zhang, Youyan; Sanders, Phillip E.; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Park, Tae-Sik; Cao, Guoqing; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis increases insulin sensitivity. For further exploration of the mechanism involved, we utilized two models: heterozygous serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) subunit 2 (Sptlc2) gene knockout mice and sphingomyelin synthase 2 (Sms2) gene knockout mice. SPT is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis, and Sptlc2 is one of its subunits. Homozygous Sptlc2-deficient mice are embryonic lethal. However, heterozygous Sptlc2-deficient mice that were viable and without major developmental defects demonstrated decreased ceramide and sphingomyelin levels in the cell plasma membranes, as well as heightened sensitivity to insulin. Moreover, these mutant mice were protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. SMS is the last enzyme for sphingomyelin biosynthesis, and SMS2 is one of its isoforms. Sms2 deficiency increased cell membrane ceramide but decreased SM levels. Sms2 deficiency also increased insulin sensitivity and ameliorated high-fat diet-induced obesity. We have concluded that Sptlc2 heterozygous deficiency- or Sms2 deficiency-mediated reduction of SM in the plasma membranes leads to an improvement in tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity. PMID:21844222

  1. Nuclear Phosphatidylcholine and Sphingomyelin Metabolism of Thyroid Cells Changes during Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    PubMed Central

    Albi, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Samuela; Villani, Maristella; Perrella, Giuseppina

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine metabolism is involved in the response to ultraviolet radiation treatment in different ways related to the physiological state of cells. To evaluate the effects of low levels of radiation from the stratosphere on thyroid cells, proliferating and quiescent FRTL-5 cells were flown in a stratospheric balloon (BIRBA mission). After recovery, the activity of neutral sphingomyelinase, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, sphingomyelin synthase, and reverse sphingomyelin synthase was assayed in purified nuclei and the nuclei-free fraction. In proliferating FRTL-5, space radiation stimulate nuclear neutral sphingomyelinase and reverse sphingomyelin synthase activity, whereas phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase were inhibited, thus inducing sphingomyelin degradation and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. This effect was lower in quiescent cells. The possible role of nuclear lipid metabolism in the thyroid damage induced by space radiations is discussed. PMID:20011661

  2. Detectors for evaluating the cellular landscape of sphingomyelin- and cholesterol-rich membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takuma; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-08-01

    Although sphingomyelin and cholesterol are major lipids of mammalian cells, the detailed distribution of these lipids in cellular membranes remains still obscure. However, the recent development of protein probes that specifically bind sphingomyelin and/or cholesterol provides new information about the landscape of the lipid domains that are enriched with sphingomyelin or cholesterol or both. Here, we critically summarize the tools to study distribution and dynamics of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26993577

  3. Alpha particles induce apoptosis through the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed

    Seideman, Jonathan H; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A; McDevitt, Michael R; Howell, Roger W; Kolesnick, Richard N; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-10-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET α particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with α particles emitted by the ²²⁵Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on α-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated α particles using a planar ²⁴¹Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five α-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that α particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

  4. Alpha Particles Induce Apoptosis through the Sphingomyelin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Seideman, Jonathan H.; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Howell, Roger W.; Kolesnick, Richard N.; Scheinberg, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET a particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with a particles emitted by the 225Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on α-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated a particles using a planar 241Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five α-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that a particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

  5. Squid nerve sphingomyelin containing an unusual sphingoid base.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Y; Tanaka, T; Akashi, S; Morimoto, S; Kishimoto, Y; Nagai, Y

    2000-07-01

    A new methodology has been developed to determine sphingolipid structures by positive-ion fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS/MS). The method was verified by application to a structurally known glycosphingolipid, and then used in the structural study of an unusual sphingomyelin isolated from squid (Loligo pealei) nerve. Our previous study of this squid sphingomyelin indicated that the major base had a branched C(19) alkyl chain with three double bonds, two of which were conjugated. The positions of the branching as well as the double bonds of this base were unambiguously determined by directly comparing the product ion spectra of the long-chain base ion (LCB(+)) of two ceramides, one derived from squid nerve sphingomyelin and another, glucosylceramide, obtained from starfish spermatozoa. The latter served as the standard because the structure had already been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The precursor ion here was LCB(+), that is, [CH(2) - C(NH(2)) = CHR](+), rather than [M + H](+), where R represents the backbone hydrocarbon chain counting from C-4. The results clearly showed that the squid nerve base is identical to the base derived from starfish (Asterias amurensis), that is, 2-amino-9-methyl-4,8,10-octadecatriene-1,3-diol. This is the first report in which the detailed structure of a branched polyunsaturated sphingoid base was studied by tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization or the aid of NMR. The occurrence of such an unusual sphingoid base in various phyla and tissues suggests the conjugated polyunsaturated branched sphingoid base plays a significant role in animals. PMID:10884294

  6. Miscibility Phase Diagrams of Giant Vesicles Containing Sphingomyelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veatch, Sarah L.; Keller, Sarah L.

    2005-04-01

    Saturated sphingomyelin (SM) lipids are implicated in lipid rafts in cell plasma membranes. Here we use fluorescence microscopy to observe coexisting liquid domains in vesicles containing SM, an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine lipid (either DOPC or POPC), and cholesterol. We note similar phase behavior in a model membrane mixture without SM (DOPC/DPPC/Chol), but find no micron-scale liquid domains in membranes of POPC/PSM/Chol. We delineate the onset of solid phases below the miscibility transition temperature, and detail indirect evidence for a three-phase coexistence of one solid and two liquid phases.

  7. Metabolic fate of sphingomyelin of high-density lipoprotein in rat plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bentejac, M.; Bugaut, M.; Delachambre, M.C.; Lecerf, J. )

    1990-10-01

    The metabolic fate of high density lipoprotein (HDL) sphingomyelin in plasma was studied in rats over a 24-hr period after injection of HDL containing sphingomyelin which was {sup 14}C-labeled in the stearic (18:0) or lignoceric acid (24:0) moiety and {sup 3}H-labeled in the choline methyl groups. Decay of label in plasma followed three phases. The first two phases were similar for both isotopes and both types of sphingomyelin (t1/2 approximately 10 and 110 min). However, during the third phase (from 10 hr after injection), {sup 3}H label disappeared more slowly than {sup 14}C label from 18:0 sphingomyelin, whereas the {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C ratio remained relatively constant when 24:0 sphingomyelin was used. Intact, doubly-labeled 18:0 sphingomyelin disappeared from HDL rapidly (t1/2 = 38 min) by tissue uptake and by transfer to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL contained up to 12% of the sphingomyelin 1 hr after injection. This is the first demonstration of a transfer in vivo of sphingomyelin from HDL to VLDL. A similarly rapid transfer was also observed in vitro. Some nontritiated, ({sup 14}C)18:0 or ({sup 14}C)24:0 sphingomyelin was redistributed more slowly into HDL. Doubly-labeled phosphatidylcholine appeared in VLDL and HDL within 1 hr after injection and reached 1.8 and 2.1% of the injected {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H in VLDL at 1 hr, and 4.8 and 6.9% in HDL at 3 hr, respectively.

  8. [Activity of the sphingomyelin cycle enzymes and concentration of products of sphingomyelin degradation in the rat liver in the course of acute toxic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Serebrov, V Iu; Kuz'menko, D I; Burov, P G; Sapugol'tseva, O B

    2010-01-01

    Activity of key enzymes of a sphingomyelin cycle and the maintenance of its components (sphingomyelin, ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate) have been studied in livers of rats in dynamics of the acute toxic hepatitis caused by hypodermic introduction of an oil solution of CCl4. Sphingomyelinase activity significally increased already on early terms and remained increased over the whole period of observation. Activity of ceramidase insignificantly differed from the control level. The levels of sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1-phosphate did not undergo marked changes while ceramide content significally increased. Thus, balance between liver content of ceramide (proapoptotic) and the sphingosine-1-phosphate, being the antiapoptotic factor, was shifted towards ceramide. In sphingomyelin molecules there was a significant decrease in the content of fatty acids C18: and C22:2, while in ceramide molecules and sphingosine-1-phosphate only fatty acid C22:2 changed. In spite of significant decrease in content of some unsaturated fatty acids, calculated unsaturation coefficients of the fatty acid component of the sphingomyelin cycle metabolites. Thus, our results together with literature data suggests involvement of ceramide-mediated apoptosis in the pathogenesis of acute toxic hepatitis. Elimination of damaged hepatocytes facilitates realization of repair processes and optimization of cellular community of a liver. PMID:21341516

  9. Sphingomyelin Synthase 2, but Not Sphingomyelin Synthase 1, Is Involved in HIV-1 Envelope-mediated Membrane Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Nemoto-Sasaki, Yoko; Tanikawa, Takashi; Oka, Saori; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Zama, Kouta; Mitsutake, Susumu; Sugiura, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion between the viral envelope and plasma membranes of target cells has previously been correlated with HIV-1 infection. Lipids in the plasma membrane, including sphingomyelin, may be crucially involved in HIV-1 infection; however, the role of lipid-metabolic enzymes in membrane fusion remains unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) in HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion using a cell-cell fusion assay with HIV-1 mimetics and their target cells. We employed reconstituted cells as target cells that stably express Sms1 or Sms2 in Sms-deficient cells. Fusion susceptibility was ∼5-fold higher in Sms2-expressing cells (not in Sms1-expressing cells) than in Sms-deficient cells. The enhancement of fusion susceptibility observed in Sms2-expressing cells was reversed and reduced by Sms2 knockdown. We also found that catalytically nonactive Sms2 promoted membrane fusion susceptibility. Moreover, SMS2 co-localized and was constitutively associated with the HIV receptor·co-receptor complex in the plasma membrane. In addition, HIV-1 Env treatment resulted in a transient increase in nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) phosphorylation in Sms2-expressing and catalytically nonactive Sms2-expressing cells. We observed that F-actin polymerization in the region of membrane fusion was more prominent in Sms2-expressing cells than Sms-deficient cells. Taken together, our research provides insight into a novel function of SMS2 which is the regulation of HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion via actin rearrangement. PMID:25231990

  10. Optimization of a histopathological biomarker for sphingomyelin accumulation in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Taksir, Tatyana V; Johnson, Jennifer; Maloney, Colleen L; Yandl, Emily; Griffiths, Denise; Thurberg, Beth L; Ryan, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (types A and B), or acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, is an inherited deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase, resulting in intralysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin in cells throughout the body, particularly within those of the reticuloendothelial system. These cellular changes result in hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary infiltrates in humans. A knockout mouse model mimics many elements of human ASMD and is useful for studying disease histopathology. However, traditional formalin-fixation and paraffin embedding of ASMD tissues dissolves sphingomyelin, resulting in tissues with a foamy cell appearance, making quantitative analysis of the substrate difficult. To optimize substrate fixation and staining, a modified osmium tetroxide and potassium dichromate postfixation method was developed to preserve sphingomyelin in epon-araldite embedded tissue and pulmonary cytology specimens. After processing, semi-thin sections were incubated with tannic acid solution followed by staining with toluidine blue/borax. This modified method provides excellent preservation and staining contrast of sphingomyelin with other cell structures. The resulting high-resolution light microscopy sections permit digital quantification of sphingomyelin in light microscopic fields. A lysenin affinity stain for sphingomyelin was also developed for use on these semi-thin epon sections. Finally, ultrathin serial sections can be cut from these same tissue blocks and stained for ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy. PMID:22614361

  11. Effects of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine degradation on cyclodextrin-mediated cholesterol efflux in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ohvo, H; Olsio, C; Slotte, J P

    1997-11-15

    The hydrolysis of plasma membrane sphingomyelin is known to dramatically alter cellular cholesterol homeostasis in different ways, whereas the degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine has much less or no effects on cell cholesterol homeostasis [Pörn, Ares, Slotte, J. Lipid Res. 34 (1993) 1385-1392]. In this study, we used an efficient extracellular cholesterol acceptor (cyclodextrin) and determined the extent of cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts in which plasma membrane sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine was degraded. Treatment of cells with sphingomyelinase reduced the cell sphingomyelin content by about 76% (about 13 nmol SM degraded), and dramatically increased the desorption of [3H]cholesterol from the plasma membrane to 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The corresponding hydrolysis of cell surface phosphatidylcholine (about 12% reduction of the cellular phosphatidylcholine content, corresponding to about 12 nmol degraded PC) had almost no effect on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux. The stimulatory effect of sphingomyelin degradation on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux was reversible, since rates of [3H]cholesterol efflux dropped back to control levels when cells (in this case baby hamster kidney cells) were allowed to restore their sphingomyelin content by re-synthesis in the absence of sphingomyelinase. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that plasma membrane sphingomyelin markedly affected the rate of cholesterol transfer between cells and an extracellular acceptor (i.e., cyclodextrin), whereas the effect of phosphatidylcholine on cholesterol efflux was much smaller. PMID:9421186

  12. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. PMID:26193433

  13. Acute perturbations in Golgi organization impact de nova sphingomyelin synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Suchismita; Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian Golgi apparatus is composed of multiple stacks of cisternal membranes organized laterally into a ribbon-like structure, with close apposition of trans Golgi regions with specialized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. These contacts may be the site of ceramide transfer from its site of synthesis (ER) to sphingomyelin (SM) synthase via ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT extracts ceramide from the ER and transfers it to Golgi membranes, but the role of overall Golgi structure in this process is unknown. We show here that localization of CERT in puncta around the Golgi complex requires both ER and Golgi binding domains of CERT. To examine how Golgi structure contributes to SM synthesis, we treated cells with Golgi perturbing drugs and measured newly synthesized SM. Interestingly, disruption of Golgi morphology with nocodazole, but not ilimaquinone inhibited SM synthesis. Decreased localization of CERT with a Golgi marker correlated with decreased SM synthesis. We propose that some Golgi structural perturbations interfere with efficient ceramide trafficking via CERT, and thus SM synthesis. The organization of the mammalian Golgi ribbon together with CERT may promote specific ER-Golgi interactions for efficient delivery of ceramide for SM synthesis. PMID:18785922

  14. Effects of Sphingomyelin Headgroup Size on Interactions with Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Artetxe, Ibai; Sergelius, Christian; Kurita, Mayuko; Yamaguchi, Shou; Katsumura, Shigeo; Slotte, J. Peter; Maula, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    Sphingomyelins (SMs) and ceramides are known to interact favorably in bilayer membranes. Because ceramide lacks a headgroup that could shield its hydrophobic body from unfavorable interactions with water, accommodation of ceramide under the larger phosphocholine headgroup of SM could contribute to their favorable interactions. To elucidate the role of SM headgroup for SM/ceramide interactions, we explored the effects of reducing the size of the phosphocholine headgroup (removing one, two, or three methyls on the choline moiety, or the choline moiety itself). Using differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy, we found that the size of the SM headgroup had no marked effect on the thermal stability of ordered domains formed by SM analog/palmitoyl ceramide (PCer) interactions. In more complex bilayers composed of a fluid glycerophospholipid, SM analog, and PCer, the thermal stability and molecular order of the laterally segregated gel domains were roughly identical despite variation in SM headgroup size. We suggest that that the association between PCer and SM analogs was stabilized by ceramide’s aversion for disordered phospholipids, by interfacial hydrogen bonding between PCer and the SM analogs, and by attractive van der Waals’ forces between saturated chains of PCer and SM analogs. PMID:23442911

  15. Interaction of Egg-Sphingomyelin with DOPC in Langmuir Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Chang-chun; Sun, Run-guang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Lipid rafts are a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and particular proteins. The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases. In this work, the monolayer miscibility behavior of mixed systems of Egg-Sphingomyelin (ESM) 1 with 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated in terms of mean surface area per molecule and excess molecular area ΔAex at certain surface pressure, surface pressure and excess surface pressure Δπex at certain mean molecular area. The stability and compressibility of the mixed monolayers was assessed by the parameters of surface excess Gibbs free energy ΔGex, excess Helmholtz energy ΔHex and elasticity. Thermodynamic analysis indicates ΔAex and Δπex in the binary systems with positive deviations from the ideal behavior, suggesting repulsive interaction. The maximum of ΔGex and ΔHex was at the molar fraction of ESM of 0.6, demonstrating the mixed monolayer was more unstable. The repulsive interaction induced phase separation in the monolayer.

  16. Degradation of fluorescent and radiolabelled sphingomyelins in intact cells by a non-lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Levade, T; Vidal, F; Vermeersch, S; Andrieu, N; Gatt, S; Salvayre, R

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the entitled neutral, sphingomyelinase in the non-lysosomal pathway of sphingomyelin degradation by intact cells (Spence et al. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8595-8600; Levade et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13519-13529). The uptake and degradation of sphingomyelin by intact living cells was studied using cell lines exhibiting a wide range of activity levels of acid, lysosomal and neutral sphingomyelinases as determined in vitro on cell homogenates by their respective standard assays. For this purpose, neuroblastoma, skin fibroblasts, lymphoid and leukemic cell lines, some of them derived from patients with Niemann-Pick disease (deficient in the acid, lysosomal sphingomyelinase) were incubated with radioactive, [oleoyl-3H]sphingomyelin or fluorescent, pyrene-sulfonylaminoundecanoyl-sphingomyelin. Either compound was taken up by a pathway which was not receptor-mediated and hydrolyzed by all intact cells, including those derived from Niemann-Pick disease patients. Moreover, their degradation by the intact cells was not inhibited by treatment with chloroquine, indicating hydrolysis by a non-lysosomal sphingomyelinase. The intracellular sphingomyelin degradation rates showed no correlation with the activity of the 'classical' neutral sphingomyelinase as determined in vitro. In particular, fibroblasts derived from Niemann-Pick patients lacking the lysosomal sphingomyelinase, and having no detectable in vitro activity of the 'classical' neutral sphingomyelinase, were able to degrade the exogenously supplied sphingomyelins. Indeed, in vitro these cells were shown to exhibit neutral, magnesium- and dithiothreitol-dependent sphingomyelinase activities, that might contribute to the non-lysosomal pathway for sphingomyelin degradation to ceramide in intact cells. PMID:7548198

  17. Hydration and Lateral Organization in Phospholipid Bilayers Containing Sphingomyelin: A 2H-NMR Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinbauer, Bernhard; Mehnert, Thomas; Beyer, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial properties of lipid bilayers were studied by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with emphasis on a comparison between phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Spectral resolution and sensitivity was improved by macroscopic membrane alignment. The motionally averaged quadrupolar interaction of interlamellar deuterium oxide was employed to probe the interfacial polarity of the membranes. The D2O quadrupolar splittings indicated that the sphingomyelin lipid-water interface is less polar above the phase transition temperature Tm than below Tm. The opposite behavior was found in phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Macroscopically aligned sphingomyelin bilayers also furnished 2H-signals from the amide residue and from the hydroxyl group of the sphingosine moiety. The rate of water-hydroxyl deuteron exchange could be measured, whereas the exchange of the amide deuteron was too slow for the inversion-transfer technique employed, suggesting that the amide residue is involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Order parameter profiles in mixtures of sphingomyelin and chain-perdeuterated phosphatidylcholine revealed an ordering effect as a result of the highly saturated chains of the sphingolipids. The temperature dependence of the 2H quadrupolar splittings was indicative of lateral phase separation in the mixed systems. The results are discussed with regard to interfacial structure and lateral organization in sphingomyelin-containing biomembranes. PMID:12885648

  18. Daunorubicin-induced apoptosis: triggering of ceramide generation through sphingomyelin hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrézou, J P; Levade, T; Bettaïeb, A; Andrieu, N; Bezombes, C; Maestre, N; Vermeersch, S; Rousse, A; Laurent, G

    1996-01-01

    The nature of the signaling pathway(s) which initiate drug-triggered apoptosis remains largely unknown and is of fundamental importance in understanding cell death induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Here we show that in the leukemic cell lines U937 and HL-60, daunorubicin, at concentrations which trigger apoptosis, stimulated two distinct cycles of sphingomyelin hydrolysis (approximately 20% decrease at 1 microM) within 4-10 min and 60-75 min with concomitant ceramide generation. We demonstrate that the increase in ceramide levels, which precedes apoptosis, is mediated by a neutral sphingomyelinase and not by ceramide synthase. Indeed, potent ceramide synthase inhibitors such as fumonisin B1 did not affect daunorubicin-triggered sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation or apoptosis. In conclusion, we provide evidence that daunorubicin-triggered apoptosis is mediated by a signaling pathway which is initiated by an early sphingomyelin-derived ceramide production. Images PMID:8665849

  19. A toxin-based probe reveals cytoplasmic exposure of Golgi sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Bakrac, Biserka; Kladnik, Ales; Macek, Peter; McHaffie, Gavin; Werner, Andreas; Lakey, Jeremy H; Anderluh, Gregor

    2010-07-16

    Although sphingomyelin is an important cellular lipid, its subcellular distribution is not precisely known. Here we use a sea anemone cytolysin, equinatoxin II (EqtII), which specifically binds sphingomyelin, as a new marker to detect cellular sphingomyelin. A purified fusion protein composed of EqtII and green fluorescent protein (EqtII-GFP) binds to the SM rich apical membrane of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells when added exogenously, but not to the SM-free basolateral membrane. When expressed intracellularly within MDCK II cells, EqtII-GFP colocalizes with markers for Golgi apparatus and not with those for nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum or plasma membrane. Colocalization with the Golgi apparatus was confirmed by also using NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, EqtII-GFP was enriched in cis-Golgi compartments isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation. The data reveal that EqtII-GFP is a sensitive probe for membrane sphingomyelin, which provides new information on cytosolic exposure, essential to understand its diverse physiological roles. PMID:20463009

  20. Gentamicin arrests cancer cell growth: the intriguing involvement of nuclear sphingomyelin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Codini, Michela; Cataldi, Samuela; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Lazzarini, Andrea; Floridi, Alessandro; Lazzarini, Remo; Curcio, Francesco; Beccari, Tommaso; Albi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The use of gentamicin for the treatment of bacterial infection has always been an interesting and highly speculated issue for the scientific community. Conversely, its effect on cancer cells has been very little investigated. We studied the effect of high doses of gentamicin on non-Hodgkin's T-cell human lymphoblastic lymphoma (SUP-T1). We showed that gentamicin delayed cell growth and induced cell death in lymphoma cells with a rather mild effect on lymphocytes. In SUP-T1 cells, GAPDH, B2M, CDKN1A and CDKN1B were down-expressed in comparison with lymphocytes. Gentamicin treatment in SUP-T1 cells restored the expression of GAPDH, B2M and CDKN1A to values similar to those of lymphocytes and caused overexpression of CDKN1B. The drug acted via sphingomyelin metabolism; in whole cells, sphingomyelinase activity was stimulated, whereas in purified nuclei, sphingomyelinase activity was inhibited and that of sphingomyelin-synthase was stimulated, with a consequent high level of nuclear sphingomyelin content. We suggest that the increase of nuclear sphingomyelin might enrich the nucleus of lipid microdomains that act as a platform for active chromatin and, thus, might be responsible for gene expression. It is possible that in lymphoblastic lymphoma, high doses of gentamicin induce a beneficial therapeutic outcome. PMID:25622250

  1. Functional activity of sphingomyelin cycle in rat liver in chronic toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Serebrov, V Yu; Kuzmenko, D I; Burov, P G; Novitsky, S V

    2008-12-01

    Activities of sphingomyelinase and ceramidase decreased in the liver in chronic toxic hepatitis and the balance between the levels of proapoptotic ceramide and antiapoptotic sphyngosine-1-phosphate shifts towards the latter substance. Pronounced changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of fatty acids in the sphingomyelin cycle effector molecules were revealed. PMID:19513367

  2. Tracking Cholesterol/Sphingomyelin-Rich Membrane Domains with the Ostreolysin A-mCherry Protein

    PubMed Central

    Skočaj, Matej; Resnik, Nataša; Grundner, Maja; Ota, Katja; Rojko, Nejc; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Sobota, Andrzej; Maček, Peter; Veranič, Peter; Sepčić, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Ostreolysin A (OlyA) is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry) labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II–Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1–positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell. PMID:24664106

  3. Surface hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by the outer membrane protein Rv0888 supports replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Speer, Alexander; Sun, Jim; Danilchanka, Olga; Meikle, Virginia; Rowland, Jennifer L; Walter, Kerstin; Buck, Bradford R; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Hölscher, Christoph; Ehrt, Sabine; Niederweis, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sphingomyelinases secreted by pathogenic bacteria play important roles in host-pathogen interactions ranging from interfering with phagocytosis and oxidative burst to iron acquisition. This study shows that the Mtb protein Rv0888 possesses potent sphingomyelinase activity cleaving sphingomyelin, a major lipid in eukaryotic cells, into ceramide and phosphocholine, which are then utilized by Mtb as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources, respectively. An Mtb rv0888 deletion mutant did not grow on sphingomyelin as a sole carbon source anymore and replicated poorly in macrophages indicating that Mtb utilizes sphingomyelin during infection. Rv0888 is an unusual membrane protein with a surface-exposed C-terminal sphingomyelinase domain and a putative N-terminal channel domain that mediated glucose and phosphocholine uptake across the outer membrane in an M. smegmatis porin mutant. Hence, we propose to name Rv0888 as SpmT (sphingomyelinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Erythrocyte membranes contain up to 27% sphingomyelin. The finding that Rv0888 accounts for half of Mtb's hemolytic activity is consistent with its sphingomyelinase activity and the observation that Rv0888 levels are increased in the presence of erythrocytes and sphingomyelin by 5- and 100-fold, respectively. Thus, Rv0888 is a novel outer membrane protein that enables Mtb to utilize sphingomyelin as a source of several essential nutrients during intracellular growth. PMID:26036301

  4. GM1 Ganglioside Inhibits β-Amyloid Oligomerization Induced by Sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Mariana; Šachl, Radek; Aydogan, Gokcan; Mikhalyov, Ilya I; Vácha, Robert; Hof, Martin

    2016-08-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are neurotoxic and implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Neuronal plasma membranes may mediate formation of Aβ oligomers in vivo. Membrane components sphingomyelin and GM1 have been shown to promote aggregation of Aβ; however, these studies were performed under extreme, non-physiological conditions. We demonstrate that physiological levels of GM1 , organized in nanodomains do not seed oligomerization of Aβ40 monomers. We show that sphingomyelin triggers oligomerization of Aβ40 and that GM1 is counteractive thus preventing oligomerization. We propose a molecular explanation that is supported by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The preventive role of GM1 in the oligomerization of Aβ40 suggests that decreasing levels of GM1 in the brain, for example, due to aging, could reduce protection against Aβ oligomerization and contribute to the onset of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27295499

  5. Recycling of glucosylceramide and sphingosine for the biosynthesis of gangliosides and sphingomyelin in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Trinchera, M; Ghidoni, R; Sonnino, S; Tettamanti, G

    1990-01-01

    It was previously shown that sphingomyelin and gangliosides can be biosynthesized starting from sphingosine or sphingosine-containing fragments which originated in the course of GM1 ganglioside catabolism. In the present paper we investigated which fragments were specifically re-used for sphingomyelin and ganglioside biosynthesis in rat liver. At 30 h after intravenous injection of GM1 labelled at the level of the fatty acid ([stearoyl-14C]GM1) or of the sphingosine ([Sph-3H]) moiety, it was observed that radioactive sphingomyelin was formed almost exclusively after the sphingosine-labelled-GM1 administration. This permitted the recognition of sphingosine as the metabolite re-used for sphingomyelin biosynthesis. Conversely, gangliosides more complex than GM1 were similarly radiolabelled after the two treatments, thus ruling out sphingosine re-utilization for ganglioside biosynthesis. For the identification of the lipid fragment re-used for ganglioside biosynthesis, we administered to rats neutral glycosphingolipids (galactosylceramide, glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide) each radiolabelled in the sphingosine moiety or in the terminal sugar residue. Thereafter we compared the formation of radiolabelled gangliosides in the liver with respect to the species administered and the label location. After galactosylceramide was injected, no radiolabelled gangliosides were formed. After the administration of differently labelled glucosylceramide, radiolabelled gangliosides were formed, regardless of the position of the label. After lactosylceramide administration, the ganglioside fraction became more radioactive when the long-chain-base-labelled precursors were used. These results suggest that glucosylceramide, derived from glycosphingolipid and ganglioside catabolism, is recycled for ganglioside biosynthesis. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2241913

  6. Ameliorating Effects of Sphingomyelin-Based Liposomes on Sarcopenia in Senescence-Accelerated Mice.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuuki; Kiyokawa, Yuri; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    The effects of orally administered sphingomyelin-based liposomes (SM-lipo) on muscle function were investigated in senescence-accelerated mice prone 1 (SAMP1) for the purpose of protection against or treatment of sarcopenia. SM-lipo were prepared by thin lipid-film hydration followed by extrusion. Their spherical shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The obtained liposomes were stable in gastric liquid and intestinal fluid models as well as in water. In in vitro tests liposomalization of sphingomyelin significantly increased its transport into human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In addition, SM-lipo upregulated the proliferation of murine C2C12 myoblasts compared with free sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes (PC-lipo). Finally, SM-lipo orally administered to SAMP1 for 10 weeks significantly increased quadriceps femoris weight and extended swimming time until fatigue compared with PC-lipo. In conclusion, these findings indicate that SM-lipo are well absorbed into the body and improve muscle weakness caused by senescence. PMID:27150148

  7. Rapid turn-over of plasma membrane sphingomyelin and cholesterol in baby hamster kidney cells after exposure to sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Slotte, J P; Härmälä, A S; Jansson, C; Pörn, M I

    1990-12-14

    Plasma membrane sphingomyelin in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells was hydrolyzed with sphingomyelinase (Staphylococcus aureus) and the effects on membrane cholesterol translocation and the properties of membrane bound adenylate cyclase and Na+/K(+)-ATPase were determined. Exposure of confluent BHK-21 cells to 0.1 U/ml of sphingomyelinase led to the degradation (at 37 degrees C) of about 60% of cell sphingomyelin. No simultaneous hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine occurred. The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin subsequently led to the translocation (within 40 min) of about 50-60% of cell [3H]cholesterol from a cholesterol oxidase susceptible pool to an oxidase resistant compartment. The translocation of [3H]cholesterol from the cell surface to intracellular membranes was accompanied by a paralleled increase in [3H]cholesterol ester formation. When cells were first exposed to sphingomyelinase (to degrade sphingomyelin) and then incubated without the enzyme in serum-free media, the mass of cell sphingomyelin decreased initially (by 60%), but then began to increase and reached control levels within 3-4 h. The rapid re-synthesis of sphingomyelin was accompanied by an equally rapid normalization of cell [3H]cholesterol distribution. The re-formation of cell sphingomyelin also led to a decreased content of cellular [3H]cholesterol esters, indicating that unesterified [3H]cholesterol was pulled out of the cholesterol ester cycle and transported to the cell surface. Exposure of BHK-21 cells to sphingomyelinase further led to a dramatically decreased activity of ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase, whereas forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected. The activity of Na+/K(+)-ATPase returned to normal in parallel with the normalization of cell sphingomyelin mass and cholesterol distribution. We conclude that sphingomyelin has profound effects on the steady-state distribution of cell cholesterol, and that manipulations of cell sphingomyelin levels directly and

  8. Cholesterol and Sphingomyelin-Containing Model Condensed Lipid Monolayers: Heterogeneities Involving Ordered Microdomains Assessed by Two Cholesterol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Marie-France; Gaibelet, Gérald; Lebrun, Chantal; Tercé, François; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    Lipid monolayers are often considered as model membranes, but they are also the physiologic lipid part of the peripheral envelope of lipoproteins and cytosolic lipid bodies. However, their structural organization is still rather elusive, in particular when both cholesterol and sphingomyelin are present. To investigate such structural organization of hemimembranes, we measured, using alternative current voltammetry, the differential capacitance of condensed phosphatidylcholine-based monolayers as a function of applied potential, which is sensitive to their lipid composition and molecular arrangement. Especially, monolayers containing both sphingomyelin and cholesterol, at 15% w/w, presented specific characteristics of the differential capacitance versus potential curves recorded, which was indicative of specific interactions between these two lipid components. We then compared the behavior of two cholesterol derivatives (at 15% w/w), 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol) and 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol), with that of cholesterol when present in model monolayers. Indeed, these two probes were chosen because of previous findings reporting opposite behaviors within bilayer membranes regarding their interaction with ordered lipids, with only Pyr-met-Chol mimicking cholesterol well. Remarkably, in monolayers containing sphingomyelin or not, Pyr-met-Chol and NBD-Chol presented contrasting behaviors, and Pyr-met-Chol mimicked cholesterol only in the presence of sphingomyelin. These two observations (i.e., optimal amounts of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, and the ability to discriminate between Pyr-met-Chol and NBD-Chol) can be interpreted by the existence of heterogeneities including ordered patches in sphingomyelin- and cholesterol-containing monolayers. Since such monolayer lipid arrangement shares some properties with the raft-type lipid microdomains well-described in sphingomyelin- and cholesterol-containing bilayer membranes, our data thus

  9. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18–C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18–C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys. PMID:27010944

  10. Isolation of plasma membranes from cultured glioma cells and application to evaluation of membrane sphingomyelin turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, H.W.; Palmer, F.B.; Byers, D.M.; Spence, M.W.

    1988-11-01

    A rapid and reliable method for the isolation of plasma membranes and microsomes of high purity and yield from cultured glioma cells is described. The procedure involves disruption by N2 cavitation, preliminary separation by centrifugation in Tricine buffer, and final separation on a gradient formed from 40% Percoll at pH 9.3. Enzyme and chemical markers indicated greater than 60% yield with six- to eightfold enrichment for plasma membranes and greater than 25% yield with three- to fourfold enrichment for a microsomal fraction consisting mainly of endoplasmic reticulum. The final fractions were obtained with high reproducibility in less than 1 h from the time of cell harvesting. Application of this procedure to human fibroblasts in culture is assessed. The isolation procedure was applied to investigations of synthesis and turnover of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine in plasma membranes of glioma cells following incubation for 4-24 h with (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline. These studies indicated that radioactivity from phosphatidylcholine synthesized in microsomes from exogenous choline may serve as a precursor of the head-group of sphingomyelin accumulating in the plasma membrane.

  11. Regulation of membrane KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel density by sphingomyelin synthase 1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meikui; Takemoto, Makoto; Taniguchi, Makoto; Takumi, Toru; Okazaki, Toshiro; Song, Wen-Jie

    2016-07-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylcholine and ceramide to sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol. We previously showed that SMS1 deficiency leads to a reduction in expression of the K(+) channel KCNQ1 in the inner ear (Lu MH, Takemoto M, Watanabe K, Luo H, Nishimura M, Yano M, Tomimoto H, Okazaki T, Oike Y, and Song WJ. J Physiol 590: 4029-4044, 2012), causing hearing loss. However, it remains unknown whether this change in expression is attributable to a cellular process or a systemic effect in the knockout animal. Here, we examined whether manipulation of SMS1 activity affects KCNQ1/KCNE1 currents in individual cells. To this end, we expressed the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel in human embryonic kidney 293T cells and evaluated the effect of SMS1 manipulations on the channel using whole cell recording. Application of tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate, a nonspecific inhibitor of SMSs, significantly reduced current density and altered channel voltage dependence. Knockdown of SMS1 by a short hairpin RNA, however, reduced current density alone. Consistent with this, overexpression of SMS1 increased the current density without changing channel properties. Furthermore, application of protein kinase D inhibitors also suppressed current density without changing channel properties; this effect was nonadditive with that of SMS1 short hairpin RNA. These results suggest that SMS1 positively regulates KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel density in a protein kinase D-dependent manner. PMID:27194473

  12. A DFT study of infrared spectrum of sphingomyelin lipid molecule with calcium cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimori, K.; Kawabe, H.; Nagao, H.; Nishikawa, K.

    One of the phospholipids, sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant component of mammalian membranes in brain and nervous tissues. It plays an important role for apoptosis, aging, and signal transduction with cations. Recently, Yappert and co-workers have shown that human lens sphingomyelin and its hydrogenated derivative, dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM) are interacted with Ca2+ ions to develop human cataracts. In this study, we investigate conformational differences between an isolated SM/DHSM molecule and Ca2+-coordinated form by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) double-zeta split-valence basis set is used for geometry optimization and normal mode analysis. One of resultant conformers of SMs has hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl and phosphate group, whereas another conformer has hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl and amide group. The red shift of calculated vibrational frequencies of amide band due to Ca2+ is compared with experimental infrared spectrum. Finally, we discuss the Ca2+-induced effects from conformational and spectroscopic point of view to compare the experimental results.

  13. Self-consistent mean-field model for palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine-palmitoyl sphingomyelin-cholesterol lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumaneng, Paul W.; Pandit, Sagar A.; Zhao, Guijun; Scott, H. L.

    2011-03-01

    The connection between membrane inhomogeneity and the structural basis of lipid rafts has sparked interest in the lateral organization of model lipid bilayers of two and three components. In an effort to investigate anisotropic lipid distribution in mixed bilayers, a self-consistent mean-field theoretical model is applied to palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)-palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM)-cholesterol mixtures. The compositional dependence of lateral organization in these mixtures is mapped onto a ternary plot. The model utilizes molecular dynamics simulations to estimate interaction parameters and to construct chain conformation libraries. We find that at some concentration ratios the bilayers separate spatially into regions of higher and lower chain order coinciding with areas enriched with PSM and POPC, respectively. To examine the effect of the asymmetric chain structure of POPC on bilayer lateral inhomogeneity, we consider POPC-lipid interactions with and without angular dependence. Results are compared with experimental data and with results from a similar model for mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, steroyl sphingomyelin, and cholesterol.

  14. Increased Oxidative Stress Impairs Adipose Tissue Function in Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Naotaka; Gotoh, Tomomi; Watanabe, Ken; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Garan, Yohei; Taguchi, Ryo; Node, Koichi; Okazaki, Toshiro; Oike, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) catalyzes the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin. Here, we found that SMS1 null mice showed lipodystrophic phenotype. Mutant mice showed up-regulation of plasma triglyceride concentrations accompanied by reduction of white adipose tissue (WAT) as they aged. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was severely reduced in mutant mice. In vivo analysis indicated that fatty acid uptake in WAT but not in liver decreased in SMS1 null compared to wild-type mice. In vitro analysis using cultured cell revealed that SMS1 depletion reduced fatty acid uptake. Proteins extracted from WAT of mutant mice were severely modified by oxidative stress, and up-regulation of mRNAs related to apoptosis, redox adjustment, mitochondrial stress response and mitochondrial biogenesis was observed. ATP content of WAT was reduced in SMS1 null mice. Blue native gel analysis indicated that accumulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was reduced. These results suggest that WAT of SMS1 null mice is severely damaged by oxidative stress and barely functional. Indeed, mutant mice treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) showed partial recovery of lipodystrophic phenotypes together with normalized plasma triglyceride concentrations. Altogether, our data suggest that SMS1 is crucial to control oxidative stress in order to maintain WAT function. PMID:23593476

  15. Increased oxidative stress impairs adipose tissue function in sphingomyelin synthase 1 null mice.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masato; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Nishimura, Naotaka; Gotoh, Tomomi; Watanabe, Ken; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Garan, Yohei; Taguchi, Ryo; Node, Koichi; Okazaki, Toshiro; Oike, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) catalyzes the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin. Here, we found that SMS1 null mice showed lipodystrophic phenotype. Mutant mice showed up-regulation of plasma triglyceride concentrations accompanied by reduction of white adipose tissue (WAT) as they aged. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was severely reduced in mutant mice. In vivo analysis indicated that fatty acid uptake in WAT but not in liver decreased in SMS1 null compared to wild-type mice. In vitro analysis using cultured cell revealed that SMS1 depletion reduced fatty acid uptake. Proteins extracted from WAT of mutant mice were severely modified by oxidative stress, and up-regulation of mRNAs related to apoptosis, redox adjustment, mitochondrial stress response and mitochondrial biogenesis was observed. ATP content of WAT was reduced in SMS1 null mice. Blue native gel analysis indicated that accumulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was reduced. These results suggest that WAT of SMS1 null mice is severely damaged by oxidative stress and barely functional. Indeed, mutant mice treated with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) showed partial recovery of lipodystrophic phenotypes together with normalized plasma triglyceride concentrations. Altogether, our data suggest that SMS1 is crucial to control oxidative stress in order to maintain WAT function. PMID:23593476

  16. Insights into Sphingolipid Miscibility: Separate Observation of Sphingomyelin and Ceramide N-Acyl Chain Melting

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Sherry S.W.; Busto, Jon V.; Keyvanloo, Amir; Goñi, Félix M.; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2012-01-01

    Ceramide produced from sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane is purported to affect signaling through changes in the membrane’s physical properties. Thermal behavior of N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM) and N-palmitoyl ceramide (PCer) mixtures in excess water has been monitored by 2H NMR spectroscopy and compared to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. The alternate use of either perdeuterated or proton-based N-acyl chain PSM and PCer in our 2H NMR studies has allowed the separate observation of gel-fluid transitions in each lipid in the presence of the other one, and this in turn has provided direct information on the lipids’ miscibility over a wide temperature range. The results provide further evidence of the stabilization of the PSM gel state by PCer. Moreover, overlapping NMR and DSC data reveal that the DSC-signals parallel the melting of the major component (PSM) except at intermediate (20 and 30 mol %) fractions of PCer. In such cases, the DSC endotherm reports on the presumably highly cooperative melting of PCer. Up to at least 50 mol % PCer, PSM and PCer mix ideally in the liquid crystalline phase; in the gel phase, PCer becomes incorporated into PSM:PCer membranes with no evidence of pure solid PCer. PMID:23260048

  17. Differential regulation of sphingomyelin synthesis and catabolism in oligodendrocytes and neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kilkus, John P.; Goswami, Rajendra; Dawson, Sylvia A.; Testai, Fernando D.; Berdyshev, Eugeny V.; Han, Xianlin; Dawson, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Neurons (both primary cultures of 3-day rat hippocampal neurons and embryonic chick neurons) rapidly converted exogenous NBD-sphingomyelin (SM) to NBD-Cer but only slowly converted NBD-Cer to NBD-SM. This was confirmed by demonstrating low in vitro sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) and high sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in neurons. Similar results were observed in a human neuroblastoma cell line (LA-N-5). In contrast, primary cultures of 3-day-old rat oligodendrocytes only slowly converted NBD-SM to NBD-Cer but rapidly converted NBD-Cer to NBD-SM. This difference was confirmed by high in vitro SMS and low SMase activity in neonatal rat oligodendrocytes. Similar results were observed in a human oligodendroglioma cell line. Mass-Spectrometric analyses confirmed that neurons had a low SM/Cer ratio of (1.5 : 1) whereas oligodendroglia had a high SM/Cer ratio (9 : 1). Differences were also confirmed by [3H]palmitate-labeling of ceramide, which was higher in neurons compared with oligodendrocytes. Stable transfection of human oligodendroglioma cells with neutral SMase, which enhanced the conversion of NBD-SM to NBD-Cer and increased cell death, whereas transfection with SMS1 or SMS2 enhanced conversion of NBD-Cer to NBD-SM and was somewhat protective against cell death. Thus, SMS rather than SMases may be more important for sphingolipid homeostasis in oligodendrocytes, whereas the reverse may be true for neurons. PMID:18489714

  18. Detection of lipid phase coexistence and lipid interactions in sphingomyelin/cholesterol membranes by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Quaroni, Luca

    2008-04-01

    The phase behavior of binary mixtures of egg sphingomyelin and cholesterol has been inspected by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in the amide I' band region of the spectrum. Because cholesterol does not have any major absorption bands in this region, effects seen in the spectra of mixtures of sphingomyelin and cholesterol can be attributed to the change in the lipid phase and to the interaction with cholesterol. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the overall bandwidth of the amide I' band displays a phase-specific behavior. In addition, it is observed that the amide I' band for a sample exhibiting phase coexistence can be described by a linear combination of the spectra of the individual lipid phases. Description of changes in the amide I' band shape and by that the study of possible hydrogen bonding interactions of sphingomyelin with cholesterol was assisted by the use of curve fitting. It turns out that the presence of hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of cholesterol and carbonyl group of sphingomyelin is obscured by the complexity of different possible hydrogen bonding and coupling between the N-H (N-D) and the CO group vibrations. PMID:18191633

  19. Interaction between sphingomyelin and oxysterols contributes to atherosclerosis and sudden death

    PubMed Central

    Kummerow, Fred A

    2013-01-01

    Despite major public health efforts, coronary heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the United States. Oxidized lipids contribute to heart disease both by increasing deposition of calcium on the arterial wall, a major hallmark of atherosclerosis, and by interrupting blood flow, a major contributor to heart attack and sudden death. Oxidized cholesterol (oxysterols) enhances the production of sphingomyelin, a phospholipid found in the cellular membranes of the coronary artery. This increases the sphingomyelin content in the cell membrane, which in turn enhances the interaction between the membrane and ionic calcium (Ca2+), thereby increasing the risk of arterial calcification. Patients undergoing bypass surgery had greater concentrations of oxysterols in their plasma than cardiac catheterized controls with no stenosis, and had five times more sphingomyelin in their arteries than in the artery of the placenta of a newborn. The oxysterols found in the plasma of these patients were also found in the plasma of rabbits that had been fed oxidized cholesterol and in frying fats and powdered egg yolk intended for human consumption. Together these findings suggest that oxysterols found in the diet are absorbed and contribute to arterial calcification. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) further contributes to heart disease by increasing the synthesis of thromboxane in platelets, which increases blood clotting. Cigarette smoke and trans fatty acids, found in partially hydrogenated soybean oil, both inhibit the synthesis of prostacyclin, which inhibits blood clotting. By increasing the ratio of thromboxane to prostacyclin, these factors interact to interrupt blood flow, thereby contributing to heart attack and sudden death. Levels of oxysterols and OxLDL increase primarily as a result of three diet or lifestyle factors: the consumption of oxysterols from commercially fried foods such as fried chicken, fish, and french fries; oxidation of cholesterol

  20. Analysis of Molecular Species Profiles of Ceramide-1-phosphate and Sphingomyelin Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ryouhei; Tabata, Yumika; Iga, Erina; Nakao, Michiyasu; Sano, Shigeki; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-02-01

    Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) is a potential signaling molecule that modulates various cellular functions in animals. It has been known that C1P with different N-acyl lengths induce biological responses differently. However, molecular species profiles of the C1P in animal tissues have not been extensively examined yet. Here, we developed a method for determination of the molecular species of a C1P using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with Phos-tag, a phosphate capture molecule. The amounts of total C1P in skin, brain, liver, kidney and small intestine of mice were determined to be 344, 151, 198, 96 and 90 pmol/g wet weight, respectively. We found a C1P species having an α-hydroxypalmitoyl residue (h-C1P, 44 pmol/g wet weight) in mouse skin. The h-C1P was detected only in the skin, and not other tissues of mice. The same analysis was applied to sphingomyelin after conversion of sphingomyelin to C1P by Streptomyces chromofuscus phospholipase D. We found that molecular species profiles of sphingomyelin in skin, kidney and small intestine of mice were similar to those of C1P in corresponding tissues. In contrast, molecular species profiles of sphingomyelin in liver and brain were quite different from those of C1P in these tissues, indicating selective synthesis or degradation of C1P in these tissues. The method described here will be useful for detection of changes in molecular species profiles of C1P and sphingomyelin. PMID:26694604

  1. Sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease) in a juvenile raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Vapniarsky, N; Wenger, D A; Scheenstra, D; Mete, A

    2013-01-01

    A wild caught juvenile male raccoon with neurological disease was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Necropsy examination revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and multicentric lymphadenomegaly with diffuse hepatic pallor and pulmonary consolidation with pinpoint pale subpleural foci. Microscopically, there was marked pale cytoplasmic swelling of the central and peripheral neurons as well as the glial cells in the brain, accompanied by multiorgan infiltration by abundant foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural investigation revealed accumulation of concentrically arranged lamellar material within lysosomes of the affected neurons, macrophages and endothelial cells. Biochemical enzymatic analysis detected sphingomyelinase deficiency and lysosomal storage disease consistent with sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease [NPD]) was diagnosed. This is the first report of NPD in a raccoon. PMID:23582974

  2. Phospholipase D toxins of brown spider venom convert lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin to cyclic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Daniel M; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Kumirov, Vlad K; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2013-01-01

    Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Using (31)P NMR and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that recombinant toxins, as well as whole venoms from diverse Loxosceles species, exclusively catalyze transphosphatidylation rather than hydrolysis, forming cyclic phosphate products from both major substrates. Cyclic phosphates have vastly different biological properties from their monoester counterparts, and they may be relevant to the pathology of brown spider envenomation. PMID:24009677

  3. Improved sensitivity of an acid sphingomyelinase activity assay using a C6:0 sphingomyelin substrate.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wei-Lien; Pacheco, Joshua; Cooper, Samantha; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Hinds, John; Wolf, Pavlina; Oliva, Petra; Keutzer, Joan; Cox, Gerald F; Zhang, Kate

    2015-06-01

    Short-chain C6-sphingomyelin is an artificial substrate that was used in an acid sphingomyelinase activity assay for a pilot screening study of patients with Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. Using previously published multiplex and single assay conditions, normal acid sphingomyelinase activity levels (i.e. false negative results) were observed in two sisters with Niemann-Pick B who were compound heterozygotes for two missense mutations, p.C92W and p.P184L, in the SMPD1 gene. Increasing the sodium taurocholate detergent concentration in the assay buffer lowered the activity levels of these two patients into the range observed with other patients with clear separation from normal controls. PMID:26937397

  4. Improved sensitivity of an acid sphingomyelinase activity assay using a C6:0 sphingomyelin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Wei-Lien; Pacheco, Joshua; Cooper, Samantha; Kingsbury, Jonathan S.; Hinds, John; Wolf, Pavlina; Oliva, Petra; Keutzer, Joan; Cox, Gerald F.; Zhang, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain C6-sphingomyelin is an artificial substrate that was used in an acid sphingomyelinase activity assay for a pilot screening study of patients with Niemann–Pick disease types A and B. Using previously published multiplex and single assay conditions, normal acid sphingomyelinase activity levels (i.e. false negative results) were observed in two sisters with Niemann–Pick B who were compound heterozygotes for two missense mutations, p.C92W and p.P184L, in the SMPD1 gene. Increasing the sodium taurocholate detergent concentration in the assay buffer lowered the activity levels of these two patients into the range observed with other patients with clear separation from normal controls. PMID:26937397

  5. Pore-forming toxins: Properties, diversity, and uses as tools to image sphingomyelin and ceramide phosphoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Yamaji-Hasegawa, Akiko; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Greimel, Peter; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-03-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) represent a unique class of highly specific lipid-binding proteins. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been overcome through crystallographic structure and mutation studies, facilitating the development of non-toxic lipid probes. As a consequence, non-toxic PFTs have been utilized as highly specific probes to visualize the diversity and dynamics of lipid nanostructures in living and fixed cells. This review is focused on the application of PFTs and their non-toxic analogs as tools to visualize sphingomyelin and ceramide phosphoethanolamine, two major phosphosphingolipids in mammalian and insect cells, respectively. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. PMID:26498396

  6. Phospholipase D Toxins of Brown Spider Venom Convert Lysophosphatidylcholine and Sphingomyelin to Cyclic Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Kumirov, Vlad K.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Venoms of brown spiders in the genus Loxosceles contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These toxins cleave the substrates sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, releasing the choline head group. The other products of substrate cleavage have previously been reported to be monoester phospholipids, which would result from substrate hydrolysis. Using 31P NMR and mass spectrometry we demonstrate that recombinant toxins, as well as whole venoms from diverse Loxosceles species, exclusively catalyze transphosphatidylation rather than hydrolysis, forming cyclic phosphate products from both major substrates. Cyclic phosphates have vastly different biological properties from their monoester counterparts, and they may be relevant to the pathology of brown spider envenomation. PMID:24009677

  7. [Sphingomyelin synthase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerosis and inhibits inflammation in mice].

    PubMed

    Qin, Rui; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhu, Ke; Deng, Jin-Bo; Shi, Yuan-Yuan

    2010-08-25

    Plasma sphingomyelin (SM) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) contributes to de novo SM biosynthesis and plasma membrane SM levels. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vivo role of SMS2 deficiency in serum SM metabolism and atherosclerosis (AS) development. We used male SMS2 knockout (SMS2(-/-)) and C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) mice as experimental and control groups, respectively. Each group was fed high-fat diet (1% cholesterol, 20% leaf fat), as well as bile salt for accelerating the atherosclerotic formation. After three months of feeding, the mice were killed to observe aortic arches and oil red-stained longitudinal sections of thoracoabdominal aortae. Fasting blood samples were taken from the tail vein before and after high-fat diet, and the serum lipid and SM levels were measured by using kits and enzymatic method respectively. Western blot was used to analyze the contents of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) p65 subunit in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after high-fat diet. The results showed that after high-fat diet, SMS2(-/-) mice presented decreased atherosclerotic lesions in aortic arch and thoracoabdominal aorta compared with WT mice. Regardless of whether high-fat diet were given or not, SMS2(-/-) mice showed a significant decrease in serum SM level (P<0.05), but no significant changes in serum lipid levels, compared with WT mice. The expressions of NFkappaB p65 were attenuated in macrophages from SMS2(-/-) mice in response to LPS stimulation compared with those of the WT mice. These results suggest that SMS2 deficiency decreases AS and inhibits inflammation in mice. Thus, SMS2 deficiency may be a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:20717634

  8. Altered levels of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins in peritoneal fluid from ovarian endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vouk, Katja; Ribič-Pucelj, Martina; Adamski, Jerzy; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2016-05-01

    Endometriosis is a complex, polygenic, and estrogen-dependent disease that affects 6% to 10% of women of reproductive age, and 30% to 50% of women with infertility and/or pelvic pain. Surgical diagnosis of endometriosis is still the gold standard, as there are currently no diagnostic biomarkers available. Due to the invasive diagnostics, it can take up to 11 years before affected women are diagnosed and receive the appropriate treatment. We performed a targeted metabolomics study to search for potential semi-invasive biomarkers in peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients. Our case-control study comprised 29 ovarian endometriosis patients and 36 healthy control women. The 148 metabolites included acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, which were quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The strength of association between the metabolites and the metabolite ratios and disease was assessed using crude and adjusted odds ratios. The best combination of biomarkers was then selected by performing step-wise logistic regression. Our analysis reveals significantly decreased concentrations of 10 metabolites, of carnitine and acylcarnitines (C0, C8:1, C6C4:1 DC, C10:1), phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C38:3, PC aa C38:4, PC aa C40:4, PC aa C40:5), and sphingomyelins (SM C16:1, SM C18:1), and 125 significantly altered metabolite ratios in patients versus control women. The best model includes two ratios: a carnitine to a phosphatidylcholine (C0/PC ae C36:0); and between two phosphatidylcholines (PC aa C30:0/PC ae C32:2). When adjusted for age, this provides sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 94.4%, with AUC of 0.944. Our study supports the importance of carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin metabolites in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and confirms the potential for the combination of individual metabolite ratios to provide biomarkers for semi-invasive diagnostics. PMID:26921767

  9. Isolated guinea pig gastric chief cells express tumour necrosis factor receptors coupled with the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, S; Santucci, L; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Amorosi, A; Mancini, A; Roberti, R; Morelli, A

    1996-01-01

    The tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis. Both conditions are characterised by high plasma pepsinogen concentrations, which are thought to reflect an increased rate of enzyme release by the pepsinogen secreting (chief) cells. The mechanisms responsible for this cell dysfunction are unknown. This study investigates whether chief cells express TNF receptors and, if so, whether their activation results in cell death. Immunohistochemical studies conducted with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two TNF receptor associated proteins of 55 kDa (TNF-R1) and 75 kDa (TNF-R2) showed that TNF binding sites were expressed in approximately 100% gastric chief cells. Western blot analysis of whole chief cell lysates probed with the TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 mAbs gave two distinct bands of 55 and 75 kDa in the immunoprecipitate. Incubating chief cells with TNF caused concentration and time dependent cell death, which was prevented by pretreating the cells with anti-TNF receptor mAbs. Exposing the cells to TNF reduced sphingomyelin content by 25%. Sphingomyelinase (10(-6) to 10(-2) IU/ml) mimicked the effect of TNF in that it provoked a concentration and time dependent reduction in chief cell viability and increased pepsinogen release. In conclusion, gastric chief cells express two TNF receptors partially linked to the sphingomyelin pathway. TNF induced chief cell dysfunction might be responsible for the high plasma pepsinogen concentrations seen in patients with NSAID gastropathy or H pylori induced gastritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801194

  10. The Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on Sphingomyelin/Colipid Interactions in Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomokazu; Al Sazzad, Md Abdullah; Jäntti, Niklas Z; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Slotte, J Peter

    2016-01-19

    The phospholipid acyl chain composition and order, the hydrogen bonding, and properties of the phospholipid headgroup all influence cholesterol/phospholipid interactions in hydrated bilayers. In this study, we examined the influence of hydrogen bonding on sphingomyelin (SM) colipid interactions in fluid uni- and multilamellar vesicles. We have compared the properties of oleoyl or palmitoyl SM with comparable dihydro-SMs, because the hydrogen bonding properties of SM and dihydro-SM differ. The association of cholestatrienol, a fluorescent cholesterol analog, with oleoyl sphingomyelin (OSM) was significantly stronger than its association with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, in bilayers with equal acyl chain order. The association of cholestatrienol with dihydro-OSM, which lacks a trans double bond in the sphingoid base, was even stronger than the association with OSM, suggesting an important role for hydrogen bonding in stabilizing sterol/SM interactions. Furthermore, with saturated SM in the presence of 15 mol % cholesterol, cholesterol association with fluid dihydro-palmitoyl SM bilayers was stronger than seen with palmitoyl SM under similar conditions. The different hydrogen bonding properties in OSM and dihydro-OSM bilayers also influenced the segregation of palmitoyl ceramide and dipalmitoylglycerol into an ordered phase. The ordered, palmitoyl ceramide-rich phase started to form above 2 mol % in the dihydro-OSM bilayers but only above 6 mol % in the OSM bilayers. The lateral segregation of dipalmitoylglycerol was also much more pronounced in dihydro-OSM bilayers than in OSM bilayers. The results show that hydrogen bonding is important for sterol/SM and ceramide/SM interactions, as well as for the lateral segregation of a diglyceride. A possible molecular explanation for the different hydrogen bonding in SM and dihydro-SM bilayers is presented and discussed. PMID:26789766

  11. Resistance to alkyl-lysophospholipid-induced apoptosis due to downregulated sphingomyelin synthase 1 expression with consequent sphingomyelin- and cholesterol-deficiency in lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Van der Luit, Arnold H.; Budde, Marianne; Zerp, Shuraila; Caan, Wendy; Klarenbeek, Jeffrey B.; Verheij, Marcel; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    The ALP (alkyl-lysophospholipid) edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine; Et-18-OCH3) induces apoptosis in S49 mouse lymphoma cells. To this end, ALP is internalized by lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and inhibits phosphatidylcholine synthesis. A variant cell-line, S49AR, which is resistant to ALP, was shown previously to be unable to internalize ALP via this lipid raft pathway. The reason for this uptake failure is not understood. In the present study, we show that S49AR cells are unable to synthesize SM (sphingomyelin) due to down-regulated SMS1 (SM synthase 1) expression. In parental S49 cells, resistance to ALP could be mimicked by small interfering RNA-induced SMS1 suppression, resulting in SM deficiency and blockage of raft-dependent internalization of ALP and induction of apoptosis. Similar results were obtained by treatment of the cells with myriocin/ISP-1, an inhibitor of general sphingolipid synthesis, or with U18666A, a cholesterol homoeostasis perturbing agent. U18666A is known to inhibit Niemann–Pick C1 protein-dependent vesicular transport of cholesterol from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane. U18666A reduced cholesterol partitioning in detergent-resistant lipid rafts and inhibited SM synthesis in S49 cells, causing ALP resistance similar to that observed in S49AR cells. The results are explained by the strong physical interaction between (newly synthesized) SM and available cholesterol at the Golgi, where they facilitate lipid raft formation. We propose that ALP internalization by lipid-raft-dependent endocytosis represents the retrograde route of a constitutive SMS1- and lipid-raft-dependent membrane vesicular recycling process. PMID:17049047

  12. Directed evolution of a sphingomyelin flippase reveals mechanism of substrate backbone discrimination by a P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Roland, Bartholomew P; Graham, Todd R

    2016-08-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPases) family establish membrane asymmetry and play critical roles in vesicular transport, cell polarity, signal transduction, and neurologic development. All characterized P4-ATPases flip glycerophospholipids across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of the membrane, but how these enzymes distinguish glycerophospholipids from sphingolipids is not known. We used a directed evolution approach to examine the molecular mechanisms through which P4-ATPases discriminate substrate backbone. A mutagenesis screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified several gain-of-function mutations in the P4-ATPase Dnf1 that facilitate the transport of a novel lipid substrate, sphingomyelin. We found that a highly conserved asparagine (N220) in the first transmembrane segment is a key enforcer of glycerophospholipid selection, and specific substitutions at this site allow transport of sphingomyelin. PMID:27432949

  13. Ceramide 1-phosphate, a novel phospholipid in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. Synthesis via ceramide from sphingomyelin

    SciTech Connect

    Dressler, K.A.; Kolesnick, R.N. )

    1990-09-05

    Prior studies demonstrated that conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide via sphingomyelinase action resulted in the generation of free sphingoid bases and inactivation of protein kinase C in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. The present studies define the novel phospholipid ceramide 1-phosphate in these cells and present evidence for formation of this compound by preferential utilization of ceramide derived from spingomyelin. A ceramide 1-phosphate standard, prepared enzymatically via diacylglycerol kinase, was utilized for localization. In cells labeled to equilibrium with 32Pi to label the head group of the molecule, the basal ceramide 1-phosphate level was 30 +/- 2 pmol/10(6) cells. Generation of ceramide via the use of exogenous sphingomyelinase resulted in time- and concentration-dependent formation of ceramide 1-phosphate. As little as 3.8 x 10(-5) units/ml was effective and a 3-fold increase was observed with a maximal concentration of 3.8 x 10(-2) units/ml; ED50 approximately 2 x 10(-4) units/ml. This effect was observed by 5 min and maximal at 30 min. Similarly, in cells labeled with (3H)serine to probe the sphingoid base backbone, the basal level of ceramide 1-phosphate was 39 +/- 5 pmol/10(6) and increased 2.5-fold with sphingomyelinase; ED 50 approximately 5 x 10(-5) units/ml. To determine the source of the phosphate moiety, studies were performed with cells short term labeled with 32Pi and resuspended in medium without radiolabel. Under these conditions, sphingomyelin was virtually unlabeled. Nevertheless, sphingomyelin (3.8 x 10(-2) units/ml) induced a 12-fold increase in radiolabel incorporation, suggesting ceramide 1-phosphate formation occurred via ceramide phosphorylation. This event appeared specific for ceramide derived from sphingomyelin since ceramide from glycosphingolipids was not converted to ceramide 1-phosphate.

  14. CHARMM All-Atom Additive Force Field for Sphingomyelin: Elucidation of Hydrogen Bonding and of Positive Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Venable, Richard M.; Sodt, Alexander J.; Rogaski, Brent; Rui, Huan; Hatcher, Elizabeth; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Pastor, Richard W.; Klauda, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01

    The C36 CHARMM lipid force field has been extended to include sphingolipids, via a combination of high-level quantum mechanical calculations on small molecule fragments, and validation by extensive molecular dynamics simulations on N-palmitoyl and N-stearoyl sphingomyelin. NMR data on these two molecules from several studies in bilayers and micelles played a strong role in the development and testing of the force field parameters. Most previous force fields for sphingomyelins were developed before the availability of the detailed NMR data and relied on x-ray diffraction of bilayers alone for the validation; these are shown to be too dense in the bilayer plane based on published chain order parameter data from simulations and experiments. The present simulations reveal O-H:::O-P intralipid hydrogen bonding occurs 99% of the time, and interlipid N-H:::O=C (26-29%, depending on the lipid) and N-H:::O-H (17–19%). The interlipid hydrogen bonds are long lived, showing decay times of 50 ns, and forming strings of lipids, and leading to reorientational correlation time of nearly 100 ns. The spontaneous radius of curvature for pure N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin bilayers is estimated to be 43–100 Å, depending on the assumptions made in assigning a bending constant; this unusual positive curvature for a two-tailed neutral lipid is likely associated with hydrogen bond networks involving the NH of the sphingosine group. PMID:24988348

  15. Inhibition of sphingomyelin synthase 1 affects ceramide accumulation and hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ranran; Yang, Wei; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in brain injury after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, which contributes toward excessive apoptosis of nerve cells. Therefore, it would be beneficial to identify a therapy that could interfere with the progression of apoptosis and protect the brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury. As ceramide, a well-known second messenger of apoptosis, can be metabolized by sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1), recent research has focused on the link between SMS1 and apoptosis in different cells. To investigate whether SMS1 is involved in the process of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neurons and to explore the possible underlying mechanism, we treated mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2A (N2a) cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Incubation with H2O2 significantly upregulated the expression of SMS1, increased the intracellular levels of ceramide and sphingomyelin synthase activity, and induced apoptosis. Moreover, pretreatment of N2a cells with D609, an sphingomyelin synthase inhibitor, or SMS1-silencing RNA (siRNA) further increased ceramide and potentiated H2O2-induced apoptosis which could be reversed by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). Thus, our study has shown that SMS1 regulates ceramide levels in N2a cells and plays a potent protective role in this oxidative stress-induced apoptosis partly through the p38 pathway. PMID:27391427

  16. Detailed comparison of deuterium quadrupole profiles between sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomokazu; Kinoshita, Masanao; Murata, Michio; Matsumori, Nobuaki

    2014-02-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains rich in sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). The essential question is why natural lipid rafts prefer SM rather than saturated diacyl glycerophosphocholine, although both form ordered membranes with Chol in model systems. Hence in this study, we synthesized site-specifically deuterated 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines that match the acyl chain length of stearoyl-SM (SSM), and compared their deuterium quadrupole coupling profiles in detail. The results suggest a deeper distribution of Chol in the SSM membranes, a lower entropic penalty upon accommodation of Chol in SSM membranes, and a higher thermal stability of acyl-chain orders in the SSM-Chol bilayers than in the 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-Chol system at various Chol concentrations. The entropy effect and thermal stability should render SM a more preferred raft constituent than saturated diacyl glycerophosphocholine. Our data also demonstrate that the selective and comprehensive deuteration strategy is indispensable for accurate comparison of order profiles. PMID:24507603

  17. Endogenous sphingomyelin segregates into submicrometric domains in the living erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Carquin, Mélanie; Pollet, Hélène; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Cominelli, Antoine; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'kuli, Francisca; Emonard, Hervé; Henriet, Patrick; Mizuno, Hideaki; Courtoy, Pierre J; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2014-07-01

    We recently reported that trace insertion of exogenous fluorescent (green BODIPY) analogs of sphingomyelin (SM) into living red blood cells (RBCs), partially spread onto coverslips, labels submicrometric domains, visible by confocal microscopy. We here extend this feature to endogenous SM, upon binding of a SM-specific nontoxic (NT) fragment of the earthworm toxin, lysenin, fused to the red monomeric fluorescent protein, mCherry [construct named His-mCherry-NT-lysenin (lysenin*)]. Specificity of lysenin* binding was verified with composition-defined liposomes and by loss of (125)I-lysenin* binding to erythrocytes upon SM depletion by SMase. The (125)I-lysenin* binding isotherm indicated saturation at 3.5 × 10(6) molecules/RBC, i.e., ∼3% of SM coverage. Nonsaturating lysenin* concentration also labeled sub-micrometric domains on the plasma membrane of partially spread erythrocytes, colocalizing with inserted green BODIPY-SM, and abrogated by SMase. Lysenin*-labeled domains were stable in time and space and were regulated by temperature and cholesterol. The abundance, size, positioning, and segregation of lysenin*-labeled domains from other lipids (BODIPY-phosphatidylcholine or -glycosphingolipids) depended on membrane tension. Similar lysenin*-labeled domains were evidenced in RBCs gently suspended in 3D-gel. Taken together, these data demonstrate submicrometric compartmentation of endogenous SM at the membrane of a living cell in vitro, and suggest it may be a genuine feature of erythrocytes in vivo. PMID:24826836

  18. Endogenous sphingomyelin segregates into submicrometric domains in the living erythrocyte membrane[S

    PubMed Central

    Carquin, Mélanie; Pollet, Hélène; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Cominelli, Antoine; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N’kuli, Francisca; Emonard, Hervé; Henriet, Patrick; Mizuno, Hideaki; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that trace insertion of exogenous fluorescent (green BODIPY) analogs of sphingomyelin (SM) into living red blood cells (RBCs), partially spread onto coverslips, labels submicrometric domains, visible by confocal microscopy. We here extend this feature to endogenous SM, upon binding of a SM-specific nontoxic (NT) fragment of the earthworm toxin, lysenin, fused to the red monomeric fluorescent protein, mCherry [construct named His-mCherry-NT-lysenin (lysenin*)]. Specificity of lysenin* binding was verified with composition-defined liposomes and by loss of 125I-lysenin* binding to erythrocytes upon SM depletion by SMase. The 125I-lysenin* binding isotherm indicated saturation at 3.5 × 106 molecules/RBC, i.e., ∼3% of SM coverage. Nonsaturating lysenin* concentration also labeled sub­micrometric domains on the plasma membrane of partially spread erythrocytes, colocalizing with inserted green BODIPY-SM, and abrogated by SMase. Lysenin*-labeled domains were stable in time and space and were regulated by temperature and cholesterol. The abundance, size, positioning, and segregation of lysenin*-labeled domains from other lipids (BODIPY-phosphatidylcholine or -glycosphingolipids) depended on membrane tension. Similar lysenin*-labeled domains were evidenced in RBCs gently suspended in 3D-gel. Taken together, these data demonstrate submicrometric compartmentation of endogenous SM at the membrane of a living cell in vitro, and suggest it may be a genuine feature of erythrocytes in vivo. PMID:24826836

  19. Sphingomyelin distribution in lipid rafts of artificial monolayer membranes visualized by Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ando, Jun; Kinoshita, Masanao; Cui, Jin; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Fujita, Katsumasa; Murata, Michio; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2015-04-14

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (chol)-rich domains in cell membranes, called lipid rafts, are thought to have important biological functions related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking. To visualize the distribution of SM in lipid rafts by means of Raman microscopy, we designed and synthesized an SM analog tagged with a Raman-active diyne moiety (diyne-SM). Diyne-SM showed a strong peak in a Raman silent region that is free of interference from intrinsic vibrational modes of lipids and did not appear to alter the properties of SM-containing monolayers. Therefore, we used Raman microscopy to directly visualize the distribution of diyne-SM in raft-mimicking domains formed in SM/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/chol ternary monolayers. Raman images visualized a heterogeneous distribution of diyne-SM, which showed marked variation, even within a single ordered domain. Specifically, diyne-SM was enriched in the central area of raft domains compared with the peripheral area. These results seem incompatible with the generally accepted raft model, in which the raft and nonraft phases show a clear biphasic separation. One of the possible reasons is that gradual changes of SM concentration occur between SM-rich and -poor regions to minimize hydrophobic mismatch. We believe that our technique of hyperspectral Raman imaging of a single lipid monolayer opens the door to quantitative analysis of lipid membranes by providing both chemical information and spatial distribution with high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution. PMID:25825736

  20. Switching head group selectivity in mammalian sphingolipid biosynthesis by active-site engineering of sphingomyelin synthases.

    PubMed

    Kol, Matthijs; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Nordmann, Mirjana; Swart, Leoni; van Suijlekom, Leonie; Cabukusta, Birol; Hilderink, Angelika; Grabietz, Tanja; Mina, John G M; Somerharju, Pentti; Korneev, Sergei; Tafesse, Fikadu G; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2016-07-01

    SM is a fundamental component of mammalian cell membranes that contributes to mechanical stability, signaling, and sorting. Its production involves the transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide, a reaction catalyzed by SM synthase (SMS) 1 in the Golgi and SMS2 at the plasma membrane. Mammalian cells also synthesize trace amounts of the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE), but the physiological relevance of CPE production is unclear. Previous work revealed that SMS2 is a bifunctional enzyme producing both SM and CPE, whereas a closely related enzyme, sphingomyelin synthase-related protein (SMSr)/SAMD8, acts as a monofunctional CPE synthase in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Using domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis on enzymes expressed in defined lipid environments, we here identified structural determinants that mediate head group selectivity of SMS family members. Notably, a single residue adjacent to the catalytic histidine in the third exoplasmic loop profoundly influenced enzyme specificity, with glutamic acid permitting SMS-catalyzed CPE production and aspartic acid confining the enzyme to produce SM. An exchange of exoplasmic residues with SMSr proved sufficient to convert SMS1 into a bulk CPE synthase. This allowed us to establish mammalian cells that produce CPE rather than SM as the principal phosphosphingolipid and provide a model of the molecular interactions that impart catalytic specificity among SMS enzymes. PMID:27165857

  1. Sphingomyelin is sorted at the trans Golgi network into a distinct class of secretory vesicle.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongqiang; Rivera-Molina, Felix E; Toomre, Derek K; Burd, Christopher G

    2016-06-14

    One of the principal functions of the trans Golgi network (TGN) is the sorting of proteins into distinct vesicular transport carriers that mediate secretion and interorganelle trafficking. Are lipids also sorted into distinct TGN-derived carriers? The Golgi is the principal site of the synthesis of sphingomyelin (SM), an abundant sphingolipid that is transported. To address the specificity of SM transport to the plasma membrane, we engineered a natural SM-binding pore-forming toxin, equinatoxin II (Eqt), into a nontoxic reporter termed Eqt-SM and used it to monitor intracellular trafficking of SM. Using quantitative live cell imaging, we found that Eqt-SM is enriched in a subset of TGN-derived secretory vesicles that are also enriched in a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. In contrast, an integral membrane secretory protein (CD8α) is not enriched in these carriers. Our results demonstrate the sorting of native SM at the TGN and its transport to the plasma membrane by specific carriers. PMID:27247384

  2. Interdigitation of long-chain sphingomyelin induces coupling of membrane leaflets in a cholesterol dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Róg, Tomasz; Orłowski, Adam; Llorente, Alicia; Skotland, Tore; Sylvänne, Tuulia; Kauhanen, Dimple; Ekroos, Kim; Sandvig, Kirsten; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-02-01

    It has been a long-standing question how the two leaflets in a lipid bilayer modulate each others' physical properties. In this paper, we discuss how this interaction may take place through interdigitation. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to consider asymmetric lipid membrane models whose compositions are based on the lipidomics data determined for exosomes released by PC-3 prostate cancer cells. The simulations show interdigitation to be exceptionally strong for long-chain sphingomyelin (SM) molecules. In asymmetric membranes the amide-linked chain of SM is observed to extend deep into the opposing membrane leaflet. Interestingly, we find that the conformational order of the amide-linked SM chain increases the deeper it penetrates to the opposing leaflet. Analysis of this finding reveals that the amide-linked SM chain interacts favorably with the lipid chains in the opposite leaflet, and that cholesterol modulates the effect of SM interdigitation by influencing the conformational order of lipid hydrocarbon chains in the opposing (cytosolic) leaflet. PMID:26654782

  3. Sphingomyelin distribution in lipid rafts of artificial monolayer membranes visualized by Raman microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Jun; Kinoshita, Masanao; Cui, Jin; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Fujita, Katsumasa; Murata, Michio; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (chol)-rich domains in cell membranes, called lipid rafts, are thought to have important biological functions related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking. To visualize the distribution of SM in lipid rafts by means of Raman microscopy, we designed and synthesized an SM analog tagged with a Raman-active diyne moiety (diyne-SM). Diyne-SM showed a strong peak in a Raman silent region that is free of interference from intrinsic vibrational modes of lipids and did not appear to alter the properties of SM-containing monolayers. Therefore, we used Raman microscopy to directly visualize the distribution of diyne-SM in raft-mimicking domains formed in SM/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/chol ternary monolayers. Raman images visualized a heterogeneous distribution of diyne-SM, which showed marked variation, even within a single ordered domain. Specifically, diyne-SM was enriched in the central area of raft domains compared with the peripheral area. These results seem incompatible with the generally accepted raft model, in which the raft and nonraft phases show a clear biphasic separation. One of the possible reasons is that gradual changes of SM concentration occur between SM-rich and -poor regions to minimize hydrophobic mismatch. We believe that our technique of hyperspectral Raman imaging of a single lipid monolayer opens the door to quantitative analysis of lipid membranes by providing both chemical information and spatial distribution with high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution. PMID:25825736

  4. Modulation of lipoprotein metabolism by inhibition of sphingomyelin synthesis in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Sik; Panek, Robert L; Rekhter, Mark D; Mueller, Sandra Bak; Rosebury, Wendy S; Robertson, Andrew; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Kindt, Erick; Homan, Reynold; Karathanasis, Sotirios K

    2006-12-01

    Plasma sphingomyelin (SM) has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of cholesterol levels. A decrease of SM in lipoproteins is known to improve the activities of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro. Inhibition of SM biosynthesis may reduce lipoprotein SM content and thus improve cholesterol distribution in lipoproteins by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport and clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. To examine this hypothesis, ApoE KO mice were fed a western diet and treated for 4 weeks with various concentrations of myriocin, a specific inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase. Myriocin treatment lowered plasma cholesterol and TG levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, myriocin treatment reduced cholesterol contents in VLDL and LDL and elevated HDL-cholesterol. Observed lipid-lowering effects of myriocin were associated with suppression of HMG CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase via reduced levels of SREBP-1 RNA and protein. Induction of apoAI and lecithin:cholesterol acytransferase (LCAT) in the liver by myriocin was associated with an increased HDL. Lesion area and macrophage area were also diminished in the cuffed femoral artery of ApoE KO mice. In conclusion, inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis can be a novel therapeutic target for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:16458317

  5. Endocytosis and intracellular processing of BODIPY-sphingomyelin by murine CATH.a neurons☆

    PubMed Central

    Nusshold, Christoph; Uellen, Andreas; Bernhart, Eva; Hammer, Astrid; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea; Reicher, Helga; Hermetter, Albin; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal sphingolipids (SL) play important roles during axonal extension, neurotrophic receptor signaling and neurotransmitter release. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the presence of specialized membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts. Sphingomyelin (SM), one of the main raft constituents, can be formed de novo or supplied from exogenous sources. The present study aimed to characterize fluorescently-labeled SL turnover in a murine neuronal cell line (CATH.a). Our results demonstrate that at 4 °C exogenously added BODIPY-SM accumulates exclusively at the plasma membrane. Treatment of cells with bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) and back-exchange experiments revealed that 55–67% of BODIPY-SM resides in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis of BODIPY-SM occurs via caveolae with part of internalized BODIPY-fluorescence ending up in the Golgi and the ER. Following endocytosis BODIPY-SM undergoes hydrolysis, a reaction substantially faster than BODIPY-SM synthesis from BODIPY-ceramide. RNAi demonstrated that both, acid (a)SMase and neutral (n)SMases contribute to BODIPY-SM hydrolysis. Finally, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated BODIPY-SM was efficiently taken up by CATH.a cells. Our findings indicate that endocytosis of exogenous SM occurs almost exclusively via caveolin-dependent pathways, that both, a- and nSMases equally contribute to neuronal SM turnover and that HDL-like particles might represent physiological SM carriers/donors in the brain. PMID:23973266

  6. An enzyme combination assay for serum sphingomyelin: Improved specificity through avoiding the interference with lysophosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takehide; Kuwata, Hideyuki; Miyauchi, Kazuhito; Katayama, Yuki; Kayahara, Norihiko; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Kazumi; Kondo, Yuki; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Irie, Tetsumi

    2016-04-01

    Serum sphingomyelin (SM) has predictive value in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SM plays important roles in cell membrane structure, signal transduction pathways, and lipid raft formation. A convenient enzymatic method for SM is available for routine laboratory practice, but the enzyme specificity is not sufficient because of nonspecific reactions with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Based on the differential specificity of selected enzymes toward choline-containing phospholipids, a two-step assay for measuring SM was constructed and its performance was evaluated using sera from healthy individuals on a Hitachi 7170 autoanalyzer. Results from this assay were highly correlated with theoretical serum SM concentrations estimated by subtracting phosphatidylcholine (PC) and LPC concentrations from that of total phospholipids determined using previously established methods. There was a good correlation between the results of SM assayed by the proposed method and the existing enzymatic method in sera from healthy individuals. Moreover, the proposed method was superior to the existing method in preventing nonspecific reactions with LPC present in sera. The proposed method does not require any pretreatment, uses 2.5 μl of serum samples, and requires only 10 min on an autoanalyzer. This high-throughput method can measure serum SM with sufficient specificity for clinical purposes and is applicable in routine laboratory practice. PMID:26792376

  7. Sticholysin I-membrane interaction: an interplay between the presence of sphingomyelin and membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, Lohans; Fanani, Maria Laura; Ros, Uris; Lanio, María E; Maggio, Bruno; Alvarez, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Sticholysin I (St I) is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) produced by the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus belonging to the actinoporin protein family, a unique class of eukaryotic PFT exclusively found in sea anemones. As for actinoporins, it has been proposed that the presence of sphingomyelin (SM) and the coexistence of lipid phases increase binding to the target membrane. However, little is known about the role of membrane structure and dynamics (phase state, fluidity, presence of lipid domains) on actinoporins' activity or which regions of the membrane are the most favorable platforms for protein insertion. To gain insight into the role of SM on the interaction of St I to lipid membranes we studied their binding to monolayers of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and SM in different proportions. Additionally, the effect of acyl chain length and unsaturation, two features related to membrane fluidity, was evaluated on St I binding to monolayers. This study revealed that St I binds and penetrates preferentially and with a faster kinetic to liquid-expanded films with high lateral mobility and moderately enriched in SM. A high content of SM induces a lower lateral diffusion and/or liquid-condensed phases, which hinder St I binding and penetration to the lipid monolayer. Furthermore, the presence of lipid domain borders does not appear as an important factor for St I binding to the lipid monolayer. PMID:24680653

  8. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Profoundly Alters Regional Brain Ceramide and Sphingomyelin Content in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ceramides (CER) are involved in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. In a mouse model of chronic alcohol exposure, 16 CER and 18 sphingomyelin (SM) concentrations from whole brain lipid extracts were measured using electrospray mass spectrometry. All 18 CER concentrations in alcohol exposed adults increased significantly (range: 25–607%); in juveniles, 6 CER decreased (range: −9 to −37%). In contrast, only three SM decreased in adult and one increased significantly in juvenile. Next, regional identification at 50 μm spatial resolution from coronal sections was obtained with matrix implanted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MILDI-MSI) by implanting silver nanoparticulate matrices followed by focused laser desorption. Most of the CER and SM quantified in whole brain extracts were detected in MILDI images. Coronal sections from three brain levels show qualitative regional changes in CER-SM ion intensities, as a function of group and brain region, in cortex, striatum, accumbens, habenula, and hippocampus. Highly correlated changes in certain white matter CER-SM pairs occur in regions across all groups, including the hippocampus and the lateral (but not medial) cerebellar cortex of adult mice. Our data provide the first microscale MS evidence of regional lipid intensity variations induced by alcohol. PMID:25387107

  9. Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein SMSr controls ceramide homeostasis in the ER.

    PubMed

    Vacaru, Ana M; Tafesse, Fikadu G; Ternes, Philipp; Kondylis, Vangelis; Hermansson, Martin; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Somerharju, Pentti; Rabouille, Catherine; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2009-06-15

    Ceramides are central intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism with critical functions in cell organization and survival. They are synthesized on the cytosolic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported by ceramide transfer protein to the Golgi for conversion to sphingomyelin (SM) by SM synthase SMS1. In this study, we report the identification of an SMS1-related (SMSr) enzyme, which catalyses the synthesis of the SM analogue ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) in the ER lumen. Strikingly, SMSr produces only trace amounts of CPE, i.e., 300-fold less than SMS1-derived SM. Nevertheless, blocking its catalytic activity causes a substantial rise in ER ceramide levels and a structural collapse of the early secretory pathway. We find that the latter phenotype is not caused by depletion of CPE but rather a consequence of ceramide accumulation in the ER. Our results establish SMSr as a key regulator of ceramide homeostasis that seems to operate as a sensor rather than a converter of ceramides in the ER. PMID:19506037

  10. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-02-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  11. Kinetic steps for the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin by Bacillus cereus sphingomyelinase in lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Fanani, M L; Maggio, B

    2000-11-01

    The sphingomyelinase (Sphmase) activity degrading sphingomyelin (Sphm) monolayers shows a slow-reaction latency period before exhibiting constant rate catalysis. These two kinetic regions are regulated independently by the lateral surface pressure and by lipids that are biomodulators of cell function such as ceramide, glycosphingolipids, fatty acids, and lysophospholipids. Knowledge of the interfacial adsorption of Sphmase, precatalytic activation, initiation of effective catalysis, and the corresponding kinetic parameters is necessary for studying the level at which different lipids modulate the activity. We dissected some kinetic steps and determined the rate constants for degradation of Sphm, under controlled intermolecular organization, by Sphmase. Six models, adapted to two dimensions, were used to elucidate possible mechanisms for the interfacial activation of Sphmase during the lag time. The models consider enzyme binding to the substrate monolayer and a subsequent, essentially irreversible interfacial activation; this is supported experimentally by monolayer transfer experiments. Some mechanisms involve enzyme-substrate binding and associated states of the enzyme in the bulk subphase or at the interface, prior to complete activation. The activity of Sphmase is consistent with kinetics involving enzyme partitioning into the interface followed by substrate association, and by a process that proceeds with bimolecular kinetic dependence on the interfacial Sphmase concentration, and a subsequent slow step of activation. A possible equilibrium between the apparent monomolecular and bimolecular activated states of the interfacial enzyme, coupled to a slow activation, constitute rate-limiting steps that can explain the existence of lag time and the achievement of a maximum constant rate of degradation of Sphm monolayers by Sphmase. PMID:11060353

  12. Toxin-induced pore formation is hindered by intermolecular hydrogen bonding in sphingomyelin bilayers.

    PubMed

    García-Linares, Sara; Palacios-Ortega, Juan; Yasuda, Tomokazu; Åstrand, Mia; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2016-06-01

    Sticholysin I and II (StnI and StnII) are pore-forming toxins that use sphingomyelin (SM) for membrane binding. We examined how hydrogen bonding among membrane SMs affected the StnI- and StnII-induced pore formation process, resulting in bilayer permeabilization. We compared toxin-induced permeabilization in bilayers containing either SM or dihydro-SM (lacking the trans Δ(4) double bond of the long-chain base), since their hydrogen-bonding properties are known to differ greatly. We observed that whereas both StnI and StnII formed pores in unilamellar vesicles containing palmitoyl-SM or oleoyl-SM, the toxins failed to similarly form pores in vesicles prepared from dihydro-PSM or dihydro-OSM. In supported bilayers containing OSM, StnII bound efficiently, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. However, StnII binding to supported bilayers prepared from dihydro-OSM was very low under similar experimental conditions. The association of the positively charged StnII (at pH7.0) with unilamellar vesicles prepared from OSM led to a concentration-dependent increase in vesicle charge, as determined from zeta-potential measurements. With dihydro-OSM vesicles, a similar response was not observed. Benzyl alcohol, which is a small hydrogen-bonding compound with affinity to lipid bilayer interfaces, strongly facilitated StnII-induced pore formation in dihydro-OSM bilayers, suggesting that hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region originally prevented StnII from membrane binding and pore formation. We conclude that interfacial hydrogen bonding was able to affect the membrane association of StnI- and StnII, and hence their pore forming capacity. Our results suggest that other types of protein interactions in bilayers may also be affected by hydrogen-bonding origination from SMs. PMID:26975250

  13. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Petruzielo, Robin S; Heberle, Frederick A; Drazba, Paul; Katsaras, John; Feigenson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

  14. Effects of β-Cyclodextrin on the Structure of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jablin, Michael S.; Flasiński, Michał; Dubey, Manish; Ratnaweera, Dilru R.; Broniatowski, Marcin; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja; Majewski, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with mixed bilayers composed of sphingomylein and cholesterol (Chol) above and below the accepted stable complexation ratio (67:33) was investigated. Membranes with the same (symmetric) and different (asymmetric) compositions in their inner and outer leaflets were deposited at surface pressures of 20, 30, and 40 mN/m at the solid-liquid interface. Using neutron reflectometry, membranes of various global molar ratios (defined as the sum of the molar ratios of the inner and outer leaflets), were characterized before and after β-CD was added to the subphase. The structure of bilayers with global molar ratios at or above the stable complexation ratio was unchanged by β-CD, indicating that β-CD is unable to remove sphingomyelin or complexed Chol. However, β-CD removed all uncomplexed Chol from bilayers composed of global molar ratios below the stable complexation ratio. The removal of Chol by β-CD was independent of the initial structure of the membranes as deposited, suggesting that asymmetric membranes homogenize by the exchange of molecules between leaflets. The interaction of β-CD with the aforementioned membranes was independent of the deposition surface pressure except for a symmetric 50:50 membrane deposited at 40 mN/m. The scattering from 50:50 bilayers with higher packing densities (deposited at 40 mN/m) was unaffected by β-CD, suggesting that the removal of Chol can depend on both the composition and packing density of the membrane. PMID:20816059

  15. Apolipophorin III interaction with model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Michael H; Wan, Chung-Ping Leon; Weers, Paul M M; Prenner, Elmar J

    2009-10-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) from Locusta migratoria was employed as a model apolipoprotein to gain insight into binding interactions with lipid vesicles. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the binding interaction of apoLp-III with liposomes composed of mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and sphingomyelin (SM). Association of apoLp-III with multilamellar liposomes occurred over a temperature range around the liquid crystalline phase transition (L(alpha)). Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained from changes in the lipid phase transition upon addition of apoLp-III. Eleven ratios of DMPC and SM were tested from pure DMPC to pure SM. Broadness of the phase transition (T(1/2)), melting temperature of the phase transition (T(m)) and enthalpy were used to determine the relative binding affinity to the liposomes. Multilamellar vesicles composed of 40% DMPC and 60% SM showed the greatest interaction with apoLp-III, indicated by large T(1/2) values. Pure DMPC showed the weakest interaction and liposomes with lower percentage of DMPC retained domains of pure DMPC, even upon apoLp-III binding indicating demixing of liposome lipids. Addition of apoLp-III to rehydrated liposomes was compared to codissolved trials, in which lipids were rehydrated in the presence of protein, forcing the protein to interact with the lipid system. Similar trends between the codissolved and non-codissolved trials were observed, indicating a similar binding affinity except for pure DMPC. These results suggested that surface defects due to non-ideal packing that occur at the phase transition temperature of the lipid mixtures are responsible for apolipoprotein-lipid interaction in DMPC/SM liposomes. PMID:19647717

  16. Oleic- and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Containing Phosphatidylethanolamines Differentially Phase Separate from Sphingomyelin

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; LoCascio, Daniel S.; Soni, Smita P.; Wassall, Stephen R.; Stillwell, William

    2009-01-01

    A central tenet of the lipid raft model is the existence of non-raft domains. In support of this view, we have established in model membranes that a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) forms organizationally distinct non-raft domains in the presence of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). We have shown that formation of DHA-rich domains is driven by unfavorable molecular interactions between the rigid Chol molecule and the highly flexible DHA acyl chain. However, the molecular interactions between SM and the DHA-containing PE, which could also contribute to the formation of DHA-rich non-raft domains, have not been sufficiently investigated. To address this issue, we use differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the phase behavior of mixtures of SM with either 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-22:6PE) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (16:0-18:1PE), an oleic acid (OA)-containing control, over a wide range of concentrations. Deconvolution of binary DSC scans shows that both 16:0-22:6PE and 16:0-18:1PE phase separate from SM. Analysis of transition temperatures and partial phase diagrams, constructed from the DSC scans for the first time, show that 16:0-22:6PE displays greater non-ideal mixing with SM compared to 16:0-18:1PE. Our findings support a model in which DHA- and OA-containing PEs differentially phase separate from SM over a wide range of molar ratios to initiate the formation of non-raft domains, which is greatly enhanced by DHA, but not OA, in the presence of cholesterol. PMID:19735642

  17. Characterization of the ordered phase formed by sphingomyelin analogues and cholesterol binary mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Masanao; Goretta, Sarah; Tsuchikawa, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Murata, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The influences of structural alterations of sphingomyelin (SM) on its interactions with cholesterol (chol) and on ordered phase formation were examined by density measurements and surface pressure vs. molecular area isotherm measurements. In addition, we quantitatively characterized the ordered phase formed in each SM and chol binary mixture on the basis of the molecular compressional modulus of SM ( Cmol−1). Density measurements demonstrated that the ordered phase formation in threo-SM (tSM)/chol and dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM)/chol binary bilayers shows similar chol concentration-dependency to that of natural erythro-SM (eSM)/chol bilayers; the ordered phase formation was completed in the presence of 25 mol% chol. In contrast, SM bearing a triple bond in the place of a double bond (tripleSM) required a greater concentration of chol to completely transform the bilayer into the ordered phase (at 40 mol% chol). Surface pressure vs. molecular area isotherms showed that the DHSM molecule ( Cmol−1 = 290 mN/m) is more rigid than eSM ( Cmol−1 = 240 mN/m) above 30 mol% chol (in the ordered phase), although these values are similar (140–150 mN/m) in the absence of chol (liquid condensed phase). Most likely, the DHSM/chol mixture forms a more ordered membrane than the eSM/chol mixture does. Moreover, in the absence of chol, the rigidity of the tripleSM molecule ( Cmol−1 = 250 mN/m) is significantly higher as compared with that of the eSM molecule ( Cmol−1 = 150 mN/m), which is probably due to the presence of a triple bond. PMID:27493539

  18. N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin bilayers: structure and interactions with cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Maulik, P R; Shipley, G G

    1996-06-18

    The structure and thermotropic properties of N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin (C16:0-SM) and its interaction with cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction methods. DSC of hydrated multi-bilayers of C16:0-SM shows reversible chain-melting transitions. On heating, anhydrous C16:0-SM exhibits an endothermic transition at 75 degrees C (delta H = 4.0 kcal/mol). Increasing hydration progressively lowers the transition temperature (TM) and increases the transition enthalpy (delta H), until limiting values (TM = 41 degrees C, delta H = 7.5 kcal/mol) are observed for hydration values > 25 wt % H2O. X-ray diffraction at temperatures below (29 degrees C) TM show a bilayer gel structure (d = 73.5 A, sharp 4.2 A reflection) for C16:0-SM at full hydration; above TM, at 55 degrees C, a bilayer liquid-crystal phase is present (d = 66.6 A, diffuse 4.6 A reflection). Addition of cholesterol to C16:0-SM bilayers results in a progressive decrease in the enthalpy of the transition at 41 degrees C, and no cooperative transition is detected at > 50 mol % cholesterol. X-ray diffraction shows no difference in the bilayer periodicity, position/width of the wide-angle reflections, or electron density profiles at 29 and 55 degrees C when 50 mol % cholesterol is present. Thus, cholesterol inserts into C16:0-SM bilayers progressively removing the chain-melting transition and changing the structural characteristics of the bilayer. DSC and X-ray diffraction data show that DPPC is completely miscible with C16:0-SM bilayers in both the gel and liquid-crystalline phases; however, 30 mol % C16:0-SM removes the pre-transition exhibited by DPPC. PMID:8672507

  19. Modulation of human type II secretory phospholipase A2 by sphingomyelin and annexin VI.

    PubMed

    Koumanov, K; Wolf, C; Béreziat, G

    1997-08-15

    Conjectural results have been reported on the capacity of inflammatory secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) to hydrolyse mammalian membrane phospholipids. Development of an assay based on the release of non-esterified fatty acids by the enzyme acting on the organized phospholipid mixture constituting the membrane matrix has led to the identification of two prominent effectors, sphingomyelin (SPH) and annexin. Recombinant human type II sPLA2 hydrolyses red-cell membrane phospholipids with a marked preference for the inner leaflet. This preference is apparently related to the high content of SPH in the outer leaflet, which inhibits sPLA2. This inhibition by SPH is specific for sPLA2. Cholesterol counteracts the inhibition of sPLA2 by SPH, suggesting that the SPH-to-cholesterol ratio accounts in vivo for the variable susceptibility of cell membranes to sPLA2. Different effects were observed of the presence of the non-hydrolysable D-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (D-DPPC), which renders the membranes rigid but does not inhibit sPLA2. Annexin VI was shown, along with other annexins, to inhibit sPLA2 activity by sequestering the phospholipid substrate. The present study has provided the first evidence that annexin VI, in concentrations that inhibit hydrolysis of purified phospholipid substrates, stimulated the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by sPLA2. The activation requires the presence of membrane proteins. The effect is specific for type II sPLA2 and is not reproducible with type I PLA2. The activation by annexin VI of sPLA2 acting on red cell membranes results in the preferential release of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It suggests that type II sPLA2, in conjunction with annexin VI, might be involved in the final step of endocytosis and/or exocytosis providing the free polyunsaturated fatty acids acting synergistically to cause membrane fusion. PMID:9337873

  20. Nanoscale Packing Differences in Sphingomyelin and Phosphatidylcholine Revealed by BODIPY Fluorescence in Monolayers: Physiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidycholines (PC) with two saturated acyl chains (e.g., dipalmitoyl) mimic natural sphingomyelin (SM) by promoting raft formation in model membranes. However, sphingoid-based lipids, such as SM, rather than saturated-chain PCs have been implicated as key components of lipid rafts in biomembranes. These observations raise questions about the physical packing properties of the phase states that can be formed by these two major plasma membrane lipids with identical phosphocholine headgroups. To investigate, we developed a monolayer platform capable of monitoring changes in surface fluorescence by acquiring multiple spectra during measurement of a lipid force–area isotherm. We relied on the concentration-dependent emission changes of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-labeled PC to detect nanoscale alterations in lipid packing and phase state induced by monolayer lateral compression. The BODIPY-PC probe contained an indacene ring with four symmetrically located methyl (Me) substituents to enhance localization to the lipid hydrocarbon region. Surface fluorescence spectra indicated changes in miscibility even when force–area isotherms showed no deviation from ideal mixing behavior in the surface pressure versus cross-sectional molecular area response. We detected slightly better mixing of Me4-BODIPY-8-PC with the fluid-like, liquid expanded phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC compared to N-oleoyl-SM. Remarkably, in the gel-like, liquid condensed phase, Me4-BODIPY-8-PC mixed better with N-palmitoyl-SM than dipalmitoyl-PC, suggesting naturally abundant SMs with saturated acyl chains form gel-like lipid phase(s) with enhanced ability to accommodate deeply embedded components compared to dipalmitoyl-PC gel phase. The findings reveal a fundamental difference in the lateral packing properties of SM and PC that occurs even when their acyl chains match. PMID:24564829

  1. Lipid raft components cholesterol and sphingomyelin increase H+/OH− permeability of phosphatidylcholine membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gensure, Rebekah H.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Hill, Warren G.

    2006-01-01

    H+/OH− permeation through lipid bilayers occurs at anomalously high rates and the determinants of proton flux through membranes are poorly understood. Since all life depends on proton gradients, it is important to develop a greater understanding of proton leak phenomena. We have used stopped-flow fluorimetry to probe the influence of two lipid raft components, chol (cholesterol) and SM (sphingomyelin), on H+/OH− and water permeability. Increasing the concentrations of both lipids in POPC (palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine) liposomes decreased water permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that correlated with increased lipid order. Surprisingly, proton flux was increased by increasing the concentration of chol and SM. The chol effect was complex with molar concentrations of 17.9, 33 and 45.7% giving 2.8-fold (P<0.01), 2.2-fold (P<0.001) and 5.1-fold (P<0.001) increases in H+/OH− permeability from a baseline of 2.4×10−2 cm/s. SM at 10 mole% effected a 2.8-fold increase (P<0.01), whereas 20 and 30 mole% enhanced permeability by 3.6-fold (P<0.05) and 4.1-fold respectively (P<0.05). Supplementing membranes containing chol with SM did not enhance H+/OH− permeability. Of interest was the finding that chol addition to soya-bean lipids decreased H+/OH− permeability, consistent with an earlier report [Ira and Krishnamoorthy (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1484–1488]. We speculate that the presence of proton carriers in crude lipid extracts might contribute to this result. We conclude that (i) chol and SM specifically and independently increase rates of proton permeation in POPC bilayers, (ii) domains enriched in these lipids or domain interfaces may represent regions with high H+/OH− conductivity, (iii) H+/OH− fluxes are not governed by lipid order and (iv) chol can inhibit or promote H+/OH− permeability depending on the total lipid environment. Theories of proton permeation are discussed in the light of these results. PMID

  2. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Elevated Glomerular ATP/AMP in Diabetes/obesity and Identifies Sphingomyelin as a Possible Mediator.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Satoshi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Hamm, Gregory; Darshi, Manjula; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Slater, Larkin; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Stauber, Jonathan; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is suppressed in diabetes and may be due to a high ATP/AMP ratio, however the quantitation of nucleotides in vivo has been extremely difficult. Via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to localize renal nucleotides we found that the diabetic kidney had a significant increase in glomerular ATP/AMP ratio. Untargeted MALDI-MSI analysis revealed that a specific sphingomyelin species (SM(d18:1/16:0)) accumulated in the glomeruli of diabetic and high-fat diet-fed mice compared with wild-type controls. In vitro studies in mesangial cells revealed that exogenous addition of SM(d18:1/16:0) significantly elevated ATP via increased glucose consumption and lactate production with a consequent reduction of AMPK and PGC1α. Furthermore, inhibition of sphingomyelin synthases reversed these effects. Our findings suggest that AMPK is reduced in the diabetic kidney due to an increase in the ATP/AMP ratio and that SM(d18:1/16:0) could be responsible for the enhanced ATP production via activation of the glycolytic pathway. PMID:27322466

  3. Ab initio and DFT study of 31P-NMR chemical shifts of sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin lipid molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimori, K.; Kawabe, H.; Nagao, H.; Nishikawa, K.

    One of the phospholipids, sphingomyelin (SM, N-acyl-sphingosine-1-phosphorylcholine) is the most abundant component of mammalian membranes in brain, nervous tissues, and human ocular lens. It plays an important role for apoptosis, aging, and signal transduction. Recently, Yappert and coworkers have shown that human lens sphingomyelin and its hydrogenated derivative, dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM) are interacted with Ca2+ ions to develop human cataracts. Previously, we have investigated conformational differences between an isolated SM/DHSM molecule and Ca2+-coordinated form by using density functional theory (DFT) for geometry optimization and normal mode analysis. As a result, one of stable conformers of SMs has a hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group and phosphate group, whereas another conformer has a hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl and phosphate amide group. In this study, 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) shielding constants of the obtained conformers are investigated by using ab initio and DFT with NMR-gauge invariant atomic orbitals (NMR-GIAO) calculations. The experimental 31P-NMR chemical shifts of SMs and DHSMs have significant small value around 0.1 ppm. We consider the relative conformational changes between SMs and DHSMs affect the slight deviations of 31P-NMR chemical shifts, and discuss intramolecular hydrogen bondings and the solvent effect in relation to NMR experimental reference.

  4. Temperature and Composition Dependence of the Interaction of δ-Lysin with Ternary Mixtures of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol/POPC

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, Antje; Yandek, Lindsay E.; Elegbede, Adekunle I.; Hinderliter, Anne; Almeida, Paulo F. F.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of carboxyfluorescein efflux induced by the amphipathic peptide δ-lysin from vesicles of porcine brain sphingomyelin (BSM), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and cholesterol (Chol) were investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Sphingomyelin (SM)/Chol mixtures form a liquid-ordered (Lo) phase whereas POPC exists in the liquid-disordered (Ld) phase at ambient temperature. δ-Lysin binds strongly to Ld and poorly to Lo phase. In BSM/Chol/POPC vesicles the rate of carboxyfluorescein efflux induced by δ-lysin increases as the POPC content decreases. This is explained by the increase of δ-lysin concentration in Ld domains, which enhances membrane perturbation by the peptide. Phase separations in the micrometer scale have been observed by fluorescence microscopy in SM/Chol/POPC mixtures for some SM, though not for BSM. Thus, δ-lysin must detect heterogeneities (domains) in BSM/Chol/POPC on a much smaller scale. Advantage was taken of the inverse variation of the efflux rate with the Ld content of BSM/Chol/POPC vesicles to estimate the Ld fraction in those mixtures. These results were combined with differential scanning calorimetry to obtain the BSM/Chol/POPC phase diagram as a function of temperature. PMID:16798807

  5. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN NEUTRAL SPHINGOMYELIN-SPECIFIC PHOSPHOLIPASE C ACTIVITY IN STRIATUM, HIPPOCAMPUS, AND FRONTAL CORTEX: IMPLICATION FOR SENSITIVITY TO STRESS AND INFLAMMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies show the enrichment of mammalian brain with neutral sphingomyelin specific phospholipase C (ceramide-phosphocholine phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12; N-Sase). The objective of this study was to evaluate the subcellular N-Sase activity in striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex. Resu...

  6. X-ray diffraction and calorimetric study of N-lignoceryl sphingomyelin membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, P. R.; Shipley, G. G.

    1995-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction have been used to investigate hydrated multibilayers of N-lignoceryl sphingomyelin (C24:0-SM) in the hydration range 0-75 wt % H2O. Anhydrous C24:0-SM exhibits a single endothermic transition at 81.3 degrees C (delta H = 3.6 kcal/mol). At low hydration (12.1 wt % H2O), three different endothermic transitions are observed: low-temperature transition (T1) at 39.4 degrees C (transition enthalpy (delta H1) = 2.8 kcal/mol), intermediate-temperature transition (T2) at 45.5 degrees C, and high-temperature transition (T3) at 51.3 degrees C (combined transition enthalpy (delta H2 + 3) = 5.03 kcal/mol). On increasing hydration, all three transition temperatures of C24:0-SM decrease slightly to reach limiting values of 36.7 degrees C (T1), 44.4 degrees C (T2), and 48.4 degrees C (T3) at approximately 20 wt % H2O. At 22 degrees C (below T1), x-ray diffraction of C24:0-SM at different hydration levels shows two wide-angle reflections, a sharp one at 1/4.2 A-1 and a more diffuse one at 1/4.0 A-1 together with lamellar reflections corresponding to bilayer periodicities increasing from d = 65.4 A to a limiting value of 71.1 A. Electron density profiles show a constant bilayer thickness dp-p approximately 50 A. In contrast, at 40 degrees C (between T1 and T2) a single sharp wide-angle reflection at approximately 1/4.2 A-1 is observed. The lamellar reflections correspond to a larger bilayer periodicity (increasing from d = 69.3-80.2 A) and there is some increase in dp-p (52-56 A) with hydration. These structural parameters,together with calculated lipid thickness and molecular area considerations, suggest that the low temperature endotherm(T1) of hydrated C24:0-SM corresponds to a transition from a tilted, gel state (Gel I) with partially interdigitated chains to an untilted, or less tilted, gel state (Gel 11). At 600C (above T3), the usual liquid-crystalline La bilayer structure (d = 59.5-66.3A; dp p -46 A) is present at all

  7. X-ray diffraction and calorimetric study of N-lignoceryl sphingomyelin membranes.

    PubMed

    Maulik, P R; Shipley, G G

    1995-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction have been used to investigate hydrated multibilayers of N-lignoceryl sphingomyelin (C24:0-SM) in the hydration range 0-75 wt % H2O. Anhydrous C24:0-SM exhibits a single endothermic transition at 81.3 degrees C (delta H = 3.6 kcal/mol). At low hydration (12.1 wt % H2O), three different endothermic transitions are observed: low-temperature transition (T1) at 39.4 degrees C (transition enthalpy (delta H1) = 2.8 kcal/mol), intermediate-temperature transition (T2) at 45.5 degrees C, and high-temperature transition (T3) at 51.3 degrees C (combined transition enthalpy (delta H2 + 3) = 5.03 kcal/mol). On increasing hydration, all three transition temperatures of C24:0-SM decrease slightly to reach limiting values of 36.7 degrees C (T1), 44.4 degrees C (T2), and 48.4 degrees C (T3) at approximately 20 wt % H2O. At 22 degrees C (below T1), x-ray diffraction of C24:0-SM at different hydration levels shows two wide-angle reflections, a sharp one at 1/4.2 A-1 and a more diffuse one at 1/4.0 A-1 together with lamellar reflections corresponding to bilayer periodicities increasing from d = 65.4 A to a limiting value of 71.1 A. Electron density profiles show a constant bilayer thickness dp-p approximately 50 A. In contrast, at 40 degrees C (between T1 and T2) a single sharp wide-angle reflection at approximately 1/4.2 A-1 is observed. The lamellar reflections correspond to a larger bilayer periodicity (increasing from d = 69.3-80.2 A) and there is some increase in dp-p (52-56 A) with hydration. These structural parameters,together with calculated lipid thickness and molecular area considerations, suggest that the low temperature endotherm(T1) of hydrated C24:0-SM corresponds to a transition from a tilted, gel state (Gel I) with partially interdigitated chains to an untilted, or less tilted, gel state (Gel 11). At 600C (above T3), the usual liquid-crystalline La bilayer structure (d = 59.5-66.3A; dp p -46 A) is present at all

  8. Structures of Lysenin Reveal a Shared Evolutionary Origin for Pore-Forming Proteins And Its Mode of Sphingomyelin Recognition

    PubMed Central

    De Colibus, Luigi; Sonnen, Andreas F.-P.; Morris, Keith J.; Siebert, C. Alistair; Abrusci, Patrizia; Plitzko, Jürgen; Hodnik, Vesna; Leippe, Matthias; Volpi, Emanuela; Anderluh, Gregor; Gilbert, Robert J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pore-forming proteins insert from solution into membranes to create lesions, undergoing a structural rearrangement often accompanied by oligomerization. Lysenin, a pore-forming toxin from the earthworm Eisenia fetida, specifically interacts with sphingomyelin (SM) and may confer innate immunity against parasites by attacking their membranes to form pores. SM has important roles in cell membranes and lysenin is a popular SM-labeling reagent. The structure of lysenin suggests common ancestry with other pore-forming proteins from a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The complex with SM shows the mode of its recognition by a protein in which both the phosphocholine headgroup and one acyl tail are specifically bound. Lipid interaction studies and assays using viable target cells confirm the functional reliance of lysenin on this form of SM recognition. PMID:22819216

  9. Sphingomyelins suppress the targeted disruption of lysosomes/endosomes by the photosensitizer NPe6 during photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have described a biochemical pathway whereby lysosome disruption and the released proteases initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Irradiation of murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells preloaded with the lysosomal photosensitizer NPe6 (N-aspartyl chlorin e6) caused a rapid loss of Acridine Orange staining of acidic organelles, release of cathepsin D from late endosomes/lysosomes and the activation of procaspase-3. Pretreatment of NPe6-loaded cultures with 10–50 μM 3-O-MeSM (3-O-methylsphingomyelin) caused a concentration-dependent suppression of apoptosis following irradiation. This suppression reflected a stabilization of lysosomes/endosomes, as opposed to an inhibition of the accumulation of photosensitizer in these organelles. Exogenously added sphingomyelin, at comparable concentrations, offered some protection, but less than 3-O-MeSM. Fluorescence microscopy showed that 3-O-MeSM competed with NBD-C6-sphingomyelin (6-{[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl} sphingosyl phosphocholine) for co-localization with LysoTracker Red in acidic organelles. Pre-treatment of 1c1c7 cultures with 3-O-MeSM also suppressed the induction of apoptosis by TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), but offered no protection against HA14-1 [ethyl 2-amino-6-bromo-4-(1-cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate], staurosporine, tunicamycin or thapsigargin. These results suggest that exogenously added 3-O-MeSM is trafficked to and stabilizes late endosomes/lysosomes against oxidant-induced damage, and further implicate a role for lysosomal proteases in the apoptotic processes initiated by TNFα and lysosomal photosensitizers. PMID:15943580

  10. Secretion of small/microRNAs including miR-638 into extracellular spaces by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shiori; Chiba, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Miki; Sakamoto, Maki; Watanabe, Narumi

    2015-01-01

    A recent study demonstrated that intracellular small/microRNAs are released from cells, and some of these extracellular RNAs are embedded in vesicles, such as ceramide-rich exosomes, on lipid-bilayer membranes. In the present study, we examined the effects of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3), which generates ceramide from sphingomyelin, on the release of small/microRNAs from intracellular to extracellular spaces. In these experiments, SW480 human colorectal and HuH-7 human hepatocellular cancer cells were cultured for 48 h in serum-free media. Culture supernatants were then collected, and floating cells and debris were removed by centrifugation and filtration through a 0.22-µm filter. Extracellular small RNAs in purified culture supernatants were stable for 4 weeks at room temperature, after 20 freeze-thaw cycles and exposure to pH 2.0, and were resistant to ribonuclease A degradation. Amino acid sequence analyses of SMPD3 showed high homology between mammals, indicating evolutionary conservation. Therefore, to investigate the mechanisms of cellular small/microRNA export, SW480 and HuH-7 cells were treated with the SMPD3 inhibitor GW4869 in serum-free media. Culture supernatants were collected for microarray and/or reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) experiments. The number of microRNAs in culture supernatants was decreased following treatment with GW4869. Among these, extracellular and intracellular miR-638 were dose-dependently decreased and increased, respectively. These data suggest that SMPD3 plays an important role in the release of microRNAs into extracellular spaces. PMID:25394686

  11. Sphingomyelins suppress the targeted disruption of lysosomes/endosomes by the photosensitizer NPe6 during photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Joseph A; Mathieu, Patricia A; Reiners, John J

    2005-12-01

    Recent studies have described a biochemical pathway whereby lysosome disruption and the released proteases initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Irradiation of murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells preloaded with the lysosomal photosensitizer NPe6 (N-aspartyl chlorin e6) caused a rapid loss of Acridine Orange staining of acidic organelles, release of cathepsin D from late endosomes/lysosomes and the activation of procaspase-3. Pretreatment of NPe6-loaded cultures with 10-50 microM 3-O-MeSM (3-O-methylsphingomyelin) caused a concentration-dependent suppression of apoptosis following irradiation. This suppression reflected a stabilization of lysosomes/endosomes, as opposed to an inhibition of the accumulation of photosensitizer in these organelles. Exogenously added sphingomyelin, at comparable concentrations, offered some protection, but less than 3-O-MeSM. Fluorescence microscopy showed that 3-O-MeSM competed with NBD-C6-sphingomyelin (6-{[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl} sphingosyl phosphocholine) for co-localization with LysoTracker Red in acidic organelles. Pre-treatment of 1c1c7 cultures with 3-O-MeSM also suppressed the induction of apoptosis by TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha), but offered no protection against HA14-1 [ethyl 2-amino-6-bromo-4-(1-cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate], staurosporine, tunicamycin or thapsigargin. These results suggest that exogenously added 3-O-MeSM is trafficked to and stabilizes late endosomes/lysosomes against oxidant-induced damage, and further implicate a role for lysosomal proteases in the apoptotic processes initiated by TNFalpha and lysosomal photosensitizers. PMID:15943580

  12. Suppression of intestinal inflammation and inflammation-driven colon cancer in mice by dietary sphingomyelin: importance of PPAR-γ expression

    PubMed Central

    Mazzei, Joseph C.; Zhou, Hui; Brayfield, Bradley; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Schmelz, Eva M.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract increases the risk of developing colon cancer especially in younger adults. Dietary compounds are not only associated with the etiology of inflammation and colon cancer, but also in their prevention. Sphingolipid metabolites have been shown to play a role in the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the suppression of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by dietary sphingomyelin in mice that lack functional PPAR-γ n intestinal epithelial and immune cells. Dietary sphingomyelin decreased disease activity and colonic inflammatory lesions in mice of both genotypes but more efficiently in mice expressing PPAR-γ. The increased survival and suppression of tumor formation in the sphingomyelin-fed mice appeared to be independent of PPAR-γ expression in immune and epithelial cells. Using a real-time PCR array, we detected an up-regulation in genes involved in Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-23) responses despite the reduced inflammation scores. However, the genes involved in Th2 (IL-4, IL-13 and IL-13ra2) and Treg (IL-10rb) anti-inflammatory responses were up-regulated in a PPAR-γ dependent manner. In line with the PPAR-γ dependency of our in vivo findings, treatment of RAW macrophages with sphingosine increased the PPAR-γ reporter activity. In conclusion, dietary sphingomyelin modulated inflammatory responses at early stages of disease by activating PPAR-γ, but its anti-carcinogenic effects followed a PPAR-γ-independent pattern. PMID:21295961

  13. Selective deuterium labeling of the sphingoid backbone: facile syntheses of 3,4, 5-trideuterio-d-erythro-sphingosine and 3-deuterio-d-erythro-sphingomyelin

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Hoe-Sup; Bittman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Deuteration at C-4 and C-5 of sphingosine was achieved via a hydrogen–deuterium exchange reaction of a β-ketophosphonate intermediate catalyzed by ND4Cl in D2O/tetrahydrofuran. To install deuterium at C-3 of sphingosine and sphingomyelin, sodium borodeuteride reduction/cerium(III) chloride reduction of an α,β-enone in perdeuteromethanol was used. PMID:20836998

  14. Cholesterol Decreases the Size and the Mechanical Resistance to Rupture of Sphingomyelin Rich Domains, in Lipid Bilayers Studied as a Model of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Lopez, Christelle

    2016-07-01

    Sphingomyelin-rich microdomains have been observed in the biological membrane surrounding milk fat globules (MFGM). The role played by cholesterol in these domains and in the physical properties and functions of the MFGM remains poorly understood. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate the phase state, topography, and mechanical properties of MFGM polar lipid bilayers as a function of cholesterol concentration, by combining X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy imaging, and force spectroscopy. At room temperature, i.e. below the phase transition temperature of the MFGM polar lipids, the bilayers showed the formation of sphingomyelin-rich domains in the solid ordered (so) phase that protruded about 1 nm above the liquid disordered (ld) phase. These so phase domains have a higher mechanical resistance to rupture than the ld phase (30 nN versus 15 nN). Addition of cholesterol in the MFGM polar lipid bilayers (i) induced the formation of liquid ordered (lo) phase for up to 27 mol % in the bilayers, (ii) decreased the height difference between the thicker ordered domains and the surrounding ld phase, (iii) promoted the formation of small sized domains, and (iv) decreased the mechanical resistance to rupture of the sphingomyelin-rich domains down to ∼5 nN. The biological and functional relevance of the lo phase cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich domains in the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk remains to be elucidated. This study brought new insight about the functional role of cholesterol in milk polar lipid ingredients, which can be used in the preparation of food emulsions, e.g. infant milk formulas. PMID:27300157

  15. A combined vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy study of sphingomyelin-cholesterol monolayers.

    PubMed

    Weeraman, Champika; Chen, Maohui; Moffatt, Douglas J; Lausten, Rune; Stolow, Albert; Johnston, Linda J

    2012-09-11

    A combination of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy is used to study the changes in morphology and conformational order in monolayers prepared from three natural sphingomyelin (SM) mixtures as a function of surface pressure and cholesterol concentration. The most homogeneous SM gave monolayers with well-ordered acyl chains and few gauche defects with relatively small effects of either increasing surface pressure or cholesterol addition. Heterogeneous SM mixtures with a mixture of acyl chain lengths or with significant fractions of unsaturated acyl chains had much larger contributions from gauche defects at low surface pressure and gave increasingly well-ordered monolayers as the surface pressure increased. They also showed substantial increases in lipid chain order after cholesterol addition. Overall, these results are consistent with the strong hydrogen bonding capacity of SM leading to well-ordered monolayers over a range of surface pressures. The changes in acyl chain order for natural SMs as a function of cholesterol are relevant to formation of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched domains in cell membranes. PMID:22889131

  16. The Human ABCG1 Transporter Mobilizes Plasma Membrane and Late Endosomal Non-Sphingomyelin-Associated-Cholesterol for Efflux and Esterification

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Edward B.; O’Brien, Katherine; Walts, Avram D.; Stonik, John A.; Malide, Daniela; Combs, Christian A.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that GFP-tagged human ABCG1 on the plasma membrane (PM) and in late endosomes (LE) mobilizes sterol on both sides of the membrane lipid bilayer, thereby increasing cellular cholesterol efflux to lipid surfaces. In the present study, we examined ABCG1-induced changes in membrane cholesterol distribution, organization, and mobility. ABCG1-GFP expression increased the amount of mobile, non-sphingomyelin(SM)-associated cholesterol at the PM and LE, but not the amount of SM-associated-cholesterol or SM. ABCG1-mobilized non-SM-associated-cholesterol rapidly cycled between the PM and LE and effluxed from the PM to extracellular acceptors, or, relocated to intracellular sites of esterification. ABCG1 increased detergent-soluble pools of PM and LE cholesterol, generated detergent-resistant, non-SM-associated PM cholesterol, and increased resistance to both amphotericin B-induced (cholesterol-mediated) and lysenin-induced (SM-mediated) cytolysis, consistent with altered organization of both PM cholesterol and SM. ABCG1 itself resided in detergent-soluble membrane domains. We propose that PM and LE ABCG1 residing at the phase boundary between ordered (Lo) and disordered (Ld) membrane lipid domains alters SM and cholesterol organization thereby increasing cholesterol flux between Lo and Ld, and hence, the amount of cholesterol available for removal by acceptors on either side of the membrane bilayer for either efflux or esterification. PMID:25485894

  17. Orientation and Order of the Amide Group of Sphingomyelin in Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Matsumori, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Maeta, Yoshiko; Murata, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) are considered essential for the formation of lipid rafts; however, the types of molecular interactions involved in this process, such as intermolecular hydrogen bonding, are not well understood. Since, unlike other phospholipids, SM is characterized by the presence of an amide group, it is essential to determine the orientation of the amide and its order in the lipid bilayers to understand the nature of the hydrogen bonds in lipid rafts. For this study, 1′-13C-2-15N-labeled and 2′-13C-2-15N-labeled SMs were prepared, and the rotational-axis direction and order parameters of the SM amide in bilayers were determined based on 13C and 15N chemical-shift anisotropies and intramolecular 13C-15N dipole coupling constants. Results revealed that the amide orientation was minimally affected by Chol, whereas the order was enhanced significantly in its presence. Thus, Chol likely promotes the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen-bond network involving the SM amide without significantly changing its orientation, providing a higher order to the SM amide. To our knowledge, this study offers new insight into the significance of the SM amide orientation with regard to molecular recognition in lipid rafts, and therefore provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of their formation. PMID:26083921

  18. Sphingomyelin regulates the transbilayer movement of diacylglycerol in the plasma membrane of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yoshibumi; Makino, Asami; Murase-Tamada, Kotono; Sakai, Shota; Inaba, Takehiko; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2013-08-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a key component in lipid metabolism and signaling. Previous model membrane studies using DAG analogs suggest their rapid membrane transbilayer movement. However, little is known about the DAG distribution and dynamics in cell membranes. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we monitored the transbilayer movement of DAG with the yellow fluorescent protein-tagged C1AB domain from protein kinase C-γ (EYFP-C1AB), which selectively binds DAG. When HeLa cells were treated with Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (Bc-PLC) to produce DAG on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, intracellularly expressed EYFP-C1AB probe accumulated at the plasma membrane, indicating the transbilayer movement of the outer leaflet DAG to the inner leaflet. This Bc-PLC-induced translocation of EYFP-C1AB probe to the plasma membrane was not observed in the sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, but was recovered after cell treatment with sphingomyelinase or preincubation with an inhibitor of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The inhibitory effect of sphingomyelin (SM) on the transbilayer movement of DAG was reproduced in model membranes using a fluorescent short-chain DAG analog. These results demonstrate that the SM content on the outer leaflet regulates the transbilayer movement of DAG in the plasma membrane, thus providing new insights into the dynamics of DAG in cell pathophysiology. PMID:23682124

  19. Sphingomyelin synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly at the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Futerman, A.H.; Stieger, B.; Hubbard, A.L.; Pagano, R.E. )

    1990-05-25

    The intracellular site of sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis was examined in subcellular fractions from rat liver using a radioactive ceramide analog N-((1-14C)hexanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine. This lipid readily transferred from a complex with bovine serum albumin to liver fractions without disrupting the membranes, and was metabolized to radioactive SM. To prevent degradation of the newly synthesized SM to ceramide, all experiments were performed in the presence of EDTA to minimize neutral sphingomyelinase activity and at neutral pH to minimize acid sphingomyelinase activity. An intact Golgi apparatus fraction gave an 85-98-fold enrichment of SM synthesis and a 58-83-fold enrichment of galactosyltransferase activity. Controlled trypsin digestion demonstrated that SM synthesis was localized to the lumen of intact Golgi apparatus vesicles. Although small amounts of SM synthesis were detected in plasma membrane and rough microsome fractions, after accounting for contamination by Golgi apparatus membranes, their combined activity contributed less than 13% of the total SM synthesis in rat liver. Subfractions of the Golgi apparatus were obtained and characterized by immunoblotting and biochemical assays using cis/medial (mannosidase II) and trans (sialyltransferase and galactosyltransferase) Golgi apparatus markers. The specific activity of SM synthesis was highest in enriched cis and medial fractions but far lower in a trans fraction. We conclude that SM synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly in the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and not at the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum as has been previously suggested.

  20. Viperin inhibits rabies virus replication via reduced cholesterol and sphingomyelin and is regulated upstream by TLR4.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-Bo; Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wei, Xian-Kai; Zhong, Tao-Zhen; Zhong, Yi-Zhi; Ouyang, Ling-Xuan; Luo, Yang; Xing, Xing-Wei; Liao, Fang; Peng, Ke-Ke; Deng, Chao-Qian; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2016-01-01

    Viperin (virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity. Generally, rabies virus (RABV) multiplies extremely well in susceptible cells, leading to high virus titres. In this study, we found that viperin was significantly up-regulated in macrophage RAW264.7 cells but not in NA, BHK-21 or BSR cells. Transient viperin overexpression in BSR cells and stable expression in BHK-21 cells could inhibit RABV replication, including both attenuated and street RABV. Furthermore, the inhibitory function of viperin was related to reduce cholesterol/sphingomyelin on the membranes of RAW264.7 cells. We explored the up-stream regulation pathway of viperin in macrophage RAW264.7 cells in the context of RABV infection. An experiment confirmed that a specific Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor, TAK-242, could inhibit viperin expression in RABV-infected RAW264.7 cells. These results support a regulatory role for TLR4. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) (by inhibiting heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) of the IRF3 phosphorylation chaperone), significantly delayed and reduced viperin expression, indicating that IRF3 is involved in viperin induction in RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, our data support the therapeutic potential for viperin to inhibit RABV replication, which appears to involve upstream regulation by TLR4. PMID:27456665

  1. Is there a sphingomyelin-based hydrogen bond barrier at the mammalian host-schistosome parasite interface?

    PubMed

    Migliardo, Federica; Tallima, Hatem; El Ridi, Rashika

    2014-03-01

    Schistosomes develop, mature, copulate, lay eggs, and live for years in the mammalian host bloodstream, importing nutrients across the tegument, but entirely impervious to the surrounding elements of the immune system. We have hypothesized that sphingomyelin (SM) in the parasite apical lipid bilayer is responsible for these sieving properties via formation of a tight hydrogen bond network with the surrounding water. Here we have used quasi-elastic neutron scattering for characterizing the diffusion of larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and adult Schistosoma haematobium in the surrounding medium, under various environmental conditions. The results documented the presence of a hydrogen bond barrier around larvae and adult schistosomes. The hydrogen bond network readily collapses if worms are subjected to hypoxic conditions, likely via activation of the parasite tegument-associated neutral sphingomyelinase, and consequent excessive SM hydrolysis. The slower dynamics of lung-stage larvae as compared to adult worms has been related to the existence of hydrogen-bonded networks of different strength and then to their differential resistance to immune attacks. PMID:23943053

  2. Pharmacological reversion of sphingomyelin-induced dendritic spine anomalies in a Niemann Pick disease type A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Ana I; Camoletto, Paola G; Morando, Laura; Sassoe-Pognetto, Marco; Giustetto, Maurizio; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Schuchman, Edward H; Ledesma, Maria D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of lipids in synapses and the aberrant molecular mechanisms causing the cognitive deficits that characterize most lipidosis is necessary to develop therapies for these diseases. Here we describe sphingomyelin (SM) as a key modulator of the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton. We show that increased SM levels in neurons of acid sphingomyelinase knock out mice (ASMko), which mimic Niemann Pick disease type A (NPA), result in reduced spine number and size and low levels of filamentous actin. Mechanistically, SM accumulation decreases the levels of metabotropic glutamate receptors type I (mGluR1/5) at the synaptic membrane impairing membrane attachment and activity of RhoA and its effectors ROCK and ProfilinIIa. Pharmacological enhancement of the neutral sphingomyelinase rescues the aberrant molecular and morphological phenotypes in vitro and in vivo and improves motor and memory deficits in ASMko mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate the influence of SM and its catabolic enzymes in dendritic spine physiology and contribute to our understanding of the cognitive deficits of NPA patients, opening new perspectives for therapeutic interventions. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy & Genetic Disease; Neuroscience PMID:24448491

  3. Viperin inhibits rabies virus replication via reduced cholesterol and sphingomyelin and is regulated upstream by TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hai-Bo; Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wei, Xian-Kai; Zhong, Tao-Zhen; Zhong, Yi-Zhi; Ouyang, Ling-Xuan; Luo, Yang; Xing, Xing-Wei; Liao, Fang; Peng, Ke-Ke; Deng, Chao-Qian; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2016-01-01

    Viperin (virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity. Generally, rabies virus (RABV) multiplies extremely well in susceptible cells, leading to high virus titres. In this study, we found that viperin was significantly up-regulated in macrophage RAW264.7 cells but not in NA, BHK-21 or BSR cells. Transient viperin overexpression in BSR cells and stable expression in BHK-21 cells could inhibit RABV replication, including both attenuated and street RABV. Furthermore, the inhibitory function of viperin was related to reduce cholesterol/sphingomyelin on the membranes of RAW264.7 cells. We explored the up-stream regulation pathway of viperin in macrophage RAW264.7 cells in the context of RABV infection. An experiment confirmed that a specific Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor, TAK-242, could inhibit viperin expression in RABV-infected RAW264.7 cells. These results support a regulatory role for TLR4. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) (by inhibiting heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) of the IRF3 phosphorylation chaperone), significantly delayed and reduced viperin expression, indicating that IRF3 is involved in viperin induction in RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, our data support the therapeutic potential for viperin to inhibit RABV replication, which appears to involve upstream regulation by TLR4. PMID:27456665

  4. Binding of a pleurotolysin ortholog from Pleurotus eryngii to sphingomyelin and cholesterol-rich membrane domains[S

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Hema Balakrishna; Kishimoto, Takuma; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Inaba, Takehiko; Murate, Motohide; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurahashi, Atsushi; Nishibori, Kozo; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Greimel, Peter; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2013-01-01

    A mixture of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) exhibits a characteristic lipid raft domain of the cell membranes that provides a platform to which various signal molecules as well as virus and bacterial proteins are recruited. Several proteins capable of specifically binding either SM or Chol have been reported. However, proteins that selectively bind to SM/Chol mixtures are less well characterized. In our screening for proteins specifically binding to SM/Chol liposomes, we identified a novel ortholog of Pleurotus ostreatus, pleurotolysin (Ply)A, from the extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, named PlyA2. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-conjugated PlyA2 bound to SM/Chol but not to phosphatidylcholine/Chol liposomes. Cell surface labeling of PlyA2-EGFP was abolished after sphingomyelinase as well as methyl-β-cyclodextrin treatment, removing SM and Chol, respectively, indicating that PlyA2-EGFP specifically binds cell surface SM/Chol rafts. Tryptophan to alanine point mutation of PlyA2 revealed the importance of C-terminal tryptophan residues for SM/Chol binding. Our results indicate that PlyA2-EGFP is a novel protein probe to label SM/Chol lipid domains both in cell and model membranes. PMID:23918047

  5. A Raft-Associated Species of Phosphatidylethanolamine Interacts with Cholesterol Comparably to Sphingomyelin. A Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayer Study

    PubMed Central

    Grzybek, Michal; Kubiak, Jakub; Łach, Agnieszka; Przybyło, Magdalena; Sikorski, Aleksander F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Specific interactions between sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Ch) are commonly believed to play a key role in the formation of rafts in the biological membranes. A weakness of this model is the implication that these microdomains are confined to the outer bilayer leaflet. The cytoplasmic leaflet, which contains the bulk of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), is thought also to harbour half of the membrane cholesterol. Moreover, SLPE (1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine) has recently been shown to be enriched in isolated detergent-resistant membranes (DRM), and this enrichment was independent of the method of isolation of DRM. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present quantitative evidence coming from Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer experiments that SLPE forms complex with Ch similar to that between SM and Ch. The energies of these interactions as calculated form the monolayer studies are highly negative. FRAP analysis showed that NBD-Ch recovery was similar in liposomes composed of DOPC/Ch SM or SLPE but not DPPE, providing further evidence that SLPE may form an lo phase in the presence of high Ch concentration. Experiments on the solubility of DOPC liposomes containing DPPE/Ch (1∶1), SM/Ch (1∶1) or SLPE/Ch (1∶1) showed the presence of Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF) in the case of SM/Ch or SLPE/Ch but not in DPPE/Ch containing liposomes. Quantitative determination of particular lipid species in the TIFF fraction confirms the conclusion that SLPE (or similar PE species) could be an important constituent of the inner leaflet raft. Conclusion Such interactions suggest a possible existence of inner-leaflet nanoscale assemblies composed of cholesterol complexes with SLPE or similar unsaturated PE species. PMID:19330037

  6. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thurberg, Beth L; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Jones, Simon A; Schiano, Thomas D; Cox, Gerald F; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  7. Sustained Epigenetic Drug Delivery Depletes Cholesterol-Sphingomyelin Rafts from Resistant Breast Cancer Cells, Influencing Biophysical Characteristics of Membrane Lipids.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Vijay; Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Morisada, Megan; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-10-27

    Cell-membrane lipid composition can greatly influence biophysical properties of cell membranes, affecting various cellular functions. We previously showed that lipid synthesis becomes altered in the membranes of resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR); they form a more rigid, hydrophobic lipid monolayer than do sensitive cell membranes (MCF-7). These changes in membrane lipids of resistant cells, attributed to epigenetic aberration, significantly affected drug transport and endocytic function, thus impacting the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The present study's objective was to determine the effects of the epigenetic drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), delivered in sustained-release nanogels (DAC-NGs), on the composition and biophysical properties of membrane lipids of resistant cells. Resistant and sensitive cells were treated with DAC in solution (DAC-sol) or DAC-NGs, and cell-membrane lipids were isolated and analyzed for lipid composition and biophysical properties. In resistant cells, we found increased formation of cholesterol-sphingomyelin (CHOL-SM) rafts with culturing time, whereas DAC treatment reduced their formation. In general, the effect of DAC-NGs was greater in changing the lipid composition than with DAC-sol. DAC treatment also caused a rise in levels of certain phospholipids and neutral lipids known to increase membrane fluidity, while reducing the levels of certain lipids known to increase membrane rigidity. Isotherm data showed increased lipid membrane fluidity following DAC treatment, attributed to decrease levels of CHOL-SM rafts (lamellar beta [Lβ] structures or ordered gel) and a corresponding increase in lipids that form lamellar alpha-structures (Lα, liquid crystalline phase). Sensitive cells showed marginal or insignificant changes in lipid profile following DAC-treatment, suggesting that epigenetic changes affecting lipid biosynthesis are more specific to resistant cells. Since membrane fluidity plays a major role in drug transport

  8. Triton X-100 partitioning into sphingomyelin bilayers at subsolubilizing detergent concentrations: effect of lipid phase and a comparison with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Arnulphi, Cristina; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Arrondo, José-Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2007-11-15

    We examined the partitioning of the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 at subsolubilizing concentrations into bilayers of either egg sphingomyelin (SM), palmitoyl SM, or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. SM is known to require less detergent than phosphatidylcholine to achieve the same extent of solubilization, and for all three phospholipids solubilization is temperature dependent. In addition, the three lipids exhibit a gel-fluid phase transition in the 38-41 degrees C temperature range. Experiments have been performed at Triton X-100 concentrations well below the critical micellar concentration, so that only detergent monomers have to be considered. Lipid/detergent mol ratios were never <10:1, thus ensuring that the solubilization stage was never reached. Isothermal titration calorimetry, DSC, and infrared, fluorescence, and (31)P-NMR spectroscopies were applied in the 5-55 degrees C temperature range. The results show that, irrespective of the chemical nature of the lipid, DeltaG degrees of partitioning remained in the range of -27 kJ/mol lipid in the gel phase and of -30 kJ/mol lipid in the fluid phase. This small difference cannot account for the observed phase-dependent differences in solubilization. Such virtually constant DeltaG degrees occurred as a result of the compensation of enthalpic and entropic components, which varied with both temperature and lipid composition. Consequently, the observed different susceptibilities to solubilization cannot be attributed to differential binding but to further events in the solubilization process, e.g., bilayer saturability by detergent or propensity to form lipid-detergent mixed micelles. The data here shed light on the relatively unexplored early stages of membrane solubilization and open new ways to understand the phenomenon of membrane resistance toward detergent solubilization. PMID:17675347

  9. In vitro effects of fat, FA, and cholesterol on sphingomyelin hydrolysis induced by rat intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Jun; Nilsson, Ake; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2002-05-01

    Dietary sphingomyelin (SM) may have regulatory effects on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the colon. Alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) is the major enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of SM in the gut. Previously we purified the enzyme and showed that the presence of glycerophospholipids inhibited SM hydrolysis induced by alkaline SMase in vitro. In the present work, we studied the effects of TG, DG, FA, ceramide, and cholesterol on SM hydrolysis catalyzed by purified alkaline SMase. The results showed that both TG (triolein and tristearin) and DG (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol and 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycerol) inhibited the activity of alkaline SMase. 1-Monooleoyl-rac-glycerol, 1-monostearoyl-rac-glycerol, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid stimulated the activity of alkaline SMase at 0.4-0.8 mM concentrations but inhibited the enzyme at higher concentrations. There was no difference between the effects induced by saturated and unsaturated FA. A short-chain FA such as lauric acid had a stronger stimulatory effect at low concentrations and weaker inhibitory effect at high concentrations than long-chain FA. Choosing linoleic acid as an example, we found that FA had similar effects on both alkaline SMase and neutral SMase. Cholesterol and ceramide when mixed with FA to increase its solubility in bile salt micelles inhibited SMase activity. In conclusion, glycerides, FA, ceramide, and cholesterol influence SM hydrolysis catalyzed by intestinal alkaline SMase. The presence of lipids in the diet may thus influence the course of SM digestion in the gut and thereby the exposure of colon to SM metabolites. PMID:12056588

  10. Limonoid Compounds Inhibit Sphingomyelin Biosynthesis by Preventing CERT Protein-dependent Extraction of Ceramides from the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Tomishige, Nario; Sakai, Shota; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ishii, Kumiko; Makino, Asami; Greimel, Peter; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Laviad, Elad L.; Lagarde, Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Kentaro; Futerman, Anthony H.; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    To identify novel inhibitors of sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism, a new and selective high throughput microscopy-based screening based on the toxicity of the SM-specific toxin, lysenin, was developed. Out of a library of 2011 natural compounds, the limonoid, 3-chloro-8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal (CHC), rendered cells resistant to lysenin by decreasing cell surface SM. CHC treatment selectively inhibited the de novo biosynthesis of SM without affecting glycolipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Pretreatment with brefeldin A abolished the limonoid-induced inhibition of SM synthesis suggesting that the transport of ceramide (Cer) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is affected. Unlike the Cer transporter (CERT) inhibitor HPA-12, CHC did not change the transport of a fluorescent short chain Cer analog to the Golgi apparatus or the formation of fluorescent and short chain SM from the corresponding Cer. Nevertheless, CHC inhibited the conversion of de novo synthesized Cer to SM. We show that CHC specifically inhibited the CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes in vitro. Subsequent biochemical screening of 21 limonoids revealed that some of them, such as 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal and gedunin, which exhibits anti-cancer activity, inhibited SM biosynthesis and CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from membranes. Model membrane studies suggest that 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal reduced the miscibility of Cer with membrane lipids and thus induced the formation of Cer-rich membrane domains. Our study shows that certain limonoids are novel inhibitors of SM biosynthesis and suggests that some biological activities of these limonoids are related to their effect on the ceramide metabolism. PMID:22605339

  11. Limonoid compounds inhibit sphingomyelin biosynthesis by preventing CERT protein-dependent extraction of ceramides from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Tomishige, Nario; Sakai, Shota; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ishii, Kumiko; Makino, Asami; Greimel, Peter; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Laviad, Elad L; Lagarde, Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Kentaro; Futerman, Anthony H; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2012-07-13

    To identify novel inhibitors of sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism, a new and selective high throughput microscopy-based screening based on the toxicity of the SM-specific toxin, lysenin, was developed. Out of a library of 2011 natural compounds, the limonoid, 3-chloro-8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal (CHC), rendered cells resistant to lysenin by decreasing cell surface SM. CHC treatment selectively inhibited the de novo biosynthesis of SM without affecting glycolipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Pretreatment with brefeldin A abolished the limonoid-induced inhibition of SM synthesis suggesting that the transport of ceramide (Cer) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is affected. Unlike the Cer transporter (CERT) inhibitor HPA-12, CHC did not change the transport of a fluorescent short chain Cer analog to the Golgi apparatus or the formation of fluorescent and short chain SM from the corresponding Cer. Nevertheless, CHC inhibited the conversion of de novo synthesized Cer to SM. We show that CHC specifically inhibited the CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes in vitro. Subsequent biochemical screening of 21 limonoids revealed that some of them, such as 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal and gedunin, which exhibits anti-cancer activity, inhibited SM biosynthesis and CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from membranes. Model membrane studies suggest that 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal reduced the miscibility of Cer with membrane lipids and thus induced the formation of Cer-rich membrane domains. Our study shows that certain limonoids are novel inhibitors of SM biosynthesis and suggests that some biological activities of these limonoids are related to their effect on the ceramide metabolism. PMID:22605339

  12. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K+ concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca2+ waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca2+ entry and promote vasoconstriction. PMID:25888510

  13. Characterization of the role of sphingomyelin synthase 2 in glucose metabolism in whole-body and peripheral tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoichi; Zhao, Songji; Ukon, Naoyuki; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Wakabayashi, Masato; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Tamaki, Nagara; Hanamatsu, Hisatoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is a proposed potential therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. However, the contributions of SMS2 to glucose metabolism in tissues and its possible therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, to determine whole-body glucose utilization and the contributions of each insulin-targeted tissue to glucose uptake, we performed a glucose kinetics study, using the radiolabeled glucose analog (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG), in wild-type (WT) and SMS2 knockout (KO) mice. Insulin signaling was enhanced in the liver, white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of SMS2 KO mice compared with those of WT mice. In addition, compared with in WT mice, blood clearance of (18)F-FDG was accelerated in SMS2 KO mice when they were fed either a normal or a high fat diet. (18)F-FDG uptake was also increased in insulin-targeted tissues such as skeletal muscle in the SMS2 KO mice. Whereas skeletal muscle sphingolipid content was not clearly affected, plasma levels of very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA)-containing ceramides were markedly increased in SMS2 KO mice, compared with in WT mice. We also generated liver-conditional SMS2 KO mice and performed glucose and insulin tolerance tests on mice with a high fat diet. However, no significant effect was observed. Thus, our study provided evidence that genetic inhibition of SMS2 elevated glucose clearance through activation of glucose uptake into insulin-targeted tissues such as skeletal muscle by a mechanism independent of hepatic SMS2. Our findings further indicate that this occurs, at least in part, via indirect mechanisms such as elevation of VLCFA-containing ceramides. PMID:27151272

  14. Membrane cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and ostreolysin A are obligatory for pore-formation by a MACPF/CDC-like pore-forming protein, pleurotolysin B.

    PubMed

    Ota, Katja; Leonardi, Adrijana; Mikelj, Miha; Skočaj, Matej; Wohlschlager, Therese; Künzler, Markus; Aebi, Markus; Narat, Mojca; Križaj, Igor; Anderluh, Gregor; Sepčić, Kristina; Maček, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has been reported to produce the hemolytic proteins ostreolysin (OlyA), pleurotolysin A (PlyA) and pleurotolysin B (PlyB). The present study of the native and recombinant proteins dissects out their lipid-binding characteristics and their roles in lipid binding and membrane permeabilization. Using lipid-binding studies, permeabilization of erythrocytes, large unilamellar vesicles of various lipid compositions, and electron microscopy, we show that OlyA, a PlyA homolog, preferentially binds to membranes rich in sterol and sphingomyelin, but it does not permeabilize them. The N-terminally truncated Δ48PlyB corresponds to the mature and active form of native PlyB, and it has a membrane attack complex-perforin (MACPF) domain. Δ48PlyB spontaneously oligomerizes in solution, and binds weakly to various lipid membranes but is not able to perforate them. However, binding of Δ48PlyB to the cholesterol and sphingomyelin membranes, and consequently, their permeabilization is dramatically promoted in the presence of OlyA. On these membranes, Δ48PlyB and OlyA form predominantly 13-meric oligomers. These are rosette-like structures with a thickness of ∼9 nm from the membrane surface, with 19.7 nm and 4.9 nm outer and inner diameters, respectively. When present on opposing vesicle membranes, these oligomers can dimerize and thus promote aggregation of vesicles. Based on the structural and functional characteristics of Δ48PlyB, we suggest that it shares some features with MACPF/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) proteins. OlyA is obligatory for the Δ48PlyB permeabilization of membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. PMID:23806422

  15. Effects of peroxisome proliferators on rat liver phospholipids: sphingomyelin degradation may be involved in hepatotoxic mechanism of perfluorodecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Adinehzadeh, M; Reo, N V

    1998-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), clofibrate, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and Wy-14,643 represent a class of compounds known as peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Such compounds induce biogenesis of liver peroxisomes and cause a varying degree of hepatotoxicity and carcinogenesis in rodents. We examined the effects of these PPs on rat hepatic lipids and phospholipid profiles using phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy. All PPs caused a 25-57% increase in hepatic phospholipid content, while all but clofibrate increased the total lipid content by 26-156%. Treatments also influenced the composition of liver phospholipids. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) contents were significantly increased in all treatment groups. Most notably, PFDA caused the largest increase in PtdCho and PtdEth content (ca. 70%), while PFOA and Wy-14,643 were the only test compounds that influenced the PtdCho:PtdEth ratio. PFDA also caused an ca. 30% decrease in sphingomyelin (SphM) from 24 to 120 h postdose. SphM is a key lipid in signal transduction processes involved in apoptosis. Hydrolysis of SphM can be mediated through the action of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha). We measured the TNF-alpha concentrations in rat sera at 24 h post-PFDA-exposure and found an 8-fold increase relative to vehicle-treated controls. These data demonstrate that an increase in the serum TNF-alpha level correlates with the time frame for the observed reduction in hepatic SphM. PFOA, a structurally similar compound, had no effect on hepatic SphM content, nor did it affect the serum TNF-alpha concentration. These effects may be related to differences in the tumorigenicity associated with these compounds. We postulate that PFDA activates the SphM signal transduction pathway via the release of TNF-alpha. This then stimulates cytotoxic responses and processes of apoptosis and may suppress cell proliferative and mitogenic responses. PMID:9585473

  16. Regulation of SREBPs by Sphingomyelin in Adipocytes via a Caveolin and Ras-ERK-MAPK-CREB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Makdissy, Nehman; Haddad, Katia; Mouawad, Charbel; Popa, Iuliana; Younsi, Mohamed; Valet, Philippe; Brunaud, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier; Quilliot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that elevated levels of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) were related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is a known target gene of SREBP-1 in adipocytes. However, the role of SM in SREBP expression in adipocytes remains unknown. In human abdominal adipose tissue from obese women with various concentrations of fasting plasma insulin, SREBP-1 proteins decreased in parallel with increases in membrane SM levels. An inverse correlation was found between the membrane SM content and the levels of SREBP-1c/ERK/Ras/PPARγ/CREB proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate the effects of SM and its signaling pathway in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. These cells were enriched or unenriched with SM in a range of concentrations similar to those observed in obese subjects by adding exogenous natural SMs (having different acyl chain lengths) or by inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase. SM accumulated in caveolae of the plasma membrane within 24 h and then in the intracellular space. SM enrichment decreased SREBP-1 through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) but not JNK or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and KSR proteins, which are upstream mediators of ERK, were down-regulated, whereas SREBP-2/caveolin and cholesterol were up-regulated. In SM-unmodulated adipocytes treated with DL-1-Phenyl-2-Palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP), where the ceramide level increased, the expression levels of SREBPs and ERK were modulated in an opposite direction relative to the SM-enriched cells. SM inhibited the insulin-induced expression of SREBP-1. Rosiglitazone, which is an anti-diabetic agent and potent activator of PPARγ, reversed the effects of SM on SREBP-1, PPARγ and CREB. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights indicating that excess membrane SM might

  17. Regulation of SREBPs by Sphingomyelin in Adipocytes via a Caveolin and Ras-ERK-MAPK-CREB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Makdissy, Nehman; Popa, Iuliana; Younsi, Mohamed; Valet, Philippe; Brunaud, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier; Quilliot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that elevated levels of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) were related to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is a known target gene of SREBP-1 in adipocytes. However, the role of SM in SREBP expression in adipocytes remains unknown. In human abdominal adipose tissue from obese women with various concentrations of fasting plasma insulin, SREBP-1 proteins decreased in parallel with increases in membrane SM levels. An inverse correlation was found between the membrane SM content and the levels of SREBP-1c/ERK/Ras/PPARγ/CREB proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate the effects of SM and its signaling pathway in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. These cells were enriched or unenriched with SM in a range of concentrations similar to those observed in obese subjects by adding exogenous natural SMs (having different acyl chain lengths) or by inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase. SM accumulated in caveolae of the plasma membrane within 24 h and then in the intracellular space. SM enrichment decreased SREBP-1 through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) but not JNK or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and KSR proteins, which are upstream mediators of ERK, were down-regulated, whereas SREBP-2/caveolin and cholesterol were up-regulated. In SM-unmodulated adipocytes treated with DL-1-Phenyl-2-Palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP), where the ceramide level increased, the expression levels of SREBPs and ERK were modulated in an opposite direction relative to the SM-enriched cells. SM inhibited the insulin-induced expression of SREBP-1. Rosiglitazone, which is an anti-diabetic agent and potent activator of PPARγ, reversed the effects of SM on SREBP-1, PPARγ and CREB. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights indicating that excess membrane SM

  18. Pharmacological Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor {Delta} Increases Sphingomyelin Synthase Activity in THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell.

    PubMed

    Mou, Dongsheng; Yang, Hua; Qu, Changhua; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Chaogui

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors, which mediate glucose and lipid homeostasis by regulating the expression of a large number of transcription factors. Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of sphingomyelin (SM), and its expression and activity have been reported to be associated with atherosclerosis (AS). Although there have been many functional PPAR and SMS studies on atherosclerosis in recent years, few have investigated the correlation between the activation of PPARδ and the activity of SMS. In his study, macrophage-induced foam cells were utilized to model important pathological changes that occur in AS. The influence of PPARδ agonism by GW501516 on SMS and its product molecule SM were measured. Results indicated that the activation of PPARδ was correlated in a positive manner with the activity of SMS2, and the content of SM was dose dependently increased by GW501516. Together, this study represents the first to suggest that PPARδ activation may be a potential risk of AS through enhancing activity of SMS2. PMID:27278004

  19. FTIR-ATR study of the influence of the pyrimidine analog of fluphenazine on the chain-melting phase transition of sphingomyelin membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuć, Marta; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Świątek, Piotr; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Malinka, Wiesław

    2015-09-01

    The membrane perturbing potency of the highly effective anti-multidrug resistance (MDR) pyrimidine analog of fluphenazine (FPh-prm), has been studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The temperature- and FPh-prm-dose-dependent evolutions of the infrared spectra of FPh-prm/sphingomyelin (SM) mixtures were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). It has been postulated that the distinct anti-MDR activity of FPh-prm could be related to its ability to affect the modification of SM membranes. A reduction in the temperature of the chain-melting phase transition was observed in FPh-prm-mixed SM membranes together with the loosing of the phase transition cooperativity. Increasing the temperature led to the trans to gauche isomerization of FPh-prm-rich lipid membranes, which resulted in the gradual release of FPh-prm from the lipid membrane to the water phase.

  20. Compounds of the sphingomyelin-ceramide-glycosphingolipid pathways as secondary messenger molecules: new targets for novel therapies for fatty liver disease and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    The compounds of sphingomyelin-ceramide-glycosphingolipid pathways have been studied as potential secondary messenger molecules in various systems, along with liver function and insulin resistance. Secondary messenger molecules act directly or indirectly to affect cell organelles and intercellular interactions. Their potential role in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis and diabetes has been suggested. Data samples collected from patients with Gaucher's disease, who had high levels of glucocerebroside, support a role for compounds from these pathways as a messenger molecules in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease and diabetes. The present review summarizes some of the recent data on the role of glycosphingolipid molecules as messenger molecules in various physiological and pathological conditions, more specifically including insulin resistance and fatty liver disease. PMID:27173510

  1. Sphingomyelin synthase 1 regulates Neuro-2a cell proliferation and cell cycle progression through modulation of p27 expression and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Umadevi V.; Hatcher, James; Dempsey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) is a key enzyme involved in the generation of sphingomyelin (SM) and regulation of cell growth and survival. However, the effects of SMS on neuronal cell proliferation and cell cycle progression are not completely elucidated. In this study, we examined the direct effects of SMS1 in regulating cell cycle progression and proliferation of Neuro-2a cells that exhibit neuronal characteristics. Neuro-2a cells transfected with SMS specific shRNA expressed significantly lower levels of SMS1. RNA interference-mediated depletion of SMS1 in Neuro-2a cells caused a significant decrease in SM levels. Decreased SMS1 levels resulted in reduced proliferation rate and morphological changes including neurite like out growth. Also, silencing of SMS1 induced cell-cycle arrest as shown by the increased percentage of cells in G0/G1 and decreased proportion of cells in S-phase. These changes were accompanied by up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, and decreased levels of cyclin D1 and phospho-Akt. Nuclear accumulation of p27 was also evident in SMS1 deficient cells. Furthermore, loss of SMS1 inhibited the migratory potential of Neuro 2a cells in association with decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinases. These results indicate that SMS1 plays an important role in mediating the key signaling pathways that are involved in the tight coordination of multiple cellular activities, including neuronal cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and migration, and therefore may have significant implications in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25084761

  2. [Functional state of a sphingomyeline cycle and free radical lipid oxidation activity of a rat's liver during different phases of starvation].

    PubMed

    Kuz'menko, D I; Burov, P G; Serebrov, V Iu; Faĭt, E A; Perevozchikova, T V

    2012-01-01

    The functional state of a sphingomyeline cycle and character of its mutual relations with the processes of free radical lipid oxidation during starvation of animals without any restriction of access to drinking water at 1, 2, 3 day (I phase) and 6 day (II phase of starvation) were studied at the liver of rats. The maximal values of the ceramide/sphingomyeline ratio and activity neutral sphingomyelinase and executive caspase-3 were reached in a liver of animals at the 3rd day of starvation. From the 3rd day of starvation the concentration of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha which is one of activators neutral sphingomyelinase was increase in rats blood serum. During the extent of large part of the I phase of starvation the intensity of free radical lipid peroxidation in a liver had almost the same level as in control group--that was a result of the high-grade functioning of antioxidant defense system. After transition the I phase of starvation into the II phase (6 day of experiment) the oxidative stress was developed as result of an exhaustion of system antioxidant defense potential in a liver. The results of this data can testify that during I phase of starvation in a liver the conditions was raised for display of the ceramide-mediated proapoptotic signalling. We assume that ceramide-mediated apoptosis is one of mechanisms of optimization of liver cellular population at the frames of metabolic adaptation. The I phase of starvation in a liver proves by the ceramide-mediated proapoptotic signaling developing. During the II phase of starvation the oxidative stress process were prevailed. PMID:23289297

  3. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of an Acid Sphingomyelinase-Like Protein from the Bacterial Plant Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that Hydrolyzes ATP to AMP but Not Sphingomyelin to Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Airola, Michael V.; Tumolo, Jessica M.; Snider, Justin; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2014-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) is a human enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to generate the bioactive lipid ceramide and phosphocholine. ASMase deficiency is the underlying cause of the genetic diseases Niemann-Pick Type A and B and has been implicated in the onset and progression of a number of other human diseases including cancer, depression, liver, and cardiovascular disease. ASMase is the founding member of the aSMase protein superfamily, which is a subset of the metallophosphatase (MPP) superfamily. To date, MPPs that share sequence homology with aSMase, termed aSMase-like proteins, have been annotated and presumed to function as aSMases. However, none of these aSMase-like proteins have been biochemically characterized to verify this. Here we identify RsASML, previously annotated as RSp1609: acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase, as the first bacterial aSMase-like protein from the deadly plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum based on sequence homology with the catalytic and C-terminal domains of human aSMase. A biochemical characterization of RsASML does not support a role in sphingomyelin hydrolysis but rather finds RsASML capable of acting as an ATP diphosphohydrolase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP to AMP. In addition, RsASML displays a neutral, not acidic, pH optimum and prefers Ni2+ or Mn2+, not Zn2+, for catalysis. This alters the expectation that all aSMase-like proteins function as acid SMases and expands the substrate possibilities of this protein superfamily to include nucleotides. Overall, we conclude that sequence homology with human aSMase is not sufficient to predict substrate specificity, pH optimum for catalysis, or metal dependence. This may have implications to the biochemically uncharacterized human aSMase paralogs, aSMase-like 3a (aSML3a) and aSML3b, which have been implicated in cancer and kidney disease, respectively, and assumed to function as aSMases. PMID:25144372

  4. Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase Acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) Is a Novel Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Regulated by Cholesterol in Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Traini, Mathew; Quinn, Carmel M.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Johansson, Erik; Schroder, Kate; Kockx, Maaike; Meikle, Peter J.; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-loaded foam cell macrophages are prominent in atherosclerotic lesions and play complex roles in both inflammatory signaling and lipid metabolism, which are underpinned by large scale reprogramming of gene expression. We performed a microarray study of primary human macrophages that showed that transcription of the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) gene is up-regulated after cholesterol loading. SMPDL3A protein expression in and secretion from primary macrophages are stimulated by cholesterol loading, liver X receptor ligands, and cyclic AMP, and N-glycosylated SMPDL3A protein is detectable in circulating blood. We demonstrate for the first time that SMPDL3A is a functional phosphodiesterase with an acidic pH optimum. We provide evidence that SMPDL3A is not an acid sphingomyelinase but unexpectedly is active against nucleotide diphosphate and triphosphate substrates at acidic and neutral pH. SMPDL3A is a major source of nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity secreted by liver X receptor-stimulated human macrophages. Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP may activate pro-inflammatory responses in immune cells. Increased expression and secretion of SMPDL3A by cholesterol-loaded macrophage foam cells in lesions may decrease local concentrations of pro-inflammatory nucleotides and potentially represent a novel anti-inflammatory axis linking lipid metabolism with purinergic signaling in atherosclerosis. PMID:25288789

  5. Indication of increase of the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio in lung fluid of lambs maternally treated with metabolite VIII of Bisolvon.

    PubMed

    Egberts, J; Fontijne, P; Wamsteker, K

    1976-01-01

    Metabolite VIII of Bisolvon (Met. VIII) was administered to six pregnant ewes (i.m. daily 5 or 10 mg/kg for 7-9 days). The treatment was started at the 116th/117th or 117th/118th day of gestation and in one case the drug was given to the fetus (i.v. 2 mg/ml/h). Fetal lung fluid obtained from chronically implanted catheters was used for the estimation of the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio. The maternal treatment with Met. VIII resulted in a significantly increased growth of the L/S ratio compared to the control group (n=4). In three lambs a sharp increase of the L/S ratio was noticed during the last days of Met. VIII treatment. The time gap between first treatment and noticeable effect was 6-8 days. It is postulated that the noticed increase of L/S ratio is the consequence of Met. VIII treatment and very unlikely the result of a release of glucocorticoticoids. PMID:974190

  6. Freezing of phosphocholine headgroup in fully hydrated sphingomyelin bilayers and its effect on the dynamics of nonfreezable water at subzero temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.G.; Chi, L.M.; Yang, T.S.; Fang, S.Y. )

    1991-07-25

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are applied to characterize the nonfreezable water molecules in fully hydrated D2O/sphingomyelin at temperatures below 0 degrees C. Upon cooling, DSC thermogram displays two thermal transitions peaked at -11 and -34 degrees C. The high-temperature exothermic transition corresponds to the freezing of the bulk D2O, and the low-temperature transition, which has not previously been reported, can be ascribed to the freezing of the phosphocholine headgroup in the lipid bilayer. The dynamics of nonfreezable water are also studied by 2H NMR T1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) and T2e (spin-spin relaxation time obtained by two pulse echo) measurements at 30.7 MHz and at temperatures down to -110 degrees C. The temperature dependence of the T1 relaxation time is characterized by a distinct minimum value of 2.1 {plus minus} 0.1 ms at -30C. T2e is discontinuous at temperature around -70C, indicating another freezing-like event for the bound water at this temperature. Analysis of the relaxation data suggest that nonfreezable water undergoes both fast and slow motions at characteristic NMR time scales. The slow motions are affected when the lipid headgroup freezes.

  7. Multi-dimensional 1H- 13C HETCOR and FSLG-HETCOR NMR study of sphingomyelin bilayers containing cholesterol in the gel and liquid crystalline states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Gregory P.; Alam, Todd M.

    2006-08-01

    13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) and 1H MAS NMR spectra were collected on egg sphingomyelin (SM) bilayers containing cholesterol above and below the liquid crystalline phase transition temperature ( Tm). Two-dimensional (2D) dipolar heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra were obtained on SM bilayers in the liquid crystalline ( Lα) state for the first time and display improved resolution and chemical shift dispersion compared to the individual 1H and 13C spectra and significantly aid in spectral assignment. In the gel ( Lβ) state, the 1H dimension suffers from line broadening due to the 1H- 1H homonuclear dipolar coupling that is not completely averaged by the combination of lipid mobility and MAS. This line broadening is significantly suppressed by implementing frequency switched Lee-Goldburg (FSLG) homonuclear 1H decoupling during the evolution period. In the liquid crystalline ( Lα) phase, no improvement in line width is observed when FSLG is employed. All of the observed resonances are assignable to cholesterol and SM environments. This study demonstrates the ability to obtain 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments in the gel state for biomembranes, expands on previous SM assignments, and presents a comprehensive 1H/ 13C NMR assignment of SM bilayers containing cholesterol. Comparisons are made to a previous report on cholesterol chemical shifts in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers. A number of similarities and some differences are observed and discussed.

  8. New look inside human breast ducts with Raman imaging. Raman candidates as diagnostic markers for breast cancer prognosis: Mammaglobin, palmitic acid and sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Abramczyk, Halina; Brozek-Pluska, Beata

    2016-02-25

    Looking inside the human body fascinated mankind for thousands of years. Current diagnostic and therapy methods are often limited by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution. Raman imaging may bring revolution in monitoring of disease and treatment. The main advantage of Raman imaging is that it gives spatial information about various chemical constituents in defined cellular organelles in contrast to conventional methods (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, NMR, HPLC) that rely on bulk or fractionated analyses of extracted components. We demonstrated how Raman imaging can drive the progress on breast cancer just unimaginable a few years ago. We looked inside human breast ducts answering fundamental questions about location and distribution of various biochemical components inside the lumen, epithelial cells of the duct and the stroma around the duct during cancer development. We have identified Raman candidates as diagnostic markers for breast cancer prognosis: carotenoids, mammaglobin, palmitic acid and sphingomyelin as key molecular targets in ductal breast cancer in situ, and propose the molecular mechanisms linking oncogenes with lipid programming. PMID:26851089

  9. 2NH and 3OH are crucial structural requirements in sphingomyelin for sticholysin II binding and pore formation in bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Maula, Terhi; Isaksson, Y Jenny E; García-Linares, Sara; Niinivehmas, Sanna; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Kurita, Mayuko; Yamaguchi, Shou; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Katsumura, Shigeo; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-del-Pozo, Alvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2013-05-01

    Sticholysin II (StnII) is a pore-forming toxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla heliantus which belongs to the large actinoporin family. The toxin binds to sphingomyelin (SM) containing membranes, and shows high binding specificity for this lipid. In this study, we have examined the role of the hydrogen bonding groups of the SM long-chain base (i.e., the 2NH and the 3OH) for StnII recognition. We prepared methylated SM-analogs which had reduced hydrogen bonding capability from 2NH and 3OH. Both surface plasmon resonance experiments, and isothermal titration calorimetry measurements indicated that StnII failed to bind to bilayers containing methylated SM-analogs, whereas clear binding was seen to SM-containing bilayers. StnII also failed to induce calcein release (i.e., pore formation) from vesicles made to contain methylated SM-analogs, but readily induced calcein release from SM-containing vesicles. Molecular modeling of SM docked to the phosphocholine binding site of StnII indicated that the 2NH and 3OH groups were likely to form a hydrogen bond with Tyr135. In addition, it appeared that Tyr111 and Tyr136 could donate hydrogen bonds to phosphate oxygen, thus stabilizing SM binding to the toxin. We conclude that the interfacial hydrogen bonding properties of SM, in addition to the phosphocholine head group, are crucial for high-affinity SM/StnII-interaction. PMID:23376330

  10. [Urinary oestriol excretion and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid in Bogota (2600 m) I. Normal pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A; Cristina Peña, M; Jaramillo, R

    1980-01-01

    We have studied 22 pregnancies in order to establish normal values for the urinary oestriol excretion in Bogotá, a city 2600 metres above sea level. The study subjects were normal pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of the Hospital San José de Bogotá, and belong to a racially mixed community of medium to low socio-economic level. In the study, new born weight was found low (mean +/- SEM 2.97 +/-0.06 kg) while placental weight was high (0.6 +/- 0.02 kg) with a high placenta/newborn ratio. Maternal hemoglobin was elevated (12.8 +/- 0.2g/100 ml) reflecting the effect of altitude. In 66 determinations, oestriol excretion was more than 4mg/24 hours from week 31 to 36 and of more than 5 mg/24 hours from week 35 to 40. The decreased excretion of oestriol most likely reflects impaired intrauterine fetal growth, and is probably related to nutrional, racial and socio-economic factors as well as to the altitude. In five normal term pregnancies studied, the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio was of 2 or more and amniotic fluid creatinine was also elevated, indicating maturity of the pulmonary and renal enzyme systems of the fetus. PMID:7389997

  11. Histological analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry reveal differential localization of sphingomyelin molecular species regulated by particular ceramide synthase in mouse brains.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Wakabayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Yukari; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Sakai, Shota; Kihara, Akio; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2015-12-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) is synthesized by SM synthase (SMS) from ceramide (Cer). SM regulates signaling pathways and maintains organ structure. SM comprises a sphingoid base and differing lengths of acyl-chains, but the importance of its various forms and regulatory synthases is not known. It has been reported that Cer synthase (CerS) has restricted substrate specificity, whereas SMS has no specificity for different lengths of acyl-chains. We hypothesized that the distribution of each SM molecular species was regulated by expression of the CerS family. Thus, we compared the distribution of SM species and CerS mRNA expression using molecular imaging. Spatial distribution of each SM molecular species was investigated using ultra-high-resolution imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). IMS revealed that distribution of SM molecular species varied according to the lengths of acyl-chains found in each brain section. Furthermore, a combination study using in situ hybridization and IMS revealed the spatial expression of CerS1 to be associated with the localization of SM (d18:1/18:0) in cell body-rich gray matter, and CerS2 to be associated with SM (d18:1/24:1) in myelin-rich white matter. Our study is the first comparison of spatial distribution between SM molecular species and CerS isoforms, and revealed their distinct association in the brain. These observations were demonstrated by suppression of CerS2 using siRNA in HepG2 cells; that is, siRNA for CerS2 specifically decreased C22 very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA)- and C24 VLCFA-containing SMs. Thus, histological analyses of SM species by IMS could be a useful approach to consider their molecular function and regulative mechanism. PMID:26398595

  12. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of sphingomyelin species from calf brain, ox liver, egg yolk, and krill oil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2012-01-11

    In this study, molecular species of sphingomyelin (SM) in egg yolk, calf brain, ox liver, and krill oil were investigated. Classes of phospholipids (PLs) were purified, identified, and quantified by normal phase semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). For SM molecular species identification, pure SM collected through a flow splitter was loaded to HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)), with 100% methanol containing 5 mM ammonium formate as mobile phase. In addition to classes of PLs, the used approach allowed the determination of profiles of SM species in egg yolk, ox liver, and calf brain, whereas krill oil turned out not to contain any SM. It also allowed the separation and identification of SM subclasses, as well as tentative identification of species with the same molecular mass, including isomers. The results showed that egg yolk contained the highest proportion of (d18:1-16:0)SM (94.1%). The major SM molecular species in ox liver were (d18:1-16:0)SM (25.5%), (d18:1-23:0)SM (19.7%), (d18:1-24:0)SM (13.2%), and (d18:1-22:0)SM (12.5%). Calf brain SM was rich in species such as (d18:1-18:0)SM (40.7%), (d18:1-24:1)SM (17.1%), and (d18:1-20:0)SM (10.8%). PMID:22148474

  13. Alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) promotes cholesterol absorption by affecting sphingomyelin levels in the gut: A study with NPP7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Yajun; Hertervig, Erik; Ohlsson, Lena; Nilsson, Ake; Duan, Rui-Dong

    2014-05-15

    We previously showed that dietary sphingomyelin (SM) inhibited cholesterol absorption in animals. The key enzyme hydrolyzing SM in the gut is alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 7). Here using the fecal dual-isotope ratio method we compared cholesterol absorption in the wild-type (WT) and alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice. The animals were fed an emulsion containing [(14)C]cholesterol and [(3)H]sitosterol. The radioactivities in the lipids of the fecal samples collected 4, 8, and 24 h thereafter were determined, and the ratio of (14)C/(3)H was calculated. We found that the fecal [(14)C]cholesterol recovery in the KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT mice. A maximal 92% increase occurred 8 h after feeding. Recovery of [(3)H]sitosterol did not differ between the two groups. Accordingly, the (14)C-to-(3)H ratio of fecal lipids was 133% higher at 8 h and 75% higher at 24 h in the KO than in the WT mice. Decreased [(14)C]cholesterol was also found in the serum of the KO mice 4 h after feeding. Supplement of SM in the emulsion reduced the differences in fecal [(14)C]cholesterol recovery between the WT and KO mice because of a greater increase of [(14)C]cholesterol recovery in the WT mice. Without treatment, the KO mice had significantly higher SM levels in the intestinal content and feces, but not in the intestinal mucosa or serum. The expression of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein in the small intestine was not changed. In conclusion, alk-SMase is a physiological factor promoting cholesterol absorption by reducing SM levels in the intestinal lumen. PMID:24650549

  14. In contrast to Chlamydia trachomatis, Waddlia chondrophila grows in human cells without inhibiting apoptosis, fragmenting the Golgi apparatus, or diverting post-Golgi sphingomyelin transport.

    PubMed

    Dille, Stephanie; Kleinschnitz, Eva-Maria; Kontchou, Collins Waguia; Nölke, Thilo; Häcker, Georg

    2015-08-01

    The Chlamydiales are an order of obligate intracellular bacteria sharing a developmental cycle inside a cytosolic vacuole, with very diverse natural hosts, from amoebae to mammals. The clinically most important species is Chlamydia trachomatis. Many uncertainties remain as to how Chlamydia organizes its intracellular development and replication. The discovery of new Chlamydiales species from other families permits the comparative analysis of cell-biological events and may indicate events that are common to all or peculiar to some species and more or less tightly linked to "chlamydial" development. We used this approach in the infection of human cells with Waddlia chondrophila, a species from the family Waddliaceae whose natural host is uncertain. Compared to C. trachomatis, W. chondrophila had slightly different growth characteristics, including faster cytotoxicity. The embedding in cytoskeletal structures was not as pronounced as for the C. trachomatis inclusion. C. trachomatis infection generates proteolytic activity by the protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which degrades host substrates upon extraction; these substrates were not cleaved in the case of W. chondrophila. Unlike Chlamydia, W. chondrophila did not protect against staurosporine-induced apoptosis. C. trachomatis infection causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation and redirects post-Golgi sphingomyelin transport to the inclusion; both were absent from W. chondrophila-infected cells. When host cells were infected with both species, growth of both species was reduced. This study highlights differences between bacterial species that both depend on obligate intracellular replication inside an inclusion. Some features seem principally dispensable for intracellular development of Chlamydiales in vitro but may be linked to host adaptation of Chlamydia and the higher virulence of C. trachomatis. PMID:26056386

  15. Unique thermal behavior of sphingomyelin species with nonhydroxy and 2-hydroxy very-long-chain (C28-C32) PUFAs[S

    PubMed Central

    Peñalva, Daniel A.; Furland, Natalia E.; López, Gustavo H.; Aveldaño, Marta I.; Antollini, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    In rat germ cells and spermatozoa, sphingomyelin (SM) contains molecular species with nonhydroxy (n) and 2-hydroxy (h) very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (V), the most abundant being SMs with (n- and h-) 28:4n-6, 30:5n-6, and 32:5n-6 as acyl chains. The aim of this study was to gain information about their thermotropic behavior and interactions with other lipids. After isolation from rat testis, multilamellar and giant unilamellar vesicles from these SMs were examined using fluorescent probes. Only n-32:5 SM and h-32:5 SM displayed a gel-liquid transition temperature (Tt ∼ 21–22°C), the rest remaining in the liquid state in the 5°C–45°C range. The degree of order was larger in bilayers of any of the h-V SMs than in those of their chain-matched n-V SMs. Both, but n-V SM relatively more than h-V SM, decreased the Tt of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine as their proportion increased in binary phosphatidylcholine:SM liposomes. In contrast to the established ability of 16:0 SM to form lateral cholesterol/SM-rich ordered domains in ternary dioleoylphosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:SM bilayers, neither n-V SM nor h-V SM showed a tendency to do so. Thus, these SMs are in the fluid state and are not involved in this type of domains in spermatozoa at physiological temperatures. However, this state could be altered at the very low temperatures at which these gametes are usually preserved. PMID:23687296

  16. In Contrast to Chlamydia trachomatis, Waddlia chondrophila Grows in Human Cells without Inhibiting Apoptosis, Fragmenting the Golgi Apparatus, or Diverting Post-Golgi Sphingomyelin Transport

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Stephanie; Kleinschnitz, Eva-Maria; Kontchou, Collins Waguia; Nölke, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The Chlamydiales are an order of obligate intracellular bacteria sharing a developmental cycle inside a cytosolic vacuole, with very diverse natural hosts, from amoebae to mammals. The clinically most important species is Chlamydia trachomatis. Many uncertainties remain as to how Chlamydia organizes its intracellular development and replication. The discovery of new Chlamydiales species from other families permits the comparative analysis of cell-biological events and may indicate events that are common to all or peculiar to some species and more or less tightly linked to “chlamydial” development. We used this approach in the infection of human cells with Waddlia chondrophila, a species from the family Waddliaceae whose natural host is uncertain. Compared to C. trachomatis, W. chondrophila had slightly different growth characteristics, including faster cytotoxicity. The embedding in cytoskeletal structures was not as pronounced as for the C. trachomatis inclusion. C. trachomatis infection generates proteolytic activity by the protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which degrades host substrates upon extraction; these substrates were not cleaved in the case of W. chondrophila. Unlike Chlamydia, W. chondrophila did not protect against staurosporine-induced apoptosis. C. trachomatis infection causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation and redirects post-Golgi sphingomyelin transport to the inclusion; both were absent from W. chondrophila-infected cells. When host cells were infected with both species, growth of both species was reduced. This study highlights differences between bacterial species that both depend on obligate intracellular replication inside an inclusion. Some features seem principally dispensable for intracellular development of Chlamydiales in vitro but may be linked to host adaptation of Chlamydia and the higher virulence of C. trachomatis. PMID:26056386

  17. Prediction of fetal lung maturity using the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio analysis with a simplified sample preparation, using a commercial microtip-column combined with mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Seok; Chung, Hee-Jung; Choi, Young Sik; Min, Won-Ki; Jung, So Young

    2015-07-01

    Fetal lung maturity is estimated using the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio) in amniotic fluid and it is commonly measured with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is time consuming and technically difficult; however, it is widely used because there is no alternative. We evaluated a novel method for measuring the L/S ratio, which involves a tip-column with a cation-exchange resin and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids in the amniotic fluid were extracted using methanol and chloroform. Choline-containing phospholipids such as lecithin and sphingomyelin were purified by passing them through the tip-column. LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF were used to directly analyze the purified samples. The L/S ratio by mass spectrometry was calculated from the sum peak intensity of the six lecithin, and that of sphingomyelin 34:1. In 20 samples, the L/S ratio determined with TLC was significantly correlated with that obtained by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF. There was a 100% concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by LC-MS/MS (kappa value=1.0). The concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by MALDI-TOF was also 100% (kappa value=1.0). Our method provides a faster, simpler, and more reliable assessment of fetal lung maturity. The L/S ratio measured by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF offers a compelling alternative method to traditional TLC. PMID:26000861

  18. Very-long-chain fatty acid sphingomyelin in nuclear lipid microdomains of hepatocytes and hepatoma cells: can the exchange from C24:0 to C16:0 affect signal proteins and vitamin D receptor?

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Andrea; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Floridi, Alessandro; Coletti, Alice; Cataldi, Samuela; Codini, Michela; Lazzarini, Remo; Bartoccini, Elisa; Cascianelli, Giacomo; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio; Beccari, Tommaso; Curcio, Francesco; Albi, Elisabetta

    2015-07-01

    Lipid microdomains localized in the inner nuclear membrane are considered platforms for active chromatin anchoring. Stimuli such as surgery, vitamin D, or glucocorticoid drugs influence their gene expression, DNA duplication, and RNA synthesis. In this study, we used ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify sphingomyelin (SM) species coupled with immunoblot analysis to comprehensively map differences in nuclear lipid microdomains (NLMs) purified from hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. We showed that NLMs lost saturated very-long-chain fatty acid (FA; C24:0) SM in cancer cells and became enriched in long-chain FA (C16:0) SM. We also found that signaling proteins, such as STAT3, Raf1, and PKCζ, were increased and vitamin D receptor was reduced in cancer cells. Because recent researches showed a shift in sphingolipid composition from C24:0 to C16:0 in relation to cell life, we performed a comparative analysis of properties among C16:0 SM, C24:0 SM, and cholesterol. Our results led us to hypothesize that the enrichment of C16:0 SM could determine enhanced dynamic properties of NLMs in cancer cells with an increased shuttling of protein signaling molecules. PMID:26124436

  19. Concurrent increase of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide in the spleen from non-neurologic Niemann-Pick type C patients but also patients possibly affected with other lipid trafficking disorders.

    PubMed

    Harzer, Klaus; Massenkeil, Gero; Fröhlich, Eckhart

    2003-02-27

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a neurovisceral (or, extremely rarely, only visceral) lipidosis caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene or, in a few patients, the HE1 gene, which encode sterol regulating proteins. NPC is characterised by a complex lipid anomaly including a disturbed cellular trafficking of cholesterol but also multi-lipid storage in visceral organs and brain. Lipids were studied using conventional methods in enlarged spleens that had been removed from five patients for different therapeutic and diagnostic reasons and found to have microscopic signs of lysosomal storage disease not suspected clinically. The spleen lipid findings with a concurrent accumulation of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide (Acc-CSG) allowed us to suggest NPC diagnoses for these patients, who were free of neurologic symptoms. From two patients no material for confirmatory studies was available, but in two other patients NPC diagnoses could be confirmed with the filipin cytochemical cholesterol assay and NPC1 gene analysis, respectively. However, these tests and also HE1 gene analysis were negative in a third patient. Since the Acc-CSG lipid pattern seems to indicate a multi-lipid trafficking defect rather than being highly specific for NPC, this patient, if not affected with very atypical NPC, may be a candidate for a different lipid trafficking disorder. The Acc-CSG pattern was considered to be similar to the lipid pattern known for the lipid rafts, these functional cell structures being probably disorganised and accumulated in late endosomes and lysosomes of NPC cells. PMID:12606053

  20. Decrease in Sphingomyelin (d18:1/16:0) in Stem Villi and Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4) in Terminal Villi of Human Term Placentas with Pathohistological Maternal Malperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Kaori; Masaki, Noritaka; Kohmura-Kobayashi, Yukiko; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Itoh, Hiroaki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Placental villi play pivotal roles in feto-maternal transportation and phospholipids constitute a major part of the villous membrane. We have been developing and optimizing an imaging system based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based mass spectrometer, which provides clear two-dimensional molecular distribution patterns using highly sensitive mass spectrometry from mixtures of ions generated on tissue surfaces. We recently applied this technology to normal human uncomplicated term placentas and detected the specific distribution of sphingomyelin (SM) (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0/20:4) in terminal villi. In the present study, we applied this technology to nine placentas with maternal or fetal complications, and determined whether a relationship existed between these specific distribution patterns of phospholipid molecules and the six representative pathological findings of placentas, i.e., villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), thrombus, atherosis, chorioamnionitis (CAM), immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi. In two placentas with the first and second largest total number of positive pathological findings, i.e., five and three positive findings, the specific distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi and PC (16:0/20:4) in terminal villi disappeared. The common pathological findings in these two placentas were atherosis, immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi, suggesting the possible involvement of the underperfusion of maternal blood into the intervillous space. On the other hand, the number of pathological findings were two or less in the seven other placentas, in which no specific relationships were observed between the differential expression patterns of these two phospholipids in stem and terminal villi and the pathological findings of the placentas; however, the specific distribution pattern of SM (d18:1/16:0) in stem villi disappeared in four placentas

  1. Host sphingomyelin increases West Nile virus infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Gabandé-Rodríguez, Enrique; García-Cabrero, Ana M; Sánchez, Marina P; Ledesma, María Dolores; Sobrino, Francisco; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus (WNV), are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a global health problem. The flavivirus lifecycle is intimately connected to cellular lipids. Among the lipids co-opted by flaviviruses, we have focused on SM, an important component of cellular membranes particularly enriched in the nervous system. After infection with the neurotropic WNV, mice deficient in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which accumulate high levels of SM in their tissues, displayed exacerbated infection. In addition, WNV multiplication was enhanced in cells from human patients with Niemann-Pick type A, a disease caused by a deficiency of ASM activity resulting in SM accumulation. Furthermore, the addition of SM to cultured cells also increased WNV infection, whereas treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of SM synthesis reduced WNV infection. Confocal microscopy analyses confirmed the association of SM with viral replication sites within infected cells. Our results unveil that SM metabolism regulates flavivirus infection in vivo and propose SM as a suitable target for antiviral design against WNV. PMID:26764042

  2. Sphingomyelin metabolism is involved in the differentiation of MDCK cells induced by environmental hypertonicity

    PubMed Central

    Favale, Nicolás Octavio; Santacreu, Bruno Jaime; Pescio, Lucila Gisele; Marquez, Maria Gabriela; Sterin-Speziale, Norma Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are relevant lipid components of eukaryotic cells. Besides regulating various cellular processes, SLs provide the structural framework for plasma membrane organization. Particularly, SM is associated with detergent-resistant microdomains. We have previously shown that the adherens junction (AJ) complex, the relevant cell-cell adhesion structure involved in cell differentiation and tissue organization, is located in an SM-rich membrane lipid domain. We have also demonstrated that under hypertonic conditions, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells acquire a differentiated phenotype with changes in SL metabolism. For these reasons, we decided to evaluate whether SM metabolism is involved in the acquisition of the differentiated phenotype of MDCK cells. We found that SM synthesis mediated by SM synthase 1 is involved in hypertonicity-induced formation of mature AJs, necessary for correct epithelial cell differentiation. Inhibition of SM synthesis impaired the acquisition of mature AJs, evoking a disintegration-like process reflected by the dissipation of E-cadherin and β- and α-catenins from the AJ complex. As a consequence, MDCK cells did not develop the hypertonicity-induced differentiated epithelial cell phenotype. PMID:25670801

  3. The Physical Properties of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Membranes: a Deuterium NMR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvanloo, Amirmohamad; Shaghaghi, Mehran; Zuckermann, Martin; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    We have used ^2H NMR to study the effect of cholesterol on N-palmitoyl(D31)-D-erythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine (PSM) membranes. NMR spectra were taken as a function of temperature and cholesterol concentration. The constructed phase diagram exhibits both solid-ordered (so) + liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) + lo phase coexistence regions with a clear three-phase line at 37^oC. The ld + lo region was characterized by examining the cholesterol dependence of the width of resolved peaks in the depaked spectra, as well as the average spectral width (M1), at a given temperature. The so + lo region was defined using spectral subtraction. Analogous experiments were done using 1-palmitoyl,2-palmitoyl(D31)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/cholesterol membranes in order to carefully compare the data obtained using palmitoyl chains which have similar ``kinked'' conformations. The three-phase line in sn-2 perdeuterated DPPC/cholesterol is at 39^oC. The PSM/cholesterol membrane is significantly more ordered than the DPPC/cholesterol membrane in the liquid crystalline phase. This should be compared to the difference between the cholesterol-free membranes at, where the average order of PSM is more than that of DPPC.

  4. In-depth sphingomyelin characterization using electron impact excitation of ions from organics and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Campbell, J Larry; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Baker, Paul R S

    2016-05-01

    Electron impact excitation of ions from organics (EIEIO), also referred to as electron-induced dissociation, was applied to singly charged SM molecular species in the gas phase. Using ESI and a quadrupole TOF mass spectrometer equipped with an electron-ion reaction device, we found that SMs fragmented sufficiently to identify their lipid class, acyl group structure, and the location of double bond(s). Using this technique, nearly 200 SM molecular species were found in four natural lipid extracts: bovine milk, porcine brain, chicken egg yolk, and bovine heart. In addition to the most common backbone, d18:1, sphingosines with a range of carbon chain lengths, sphingadienes, and some sphinganine backbones were also detected. Modifications in natural SMs were also identified, including addition of iodine/methanol across a carbon-carbon double bond. This unparalleled new approach to SM analysis using EIEIO-MS shows promise as a unique and powerful tool for structural characterization. PMID:27005317

  5. Free-cholesterol-mediated autophagy of ORMDL1 stimulates sphingomyelin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuhui; Robinet, Peggy; Smith, Jonathan D; Gulshan, Kailash

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol confers unique biophysical properties to the plasma membrane bilayer that are essential for maintaining optimal membrane fluidity, which in turn regulate multiple physiological functions required to promote cellular integrity and viability. Conversely, excessive cholesterol causes pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis that can lead to heart attacks. Human atheroma macrophages carry a large burden of free cholesterol (FC) in addition to cholesterol esters. It is recognized that sterols can modulate the levels of other lipids to attain lipid homeostasis; thus, excess FC may play a role in modulating compensatory sphingolipid pathways. Recent studies have shown that excess lipids can cause ER stress and apoptosis. In contrast, autophagy may play a protective role by clearing excess lipids from macrophage foam cell lipid droplets. Interestingly, a macrophage study using a TLR4-specifc agonist showed that de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis is essential for autophagy induction, suggesting links between sphingolipid biosynthesis and autophagy. While the role of autophagy in removing excess lipids has been the focus of many studies, its role in fine-tuning cellular lipid homeostasis remains largely unexplored. PMID:26042659

  6. Sphingomyelin/Phosphatidylcholine/Cholesterol Phase Diagram: Boundaries and Composition of Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Fedorov, Aleksandre; Prieto, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The ternary system palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM)/palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)/cholesterol is used to model lipid rafts. The phase behavior of the three binary systems PSM/POPC, PSM/cholesterol, and POPC/cholesterol is first experimentally determined. Phase coexistence boundaries are then determined for ternary mixtures at room temperature (23°C) and the ternary phase diagram at that temperature is obtained. From the diagram at 23°C and the binary phase diagrams, a reasonable expectation is drawn for the ternary phase diagram at 37°C. Several photophysical methodologies are employed that do not involve detergent extraction, in addition to literature data (e.g., differential scanning calorimetry) and thermodynamic rules. For the ternary phase diagrams, some tie-lines are calculated, including the one that contains the PSM/POPC/ cholesterol 1:1:1 mixture, which is often used in model raft studies. The diagrams here described are used to rationalize literature results, some of them apparently discrepant, and to discuss lipid rafts within the framework of liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered phase coexistence. PMID:14507704

  7. Two-photon Laurdan studies of the ternary lipid mixture DOPC:SM:cholesterol reveal a single liquid phase at sphingomyelin:cholesterol ratios lower than 1.

    PubMed

    Carravilla, Pablo; Nieva, José L; Goñi, Félix M; Requejo-Isidro, Jose; Huarte, Nerea

    2015-03-10

    The ternary lipid mixture DOPC:eggSM:cholesterol in excess water has been studied in the form of giant unilamellar vesicles using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Previous publications based on single-photon fluorescence microscopy had reported heterogeneous phase behavior (phase coexistence) in the region of the triangular phase diagram corresponding to SM:cholesterol molar ratios <1. We have examined this region by two-photon microscopy of Laurdan-labeled mixtures and have found that, under our conditions, only a single liquid phase exists. We have shown that macroscopic phase separation in the above region can be artifactually induced by one-photon excitation of the fluorescent probes and ensuing photooxidation and is prevented using two-photon excitation. The main effect of increasing the concentration of cholesterol in mixtures containing 30 mol % SM was to increase the rigidity of the disordered domains. Increasing the concentration of SM in mixtures containing 20 mol % cholesterol gradually augmented the rigidity of the ordered domains, while the disordered domains reached minimal order at a SM:cholesterol 2.25:1 molar ratio, which then increased again. Moreover, the detailed measurement of Laurdan generalized polarization across the whole phase diagram allowed the representation, for both the single- and two-phase regions, of the gradual variation of membrane lateral packing along the diagram, which we found to be governed largely by SM:cholesterol interactions. PMID:25658036

  8. Anti-immunoglobulin-induced apoptosis in WEHI 231 cells involves the slow formation of ceramide from sphingomyelin and is blocked by bcl-XL.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, D A; Kilkus, J P; Gottschalk, A R; Quintáns, J; Dawson, G

    1997-04-11

    Prolonged (>24 h) exposure to anti-IgM (an antigen surrogate that induces membrane cross-linking and apoptosis) induced a 3-fold increase in the mass of endogenous ceramide measured by 32P labeling by diacylglycerol kinase and a 4-fold increase in ceramide as measured by metabolic labeling with [3H]palmitate in a B-lymphocyte cell line, WEHI 231. This correlated with the induction of apoptosis. Shorter exposure times to anti-IgM (up to 8 h) failed to elicit apoptosis and did not elicit increased ceramide formation. After 8 h, apoptosis occurs concomitantly with ceramide formation over the next 40 h. Further, we showed that exogenous ceramide mimicked anti-IgM-induced apoptosis and that apoptosis was potentiated in serum-free media. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of ceramide catabolism, N-oleoylethanolamine, increased both ceramide formation and apoptosis and accelerated apoptosis induced by anti-IgM. To examine further how ceramide metabolism is involved in apoptosis, we derived cell lines from a small population of cells resistant to N-oleoylethanolamine. These cell lines were selected based on an altered ceramide metabolic pathway, were resistant to apoptosis induced by anti-IgM, and showed no significant increase in ceramide when challenged with anti-IgM. The basis of this resistance was shown to be the failure to activate neutral sphingomyelinase activity following 24-h treatment with anti-IgM, in contrast to the 2-fold increase in neutral sphingomyelinase activity observed in wild type cells. We have shown previously that transfection of WEHI cells with bcl-xL conferred resistance to anti-IgM-induced apoptosis, whereas transfection with bcl-2 did not (Gottschalk, A., Boise, L., Thompson, C., and Quintans, J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 91, 7350-7354). In this study, these bcl-xL transfectants also displayed increased resistance to exogenous N-acetylsphingosine (C2-ceramide) or N-hexanoylsphingosine (C6-ceramide). However, when challenged with anti-IgM the bcl-xL transfectants produced levels of ceramide similar to wild type cells, suggesting that ceramide formation is upstream of bcl-xL and that it is a major determinant of B-cell death. PMID:9092523

  9. Liquid Chromatography with Dual Parallel Mass Spectrometry and 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Analysis of Sphingomyelin and Dihydrosphingomyelin. II. Bovine Milk Sphingolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS), in parallel, was used for simultaneous detection of bovine milk sphingolipids (BMS). APCI-MS mass spectra exhibited mostly ceramide-like fragment ions, [Cer-H2O...

  10. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  11. Administration of pyrene lipids by receptor-mediated endocytosis and their degradation in skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, V.; Dinur, T.; Cherbu, S.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Sphingomyelin and seven glycosphingolipids were labeled with the fluorescent probe pyrene and administered into cultured fibroblasts by receptor-mediated endocytosis. For this purpose pyrene sphingomyelin or mixtures of pyrene glycolipid and unlabeled sphingomyelin were dispersed as small, unilamellar liposomes. Apolipoprotein E was then added and the receptor for this ligand on the cell surface was utilized for uptake of the liposomes and their transport to the lysosomes, where the respective pyrene lipids were degraded. Following incubation with each of the respective pyrene lipids, only the administered compound and the pyrene ceramide were present; intermediate hydrolysis products were not detected. This indicated that, in skin fibroblasts, the lysosomal ceramidase was limiting and controlled the rate of total degradation of the pyrene sphingolipids.

  12. Effect of the nature of phospholipids on the degree of their interaction with isobornylphenol antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakulina, K. M.; Kramor, R. V.; Lukanina, Yu. K.; Plashchina, I. G.; Polyakov, A. V.; Fedorova, I. V.; Chukicheva, I. Yu.; Kutchin, A. V.; Shishkina, L. N.

    2016-02-01

    The parameters of complexation between natural phospholipids (lecithin, sphingomyelin, and cephalin) with antioxidants of a new class, isobornylphenols (IBPs), were determined by UV and IR spectroscopy. The self-organization of phospholipids (PLs) was studied depending on the structure of IBPs by dynamic light scattering. The nature of phospholipids and the structure of IBPs was found to produce a substantial effect both on the degree of complexation and on the size of PL aggregates in a nonpolar solvent. Based on the obtained data it was concluded that the structure of biological membranes mainly depends on the complexation of IBP with sphingomyelin.

  13. Phospholipids of liver cell nuclei during hibernation of Yakutian ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Lakhina, A A; Markevich, L N; Zakharova, N M; Afanasyev, V N; Kolomiytseva, I K; Fesenko, E E

    2016-07-01

    In hibernating Yakutian ground squirrels S. undulatus, the content of total phospholipids in the nuclei of liver increased by 40% compared to that in animals in summer. In torpid state, the amount of sphingomyelin increased almost 8 times; phosphatidylserine, 7 times; and cardiolipin, 4 times. In active "winter" ground squirrels, the amount of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin decreased compared to the hibernating individuals but remained high compared to the "summer" ones. The torpor state did not affect the amount of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. PMID:27599501

  14. Unprecedented staining of polar lipids by a luminescent rhenium complex revealed by FTIR microspectroscopy in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bader, C A; Carter, E A; Safitri, A; Simpson, P V; Wright, P; Stagni, S; Massi, M; Lay, P A; Brooks, D A; Plush, S E

    2016-06-21

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and confocal imaging have been used to demonstrate that the neutral rhenium(i) tricarbonyl 1,10-phenanthroline complex bound to 4-cyanophenyltetrazolate as the ancillary ligand is able to localise in regions with high concentrations of polar lipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin, sphingosphine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in mammalian adipocytes. PMID:27170554

  15. Leukotriene B(4) mediates sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced itch-associated responses in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Tsugunobu; Saito, Ayumi; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2009-12-01

    In atopic dermatitis, the concentration in the skin of sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), which is produced from sphingomyelin by sphingomyelin deacylase, is increased. In the present study, we investigated the itch-eliciting activity of SPC and related substances and the mechanisms of SPC action in mice. An intradermal injection of SPC, but not sphingomyelin and sphingosine, induced scratching, an itch-associated response, which was not suppressed by a deficiency in mast cells or the H(1) histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine. The action of SPC was inhibited by the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. SPC action also was inhibited by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton and the leukotriene B(4) antagonist ONO-4057, but not by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Moreover, SPC action was inhibited by the antiallergic agent azelastine, which suppresses the action and production of leukotriene B(4). Administration of SPC to the skin and to primary cultures of keratinocytes increased leukotriene B(4) production. SPC increased intracellular Ca(2+) ion concentration in primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons and keratinocytes. These results suggest that SPC induces itching through a direct action on primary afferents and leukotriene B(4) production of keratinocytes. Sphingomyelin deacylase and SPC receptors may be previously unreported targets for antipruritic drugs. PMID:19657356

  16. Influence of lipids on the interfacial disposition of respiratory syncytical virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Helen K; Carlisle, Jennifer L; Beeby, Andrew; Money, Victoria A; Watson, Scott M D; Yeo, R Paul; Sanderson, John M

    2011-01-01

    The propensity of a matrix protein from an enveloped virus of the Mononegavirales family to associate with lipids representative of the viral envelope has been determined using label-free methods, including tensiometry and Brewster angle microscopy on lipid films at the air-water interface and atomic force microscopy on monolayers transferred to OTS-treated silicon wafers. This has enabled factors that influence the disposition of the protein with respect to the lipid interface to be characterized. In the absence of sphingomyelin, respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein penetrates monolayers composed of mixtures of phosphocholines with phosphoethanolamines or cholesterol at the air-water interface. In ternary mixtures composed of sphingomyelin, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol, the protein exhibits two separate behaviors: (1) peripheral association with the surface of sphingomyelin-rich domains and (2) penetration of sphingomyelin-poor domains. Prolonged incubation of the protein with mixtures of phosphocholines and phosphoethanolamines leads to the formation of helical protein assemblies of uniform diameter that demonstrate an inherent propensity of the protein to assemble into a filamentous form. PMID:21141948

  17. On the puzzling distribution of cholesterol in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Giang, H; Schick, M

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of cholesterol between the two leaves of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells presents a conundrum; given cholesterol's known affinity for sphingomyelin, which resides predominantly in the exoplasmic leaf, why is it that experiment finds a majority of the cholesterol in the cytoplasmic leaf? This article reviews a recently proposed solution to this puzzle. PMID:26724709

  18. Peripheral sphingolipids are associated with variation in white matter microstructure in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Christopher E; Venkatraman, Vijay K; An, Yang; Landman, Bennett A; Davatzikos, Christos; Ratnam Bandaru, Veera Venkata; Haughey, Norman J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Mielke, Michelle M; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Sphingolipids serve important structural and functional roles in cellular membranes and myelin sheaths. Plasma sphingolipids have been shown to predict cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. However, the association between plasma sphingolipid levels and brain white matter (WM) microstructure has not been examined. We investigated whether plasma sphingolipids (ceramides and sphingomyelins) were associated with magnetic resonance imaging-based diffusion measures, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity, 10.5 years later in 17 WM regions of 150 cognitively normal adults (mean age 67.2). Elevated ceramide species (C20:0, C22:0, C22:1, and C24:1) were associated with lower FA in multiple WM regions, including total cerebral WM, anterior corona radiata, and the cingulum of the cingulate gyrus. Higher sphingomyelins (C18:1 and C20:1) were associated with lower FA in regions such as the anterior corona radiata and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, lower sphingomyelin to ceramide ratios (C22:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were associated with lower FA or higher mean diffusivity in regions including the superior and posterior corona radiata. However, although these associations were significant at the a priori p < 0.05, only associations with some regional diffusion measures for ceramide C22:0 and sphingomyelin C18:1 survived correction for multiple comparisons. These findings suggest plasma sphingolipids are associated with variation in WM microstructure in cognitively normal aging. PMID:27255825

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is responsible for the conversion of a fat (lipid) called sphingomyelin into another type of lipid called ceramide. Mutations in SMPD1 lead to a ... these genes are involved in the movement of lipids within cells. Mutations in these genes lead to ...

  20. Diversity and Complexity of Ceramide Generation After Exposure of Jurkat Leukemia Cells to Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ardail, Dominique Maalouf, Mira; Boivin, Anthony; Chapet, Olivier; Bodennec, Jacques; Rousson, Robert; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To define which intracellular pools of sphingomyelin and ceramide are involved in the triggering of apoptosis of Jurkat leukemia cells in response to {gamma}-ray exposure. Methods and Materials: We examined the kinetics of ceramide generation at the whole-cell level and in different subcellular compartments (plasma membrane rafts, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum) after irradiation with photons. Ceramide was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography or after pulse labeling experiments, and the presence of sphingomyelinase within mitochondria was assessed by electron microscopy. Results: Irradiation of Jurkat leukemia cells resulted in the sequential triggering of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, followed by de novo synthesis that led to a late ceramide response (from 24 h) correlated with the triggering of apoptosis. At the subcellular level, pulse-label experiments, using [{sup 3}H]-palmitate as a precursor, strengthened the involvement of the radiation-induced sphingomyelin breakdown and revealed a very early peak (15 min) of ceramide in plasma membrane rafts. A second peak in mitochondria was measured 4 h after irradiation, resulting from an increase of the sphingomyelin content relating to the targeting of acid sphingomyelinase toward this organelle. Conclusion: These data confirm that ceramide is a major determinant in the triggering of radiation-induced apoptosis and highlight the complexity of the sequential compartment-specific ceramide-mediated response of Jurkat leukemia cells to {gamma}-rays.

  1. Sphingomyelinase D Activity in Model Membranes: Structural Effects of in situ Generation of Ceramide-1-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Roberto P.; Brewer, Jonathan; Wagner, Kerstin; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Duelund, Lars; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Olsen, Lars Folke; Bagatolli, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering) and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing sphingomyelin were examined. The findings indicate that: 1) ceramide-1-phosphate (particularly lauroyl ceramide-1-phosphate) can be incorporated into sphingomyelin bilayers in a concentration-dependent manner and generates coexistence of liquid disordered/solid ordered domains, 2) the activity of sphingomyelinase D is clearly influenced by the supramolecular organization of its substrate in membranes and, 3) in situ ceramide-1-phosphate generation by enzymatic activity profoundly alters the lateral structure and morphology of the target membranes. PMID:22558302

  2. Phospholipases in arterial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, S.; Stein, Y.; Stein, O.

    1969-01-01

    The role of phospholipases in the regulation of the changing phospholipid composition of normal human aortae with age was studied. Portions of grossly and histologically lesion-free ascending aortae from 16 females and 29 males obtained at autopsy, were analyzed for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), phospholipid, and cholesterol content and phospholipid composition. Enzymic activity toward four substrates, lecithin (LE), phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysolecithin, and sphingomyelin (SP), was determined on portions of the same homogenate. By regression analysis for correlation between all determinations and age the following results were obtained: (a) total phospholipids and choleserol increased linearly with age; (b) the increase in sphingomyelin accounted for about 70% of the phospholipid increment; (c) hydrolysis of lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine increased markedly with age, that of lysolecithin only moderately; (d) hydrolysis of sphingomyelin decreased with age; and (e) an inverse relation between the SP/LE ratio and age and sphingomyelinase/lecithinase activity and age was obtained. These results were interpreted to indicate that a causal relation exists between the fall in sphingomyelinase activity, both absolute and relative to lecithinase activity, and the accumulation of sphingomyelin with age. PMID:5355343

  3. Evidence for a relationship between bovine erythrocyte lipid membrane peculiarities and immune pressure from ruminal ciliates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erythrocytes of bovines and other ruminants have a strikingly anomalous phospholipid composition, with low or absent phosphatidylcholine (PC) together with high sphingomyelin (SM) content. Here, we report the presence in normal bovine serum of high levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies of IgM isoty...

  4. Integration of Cytokine Biology and Lipid Metabolism in Stroke**

    PubMed Central

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Dempsey, R.; Hatcher, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokines regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and are pleiotropic, redundant and multifunctional. Expression of most cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1α/ß, is very low in normal brain. Metabolism of lipids is of particular interest due to their high concentration in the brain. Inflammatory response after stroke suggests that cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 α/ß, IL-6), affect the phospholipid metabolism and subsequent production of eicosanoids, ceramide, and ROS that may potentiate brain injury. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are source for lipid messengers. Sphingomyelin synthase serves as a bridge between metabolism of glycerolipids and sphingolipids. TNF-α and IL-1 α/ß can induce phospholipases (A2, C, and D) and sphingomyelinases, and concomitantly proteolyse phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin synthesizing enzymes. Together, these alterations contribute to loss of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin after stroke that can be attenuated by inhibiting TNF-α or IL-1 α/ß signaling. Inflammatory responses are instrumental in the formation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Secretory PLA2 IIA is found in human atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in initiation, progression and maturation of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for stroke. Lipoprotein-PLA2, part of apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL, plays a role in vascular inflammation and coronary endothelial dysfunction. Cytokine antagonism attenuated secretory PLA2 IIA actions, suggesting cytokine-lipid integration studies will lead to new concepts contributing to bench-to-bedside transition for stroke therapy. PMID:17981627

  5. Interactions between earthworm hemolysins and sheep red blood cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Roch, P; Canicatti, C; Valembois, P

    1989-08-01

    The hemolytic activity exhibited by the coelomic fluid of the Annelid Eisenia fetida andrei is mediated by two lipoproteins of mass 40 and 45 kDa, each of them capable of hemolysis. Such an activity is not inhibited by zymosan, inulin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), nor by hydrazine or methylamine, suggesting that earthworm hemolysins are not related to C3 or C3b complement components. Among the membrane lipids tested (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingomyelin and cholesterol) only sphingomyelin inhibited hemolysis. The analysis of E.f. andrei proteins bound to sphingomyelin microvesicles, as well as to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) membranes, revealed a polymerization of E.f. andrei 40 kDa and/or 45 kDa hemolysins. Consequently, sphingomyelin appears a likely candidate for hemolytic complex receptor. Electron microscopy observations suggested that the polymerization causes an open channel through the lipid bilayer. As demonstrated using metal ions, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, poly(L-lysine) and protamine chloride, the mode of action of earthworm hemolytic complex is not analogous to that of C9 or perforine. PMID:2758056

  6. [Effect of betamethasone on the lipid composition of pulmonary surfactant, ependymal cells and lung tissue after surgical procedures on the thorax of dogs].

    PubMed

    Ledwozyw, A; Jabłonka, S; Kadziołka, W; Komar, E

    1986-01-01

    The lipid composition of pulmonary surfactant, ependymal cells and pulmonary tissue after surgery on the thorax in dogs was determined. 24 hrs after removal of one lung, in the other one there occurred changes in the quantity of respective classes of phospholipids of the pulmonary surfactant, manifesting themselves by a considerable drop in the amount of phosphatidylcholine (by 25%), phosphatidylethylamine (by 47%), phosphatidylglycerol (by 98%) and phosphatidylcholine: sphingomyelin ratio (by 63%), as well as by a rise in the amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (by 83%), phosphatidylserine (by 54%) and sphingomyelin (by 25%). In dogs receiving betamethasone in the post-operative period the changes were less intense: the amount of phosphatidylcholine decreased by 15%, phosphatidylethanolamine by 29%, phosphatidylglycerol by 94% and phosphatidylcholine: sphingomyelin ratio by 63%. The amount of lysophosphatidylcholine increased by 26.7%, phosphatidylserine by 29.1% and sphingomyelin by 22.2%. Similar changes were observed in the phospholipids of lining cells, while changes in the composition of phospholipids of pulmonary tissue in most cases appeared insignificant. Insignificant, too, were changes in the composition of neutral lipids of the tissular fractions examined. The described changes in dogs not receiving betamethasone correspond to those found in man in the course of acute respiratory insufficiency syndrome. Betamethasone was found to exert a protective effect on the phospholipids of pulmonary surfactant, soothing the biochemical changes brought about by surgical removal of one lung. PMID:3325943

  7. Nonequilibrium patterns of cholesterol-rich chemical heterogenieties within single fluid supported phospholipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Sapuri-Butti, Annapoorna R; Li, Qijuan; Groves, Jay T; Parikh, Atul N

    2006-06-01

    We have developed a simple method to introduce cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich chemical heterogeneities into controlled densities and concentrations within predetermined regions of another distinct fluid phospholipid bilayer supported on a solid substrate. A contiguous primary phase--a fluid POPC bilayer displaying a well-defined array of lipid-free voids (e.g., 20-100 microm squares)--was first prepared on a clean glass surface by microcontact printing under water using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamp. The aqueous-phase primary bilayer pattern was subsequently incubated with secondary-phase small unilamellar vesicles composed of independent chemical compositions. Backfilling by comparable vesicles resulted in gradual mixing between the primary- and secondary-phase lipids, effacing the pattern. When the secondary vesicles consisted of phase-separating mixtures of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and a phospholipid (2:1:1 POPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol or 1:1:1 DOPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol), well-defined spatial patterns of fluorescence, chemical compositions, and fluidities emerged. We conjecture that these patterns form because of the differences in the equilibration rates of the secondary liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases with the primary fluid POPC phase. The pattern stability depended strongly on the ambient-phase temperature, cholesterol concentration, and miscibility contrast between the two phases. When cholesterol concentration in the secondary vesicles was below 20 mol %, secondary intercalants gradually diffused within the primary POPC bilayer phase, ultimately dissolving the pattern in several minutes and presumably forming a new quasi-equilibrated lipid mixture. These phase domain micropatterns retain some properties of biological rafts including detergent resistance and phase mixing induced by selective cholesterol extraction. These patterns enable direct comparisons of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich phase domains and fluid phospholipid

  8. Localization of cholesterol in sphingomyelinase-treated fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pörn, M I; Slotte, J P

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of cellular unesterified cholesterol was studied in fibroblasts, which had been depleted of plasma membrane sphingomyelin by exposure to exogenous sphingomyelinase. This treatment has previously been shown to induce an increase in cholesterol esterification, a decrease in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a decreased susceptibility of cell cholesterol to oxidation with cholesterol oxidase. When the cellular localization of cholesterol was studied with fluorescent filipin staining, sphingomyelin depletion did not cause any visible changes in the filipin-cholesterol staining pattern, suggesting that the major part of cellular cholesterol was retained in the plasma membrane after sphingomyelinase treatment. After the oxidation of cell-surface cholesterol with cholesterol oxidase, the plasma membrane was no longer stained by filipin, but the plasma membrane cholesterol of sphingomyelin-depleted cells appeared to be resistant to oxidation with cholesterol oxidase when sphingomyelinase was used as an oxidation-promoting agent. However, the use of hypotonic buffer or phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C together with cholesterol oxidase resulted in a complete oxidation of the cell-surface cholesterol in sphingomyelin-depleted cells, as evidenced by the filipin-cholesterol staining pattern. Similar results were obtained when [3H]cholesterol-labelled fibroblasts were used for determination of the susceptibility to cholesterol oxidation. The kinetics of [3H]cholesterol oxidation in sphingomyelin-depleted cells with cholesterol oxidase in hypotonic buffer indicated that approximately 85% of the cellular cholesterol still resided in the plasma membrane after sphingomyelin depletion. These results are contradictory to earlier reports on sphingomyelinase-induced changes in cellular cholesterol distribution and suggest that minor changes in the kinetics of cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum may be responsible

  9. Ceramide signalling: regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Geilen, C C; Wieder, T; Orfanos, C E

    1997-09-01

    The stratum corneum of vertebrates is a major structural compartment that provides mechanical protection and prevents skin desiccation. The water barrier function of the stratum corneum was first reported in 1944, and this was shown later to be associated with multilayered lipid lamellae localized in the extracellular spaces. The major lipid components isolated from the cornified epidermal layers are ceramides, which belong to the class of sphingolipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids; their biosynthesis is in tight relationship with the cutaneous barrier function. In studies in which the barrier is artificially disturbed, lipid biosynthesis is found to be directly regulated by barrier permeability. As mentioned above, the ceramides involved in this process are located in the extracellular spaces of the upper epidermal layers, whereas sphingomyelin, the most common sphingolipid, is an integral part of the bilayer plasma membrane of the keratinocytes. During the last few years, however, increasing evidence has shown that sphingolipids may also take part in cell signalling, and the term 'sphingomyelin cycle' has been coined to describe this novel path-way of signal transduction. Intracellular messengers of the sphingomyelin cycle are ceramides as the products of an agonist-stimulated sphingomyelin hydrolysis. Increased levels of intracellular ceramides induce cell differentiation and/or apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation. In contrast to the extracellular barrier-forming ceramides which are complex partly O-acylated species containing long-chain fatty acids, intracellular signal-transducing ceramides are not O-acylated and have acyl chain lengths of 16 and 18 carbon atoms. We present here a review of our present knowledge on the sphingomyelin cycle as a possible signal transduction pathway in the human epidermis. We discuss the common origin of extracellular ceramides constituting the lipid barrier and of intracellular ceramides generated by agonist

  10. Ceramide signaling in cancer and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2008-01-01

    Most of the previous work on the sphingolipid ceramide has been devoted to its function as an apoptosis inducer. Recent studies, however, have shown that in stem cells, ceramide has additional nonapoptotic functions. In this article, ceramide signaling will be reviewed in light of ‘systems interface biology’: as an interconnection of sphingolipid metabolism, membrane biophysics and cell signaling. The focus will be on the metabolic interconversion of ceramide and sphingomyelin or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Lipid rafts and sphingolipid-induced protein scaffolds will be discussed as a membrane interface for lipid-controlled cell signaling. Ceramide/sphingomyelin and ceramide/sphingosine-1-phosphate-interdependent cell-signaling pathways are significant for the regulation of cell polarity, apoptosis and/or proliferation, and as novel pharmacologic targets in cancer and stem cells. PMID:19050750

  11. [Phospholipid composition and content of the erythrocyte membrane in carriers of sickle cell trait].

    PubMed

    Sarr, N G; Sall, N D; Toure, M; Diatta, A; Seck, I

    1998-01-01

    By its frequency, but also by its morbidity and mortality, sickle cell disease is a real problem of public health in Senegal. It is an inherited disease of the red blood cell, characterized by vaso-occlusive manifestations in several organs, and chronic hemolytic anemia. Out of this work carried upon subjects presenting sickle cell trait (AS), we especially studied the membrane phospholipids. The aims of this study was to identify and to measure the major phospholipids of the red blood cell membrane (lecithin, lysolecithin, cephalin, lysocephalin and sphingomyelin). We noted a significant decrease of the lecithine rates, associated with significant accumulation of lysophosphatidyl choline implied in hemolysis disorders. We have also noted a significant increase of sphingomyelin which might be involved in the adhesive phenomena of the sickle cells. These preliminary results, allow to consider eventual new therapeutics, at least to reduce the clinical disorders of this painful disease. PMID:9827146

  12. Altered levels of α-synuclein and sphingolipids in Batten disease lymphoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sunyang; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Batten disease (juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by blindness, seizures, cognitive decline, and early death due to the inherited mutation of the CLN3 gene. Although α-synuclein and sphingolipids are relevant for the pathogenesis of some neuronal disorders, little attention has been paid to their role in Batten disease. To identify the molecular factors linked to autophagy and apoptotic cell death in Batten disease, the levels of α-synuclein, sphingomyelin, and gangliosides were examined. We observed enhanced levels of α-synuclein oligomers and gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3 and reduced levels of sphingomyelin and autophagy in Batten disease lymphoblast cells compared with normal lymphoblast cells, possibly resulting in a higher rate of apoptosis typically found in Batten disease lymphoblast cells. PMID:24534465

  13. Histochemical and biochemical observations of the spleen in atypical Niemann-Pick disease and in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Safanda, J; Fakan, F

    1981-01-01

    In a case of adolescent Niemann-Pick disease (NP) and in a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), the histologic picture of the spleen showed appreciable similarity in localization of sparing cells and in a number of histochemical tests. The sphingomyelin, which was the main organ phospholipid in both conditions, contained substantially elevated content of C24 fatty acids. Detailed analysis of spleen lipids showed great relative increase of lysobisphosphatidic acid and of cholesterol which was in NP mainly in free form but in ITP surprisingly mainly esterified, mostly to oleic and palmitic acid. Possible molecular mechanism of sphingomyelin storage was enzymologically followed in model conditions using separated lipid fractions from NP's spleen. The activity of sphingomyelinase (Cl. perfringens exotoxin) was in comparison to phospholipase C relatively specifically inhibited by lysobisphosphatidic acid. PMID:6168156

  14. Molecular-dynamics simulation of a ceramide bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Sagar A.; Scott, H. Larry

    2006-01-01

    Ceramide is the simplest lipid in the biologically important class of glycosphingolipids. Ceramide is an important signaling molecule and a major component of the strateum corneum layer in the skin. In order to begin to understand the biophysical properties of ceramide, we have carried out a molecular-dynamics simulation of a hydrated 16:0 ceramide lipid bilayer at 368K (5° above the main phase transition). In this paper we describe the simulation and present the resulting properties of the bilayer. We compare the properties of the simulated ceramide bilayer to an earlier simulation of 18:0 sphingomyelin, and we discuss the results as they relate to experimental data for ceramide and other sphingolipids. The most significant differences arise at the lipid/water interface, where the lack of a large ceramide polar group leads to a different electron density and a different electrostatic potential but, surprisingly, not a different overall "dipole potential," when ceramide is compared to sphingomyelin.

  15. Melting Behaviour of Cell Death Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Sherry; Sot, Jesus; Goni, Felix; Thewalt, Jenifer

    2009-05-01

    Sphingomyelin is a major lipid constituent of mammalian cell plasma membranes. It is converted into ceramide during programmed cell death. It is hypothesized that this conversion induces a structural change in membranes that is responsible for downstream signaling. To characterize these structural changes, deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to create a concentration-temperature phase diagram of palmitoyl sphingomyelin:ceramide multilamellar vesicles in excess water between 0-40 mol% ceramide and 25-80^oC. The two lipids are fully miscible at high temperatures and at 40 mol% ceramide. A variety of solid-liquid coexistence phase behavior is observed at lower concentrations. With increasing ceramide content, a gel phase is observed at progressively higher temperatures, implying that at physiological temperature, ceramide may increase the gel phase propensity of cell membranes.

  16. Sphingolipids in High Fat Diet and Obesity-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Songhwa; Snider, Ashley J

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient oversupply associated with a high fat diet (HFD) significantly alters cellular metabolism, and specifically including sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are emerging as bioactive lipids that play key roles in regulating functions, in addition to their traditional roles as membrane structure. HFD enhances de novo sphingolipid synthesis and turnover of sphingolipids via the salvage pathway, resulting in the generation of ceramide, and more specifically long chain ceramide species. Additionally, HFD elevates sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) levels in several tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and cardiovascular tissues. HFD-stimulated sphingolipid generation contributes to systemic insulin resistance, dysregulated lipid accumulation, and cytokine expression and secretion from skeletal muscle and adipose tissues, exacerbating obesity-related conditions. Furthermore, altered sphingolipid levels, particularly ceramide and sphingomyelin, are involved in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this review, HFD-mediated sphingolipid metabolism and its impact on HFD-induced biology and pathobiology will be discussed. PMID:26648664

  17. Crassaostrea gigas oyster shell extract inhibits lipogenesis via suppression of serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Kwon, Jeong Eun; Kang, Se Chan; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2015-02-01

    Oysters are widely consumed seafood, but their shells impose a serious environmental problem. To extend the utilization of oyster shell waste, we investigated the biological role of oyster shell extract. In this study, we verified that the ethanol extract of oyster shell (EOS) contains taurine and betaine, the major components of oyster body. EOS downregulated transcription of Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 mRNA, the subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Suppression of SPT subunits reduced sphinganine and sphingomyelin by inhibiting de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Inhibition of sphingomyelin biosynthesis resulted in downregulation of lipogenic gene expression such as ACC, FAS, SCD1, and DGAT2. Consistent with inhibition of lipogenesis, cellular triglyceride levels were diminished by EOS, but cholesterol levels were not altered. Taken together, these results suggest that EOS has a lipid-lowering effect and could be applied as either a therapeutic or preventive measure for metabolic dysfunction. PMID:25920281

  18. Comparing the content of lipids derived from the eye lenses of various species.

    PubMed

    Panz, Tomasz; Lepiarczyk, Magdalena; Zuber, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The lipid content in the eye lens was analyzed and compared among various species in this study. The eye lens lipids of the following species were investigated: cow, horse, duck, and freshwater trout. Additionally, the lipids derived from cataractous bovine lens and from cataractous human eye lens lipoprotein complexes were analyzed. The following lipid classes were detected in clear lenses: cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyletanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. In cataractous bovine lens and in lipoprotein complexes from human nuclear cataract, phosphatidyloinositol and phosphatidyloglycerol were detected. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin, essential for hypothetical formation of cholesterol-rich domains, were the most abundant lipids in the lenses of all investigated species. These two components of eye lens lipid fraction were analyzed quantitatively using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric assay; the other lipids were identified qualitatively using thin layer chromatography. PMID:22038221

  19. Potential of polyE-323 coated capillaries for capillary electrophoresis of lipids.

    PubMed

    Martma, Kert; Lindenburg, Petrus W; Habicht, Kaia-Liisa; Vulla, Kaspar; Resik, Kristiin; Kuut, Gunnar; Shimmo, Ruth

    2013-11-22

    In this note the feasibility of a polyamine-based capillary coating, polyE-323, for capillary electrophoresis (CE) of lipids is explored. PolyE-323 has previously been demonstrated to be suitable to suppress analyte-wall interaction of proteins in CE. However, the full applicability range of polyE-323 has not been exploited yet and it might be useful in the analysis of hydrophobic analytes, such as lipids. In this study, the stability of polyE-323 when using highly organic background electrolytes (BGEs), which are needed to solubilize the lipid analytes, was studied. For this, we used three different lipid samples: sphingomyelin, cardiolipin and a lipid extract from a cell culture. The highly organic BGEs that were used in this study consisted of 94.5% of organic solvents and 5.5% of an aqueous buffer. First, the influence of pure acetonitrile, methanol, propylene carbonate, isopropanol and chloroform on the polyE-323 coating was investigated. Then BGEs were developed and tested, using sphingomyelin and cardiolipin as test analytes in CE-UV experiments. After establishing the best BGEs (in terms of analysis time and repeatability) by CE-UV, sphingomyelin was used as a test analyte to demonstrate that method was also suitable for CE with mass-spectrometry detection (CE-MS). The LOD of sphingomyelin was estimated to be 100 nM and its migration time repeatability was 1.3%. The CE-MS analysis was further applied on a lipid extract obtained from human glioblastoma cells, which resulted in the separation and detection of a multitude of putative lipids. The results of our feasibility study indicate that CE systems based on polyE-323 coated capillaries and highly organic BGEs are promising for fast electromigration-based analysis of lipids. PMID:24011728

  20. Critical assessment of phospholipid measurement in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Badham, L P; Worth, H G

    1975-09-01

    We assessed several methods of inorganic phosphate assay for their suitability in estimating phospholipids in digested extracts of amniotic fluids. The extraction and digestion procedures used for phospholipids from amniotic fluid were also examined critically. The effect of contamination by blood or obstetric cream has been examined. Accordingly, we suggest a method for measuring total phospholipids in amniotic fluids, and results of it are compared with the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio measurement in some clinical situations. PMID:1157310

  1. Serum sphingolipids: relationships to insulin sensitivity and changes with exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Bryan C; Brozinick, Joseph T; Strauss, Allison; Bacon, Samantha; Kerege, Anna; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Kuo, Ming Shang; Perreault, Leigh

    2015-08-15

    Ceramides and sphingolipids are a family of lipid molecules that circulate in serum and accumulate in skeletal muscle, promoting insulin resistance. Plasma ceramide and dihydroceramide are related to insulin resistance, yet less is known regarding other ceramide and sphingolipid species. Despite its association with insulin sensitivity, chronic endurance exercise training does not change plasma ceramide and sphingolipid content, with little known regarding a single bout of exercise. We measured basal relationships and the effect of acute exercise (1.5 h at 50% V̇o2 max) and recovery on serum ceramide and sphingolipid content in sedentary obese individuals, endurance-trained athletes, and individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Basal serum C18:0, C20:0, and C24:1 ceramide and C18:0 and total dihydroceramide were significantly higher in T2D and, along with C16:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, correlated positively with insulin resistance. Acute exercise significantly increased serum ceramide, glucosylceramide, and GM3 gangliosides, which largely decreased to basal values in recovery. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingomyelin did not change during exercise but decreased below basal values in recovery. Serum C16:0 and C18:0 ceramide and C18:0 sphingomyelin, but not the total concentrations of either of them, were positively correlated with markers of muscle NF-κB activation, suggesting that specific species activate intracellular inflammation. Interestingly, a subset of sphingomyelin species, notably C14:0, C22:3, and C24:4 species, was positively associated with insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Together, these data show that unique ceramide and sphingolipid species associate with either protective or deleterious features for diabetes and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the future. PMID:26126684

  2. Prion Protein Accumulation in Lipid Rafts of Mouse Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Federica; Dotti, Carlos G.; Pérez-Cañamás, Azucena; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Benetti, Federico; Legname, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) is a normal constituent of neuronal cell membranes. The protein misfolding causes rare neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. These maladies can be sporadic, genetic or infectious. Sporadic prion diseases are the most common form mainly affecting aging people. In this work, we investigate the biochemical environment in which sporadic prion diseases may develop, focusing our attention on the cell membrane of neurons in the aging brain. It is well established that with aging the ratio between the most abundant lipid components of rafts undergoes a major change: while cholesterol decreases, sphingomyelin content rises. Our results indicate that the aging process modifies the compartmentalization of PrPC. In old mice, this change favors PrPC accumulation in detergent-resistant membranes, particularly in hippocampi. To confirm the relationship between lipid content changes and PrPC translocation into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), we looked at PrPC compartmentalization in hippocampi from acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) knockout (KO) mice and synaptosomes enriched in sphingomyelin. In the presence of high sphingomyelin content, we observed a significant increase of PrPC in DRMS. This process is not due to higher levels of total protein and it could, in turn, favor the onset of sporadic prion diseases during aging as it increases the PrP intermolecular contacts into lipid rafts. We observed that lowering sphingomyelin in scrapie-infected cells by using fumonisin B1 led to a 50% decrease in protease-resistant PrP formation. This may suggest an involvement of PrP lipid environment in prion formation and consequently it may play a role in the onset or development of sporadic forms of prion diseases. PMID:24040215

  3. Niemann-Pick Disease Type B in a 21 Year Old Male.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Miah, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorder of lipid storage with progressive accumulation of sphingomyelin and other lipids in the lysosomes of various tissues. We are reporting a 21 year old male who had hepatosplenomegaly, cherry red macula and normal cognitive function. Bone marrow biopsy showed plenty of foam cells and sphingomyelinase level was low, thus conforming our diagnosis. Survival into adulthood and absence of gross neurological involvement suggests Niemann-Pick disease type B. PMID:27277377

  4. Sphingolipids inhibit insulin and phorbol ester stimulated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.H.; Murray, D.K.

    1986-07-16

    Studies are presented demonstrating inhibition of both insulin and phorbol myristate acetate stimulated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. Greatest inhibition of uptake was seen with sphinganine while sphingosine was also potent in this regard. Ceramide inhibited phorbol myristate acetate but not insulin stimulation of uptake. It is suggested that sphingolipid inhibition of glucose transport relates to the previously demonstrated effect of corticosteroids to increase membrane sphingomyelin and inhibit glucose transport.

  5. Type a niemann-pick disease. Description of three cases with delayed myelination.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, A; Sibilio, M; Caranci, F; Bartiromo, F; Taurisano, R; Balivo, F; Melis, D; Parenti, G; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Brunetti, A

    2008-06-01

    We describe three patients with type A Niemann-Pick disease (NPD-A). NPD-A is an autosomal recessive neuronal storage disease classified among the sphingolipidoses, characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues and in the brain. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) of our three patients showed a marked delay of myelination with frontal atrophy. Few descriptions of this MRI pattern of delayed myelination have been published to date. PMID:24256898

  6. A novel mitochondrial sphingomyelinase in zebrafish cells.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Takeshi; Shimuzu, Akio; Yamashita, Michiaki

    2009-07-24

    Sphingolipids are important signaling molecules in many biological processes, but little is known regarding their physiological roles in the mitochondrion. We focused on the biochemical characters of a novel sphingomyelinase (SMase) and its function in mitochondrial ceramide generation in zebrafish embryonic cells. The cloned SMase cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 545 amino acid residues (putative molecular weight, 61,300) containing a mitochondrial localization signal (MLS) and a predicted transmembrane domain. The mature endogenous enzyme was predicted to have a molecular weight of 57,000, and matrix-assisted laser de sorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the N-terminal amino acid residue of the mature enzyme was Ala-36. The purified enzyme optimally hydrolyzed [(14)C]sphingomyelin in the presence of 10 mm Mg(2+) at pH 7.5. In HEK293 cells that overexpressed SMase cDNA, the enzyme was localized to the mitochondrial fraction, whereas mutant proteins lacking MLS or both the MLS and the transmembrane domain were absent from the mitochondrial fraction. Endogenous SMase protein co-localized with a mitochondrial cytostaining marker. Using a protease protection assay, we found that SMase was distributed throughout the intermembrane space and/or the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Furthermore, the overexpression of SMase in HEK293 cells induced ceramide generation and sphingomyelin hydrolysis in the mitochondrial fraction. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide-induced knockdown repressed ceramide generation and sphingomyelin hydrolysis in the mitochondrial fraction in zebrafish embryonic cells. These observations indicate that SMase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin and generates ceramide in mitochondria in fish cells. PMID:19429680

  7. An Expedient Synthesis of Fluorescent Labeled Ceramide-1-phosphate Analogues1

    PubMed Central

    Boldyrev, I. A.; Brown, R. E.; Molotkovsky, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis for fluorescent analogs of ceramide-1-phosphate bearing 9-anthrylvinyl or 4,4-difluoro-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-8-yl (Me4-BODIPY) fluorophore at co-position of fatty acid residue was carried out. The key stage of the synthesis is hydrolysis of corresponding sphingomyelins catalyzed by phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus; the enzymatic yield has been raised to 50–70% by appliance of organic solvent in the incubation medium.

  8. Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Ahn, Jiyoung; Sampson, Joshua N.; Shi, Jianxin; Yu, Guoqin; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Hayes, Richard B.; Goedert, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Investigation of microbe-metabolite relationships in the gut is needed to understand and potentially reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Methods Microbiota and metabolomics profiling were performed on lyophilized feces from 42 CRC cases and 89 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify statistically independent associations with CRC. First principal coordinate-component pair (PCo1-PC1) and false discovery rate (0.05)-corrected P-values were calculated for 116,000 Pearson correlations between 530 metabolites and 220 microbes in a sex*case/control meta-analysis. Results Overall microbe-metabolite PCo1-PC1 was more strongly correlated in cases than in controls (Rho 0.606 vs 0.201, P = 0.01). CRC was independently associated with lower levels of Clostridia, Lachnospiraceae, p-aminobenzoate and conjugated linoleate, and with higher levels of Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, p-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, and palmitoyl-sphingomyelin. Through postulated effects on cell shedding (palmitoyl-sphingomyelin), inflammation (conjugated linoleate), and innate immunity (p-aminobenzoate), metabolites mediated the CRC association with Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas by 29% and 34%, respectively. Overall, palmitoyl-sphingomyelin correlated directly with abundances of Enterobacteriaceae (Gammaproteobacteria), three Actinobacteria and five Firmicutes. Only Parabacteroides correlated inversely with palmitoyl-sphingomyelin. Other lipids correlated inversely with Alcaligenaceae (Betaproteobacteria). Six Bonferroni-significant correlations were found, including low indolepropionate and threnoylvaline with Actinobacteria and high erythronate and an uncharacterized metabolite with Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions Feces from CRC cases had very strong microbe-metabolite correlations that were predominated by Enterobacteriaceae and Actinobacteria. Metabolites mediated a direct CRC association with Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas, but not an inverse

  9. Phase diagrams of lipid mixtures relevant to the study of membrane rafts

    PubMed Central

    Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia; Bagatolli, Luis A.; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Marsh, Derek; Prieto, Manuel; Thewalt, Jenifer L.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews the phase properties of phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol mixtures, that are often used as models for membrane “raft” microdomains. The available data based on X-ray, microscopic and spectroscopic observations, surface pressure and calorimetric measurements, and detergent solubilization assays, are critically evaluated and rationalized in terms of triangular phase diagrams. The remaining uncertainties are discussed specifically and separately from the data on which a consensus appears to exist. PMID:18952002

  10. Sphingolipid Metabolism Correlates with Cerebrospinal Fluid Beta Amyloid Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fonteh, Alfred N.; Ormseth, Cora; Chiang, Jiarong; Cipolla, Matthew; Arakaki, Xianghong; Harrington, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a) total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b) levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c) three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but not impaired

  11. Ceramide: second messenger or modulator of membrane structure and dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    van Blitterswijk, Wim J; van der Luit, Arnold H; Veldman, Robert Jan; Verheij, Marcel; Borst, Jannie

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of ceramide formation in response to cell stimulation remains controversial. Here, we emphasize that ceramide is not a priori an apoptotic signalling molecule. Recent work points out that the conversion of sphingomyelin into ceramide can play a membrane structural (physical) role, with consequences for membrane microdomain function, membrane vesiculation, fusion/fission and vesicular trafficking. These processes contribute to cellular signalling. At the Golgi, ceramide takes part in a metabolic flux towards sphingomyelin, diacylglycerol and glycosphingolipids, which drives lipid raft formation and vesicular transport towards the plasma membrane. At the cell surface, receptor clustering in lipid rafts and the formation of endosomes can be facilitated by transient ceramide formation. Also, signalling towards mitochondria may involve glycosphingolipid-containing vesicles. Ceramide may affect the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the release of cytochrome c. In the effector phase of apoptosis, the breakdown of plasma membrane sphingomyelin to ceramide is a consequence of lipid scrambling, and may regulate apoptotic body formation. Thus ceramide formation serves many different functions at distinct locations in the cell. Given the limited capacity for spontaneous intracellular diffusion or membrane flip-flop of natural ceramide species, the topology and membrane sidedness of ceramide generation are crucial determinants of its impact on cell biology. PMID:12408751

  12. The essential neutral sphingomyelinase is involved in the trafficking of the variant surface glycoprotein in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon A; Smith, Terry K

    2010-01-01

    Sphingomyelin is the main sphingolipid in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. In vitro and in vivo characterization of the T. brucei neutral sphingomyelinase demonstrates that it is directly involved in sphingomyelin catabolism. Gene knockout studies in the bloodstream form of the parasite indicate that the neutral sphingomyelinase is essential for growth and survival, thus highlighting that the de novo biosynthesis of ceramide is unable to compensate for the loss of sphingomyelin catabolism. The phenotype of the conditional knockout has given new insights into the highly active endocytic and exocytic pathways in the bloodstream form of T. brucei. Hence, the formation of ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum affects post-Golgi sorting and rate of deposition of newly synthesized GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein on the cell surface. This directly influences the corresponding rate of endocytosis, via the recycling endosomes, of pre-existing cell surface variant surface glycoprotein. The trypanosomes use this coupled endocytic and exocytic mechanism to maintain the cell density of its crucial variant surface glycoprotein protective coat. TbnSMase is therefore genetically validated as a drug target against African trypanosomes, and suggests that interfering with the endocytic transport of variant surface glycoprotein is a highly desirable strategy for drug development against African trypanosomasis. PMID:20398210

  13. CSF sphingolipids, β-amyloid, and tau in adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M.; Haughey, Norman J.; Bandaru, V.V.R.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Andreasson, Ulf; Johnson, Sterling C.; Gleason, Carey E.; Blazel, Hanna M.; Puglielli, Luigi; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular studies suggest sphingolipids may cause or accelerate amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathology but in vivo human studies are lacking. We determined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of sphingolipids (ceramides, sphingomyelins), amyloid-beta (Aβ1–42, AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42) and tau (T-tau, p-tau181) in 91 cognitively normal individuals, aged 36–69 years, with a parental history of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 18-carbon acyl chain length ceramide species was associated with AβX-38 (r = 0.312, p = 0.003), AβX-40 (r = 0.327, p = 0.002), and T-tau (r = 0.313, p = 0.003) but not with AβX-42 (r = 0.171, p = 0.106) or p-tau (r = 0.086, p = 0.418). All sphingomyelin species correlated (most p < 0.001) with all Aβ species and T-tau; many also correlated with p-tau. Results remained in regression models after controlling for age and APOE genotype. These results suggest in vivo relationships between CSF ceramides and sphingomyelins and Aβ and tau levels in cognitively normal individuals at increased risk for AD, indicating these sphingolipids may be associated with early pathogenesis. PMID:24952994

  14. Rapid quantitative analysis of sphingolipids in seafood using HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection: its application in tissue distribution of sphingolipids in fish.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingjing; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in all eukaryotic organisms and known to be essential constituents of cellular membranes. Recently, various physiological functions of dietary sphingolipids, such as preventing cancer, improving skin barrier and contributing to central nervous system myelination have been demonstrated. To characterize the sphingolipids from fish as food components, tissue distribution of sphingomyelin and glycosylceramide (ceramide monohexoside, CMH) in fish were determined in this study. We established a rapid, accurate and effective method for separation, purification and determination of sphingolipids by using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD-HPLC). Sphingolipids were extracted and quantified from pacific saury (Cololabis saira). Sphingomyelin in different tissues of Cololabis saira ranged from 2.5 +/- 0.2 mg/g to 27.6 +/- 2.1 mg/g, the content in brain was the highest, followed by eyes, and CMH contents were less than 23.0 +/- 2.4 mg/g in all tissues. These results revealed that fish contained CMH and sphingomyelin as same levels as most of the terrestrial organisms and suggested marine organisms could be used as a potential source of precious and useful complex lipids. PMID:20720382

  15. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine A; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  16. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine A.; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females. PMID:26516880

  17. Lipid headgroups mediate organization and dynamics in bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenough, Kelly P.; Blanchard, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of the tethered chromophore NBD in unilamellar vesicles comprised of phosphoglycerol and phosphocholine lipids with C 12 and C 18 saturated acyl chains, with or without cholesterol and/or sphingomyelin. For the phosphocholine vesicles, we use the chromophore 2-(12-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)dodecanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC), and for the phosphoglycerol vesicles, we use the chromophore 2-(12-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)dodecanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl- sn-glycero-3-[phospho- rac-(1-glycerol)] (NBD-PG). The addition of cholesterol and/or sphingomyelin to the PC vesicles restricts the chromophore environment, in agreement with the known rigidizing effect of cholesterol on PC membranes. The PG systems do not exhibit an analogous effect with the addition of cholesterol and/or sphingomyelin. The motional freedom of the NBD chromophore is, in general, more restricted in the PC bilayers than it is in the PG bilayers, and we understand this behavior in the context of the role of the lipid headgroups in mediating bilayer organization.

  18. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase) in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases), alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES), and neutral SMases (nSMases). The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase. PMID:26346287

  19. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

  20. Alveolar lipoproteinosis in an acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Machiko; Dhami, Rajwinder; Schuchman, Edward H

    2003-03-01

    Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) are lipid storage disorders caused by the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). In humans, NPD is associated with the dysfunction of numerous organs including the lung. Gene targeting of the ASM gene in transgenic mice produced an animal model with features typical of NPD, including pulmonary inflammation. To assess mechanisms by which ASM perturbed lung function, we studied lung morphology, surfactant content, and metabolism in ASM-deficient mice in vivo. Pulmonary inflammation, with increased cellular infiltrates and the accumulation of alveolar material, was associated with alterations in surfactant content. Saturated phosphatidylcholine (SatPC) content was increased twofold, and sphingomyelin content was increased 5.5-fold in lungs of the ASM knockout (ASMKO) mice. Additional sphingomyelin enhanced the sensitivity of surfactant inhibition by plasma proteins. Clearance of SatPC from the lungs of ASMKO mice was decreased. Catabolism of SatPC by alveolar macrophages from the ASMKO mouse was significantly decreased, likely accounting for decreased pulmonary SatPC in vivo. In summary, ASM is required for normal surfactant catabolism by alveolar macrophages in vivo. Alterations in surfactant composition, including increased sphingomyelin content, contributed to the abnormal surfactant function observed in the ASM-deficient mouse. PMID:12495943

  1. Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and increased ceramide concentrations characterise adipose tissue of obese women with high liver fat content compared to equally obese women with normal liver fat content. The present study characterises enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Methods Pathways leading to increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed versus non-inflamed adipose tissue were investigated by quantifying expression levels of key enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism. Sphingomyelinases (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases SMPD1-3) were investigated further using immunohistochemistry to establish their location within adipose tissue, and their mRNA expression levels were determined in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue from both non-obese and obese subject. Results Gene expression levels of sphingomyelinases, enzymes that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to ceramide, rather than enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis, were higher in inflamed compared to non-inflamed adipose tissue of obese women (with high and normal liver fat contents respectively). Sphingomyelinases were localised to both macrophages and adipocytes, but also to blood vessels and to extracellular regions surrounding vessels within adipose tissue. Expression levels of SMPD3 mRNA correlated significantly with concentrations of different ceramides and sphingomyelins. In both non-obese and obese subjects SMPD3 mRNA levels were higher in the more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot. Conclusions Generation of ceramides within adipose tissue as a result of sphingomyelinase action may contribute to inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:22974251

  2. On-tissue localization of ceramides and other sphingolipids by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Ellen; Dworski, Shaalee; Canals, Daniel; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Schoenling, Drew; Levade, Thierry; Denlinger, Chadrick; Hannun, Yusuf A; Medin, Jeffrey A; Drake, Richard R

    2014-08-19

    A novel MALDI-FTICR imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) workflow is described for on-tissue detection, spatial localization, and structural confirmation of low abundance bioactive ceramides and other sphingolipids. Increasingly, altered or elevated levels of sphingolipids, sphingolipid metabolites, and sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have been associated with a variety of disorders such as diabetes, obesity, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Ceramide, which serves as a metabolic hub in sphingolipid metabolism, has been linked to cancer signaling pathways and to metabolic regulation with involvement in autophagy, cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. Using kidney tissues from a new Farber disease mouse model in which ceramides of all acyl chain lengths and other sphingolipid metabolites accumulate in tissues, specific ceramides and sphingomyelins were identified by on-tissue isolation and fragmentation, coupled with an on-tissue digestion by ceramidase or sphingomyelinase. Multiple glycosphingolipid species were also detected. The newly generated library of sphingolipid ions was then applied to MALDI-IMS of human lung cancer tissues. Multiple tumor specific ceramide and sphingomyelin species were detected and confirmed by on-tissue enzyme digests and structural confirmation. High-resolution MALDI-IMS in combination with novel on-tissue ceramidase and sphingomyelinase enzyme digestions makes it now possible to rapidly visualize the distribution of bioactive ceramides and sphingomyelin in tissues. PMID:25072097

  3. On-Tissue Localization of Ceramides and Other Sphingolipids by MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel MALDI-FTICR imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) workflow is described for on-tissue detection, spatial localization, and structural confirmation of low abundance bioactive ceramides and other sphingolipids. Increasingly, altered or elevated levels of sphingolipids, sphingolipid metabolites, and sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have been associated with a variety of disorders such as diabetes, obesity, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Ceramide, which serves as a metabolic hub in sphingolipid metabolism, has been linked to cancer signaling pathways and to metabolic regulation with involvement in autophagy, cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. Using kidney tissues from a new Farber disease mouse model in which ceramides of all acyl chain lengths and other sphingolipid metabolites accumulate in tissues, specific ceramides and sphingomyelins were identified by on-tissue isolation and fragmentation, coupled with an on-tissue digestion by ceramidase or sphingomyelinase. Multiple glycosphingolipid species were also detected. The newly generated library of sphingolipid ions was then applied to MALDI-IMS of human lung cancer tissues. Multiple tumor specific ceramide and sphingomyelin species were detected and confirmed by on-tissue enzyme digests and structural confirmation. High-resolution MALDI-IMS in combination with novel on-tissue ceramidase and sphingomyelinase enzyme digestions makes it now possible to rapidly visualize the distribution of bioactive ceramides and sphingomyelin in tissues. PMID:25072097

  4. Ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixin; Deng, Tongxing; Deng, Jiexin; Deng, Jinbo; Gao, Xiaoqun; Shi, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bin; Ma, Zhanyou; Jin, Haixiao

    2013-08-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure, especially during early pregnancy, can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. The pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of ethanol are related to the effects of ceramide. In this study, we established an alcohol exposure model in wild-type mice and in knockout mice for the key enzyme involved in ceramide metabolism, sphingomyelin synthase 2. This model received daily intragastric administration of 25% ethanol, and pups were used at postnatal days 0, 7, 14, 30 for experiments. Serology and immunofluorescence staining found that ethanol exposure dose-dependently reduced blood sphingomyelin levels in two genotypes of pups, and increased neural cell proliferation and the number of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression level of protein kinase C α increased in two notypes of pups after ethanol exposure. Compared with wild-type pups, the expression level of the important activator protein of the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway, protein kinase C α, was reduced in the hippocampus of sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockouts. Our findings illustrate that ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of pups after prenatal ethanol exposure, and the mechanism may be associated with increased pression of protein kinase C α activating the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway. PMID:25206527

  5. Size fractionation and size characterization of nanoemulsions of lipid droplets and large unilamellar lipid vesicles by asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Vezočnik, Valerija; Rebolj, Katja; Sitar, Simona; Ota, Katja; Tušek-Žnidarič, Magda; Štrus, Jasna; Sepčić, Kristina; Pahovnik, David; Maček, Peter; Žagar, Ema

    2015-10-30

    Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation technique coupled to a multi-angle light-scattering detector (AF4-MALS) was used together with dynamic light-scattering (DLS) in batch mode and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the size characteristics of the trioleoylglycerol lipid droplets covered by a monolayer of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, in water phase. These lipid droplet nanoemulsions (LD) were formed by ultrasonication. In parallel, the size characteristics of large unilamellar lipid vesicles (LUV) prepared by extrusion and composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol were determined. LD and LUV were prepared at two different molar ratios (1/1, 4/1) of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. In AF4-MALS, various cross-flow conditions and mobile phase compositions were tested to optimize the separation of LD or LUV particles. The particle radii, R, as well as the root-mean-square radii, Rrms, of LD and LUV were determined by AF4-MALS, whereas the hydrodynamic radii, Rh, were obtained by DLS. TEM visualization revealed round shape particles of LD and LUV. PMID:26409772

  6. Lectin histochemistry and ultrastructure of feline kidneys from six different storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Castagnaro, M; Alroy, J; Ucci, A A; Glew, R H

    1987-01-01

    We have compared the pattern of lectin staining with the ultrastructural features of kidneys from normal cats and 19 cats with 6 different lysosomal storage diseases. The diseases studied include GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)-I and MPS-VI, sphingomyelin-lipidosis (i.e., Niemann-Pick disease) and mannosidosis. Ten different biotinylated lectins were used as histochemical probes for carbohydrate residues and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex as visualant. Concanavalia ensiformis agglutinin (Con A) stained mesangial cells in all storage diseases but GM1, epithelial cells in sphingomyelin-lipidosis and mannosidosis, endothelial cells in GM1 and mannosidosis and Bowman's capsule cells in all but GM2. Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I (GS-I) stained the glomerular endothelium in all six diseases, but not in control kidneys. Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) stained the glomerular epithelium only in GM1 and MPS-I. Succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (SWGA) stained the glomerular endothelium and epithelium in mannosidosis, and the glomerular epithelium and Bowman's capsule in MPS-I. Ultrastructure studies demonstrated an accumulation of oligosaccharides in cases of mannosidosis and GM1 gangliosidosis, a mixture of oligosaccharides and lipids in MPS-I, MPS-VI and GM2 gangliosidosis and only lipid storage in sphingomyelin lipidosis. These studies show that morphologic and histochemical changes are manifested in some kidney cell types in lysosomal storage diseases, even though the enzyme deficiency occurs in all cell types. Furthermore, we show that the nature of the undegraded stored material is complex and that other factors, such as rate of membrane turn over, membrane composition, and cell function may influence the amount and nature of the "stored" material. PMID:2892300

  7. Switchable nile red-based probe for cholesterol and lipid order at the outer leaflet of biomembranes.

    PubMed

    Kucherak, Oleksandr A; Oncul, Sule; Darwich, Zeinab; Yushchenko, Dmytro A; Arntz, Youri; Didier, Pascal; Mély, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2010-04-01

    Cholesterol and sphingomyelin form together a highly ordered membrane phase, which is believed to play important biological functions in plasma membranes of mammalian cells. Since sphingomyelin is present mainly at the outer leaflet of cell membranes, monitoring its lipid order requires molecular probes capable to bind specifically at this leaflet and exhibit negligibly slow flip-flop. In the present work, such a probe was developed by modifying the solvatochromic fluorescent dye Nile Red with an amphiphilic anchor group. To evaluate the flip-flop of the obtained probe (NR12S), we developed a methodology of reversible redox switching of its fluorescence at one leaflet using sodium dithionite. This method shows that NR12S, in contrast to parent Nile Red, binds exclusively the outer membrane leaflet of model lipid vesicles and living cells with negligible flip-flop in the time scale of hours. Moreover, the emission maximum of NR12S in model vesicles exhibits a significant blue shift in liquid ordered phase (sphingomyelin-cholesterol) as compared to liquid disordered phase (unsaturated phospholipids). As a consequence, these two phases could be clearly distinguished in NR12S-stained giant vesicles by fluorescence microscopy imaging of intensity ratio between the blue and red parts of the probe emission spectrum. Being added to living cells, NR12S binds predominantly, if not exclusively, their plasma membranes and shows an emission spectrum intermediate between those in liquid ordered and disordered phases of model membranes. Importantly, the emission color of NR12S correlates well with the cholesterol content in cell membranes, which allows monitoring the cholesterol depletion process with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin by fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. The attractive photophysical and switching properties of NR12S, together with its selective outer leaflet staining and sensitivity to cholesterol and lipid order, make it a new powerful tool for studying model and

  8. Membrane microdomain sphingolipids are required for anti-CD20-induced death of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammadi, Mariam; Youinou, Pierre; Tempescul, Adrian; Tobón, Gabriel; Berthou, Christian; Bordron, Anne; Pers, Jacques-Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia remains incurable, despite the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy as an available means of treatment. The resistance of certain patients to this monoclonal antibody prompted us to set up in vitro studies of another CD20-specific monoclonal antibody, B1 (later termed tositumomab). We hypothesized that the membrane lipid organization of leukemic B cells might be instrumental in the cells’ sensitivity to the B1 monoclonal antibody. Design and Methods B lymphocytes from 36 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 13 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were investigated for B1-triggered cell death. Membrane components, such as sphingomyelin and ganglioside M1, were investigated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, together with the Csk-binding protein. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients segregated into two groups: B cells from one group were sensitive to B1, whereas those from the second group were not. Further results ascribed the resistance of these latter cases to a defective recruitment of Csk-binding protein, resulting in a lack of sphingomyelin and ganglioside M1 at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of their malignant B cells. Sphingolipids were indeed retained in the cytoplasm, because of lowered activity of P-glycoprotein. Supporting this mechanism, rifampicin, an inducer of P-glycoprotein, improved the activity of this transmembrane efflux pump, normalized the quantity of sphingomyelin within the membrane, and thereby restored the efficacy of the B1 monoclonal antibody in the formerly B1-resistant cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions The lipid organization of membranes of B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia differs from one patient to another. In practice, given the relevance of the membrane lipid distribution to the efficacy of biotherapies, this observation is of potential importance. PMID:22058197

  9. Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Elleder, M

    1989-09-01

    Results of the investigation carried out during this decade brought unambigous evidence of biochemical heterogeneity inside the complex of Niemann-Pick disease according to which two entirely different metabolic disorders can be recognized. 1. Niemann-Pick sphingomyelinosis, a clear-cut enzymopathy, the pivotal lesion of which is the deficiency of lysosomal spingomyelinase leading to widespread lysosomal deposition of sphingomyelin liquid crystals. Two main allelic variants are known. The first one, neuronopathic (former type A) known as infantile with rapid course, may also manifest considerably prolonged course or an atypical course with predominantly visceral symptomatology. Patients with the second, visceral, variant (former type B), display mainly slow clinical course and often reach adulthood. With rare exceptions the neuronopathic variant can be biochemically recognized from the visceral one by much lower values of the in vivo sphingomyelin degradation test in the former. 2. The rest of the complex comprising types C-D differs substantially from the sphingomyelinase deficiency group by the remarkable heterogeneity in the lysosomal stored lipid pattern given by differences among the affected cell populations. Sphingomyelin storage could be proved histochemically solely in the histiocytic population together with cholesterol, neutral glycosphingolipids and lysobisphosphatidic acid, whereas the brain neurons displayed only neutral glycosphingolipid storage. There is an increasing evidence of the crucial biochemical lesion in this group being an altered intracellular traffic of exogenously derived cholesterol caused probably by its deficient translocation from lysosomes to other intracellular membrane sites. This leads to decreased cholesterol esterification rate which is the basis of the newly developed diagnostic test. Inconstant depression of sphingomyelinase activity is considered to be a secondary phenomenon. The so-called lactosylceramidosis is a rare

  10. Structural Basis for Nucleotide Hydrolysis by the Acid Sphingomyelinase-like Phosphodiesterase SMPDL3A.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Alexei; Illes, Katalin; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Nagar, Bhushan

    2016-03-18

    Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, acid-like 3A (SMPDL3A) is a member of a small family of proteins founded by the well characterized lysosomal enzyme, acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase). ASMase converts sphingomyelin into the signaling lipid, ceramide. It was recently discovered that, in contrast to ASMase, SMPDL3A is inactive against sphingomyelin and, surprisingly, can instead hydrolyze nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, which may play a role in purinergic signaling. As none of the ASMase-like proteins has been structurally characterized to date, the molecular basis for their substrate preferences is unknown. Here we report crystal structures of murine SMPDL3A, which represent the first structures of an ASMase-like protein. The catalytic domain consists of a central mixed β-sandwich surrounded by α-helices. Additionally, SMPDL3A possesses a unique C-terminal domain formed from a cluster of four α-helices that appears to distinguish this protein family from other phosphoesterases. We show that SMDPL3A is a di-zinc-dependent enzyme with an active site configuration that suggests a mechanism of phosphodiester hydrolysis by a metal-activated water molecule and protonation of the leaving group by a histidine residue. Co-crystal structures of SMPDL3A with AMP and α,β-methylene ADP (AMPCP) reveal that the substrate binding site accommodates nucleotides by establishing interactions with their base, sugar, and phosphate moieties, with the latter the major contributor to binding affinity. Our study provides the structural basis for SMPDL3A substrate specificity and sheds new light on the function of ASMase-like proteins. PMID:26792860

  11. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. PMID:27383746

  12. Lipid Interactions and Organization in Complex Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Oskar; Yasuda, Tomokazu; Hautala, Victor; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Murata, Michio; Slotte, J Peter

    2016-04-12

    Bilayer lipids influence the lateral structure of the membranes, but the relationship between lipid properties and the lateral structure formed is not always understood. Model membrane studies on bilayers containing cholesterol and various phospholipids (PLs) suggest that high and low temperature melting PLs may segregate, especially in the presence of cholesterol. The effect of different PL headgroups on lateral structure of bilayers is also not clear. Here, we have examined the formation of lateral heterogeneity in increasingly complex (up to five-component) multilamellar bilayers. We have used time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with domain-selective fluorescent probes (PL-conjugated trans-parinaric acid), and (2)H NMR spectroscopy with site or perdeuterated PLs. We have measured changes in bilayer order using such domain-selective probes both as a function of temperature and composition. Our results from time-resolved fluorescence and (2)H NMR showed that in ternary bilayers, acyl chain order and thermostability in sphingomyelin-rich domains were not affected to any greater extent by the headgroup structure of the monounsaturated PLs (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylserine) in the bilayer. In the complex five-component bilayers, we could not detect major differences between the different monounsaturated PLs regarding cholesterol-induced ordering. However, cholesterol clearly influenced deuterated N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin differently than the other deuterated PLs, suggesting that cholesterol favored N-palmitoyl sphingomyelin over the other PLs. Taken together, both the fluorescence spectroscopy and (2)H NMR data suggest that the complex five-component membranes displayed lateral heterogeneity, at least in the lower temperature regimen examined. PMID:27074681

  13. The sensing of membrane microdomains based on pore-forming toxins.

    PubMed

    Skočaj, M; Bakrač, B; Križaj, I; Maček, P; Anderluh, G; Sepčić, K

    2013-01-01

    Membrane rafts are transient and unstable membrane microdomains that are enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol, and specific proteins. They are involved in intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, pathogen entry, and attachment of various ligands. Increasing experimental evidence on the crucial biological roles of membrane rafts under normal and pathological conditions require new techniques for their structural and functional characterization. In particular, fluorescence-labeled cytolytic proteins that interact specifically with molecules enriched in rafts are of increasing interest. Cholera toxin subunit B interacts specifically with raft-residing ganglioside G(M1), and it has long been the lipid probe of choice for membrane rafts. Recently, four new pore-forming toxins have been proposed as selective raft markers: (i) equinatoxin II, a cytolysin from the sea anemone Actinia equina, which specifically recognizes free and membrane-embedded sphingomyelin; (ii) a truncated non-toxic mutant of a cytolytic protein, lysenin, from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, which specifically recognizes sphingomyelin-enriched membrane domains; (iii) a non-toxic derivative of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin perfringolysin O, from the bacterium Clostridium perfringens, which selectively binds to membrane domains enriched in cholesterol; and (iv) ostreolysin, from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which does not bind to a single raft-enriched lipid component, but requires a specific combination of two of the most important raft-residing lipids: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. Nontoxic, raft-binding derivatives of cytolytic proteins have already been successfully used to explore both the structure and function of membrane rafts, and of raft-associated molecules. Here, we review these four new derivatives of pore-forming toxins as new putative markers of these membrane microdomains. PMID:23244522

  14. Minimal radius of curvature of lipid bilayers in the gel phase state corresponds to the dimension of biomembrane structures "caveolae".

    PubMed

    Meyer, H W; Westermann, M; Stumpf, M; Richter, W; Ulrich, A S; Hoischen, C

    1998-12-01

    Caveolae are membrane invaginations with a radius of curvature in the range of 40 nm for the bulb; 10-15 nm is the minimal radius for lipid bilayers in the liquid-crystalline Lalpha (liquid-disordered: ld) phase state. A minimal radius of 20-30 nm could be detected for the gel phase state by analysis of convex-concave bilayer deformations. Circular protrusions with a diameter in the range of only about 40 nm are closed by a flat lid, and those with diameters of 60 nm or more are closed by hemispherical caps. These structures are found primarily in phosphatidylcholine/sterol mixtures, where the gel phase state "liquid ordered" (lo) has been introduced. As a further example the mixture of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with an unusual sterol (diflucortolon-21-valerat) is presented. In the usual hydration at temperatures above the phase transition the deformation requires an incubation at 4 degrees C for several weeks or months to form. Using a low temperature hydration procedure (at 4 degrees C), surprisingly bilayers of pure DMPC and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) are found to deform in the same convex-concave manner, and this takes place within hours and days. The dependence on hydration protocol is also observed for formation of a sponge-like bilayer network with 30-35 nm radius of curvature in brain sphingomyelin and its mixtures with cholesterol. Caveolae are microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin and are simultaneously discussed to be in the lo state. Direct evidence by investigation of bilayers formed by the lipids isolated from caveolae is still lacking, but structures similar to caveolae which are in the gel phase state (very probably the lo state) are also formed by lipids extracted from bacterial membranes. A further analogy exists because both natural lipid mixtures (brain sphingomyelin and bacterial lipids) transform during heating from the curved bilayer structures into microvesicles above the phase transition

  15. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Liebisch, Gerhard; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  16. Cholesterol exchange and lateral cholesterol pools in synaptosomal membranes of pair-fed control and chronic ethanol-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wood, W G; Rao, A M; Igbavboa, U; Semotuk, M

    1993-04-01

    Most studies on effects of ethanol on membrane cholesterol have reported on changes in the total or bulk amount of cholesterol. Membrane cholesterol, however, can be described in terms of its kinetics and domains. The kinetics and size of lateral cholesterol exchangeable and nonexchangeable pools were examined in synaptosomes of pair-fed controls and chronic ethanol-treated mice. Effects of sphingomyelin, an exofacial leaflet phospholipid, that has been shown to affect cholesterol pools, were also examined. Radiolabeled small unilamellar vesicles were used to exchange cholesterol with synaptosomes. The total amounts of membrane cholesterol, phospholipid phosphorus, and the ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid did not differ between the pair-fed control and ethanol groups. In control mice, the rate constant (hr-1) and the t1/2 (hr) of cholesterol exchange were 0.065 +/- 0.001 and 10.7 +/- 0.25 (hr), respectively. The rate constant was significantly slower (0.053 +/- 0.001, p < 0.05) and the t1/2 significantly longer (13.33 +/- 0.58, p < 0.05) in synaptosomes of the ethanol group compared with the control group. The size of the exchangeable pool of cholesterol did not differ significantly between the two groups. Sphingomyelinase-induced hydrolysis of sphingomyelin significantly slowed cholesterol exchange with the largest effect in synaptosomes of the control group as compared with the ethanol group (p < 0.05). Hydrolysis of sphingomyelin had significantly (p < 0.05) less of an effect on cholesterol exchange in synaptosomes of the ethanol group. Membrane cholesterol can be described in terms of total content, transbilayer distribution, kinetics, and size of lateral pools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8488977

  17. The Composition of West Nile Virus Lipid Envelope Unveils a Role of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Flavivirus Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Casas, Josefina; Escribano-Romero, Estela

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of febrile illness and meningoencephalitis. The replication of WNV takes place on virus-modified membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell, and virions acquire their envelope by budding into this organelle. Consistent with this view, the cellular biology of this pathogen is intimately linked to modifications of the intracellular membranes, and the requirement for specific lipids, such as cholesterol and fatty acids, has been documented. In this study, we evaluated the impact of WNV infection on two important components of cellular membranes, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids, by mass spectrometry of infected cells. A significant increase in the content of several glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, plasmalogens, and lysophospholipids) and sphingolipids (ceramide, dihydroceramide, and sphingomyelin) was noticed in WNV-infected cells, suggesting that these lipids have functional roles during WNV infection. Furthermore, the analysis of the lipid envelope of WNV virions and recombinant virus-like particles revealed that their envelopes had a unique composition. The envelopes were enriched in sphingolipids (sphingomyelin) and showed reduced levels of phosphatidylcholine, similar to sphingolipid-enriched lipid microdomains. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide) by either pharmacological approaches or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing reduced the release of flavivirus virions as well as virus-like particles, suggesting a role of sphingomyelin-to-ceramide conversion in flavivirus budding and confirming the importance of sphingolipids in the biogenesis of WNV. IMPORTANCE West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus spread by mosquitoes that can infect multiple vertebrate hosts, including humans. There is no specific vaccine or therapy against this pathogen licensed

  18. Metabolic alterations in children with environmental enteric dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Shardell, Michelle; Trehan, Indi; Moaddel, Ruin; Maleta, Kenneth M; Ordiz, M Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction, an asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, malabsorption, and increased intestinal permeability, is a major contributor to childhood stunting in low-income countries. Here we report the relationship of increased intestinal permeability with serum metabolites in 315 children without acute malnutrition, aged 12-59 months, in rural Malawi. Increased gut permeability was associated with significant differences in circulating metabolites that included lower serum phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, tryptophan, ornithine, and citrulline, and elevated serum glutamate, taurine, and serotonin. Our findings suggest that environmental enteric dysfunction is characterized by alterations in important metabolites involved in growth and differentiation and gut function and integrity. PMID:27294788

  19. Metabolic alterations in children with environmental enteric dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Trehan, Indi; Moaddel, Ruin; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction, an asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, malabsorption, and increased intestinal permeability, is a major contributor to childhood stunting in low-income countries. Here we report the relationship of increased intestinal permeability with serum metabolites in 315 children without acute malnutrition, aged 12–59 months, in rural Malawi. Increased gut permeability was associated with significant differences in circulating metabolites that included lower serum phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, tryptophan, ornithine, and citrulline, and elevated serum glutamate, taurine, and serotonin. Our findings suggest that environmental enteric dysfunction is characterized by alterations in important metabolites involved in growth and differentiation and gut function and integrity. PMID:27294788

  20. Clustering effects of GM1 and formation mechanisms of interdigitated liquid disordered domains in GM1/SM/CHOL-supported planar bilayers on mica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiguo; Mao, Yanli; Tero, Ryugo; Liu, Xinli; Hoshino, Tyuji; Tanaka, Motohiko; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2010-09-01

    We have observed by atomic force microscopy that an interdigitated liquid disordered domain (ILDD) is formed in the ganglioside (GM1)/sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (CHOL) bilayers on a mica surface and accelerates the formation of fibriller Aβ agglomerates. By studies of the mechanisms using molecular dynamics simulations, we conclude that the ILDD structure is formed as a result of the phase separation to SM- and GM1-rich domains on the mica surface induced by the effects of GM1 clustering and the interaction between the GM1 head group and the water layer adsorbed in the ditrigonal cavity on the mica surface.

  1. Ordered Nanoclusters in Lipid-Cholesterol Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Maria K.; Chi, Eva Y.; Frey, Shelli L.; Cao, Kathleen D.; Luther, Laura M.; Lee, Ka Yee C.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Kjaer, Kristian

    2009-07-01

    X-ray diffraction of sphingomyelin-dihydrocholesterol (SM-DChol) monolayers revealed short-ranged (˜25Å) 2D ordering. These nanoclusters show two distinct regions: below the cusp point of the phase diagram (35 mol% DChol), a constant d spacing was observed; above the cusp, the d spacing increases linearly with DChol in accordance to Vegard’s law for binary alloys. The components in this lipidic alloy are thus a 65∶35 SM-DChol entity and excess DChol. Reflectivity data further support the emergence above the cusp of an uncomplexed DChol population with greater vertical mobility.

  2. Tools for characterizing biomembranes : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Stevens, Mark; Holland, Gregory P.; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2007-10-01

    A suite of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy tools were developed to investigate lipid structure and dynamics in model membrane systems. By utilizing both multinuclear and multidimensional NMR experiments a range of different intra- and inter-molecular contacts were probed within the membranes. Examples on pure single component lipid membranes and on the canonical raft forming mixture of DOPC/SM/Chol are presented. A unique gel phase pretransition in SM was also identified and characterized using these NMR techniques. In addition molecular dynamics into the hydrogen bonding network unique to sphingomyelin containing membranes were evaluated as a function of temperature, and are discussed.

  3. Liquid extraction surface analysis field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry for the analysis of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Rian L; Dexter, Alex; Creese, Andrew J; Cooper, Helen J

    2015-10-21

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) is a surface sampling technique that allows electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of a wide range of analytes directly from biological substrates. Here, we present LESA mass spectrometry coupled with high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for the analysis of dried blood spots on filter paper. Incorporation of FAIMS in the workflow enables gas-phase separation of lipid and protein molecular classes, enabling analysis of both haemoglobin and a range of lipids (phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin species) from a single extraction sample. The work has implications for multiplexed clinical assays of multiple analytes. PMID:26198596

  4. Imaging the Lipid-Phase-Dependent Pore Formation of Equinatoxin II in Droplet Interface Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rojko, N.; Cronin, B.; Danial, J.S.H.; Baker, M.A.B.; Anderluh, G.; Wallace, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Using phase-separated droplet interface bilayers, we observe membrane binding and pore formation of a eukaryotic cytolysin, Equinatoxin II (EqtII). EqtII activity is known to depend on the presence of sphingomyelin in the target membrane and is enhanced by lipid phase separation. By imaging the ionic flux through individual pores in vitro, we observe that EqtII pores form predominantly within the liquid-disordered phase. We observe preferential binding of labeled EqtII at liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered domain boundaries before it accumulates in the liquid-disordered phase. PMID:24739162

  5. Conserved sequence pattern in a wide variety of phosphoesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, E. V.

    1994-01-01

    A unique sequence pattern, designated the GD/GNH signature, was shown to be conserved in a wide variety of phosphoesterases. The enzymes containing this signature cleave phosphoester bonds in such different substrates as (1) phosphoserine and phosphothreonine in polypeptides; (2) bis(5'-nucleosidyl)-tetraphosphates; (3) nucleoside 5' phosphates; (4) 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphates; (5) polynucleotides; (6) 2'-5' phosphodiesters in RNA (intron) lariats; (7) sphingomyelin; and (7) various phosphomonoesters. Two conserved acidic amino acid residues and a conserved histidine residue may be directly involved in phosphoester bond cleavage. PMID:8003970

  6. Molecular modeling of human alkaline sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Panneer Selvam; Olubiyi, Olujide; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Strodel, Birgit; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase, which is expressed in the human intestine and hydrolyses sphingomyelin, is a component of the plasma and the lysosomal membranes. Hydrolase of sphingomyelin generates ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate that have regulatory effects on vital cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The enzyme belongs to the Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase family and it differs in structural similarity with acidic and neutral sphingomyelinase. In the present study we modeled alkaline sphingomyelinase using homology modeling based on the structure of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase from Xanthomonas axonopodis with which it shares 34% identity. Homology modeling was performed using Modeller9v7. We found that Cys78 and Cys394 form a disulphide bond. Further analysis shows that Ser76 may be important for the function of this enzyme, which is supported by the findings of Wu et al. (2005), that S76F abolishes the activity completely. We found that the residues bound to Zn(2+) are conserved and geometrically similar with the template. Molecular Dynamics simulations were carried out for the modeled protein to observe the effect of Zinc metal ions. It was observed that the metal ion has little effect with regard to the stability but induces increased fluctuations in the protein. These analyses showed that Zinc ions play an important role in stabilizing the secondary structure and in maintaining the compactness of the active site. PMID:21544170

  7. Variable Substrate Preference among Phospholipase D Toxins from Sicariid Spiders*

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Delahaye, Jared L.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. The evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey. PMID:25752604

  8. Multiple sphingolipid abnormalities following cerebral microendothelial hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Testai, Fernando D.; Kilkus, John P.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Gorshkova, Irina; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Dawson, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been previously shown to inhibit the dihydroceramide (DHC) desaturase, leading to the accumulation of DHC. In this study, we used metabolic labeling with [3H]-palmitate, HPLC/MS/MS analysis, and specific inhibitors to show numerous sphingolipid changes after oxygen deprivation in cerebral microendothelial cells. The increased DHC, particularly long-chain forms, was observed in both whole cells and detergent-resistant membranes. This was reversed by reoxygenation and blocked by the de novo sphingolipid synthesis inhibitor myriocin, but not by the neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW-4869. Furthermore, oxygen deprivation of microendothelial cells increased levels of dihydro-sphingosine (DH-Sph), DH-sphingosine1-phosphate (DH-S1P), DH-sphingomyelin (DH-SM), DH-glucosylceramide (DH-GlcCer), and S1P levels. In vitro assays revealed no changes in the activity of sphingomyelinases or sphingomyelin synthase, but resulted in reduced S1P lyase activity and 40% increase in glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) activity, which was reversed by reoxygenation. Inhibition of the de novo sphingolipid pathway (myriocin) or GCS (EtPoD4) induced endothelial barrier dysfunction and increased caspase 3-mediated cell death in response to hypoxia. Our findings suggest that hypoxia induces synthesis of S1P and multiple dihydrosphingolipids, including DHC, DH-SM, DH-GlcCer, DH-Sph and DH-S1P, which may be involved in ameliorating the effects of stroke. PMID:25060904

  9. Molecular mechanism of pore formation by actinoporins.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Katarina Crnigoj; Viero, Gabriella; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Macek, Peter; Anderluh, Gregor

    2009-12-15

    Actinoporins are effective pore-forming toxins produced by sea anemones. These extremely potent, basic 20 kDa proteins readily form pores in membranes that contain sphingomyelin. Much has been learned about the molecular basis of their pore-forming mechanism in recent years. Pore formation is a multi-step process that involves recognition of membrane sphingomyelin, firm binding to the membrane accompanied by the transfer of the N-terminal region to the lipid-water interface and finally pore formation after oligomerisation of three to four monomers. The final conductive pathway is formed by amphipathic alpha-helices, hence actinoporins are an important example of so-called alpha-helical pore-forming toxins. Actinoporins have become useful model proteins to study protein-membrane interactions, specific recognition of lipids in the membrane, and protein oligomerisation in the lipid milieu. Recent sequence and structural data of proteins similar to actinoporins indicate that they are not a unique family restricted to sea anemones as was long believed. An AF domain superfamily (abbreviated from actinoporin-like proteins and fungal fruit-body lectins) was defined and shown to contain members from three animal and two plant phyla. On the basis of functional properties of some members we hypothesise that AF domain proteins are peripheral membrane proteins. Finally, ability of actinoporins to form transmembrane pores has been exploited in some novel biomedical applications. PMID:19268680

  10. Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. PMID:25997737