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Sample records for spina bifida longitudinal

  1. Spina bifida - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/baby/spina-bifida.aspx National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and ...

  2. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... pronounced SPAHY-nuh BIF-i-duh ) is a neural tube defect that frequently occurs in families. Spina ... meninges) alone, called a meningocele, or with some neural elements, called a meningomyelocele. Or the defect may ...

  3. Spina Bifida (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... formation. Not having enough folic acid in the diet before and during early pregnancy can increase a woman's risk of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. The causes of spina bifida in pregnancies where mothers took prenatal vitamins and got enough folic acid ...

  4. Spina Bifida Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spina Bifida Walk-N-Roll for SB World Congress Participate Awareness Month Volunteer Advocate Lower the Risk ... Spina Bifida Walk-N-Roll for SB World Congress Participate Awareness Month Volunteer Advocate Lower the Risk ...

  5. Spina Bifida and Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakes, Olive

    1984-01-01

    Two women with spina bifida, a disability in which the spinal cord and nerves are damaged, gave birth to healthy babies. The article points out the need to provide young girls having this condition with information and counseling regarding sexual relationships, parenthood, and child rearing. (CL)

  6. Spina Bifida Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults Videos My Story Data and Statistics Research & ... had public insurance only. [ Read article summary ] Many adolescents and young adults with spina bifida report a high level ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: spina bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of Wisconsin-Madison Cleveland Clinic Disease InfoSearch: Neural tube defects Disease InfoSearch: Spina bifida JAMA Patient Page KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: spina ...

  8. The Child with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Spain, Bernie

    Intended for parents as well as professionals, the text provides information and practical suggestions on dealing with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Part I (chapters 1 and 2) concentrates on the medical and physical aspects of the condition with discussions covering such areas as spina bifida's development, locomotor problems, and the role of

  9. The Child with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Spain, Bernie

    Intended for parents as well as professionals, the text provides information and practical suggestions on dealing with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Part I (chapters 1 and 2) concentrates on the medical and physical aspects of the condition with discussions covering such areas as spina bifida's development, locomotor problems, and the role of…

  10. Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... spina bifida homepage Living with spina bifida Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  11. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  12. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage

  13. Urologic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Douglass B.; Brock, John W., III; Joseph, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The urologist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team of physicians who provide care for patients with spina bifida. We review common strategies for managing the urinary tract in these patients. The primary objective in all phases of life is protecting kidney function by minimizing bladder hostility and establishing a good capacity,…

  14. Mathematical Development in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the

  15. Social Implications of Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, Margaret

    Investigated in Southeast Scotland were the social and practical problems faced by the parents of 86 children (ages 18 months to 38 years) with spina bifida, 74 of whom were classified as myelomeningoceles (a more serious condition involving malformation of the spinal cord). Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather information in the…

  16. Urologic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Douglass B.; Brock, John W., III; Joseph, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The urologist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team of physicians who provide care for patients with spina bifida. We review common strategies for managing the urinary tract in these patients. The primary objective in all phases of life is protecting kidney function by minimizing bladder hostility and establishing a good capacity,

  17. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of

  18. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

  19. Spina Bifida Clinic Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... 83712 (208) 381-7122 Back to top Illinois Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Spina ... 25) 1500 E. Medical Center Drive Taubman 3552 Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5338 www.med.umich.edu/ ...

  20. Spina Bifida, Meningomyelocele, and Meningocele.

    PubMed

    Song, Rachel B; Glass, Eric N; Kent, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Spina bifida with or without meningocele or meningomyelocele is encountered infrequently in small animal practice. The English bulldog and Manx cat are breeds predisposed. Although often silent clinically, in those animals with clinical signs, it is important to recognize the signs early and to understand the appropriate imaging modalities employed in establishing a diagnosis. In a select population of affected animals, proposed surgical intervention may be considered to prevent neurologic decline, prevent secondary complications, and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:26725976

  1. Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

  2. Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain

  3. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  4. Spina bifida clinic--organisational aspects.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, S J

    1997-01-01

    Spina bifida is a complicated problem which affects many systems and demands multidisciplinary attention. The psychosocial aspects of a condition like spina bifida also need to be carefully handled. The ultimate goal is prevention, requiring co-ordinated efforts to establish antenatal diagnosis and screening tests for this anomaly. In our country, the task of solving the difficulties faced by these children at home and in school also falls on our shoulders. All the above responsibilities can only be undertaken if a group of doctors, nurses, social workers, administrators and philanthropists are dedicated to the care and well being of these children. A special clinic helps to create and maintain such a group in order to provide for all, the varied medicosocial needs of a spina bifida patient under one roof. PMID:11129886

  5. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  6. The Spina Bifida Child in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Beverly; And Others

    Learning characteristics of children with spina bifida (lesions on the spinal cord) are reviewed in the text of a presentation with slides, and the effects of such factors as hospitalization experiences and the presence of hydrocephalus are considered. Characteristics related to intelligence, sensory integration, tactile responsiveness, tactile…

  7. Neurosurgical Management of Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Robin M.; McLone, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The neurosurgical goal when treating children with spina bifida (predominantly myelomeningocele) is to maintain stable neurological functioning throughout the patient's life time. Unfortunately, few long-term outcome studies are available to help direct the neurosurgical care of a child born with myelomeningocele and often treatment relies more…

  8. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with

  9. The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

  10. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to…

  11. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to

  12. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Spina Bifida?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some people with open spina bifida have additional physical and psychological conditions, including digestive, vision, sexual, social, and emotional problems; obesity; and depression. Centers for ...

  13. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  14. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary

  15. Psychological and Educational Studies with Spina Bifida Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    To measure school achievements in spina bifida children, to relate these measures to certain variables, to obtain information on educational problems, and to study facets of cognition and its changes with age, 77 spina bifida children and 53 amputees (all aged 5 to 15) were tested. Sixty non-disabled children were at times used for controls. The…

  16. Symposium on Spina Bifida (Denver, Colorado, November, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

    The objectives of the symposium were to define the problems of the child with spina bifida and to present practical means of management, using a multi-disciplinary team approach. Eight papers defining the problem cover the epidemiology of spina bifida, pathophysiology, musculoskeletal defects, incontinence of bladder and bowel, problems of…

  17. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no

  18. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

  19. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  20. Mathematical skills in 3- and 5-year-olds with spina bifida and their typically developing peers: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-05-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual-spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21418718

  1. Spina bifida occulta: radiographic and operative correlation.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, M; Bhatnagar, V; Mitra, D K; Mishra, N K; Rohatgi, M; Upadhyaya, P

    1989-01-01

    The clinical and myelographic evaluation in 24 children with spina bifida occulta has been correlated with the operative findings. Myelograms were done using Myodil in 11 patients and Metrizamide in 13 patients. The diagnostic quality of myelograms done with Metrizamide was comparatively better. Myodil myelography failed to demonstrate diastematomyelia in one case and a dural sac in 3 cases of lipomeningomyelocele, whereas, Metrizamide failed to demonstrate a sac in one case of lipomeningomyelocele only. Worsening of the neurological status was observed in only 3 cases in whom myelography was done with Myodil. The radiographic and operative correlation has been discussed. PMID:2699314

  2. The Cognitive Phenotype Of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this paper, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory modality, and material, including studies from our laboratory and other investigations. We discuss some implications of the SBM cognitive phenotype for assessment, rehabilitation, and research. PMID:20419769

  3. Identification of novel CELSR1 mutations in spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Spina bifida is one of the most common neural tube defects (NTDs) with a complex etiology. Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been associated with NTDs including spina bifida in both animal models and human cohorts. In this study, we sequenced all exons of CELSR1 in 192 spina bifida patients from a California population to determine the contribution of CELSR1 mutations in the studied population. Novel and rare variants identified in these patients were subsequently genotyped in 190 ethnically matched control individuals. Six missense mutations not found in controls were predicted to be deleterious by both SIFT and PolyPhen. Two TG dinucleotide repeat variants were individually detected in 2 spina bifida patients but not detected in controls. In vitro functional analysis showed that the two TG dinucleotide repeat variants not only changed subcellular localization of the CELSR1 protein, but also impaired the physical association between CELSR1 and VANGL2, and thus diminished the ability to recruit VANGL2 for cell-cell contact. In total, 3% of our spina bifida patients carry deleterious or predicted to be deleterious CELSR1 mutations. Our findings suggest that CELSR1 mutations contribute to the risk of spina bifida in a cohort of spina bifida patients from California. PMID:24632739

  4. Identification of Novel CELSR1 Mutations in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Spina bifida is one of the most common neural tube defects (NTDs) with a complex etiology. Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been associated with NTDs including spina bifida in both animal models and human cohorts. In this study, we sequenced all exons of CELSR1 in 192 spina bifida patients from a California population to determine the contribution of CELSR1 mutations in the studied population. Novel and rare variants identified in these patients were subsequently genotyped in 190 ethnically matched control individuals. Six missense mutations not found in controls were predicted to be deleterious by both SIFT and PolyPhen. Two TG dinucleotide repeat variants were individually detected in 2 spina bifida patients but not detected in controls. In vitro functional analysis showed that the two TG dinucleotide repeat variants not only changed subcellular localization of the CELSR1 protein, but also impaired the physical association between CELSR1 and VANGL2, and thus diminished the ability to recruit VANGL2 for cell-cell contact. In total, 3% of our spina bifida patients carry deleterious or predicted to be deleterious CELSR1 mutations. Our findings suggest that CELSR1 mutations contribute to the risk of spina bifida in a cohort of spina bifida patients from California. PMID:24632739

  5. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?

    MedlinePlus

    ... examines blood in several ways to look for neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, and other ... 30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) NICHD News and Spotlights Boosting ...

  6. Ethics, justification and the prevention of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Gagen, Wendy Jane; Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    During the 1970s, prenatal screening technologies were in their infancy, but were being swiftly harnessed to uncover and prevent spina bifida. The historical rise of this screening process and prevention programme is analysed in this paper, and the role of ethical debates in key studies, editorials and letters reported in the Lancet, and other related texts and governmental documents between 1972 and 1983, is considered. The silence that surrounded rigorous ethical debate served to highlight where discussion lay—namely, within the justifications offered for the prevention of spina bifida, and the efficacy and benefits of screening. In other words, the ethical justification for screening and prevention of spina bifida, when the authors are not explicitly interested in ethics, is considered. These justifications held certain notions of disability as costly to society, with an imperative to screen and prevent spina bifida for the good of the society. PMID:17761816

  7. Selection for treatment in spina bifida cystica.

    PubMed

    Smith, G K; Smith, E D

    1973-10-27

    This paper discusses (1) the mortality in 295 patients with myelomeningocele born 1961-9, (2) the "quality of life" of 88 surviving patients born 1961-5, and (3) their implications for selection for treatment in spina bifida cystica. Evidence is presented that high neurological levels, the presence of severe hydrocephalus, especially if present at birth, meningitis and ventriculitis, and gross renal disease are very adverse factors both in mortality and in quality of life. In selection for treatment we recommend immediate repair of the sac in most low lesions, deferring treatment in high lesions, and re-evaluation of the survivors of the latter group at 1 month or later. PMID:4586033

  8. Selection for Treatment in Spina Bifida Cystica*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. Keys; Smith, E. Durham

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses (1) the mortality in 295 patients with myelomeningocele born 1961-9, (2) the “quality of life” of 88 surviving patients born 1961-5, and (3) their implications for selection for treatment in spina bifida cystica. Evidence is presented that high neurological levels, the presence of severe hydrocephalus, especially if present at birth, meningitis and ventriculitis, and gross renal disease are very adverse factors both in mortality and in quality of life. In selection for treatment we recommend immediate repair of the sac in most low lesions, deferring treatment in high lesions, and re-evaluation of the survivors of the latter group at 1 month or later. PMID:4586033

  9. Disability and quality of life in spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Cate, Ineke M Pit-ten; Kennedy, Colin; Stevenson, Jim

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the impact of severity and type of condition and family resources on quality of life in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. A national UK sample of children aged between 6 and 13 years with spina bifida (n=62), hydrocephalus (n=354), and spina bifida plus hydrocephalus (n=128) were identified via the register of the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (ASBAH). Parents completed standardized measures of Child Health Related Quality Of Life (CQOL), family needs survey (FNS), and caregiving self-efficacy scale (CSES) as well as questions on children's health and physical ability. Results showed there were no significant differences in the overall quality of life for the three disability conditions. The overall CQOL was over 1 SD lower for those with spina bifida and hydrocephalus than for children with other physical conditions. Sex and age were not related to overall CQOL. Specific aspects of CQOL differentiated the three groups. Children with spina bifida had poorer CQOL scores on self-care, continence, and mobility/activities whilst those with hydrocephalus had poorer scores on school activities, worries, sight, and communication. Severity of condition and family resources, i.e. CSES and FNS, predicted 32% of the variance in CQOL. Associations were also found between overall CQOL and problems discernible at birth as well as epilepsy. Other factors, including those related to shunts, were not significantly related to CQOL. It was concluded that hydrocephalus is just as great a threat to CQOL as spina bifida. Beyond the general effect of condition severity on CQOL, family resources (as measured by the CSES and FNS) represent an additional influence on CQOL. PMID:12033717

  10. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

  11. [Spina bifida aperta in a sheep lamb].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, N; Hilbe, M; Kircher, P; Bleull, U

    2015-01-01

    The case report describes the symptoms and diagnostic methods of a spina bifida aperta in a new born lamb. The most relevant clinical findings were recumbency immediately after birth with normal consciousness and suckling reflexes, alterations of the skin and coat in the lumbosacral region as well as dysuria. The biochemical and haematological screening of the blood indicated no abnormalities. While the radiological examination of the spine showed no clear evidence of the cause of the clinical sings the ultrasound and computed tomography examination revealed an incomplete closure of the vertebral arch between the 4th lumbar and the 3rd sacral vertebrae. Additionally, a hernia with similar density to the spinal cord was present in the same region of the spine. Based on the findings the lamb was euthanized. The pathological examination confirmed the incomplete closure of the vertebral arch and moreover a myelomeningocele has been diagnosed. In the histopathological examination the white and grey matter were separated in the area of the macroscopic visible lesions. Due to non-specific clinical symptoms imagining diagnostics can be crucial to confirm the diagnosis of this rare syndrome. PMID:26753319

  12. Differences between the events preceding spina bifida and anencephaly.

    PubMed Central

    James, W H

    1981-01-01

    It is usually held that there is a time continuum in the formation of monoxygotic (MZ) twins which is indexed by their placentation, running from dichorionic to monochorionic diamniotic to monochorionic monoamniotic and conjoined pairs. There is good evidence that this continuum is characterised by a continuum of predisposition to anencephaly, slightly raised in dichorionic pairs but very high in some sorts of conjoined pairs. Although MZ twins, especially monoamniotic and conjoined pairs, are peculiarly liable to anencephaly, they are not particularly susceptible to spina bifida. Among twin pairs concordant for anencephaly or spina bifida, there are strikingly few concordant in the sense of one twin having anencephaly and the other spina bifida, in contrast with the numbers of pairs concordant for the same malformation. The prevalence of anencephaly in double monsters varies with the type of monster, being high in diprosopus. These findings may be explained by the timing of embryonic events. PMID:7019447

  13. Congenital vertebral anomalies: aetiology and relationship to spina bifida cystica.

    PubMed

    Wynne-Davies, R

    1975-09-01

    A family survey of 337 patients with congenital vertebral anomalies has been carried out from the Scoliosis Clinics of Edinburgh and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, London. From genetic and epidemiological evidence it is clear that multiple vertebral anomalies (without apparent spina bifida) are aetiologically related to anencephaly and spina bifida cystics, carrying a 5-10% risk to subsequent sibs for any one of these defects. The implications for prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Solitary hemivertebrae and localized anterior defects of the vertebral bodies causing kyphoscoliosis are sporadic (non-familial) in nature, carrying no risk to subsequent sibs. PMID:1100836

  14. Physical Education for Students with Spina Bifida: Mothers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods

  15. Children with Spina Bifida: Why Do They Fail in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisert, Debra C.; Shelburne, Kathryn

    Thirty-eight children with spina bifida, a congenital defect involving the nervous system, were tested for verbal and performance ability and freedom from distractibility on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Achievement on the Wide Range Achievement Test was also measured, and medical and socioeconomic information obtained.…

  16. Correlates of Self Esteem in Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckart, M. L.

    The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…

  17. Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Carl L.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

  18. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with…

  19. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with

  20. Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida Overview Parents, teachers and health care professionals have observed that children with Spina Bilda have problems with motor skills, attention, memory and organization. Research linking medical ...

  1. Impairment of a Motor Skill in Children with Spina Bifida Cystica and Hydrocephalus: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Plewis, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Twenty 7-10 year old children with spina bifida cystica and hydrocephalus and 20 normals matched for age, sex and IQ were compared on a 12-trial target task, first used by Connolly, Brown & Bassett (1968). Findings are discussed in relation to neurological abnormalities in the spina bifida group. (Editor/RK)

  2. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  3. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  4. Spina Bifida: Guidelines of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.

    These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with spina bifida. The booklet begins with general information about spina bifida. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures. The child's health care…

  5. Work Participation among Young Adults with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…

  6. From Wheelchair to Cane: Elective Transtibial Amputations in a Patient with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-11-01

    Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  7. Sacral fatigue fractures in children with sacral spina bifida occulta.

    PubMed

    Hama, Shingo; Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Abe, Mitsunobu; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    In this report, we present two cases of 9-year-old children with spina bifida occulta (SBO) of the sacrum, who were diagnosed with sacral fatigue fractures. In both patients, MRI showed a linear signal void and high signal in sacral ala on the short tau inversion recovery sequence. Sacral SBO at the same level of the sacral fracture was observed in each patient on computed tomography images. These lesions healed with rest. This is the first literature reporting cases with sacral stress fractures who had SBO at the same level of fracture. PMID:26196371

  8. Sacral fatigue fractures in children with sacral spina bifida occulta

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Shingo; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Abe, Mitsunobu; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present two cases of 9-year-old children with spina bifida occulta (SBO) of the sacrum, who were diagnosed with sacral fatigue fractures. In both patients, MRI showed a linear signal void and high signal in sacral ala on the short tau inversion recovery sequence. Sacral SBO at the same level of the sacral fracture was observed in each patient on computed tomography images. These lesions healed with rest. This is the first literature reporting cases with sacral stress fractures who had SBO at the same level of fracture. PMID:26196371

  9. Complications of Surgical Management of Upper Tract Calculi in Spina Bifida Patients: Analysis of Nationwide Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S.; Wiener, John S.; Ferrandino, Michael N.; Lipkin, Michael E.; Routh, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The management of upper urinary tract stones in patients with spina bifida is challenging but poorly described in the literature. We compared urolithiasis interventions and related complications in patients with spina bifida to those in other stone formers using a national database. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the NIS to identify hospital admissions for renal and ureteral stones from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological interventions, including shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteral stent placement. NSQIP data were used to identify postoperative complications. Results We identified 4,287,529 weighted stone hospital admissions, including 12,315 (0.3%) of patients with spina bifida. Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who had urolithiasis were significantly younger (mean age 34 vs 53 years), more likely to have public insurance (72% vs 44%) and renal vs ureteral calculi (81% vs 58%), and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy (27% vs 8%). After adjusting for age, insurance, comorbidity, treatment year, surgery type, stone location and hospital factors patients with spina bifida were more likely to have urinary tract infections (OR 2.5), urinary complications (OR 3.1), acute renal failure (OR 1.9), respiratory complications (OR 2.0), pneumonia (OR 1.5), respiratory insufficiency (OR 3.2), prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 3.2), sepsis (OR 2.7), pulmonary embolism (OR 3.0), cardiac complications (OR 2.4) and bleeding (OR 1.6). Conclusions Compared to those without spina bifida the patients with spina bifida who were hospitalized for urolithiasis were younger, and more likely to have renal stones and undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Urolithiasis procedures in patients with spina bifida were associated with a significantly higher risk of in-hospital postoperative complications. PMID:25261805

  10. The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaer, Catherine M.

    1997-01-01

    This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

  11. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  12. Assessment of Parental Expressed Emotion: Associations with Adolescent Depressive Symptoms Among Youth with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lauren M.; OMahar, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives?A longitudinal multi-method, multi-informant design was utilized to investigate parental expressed emotion (EE) as a predictor of depressive symptoms among adolescents with spina bifida (n?=?60) and a matched comparison sample (n?=?65).?Methods?A newly modified self-administered audiotaped interview methodology was used to assess parental warmth and criticism across the middle adolescent developmental period (ages 1417). Parent- and youth-reports of adolescent depressive symptoms were obtained at each time point.?Results?Significant cross-sectional associations between parental EE variables and youth depressive symptoms were found for both groups. Significant longitudinal relations between maternal criticism and parent proxy-report of youth depressive symptoms were also found across 2 years for the spina bifida group and across 4 years for both groups.?Conclusions?This modified measure of parental EE can be used in future pediatric research that focuses on precursors or outcomes of this important parenting construct. PMID:20870752

  13. Emergent Care Patterns in Patients with Spina Bifida: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S.; Wiener, John S.; Ross, Sherry S.; Routh, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with spina bifida are typically followed closely as outpatients by multidisciplinary teams. However, emergent care of these patients is not well defined. We describe patterns of emergent care in patients with spina bifida and healthy controls. Materials and Methods We reviewed Nationwide Emergency Department Sample data from 2006 to 2010. Subjects without spina bifida (controls) were selected from the sample using stratified random sampling and matched to each case by age, gender and treatment year at a 1:4 ratio. Missing emergency department charges were estimated by multiple imputation. Statistical analyses were performed to compare patterns of care among emergency department visits and charges. Results A total of 226,709 patients with spina bifida and 888,774 controls were identified. Mean age was 28.2 years, with 34.6% of patients being younger than 21. Patients with spina bifida were more likely than controls to have public insurance (63.7% vs 35.4%, p <0.001) and to be admitted to the hospital from the emergency department (37.0% vs 9.2%, p <0.001). Urinary tract infections were the single most common acute diagnosis in patients with spina bifida seen emergently (OR 8.7, p <0.001), followed by neurological issues (OR 2.0, p <0.001). Urological issues were responsible for 34% of total emergency department charges. Mean charges per encounter were significantly higher in spina bifida cases vs controls ($2,102 vs $1,650, p <0.001), as were overall charges for patients subsequently admitted from emergent care ($36,356 vs $29,498, p <0.001). Conclusions Compared to controls, patients with spina bifida presenting emergently are more likely to have urological or neurosurgical problems, to undergo urological or neurosurgical procedures, to be admitted from the emergency department and to incur higher associated charges. PMID:25016137

  14. Shifting genetic patterns in anencephaly and spina bifida.

    PubMed Central

    Janerich, D T; Piper, J

    1978-01-01

    The long-term decline in the incidence of the neural tube malformations, anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB), ended in the mid-1950's in New York State. Since that time, the rate of these birth defects has remained between 1 and 1.5/1000 births. In this low incidence population, we tested the basic tenets which support a genetic aetiology. We found that the full sib recurrence rate (1.8%) was higher than the half sib recurrence rate (0.8%) and the twin concordance rate (6.8%) was higher than the full sib recurrence rate. We found the incidence of ASB in twins to be the same as the incidence of ASB in singletons. Our findings are compatible with polygenic inheritance aetiology for ASB. The genetic molecular pathway of these birth defects may be identifiable through biochemical screening of families with one or more ASB children. PMID:641940

  15. Assessment of obesity of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Ono, Y; Ishida, N; Oki, T

    1993-04-01

    Percentage body fat of 35 children with spina bifida and 129 age-matched normal children was measured by underwater weighing and skinfold thickness to assess obesity. Percentage body fat of patients below five years was similar to that of controls; however, 58 per cent of patients above six years had an increased percentage of body fat. The neurological level and ambulatory ability were associated with percentage body fat. A significant correlation between percentage body fat and hydrocephalus suggests that the metabolic and nutritional maladaptation is caused not only by these patients' physical inactivity but also by the condition itself. Appropriate nutritional and mobility programmes should be started early to prevent the development of obesity. PMID:8335145

  16. Folic Acid Intake and Spina Bifida in the Era of Dietary Folic Acid Fortification

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Katherine; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The US Food and Drug Administration mandated that enriched grain products be fortified with folic acid by 1998. We evaluated whether intake of folic acid from supplements and diet was associated with a reduction in spina bifida in the setting of folic acid fortification. Methods Data were collected as part of the Slone Birth Defects Study from 1998 to 2008. Mothers of infants with and without birth defects were interviewed within 6 months of delivery about pregnancy exposures, including details of diet and vitamin intake. Dietary natural folate and synthetic folic acid from fortification were combined into a single, weighted measure—dietary folate equivalent. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and dietary folate consumption were compared between 205 mothers of spina bifida cases and 6357 mothers of nonmalformed controls. Relative risks of a spina bifida-affected birth were estimated with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Spina bifida was not associated with regular folic acid supplementation (≥4 days per week) either around the time of conception (adjusted OR = 1.1 [95% CI = 0.74 –1.7]) or initiated in early pregnancy (0.79 [0.54–1.2]). After adjustment for confounders, a 13% reduced odds of spina bifida was estimated for each 100-µg increase in daily dietary folate equivalent consumed. Conclusions In the setting of folic acid fortification of grains, our data suggest that folic acid supplementation does not appear to offer further benefit for reducing risk of spina bifida. Rather, the folate-associated benefit on spina bifida risk was found with increasing amounts of dietary folic acid consumed, regardless of folic acid supplementation level. PMID:21659881

  17. Mutations in planar cell polarity gene SCRIB are associated with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Duhon, Cody; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) (OMIM #182940) including anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, are severe congenital malformations that affect 0.5-1 in 1,000 live births in the United States, with varying prevalence around the world. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes are believed to cause a variety of NTDs in both mice and humans. SCRIB is a PCP-associated gene. Mice that are homozygous for the Scrib p.I285K and circletail (Crc) mutations, present with the most severe form of NTDs, namely craniorachischisis. A recent study reported that mutations in SCRIB were associated with craniorachischisis in humans, but whether SCRIB mutations contribute to increased spina bifida risk is still unknown. We sequenced the SCRIB gene in 192 infants with spina bifida and 190 healthy controls. Among the spina bifida patients, we identified five novel missense mutations that were predicted-to-be-deleterious by the PolyPhen software. Of these five mutations, three of them (p.P1043L, p.P1332L, p.L1520R) significantly affected the subcellular localization of SCRIB. In addition, we demonstrated that the craniorachischisis mouse line-90 mutation I285K, also affected SCRIB subcellular localization. In contrast, only one novel missense mutation (p.A1257T) was detected in control samples, and it was predicted to be benign. This study demonstrated that rare deleterious mutations of SCRIB may contribute to the multifactorial risk for human spina bifida. PMID:23922697

  18. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans... children of Vietnam veterans—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an evaluation to...

  19. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Barf, H A; Post, M W M; Verhoef, M; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H

    2007-06-01

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB participated (41% male, age range 16-25y; 79% SB aperta, 67% hydrocephalus [HC], 39% wheelchair-dependent). Most were satisfied with their life as a whole (24% dissatisfied). No difference was found from a population reference group (28% dissatisfied). Highest proportions of dissatisfaction were found for financial situation (44%), partnership relations (49%), and sex life (55%). Least dissatisfaction was found for contact with friends (17%) and families (15%). Young adults with SB and HC were more satisfied with their financial situation and family life but were less satisfied with self-care ability and partnership relations than those without HC and the reference group. However, except for self-care ability, relationships between life satisfaction and having SB were weak. In conclusion, self-care ability and partnership relations were rated least favourable and may need more attention from care providers. Overall, SB does not seem to be an important determinant of life satisfaction. PMID:17518933

  20. Rare LRP6 variants identified in spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yunping; Fathe, Kristin; McCartney, Danielle; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Several single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6) cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice. We therefore examined LRP6 in 192 unrelated infants from California with the NTD, spina bifida, and found four heterozygous missense SNVs, three of which were predicted to be deleterious, among NTD cases and not in 190 ethnically matched non-malformed controls. Parents and siblings could not be tested because of the study design. Like Cd and rs mouse variants, the p.Tyr544Cys Lrp6 protein failed to bind the chaperone protein MESD and impaired Lrp6 subcellular localization to the plasma membrane of MDCK II cells. Only the p.Tyr544Cys Lrp6 variant down-regulated canonical Wnt signaling in a TopFlash luciferase reporter in vitro assay. In contrast, three Lrp6 mutants (p.Ala3Val, p.Tyr544Cys and p.Arg1574Leu) increased non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling in an Ap1-luciferase assay. Thus, LRP6 variants outside of YWTD-repeats could potentially predispose embryos to NTDs, while Lrp6 modulation of Wnt/PCP signaling would be more essential than its canonical pathway role in neural tube closure. PMID:25546815

  1. Continence in patients with spina bifida: long term results.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, P S; Wheeler, R A; Williams, J E

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and forty four questionnaires relating to bladder and bowel control were sent to a random selection of patients with spina bifida throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and seventeen questionnaires were returned, of which 109 were usable. Twenty eight out of 109 responders had undergone some form of urinary diversion, of whom 20 (71%) were reliably dry. The remaining 81 responders emptied their bladders by a variety of techniques including normal voiding, straining, expression, clean intermittent catheterisation, indwelling catheters, or they dribbled urine continuously. Only 31 (38%) of this group were reliably dry. Ninety four of 109 (86%) responders regularly sat on the toilet to evacuate their bowels and most used some aid such as manual evacuation, laxatives, suppositories, or enemas. Fifty five of 104 (53%) responders soiled regularly, 31 (56%) of whom were also wet. Forty seven per cent of dry patients (24/51) were faecally incontinent. Only 25 of 104 (24%) patients responding to all questions were reliably clean and dry. PMID:8129429

  2. A qualitative synthesis of adolescents' experiences of living with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sally

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and perspectives of youth living with spina bifida, the second most common congenital condition in North America, to inform the development of health programs. I undertook a thematic metasynthesis to integrate qualitative evidence across studies examining the experiences of youth with spina bifida. I used 10 electronic databases to search for and review 4,051 abstracts, and identified 12 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. I examined those articles using a constant comparative approach, drawing on concepts of normalcy and biographical disruption to inform understanding of three emergent themes: (a) the medical management of spina bifida; (b) the importance of peer and family relationships (i.e., social support, belonging, and challenges in peer connections); and (c) identity and self-concept (i.e., normalization). This metasynthesis provides insight for youth, parents, and clinicians on areas of life in which youth could use further support. PMID:25104820

  3. Imaging diagnosis--cerebellar displacement and spina bifida in a calf.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Stefania; Dalla Pria, Angela; Gentile, Arcangelo

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we describe a calf affected by cerebellar displacement and spina bifida, diagnosed by ultrasonography. A full-term, newborn female calf with paralysis of the pelvic limbs was examined. The dorsal skin at the sacral level contained a circular defect; this was subsequently diagnosed as spina bifida. Cerebellar displacement into the cervical vertebral canal was suspected because of the frequent association of these anomalies. Spinal ultrasound examination carried out at the level of the craniocervical junction allowed identification of herniation of the cerebellum, the caudal part of brain stem, and part of an occipital lobe into the cervical vertebral canal. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was confirmed as post mortem examination. This type of brain defect, associated with spina bifida, resembles the Arnold-Chiari malformation in humans. PMID:20402403

  4. Altered microRNA expression profiles in a rat model of spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Pan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Da; Liu, Qiu-liang; Chen, Xin-rang; Yang, He-ying; Fan, Ying-zhong; Wang, Jia-xiang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dynamically regulated during neurodevelopment, yet few reports have examined their role in spina bifida. In this study, we used an established fetal rat model of spina bifida induced by intragastrically administering olive oil-containing all-trans retinoic acid to dams on day 10 of pregnancy. Dams that received intragastric administration of all-trans retinoic acid-free olive oil served as controls. The miRNA expression profile in the amniotic fluid of rats at 20 days of pregnancy was analyzed using an miRNA microarray assay. Compared with that in control fetuses, the expression of miRNA-9, miRNA-124a, and miRNA-138 was significantly decreased (> 2-fold), whereas the expression of miRNA-134 was significantly increased (> 4-fold) in the amniotic fluid of rats with fetuses modeling spina bifida. These results were validated using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the microarray data showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs could distinguish fetuses modeling spina bifida from control fetuses. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with many cytological pathways, including a nervous system development signaling pathway. These findings indicate that further studies are warranted examining the role of miRNAs through their regulation of a variety of cell functional pathways in the pathogenesis of spina bifida. Such studies may provide novel targets for the early diagnosis and treatment of spina bifida.

  5. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended. PMID:26090048

  6. Urinary incontinence in spina bifida: Initial instrument validation.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Katherine C; Sideridis, Georgios; Sherlock, Rebecca; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kringle, Greta; Johnson, Kathryn; Bauer, Stuart B; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a psychometric assessment of the Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric (ISI-P) in a cohort of adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and neuropathic urinary incontinence (UI) to test its validity and reliability. The ISI-P, an 11-item instrument with domains for symptom severity and impairment, was self-administered by subjects 11-17 years old with SB and UI. Controls were 11-17 years old, with nephrolithiasis and no history of UI. Formal psychometric assessment included an evaluation of internal consistency, test re-test reliability and factor analysis. Of 78 study-eligible subjects we attempted to contact, 33 (66.7% female) with a median age of 13.1 years completed the ISI-P (42.3% response rate). 21 control patients also completed the ISI-P. Cronbach's alpha was 0.936 and 0.792 for the severity and bother factors respectively. The delta Chi-square test for the two-factor (vs. one-factor) model was significantly [χ(2)(89) = 107.823, p < 0.05] in favor of the former model with descriptive fit indices being excellent (e.g., comparative fit index = 0.969). Furthermore, category information analysis showed that all categories were associated with different threshold values, namely that each category contributed unique information for the measurement of the latent trait. In conclusion, the ISI-P has desirable psychometric properties for the measurement of UI symptom severity and impairment in adolescents with SB. PMID:25841183

  7. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and intellectual outcomes in spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Khader M.; Sankar, Ambika; Halphen, Christopher; Kramer, Larry A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    Object Patients with spina bifida (SB) have variable intellectual outcomes. The authors used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to quantify whole-brain volumes of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and perform regional quantitative microstructural assessments of gray matter nuclei and white matter tracts in relation to intellectual outcomes in patients with SB. Methods Twenty-nine children with myelomeningoceles and 20 age- and sex-matched children with normal neural tube development underwent MR imaging with DT image acquisition and assessments of intelligence. The DT imaging-derived metrics were the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (parallel), and transverse (perpendicular) diffusivities. These metrics were also used to segment the brain into white matter, gray matter, and CSF. A region-of-interest analysis was conducted of the white and gray matter structures implicated in hydrocephalus. Results The amount of whole-brain gray matter was decreased in patients with SB, with a corresponding increase in CSF (p < 0.0001). Regional transverse diffusivity in the caudate nucleus was decreased (p < 0.0001), and the corresponding FA was increased (p < 0.0001), suggesting reduced dendritic branching and connectivity. Fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule increased in the myelomeningocele group (p = 0.02), suggesting elimination of some divergent fascicles; in contrast, the FA in several white matter structures (such as the corpus callosum genu [p < 0.001] and arcuate fasciculus) was reduced, suggesting disruption of myelination. Diffusion tensor imaging-metrics involving gray matter volume and the caudate nucleus, but not other structures, predicted variations in IQ (r = 0.37-0.50; p < 0.05). Conclusions Diffusion tensor imaging-derived metrics provide noninvasive neuronal surrogate markers of the pathogenesis of SB and predict variations in general intellectual outcomes in children with this condition. PMID:18590401

  8. Natural History of Spina Bifida Cystica and Cranium Bifidum Cysticum

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, K. M.; Tew, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    The 425 cases of spina bifida cystica and cranium bifidum cysticum born in a population of 850,000 between 1956 and 1962 (with an incidence of 4·12 per 1000 births) were followed. Most did not receive the modern treatment for the condition. Follow-up in 1968 showed that 25% were stillborn, 13% died during the first week of perinatal causes, a further 47% died mostly of the complications of the condition, and 15% are still alive. Life table survival figures suggest for the liveborns a 12·8% life expectancy to the 11th birthday. The series included 18 cases of meningocele (4·2% of the total), diagnosed largely by exclusion; all are surviving and are largely free from physical and mental handicap. 26 cases of encephalocele include 8 survivors who are all retarded but not much crippled. Of the 381 myeloceles, 37 survive who though not much affected mentally are severely handicapped physically with limb paralysis and incontinence, the pattern of which was largely determined by the level of the lesion. There is a close relation between degree of hydrocephalus and severity of mental retardation. Boys surviving show better performance than girls. The incontinent, whether treated or untreated, show no more emotional disturbance than the continent. This series provides a `baseline' allowing modern and surgical treatment to be evaluated. 60% of the total (or 85% of those liveborn) should be regarded as potentially salvageable. Nearly all cases should probably have the `open' lesion closed as a surgical emergency, but thereafter no further procedure should be undertaken on those with severe hydrocephalus, established renal damage, persistent intracranial infection, or severe kyphosis, or if other severe malformations are present. PMID:4930541

  9. Spina bifida and anencephaly: miscarriage as possible cause.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, C; Hobson, D; McKendrick, O M; Rogers, S C; Sheppard, P M

    1975-01-01

    In two retrospective Liverpool surveys the domestic, family, dietary, and medical environments of the mothers of children affected by anencephaly or spina bifida, or both (ASB) were examined. None seemed to be of more than minor importance and the findings of others were therefore examined to see if they suggested a major factor. The most promising lead came from the hypothesis that ASB is usually due to an interaction between twin fetuses or between a fetus and residual trophoblastic material from the previous normal pregnancy, particularly when this is of the opposite sex to the propositus. The sex finding was not confirmed. It was noted that hydatidiform moles, like children with ASB, were usually female and that moles and choriocarcinomas on the one hand and children with ASB on the other occurred in mothers of similar ages, but were to some extent reciprocal in geographical incidence. This suggested that trophoblastic disease might be a factor common to all three and if so then one would expect the frequency of miscarriages to be higher immediately before than immediately after the birth of an ASB child, since mole and choriocarcinoma seldom follow a normal pregnancy. An analysis of published data confirmed that this was almost certainly so. Hence residual pathological trophoblastic material from either a previous miscarriage or a co-twin may interact unfavourably with another fetus to produce ASB and this may be the primary cause of the condition. The hypothesis is consistent with the observed lack of concordance in twins, the high incidence in females, the maternal age effect, and the greater prevalence in social classes IV and V. PMID:764943

  10. [Maternal-fetal surgery for spina bifida: future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Joyeux, L; Chalouhi, G E; Ville, Y; Sapin, E

    2014-06-01

    Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is a frequent congenital abnormality (450 cases per year in France) associated with high morbidity. Immediate postnatal surgery is aimed at covering the exposed spinal cord, preventing infection, treating hydrocephalus with a ventricular shunt. MMC surgical techniques haven't achieved any major progress in the past decades. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the MMC "two-hit" hypothetic pathogenesis: a primary embryonic congenital abnormality of the nervous system due to a failure in the closure of the developing neural tube, followed by secondary damages of spinal cord and nerves caused by long-term exposure to amniotic fluid. This malformation frequently develops cranial consequences, i.e. hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation, due to leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. After 30 years of research, a randomized trial published in February 2011 proved open maternal-fetal surgery (OMFS) for MMC to be a real therapeutic option. Comparing prenatal to postnatal surgery, it confirmed better outcomes of MMC children after a follow up of 2.5 years: enhancement of lower limb motor function, decrease of the degree of hindbrain herniation associated with the Chiari II malformation and the need for shunting. At 5 years of age, MMC children operated prenatally seems to have better neurocognitive, motor and bladder-sphincter outcomes than those operated postnatally. However, risks of OMFS exist: prematurity for the fetus and a double hysterotomy at approximately 3-month interval for the mother. Nowadays, it seems crucial to inform parents of MMC patients about OMFS and to offer it in France. Future research will improve our understanding of MMC pathophysiology and evaluate long-term outcomes of OMFS. Tomorrow's prenatal surgery will be less invasive and more premature using endoscopic, robotic or percutaneous techniques. Beforehand, Achilles' heel of maternal-fetal surgery, i.e. preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor and preterm birth, must be solved. PMID:24582882

  11. Issues of medical management in adults with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, G V; McCann, J P

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the range of medical issues among those attending a clinic for adults with spina bifida (SB) and hydrocephalus (CASBAH). Owing to improvements in medical care in the past 3-4 decades, an increasing number of SB patients go on to prosper in adult life. Since 1990 there has been a CASBAH service in Belfast serving Northern Ireland on a regional basis. There are now 237 patients with SB remaining on the live register at CASBAH. All records were reviewed with regard to site of lesion, ambulatory ability, shunt placement and regularity of attendance. The records of 193 were also reviewed with reference to musculoskeletal problems, bladder function, bowel function, renal impairment and hypertension, skin breakdown, epilepsy and the incidence of clinically significant Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia. Of the patients on the register, 36% are wheelchair dependent, 8% have some ambulatory capacity but are largely wheelchair dependent, 22% are ambulatory with aid and 34% are independently ambulatory. Bladder function is normal in 8%, whilst 32% describe normal bowel function. Renal impairment is present in 48% of patients, and 15% are on anti-hypertensive therapy. Epilepsy is an active issue in 9%, and intraventricular shunts are in situ in 37% of patients. Scoliosis is present in 50% and 70% have joint deformities or contractures. Five patients have become symptomatic from the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex. These data reflect the considerable range of disability in adult SB patients, the challenges presented in long-term management and the need for organised follow-up. PMID:10855520

  12. Health Risk Behaviors in Spina Bifida: The Need for Clinical and Policy Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Brei, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (HRBs) in adults with spina bifida such as poor diet, reduced physical activity, increased television viewing time, and substance abuse often have their genesis in early childhood. They are potentially preventable but if not addressed aggressively may continue to progress across the lifespan. Findings from a population-based

  13. Arithmetic Processing in Children with Spina Bifida: Calculation Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Fact Retrieval Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Wilkinson, Margaret; Khemani, Ekta; Boudesquie, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies compared 98 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM)--a disorder associated with high rates of math disability and spatial deficits--to 94 typically developing children on multidigit subtraction and cognitive addition tasks. Children with SBM were classified into those with reading decoding and math disability, only math

  14. Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and…

  15. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  16. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development

  17. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public

  18. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk

  19. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  20. The Arnold-Chiari Malformation and Its Implications for Individuals with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittler, Joel E.

    1986-01-01

    The Arnold-Chiari malformation is present in most infants born with myelomeningocele (a form of spina bifida) and hydrocephalus. The syndrome is responsible for structural abnormalities in the brain, and peripheral nervous system. Etiology, symptoms, impact on central nervous system structures, surgical treatment, and implications for education…

  1. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  2. The Management and Education of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Robert J.; Elkins, John

    The report describes the population of children in Australia with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus, notes their needs and characteristics, reviews their school placement and social circumstances, and considers future educational services for them. Initial chapters review the literature on medical, psychoeducational, and social-family aspects of…

  3. The Language of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus: Meeting Task Demands and Mastering Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Linguistic performance of 7 children (mean age=68 months) with spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and average intelligence was evaluated. Subjects dealt with the semantic-pragmatic requirements of linguistically posed problems in an age-appropriate manner. Performance declined as task demands increased but no more than performance of nondisabled…

  4. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  5. Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)

  6. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  7. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

  8. The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all…

  9. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II

  10. Health Risk Behaviors in Spina Bifida: The Need for Clinical and Policy Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Brei, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (HRBs) in adults with spina bifida such as poor diet, reduced physical activity, increased television viewing time, and substance abuse often have their genesis in early childhood. They are potentially preventable but if not addressed aggressively may continue to progress across the lifespan. Findings from a population-based…

  11. Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and

  12. The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all

  13. Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)…

  14. The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

  15. Arnold‐Chiari‐II malformation and cognitive functioning in spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Vinck, A; Maassen, B; Mullaart, R; Rotteveel, J

    2006-01-01

    Spina bifida is a multifaceted neurological condition with complex neuropsychological sequelae. The cognitive outcome in spina bifida has frequently been attributed to the severity of the hydrocephalus. However, because of complex neuropathology, the influence of hydrocephalus alone does not sufficiently explain the deficits in the cognitive profile in spina bifida. To date, little is known of the role of Arnold‐Chiari‐II malformation (ACM) in the cognitive profile of these patients. Aim of the current study is to delineate the specific contribution of the ACM in spina bifida by comparing children with ACM and those without ACM. 46 children between 6 and 15 years of age underwent a neuropsychological assessment covering intelligence and a wide range of cognitive functions, such as visuo‐motor processing, attention, memory, word fluency and speed of information processing. Comparisons were made between patients with ACM (ACM+) and those without ACM (ACM−); all children with ACM+ also had hydrocephalus. Confounding effects of global cognitive impairment were excluded, such that groups were matched on verbal IQ. Because of complex neuropathology, which is inherent to spina bifida, the method applied was based on a comparison of cognitive profiles of the study group with profiles of patients with cerebellar damage and hydrocephalus found in the literature. Impaired visual analysis and synthesis, verbal memory, and verbal fluency, even after correction for global cognitive impairment, were observed in children with ACM. The hypothesis that in addition to impairment in visual analysis and synthesis, which are related to both hydrocephalus and ACM, specific deficiencies in verbal memory and fluency may be attributed to ACM is supported. PMID:16690692

  16. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan. PMID:25999131

  17. Can atlas spina bifida-occulta be a cause of cervicogenic headaches?

    PubMed

    Adigo, Amégninou Mawuko Yao; Agoda-Kousséma, Lama Kegdigoma; Agbotsou, Ignéza Komi; Adambounou, Kokou; Bakpatina-Batako, Kpalma Duga; Djagnikpo, Oni; Adjénou, Komlanvi Victor

    2015-01-01

    Cervicogenic headaches are a nosologic entity recently recognized. In our common practice, we have noticed a relative frequency of the atlas spina-bifida occulta during the brain CT scan realized for headaches without cranio-encephalic causes or any other anomaly of the upper cervical region. The aim of this study was to determine a possible connection between cervicogenic headaches (CEH) and atlas spina-bifida occulta. A 2 years prospective and descriptive study in 20 black patients having an atlas spina-bifida occulta diagnosed with a brain CT scan. The mean age of the patients was 43.17 ± 18.35 years (extremes: 24 and 72 years). A light female predominance was noticed (sex-ratio = 1.5). The frequency of symptomatic spina-bifida was 1.72 % (17 cases). The mean age at onset was 31.84 years. The pain was sub-occipital in 14 cases, occipital in 8 cases, bilateral in 12 cases and unilateral in 5 cases. The mean duration of the attacks was 72 ± 24 h and the pain intensity was moderate (16 cases); mean and range were 3.6 and 3-6. The frequency of attacks varied between 1 per 7 months (n = 2) and 2 per week (n = 1) in those with non-daily headache. One attack per 5-7 weeks was the most commonly occurring attack frequency. The pain was reproduced by the pressure of the occipital region or upper cervical in 15 cases. The mean number of criteria was five and there was a strong positive correlation between criteria and CEH (χ (2) = 45.57; V = 0.62). The associated signs were photophobia and nausea in one case each. Indomethacin, Ergotamine and/or Sumatriptan were without any antalgic effect in 16 cases. Pain ceased after an anesthetic blockade of C2 (16 cases). The results show that atlas spina-bifida occulta is not involved in CEH pure form genesis. On a small sample, the atlas spina-bifida seems to be a cause of CEH associated with headache and disorders of the neck. PMID:26543740

  18. Low prevalence of latex sensitivity in South African spina bifida children in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Johar, Asmah; Lim, Dawn L; Arif, Siti Arija Mad; Hawarden, Di; Toit, George Du; Weinberg, Eugene G; Motala, Cas; Fieggen, G; Yeang, Hoong Yeet; Potter, Paul C

    2005-03-01

    Spina bifida children have a high prevalence of latex allergy in studies reported from Europe and the USA. This study investigated the prevalence of latex allergy in a cohort of 24 spina bifida children at the Red Cross Children's Hospital from Cape Town, South Africa. The children were investigated using a detailed questionnaire, skin prick tests (ALK-Abello), ImmunoCap RASTs, Western blotting and ELISA, using the purified latex proteins Hev b1 and Hev b3 and whole latex preparation. A low overall prevalence of latex sensitization of 16.7% was found in the children. Children who were sensitive reacted to water insoluble to Hev b1 and Hev b3 proteins. The low prevalence of latex sensitization in the South African children may not be entirely explained by stringent latex avoidance. The children were from a low socioeconomic social status and 'hygiene' and other factors should be considered. PMID:15787875

  19. A snapshot of the adult spina bifida patient – high incidence of urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Greiman, Alyssa; Casey, Jessica T.; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To describe the urologic outcomes of contemporary adult spina bifida patients managed in a multidisciplinary clinic. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of patients seen in our adult spina bifida clinic from January 2004 to November 2011 was performed to identify urologic management, urologic surgeries, and co-morbidities. Results 225 patients were identified (57.8% female, 42.2% male). Current median age was 30 years (IQR 27, 36) with a median age at first visit of 25 years (IQR 22, 30). The majority (70.7%) utilized clean intermittent catheterization, and 111 patients (49.3%) were prescribed anticholinergic medications. 65.8% had urodynamics performed at least once, and 56% obtained appropriate upper tract imaging at least every other year while under our care. 101 patients (44.9%) underwent at least one urologic surgical procedure during their lifetime, with a total of 191 procedures being performed, of which stone procedures (n = 51, 26.7%) were the most common. Other common procedures included continence procedures (n = 35, 18.3%) and augmentation cystoplasty (n = 29, 15.2%). Only 3.6% had a documented diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and 0.9% with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Most adult spina bifida patient continue on anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. A large percentage of patients required urologic procedures in adulthood. Patients should be encouraged to utilize conservative and effective bladder management strategies to reduce their risk of renal compromise. PMID:27123330

  20. Wound care challenges in children and adults with spina bifida: an open-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ottolini, Katherine; Harris, Amy B; Amling, June K; Kennelly, Ann M; Phillips, Leslie A; Tosi, Laura L

    2013-01-01

    Skin breakdown is a frequent concern for individuals with spina bifida. We explored wound incidence in patients with spina bifida and how it varies across a person's life span and functional neurologic level. We examined the settings in which skin breakdown most commonly occurred, looking for evidence of chronic, non-healing wounds. We also sought to develop criteria to improve wound monitoring. We identified reported wound episodes in an open-cohort study over a 13-year period, examining the hospital and outpatient clinical records of spina bifida patients at Children's National Medical Center (CNMC). Current age, age at wound presentation, sex, weight, functional neurologic level, wound location, setting in which the wound was acquired, the development of a chronic wound, and presence of a shunt were recorded. Of the 376 patients in our clinical population, 123 (average age: 18.8 years, range: infancy-56 years) developed a total of 375 wounds; the majority of patients who developed one wound went on to develop one or more additional wounds, and 20 patients developed chronic wounds. Our data suggest that age bracket (adolescents), wheelchair use, and bare feet, as well as possibly obesity and reduced executive functioning, are key risk factors for wound development. These findings have led to a focused effort to increase wound education and prevention. In addition we report on our early experience using a wound care specialist to champion this initiative. PMID:23481886

  1. How I Do It: Management of spina bifida in a hospital in The People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Nan; Lazareff, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We present our personal experience on patients with Spina Bifida. It is the result of having treated 1600 children for 12 years at Shanghai Children's Medical Center. We classify the cases on Spina Bifida Manifesta (myelomeningocele, myelocele, lypomyelomeningocele) or Spina Bifida Oculta (lipoma, dermal sinus and thickened filum terminale). For the former, we recommend surgery within 24–48 h after birth. For the latter we recommend preventive surgery months after birth. We acknowledge that the diameter of the spinal canal is a problem for large remnant lesions. In cases of myelomeningocele, we prefer to place the shunt and close the defect in the same procedure, it reduces the risks inherent to exposure to anesthesia, reduces hospital stay, and related costs. If there is a suspicious of infection, we do not place the shunt on the same procedure. The personal description of the preferred techniques for closure of the different defects is described. PMID:26236554

  2. Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida. PMID:19894129

  3. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  4. Accessibility of mHealth Self-Care Apps for Individuals with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Daihua X.; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E.; Pramana, Gede

    2015-01-01

    As the smartphone becomes ubiquitous, mobile health is becoming a viable technology to empower individuals to engage in preventive self-care. An innovative mobile health system called iMHere (Internet Mobile Health and Rehabilitation) has been developed at the University of Pittsburgh to support self-care and adherence to self-care regimens for individuals with spina bifida and other complex conditions who are vulnerable to secondary complications. The goal of this study was to explore the accessibility of iMHere apps for individuals with spina bifida. Six participants were asked to perform tasks in a lab environment. Though all of the participants were satisfied with the iMHere apps and would use them again in the future, their needs and preferences to access and use iMHere apps differed. Personalization that provides the ability for a participant to modify the appearance of content, such as the size of the icons and the color of text, could be an ideal solution to address potential issues and barriers to accessibility. The importance of personalization—and potential strategies—for accessibility are discussed. PMID:26755902

  5. A Review of the Potential for Cardiometabolic Dysfunction in Youth with Spina Bifida and the Role for Physical Activity and Structured Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kevin R.; Frimberger, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who have decreased mobility due to spina bifida may be at increased risk for the components of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia due to low physical activity. Like their nondisabled peers, adolescents with spina bifida that develop metabolic risk factors early in life have set the stage for adult disease. Exercise interventions can improve metabolic dysfunction in nondisabled youth, but the types of exercise programs that are most effective and the mechanisms involved are not known. This is especially true in adolescents with spina bifida, who have impaired mobility and physical function and with whom there have been few well-controlled studies. This paper highlights the current lack of knowledge about the role of physical activity and the need to develop exercise strategies targeting the reduction of cardiometabolic risk and improving quality of life in youth with spina bifida. PMID:22778758

  6. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schiano, C.M.; Demb, H.B.; Brown, W.T.

    1995-12-04

    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  7. Does caesarean section delivery improve neurological outcome in open spina bifida?

    PubMed

    Hill, A E; Beattie, F

    1994-12-01

    The antenatal diagnosis of fetuses with myelomeningocele (MMC) has focused the attention of those involved in the perinatal care on caesarean section delivery as a possible method of preserving neurological function. In this paper 25 infants with MMC were studied, 10 delivered by pre-labour caesarean section (PL C/S), and 15 by other methods. No difference in motor function was observed post natally with 50% of each group having neurological levels below L3. The PL C/S group was more heterogeneous. The feasibility of selecting a group of less impaired fetuses with good in utero leg movements for PL C/S in order to preserve neurological function depends on the ability of fetal USS to predict post natal neurological function. This preliminary report leaves unanswered the question whether C/S delivery improves neurological outcome in selected cases of open spina bifida. PMID:7766550

  8. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  9. The Influence of Condition Parameters and Internalizing Symptoms on Social Outcomes in Youth With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Essner, Bonnie S.; Murray, Caitlin B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective?To test a model of social competence in youth with spina bifida (SB). Involvement in social activities was expected to mediate associations between SB-related condition parameters (pain, body mass index, and motor function) and social competence. Internalizing symptoms were predicted to amplify the negative impact of condition parameters on social activity involvement.?Methods?108 youth with SB, their caregivers, peers, and teachers participated in a multimethod study that included cognitive testing, questionnaires, and observational interaction tasks.?Results?Social activity involvement partially mediated the relation between pain and lower social competence. Internalizing symptoms had a significant indirect effect on social competence via decreased involvement in social activities.?Conclusions?Pain and internalizing symptoms interfere with social activity involvement, which is, in turn, important for social competence development in youth with SB. Assessing and treating these condition parameters and activity factors may be important areas of focus in clinical practice and research with these youth. PMID:24914086

  10. Treatment of faecal incontinence in children with spina bifida by biofeedback and behavioural modification.

    PubMed

    Pappo, I; Meyer, S; Winter, S; Nissan, S

    1988-12-01

    Faecal incontinence may lead to serious social and physiological disturbances. Over 90% of patients with spina bifida have varying degrees of neurogenic bowel with disturbances of faecal control. This is a serious habilitation problem in these patients. Three encopretic children with myelomeningocele were treated by Biofeedback operant conditioning and behavioural modification to self-initiate bowel movements. Their neurological levels were T-10; T-11; T-12. Each child had a mean of 10 Biofeedback sessions each of 30-45 minutes, combined with daily behavioural modification. Two patients improved and have voluntary bowel movements. Therapy failed in one patient. We conclude that Biofeedback operant conditioning combined with specific behavioural modification may become a simple technique to treat encopretic patients with meningomyelocele. PMID:3213249

  11. Prospective and Episodic Memory in Relation to Hippocampal Volume in Adults with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined prospective and episodic memory in relation to age, functional independence, and hippocampal volume in younger to middle-aged adults with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and typically developing (TD) adults. Prospective and episodic memory, as well as hippocampal volume, were reduced in adults with SBM relative to TD adults. Neither memory performance nor hippocampal volume showed greater decrements in older adults. Lower hippocampal volume was associated with reduced prospective memory in adults with SBM, and this relation was specific to the hippocampus and not to a contrast structure, the amygdala. Prospective memory mediated the relation between hippocampal volume and functional independence in adults with SBM. The results add to emerging evidence for reduced memory function in adults with SBM, and provide quantitative evidence for compromised hippocampal macrostructure as a neural correlate of reduced memory in this population. PMID:25068670

  12. Assessment on self-care, mobility and social function of children with spina bifida in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sirzai, Hulya; Dogu, Beril; Demir, Selamet; Yilmaz, Figen; Kuran, Banu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the functional performance in children with spina bifida, using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) to look into capacity of twenty-eight children with spina bifida with lesions at different levels in different dimensions of self-care, mobility and social function. Mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 2.3 (1–10) years. In the muscle test carried out, 13 patients (44.8%) had no movements including pelvic elevation in lower extremity muscles and they were at level 5. Sixteen patients (54%) were non-ambulatory according to the Hoofer ambulation classification. Raw and scale scores in the self-care, mobility and social function domains both in the functional skill scale and in the caregiver scale were found to be lower compared to the data of the normal population. A statistically significant correlation was observed in the self-care values of the Functional Skills Scales and the Caregiver Assistance Scale measurements, which was positive for age and negative for Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.05). A positive relation was found between the Functional Skills Scales-mobility area and age while a negative relation was observed between Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). A negative relation was also found between Caregiver Assistance Scale-mobility and Functional Ambulation Scale and muscle test (P < 0.005). In our study, the functional performance of the children was found to be low. Low-level lesions, encouraging muscular strength and independence in mobility are all very important factors for functional independence. PMID:25206788

  13. The effect of GABA receptor ligands in experimental spina bifida occulta

    PubMed Central

    Briner, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology behind spina bifida and other neural tube defects (NTDs) is unclear. Folic acid is one variable, but other factors remain. Studies suggest that substances active at the GABA receptor may produce NTDs. To test this hypothesis pregnant rats were exposed to either the GABA a agonist muscimol (1, 2 or 4 mg/kg), the GABA a antagonist bicuculline (.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), the GABA b agonist baclofen (15, 30, 60 mg/kg), or the GABA b antagonist hydroxysaclofen (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) during neural tube formation. Normal saline was used as a control and valproic acid (600 mg/kg) as a positive control. The embryos were analyzed for the presence of a spina bifida like NTD. Results After drug administration the pregnancies were allowed to proceed to the 21st day of gestation. Then embryos were removed and skeletons staining and cleared. Vertebral arch closure was measured. Results indicate that the GABAa receptor agonist muscimol, the GABAa receptor antagonist bicuculline, and the GABAb agonist baclofen produced NTDs characterized by widening of the vertebral arch. Oppositely the GABAb antagonist hydroxysaclofen produced narrowing of the vertebral arches. Conclusions The findings indicate that GABA a or b ligands are capable of altering neural formation. GABA may play a greater than appreciated role in neural tube formation and may be important in NTDs. The narrowing of the vertebral arch produced by the GABA b antagonist hydroxysalcofen suggests that GABA b receptor may play an undefined role in neural tube closure that differs from the GABA a receptor. PMID:11532198

  14. Peripheral neurological involvement as the first manifestation of spina bifida occulta.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, L F; Robin, S; Guégan-Massardier, E; Krzanowska, K; Mejjad, O; Vittecoq, O; Le Loet, X

    1997-12-01

    A 42-year-old male was admitted for right-sided sciatica with asymptomatic septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the right foot. He had a history of active chronic hepatitis C and septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the left foot. His symptoms included low back pain, poorly systematized right-sided sciatica, impairment of all forms of sensation in both lower limbs, absent ankle jerks, episodes of urinary retention, urgency, and painless septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the right foot. Roentgenograms showed a spina bifida occulta of L5 and a bony erosin in the distal interphalangeal joint of the right fifth toe. Distal denervation in the territory of L5 was demonstrated by the electromyographic study. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed an area of high signal on T1 and T2 images, located within the spinal canal opposite L4 and suggestive of an intraspinal lipoma, as well as tethering of the spinal cord in an abnormally distal position. Antimicrobial therapy was effective in ensuring resolution of the infectious arthritis. The low back pain and sciatica responded to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy and did not recur subsequently. Many patients who have roentgenograms taken to evaluate low back pain and sciatica are found to have a spina bifida occulta. This complex birth defect involving the spinal canal, meninges and spinal cord or cauda equina can cause neurologic and/or urinary symptoms in adulthood. Magnetic resonance imaging is essential in this situation to evaluate the spinal cord and to look for an intraspinal lipoma. PMID:9476274

  15. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  16. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially when a baby is growing inside its mother. Folic acid is one of the B vitamins found in foods like broccoli, spinach, egg yolks, and oranges. If a woman doesn't have enough folic acid in her diet while she's pregnant, she may be more likely ...

  17. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... spine, or spinal cord. It happens if the spinal column of the fetus doesn't close completely during the first month of pregnancy. This can damage the nerves and spinal cord. Screening tests during pregnancy can check for ...

  18. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelomeningocele (sounds like: my-low-ma-nin-jo-seal; hear how “myelomeningocele” sounds ) When people talk ... the legs. Meningocele (sounds like: ma-nin-jo-seal; hear how “meningocele” sounds ) Another type of ...

  19. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition happens when the lower part of the brain sits in the upper part of the neck. Some babies with this condition have hydrocephalus (fluid ... condition happens when the lower part of the brain sits in the upper part of the neck. Some babies with this condition have hydrocephalus (fluid ...

  20. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... plate of cells along the back of an embryo (called the neural plate). Early in development, the ... form the brain and spinal cord of the embryo. As development progresses, the top of the tube ...

  1. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce the incidence of neural ... it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily. ...

  2. Transition into adult healthcare services in Scotland: findings from a study concerning service users at the Scottish Spina Bifida Association

    PubMed Central

    Wynd, Andrew HD; Carachi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Literature on interventions that enable young people with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus to have smooth transition, into adult healthcare services, stress the need for the process to start early and to include all family members. The study reported here was set to quantify and articulate the experiences of service users who are or due to be going through the transition process in Scotland today. Methods and Results Focus group sessions, in the North of Scotland and in the ‘Central Belt’, captured rich qualitative data. A survey, sent to eligible participants on the Spina Bifida National database, offered complimentary data source. Despite the fact that the number of returned questionnaires was low (n = 20), data analysis identified a number of core recurring themes. These include issues concerning Communications, Respect, Choice and Control. Findings suggest that there is a significant chasm between the political rhetoric and the reality faced by young people with spina bifida moving to adult healthcare services. Conclusion A possible way to facilitate successful transition of young people is using personal healthcare information as the locus for needed change. More research is needed to ascertain whether a ‘Person-Centred Record’, which is set to empower young people on their transition pathway, is an appropriate transition tool. PMID:25358489

  3. Application potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) based tissue-engineering for spinal cord defect repair in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshuai; Yuan, Zhengwei; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Hui; Zhao, Guifeng; Miao, Jiaoning; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Cao, Songying; An, Dong; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Qiushi; Gu, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Spina bifida aperta are complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of fusion in the spinal neural tube during embryogenesis. Despite surgical repair of the defect, most patients who survive with spina bifida aperta have a multiple system handicap due to neuron deficiency of the defective spinal cord. Tissue engineering has emerged as a novel treatment for replacement of lost tissue. This study evaluated the prenatal surgical approach of transplanting a chitosan-gelatin scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the healing the defective spinal cord of rat fetuses with retinoic acid induced spina bifida aperta. Scaffold characterisation revealed the porous structure, organic and amorphous content. This biomaterial promoted the adhesion, spreading and in vitro viability of the BMSCs. After transplantation of the scaffold combined with BMSCs, the defective region of spinal cord in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at E20 decreased obviously under stereomicroscopy, and the skin defect almost closed in many fetuses. The transplanted BMSCs in chitosan-gelatin scaffold survived, grew and expressed markers of neural stem cells and neurons in the defective spinal cord. In addition, the biomaterial presented high biocompatibility and slow biodegradation in vivo. In conclusion, prenatal transplantation of the scaffold combined with BMSCs could treat spinal cord defect in fetuses with spina bifida aperta by the regeneration of neurons and repairmen of defective region. PMID:26894267

  4. Relations between Brain Structure and Attentional Function in Spina Bifida: Utilization of Robust Statistical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kulesz, Paulina A.; Tian, Siva; Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Weak structure-function relations for brain and behavior may stem from problems in estimating these relations in small clinical samples with frequently occurring outliers. In the current project, we focused on the utility of using alternative statistics to estimate these relations. Method Fifty-four children with spina bifida meningomyelocele performed attention tasks and received MRI of the brain. Using a bootstrap sampling process, the Pearson product moment correlation was compared with four robust correlations: the percentage bend correlation, the Winsorized correlation, the skipped correlation using the Donoho-Gasko median, and the skipped correlation using the minimum volume ellipsoid estimator Results All methods yielded similar estimates of the relations between measures of brain volume and attention performance. The similarity of estimates across correlation methods suggested that the weak structure-function relations previously found in many studies are not readily attributable to the presence of outlying observations and other factors that violate the assumptions behind the Pearson correlation. Conclusions Given the difficulty of assembling large samples for brain-behavior studies, estimating correlations using multiple, robust methods may enhance the statistical conclusion validity of studies yielding small, but often clinically significant, correlations. PMID:25495830

  5. Structure, Integrity, and Function of the Hypoplastic Corpus Callosum in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Jennifer T.; Hasan, Khader; Hannay, H. Julia; Dennis, Maureen; Jockell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although there are many studies of people with complete or partial hypogenesis of the corpus callosum (CC), little is understood about the hypoplastic CC in which all structures are present but thinned. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a model organism for such studies because many have either a hypogenetic or hypoplastic CC. We used diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) to evaluate the hypoplastic CC in SBM and its relation to interhemispheric functions and intelligence quotient (IQ). Participants were individuals with SBM and an intact or hypoplastic CC (n=28), who were compared to a typically developing comparison group (n=32). Total and regional DTT volume and integrity measures (fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) of the CC were related to measures of intelligence (IQ), bimanual motor functioning, and dichotic auditory performance. As predicted, DTT showed variations in volume and integrity that were maximized in the entire CC and the posterior CC. IQ correlated with entire CC volume, anterior and posterior regional CC volumes, and also with measures of integrity. Bimanual motor functioning correlated with the anterior and posterior volumes of the CC but not with any integrity measures. Axial diffusivity in the posterior CC was negatively correlated with right ear dichotic listening performance. The hypoplastic CC is not macrostructurally or microstructurally intact in SBM, even when it appears radiologically intact. Both volume and integrity of the posterior regions were related to reductions in IQ and to interhemispheric processing. These findings may transfer to other disorders characterized by a hypoplastic CC. PMID:25014561

  6. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kulesz, Paulina A.; Treble-Barna, Amery; Williams, Victoria J.; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM). Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting) and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control) attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus. PMID:26106529

  7. Custom rotating-hinge total knee replacement in patients with spina bifida and severe neuromuscular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sewell, M D; Al-Hadithy, N; Hanna, S A; Al-Khateeb, H; Carrington, R W J; Blunn, G W; Skinner, J A; Briggs, T W R

    2012-09-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital disorder which may result in a number of musculoskeletal problems. Total knee replacement (TKR) in this patient group is technically demanding due to bone deformity, soft tissue contracture, muscle tone abnormality and ligament insufficiency. This is a retrospective review of three patients with SB and disabling knee arthritis who were managed with a custom rotating-hinge (RHK) total knee system. All patients reported an improvement in knee pain and stability at mean follow-up 47 months (43-53). Mean Oxford Knee score improved from 21 preoperatively to 32 at final follow-up. One patient required revision of tibial and patella components at 37 months for lateral patella instability and excessive wear. Custom RHK for patients with SB, severe neuromuscular dysfunction and bone deformity relieves pain, restores stability and improves early knee function; however there is a significant risk of extensor mechanism complications and functional outcome is worse than primary TKR in the general population. PMID:22718075

  8. Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Juranek, Jenifer; Williams, Victoria J.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73) with SBM and typically developing (TD) controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus), with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density. PMID:25057465

  9. Examination of Frontal and Parietal Tectocortical Attention Pathways in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele Using Probabilistic Diffusion Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Abnormalities of the midbrain tectum are common but variable malformations in spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and have been linked to neuropsychological deficits in attention orienting. The degree to which variations in tectum structure influence white matter (WM) connectivity to cortical regions is unknown. To assess the relationship of tectal structure and connectivity to frontal and parietal cortical regions, probabilistic diffusion tractography was performed on 106 individuals (80 SBM, 26 typically developing [TD]) to isolate anterior versus posterior tectocortical WM pathways. Results showed that those with SBM exhibited significantly reduced tectal volume, along with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in posterior but not anterior tectocortical WM pathways when compared with TD individuals. The group with SBM also showed greater within-subject discrepancies between frontal and parietal WM integrity compared with the TD group. Of those with SBM, qualitative classification of tectal beaking based on radiological review was associated with increased axial diffusivity across both anterior and posterior tectocortical pathways, relative to individuals with SBM and a normal appearing tectum. These results support previous volumetric findings of greater impairment to posterior versus anterior brain regions in SBM, and quantifiably relate tectal volume, tectocortical WM integrity, and tectal malformations in this population. PMID:23937233

  10. Spina bifida in fetus is associated with an altered pattern of DNA methylation in placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Pei, Lijun; Li, Runting; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hua; Li, Yongchao; Guo, Yu; Tan, Pingping; Han, Jingdong J; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ma, Runlin Z

    2015-10-01

    Failure in closure of neural tube leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common symptoms of human birth defects. Although epigenetic status in placenta is linked to fetal development, the mechanism behind this remains unknown. Because of the importance of DNA methylation in gene function, we set to explore whether or not DNA methylation in human placenta is also linked to fetal NTDs. Here we show for the first time that alteration of DNA methylation in placenta is closely associated with the phenotypes of fetal spina bifida (Sb). We found that patterns of DNA methylation for genes in neurological system process were differentially altered in the Sb placenta. In particular, the transcription regulatory regions of TRIM26 and GANS were kept at the hypomethylation status in Sb placenta alone. Accordingly, the protein levels of TRIM26 and GNAS were significantly elevated only in the Sb placenta but not in the Sb-affected fetuses. In cellular model of CHO cells deficient in Dihydrofolate reductase and treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, the protein levels of GNAS and TRIM26 were significantly higher than those in normal control cells. These findings suggested that epigenetic status of genes in placenta have profound impacts on the development of NTDs. PMID:26178427

  11. A Description of Spina Bifida Cases and Co-Occurring Malformations, 1976–2011

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400 μg/day) or high intake (≥400 μg/day). SB cases (n=1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

  12. White and grey matter relations to simple, choice, and cognitive reaction time in spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Maureen; Cirino, Paul T; Simic, Nevena; Juranek, Jenifer; Taylor, W Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

    2016-03-01

    Elevated reaction time (RT) is common in brain disorders. We studied three forms of RT in a neurodevelopmental disorder, spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), characterized by regional alterations of both white and grey matter, and typically developing individuals aged 8 to 48 years, in order to establish the nature of the lifespan-relations of RT and brain variables. Cognitive accuracy and RT speed and variability were all impaired in SBM relative to the typically developing group, but the most important effects of SBM on RT are seen on tasks that require a cognitive decision rule. Individuals with SBM are impaired not only in speeded performance, but also in the consistency of their performance on tasks that extend over time, which may contribute to poor performance on a range of cognitive tasks. The group with SBM showed smaller corrected corpus callosum proportions, larger corrected cerebellar white matter proportions, and larger corrected proportions for grey matter in the Central Executive and Salience networks. There were clear negative relations between RT measures and corpus callosum, Central Executive, and Default Mode networks in the group with SBM; relations were not observed in typically developing age peers. Statistical mediation analyses indicated that corpus callosum and Central Executive Network were important mediators. While RT is known to rely heavily on white matter under conditions of typical development and in individuals with adult-onset brain injury, we add the new information that additional involvement of grey matter may be important for a key neuropsychological function in a common neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:26040977

  13. Epidemiologic and genetic aspects of spina bifida and other neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public health officials to design and implement policies to prevent NTD pregnancies, and (c) individuals to take precautions to reduce the chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. Despite extensive research, our knowledge of the genetic etiology of human NTDs is limited. Although more than 200 small animal models with NTDs exist, most of these models do not replicate the human disease phenotype. Over a hundred candidate genes have been examined for risk association to human SB. The candidate genes studied include those important in folic acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, retinoid metabolism, and apoptosis. Many genes that regulate transcription in early embryogenesis and maintain planar cell polarity have also been tested as candidates. Additionally, genes identified through mouse models of NTDs have been explored as candidates. We do not know how many genes in the human genome may confer risk for NTDs in human. Less than 20% of the studied candidate genes have been determined to confer even a minor effect on risk association. Many studies have provided conflicting conclusions due to limitations in study design that potentially affect the power of statistical analysis. Future directions such as genomewide association studies (GWAS) and whole exome or even whole genome sequencing are discussed as possible avenues to identify genes that affect risk for human NTDs. PMID:20419766

  14. Skin Ulcers and Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida in South Carolina During 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne; Wang, Yinding; Royer, Julie A; Mann, Joshua R; Hardin, James W; Ozturk, Orgul; Ouyang, Lijing

    2016-03-01

    The authors investigated 48 deaths (7% death rate) among 690 adolescents and young adults with spina bifida in South Carolina during 2000-2010. The authors used Medicaid and other administrative data and a retrospective cohort design that included people with spina bifida identified using ICD-9 codes. Cox regression models with time-dependent and time-invariant covariates, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed. The authors found that 21.4% of the study group had a skin ulcer during the study period and individuals with skin ulcers had significantly higher mortality than those without ulcers (P < .0001). People who had their first skin ulcer during adolescence had higher mortality than those who had the first skin ulcer during young adulthood (P = .0002; hazard ratio = 10.70, 95% confidence interval for hazard ratio: 3.01, 38.00) and those without skin ulcers, controlling for other covariates. This study showed that age at which individuals first had a skin ulcer was associated with mortality. PMID:26239488

  15. Skin Ulcers and Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida in South Carolina During 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne; Wang, Yinding; Royer, Julie A.; Mann, Joshua R.; Hardin, James W.; Ozturk, Orgul; Ouyang, Lijing

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated 48 deaths (7% death rate) among 690 adolescents and young adults with spina bifida in South Carolina during 2000–2010. The authors used Medicaid and other administrative data and a retrospective cohort design that included people with spina bifida identified using ICD-9 codes. Cox regression models with time-dependent and time-invariant covariates, and Kaplan–Meier survival curves were constructed. The authors found that 21.4% of the study group had a skin ulcer during the study period and individuals with skin ulcers had significantly higher mortality than those without ulcers (P < .0001). People who had their first skin ulcer during adolescence had higher mortality than those who had the first skin ulcer during young adulthood (P = .0002; hazard ratio = 10.70, 95% confidence interval for hazard ratio: 3.01, 38.00) and those without skin ulcers, controlling for other covariates. This study showed that age at which individuals first had a skin ulcer was associated with mortality. PMID:26239488

  16. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation. PMID:21413843

  17. Neurological defects of the voiding reflex arcs in chronic urinary retention and their relation to spina bifida occulta.

    PubMed

    Fidas, A; MacDonald, H L; Elton, R A; McInnes, A; Chisholm, G D

    1989-01-01

    A group of 37 patients (24 female and 13 male) with chronic urinary retention and without demonstrable mechanical obstruction had neurophysiological measurements of their lower urinary tracts to detect any neurological abnormality which might relate to the disorder. These consisted of measurements of the electrosensitivity of the dorsal nerve of the penis/clitoris and of the urethra, measurement of the sacral reflex latencies (SRL) from dorsal nerve to urethra and to anus and between urethra and anus and EMG studies of the urethral and anal sphincters. The results suggest that female patients in particular have significant neurogenic defects in the voiding reflex arcs which find their clinical expression in detrusor underactivity with urinary retention. Plain X-rays of the renal tracts (KUB films) were also studied for the presence of spina bifida occulta. The prevalence of this defect was significantly higher than in normal controls, suggesting that in some of these patients the nerve defect might be related to a tethered cord in association with spina bifida occulta. PMID:2645967

  18. Pyonephrosis and urosepsis in a 41-year old patient with spina bifida: Case report of a preventable death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urological complications are the major cause of ill health in patients with spina bifida. Urinary sepsis accounted for the majority of admissions in patients with spina bifida. As the patient grows older, changes occur in the adult bladder, leading to increases in storage pressure and consequent risk of deterioration of renal function, which may occur insidiously. Case presentation A 34-year-old male spinal bifida patient had been managing neuropathic bladder by penile sheath. Intravenous urography revealed normal kidneys. This patient was advised intermittent catheterisations. But self-catheterisation was not possible because of long, overhanging prepuce and marked spinal curvature. This patient developed repeated urine infections. Five years later, ultrasound examination of urinary tract revealed hydronephrotic right kidney with echogenic debris within the collecting system. There was no evidence of dilatation of the ureter near the vesicoureteric junction. The left kidney appeared normal. There was no evidence of calculus disease seen in either kidney. Indwelling urethral catheter drainage was established. Two years later, MAG-3 renogram revealed normal uptake and excretion by left kidney. The right kidney showed little functioning tissue. Following a routine change of urethral catheter this patient became unwell. Ultrasound examination revealed hydronephrotic right kidney containing thick hyper-echoic internal septations and debris in the right renal pelvis suspicious of pyonephrosis. Under both ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance, an 8 French pig tail catheter was inserted into the right renal collecting system. 150 ml of turbid urine was aspirated immediately. This patient developed large left pleural effusion, collapse/consolidation of the left lower lobe, a large fluid collection in the abdomen extending into the pelvis and expired twenty days later because of sepsis and respiratory failure. Conclusion Although penile sheath drainage may be convenient for a spina bifida patient and the carers, hydronephrosis can occur insidiously. With recurrent urine infections, hydronephrotic kidney can become pyonephrosis, which is life-threatening. Therefore, every effort should be made to carry out intermittent catheterisations along with antimuscarinic drug therapy. PMID:22613462

  19. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... is or was a Vietnam veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions... for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a...

  20. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is or was a Vietnam veteran. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... spina bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran. (a) Monthly monetary... father is or was a Vietnam veteran. Receipt of this allowance will not affect the right of the...

  1. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  2. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical

  3. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benedum, Corey M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day), alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day). PMID:23917813

  4. Bluish discolouration of urine drainage tube and bag in a female patient with spina bifida, paraplegia, and suprapubic cystostomy.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M

    2007-01-01

    We present a female patient with spina bifida, paraplegia, suprapubic cystostomy, and chronic constipation, who became anxious when she noticed a bluish discolouration of her urine drainage system. Urine microbiology revealed growth of Providencia stuartii and Staphylococcus aureus. There were no systemic features of infection and, therefore, antibiotics were not prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria. This patient was advised to change the urine bag every day, and was prescribed senna to facilitate bowel evacuation. She was reassured that bluish discolouration of the urine drainage tube and bag was a transient, benign phenomenon and not indicative of any underlying pathology. Over the next 7 days, the bluish discolouration gradually faded away. Clinical characteristics of patients who are likely to develop this phenomenon and the underlying biochemical mechanism for bluish discolouration of the urine drainage system are discussed in brief. PMID:17619789

  5. Observed Differences in Social Behaviors Exhibited in Peer Interactions Between Youth With Spina Bifida and Their Peers: Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Kolbuck, Victoria D.; Zebracki, Kathy; Roache, Caitlin R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in social behaviors in observed peer interactions between children with spina bifida (SB) and peers, and to examine neuropsychological correlates of these differences. Method A total of 100 youth (aged 8–15 years) with SB and peers participated in video-recorded interaction tasks, which were coded for interaction style, affect, and collaboration. Children with SB also completed a neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with SB demonstrated less adaptive social behaviors in peer interactions, particularly within the interaction style domain. Observational items found to be different between children with SB and their peers were best predicted by social language and attention abilities. Conclusions Children with SB exhibit a less adaptive interaction style and lower levels of social dominance but are comparable with typically developing peers on other social behaviors. The observed group differences may have a neuropsychological basis. PMID:25427551

  6. The National Spina Bifida Patient Registry: Profile of a Large Cohort of Participants from the First 10 Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Liu, Tiebin; Ward, Elisabeth; Thibadeau, Judy; Schechter, Michael S.; Soe, Minn M.; Walker, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use data from the US National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR) to describe variations in Contexts of Care, Processes of Care, and Health Outcomes among individuals with spina bifida (SB) receiving care in 10 clinics. Study design Reported here are baseline cross-sectional data representing the first visit of 2172 participants from 10 specialized, multidisciplinary SB clinics participating in the NSBPR. We used descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, χ2 test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test to examine the data. Results The mean age was 10.1 (SD 8.1) years with slightly more female subjects (52.5%). The majority was white (63.4%) and relied upon public insurance (53.5%). One-third had sacral lesions, 44.8% had mid-low lumbar lesions, and 24.9% had high lumbar and thoracic lesions. The most common surgery was ventricular shunt placement (65.7%). The most common bladder-management technique among those with bladder impairment was intermittent catheterization (69.0%). Almost 14% experienced a pressure ulcer in the last year. Of those ages 5 years or older with bowel or bladder impairments, almost 30% were continent of stool; a similar percentage was continent of urine. Most variables were associated with type of SB diagnosis. Conclusion The NSBPR provides a cross section of a predominantly pediatric population of patients followed in specialized SB programs. There were wide variations in the variables studied and major differences in Context of Care, Processes of Care, and Health Outcomes by type of SB. Such wide variation and the differences by type of SB should be considered in future analyses of outcomes. PMID:25444012

  7. Health Care for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Certain Korea Veterans--Covered Birth Defects and Spina Bifida. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    This rule adopts as final a proposed rule of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to amend its regulations concerning the provision of health care to birth children of Vietnam veterans and veterans of covered service in Korea diagnosed with spina bifida, except for spina bifida occulta, and certain other birth defects. In the proposed rule published on May 15, 2015, VA proposed changes to more clearly define the types of health care VA provides, including day health care and health-related services, which we defined as homemaker or home health aide services that provide assistance with Activities of Daily Living or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living that have therapeutic value. We also proposed changes to the list of health care services that require preauthorization by VA. This final rule addresses comments received from the public and adopts as final the proposed rule, without change. PMID:27051894

  8. Outcomes of Clinicians, Caregivers, Family Members and Adults with Spina Bifida Regarding Receptivity to use of the iMHere mHealth Solution to Promote Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Andrea D.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Datt, Nicole; Garver, Amanda; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding the receptivity of clinicians, caregivers and family members, and adults with spina bifida (SB) to the use of a mHealth application, iMobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere) system. Surveys were administered to end user groups in conjunction with a conference presentation at the Spina Bifida Association’s 38th Annual Conference. The survey results were obtained from a total of 107 respondents. Likert scale and qualitative results are provided in consideration of future application of the iMHere system in clinical practice. The results of this survey indicate respondents were receptive and supportive with regard to adopting such a system for personal and professional use. Challenges likely to be encountered in the introduction of the iMHere system are also revealed and discussed. PMID:25945209

  9. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La... Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and... Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National...

  10. Plasticity of Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe White Matter Pathways Due to Early Disruption of Corpus Callosum Development in Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A; Juranek, Jenifer; Romanowska-Pawliczek, Anna; Hannay, H Julia; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry A; Fletcher, Jack M

    2016-04-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalous development of the corpus callosum (CC) because of congenital partial hypogenesis and hydrocephalus-related hypoplasia. It represents a model disorder to examine the effects of early disruption of CC neurodevelopment and the plasticity of interhemispheric white matter connections. Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired on 76 individuals with SBM and 27 typically developing individuals, aged 8-36 years. Probabilistic tractography was used to isolate the interhemispheric connections between the posterior superior temporal lobes, which typically traverse the posterior third of the CC. Early disruption of CC development resulted in restructuring of interhemispheric connections through alternate commissures, particularly the anterior commissure (AC). These rerouted fibers were present in people with SBM and both CC hypoplasia and hypogenesis. In addition, microstructural integrity was reduced in the interhemispheric temporal tract in people with SBM, indexed by lower fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and higher radial diffusivity. Interhemispheric temporal tract volume was positively correlated with total volume of the CC, such that more severe underdevelopment of the CC was associated with fewer connections between the posterior temporal lobes. Therefore, both the macrostructure and microstructure of this interhemispheric tract were reduced, presumably as a result of more extensive CC malformation. The current findings suggest that early disruption in CC development reroutes interhemispheric temporal fibers through both the AC and more anterior sections of the CC in support of persistent hypotheses that the AC may serve a compensatory function in atypical CC development. PMID:26798959

  11. Neurological level at birth predicts survival to the mid-40s and urological deaths in open spina bifida: a complete prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oakeshott, Pippa; Reid, Fiona; Poulton, Alison; Markus, Hugh; Whitaker, Robert H; Hunt, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To conduct a 50-year complete, community-based, prospective cohort study to investigate long-term survival, causes of death, and influence of level of the lesion in treated open spina bifida. Method The cohort comprised 117 consecutive cases whose backs were closed non-selectively at birth between 1963 and 1971 in Cambridge, UK. In 2013 we surveyed the survivors (n=39, 18 males, 21 females; mean age 46y, range 43–49y) by postal questionnaire and telephone interview. We compared outcomes in those born with a neurological deficit in terms of sensory and motor levels of L1 and above versus L2 and below. Results Two-thirds of the cohort (78/117) had died. Causes of death were cardiorespiratory (n=26), neurological (n=24), urological (n=22), or other (n=6). Only the urological deaths were related to level of the lesion: there were none in those with a sensory level of L2 or below (p<0.001). Birth findings also predicted survival: of the 57 infants with a neurological level of L1 or above, only 12% (n=7) survived compared with 55% (30/55) of the remainder (p<0.001). Interpretation The increased mortality in those born with an extensive neurological deficit was mainly due to urological deaths. Neurological level, particularly the sensory level, is the best predictor of long-term outcome and should be assessed routinely at birth. What this paper adds In open spina bifida, sensory level predicts urological life expectancy. Death due to urological causes only occurred in those with a sensory level of T6–L1. Neurological level predicts outcome better than cutaneous or radiological level. Sensory level should be assessed in all infants with open spina bifida. This article is commented on by Worley on pages 594–595 of this issue. PMID:25683691

  12. Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

  13. Inpatient and Emergency Room Visits for Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida Living in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Joshua R.; Royer, Julie A.; Turk, Margaret A.; McDermott, Suzanne; Holland, Margaret M.; Ozturk, Orgul D.; Hardin, James W.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare emergency room (ER) and inpatient hospital (IP) use rates for persons with spina bifida (SB) to peers without SB, when transition from pediatric to adult health care is likely to occur; and to analyze those ER and IP rates by age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and type of residential area. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Secondary data analysis in South Carolina. Participants We studied individuals who were between 15 and 24 years old and enrolled in the State Health Plan (SHP) or state Medicaid during the 2000–2010 study period. Methods Individuals with SB were identified using ICD-9 billing codes (741.0, 741.9) in SHP, Medicaid, and hospital uniform billing (UB) data. ER and IP encounters were identified using UB data. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) Poisson models were estimated to compare rates of ER and IP use among the SB group to the comparison group. Main Outcome Measures Total ER rate and IP rate, in addition to cause-specific rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) and other condition categories. Results We found higher rates of ER and IP use in persons with SB compared to the control group. Among individuals with SB, young adults (those 20–24 years old) had higher rates of ER use due to all ACSC (P = .023), other ACSC (P = .04), and urinary tract infections (UTI; P = .002) compared to adolescents (those 15–19 years old). Conclusions Young adulthood is associated with increased ER use overall, as well as in specific condition categories (most notably UTI) in individuals 15–24 years old with SB. This association may be indicative of changing healthcare access as people with SB move from adolescent to adult health care, and/or physiologic changes during the age range studied. PMID:25511690

  14. Distribution of alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in familial spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Stenroos, E S; Heath, S C; Chen, Y; Carroll, R; McKoy, V V; Chatkupt, S; Lehner, T

    1999-12-22

    Spina bifida cystica (SB) is one of the most common and disabling of birth defects. Folic acid supplementation in mothers during the periconceptional period has been shown to prevent more than 70% of neural tube defects (NTD) including SB. However, the mechanism is unknown. We tested a series of multicase SB families in which 224 individuals were genotyped and a group of 215 unrelated unaffected (external) control individuals for association of SB with the T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism that produces a heat-labile enzyme protein. The data were analyzed using first the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and second a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods. No association of SB with the MTHFR T allele was found by either method. Presently, association between SB and the T allele has been found in four studies, a Dutch study, an Irish study, a North American study, and an Italian study. But no association was found in four other studies, a British study, a French study, a Turkish study, and a German study. A California population-based study found only modestly increased risk of SB with this allele that was not significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present study finds no evidence of the association. Only one other study, the German study, has used TDT analysis. The present study is the first to use a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods to test this association. Thus, it appears that the MTHFR T allele is a risk factor for SB in some populations but not others. Major genetic risk factors for folate-related SB remain to be found. PMID:10594879

  15. Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Marks, Andrew J; Kollhoff, David M; Rao, Manoj V; Hota, Partha V; Matoka, Derek J; Edassery, Seby L; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F; Janicki, Joseph A; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2013-03-01

    Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34(+) grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies. PMID:23431178

  16. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in pregnancies among black and white women with fetal open spina bifida: a United States collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Palomaki, G E; Haddow, J E

    1990-02-01

    In the present study second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were analyzed from 146 pregnancies associated with fetal open spina bifida to identify whether affected pregnancies from the black population were associated with higher maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels than their white counterparts. Pregnancies in black women not affected by open spina bifida are already known to have higher maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. All of the cases were analyzed with gestational ages assigned by last menstrual period, and all maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values were expressed as multiples of the median, to correct for differences in gestational age and assay among the 15 centers reporting data. The levels from affected pregnancies in white and black women fit log Gaussian distributions, with medians of 3.10 and 4.37 multiples of the median, respectively, on the basis of singleton, unaffected, white pregnancy medians. These results support adjustment of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values for race in black women; in addition, if a screening program's policy is to screen at a comparable risk in the two races, a higher maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein multiple of the median cutoff would be justified for black women. PMID:1689960

  17. Conservative treatment of Charcot artroparthy in a series of spina bifida patients: the experience of one center and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Selim; Kocaoglu, Baris; Berker, Nadire; Erol, Bulent

    2007-09-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the use of patellar tendon-bearing ankle foot orthesis for the treatment of Charcot arthropathy in a series of patients with spina bifida. A cohort of 350 spina bifida patients, ages ranging between 12 months and 22 years were evaluated in our clinic between June 1993 and March 2004. Charcot arthropathy was seen in five of these children. Treatment was initiated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral bisphosphonates and immobilization. No change was observed in the patients' symptoms after a month of treatment. At this time, a patellar tendon-bearing ankle foot orthesis was prescribed and used for a period of 6 to 24 months. All patients improved within 2 months. At the end of 2 years of follow-up, three patients are still using the brace without any complaints. One patient still has symptoms, although she is wearing her brace, but she has had significant improvement compared with the initiation of therapy. Non-weight-bearing, immobilization and surgery are the known treatment choices in Charcot arthropathy. Little experience exists about this entity and its treatment. Our experience reveals that the patellar tendon-bearing ankle foot orthesis leads to significant improvement in children with Charcot arthropathy without surgery and immobilization. PMID:17762679

  18. Discrepancies in Mother and Child Perceptions of Spina Bifida Medical Responsibilities During the Transition to Adolescence: Associations With Family Conflict and Medical Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Psihogios, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated mother–child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. Method 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Results Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother–child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Conclusions Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time. PMID:23843631

  19. The assessment of weight status in children and young people attending a spina bifida outpatient clinic: a retrospective medical record review

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Judy Anne; Yung, Emily; Lyons, Julia; Church, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Children with disabilities are two to three times more likely to become overweight or obese than typically developing children. Children with spina bifida (SB) are at particular risk, yet obesity prevalence and weight management with this population are under-researched. This retrospective chart review explored how weight is assessed and discussed in a children’s SB outpatient clinic. Method Height/weight data were extracted from records of children aged 2–18 with a diagnosis of SB attending an outpatient clinic at least once between June 2009–2011. Body mass index was calculated and classified using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-offs. Notes around weight, diet and physical/sedentary activities were transcribed verbatim and analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Results Of 180 eligible patients identified, only 63 records had sufficient data to calculate BMI; 15 patients were overweight (23.81%) and 11 obese (17.46%). Weight and physical activity discussions were typically related to function (e.g. mobility, pain). Diet discussions focused on bowel and bladder function and dietary challenges. Conclusions Anthropometrics were infrequently recorded, leaving an incomplete picture of weight status in children with SB and suggesting that weight is not prioritised. Bowel/bladder function was highlighted over other benefits of a healthy body weight, indicating that health promotion opportunities are being missed. Implications for Rehabilitation It is important to assess, categorise and record anthropometric data for children and youth with spina bifida as they may be at particular risk of excess weight. Information around weight categorisation should be discussed openly and non-judgmentally with children and their families. Health promotion opportunities may be missed by focusing solely on symptom management or function. Healthcare professionals should emphasise the broad benefits of healthy eating and physical activity, offering strategies to enable the child to incorporate healthy lifestyle behaviours appropriate to their level of ability. PMID:23510013

  20. Hypertension and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... hypertension has to be identiled lrst, particularly in young people. The following healthy lifestyles changes can signilcantly improve blood pressure: For adults, Internal Medicine specialists are experts at diagnosing and treating hypertension. ...

  1. Spina Bifida Occulta

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets stretched and damaged. www.spinabildaassociation.org • 1600 Wilson Blvd. Suite 800 Arlington, VA 22209 • 800-621- ... on an individual basis. www.spinabildaassociation.org • 1600 Wilson Blvd. Suite 800 Arlington, VA 22209 • 800-621- ...

  2. Genetics and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... times greater) • Family history of SB • Mother with insulin- dependent diabetes • Mother with medically diagnosed obesity www.spinabildaassociation.org • ... African-Americans and more common in Hispanics than non-Hispanics.) • Mother’s use of some prescription drugs, which ...

  3. Can Naturoptics fund Naturopathic Universities to Develop Interlocked Mentoring Relationships with Proposed Universities to Check Sensitivities of Individuals with Spina Bifida, to Environmentally Generated EMF Information about 'Quakes, Hurricanes, etc.?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, David M.; Ataide, Italani; McLeod, Roger D.

    2006-03-01

    Individuals harboring the herpes zoster virus following chicken pox, are susceptible to attacks of shingles. They may indicate peculiar awareness of pricking `pin and needle' sensations and co-symptoms of tinnitus and/or Meuniere's syndrome. RDM used similar symptoms in FL to predict the earthquake ninety miles north of Guantanamo bay in 1998. An astounding burial site in Florida from over six thousand years ago had a teenaged boy with severe spina bifida, with non-Asian genes, who could not have survived without very capable health support. Two youthful individuals likewise afflicted with spina bifida were unearthed from one site at Pompeii, entombed by the eruption of Vesuvius, August 24 and 25, CE 79. We know how to locate sites, active with EMF, which have tornado, hurricane and earthquake associations, and would like to foster joint research also involving Hawaiian and other volcanoes.

  4. Long-term complications following bladder augmentations in patients with spina bifida: bladder calculi, perforation of the augmented bladder and upper tract deterioration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background We desire to review our experience with bladder augmentation in spina bifida patients followed in a transitional and adult urologic practice. This paper will specifically focus on three major complications: bladder calculi, the most frequent complication found following bladder augmentation, perforation of the augmentation, its most lethal complication and finally we will address loss of renal function as a direct result of our surgical reconstructive procedures. Methods We reviewed a prospective data base maintained on patients with spina bifida followed in our transitional and adult urology clinic from 1986 to date. Specific attention was given to patients who had developed bladder calculi, sustained a spontaneous perforation of the augmented bladder or had developed new onset of renal scarring or renal insufficiency (≥ stage 3 renal failure) during prolonged follow-up. Results The development of renal stones (P<0.05) and symptomatic urinary tract infections (P<0.0001) were found to be significantly reduced by the use of high volume (≥240 mL) daily bladder wash outs. Individuals who still developed bladder calculi recalcitrant to high volume wash outs were not benefited by the correction of underlying metabolic abnormalities or mucolytic agents. Spontaneous bladder perforations in the adult patient population with spina bifida were found to be directly correlated to substance abuse and noncompliance with intermittent catheterization, P<0.005. Deterioration of the upper tracts as defined by the new onset of renal scars occurred in 40% (32/80) of the patients managed by a ileocystoplasty and simultaneous bladder neck outlet procedure during a median follow-up interval 14 years (range, 8–45 years). Development of ≥ stage 3 chronic renal failure occurred within 38% (12/32) of the patients with scarring i.e., 15% (12/80) of the total patient population. Prior to the development of the renal scarring, 69% (22/32) of the patients had been noncompliant with intermittent catheterization. The onset of upper tract deterioration (i.e., new scar formation, hydronephrosis, calculus development, decrease in renal function) was silent, that is, clinically asymptomatic in one third (10/32 pts). Conclusions This paper documents the need for high volume bladder irrigations to both prevent the most common complication following bladder augmentation, which is the development of bladder calculi and to reduce the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infections. It provides a unique perspective regarding the impact of substance abuse and patient non-compliance with medical directives as being both the most common cause for both spontaneous bladder rupture following augmentation cystoplasty and for deterioration of the upper tracts. These findings should cause the surgeon to reflect on his/her assessment of a patient prior to performing a bladder augmentation procedure and stress the need for close follow-up. PMID:26904407

  5. Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-coding System scales (PIMS): A new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holbein, Christina E.; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-coding System; PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. 106 target child-peer dyads completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing four interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability at the scale level were good-to-excellent for all five scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for four of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent and discriminant validity were established by examining the four remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The four PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. PMID:24932641

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Crytzer, Theresa M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Fairman, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and poor exercise tolerance are health issues concerning adults with spina bifida (SB). Our aim is to describe exercise participation and identify motivating tactics and exercise devices that increase participation. Design In a quasi-experimental randomized crossover design, the GameCycle was compared to a Saratoga Silver I arm ergometer. Personalized free or low cost text/voice message reminders to exercise were sent. Methods Nineteen young adults with SB were assigned to either the GameCycle or Saratoga exercise group. Within each group, participants were randomized to receive reminders to exercise, or no reminders, then crossed over to the opposite message group after eight weeks. Before and after a 16 week exercise program we collected anthropometric, metabolic, exercise testing and questionnaire data, and recorded participation. Results Miles traveled by the GameCycle group were significantly higher than the Saratoga exercise groups. No significant differences were found in participation between the message reminder groups. Low participation rates were seen overall. Conclusions Those using the GameCycle traveled more miles. Barriers to exercise participation may have superseded ability to motivate adults with SB to exercise even with electronic reminders. Support from therapists to combat deconditioning and develop coping skills may be needed. PMID:24620701

  7. Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System Scales (PIMS): a new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Christina E; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2014-12-01

    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System, or PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. Participants were 106 target child-peer dyads who completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing 4 interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and interrater reliability at the scale level were good to excellent for all 5 scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for 4 of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion Scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were established by examining the 4 remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The 4 PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. PMID:24932641

  8. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  9. The 19-bp deletion polymorphism in intron-1 of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) may decrease rather than increase risk for spina bifida in the Irish population.

    PubMed

    Parle-McDermott, Anne; Pangilinan, Faith; Mills, James L; Kirke, Peadar N; Gibney, Eileen R; Troendle, James; O'Leary, Valerie B; Molloy, Anne M; Conley, Mary; Scott, John M; Brody, Lawrence C

    2007-06-01

    Periconceptional maternal folic acid supplementation can prevent up to 70% of pregnancies affected with neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida. This has focused attention on folate-related genes such as dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in a bid to identify the genetic factors that influence NTD risk through either the fetal or maternal genotype. We considered a novel intronic 19-bp deletion polymorphism and two polymorphisms within the 3' untranslated region (721A>T and 829C>T) of the DHFR gene as candidates for NTD risk. We studied NTD cases (n=283), mothers of cases (n=280), fathers of cases (n=279), and controls (n=256). We did not find the DHFR 829C>T polymorphism to be variable within the Irish population. The 19-bp intron deletion and the 721A>T polymorphisms were found to be in linkage disequilibrium. In contrast to a previous study, the 19-bp intron deletion allele did show a significant protective effect in mothers of NTD cases when present in one (relative risk 0.59 [95%CI: 0.39-0.89], P=0.01) or two copies (relative risk 0.52 [95%CI: 0.32-0.86], P=0.01). Analysis of mRNA levels revealed a small increase in expression ( approximately 1.5-fold) associated with the 19-bp intron deletion polymorphism, but this was not significant. In conclusion, the DHFR intron 19-bp deletion allele may be a protective NTD genetic factor by increasing DHFR mRNA levels in pregnant women. PMID:17486595

  10. Men's Health and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... tadalall (Cialis) which regulate blood mow to the penis but still require some form of sexual stimulation ... constriction ring to an device blood into the penis.) device to to stimulate blood mow. into the ...

  11. Causal connection of non-specific low back pain and disc degeneration in children with transitional vertebra and/or Spina bifida occulta: role of magnetic resonance--prospective study.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Gordana; Krolo, Ivan; Anticević, Darko; Roić, Goran; Zadravec, Dijana; Bojić, Davor; Fattorini, Matija Zutelija; Bumci, Igor

    2012-06-01

    The problem of low back pain (LBP) in children is very common and many specialists are dealing with it in everyday practice. The cause for low back pain often is not found and classified under the diagnosis of non specific low back pain. The objective of this prospective study is to determine wether children with non specific low back pain and existence of anomalies in LS spine (transitional vertebra- TV and/or Spina bifida occulta SBO) also have the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (DD) L4-L5 and/or L5-S1. This prospective study included 69 patients from 8 to 16 years of age (X 12.81) of whom 40 were male (57.97%), and 29 female (42.03%). They all were examinated in University of Zagreb, "Sestre milosrdnice" University Hospital Center, Zagreb Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic, Zagreb, Croatia. The reason of their visit was non specific low back pain. Pain was measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and mean score was three, duration of pain was between two and four weeks. Also, pain was sporadic, during daytime and not connected with level of physical activity. They all have undergone an algorithm of radiological examinations. Standard AP and LL radiographs (RTG) were made, as well as magnetic resonance (MR) of LS spine and sacrum in sagittal and transversal plane in T1 and T2 weighted sequence. The anomalies of L5 and S1 were found in 65 patients: transitional vertebra classified according to Castellvi et al. and SBO. In MRI in T2 weighted sequence DD was found in 61 patients which was classified modified from Pearce. Data analysis and comparison showed that 56patients with TV and/or SBO have changes on vertebral dynamic segment L5-S1 (VDS) and that means DD. In 13 patients only DD or spinal anomaly (TV and/or SBO) were found. Correlation between anomalies and DD in those patients was established by McNemar analysis and has shown significant difference (p=0.581) in favour of the patients with anomaly and DD. This has established that all of 56 patients with spinal anomaly could have DD as known cause of LBP. PMID:22856255

  12. Estimating an individual's risk of having a fetus with open spina bifida and the value of repeat alpha-fetoprotein testing: FOURTH REPORT OF THE UK COLLABORATIVE STUDY ON ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN RELATION TO NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS*

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Data from the United Kingdom Collaborative Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Study were used to estimate an individual woman's risk of having a fetus with an open neural tube defect based on her particular maternal serum or amniotic fluid AFP concentration, and also to indicate the value of obtaining fresh specimens for repeat AFP testing. This was done by first showing that the AFP distribution adequately fitted a log Gaussian distribution and then estimating the mean and standard deviation of those distributions as well as the components of variance due to assay imprecision and within-person AFP fluctuations. In the United Kingdom as a whole the odds of having a fetus with open spina bifida among women with maternal serum AFP concentrations of 2·0, 3·0, and 4·0 multiples of the normal median (MoM) at 16-18 weeks' gestation are roughly 1:400, 1:59, and 1:13 respectively. Among women who have a single serum AFP concentration ≥2·5 MoM at 16-18 weeks' gestation which remained raised after the revision of gestational age by ultrasound and who proceed to amniocentesis, the odds are 1:84, 1:1, and 24:1 for women who have amniotic fluid AFP values of 2·0, 3·0, and 4·0 MoM respectively at 16-18 weeks' gestation. If the amniotic fluid sample is blood-stained these odds are lower, if it is not they are higher— for example, 1:4 and 5:1 respectively at 3·0 MoM. If an amniotic fluid AFP result is borderline there is practical value in obtaining a fresh amniotic fluid sample and performing a repeat AFP test, but if a maternal serum AFP result is borderline or high there is little value in testing a second maternal serum sample. Centres in which women with raised serum AFP concentrations routinely have a repeat test may therefore wish to reconsider this policy. PMID:6181181

  13. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... should drink sugar drinks. This includes sweetened fruit juices, sweetened iced tea, or soft drinks. Beginning early in life instilling this habit can result in long-term health benelts • Eat three meals a day of moderate ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... research suggests that consumption of some black and green tea inhibits absorption of folic acid and naturally ... CTS will not improve if the repetitive wrist movements do not decrease. Q: How can I get ...

  15. What Are the Treatments for Spina Bifida and Related Conditions?

    MedlinePlus

    ... they may use braces, crutches, walkers, or wheelchairs. Urinary Tract Infections, Lack of Bladder and Bowel Control People with ... from completely emptying, a condition that can cause urinary tract infections and kidney damage. The child or parent can ...

  16. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Programs Safe to Sleep, Media-Smart Youth, Maternal/Child Health Education Program NICHD Publications Order/print info ... surgical procedure also increases the chances that a child will be able to walk without crutches or ...

  17. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  18. IS SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH) A CANDIDATE GENE FOR SPINA BIFIDA? (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  20. Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006

    MedlinePlus

    ... for all years exclude data for Maryland, New Mexico, and New York, which in various years had ... 26.52 NOTE: Excludes data for Maryland, New Mexico, and New York, which did not require reporting ...

  1. Radiation treatment of bladder squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with spina bifida: A case report

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Neil; Morton, Gerard; Chung, Hans T.

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Canada. While most patients present with transitional cell carcinoma, few present with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Risk factors for SCC include a history of chronic urinary tract infection, urothelial inflammation and indwelling catheters. We present the management of a patient with locally advanced SCC of the bladder. PMID:22709884

  2. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... that appeared in the Federal Register of June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35317). The document announced that Gruma...., Bldg. 32, rm. 3208, Silver Spring, MD 20993, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2012..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of...

  3. Arnold Chiari Malformation with Spina Bifida: A Lost Opportunity of Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-01-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  4. Deliberate termination of life of newborns with spina bifida, a critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objects Deliberate termination of life of newborns (involuntary euthanasia) with meningomyelocele (MMC) is practiced openly only in the Netherlands. ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ is the single most cited criterion for this termination, together with the notion that ‘there are no other proper medical means to alleviate this suffering’. In this paper, both (and other) statements are questioned, also by putting them in a broader perspective. Methods First, a historical overview of the treatment of newborns with MMC is presented, concentrating on the question of selection for treatment. Second, a thorough analysis is made of the criteria used for life termination. Third, a case of a newborn with a very severe MMC is presented as a ‘reference case’. Conclusion ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ cannot be applied to newborns with MMC. They are not ‘terminally ill’ and do have ‘prospects of a future’. In these end-of-life decisions, ‘quality of life judgments’ should not be applied. When such a newborn is not treated, modern palliative care always will suffice in eliminating possible discomfort. There is no reason whatsoever for active life-termination of these newborns. PMID:17929034

  5. Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

  6. Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  7. Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  8. The Many Layers of Social Support: Capturing the Voices of Young People with Spina Bifida and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.; Montgomery, Gert; Stapleford, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Young people with physical disabilities experience greater difficulty than their able-bodied peers in many psychosocial domains as they transition toward adulthood. However, firsthand knowledge of the dimensions of social support that young people with physical disabilities find useful during this stage is lacking. This qualitative study involved…

  9. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  10. MATERNAL PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, GENETIC VARIATION OF INFANT REDUCED FOLATE CARRIER (A80G) AND RISK OF SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. EVALUATION OF INFANT METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENOTYPE, MATERNAL VITAMIN USE, AND RISK OF HIGH VERSUS LOW LEVEL SPINA BIFIDA DEFECTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1812, 1821, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 5101, 5110, 5111, 5112) Cross Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... of medication or other means to control incontinence. (ii) Level II. Provided that none of...

  13. Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Victoria L.; Damrau, Christine; Paudyal, Anju; Reeve, Benjamin; Grimes, Daniel T.; Stewart, Michelle E.; Williams, Debbie J.; Siggers, Pam; Greenfield, Andy; Murdoch, Jennifer N.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway is essential for embryonic development and the patterning of multiple organs. Disruption or activation of Shh signalling leads to multiple birth defects, including holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects and polydactyly, and in adults results in tumours of the skin or central nervous system. Genetic approaches with model organisms continue to identify novel components of the pathway, including key molecules that function as positive or negative regulators of Shh signalling. Data presented here define Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We have identified a new mouse mutant that is a strongly hypomorphic allele of Tulp3 and which exhibits expansion of ventral markers in the caudal spinal cord, as well as neural tube defects and preaxial polydactyly, consistent with increased Shh signalling. We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically downstream of Shh and Smoothened (Smo) in neural tube patterning and exhibits a genetic interaction with Gli3 in limb development. We show that Tulp3 does not appear to alter expression or processing of Gli3, and we demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of other negative regulators (Rab23, Fkbp8, Thm1, Sufu and PKA) is not affected. We discuss the possible mechanism of action of Tulp3 in Shh-mediated signalling in light of these new data. PMID:19223390

  14. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... of medication or other means to control incontinence. (ii) Level II. Provided that none of the... impairment of the upper extremities, but is able to grasp pen, feed self, and perform self care; or, has...

  15. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... of medication or other means to control incontinence. (ii) Level II. Provided that none of the... impairment of the upper extremities, but is able to grasp pen, feed self, and perform self care; or, has...

  16. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:25403653

  17. 38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement... individual's spina bifida and/or other covered birth defect(s) which are so severe as to...

  18. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, ...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida... Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  20. Relationship Between Erectores Spinae Voltage and Back-Lift Strength for Isometric, Concentric, and Eccentric Contractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, T. Edwin J.; Singh, Mohan

    1975-01-01

    This study determined the maximal mean values for concentric and eccentric back-lift strength as well as isometric, and examined and compared the relationships between the mean peak voltage of the erectores spinae muscle(s) and maximal force exerted for the three types of muscle contractions. (RC)

  1. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation

  2. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  3. First Case of Pseudoclavibacter bifida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Host with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Thierry; Breyne, Joke; De Laere, Emmanuel; Mariën, Stan; Waets, Peter; Laffut, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoclavibacter spp. are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family of Microbacteriaceae. Identification of these species with conventional biochemical assays is difficult. This case report of a Pseudoclavibacter bifida bacteremia occurring in an immunocompromised host diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a lethal outcome, confirms that this organism may be a human pathogen. PMID:23536403

  4. Spondylolisthesis in an Etruscan woman from Spina (Ferrara, Italy): an iron age case report.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Vanessa Samantha; Onisto, Nicoletta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Spondylolisthesis consists of the slippage of a vertebra in relation to the one beneath. It is caused by separation of the neural arch from the vertebral body (spondylolysis), and predominantly occurs at the isthmus (pars interarticularis). Originally thought to be a congenital anomaly, its strict correlation with certain activities that seem to exert stress on lower spine was later demonstrated. This paper describes a case of progression of spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis found on an adult female skeleton from the Etruscan necropolis of Spina (Ferrara, Italy). The case in question was identified among 209 skeletons exhumed at Spina. As spondylolisthesis is strictly connected with activities that exert stress on lower spine, the evidence suggests that this woman was engaged in stressful physical activity, perhaps related to the specific trade function of the site. PMID:25145016

  5. Analysis of electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung Yoo; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae caused by inversion traction in order to verify the relaxation effect. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 60 healthy male adults who were equally and randomly assigned to a 30–30° group, a 30–60° group, and a 60–60° group. Inversion traction was performed for six minutes, and the electromyographic activities of the lumbar erector spinae (L2, L4) were measured before and after inversion traction. [Results] The root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides were statistically significantly higher after inversion traction compared with before inversion traction. Before inversion traction, the root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides in the 30–60° group and 60–60° group were significantly higher than those in the 30–30° group, while the root mean square values at the L2 and L4 levels on both sides showed no significant differences between the groups before inversion traction. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicated that IT is more likely to elicits an increase in muscle tension and prevent relaxation of the lumbar erector spinae. PMID:27190459

  6. Trunk isometric force production parameters during erector spinae muscle vibration at different frequencies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vibration is known to alter proprioceptive afferents and create a tonic vibration reflex. The control of force and its variability are often considered determinants of motor performance and neuromuscular control. However, the effect of vibration on paraspinal muscle control and force production remains to be determined. Methods Twenty-one healthy adults were asked to perform isometric trunk flexion and extension torque at 60% of their maximal voluntary isometric contraction, under three different vibration conditions: no vibration, vibration frequencies of 30 Hz and 80 Hz. Eighteen isometric contractions were performed under each condition without any feedback. Mechanical vibrations were applied bilaterally over the lumbar erector spinae muscles while participants were in neutral standing position. Time to peak torque (TPT), variable error (VE) as well as constant error (CE) and absolute error (AE) in peak torque were calculated and compared between conditions. Results The main finding suggests that erector spinae muscle vibration significantly decreases the accuracy in a trunk extension isometric force reproduction task. There was no difference between both vibration frequencies with regard to force production parameters. Antagonist muscles do not seem to be directly affected by vibration stimulation when performing a trunk isometric task. Conclusions The results suggest that acute erector spinae muscle vibration interferes with torque generation sequence of the trunk by distorting proprioceptive information in healthy participants. PMID:23919578

  7. The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

    2005-01-01

    This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze. PMID:16270941

  8. Autophagy is involved in ethanol-induced cardia bifida during chick cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Gao, Lin-Rui; Lu, Wen-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been acknowledged to increase the incidence of congenital disorders, especially the cardiovascular system. However, the mechanism involved in ethanol-induced cardiac malformation in prenatal fetus is still unknown. We demonstrated that ethanol exposure during gastrulation in the chick embryo increased the incidence of cardia bifida. Previously, we reported that autophagy was involved in heart tube formation. In this context, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure increased ATG7 and LC3 expression. mTOR was found to be inhibited by ethanol exposure. We activated autophagy using exogenous rapamycin (RAPA) and observed that it induced cardiac bifida and increased GATA5 expression. RAPA beads implantation experiments revealed that RAPA restricted ventricular myosin heavy chain (VMHC) expression. In vitro explant cultures of anterior primitive streak demonstrated that both ethanol and RAPA treatments could reduce cell differentiation and the spontaneous beating of cardiac precursor cells. In addition, the bead experiments showed that RAPA inhibited GATA5 expression during heart tube formation. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that BMP2 expression was increased while GATA4 expression was suppressed. In the embryos exposed to excess ethanol, BMP2, GATA4 and FGF8 expression was repressed. These genes are associated with cardiomyocyte differentiation, while heart tube fusion is associated with increased Wnt3a but reduced VEGF and Slit2 expression. Furthermore, the ethanol exposure also caused the production of excess ROS, which might damage the cardiac precursor cells of developing embryos. In sum, our results revealed that disrupting autophagy and excess ROS generation are responsible for inducing abnormal cardiogenesis in ethanol-treated chick embryos. PMID:26317250

  9. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Bifida,and RFA DP 10-006 Epidemiologic Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Initial Review In accordance... Condition Progression in Young Children with Spina Bifida, and RFA DP 10-006 Epidemiologic Study...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8010 Definitions and....814(c)(3) of this title. Vietnam veteran means, in the case of a child suffering from spina...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination,...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance... conditions: (a) Current facts, including any relevant medical findings, establish that the child's...

  13. Longitudinal melanonychias.

    PubMed

    Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Ruben, Beth S; Loureiro, Walter Refkalevsky

    2013-01-01

    Melanonychia is black or brown pigmentation that appears in the fingernails and toenails. The pigment can come from exogenous sources, such as bacteria or fungal infection, tar, or blood. Endogenous causes include aberrant melanin production in the nail bed, resulting in a longitudinal presentation. Melanonychia can indicate the presence of cancerous growths, as well as infection. Diagnostic measures, including dermatoscopy, biopsy, and histopathology, can determine the cause and direct the course of treatment. Malignant lesions should be excised, and underlying infections should be addressed with antibiotics or antifungals. Benign lesions and hyperpigmentation may benefit from a wait-and-see approach. PMID:24079589

  14. Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

  15. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  16. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  17. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  18. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  19. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.

  20. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  1. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 17.901 Section 17.901 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA will provide a Vietnam veteran's child who has...

  2. Subsequent Births in Families of Children with Disabilities: Using Demographic Data to Examine Parents' Reproductive Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Meghan M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors determined family reproductive patterns after the birth of a child with (vs. without) a disability. Using Tennessee birth records, the authors examined families of children with Down syndrome (N = 1,123), spina bifida (N = 368), and population group (N = 734,189). Families of children with Down syndrome and with spina bifida were more…

  3. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  4. Formulation and evaluation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Nesseem, D I; Michel, C G; Sleem, A A; El-Alfy, T S

    2009-02-01

    This study deals with the formulation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd. A bioactivity guided fractionation of different leaf extracts [defatted ethanol 70% (a), butanol (b), ethanol 70% (c), ethyl acetate (d) and petroleum ether (e) extracts] revealed that extract (c) possessed the highest antihyperglycemic activity followed by (b) and (a). HPLC was adopted for standardization of the extract (c) based on evaluation of the major saponin christinin-A which was used as marker. The detection limit was 9.45 mg/ml for Christinin-A. Extracts (a), (b) and (c) were separately formulated in soft (S) and hard (H) gelatin capsules. Two different formulations (F1 and F2) were tried using different excipients suitable for oral drug delivery. Formula 1, used for soft gelatin capsules [(F1) Sa, Sb, Sc] Formula 2, used for hard gelatin capsules [(F2) - Ha, Hb, Hc]. The recovery rates of the samples of saponin were in the range 99.43-101.86% at 200, 800 microg/ml and 1200 microg/ml. Saponin release rates from different formulae were carried out using dissolution tester USP XXIV. The highest release was obtained from formulation Sc. The release of the extracts followed diffusion mechanism. The selected formula Sc exhibited highest anti-diabetic activity (P < 0.01) on acute and long-term administration and highest saponin release. This formula (Sc) contained poly-oxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (BC-20TX), PEG 400, PEG 6000, purified water, meglyol 810, ascorbic acid and 200 mg of extract (c). PMID:19320283

  5. Resting mechanomyographic amplitude for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles following resistance exercise in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Wages, Nathan P; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Hofford, Craig W

    2013-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are some of the most commonly occurring chronic conditions affecting the US population, with the most self-reported and diagnosed disorder being low back pain. Low back pain is often due to suboptimal back muscle function, at least in part, as a result of muscle inactivity and disuse. Resistance exercise has been shown to be successful in the treatment of low back pain. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine resting mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles prior to and following resistance exercise. Twenty healthy, college-aged men were measured for resting MMG amplitude levels prior to, and following a resistance training workout. The workout consisted of three sets of ten repetitions on the conventional deadlift, bent-over row, and lat pulldown exercises, with 1 min of rest between all sets and exercises. The results showed that there were approximate 10% and 15% decreases in normalized MMG amplitude after exercise for the erector spinae and trapezius muscles, respectively. These findings demonstrate a relaxation effect in the back muscles after exercise that could potentially be helpful in alleviating low back pain. PMID:24045398

  6. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  7. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles. PMID:26165811

  8. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  9. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for

  10. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2Ω. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1Ω.

  11. Longitudinal Stability Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-01-02

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  12. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. The following muscles were assessed: the right upper trapezius (RtUT), left upper trapezius (LtUT), right cervical erector spinae (RtCES), and left cervical erector spinae (LtCES). A cervical range of motion instrument was attached to the subjects’ heads to measure the cervical angle during the experiment. [Results] The RtUT and LtUT showed the highest muscle fatigue at a cervical flexion angle of 50° and the lowest fatigue at an angle of 30°. There was no significant difference in the muscle fatigue of the RtCES and LtCES at any of the cervical flexion angles. [Conclusion] UT muscle fatigue depends on the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone. PMID:26180333

  13. Muscle fibre size and type distribution in thoracic and lumbar regions of erector spinae in healthy subjects without low back pain: normal values and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    MANNION, A. F.; DUMAS, G. A.; COOPER, R. G.; ESPINOSA, F. J.; FARIS, M. W.; STEVENSON, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the normal muscle fibre size and type distribution of the human erector spinae, both in thoracic and lumbar regions, in a group of 31 young healthy male (n=17) and female (n=14) volunteers. Two percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were obtained under local anaesthesia, from the belly of the left erector spinae, at the levels of the 10th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae. Samples were prepared for routine histochemistry for the identification of fibre types. Fibre size (cross-sectional area (CSA) and narrow diameter (ND)) was quantified using computerised image analysis. The mean CSA/ND for each fibre type was greater in the thoracic than the lumbar region, but there was no difference between the 2 regions either for percentage type I (i.e. percentage distribution by number), percentage type I area (i.e. relative area of the muscle occupied by type I fibres) or the ratio describing the size of the type I fibre relative to that of the type II. Men had larger fibres than women, for each fibre type and at both sampling sites. In the men, each fibre type was of a similar mean size, whereas in the women the type I fibres were considerably larger than both the type II A and type II B fibres, with no difference between the latter two. In both regions of the erector spinae there was no difference between men and women for the proportion (%) of a given fibre type, but the percentage type I fibre area was significantly higher in the women. The erector spinae display muscle fibre characteristics which are clearly very different from those of other skeletal muscles, and which, with their predominance of relatively large type I (slow twitch) fibres, befit their function as postural muscles. Differences between thoracic and lumbar fascicles of the muscle, and between the muscles of men and women, may reflect adaptive responses to differences in function. In assessing the degree of any pathological change in the muscle of patients with low back pain, it seems clear that (1) sex cannot be disregarded and (2) ‘atrophied’ (using the criteria from other muscles) type II fibres are not necessarily abnormal for the erector spinae, particularly in women. PMID:9183674

  14. Tuberculous dactylitis (spina ventosa) with concomitant ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma in an immunocompetent child: A rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar; Khonglah, Tashi; Bareh, Jerryson

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous dactylitis is a distinctly uncommon, yet well recognized form of tuberculosis involving the small bones of the hand or foot. It occurs in young children in endemic areas under 5 years of age. Tuberculosis of the short tubular bones like phalanges, metacarpals or metatarsals is quite uncommon beyond 6 years of age, once the epiphyseal centers are well established. The radiographic features of cystic expansion have led to the name “Spina Ventosa” for tuberculous dactylitis of the short bones. Scrofuloderma is a mycobacterial infection affecting children and young adults, representing direct extension of tuberculosis into the skin from underlying structures e.g. lymph nodes. An 8-year-old malnourished girl had multiple axillary ulcers with lymphadenopathy. Tuberculous dactylitis with ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma was suspected on clinical and radiological grounds. The suspicion was confirmed by histology and bacteriology. The patient responded to antitubercular drugs with progressive healing of the lesions without surgery. Concomitant presence of these dual lesions suggesting active disseminated tuberculosis in immune-competent child over 6 years is very rare and hardly reported. PMID:23977657

  15. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  16. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  17. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  19. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  20. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  1. Eating right during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood supply. It also prevents anemia in the mother. Folic acid, for reducing the risk of spina bifida (incomplete closing of the spinal column), anencephaly (defect of the brain), and other birth defects

  2. Wheelchairs, Seating, Positioning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... Peer Mentor Tell a friend about the PFSP History of the PFSP Focus on Peer Recruitment PFSP ...

  3. Back to School: What It Means When You're Using a Wheelchair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... Peer Mentor Tell a friend about the PFSP History of the PFSP Focus on Peer Recruitment PFSP ...

  4. Newly Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... Peer Mentor Tell a friend about the PFSP History of the PFSP Focus on Peer Recruitment PFSP ...

  5. Paralysis: Rehabilitation and Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... Peer Mentor Tell a friend about the PFSP History of the PFSP Focus on Peer Recruitment PFSP ...

  6. Conditions That Can Cause Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... of the skeletal muscles that control movement. Post-Polio Syndrome Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis) has been eradicated from ...

  7. Cars and Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... Peer Mentor Tell a friend about the PFSP History of the PFSP Focus on Peer Recruitment PFSP ...

  8. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea—Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Source: 68...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... covered service in Korea means a veteran defined at § 3.814(c)(2) of this title. Vietnam veteran means,...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  12. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  13. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  14. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the following: (i) Down syndrome and other Trisomies; (ii) Fragile X syndrome; (iii) Klinefelter's... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  15. A Legal Brief: Very Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses previous litigation relevant to the case of a child suffering from "spina bifida" whose parents have brought suit against a Texas school district for failing to include catheterization in the child's individual education program. (Author/WD)

  16. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dystrophy; (vi) Galactosemia; (vii) Hemophilia; (viii) Huntington's disease; (ix) Hurler syndrome; (x... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  17. Related Services and the Supreme Court: A Family's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatro, Mary

    1984-01-01

    The article describes the efforts of a woman in securing, through court litigation, clean intermittent catheterization as a related service for her child with spina bifida. Effects of the decision process on the mother, family, and child are noted. (CL)

  18. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal ... with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development. Grains All About ...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a... training program. These staff members will also confer with the medical consultant and the...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8032 - Evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8032 Evaluations. (a) Scope and... assessment and of need for special services by the Vocational Rehabilitation Panel; (3) Provision of...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8140 - Evaluation and improvement of vocational potential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation and... services; (2) Personal and work adjustment training; (3) Referral for medical care and treatment...

  2. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who are pregnant ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider how much ...

  3. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who ... Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. ...

  4. Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or developmental disorders (such as those associated with neural tube defects including spina bifida and encephalocele). Other ... and abnormal brain development. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN, www.hcrn.org ) is a multi-center ...

  5. Facts about Anencephaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Aorta Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of Fallot Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Transposition of the ... Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Other types of heart defects Omphalocele Spina Bifida ...

  6. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Aorta Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of Fallot Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Transposition of the ... Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Other types of heart defects Omphalocele Spina Bifida ...

  7. Facts about Upper and Lower Limb Reduction Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Aorta Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of Fallot Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Transposition of the ... Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Other types of heart defects Omphalocele Spina Bifida ...

  8. Facts about Encephalocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Aorta Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of Fallot Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Transposition of the ... Coarctation of the Aorta Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Other types of heart defects Omphalocele Spina Bifida ...

  9. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... and a copy of the transcription shall be provided to the claimant. After reviewing the matter,...

  10. Dear Jamie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Sandra

    1974-01-01

    The letter from an adult woman handicapped by spina bifida myelomeningocele is addressed to an adolescent similarly handicapped and focuses on problems of emotional adjustment and coping with bladder incontinence. (DB)

  11. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... An infant born with spina bifida usually has paralysis of the nerves below the affected area of ... no symptoms, but other people might experience partial paralysis or other symptoms. In some cases, the only ...

  12. Types of Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The condition is usually a diagnosis. For example, autism spectrum disorders, spina bifida, and traumatic brain injury are health conditions. Body Structures Body structures are physical parts of the body. ...

  13. Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003.

  14. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dystrophy; (vi) Galactosemia; (vii) Hemophilia; (viii) Huntington's disease; (ix) Hurler syndrome; (x... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  15. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dystrophy; (vi) Galactosemia; (vii) Hemophilia; (viii) Huntington's disease; (ix) Hurler syndrome; (x... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  16. Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that affects the muscles. Problems can include cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy , spina bifida, and polio . ... They may have another serious disorder, such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, so their goals are much ...

  17. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Therapist In the Band: Jens' Story Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  18. Going to an Occupational Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... ocupacional Mornings are tough for Joe. He has cerebral palsy , a condition that affects the brain's control over ... in the lines. Some kids with conditions like cerebral palsy (like Joe), muscular dystrophy , or spina bifida may ...

  19. Spinal dysraphism

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramana, N. K.

    2011-01-01

    To review the clinical features and current understanding of spina bifida with an emphasis on the Indian Scenario. Selected articles and current English language texts were reviewed. The authors experience was also reviewed and analysed. Spina bifida is a common congenital anomaly encompassing a wide spectrum of neural tube defects.It is broadly classified as spina bifida aperta and occulta. With the prenatal screening, the incidence of aperta is gradually declining, whereas the detection of occulta has increased with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. Over the years, the understanding of pathophysiology has made a significant changein the management of these anomalies. Early detection and complete correction can significantly reduce the neurological disability. This article is an overview of spina bifida with a special emphasis on Indian scenario. PMID:22069428

  20. Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, Alexander George

    Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  1. Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects’ lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

  2. Longitudinal space charge amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) driven microbunching instability in electron beam formation systems of X-ray FELs is a recently discovered effect hampering beam instrumentation and FEL operation. The instability was observed in different facilities in infrared and visible wavelength ranges. In this paper we propose to use such an instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray radiation. A typical longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA) consists of few amplification cascades (drift space plus chicane) with a short undulator behind the last cascade. If the amplifier starts up from the shot noise, the amplified density modulation has a wide band, on the order of unity. The bandwidth of the radiation within the central cone is given by inverse number of undulator periods. A wavelength compression could be an attractive option for LSCA since the process is broadband, and a high compression stability is not required. LSCA can be used as a cheap addition to the existing or planned short-wavelength FELs. In particular, it can produce the second color for a pump-probe experiment. It is also possible to generate attosecond pulses in the VUV and X-ray regimes. Some user experiments can profit from a relatively large bandwidth of the radiation, and this is easy to obtain in LSCA scheme. Finally, since the amplification mechanism is broadband and robust, LSCA can be an interesting alternative to self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL) in the case of using laser-plasma accelerators as drivers of light sources.

  3. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected.

  4. Longitudinal motion in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    A general description is given of the longitudinal motion of an idealized synchronous particle, exactly in step with the radiofrequency field of a circular accelerator, and a domain in phase and energy, called a bucket, around this particle within which particles are focused around the synchronous particle. This general picture is then made more precise and quantitative. The equations of longitudinal motion and their solutions and the resulting motion are discussed, followed by applications and amplication of the theory. 7 refs., 8 figs. (LEW)

  5. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  6. Longitudinal Observation of Infant Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

    1986-01-01

    Convergent validity, temporal stability, and age-related patterning of measures of infant temperament were examined in a longitudinal study of 46 infants at three, six, and nine months of age. Infant Behavior Questionnaire and home observations showed convergent validity. Composite measures of positive and negative reactivity and overall…

  7. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  8. Quality of life and functional disability in skeletally mature patients with myelomeningocele-related spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Sibinski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Higgs, Zoe C J; Kujawa, Jolanta; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life, physical function, self-motivation, and self-perception of skeletally mature patients with spina bifida and scoliosis. This is a prospective study on 19 skeletally mature patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Several questionnaires were used for the study: Activities Scale for Kids, Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire, The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, and the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire. This study found no association between spinal deformity or other features related to spina bifida and self-perception, motivation, and overall physical function. More severe scoliosis affects quality of life and is related to the degree of pelvic obliquity and the age of the patients. Individuals with motor-level dysfunction below L3 had significantly better overall physical function compared with those with a higher level of lesions. This was the only factor found to affect physical function. Our findings suggest that most limitations in patients with spina bifida are not related to the degree of scoliosis but to other associated disabilities. PMID:23197183

  9. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  10. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Liu, Yun; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  11. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  12. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  13. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992.

  14. Screening for congenital neural tube defects in a high-risk area: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, D H; Smalls, M J; Rosenberg, K; Womersley, J

    1988-01-01

    Data from the Glasgow Register of Congenital Malformations were used to investigate the extent of the recent decline in the prevalence of anencephaly and spina bifida, and the contribution of antenatal screening to it. Over the period 1974-85 inclusive, 303 pregnancies with an anencephalic foetus were diagnosed, representing an "adjusted" prevalence of 1.9 per 1000 total births, of which 179 (59%) were terminated following antenatal screening. There were 364 pregnancies with a spina bifida foetus representing an "adjusted" prevalence of 2.3 per 1000 total births, of which 84 (23%) were terminated. Over the study period, the "adjusted" prevalence of anencephaly fell by 50% while the birth prevalence fell by 89%; the "adjusted" prevalence of spina bifida fell by 38% while the birth prevalence fell by 76%. It was concluded that although the birth prevalence of both defects (particularly anencephaly) would have declined substantially in the absence of screening, the West of Scotland programme should continue. PMID:3074990

  15. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  16. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  17. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability and Maneuverability § 25.145 Longitudinal.... (c) It must be possible, without exceptional piloting skill, to prevent loss of altitude...

  18. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Simpson, John T.

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  19. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive

  20. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the

  1. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  2. Designing a Longitudinal Study: Issues, Problems & Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogan, Ray; Zhao, Charles

    A longitudinal study was planned to track a class in a prekindergarten program to determine program effectiveness. There are many problems in conducting a longitudinal study, most of which revolve around the long-term commitment required. A carefully designed information system is important. For the study in question, computer software and…

  3. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  4. Venturing a 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jack; Block, Jeanne H.

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal inquiry has long been recognized as a uniquely powerful method for seeking understanding of psychological development. A 30-year longitudinal venture is described--its theoretical motivation, methodological rationale, and details of implementation. Some of the novel and implicative findings the study has generated are briefly…

  5. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  6. Statistical image analysis of longitudinal RAVENS images

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonjoo; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Reich, Daniel S.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-01-01

    Regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space (RAVENS) are transformation images used in the study of brain morphometry. In this paper, RAVENS images are analyzed using a longitudinal variant of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and longitudinal functional principal component analysis (LFPCA) for high-dimensional images. We demonstrate that the latter overcomes the limitations of standard longitudinal VBM analyses, which does not separate registration errors from other longitudinal changes and baseline patterns. This is especially important in contexts where longitudinal changes are only a small fraction of the overall observed variability, which is typical in normal aging and many chronic diseases. Our simulation study shows that LFPCA effectively separates registration error from baseline and longitudinal signals of interest by decomposing RAVENS images measured at multiple visits into three components: a subject-specific imaging random intercept that quantifies the cross-sectional variability, a subject-specific imaging slope that quantifies the irreversible changes over multiple visits, and a subject-visit specific imaging deviation. We describe strategies to identify baseline/longitudinal variation and registration errors combined with covariates of interest. Our analysis suggests that specific regional brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression. PMID:26539071

  7. Bayesian response adaptive randomization using longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Tomoyoshi; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The response adaptive randomization (RAR) method is used to increase the number of patients assigned to more efficacious treatment arms in clinical trials. In many trials evaluating longitudinal patient outcomes, RAR methods based only on the final measurement may not benefit significantly from RAR because of its delayed initiation. We propose a Bayesian RAR method to improve RAR performance by accounting for longitudinal patient outcomes (longitudinal RAR). We use a Bayesian linear mixed effects model to analyze longitudinal continuous patient outcomes for calculating a patient allocation probability. In addition, we aim to mitigate the loss of statistical power because of large patient allocation imbalances by embedding adjusters into the patient allocation probability calculation. Using extensive simulation we compared the operating characteristics of our proposed longitudinal RAR method with those of the RAR method based only on the final measurement and with an equal randomization method. Simulation results showed that our proposed longitudinal RAR method assigned more patients to the presumably superior treatment arm compared with the other two methods. In addition, the embedded adjuster effectively worked to prevent extreme patient allocation imbalances. However, our proposed method may not function adequately when the treatment effect difference is moderate or less, and still needs to be modified to deal with unexpectedly large departures from the presumed longitudinal data model. PMID:26099995

  8. Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study†

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The source of variability in people’s response to stressful life events is poorly understood. Aims We examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience (i.e. the difference between the twins’ internalising symptoms and their predicted symptoms based on cumulative stressful life events). Method Stressful life event exposure and internalising symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalising symptom total score, twin modelling was conducted for each wave separately and longitudinally. Results Resilience was found to have a moderate genetic heritability at each wave (∼31%). Qualitative gender effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (∼50%). When measurement error and occasion-specific effects were removed, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to level of resilience. Conclusions Both genes and environment influence level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. Environmental influences can have an enduring effect on resilience. PMID:24723629

  9. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  10. Longitudinal Oscillations in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, S.; Makowski, K.; Peradzynski, Z.; Dudeck, M.

    2004-10-01

    Longitudinal waves with a phase velocity close to the velocity of ions have been recurrently observed in Hall thruster experiments and simulations. It is shown that this so-called ion transit-time instability may arise in the simplest one-dimensional fluid model of a Hall thruster discharge in which cold ions are accelerated between two electrodes within a quasineutral plasma. The analysis of high frequency, quasineutral ion acoustic waves reveals that under adequate circumstances and in particular for high ionization levels, one of the two acoustic waves is strongly amplified. Forcing then a constant potential drop between the electrodes, the response of the discharge cur- rent to plasma perturbations provides a feedback poten- tially able to trigger an unstable resonance of ion acoustic waves. The frequency and growth rate of such an insta- bility are calculated for a supersonic ion flow. The scaling of the frequency with the ion transit-time and the role of the ionization degree on their onset are qualitatively ex- plained.

  11. Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple quantitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstaetter effect) and finally the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, especially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a galaxy-like'' pattern. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1991-11-01

    A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple quantitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstaetter effect) and finally the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, especially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a ``galaxy-like`` pattern. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, S. A.

    1992-05-01

    A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple qunatitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstätter effect) and finally the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, espcially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a ``galaxy-like'' pattern.

  14. Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, S. A.

    1991-11-01

    A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple quantitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstaetter effect), and the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation, one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, especially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a 'galaxy-like' pattern.

  15. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  16. Digital Longitudinal Tomography Using Backprojection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampp, Thomas Dalton

    1987-09-01

    Conventional tomography allows a single section to be demonstrated on film with a single sweep of an x -ray tube. Each sweep of the x-ray tube exposes the patient to approximately one rad of radiation dose. This tomographic method has been extended by using a backprojection method to allow six degrees of freedom in the selection of the plane to be synthesized. As many planes as desired can be retrospectively tomosynthesized from a single sweep of the apparatus. This can greatly reduce the dose to the patient as well as eliminate patient motion artifacts that would occur with individually acquired slices using the traditional analogue film method. A linear tomographic table was modified by the addition of a digital imaging chain so that a set of projection images could be acquired with each sweep of the apparatus. The digital images were manipulated by a computer to tomosynthesize retrospectively any desired plane. This advanced tomographic system would complement CT which cannot yet match the resolution of this system for longitudinal studies. Various special phantoms were imaged in order to provide data which were used to determine the operating characteristics of this particular system. The characteristics measured are the system gray level response, sampling density, modulation transfer function, small area contrast, detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, noise Wiener spectrum, and slice thickness. This laboratory piece of equipment could significantly detect approximately 1.7% contrast with a 1 mm pixel size. The MTF values and limiting resolution were approximately one -third of what can be obtained with current CT scanners. The system performed precisely as the computer simulations indicated. The dynamic range of the display is less than that of the image. Windowing of the final image can increase displayed contrast up to the limits imposed by noise. This is an improvement compared to film. With current state -of-the-art equipment, a little engineering and money, the system can be greatly improved.

  17. Longitudinal Variability of Thermospheric Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, M.; Shepherd, G.; Cho, Y.-M.

    2012-04-01

    A topic of great current interest in atmospheric dynamics is the developing recognition of the influence of the diurnal eastward-propagating non-migrating tide of wavenumber 3 (DE3) on the thermosphere. Longitudinal variations of F-region ionospheric electron density show a zonal wavenumber 4 pattern, expected for satellite observations at a fixed local time with respect to a rotating Earth. WINDII observations of airglow O(1S) volume emission rate (VER), excited by photoelectron impact on atomic oxygen at 250 km were interpreted as neutral density observations; they have shown the wavenumber 4 to be a common density perturbation in the equatorial thermosphere. The analysis has been extended further by examining thermospheric neutral temperatures at 245 km height derived from the observed daytime O(1S)VERs and the atomic oxygen density scale heights centred at this altitude. The observations examined have shown a distinct wave-4 signature at 20°S-40°S for the period from September to April with a more pronounced increase during fall equinox. Another enhancement of the wave 4 amplitude is observed during January. At the same time the quasi 2-day wave was observed in the MLT region in Rayleigh scattering temperatures and up to 180 km in O(1S) airglow and wind observations. The thermospheric temperatures at 245 km are further analysed for quasi 2-day wave signatures in attempt to determine the source of the observed thermospheric temperature wave-4 perturbations and their coupling with the neutral atmosphere below.

  18. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.H.; Zimmermann, F.

    1997-05-01

    We present an account of our efforts to understand unexpected observations in the course of performing measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function. As the amplitude of the excitation was increased, we observed a notch in the middle of the peak amplitude response of the transfer function. Our observations are explained by a bifurcation in the amplitude due to the nonlinearity of the oscillations, demonstrated by measurements of the longitudinal bunch profile using a streak camera.

  19. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  20. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2012-03-01

    Longitudinal surface structures ("flowstripes") are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems; the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, the Taylor and Ferrar Glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, Crane and Jorum Glaciers (ice-shelf tributary glaciers) on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  1. Visual analysis of longitudinal brain tumor perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßer, Sylvia; Oeltze, Steffen; Preim, Uta; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hauser, Helwig; Preim, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    In clinical research on diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors, longitudinal perfusion MRI studies are acquired for tumor grading as well as to monitor and assess treatment response and patient prognosis. Within this work, we demonstrate how visual analysis techniques can be adapted to multidimensional datasets from such studies within a framework to support the computer-aided diagnosis of brain tumors. Our solution builds on two innovations: First, we introduce a pipeline yielding comparative, co-registered quantitative perfusion parameter maps over all time steps of the longitudinal study. Second, based on these time-dependent parameter maps, visual analysis methods were developed and adapted to reveal valuable insight into tumor progression, especially regarding the clinical research area of low grade glioma transformation into high grade gliomas. Our examination of four longitudinal brain studies demonstrates the suitability of the presented visual analysis methods and comprises new possibilities for the clinical researcher to characterize the development of low grade gliomas.

  2. A review of multivariate longitudinal data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Ganguli, B; Chatterjee, A

    2011-08-01

    Repeated observation of multiple outcomes is common in biomedical and public health research. Such experiments result in multivariate longitudinal data, which are unique in the sense that they allow the researcher to study the joint evolution of these outcomes over time. Special methods are required to analyse such data because repeated observations on any given response are likely to be correlated over time while multiple responses measured at a given time point will also be correlated. We review three approaches for analysing such data in the light of the associated theory, applications and software. The first method consists of the application of univariate longitudinal tools to a single summary outcome. The second method aims at estimating regression coefficients without explicitly modelling the underlying covariance structure of the data. The third method combines all the outcomes into a single joint multivariate model. We also introduce a multivariate longitudinal dataset and use it to illustrate some of the techniques discussed in the article. PMID:20212072

  3. Longitudinal coupling effect in microfiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Guanghui; Jiang, Meng; Ping Shum, Perry; Zhang, Xinliang

    2012-10-01

    We theoretically present longitudinal coupling effect (LCE) in air-cladding microfiber Bragg gratings (MFBGs). Distinct from conventional weakly-guiding optical fibers, large longitudinal electric field (Ez) exists in wavelength-scale microfibers. Due to LCE, MFBG reflectivity can be reduced by more than 30% within the band-gap and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is obviously narrowed. This theoretical analytical work is instructive to precisely design and fabricate MFBGs that are promising in the areas of optical sensing and nanophotonics.

  4. Longitudinal stent deformation during coronary bifurcation stenting.

    PubMed

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Sharma, Prafull; Gupta, Ankush; Goyal, Praveg; Panda, Prashant

    2016-03-01

    A distortion of implanted coronary stent along its longitudinal axis during coronary intervention is known as longitudinal stent deformation (LSD). LSD is frequently seen with newer drug eluting stents (DES), specifically with PROMUS Element stent. It is usually caused by impact of guide catheter tip, or following passage of catheters like balloon catheter, IVUS catheter, guideliner, etc. We hereby report a case of LSD during coronary bifurcation lesion intervention, using two-stents technique. Patient had acute stent thrombosis as a complication of LSD, which was successfully managed. PMID:26811144

  5. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

  6. Ethical Problems of Screening for Neural Tube Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habgood, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Among the ethical problems in screening for severe spina bifida in a fetus are deciding who should be screened; whether the procedure, which has medical risks, is justified; and how to deal with the only known solution--abortion. Journal availability: see EC 114 865. (PHR)

  7. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  8. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application. (a) Filing an application. To participate in a vocational training program, the child of a Vietnam veteran (or the child's... Vietnam veteran's full name and Social Security number or VA claim number, if any; and (3)...

  9. Swimming for the Handicapped Child and Adult: Occasional Papers No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neishloss, Lou

    Outlined are physiological and psychological values of swimming for the handicapped, basic principles and teaching procedures for instructing physically handicapped persons, and specific suggestions for teaching swimming to persons with the following conditions; amputations, polio, paraplegia, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, Legg-Perthes Disease,…

  10. 77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Vietnam and Certain Korea Service Veterans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Attachment for Certain Children with Disabilities Born of Vietnam and Certain Korea Service Veterans, VA Form... to determine a spina bifida child of Vietnam veterans' eligibility for ancillary benefits....

  11. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... child of a Vietnam veteran or veteran with covered service in Korea (or the child's parent or guardian... child's full name, address, and VA claim number, if any, and the parent Vietnam veteran or veteran...

  12. Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, or inborn errors of metabolism frequently have associated gastrointestinal problems. These include oral motor dysfunction leading to feeding difficulties, risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise.

  13. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  14. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  15. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  16. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  17. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  18. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  19. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of

  20. Spirituality, Loss and Recovery in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on loss, recovery and spiritual dimensions of trauma in spinal cord injury (SCI) during adolescence. From a clinical perspective, while there are physical characteristics in common with congenital childhood disabilities such as spina bifida, life adjustment issues associated with acquired disabilities can be quite different,…

  1. Factors Associated with Self-Worth in Young People with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.

    2004-01-01

    Having a positive sense of self is associated with success for children and adults, with and without disabilities. This article reports on a cross-sectional study examining the correlates of global self-worth for 85 young people (ages eight to 23) with spina bifida (a condition present at birth) or spinal cord injury (an acquired condition).…

  2. Health Services for Handicapped Children in Public Schools: What Does the Law Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasco, Lisa J.

    1980-01-01

    The case of a 3-year-old spina bifida child whose requirement for catheterization were judged to be a medical service outside the requirements of federal law is described. The federal court's upholding of the Texas State Board of Education's denial of services is seen to be a violation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. (CL)

  3. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Elective Termination of Pregnancies Involving Fetuses with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christy D.; Stough, Laura M.; Parrish, Linda H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 69 women at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability found most would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability regardless of type of disability (either Down syndrome or spina bifida). The decision was not related to knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to knowledge of…

  4. Irving Independent School District, Petitioner v. Henri Tatro, et Ux., Individually and as Next Friend of Amber Tatro, a Minor. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circiut. No. 83-558.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    A Supreme Court ruling is presented regarding the provision of clean intermittent catheterization as part of related services mandated under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The case argued focused on the needs of a young girl with spina bifida for intermittent catheterization to remove urine from her bladder. The court…

  5. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training resources. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance,...

  6. What Are the Treatments for Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or within the first few days after birth. Hydrocephalus. If an infant with spina bifida has hydrocephalus (water on the brain), a surgeon can implant ... fluid—to relieve pressure on the brain. Treating hydrocephalus can prevent problems such as blindness. Tethered spinal ...

  7. Helping SBH Pupils with Handwriting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    The article describes two cases of children (7- and 8 1/2-years-old) with spina bifida and hydrocephalus who participated in a research project to discover whether such children could make significant improvements in writing given appropriate help, and to produce an advisory booklet for teachers. (SBH)

  8. Development of Intentionality in the Vocalization of Handicapped Infants Reared in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    The 15-month study followed the vocal development of five handicapped (Down Syndrome, hydrocephalus, and spina bifida) hospital reared infants. Results suggested that only the two less handicapped infants demonstrated use of sounds for social interaction and that the other infants used vocalization primarily as protest or self-stimulation.…

  9. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Counseling. 21.8100... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance under this subpart will receive professional counseling by...

  10. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902... medical equipment with a total rental or purchase price in excess of $300, respectively;...

  11. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical records. 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905...

  12. 77 FR 4469 - Dental Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 17, 2011 (76 FR 14600), VA proposed to amend 38 CFR 3.381, which... care for children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and the other suggested revision of the... be an exhaustive list, but rather merely examples of medical conditions commonly associated...

  13. 38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 17.903 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment... the same payment methodologies as provided for under the Civilian Health and Medical Program of...

  14. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 17.900 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900... TRICARE Program, Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs...

  15. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review and appeal process. 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects §...

  16. Response Patterns in Brain Damaged Children and Teaching Styles. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    A study involving 45 physically handicapped brain injured children (including Ss diagnosed with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and other types of brain injury) and 10 physically handicapped non-brain injured children ranging in age from 2-8 years was conducted to determine if there is something distinctive about a brain injured child which suggests…

  17. Roughing It Smoothly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Donna

    1988-01-01

    A mother of a 17-year-old son with spina bifida recounts the family's experiences camping in the Adirondack Mountains. Her son has enjoyed swimming, modified waterskiing, riding to the top of a mountain during the summer on a ski chair lift, and blueberry picking from a toboggan rather than his wheelchair. (VW)

  18. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Padula, Amy M; English, Paul B; Shaw, Gary M

    2014-03-15

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  19. Subjective Age in the Transition to Adulthood for Persons with and without Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined subjective age (how old one feels) and associated variables in 148 emerging adults, ages 20-30 years. Seventy-six participants had a motor disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida) and 72 had no motor disability. Participants completed questionnaires and were interviewed. There was no significant difference in subjective age…

  20. Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,

  1. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication of benefits. 21.8016 Section 21.8016 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry and reentry. 21.8022 Section 21.8022 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of services. 21.8320 Section 21.8320 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida...

  4. Spirituality: A Coping Mechanism in the Lives of Adults with Congenital Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline A.; King, Gillian A.; Willoughby, Colleen; Brown, Elizabeth G.; Smith, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the perspective of individuals with congenital disabilities about spirituality as a coping mechanism during crucial times in their lives, Qualitative analysis of interviews assessing turning points in the lives of 15 adults (6 women and 9 men; M = 37 years) with spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or…

  5. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The VR&E Division will evaluate each...

  10. Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

  11. Incontinent Children Discover Hope at Camp Oakhurst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raps, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes summer-camp experiences of young people who are incontinent because of spina bifida. Focuses on residential camp program as encouragement for youth to learn independent incontinence management. Describes self-catheterization program and process as minor inconvenience and positive alternative to soiled clothing and accompanying…

  12. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  13. Living with a Handicap. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 3, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc., Watson.

    Autobiographical sketches of four Australians living with physical handicaps are presented in this Australian early childhood resource booklet. Life experiences in school and out are reported by a blind man, a young woman who was brain damaged due to injuries in an automobile accident, a mother of a child with spina bifida, and a Doctor of…

  14. Shopping with David.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickinac, Daniel Lee

    1992-01-01

    A parent of a six-year-old son with spina bifida examines common accessibility problems in the form of six steps involved in taking the child shopping from finding a parking space to finding an entrance ramp and maneuvering in the store. (DB)

  15. Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

  16. How Many People Are Affected By or Are at Risk for Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... by or are at risk for neural tube defects? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content In the United States, about 1,500 infants are born each year with spina bifida. 1 The other types of neural tube defects are less common. About 340 infants are born ...

  17. Considerations for Integration of Physically Handicapped and Non-Handicapped Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Elizabeth O.

    Eight physically handicapped (blind, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or genetic defect) preschool children and eight children with normal sensory motor abilities (mean age of both groups 3 1/2 years) participated in a preschool demonstration project designed to promote equal educational and social experiences in an integrated preschool through the…

  18. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the...

  19. 75 FR 9276 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... information needed to determine eligibility of persons applying for healthcare benefits under Civilian Health... for children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and certain other covered birth defects. DATES... healthcare benefits under the CHAMPVA program. b. VA Form 10-7959a is used to accurately adjudicate...

  20. Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2000-01-01

    A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

  1. Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alice; And Others

    The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

  2. Utilizing Alternative Assessment Techniques with Physically Impaired Students To Increase Work Completion and Improve Work Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Traci L.

    This paper describes a practicum project that involved teaching 14 students (ages 8 through 13) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and muscular dystrophy) to plan, organize, and complete projects and assignments independently. The paper explains the low expectations for the students and the students' lack of experience in…

  3. National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

  4. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously considered....

  5. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously considered....

  6. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously considered....

  7. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... Section 17.133 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... decision is in error and must include any new and relevant information not previously considered....

  8. Nathan Watt: A True American Idol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diana

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story

  9. Folic acid fortification and cancer risk: plea for objective evaluation of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The letter from Bayston and colleagues,1 representing the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus, dismisses concerns raised by two recent studies2, 3 of a possible increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk following a high intake of folic acid. In relation to the postulated link between forti...

  10. Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, or inborn errors of metabolism frequently have associated gastrointestinal problems. These include oral motor dysfunction leading to feeding difficulties, risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise.…

  11. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation services. 21.8370 Section 21.8370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization of transportation services. (a) General. VA authorizes transportation...

  12. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  13. Congruence between Mother and Handicapped Child's View of the Child's Sense of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David; Greenway, Philip

    1982-01-01

    Only diagnosis of handicap was significantly related to the tendency for children to be either less or more positive in response to the items than their mothers, with cerebral palsy children more positive and spina bifida children consistently less positive in direction. (Author)

  14. Spirituality: A Coping Mechanism in the Lives of Adults with Congenital Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline A.; King, Gillian A.; Willoughby, Colleen; Brown, Elizabeth G.; Smith, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the perspective of individuals with congenital disabilities about spirituality as a coping mechanism during crucial times in their lives, Qualitative analysis of interviews assessing turning points in the lives of 15 adults (6 women and 9 men; M = 37 years) with spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or

  15. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  16. Dual longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, T.D.; Smith, A.V.; Esherick, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have obtained dual-longitudinal-mode operation of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser by simultaneously injection-seeding two frequencies to produce pulses with modulation frequency discretely tunable from 185 MHz to greater than 17 GHz. 3 refs.

  17. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%

  18. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human

  19. Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Lynley

    2010-01-01

    Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.

  20. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  1. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  2. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  3. Nonlinear evolution of longitudinal plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, Young-Ping

    1988-01-01

    Long-time nonlinear behavior of single-mode longitudinal plasma waves is studied on the basis of the Vlasov equation with Fokker-Planck collision terms. The resonant layer, trapped island, collisional sublayers, and X-point neighborhoods are analyzed. A nonlinear evolution equation is obtained and the wave-generated current is also evaluated.

  4. NLS Handbook 1994. The National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, are a set of surveys each of which has gathered information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of five groups of men and women since the mid-1960s. Each group of at least 5,000 persons was selected to be…

  5. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  6. Personnel Issues in Maintaining Longitudinal Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Sally; Rogers, Glen

    In longitudinal studies, the same variables must be measured, in the same way, on at least two occasions. Research personnel are very important in keeping the necessary continuity of the procedures and the comparability of the measurements over time. As staff turnover can create serious problems, this paper suggests several strategies for reducing…

  7. Design and Implementation Issues in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Pedulla, Joseph; Reagan, Emile Mitescu; Enterline, Sarah; Cannady, Mac; Chappe, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a…

  8. Issues in Longitudinal Research on Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel, Reinoud D.; Roeleveld, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van den Wittenboer, Godfried; Hox, Joop

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses two methodological issues regarding the analysis of longitudinal data using structural equation modeling that emerged during the reconsideration of the analysis of a recent study on the relationship between academic motivation and language achievement in elementary education [Stoel R.D., Peetsma, T.T.D. and Roeleveld, J.…

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  10. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseborough, David J.; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Bradshaw, William H.

    2012-01-01

    This effectiveness study examined the course of treatment longitudinally and outcomes associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy for a sample of 1,050 people undertaking this treatment in a community setting, over the course of 4 years, at 3-month intervals, using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ)-45.2. The authors used multilevel modeling to look…

  11. Longitudinal Predictors of Implicit Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal predictive relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness skills in preschool-age children with speech-sound disorders. Method: Forty-seven children with speech-sound disorders were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year and again…

  12. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and

  13. NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

  14. Longitudinal emittance measurements at REX-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. A.; Zocca, F.; Jones, R. M.; Pasini, M.; Posocco, P. A.; Voulot, D.; Wenander, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of the longitudinal emittance at the Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) at ISOLDE, CERN. The rms longitudinal emittance was measured as 0.340.08 ? ns keV/u at the output of the RFQ and as 0.360.04 ? ns keV/ u in front of the third 7-gap split-ring resonator (7G3) using the three-gradient technique; systematic errors are not included but are estimated at approximately 10%. The 86% emittance was measured a factor of approximately 4.4 times larger than the rms emittance at 1.480.2 and 1.550.12 ? ns keV/ u at the RFQ and 7G3, respectively. The REX switchyard magnet was used as a spectrometer to analyse the energy spread of the beam as it was manipulated by varying the voltage of the rebuncher (ReB) and 7G3 cavities operating at non-accelerating phases. The transfer matrix for a multi-gap bunching cavity is derived and suitably truncated to allow for the accurate reconstruction of the beam parameters from measurement. The technique for measuring the energy spread was rigorously simulated and validated. A silicon detector, in its development phase, was also exploited to measure the longitudinal beam properties. The measured longitudinal emittance is compatible with the acceptance of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting linac upgrade.

  15. Reduced Longitudinal Function in Chronic Aortic Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Al Balbissi, Kais A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) patients demonstrate left ventricular (LV) remodeling with increased LV mass and volume but may have a preserved LV ejection fraction (EF). We hypothesize that in chronic AR, global longitudinal systolic and diastolic function will be reduced despite a preserved LV EF. Methods We studied with Doppler echocardiography 27 normal subjects, 87 patients with chronic AR with a LV EF > 50% (AR + PEF), 66 patients with an EF < 50% [AR + reduced LV ejection fraction (REF)] and 82 patients with hypertensive heart disease. LV volume, transmitral spectral and tissue Doppler were obtained. Myocardial velocities and their timing and longitudinal strain of the proximal and mid wall of each of the 3 apical views were obtained. Results As compared to normals, global longitudinal strain was reduced in AR + PEF (13.8 ± 4.0%) and AR + REF (11.4 ± 4.7%) vs. normals (18.4 ± 3.6%, both p < 0.001). As an additional comparison group for AR + PEF, global longitudinal strain was reduced as compared to patients with hypertensive heart disease (p = 0.032). The average peak diastolic annular velocity (e') was decreased in AR + PEF (6.9 ± 3.3 cm/s vs. 13.4 ± 2.6 cm/s, p < 0.001) and AR + REF (4.8 ± 2.1 cm/s, p < 0.001). Peak rapid filling velocity/e' (E/e') was increased in both AR + PEF (14.4 ± 6.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.3, p < 0.001) and AR + REF (18.8 ± 6.4, p < 0.001 vs. normals). Independent correlates of global longitudinal strain (r = 0.6416, p < 0.001) included EF (p < 0.0001), E/e' (p < 0.0001), and tricuspid regurgitation velocity (p = 0.0176). Conclusion With chronic AR, there is impaired longitudinal function despite preserved EF. Moreover, global longitudinal strain was well correlated with noninvasive estimated LV filling pressures and pulmonary systolic arterial pressures. PMID:26755930

  16. 115. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT: TYPICAL CROSSSECTION, LONGITUDINAL BRACE OF CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT: TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION, LONGITUDINAL BRACE OF CENTER PILES, OUTSIDE LONGITUDINAL GIRDER Sheet 6 of 9 (#3257) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  18. The AQUA-FONTIS study: protocol of a multidisciplinary, cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal study for developing standardized diagnostics and classification of non-thyroidal illness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W; Stachon, Axel; Antic, Biljana; Klein, Harald H; Hering, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a characteristic functional constellation of thyrotropic feedback control that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. Although this condition is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality, there is still controversy on whether NTIS is caused by artefacts, is a form of beneficial adaptation, or is a disorder requiring treatment. Trials investigating substitution therapy of NTIS revealed contradictory results. The comparison of heterogeneous patient cohorts may be the cause for those inconsistencies. Objectives Primary objective of this study is the identification and differentiation of different functional states of thyrotropic feedback control in order to define relevant evaluation criteria for the prognosis of affected patients. Furthermore, we intend to assess the significance of an innovative physiological index approach (SPINA) in differential diagnosis between NTIS and latent (so-called "sub-clinical") thyrotoxicosis. Secondary objective is observation of variables that quantify distinct components of NTIS in the context of independent predictors of evolution, survival or pathophysiological condition and influencing or disturbing factors like medication. Design The approach to a quantitative follow-up of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (AQUA FONTIS study) is designed as both a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal observation trial in critically ill patients. Patients are observed in at least two evaluation points with consecutive assessments of thyroid status, physiological and clinical data in additional weekly observations up to discharge. A second part of the study investigates the neuropsychological impact of NTIS and medium-term outcomes. The study design incorporates a two-module structure that covers a reduced protocol in form of an observation trial before patients give informed consent. Additional investigations are performed if and after patients agree in participation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00591032 PMID:18851740

  19. Longitudinal dunes on Mars: Relation to current wind regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Thomas, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal dunes are extremely rare on Mars, but constitute a substantial fraction of terrestrial desert dunes. We report finding isolated examples of longitudinal dunes on Mars and relate their occurence to expected sand transport regimes. Terrestrial longitudinal dunes form in bimodal and multimodal transport regimes. General circulation models and streak data indicate that bimodal and multimodal transport of sand should be very rare on Mars. Thus the dearth of longitudinal dunes on Mars is consistant with their apparent formation conditions on Earth.

  20. Longitudinal dunes on Mars: Relation to current wind regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Thomas, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal dunes are extremely rare on Mars, but constitute a substantial fraction of terrestrial desert dunes. We report finding isolated examples of longitudinal dunes on Mars and relate their occurrence to expected sand transport regimes. Terrestrial longitudinal dunes form in bimodal and multimodal transport regimes. General circulation models and streak data indicate that bimodal and multimodal transport of sand should be very rare on Mars. Thus the dearth of longitudinal dunes on Mars is consistent with their apparent formation conditions on Earth.

  1. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  2. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  3. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  4. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  5. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  6. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  7. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  8. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  9. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  10. Longitudinal Multitrait-Multimethod Models for Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Pianta, Robert C.; Konold, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) confirmatory factor models were combined with longitudinal structural equation models to examine trait and method stability over time. A longitudinal correlated-trait correlated-method (CT-CM) model allowed for the study of trait and method variance in observed scores over time. Longitudinal measurement invariance was…

  11. The International Tethered Cord Partnership: Beginnings, process, and status

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Celene B.; Aranda, Guzmán; Arredondo, Luis Angel; Calgua, Erwin; Contreras, Fernando; Espinoza, Dulce Maria; Gonzalez, Juan Bosco; Hoil, Jose A.; Komolafe, Edward; Lazareff, Jorge A.; Liu, Yunhui; Soto-Mancilla, Juan Luis; Mannucci, Graciela; Nan, Bao; Portillo, Santiago; Zhao, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spina bifida presents a significant cause of childhood morbidity in lower- and middle-income nations. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature examining outcomes among children with spina bifida in these countries. The goal of the International Tethered Cord Parternship is twofold: (1) to establish an international surveillance database to examine the correlation between time of repair and clinical outcomes in children with spina bifida and tethered cord; and (2) to foster collaboration among international institutions around pediatric neurosurgical concerns. Methods: Twelve institutions in 7 countries committed to participating in the International Tethered Cord Partnership. A neurosurgeon at each institution will evaluate all children presenting with spina bifida and/or tethered cord using the survey instrument after appropriate consent is obtained. The instrument was developed collaboratively and based on previous measures of motor and sensory function, ambulation, and continence. All institutions who have begun collecting data received appropriate Institutional Review Board approval. All data will be entered into a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant database. In addition, a participant restricted internet forum was created to foster communication and includes non–project-specific communications, such as case and journal article discussion. Results: From October 2010 to December 2010, 82 patients were entered from the various study sites. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first international pediatric neurosurgical database focused on clinical outcomes and predictors of disease progression. The collaborative nature of the project will not only increase knowledge of spina bifida and tethered cord, but also foster discussion and further collaboration between neurosurgeons internationally. PMID:21541204

  12. A longitudinal study of moral reasoning.

    PubMed

    Walker, L J

    1989-02-01

    Several issues concerning Gilligan's model of moral orientations and Kohlberg's models of moral stages and moral orientations were examined in a longitudinal study with 233 subjects (from 78 families) who ranged in age from 5 to 63 years. They participated in 2 identical interviews separated by a 2-year interval. In each interview, they discussed hypothetical dilemmas and a personally generated real-life dilemma, which were scored for both moral stage and moral orientation (both Gilligan's and Kohlberg's typologies). Results revealed few violations of the stage sequence over the longitudinal interval, supporting Kohlberg's moral stage model. Sex differences were almost completely absent for both Gilligan's and Kohlberg's moral orientations, although there were clear developmental trends. Hypothetical and real-life dilemmas elicited different moral orientations, especially in terms of Kohlberg's typology. The interrelations between the 2 models of moral orientations were generally weak, indicating that they are not synonymous. PMID:2702866

  13. Longitudinal injection transients in an electron storagering

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; De Santis, S.

    2000-11-02

    We present the results of an experimental study of the longitudinal beam dynamics at injection in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), an electron storage ring. By measuring the longitudinal bunch distribution following injection using a streak camera, we were able to study several useful and interesting e.ects as well as improve overall injection efficiency. These include measurement and correction of the phase and energy offsets at injection, measurement of the injected bunch length and energy spread, direct observation of phase space filamentation due to the spread in synchrotron frequencies, and measurement of the effective damping rate of the bunch shape including radiation damping and decoherence. We have also made some initial studies of the decay of an uncaptured beam at injection which may provide a novel means of measuring the radiation loss per turn.

  14. Eulerian network modeling of longitudinal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmani, Yashar; Balhoff, Matthew T.

    2015-10-01

    A novel Eulerian network model that incorporates "shear dispersion," the stretching of solute due to nonuniform velocity profiles within pore throats is developed. The superposing transport method (STM) is nonlocal in time (i.e., uses information from several previous time steps) and is equivalent to performing network-wide time convolutions of elementary throat response functions. Predicted macroscopic longitudinal dispersion coefficients for disordered sphere packs are in good agreement with published experimental data. We further investigate the impact of mixing assumptions within pores on macroscopic longitudinal dispersion and find the dependence to be weak for disordered sphere packs. Limitations of Eulerian network models as a whole are also discussed, and their inappropriateness for ordered porous media concluded.

  15. Longitudinal variations of the equatorial electojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, Esayas

    We have utilized a three dimensional electrostatic potential model to explain the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet. The model runs were constrained by net H component magnetic field measurements from three equatorial stations, namely, Huancayo (Peru) 12.05 S, 284.67 E; Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) 9.8 N, 38.8 E; Tirunelveli (India) 8.42 N, 77.48 E. The model runs were done in an iterative fashion until the computed and measured H component magnetic field values come into a close agreement. The physical mechanisms for the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet were inferred by comparing and contrasting the resulting computed vertical polarization electric field (which drives the equatorial electrojet), and zonal current density profiles for the three stations mentioned above.

  16. Linac Coherent Light Source Longitudinal Feedback Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; Hendrickson, L.; /SLAC

    2005-06-15

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, it is critical to preserve the high quality of the electron beam during acceleration and compression. The peak current and final energy are very sensitive to system jitter. To minimize this sensitivity, a longitudinal feedback system on the bunch length and energy is required, together with other diagnostics and feedback systems (e.g., on transverse phase space). Here, we describe a simulation framework, which includes a realistic jitter model for the LCLS accelerator system, the RF acceleration, structure wakefield, and second order optics. Simulation results show that to meet the tight requirements set by the FEL, such a longitudinal feedback system is mandatory.

  17. CLADA: Cortical Longitudinal Atrophy Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower-resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5mm3 voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm3 isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm3 voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post- mortem tissue. CLADA’s sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1 mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation = 0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images. PMID:20674750

  18. Longitudinal modes of the Brillouin cavity ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botineau, Jean; Montes, Carlos; Picholle, Eric

    1991-05-01

    The longitudinal modes of the Brillouin cavity ring are studied using silica unimodal optic fibers. Mathematical simulation of the Brillouin model indicates that in a typical evolution scenario towards continuous retrodiffusion, amplitudes stabilize much more quickly than the phases. The persistence and stability of these phase oscillations weighs in favor of the existence of an asympotic regime in which the Stokes frequency is altered compared to the theoretic frequency. Various analytic solutions for optic buffering of this type are presented.

  19. Aging in Rett syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Halbach, N S J; Smeets, E E J; Steinbusch, C; Maaskant, M A; van Waardenburg, D; Curfs, L M G

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the aging process of people with specific syndromes, like Rett syndrome (RTT). Recognition of the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the adult RTT is needed in order to improve future management of the RTT girl and counseling of parents. In association with the Dutch RTT parent association, a 5-year longitudinal study was carried out. The study population consisted of 53 adult women with a clinical diagnosis of RTT. Postal questionnaires were sent, including demographic features, skills, physical and psychiatric morbidity. At the time of the second measurement seven women had died. In 2012, 80% of the questionnaires (37/46) were returned. Mean age of the women was 31.4 years. Molecular confirmation was possible for 83% of the women for whom analyses were carried out. The adult RTT woman has a more or less stable condition. The general disorder profile is that of a slow on-going deterioration of gross motor functioning in contrast to a better preserved cognitive functioning, less autonomic and epileptic features and good general health. This is the first longitudinal cohort study about aging in RTT. Continuing longitudinal studies are needed to gain more insight into the aging process in RTT. PMID:23167724

  20. PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

    2012-06-20

    Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

  1. Identifying longitudinal trends within EEG experiments.

    PubMed

    Hasenstab, Kyle; Sugar, Catherine A; Telesca, Donatello; McEvoy, Kevin; Jeste, Shafali; Şentürk, Damla

    2015-12-01

    Differential brain response to sensory stimuli is very small (a few microvolts) compared to the overall magnitude of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG), yielding a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in studies of event-related potentials (ERP). To cope with this phenomenon, stimuli are applied repeatedly and the ERP signals arising from the individual trials are averaged at the subject level. This results in loss of information about potentially important changes in the magnitude and form of ERP signals over the course of the experiment. In this article, we develop a meta-preprocessing step utilizing a moving average of ERP across sliding trial windows, to capture such longitudinal trends. We embed this procedure in a weighted linear mixed effects model to describe longitudinal trends in features such as ERP peak amplitude and latency across trials while adjusting for the inherent heteroskedasticity created at the meta-preprocessing step. The proposed unified framework, including the meta-processing and the weighted linear mixed effects modeling steps, is referred to as MAP-ERP (moving-averaged-processed ERP). We perform simulation studies to assess the performance of MAP-ERP in reconstructing existing longitudinal trends and apply MAP-ERP to data from young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their typically developing counterparts to examine differences in patterns of implicit learning, providing novel insights about the mechanisms underlying social and/or cognitive deficits in this disorder. PMID:26195327

  2. Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-02-01

    Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.

  3. Quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Tooth, Leigh; Ware, Robert; Bain, Chris; Purdie, David M; Dobson, Annette

    2005-02-01

    Observational longitudinal research is particularly useful for assessing etiology and prognosis and for providing evidence for clinical decision making. However, there are no structured reporting requirements for studies of this design to assist authors, editors, and readers. The authors developed and tested a checklist of criteria related to threats to the internal and external validity of observational longitudinal studies. The checklist criteria concerned recruitment, data collection, biases, and data analysis and descriptive issues relevant to study rationale, study population, and generalizability. Two raters independently assessed 49 randomly selected articles describing stroke research published from 1999 to 2003 in six journals: American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Stroke, Annals of Neurology, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. On average, 17 of the 33 checklist criteria were reported. Criteria describing the study design were better reported than those related to internal validity. No relation was found between study type (etiologic or prognostic) or word count and quality of reporting. A flow diagram for summarizing participant flow through a study was developed. Editors and authors should consider using a checklist and flow diagram when reporting on observational longitudinal research. PMID:15671260

  4. FERMI longitudinal diagnostics: results and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, Marco; Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Cinquegrana, P.; Froelich, L.; Giannessi, L.; Penco, G.; Predonzani, M.; Rossi, F.; Sigalotti, P.; Ferianis, M.

    2015-05-01

    The seeded FEL FERMI has completed the commissioning of both the FEL lines, and it is now providing the user community with a coherent and tunable UV radiation (from 100 nm to 4 nm) in a number of different configurations. These also include original FEL-pump - FEL-probe schemes with twin-seeded FEL pulses. Among the key systems for the operation of FERMI, there is the femtosecond optical timing system and dedicated longitudinal diagnostics, specifically developed for FERMI. In this paper, after a short review of the FERMI optical timing system and of its routinely achieved performances, we focus on the results obtained from the suite of longitudinal diagnostics (Bunch Arrival Monitor, Electro Optical sampling station and RF deflectors) all operating in single shot and with 10s fs resolution which demonstrate the FERMI achieved performances. The longitudinal diagnostics measurements are compared between these device and other device on shot-to-shot basis, looking for correlations between machine parameters. Finally future challenges in terms of improvement of existing diagnostics, planned installations and possible upgrades are discussed.

  5. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    SciTech Connect

    David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O'Neill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-11-12

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 3}He were measured at Q{sup 2} = 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in {sup 3>}He at {bar W} = 1.60 GeV. The {bar W} = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production.

  6. Longitudinal wakefield for an axisymmetric collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh A.; Krinsky, S.

    2012-05-25

    We consider the longitudinal point-charge wakefield, w(s), for an axisymmetric collimator having inner radius b, outer radius d, inner length g, and taper length L. The taper angle {alpha} is defined by tan {alpha} = (d-b)/L. Using the electromagnetic simulation code ECHO, we explore the dependence of the wakefield on a collimator's geometric parameters over a wide range of profiles: from small-angle tapers to step-function transitions. The point-charge wakefield is determined using an approximation introduced by Podobedov and Stupakov. We have found it useful to exhibit the wakefield as a function of the scaled variable s/d{alpha}. For small taper angles, our results illustrate the satisfaction of the longitudinal scaling found by Stupakov, Bane, and Zagorodnov; and for larger taper angles, the breaking of this longitudinal scaling is clearly depicted. The use of the scaled variable s/d{alpha} turns out to be especially well suited to describing the wakefield for a collimator with step-function profile ({alpha} = {pi}/2).

  7. Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

  8. Substance use and motivation: a longitudinal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Polcin, Douglas L.; Bond, Jason C.; Lapp, William M.; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    Background Motivation to change substance use behavior is an important component of the recovery process that has usually been studied at entry into treatment. Less studied, but equally important, is the measurement of motivation over time and the role motivation plays in subsequent substance use. Objectives The present study sought to examine longitudinal motivation toward sobriety among residents of sober living houses. Methods Sober living residents (n = 167) were followed at 6-month intervals over an 18-month period and assessed for motivation and substance use outcomes at each study interview. Motivation was measured using the costs and benefits subscales of the Alcohol and Drug Consequences Questionnaire (ADCQ) and substance use outcomes included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) alcohol scale, ASI drug scale, and peak density of substance use (number of days of most use in a month). Results Participants reported higher benefits than costs of sobriety or cutting down substance use at every study time point. Using lagged generalized estimating equation models, the ADCQ costs predicted increased severity for alcohol, drugs, and peak density, whereas the benefits subscale predicted decreased drug and peak density. Conclusion Longitudinal measurement of motivation can be a useful clinical tool to understand later substance use problems. Scientific significance Given the mixed findings from prior studies on the effects of baseline motivation, a shift toward examining longitudinal measures of motivation at proximal and temporal intervals is indicated. PMID:21090959

  9. Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

  10. Amyloid Deposition, Hypometabolism, and Longitudinal Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Susan M.; Mintun, Mark A.; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Aisen, Paul S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Jagust, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) population, we examined (1) cross-sectional relationships between amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and cognition, and (2) associations between amyloid and hypometabolism measurements and longitudinal cognitive measurements. Methods We examined associations between mean cortical florbetapir uptake, mean 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) within a set of predefined regions, and Alzhiemer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) performance in 426 ADNI participants (126 normal, 162 early mild cognitive impairment [EMCI], 85 late MCI [LMCI], 53 Alzheimer disease [AD] patients). For a subset of these (76 normal, 81 LMCI) we determined whether florbetapir and FDG-PET were associated with retrospective decline in longitudinal ADAS-cog measurements. Results Twenty-nine percent of normal subjects, 43% of EMCI patients, 62% of LMCI patients, and 77% of AD patients were categorized as florbetapir positive. Florbetapir was negatively associated with concurrent FDG and ADAS-cog in both MCI groups. In longitudinal analyses, florbetapir-positive subjects in both normal and LMCI groups had greater ongoing ADAS-cog decline than those who were florbetapir negative. However, in normal subjects, florbetapir positivity was associated with greater ADAS-cog decline than FDG, whereas in LMCI, FDG positivity was associated with greater decline than florbetapir. Interpretation Although both hypometabolism and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition are detectable in normal subjects and all diagnostic groups, Aβ showed greater associations with cognitive decline in normal participants. In view of the minimal cognitive deterioration overall in this group, this suggests that amyloid deposition has an early and subclinical impact on cognition that precedes metabolic changes. At moderate and later stages of disease (LMCI/AD), hypometabolism becomes more pronounced and more closely linked to ongoing cognitive decline. PMID:23109153

  11. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K.; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with alteration in eigenvector centrality, clustering coefficient (inter-regional) and participation co-efficient (inter-modular) alterations of frontal–striatal and fronto-limbic nodes suggesting re-organization of these pathways. Both along tract and structural topology network measurements correlated strongly with motor and visual clinical outcome scores. This study shows the value of combining along-tract analysis and structural network topology in depicting not only selective parietal occipital regional vulnerability but also reorganization of frontal–striatal and frontal–limbic pathways in preterm children with cerebral palsy. These finding also support the concept that widespread, but selective posterior–anterior neural network connectivity alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy likely contribute to the pathogenesis of neurosensory and cognitive impairment in this group. PMID:26509119

  12. RHIC OPERATION WITH LONGITUDINALLY POLARIZED PROTONS.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.BAI,M.BEEBE-WANG,J.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    Polarized proton beams have been accelerated, stored and collided at 100GeV per beam in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with longitudinal polarization. The essential equipment includes four Siberian snakes, eight spin rotators and fast relative polarimeters in each of the two RHIC rings as well as local polarimeters at the STAR and PHENIX detectors. This paper summarizes the performance of RHIC as a polarized proton collider in the FY03 run with emphasis on polarization issues. Preliminary data from the FY04 run is also shown.

  13. Modeling the correlation between binary longitudinal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Suraiya; Jemain, Aziz; Hasan, Husna

    2014-09-01

    Binary outcomes which are observed repeatedly over time may be dependent not only on the covariates but also on each other. The repeated outcomes represent correlated binary longitudinal data and the modeling of such data was initiated by Liang and Zeger (1986) through the use of generalized estimating equations (GEE). Specification of the association structure among the outcomes remains a challenge associated with the GEE approach. This paper compares the GEE approach that uses correlation to the alternating logistic regression (ALR) approach that uses odds ratio, to model the association among outcomes.

  14. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; ,

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

  15. Dreams. A developmental and longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahon, E J

    1992-01-01

    In young children's dreams the infantile wish appears almost undisguised. Freud used this prototypical expression and representation of the infantile wish in a child's dream to bolster his conviction that the infantile wish was at the genetic root of adults' dreams as well. As development proceeds, a child's dream grows in disguise and complexity. This study of one analysand's dreams at age 5, 13, and 20 addresses the complexity from a longitudinal point of view and attempts to track the infantile wish through all of its developmental vicissitudes and disguises. PMID:1289943

  16. Optical dissector for longitudinal beam profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinin, E. I.; Meshkov, O. I.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental study of beam profile dynamics at circular accelerator was carried out due to creation of the sources of synchrotron radiation and colliders, at which the beam consists of several tens or hundreds of bunches distributed over the separatrices. Dynamics of a longitudinal profile of separate bunches was studied by means of streak cameras, however, they are not applied for regular, permanent diagnostics unlike beam position monitors or CCD cameras Streak cameras are very good for study of single processes, not for routine accelerator performance. BINP SB RAS has developed the optical analyzer on the basis of LI-602 dissector which was used for studying the beam dynamics at VEPP-2, VEPP-3, VEPP-4, electron-positron colliders and other electron circular accelerators: Siberia-2, ESRF, etc The dissector provides permanent measurements of the longitudinal beam profile. Nevertheless, the ultimate temporal resolution of the device is about 20 picoseconds Now it is not enough for application at modern accelerators. In this paper we describe the first experimental results obtained with the dissector of the next generation. The measured technical resolution of this device is about 2 picoseconds, but we believe that this value can be improved.

  17. Pore-scale modeling of longitudinal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijeljic, Branko; Muggeridge, Ann H.; Blunt, Martin J.

    2004-11-01

    We study macroscopic (centimeter scale) dispersion using pore-scale network simulation. A Lagrangian-based transport model incorporating flow and diffusion is applied in a diamond lattice of throats with square cross section whose radius distribution is the same as computed for Berea sandstone. We use physically consistent rules using a combination of stream-tube routing and ideal mixing to transport particles across pore junctions. The influence of both heterogeneity and high Peclet numbers results in asymptotic behavior only being seen after movement through many throats. A comprehensive comparative study of longitudinal dispersion with experiments in consolidated and unconsolidated media indicates that the model can quantitatively predict the asymptotic macroscopic dispersion coefficient over a broad range of Peclet numbers, 0 < Pe < 105. In the low Peclet number region, molecular diffusion is more restricted for consolidated media as compared with unconsolidated media. The first effects of advection on dispersion are observed at Pe ˜ 0.1. In the advection-dominated regions the longitudinal dispersion coefficient follows a weak nonlinear dependence on Peclet number (DL ˜ Pe1.19) followed by a linear dependence DL ˜ Pe for Pe > 400.

  18. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G

    2007-12-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary examination of the test scores of 124 twins with a history of reading difficulties and 154 twins with no history of reading difficulties indicates that over the 5- to 6-year interval between assessments, cognitive and reading performance are highly stable. As a group, those subjects with a history of reading difficulties had substantial deficits relative to control subjects on all measures at initial assessment, and significant deficits remained at follow-up. The stability noted for all cognitive and achievement measures was highest for a composite measure of reading, whose average stability correlation across groups was 0.80. Results of preliminary behavior genetic analyses for this measure indicated that shared genetic influences accounted for 86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties, respectively. In addition, genetic correlations reached unity for both groups, suggesting that the same genetic influences are manifested at both time points. PMID:18060583

  19. The GPR-1 longitudinal radioisotope gamma tomograph

    SciTech Connect

    El'kind, E.Yu.; Chernobrovkin, V.P.; Kalantarov, K.D.; Kangun, A.L.; Sidorov, Yu.M.; Tyurin, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    Instruments for visualization of the distribution of radioindicators administered for diagnostic purposes, including scanners and gamma cameras, have become widely used in the diagnosis of diseases of organs and systems such as the liver, kidney, brain, lungs, thyroid gland, and skeletal system and also to detect primary and metastatic neoplasms. In these instruments the three-dimensional test object is shown as two-dimensional projections. This leads to loss or distortion of diagnostic information, for the surrounding structures, which accumulate the radioindicator, mask pathological foci and interfere with their correct identification. These disadvantages can be overcome completely or partially by the use of tomographic methods and systems of radioisotope visualization. Tomographic instruments (gamma tomographs) visualize the distribution of a radioindicator in several parallel layers of the object. Taken together, a sufficient number of these layer-by-layer images (gamma tomograms) gives a more complete and accurate picture of the true spatial distribution of the radioindicator in the test organ. Radioisotope gamma tomographs can be divided into two types: longitudinal and transverse. Instruments of the first type give tomograms in sections parallel to the patient's longitudinal axis. In instruments of the second type, the pictures obtained correspond to sections made perpendicular to this direction.

  20. Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

  1. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. Methods In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. Results The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Conclusion Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges. PMID:26658776

  2. Bootstrap inference longitudinal semiparametric regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pane, Rahmawati; Otok, Bambang Widjanarko; Zain, Ismaini; Budiantara, I. Nyoman

    2016-02-01

    Semiparametric regression contains two components, i.e. parametric and nonparametric component. Semiparametric regression model is represented by yt i=μ (x˜'ti,zt i)+εt i where μ (x˜'ti,zt i)=x˜'tiβ ˜+g (zt i) and yti is response variable. It is assumed to have a linear relationship with the predictor variables x˜'ti=(x1 i 1,x2 i 2,…,xT i r) . Random error εti, i = 1, …, n, t = 1, …, T is normally distributed with zero mean and variance σ2 and g(zti) is a nonparametric component. The results of this study showed that the PLS approach on longitudinal semiparametric regression models obtain estimators β˜^t=[X'H(λ)X]-1X'H(λ )y ˜ and g˜^λ(z )=M (λ )y ˜ . The result also show that bootstrap was valid on longitudinal semiparametric regression model with g^λ(b )(z ) as nonparametric component estimator.

  3. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Longitudinal Section, Half Ceiling Plan, Half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Longitudinal Section, Half Ceiling Plan, Half Floor Plan, Transverse Section - Covered Bridge, Thomas Mill Road (Spanning Wissahickon Creek), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Perception of longitudinal components in piano string vibrations.

    PubMed

    Bank, Balázs; Lehtonen, Heidi-Maria

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the audibility of longitudinal components in piano string vibrations with listening tests. The recorded fortissimo sounds of two grand and one upright pianos have been resynthesized with and without longitudinal components and used in ABX type listening tests. Results suggest that the longitudinal components are audible up to note C(5). However, a second test seeking the importance of the difference shows that the effect of longitudinal components for the range A(3)-C(5) is subtle. This means that modeling the phenomenon up to around note A(3) only is acceptable for sound synthesis applications. PMID:20815427

  5. Ethical considerations in longitudinal studies of human infants.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Sabrina L

    2015-02-01

    Ethical issues and their optimal solutions in longitudinal infant studies have not received adequate attention in the literature. To address this gap, this manuscript pulls from universal research ethics, ethical guidelines for infant and child research, and ethical guidelines for longitudinal research and combines them in the context of infant longitudinal research with typically-developing infants. Topics explored relate to participant consent to research studies, the participant-observer relationship, and closure of developmental studies in this targeted population. Additionally, this manuscript highlights the importance and need for new and more relevant considerations of ethical procedures that concern infants involved in longitudinal research. PMID:25626155

  6. Longitudinal Muscle Dysfunction in Achalasia Esophagus and Its Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Bhargava, Valmik

    2013-01-01

    Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. PMID:23667744

  7. Simulation of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.A.

    1991-02-07

    The purpose of this note is to document some work done as part of the effort directed at designing and simulating a bunch-by-bunch feedback system to control longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in the B-factory. In particular, I discuss the ring model used in the simulation program developed to study this feedback system. Basically the simulation is a simple tracking program in which the rf drive voltage, the wakefields due to all the bunches, the synchrotron radiation losses, and the kicks applied to the bunches by the bunch-by-bunch feedback are all modelled as voltages applied at a single, discrete point in the ring. The computation of the bunch-by-bunch feedback voltages may of course be done by any desired algorithms. An example and discussion of the general behavior without bunch-by-bunch feedback is given at the end of this report.

  8. Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.

    1997-05-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.

  9. Latitudinal and longitudinal barriers in global biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Procheş, Şerban

    2005-01-01

    Due to changes in climate and continental arrangement, plant and animal assemblages faced different dispersal barriers at different moments in Earth's history. It is generally accepted that groups which diversified during times of Gondwanan–Laurasian separation show different distribution patterns from those of more recent origin. Here I present principal component-derived maps for two globally distributed groups, with ca 1000 species each. Gymnosperm assemblages perfectly illustrate the existence of southern and northern components, corresponding to the Gondwanan and Laurasian temperate floras at the time when angiosperms started becoming dominant in the tropics, thus imposing a latitudinal barrier. Bat (chiropteran) assemblages indicate that the major biogeographical barrier in their Cenozoic dispersal was the longitudinal separation between the Old and New World. PMID:17148329

  10. A Longitudinal View of HTTP Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Tom; Allman, Mark; Paxson, Vern

    In this paper we analyze three and a half years of HTTP traffic observed at a small research institute to characterize the evolution of various facets of web operation. While our dataset is modest in terms of user population, it is unique in its temporal breadth. We leverage the longitudinal data to study various characteristics of the traffic, from client and server behavior to object and connection characteristics. In addition, we assess how the delivery of content is structured across our datasets, including the use of browser caches, the efficacy of network-based proxy caches, and the use of content delivery networks. While each of the aspects we study has been investigated to some extent in prior work, our contribution is a unique long-term characterization.

  11. Sonic well logging tool longitudinal wave attenuator

    SciTech Connect

    Wignall, A.H.; Hoyle, D.C.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes an attenuator for use with a well logging tool in attenuating a wave propagating longitudinally along the tool when the tool is disposed in a borehole of an oil well. It comprises: a plurality of layers of a first material. The first material including metal washers; a plurality of layers of a second material interleaved with the plurality of layers of the first material. The second material including rubber-like washers; and an inner member. The interleaved rubber-like washers and metal washers being wrapped around the inner member. The inner member including an outwardly directed flange on which one end of the interleaved rubber-like washers and metal washers rest.

  12. Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.

  13. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  14. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of developmental neurotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    1996-01-01

    Methodological issues in the design of prospective, longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity in humans are reviewed. A comprehensive assessment of potential confounding influences is important in these studies because inadequate assessment of confounders can threaten the validity of causal inferences drawn from the data. Potential confounders typically include demographic background variables, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, the quality of parental stimulation, the child's age at test, and the examiner. Exposure to other substances is assessed where significant exposure is expected in the target population. In most studies, control variables even weakly related to outcome are included in all multivariate statistical analyses, and a toxic effect is inferred only if the effect of exposure is significant after controlling for the potential confounders. Once a neurotoxic effect has been identified, suspected mediating variables may be added to the analysis to examine underlying processes or mechanisms through which the exposure may impact on developmental outcome. Individual differences in vulnerability may be examined in terms of either an additive compensatory model or a synergistic "risk and resilience" approach. Failure to detect real effects (Type II error) is of particular concern in these studies because public policy considerations make it likely that negative findings will be interpreted to mean that the exposure is safe. Important sources of Type II error include inadequate representation of highly exposed individuals, overcontrol for confounders, and inappropriate correction for multiple comparisons. Given the high cost and complexity of prospective, longitudinal investigations, cross-sectional pilot studies focusing on highly exposed individuals can be valuable for the initial identification of salient domains of impairment. PMID:9182034

  15. HARVEST, a longitudinal patient record summarizer

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jamie S; Tanenbaum, Jessica S; Lipsky Gorman, Sharon; Liu, Connie; Schmitz, Eric; Hashorva, Dritan; Ervits, Artem; Vawdrey, David; Sturm, Marc; Elhadad, Noémie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe HARVEST, a novel point-of-care patient summarization and visualization tool, and to conduct a formative evaluation study to assess its effectiveness and gather feedback for iterative improvements. Materials and methods HARVEST is a problem-based, interactive, temporal visualization of longitudinal patient records. Using scalable, distributed natural language processing and problem salience computation, the system extracts content from the patient notes and aggregates and presents information from multiple care settings. Clinical usability was assessed with physician participants using a timed, task-based chart review and questionnaire, with performance differences recorded between conditions (standard data review system and HARVEST). Results HARVEST displays patient information longitudinally using a timeline, a problem cloud as extracted from notes, and focused access to clinical documentation. Despite lack of familiarity with HARVEST, when using a task-based evaluation, performance and time-to-task completion was maintained in patient review scenarios using HARVEST alone or the standard clinical information system at our institution. Subjects reported very high satisfaction with HARVEST and interest in using the system in their daily practice. Discussion HARVEST is available for wide deployment at our institution. Evaluation provided informative feedback and directions for future improvements. Conclusions HARVEST was designed to address the unmet need for clinicians at the point of care, facilitating review of essential patient information. The deployment of HARVEST in our institution allows us to study patient record summarization as an informatics intervention in a real-world setting. It also provides an opportunity to learn how clinicians use the summarizer, enabling informed interface and content iteration and optimization to improve patient care. PMID:25352564

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  17. A Cautionary Note on Modeling Growth Trends in Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuljanin, Goran; Braun, Michael T.; DeShon, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Random coefficient and latent growth curve modeling are currently the dominant approaches to the analysis of longitudinal data in psychology. The application of these models to longitudinal data assumes that the data-generating mechanism behind the psychological process under investigation contains only a deterministic trend. However, if a…

  18. 14 CFR 25.231 - Longitudinal stability and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Longitudinal stability and control. 25.231... Characteristics § 25.231 Longitudinal stability and control. (a) Landplanes may have no uncontrollable tendency to... on concrete, to maintain any attitude up to thrust line level, at 75 percent of V SR 1. (b)...

  19. 14 CFR 25.231 - Longitudinal stability and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Longitudinal stability and control. 25.231... Characteristics § 25.231 Longitudinal stability and control. (a) Landplanes may have no uncontrollable tendency to... on concrete, to maintain any attitude up to thrust line level, at 75 percent of V SR 1. (b)...

  20. 14 CFR 25.231 - Longitudinal stability and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Longitudinal stability and control. 25.231... Characteristics § 25.231 Longitudinal stability and control. (a) Landplanes may have no uncontrollable tendency to... on concrete, to maintain any attitude up to thrust line level, at 75 percent of V SR 1. (b)...