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1

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Spina Bifida Information Page Condensed from Spina Bifida Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Spina Bifida? Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect ( ...

2

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Spina Bifida Homepage Facts Health Issues & Treatments Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida ...

3

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

Spina bifida is a neural tube defect - a type of birth defect of the brain, spine, or spinal ... cord. Screening tests during pregnancy can check for spina bifida. Sometimes it is discovered only after the baby ...

4

Living with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Spina Bifida Homepage Facts Health Issues & Treatments Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida ...

5

Spina Bifida (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... is born and treated right away. Types of Spina Bifida The causes of spina bifida are largely unknown. ... such as hand-eye coordination problems. Continue Diagnosing Spina Bifida Expectant parents may be able to find out ...

6

Spina bifida - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih. ...

7

Spina bifida (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Spina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close ... membranes protruding out of an affected infant's back. Spina bifida may also be nearly inconsequential, or may be ...

8

Spina Bifida Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Spina Bifida Homepage Facts Health Issues & Treatments Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida ...

9

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... pronounced SPAHY-nuh BIF-i-duh ) is a neural tube defect that frequently occurs in families. Spina ... meninges) alone, called a meningocele, or with some neural elements, called a meningomyelocele. Or the defect may ...

10

Spina Bifida Clinic Directory  

MedlinePLUS

... of_services/spina_bifida.html Back to top New Jersey Children's Specialized Hospital Spinal Cord Dysfunction Clinic (pediatric-will refer adults) 150 New Providence Road Mountianside, NJ 07092-2590 (908) 233- ...

11

Spina Bifida and Motherhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two women with spina bifida, a disability in which the spinal cord and nerves are damaged, gave birth to healthy babies. The article points out the need to provide young girls having this condition with information and counseling regarding sexual relationships, parenthood, and child rearing. (CL)

Drakes, Olive

1984-01-01

12

The Child with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents as well as professionals, the text provides information and practical suggestions on dealing with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Part I (chapters 1 and 2) concentrates on the medical and physical aspects of the condition with discussions covering such areas as spina bifida's development, locomotor problems, and the role of…

Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Spain, Bernie

13

Longitudinal Study of Observed and Perceived Family Influences on Problem-Focused Coping Behaviors of Preadolescents With Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study coping socialization longitudinally by examining reported and observed family environ- ment and parenting variables in relation to children's problem-focused coping in a sample of 68 families of preadolescents with spina bifida and 68 matched able-bodied comparison families. Methods: Family environment and parenting variables were assessed with mother and father reports and observational measures. Children's problem-focused coping was

Wendy L. McKernon; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Craig R. Colder; Jennifer S. Hommeyer; Wendy Shapera; Venette Westhoven

2001-01-01

14

Genetics Home Reference: Spina bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... condition compared with people in the general population. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management ... genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook. Where can I find additional information about spina bifida? ...

15

Integrating Pupils with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A followup survey of parents and teachers of 155 children born with spina bifida, who were mildly handicapped and attended ordinary schools in London, indicated that there were no major problems with the children's placements. (IM)

Halliwell, Miles; Spain, Bernie

1977-01-01

16

Spina Bifida: Some Psychological Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined were the intellectual ability, social adjustment, social competence, and personality characteristics of 33 children, 8-to 15-years-old with spina bifida (a malformation of the spinal cord). (CL)

Fulthorpe, Derek

1974-01-01

17

Spina Bifida Cystica  

PubMed Central

The disappointing results of treatment in 270 consecutive unselected cases of spina bifida admitted during a 27-month period are detailed. Massive effort has led to much avoidable suffering at an exorbitant cost in manpower and money. This study confirms the validity of those adverse prognostic criteria defined in an earlier study and which form a basis for selection. These are (1) thoracolumbar lesions, (2) severe paraplegia, (3) gross enlargement of head, (4) kyphosis, and (5) other severe congenital defects, or birth injuries. It is shown again that selection is possible on the first day of life on purely objective criteria; that it is essential for the benefit of all those affected—whether they are for treatment or no treatment; and that it is in the interest of their families and the community. ImagesFIG. 2.FIG. 3.FIG. 4.FIG. 5.FIG. 6.FIG. 7.

Lorber, John

1972-01-01

18

Spina bifida (degrees of severity) (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Spina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close ... membranes protruding out of an affected infant's back. Spina bifida may also be nearly inconsequential, or may be ...

19

Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

20

Social Implications of Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated in Southeast Scotland were the social and practical problems faced by the parents of 86 children (ages 18 months to 38 years) with spina bifida, 74 of whom were classified as myelomeningoceles (a more serious condition involving malformation of the spinal cord). Questionnaires and interviews were used to gather information in the…

Woodburn, Margaret

21

Mathematical Development in Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the…

English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

2009-01-01

22

Spina Bifida Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... our Team Request More Info Registration Form - NYC Marathon 4b4the4th Team Captains Donate to 4b4the4th Volunteer Be ... Upcoming Events Sign up for the ASICS LA Marathon Today! Team Spina Bifida to debut at LA ...

23

Spina Bifida Association of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

Exceptional Parent, 1974

1974-01-01

24

Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Spina Bifida?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications Are there disorders or conditions associated with spina bifida? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Health issues are different for each person with spina bifida. Open spina bifida (myelomeningocele)—in which the spinal ...

25

What Are the Treatments for Spina Bifida and Related Conditions?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spina bifida & related conditions? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Open Spina Bifida An infant with open spina bifida (myelomeningocele), in ...

26

Anencephaly, spina bifida and hydrocephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  After the discussion of a number of publications concerning congenital deformities mention is made of two groups of families\\u000a containing children with anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele and other deformities involving an abnormal development\\u000a of the central nervous system and the surrounding supporting tissue; one group has been collected in accordance with the period\\u000a of birth, the other with the birth-place;

A. Polman

1951-01-01

27

Spina bifida and anencephaly in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from routine sources showed that from 1971 to 1982 the birth prevalences of spina bifida and anencephaly in Scotland fell. When known terminations after routine alpha fetoprotein screening were added to total births the adjusted birth prevalence could be calculated. In 1974-82 this fell by 40% for spina bifida (3 X 0-1 X 8) and 36% for anencephaly

V Carstairs; S Cole

1984-01-01

28

Lymphedema in spina bifida: A case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphedema is a chronic edematous state that can arise from any cause of low output failure of the lymphatic circulation. We herein present a series of three adult patients with spina bifida in whom the clinical diagnosis of lymphedema was also established. The diagnosis of spina bifida, with its attendant lower extremity inactivity, might intuitively suggest the presence of functional,

Stanley G. Rockson; Amir Bahreman; Andrzej Szuba

2000-01-01

29

Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

Exceptional Parent, 2007

2007-01-01

30

Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

2010-01-01

31

Educational Placement of Children with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures of school placement for 38 children (ages 5 to 18 years) with spina bifida in 23 school districts in western New York State were studied 5 years after a mandated process was enacted. (Author)

Lauder, Calvin E.; And Others

1979-01-01

32

Spina Bifida / Children of Korean and Vietnam Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... gov/aca , or call 1-800-733-8387. Spina Bifida The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides monetary ... 888-820-1756 (option 5) for application information. Spina Bifida Healthcare Benefits Program Guide If you are currently ...

33

In utero repair of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed. PMID:24819146

Moldenhauer, Julie S

2014-08-01

34

Diagnosis of spina bifida on ultrasound: always termination?  

PubMed

Open spina bifida is a non-lethal fetal anomaly. Significant advances in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of open spina bifida have been made over the past 75 years. The most significant strategy for the prevention of open spina bifida has been with folic acid supplementation; however, further investigation into the complicated role that genetics and the environment play in metabolism are coming to light. Ultrasound is the gold standard diagnostic tool for spina bifida. Three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are also beginning to play a role in the characterisation of the open spina bifida spinal lesion. Lesion level has been closely correlated to short and long-term outcomes, and prenatal characterisation of lesion level on ultrasound is important for patient counselling. Long-term outcomes of people living with spina bifida are available and should be used for non-directive patient counselling about pregnancy choices for women with open spina bifida. PMID:24373566

Trudell, Amanda S; Odibo, Anthony O

2014-04-01

35

The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

2010-01-01

36

Neurosurgical Management of Spina Bifida: Research Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neurosurgical goal when treating children with spina bifida (predominantly myelomeningocele) is to maintain stable neurological functioning throughout the patient's life time. Unfortunately, few long-term outcome studies are available to help direct the neurosurgical care of a child born with myelomeningocele and often treatment relies more…

Bowman, Robin M.; McLone, David G.

2010-01-01

37

Mathematics Performance of Children with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics performance in 32 children with spina bifida was investigated at 3.8 through 8.8 years and two years later. About half showed mathematics difficulties. At the time of the second data collection, 28% of the subjects were identified with mathematics and other learning disabilities and with language impairments. Visual perception…

French, Kathryn

1995-01-01

38

Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

2010-01-01

39

Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to…

Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

40

Prevention of chronic kidney disease in spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The prevalence of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children and adults with spina bifida is considerable, rising,\\u000a and entirely preventable.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Removing the cause: prevention of spina bifida  The best prevention of CKD in spina bifida is prevention of spina bifida itself through strategies that include folate supplementation,\\u000a ideally before pregnancy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The cause of CKD  Dysfunctional bladder outlet causes febrile Urinary Tract

Guido FillerMireille; Mireille Gharib; Shelley Casier; Petra Lödige; Jochen H. H. Ehrich; Sumit Dave

41

The Cognitive Phenotype Of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this paper, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory modality, and material, including studies from our laboratory and other investigations. We discuss some implications of the SBM cognitive phenotype for assessment, rehabilitation, and research.

Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

2010-01-01

42

Anesthesiology of the Newborn with Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube malformations involving the spinal cord and vertebral arches are referred to as spina bifida and present as a\\u000a spectrum of malformations with protrusion of the spinal cord and\\/or meninges through a defect in the vertebral arch at the\\u000a most severe end. Neural tube defects do not appear to be associated with other congenital syndromes; however, cardiac and\\u000a renal

Nigar Baykan

43

Mathematical skills in 3- and 5-year-olds with spina bifida and their typically developing peers: a longitudinal approach.  

PubMed

Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual-spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21418718

Barnes, Marcia A; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M; Smith-Chant, Brenda

2011-05-01

44

Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

2010-01-01

45

Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

Webb, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

46

Psychological and Educational Studies with Spina Bifida Children. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To measure school achievements in spina bifida children, to relate these measures to certain variables, to obtain information on educational problems, and to study facets of cognition and its changes with age, 77 spina bifida children and 53 amputees (all aged 5 to 15) were tested. Sixty non-disabled children were at times used for controls. The…

Diller, Leonard; And Others

47

Symposium on Spina Bifida (Denver, Colorado, November, 1969).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of the symposium were to define the problems of the child with spina bifida and to present practical means of management, using a multi-disciplinary team approach. Eight papers defining the problem cover the epidemiology of spina bifida, pathophysiology, musculoskeletal defects, incontinence of bladder and bowel, problems of…

Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

48

Identification of novel CELSR1 mutations in spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida is one of the most common neural tube defects (NTDs) with a complex etiology. Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been associated with NTDs including spina bifida in both animal models and human cohorts. In this study, we sequenced all exons of CELSR1 in 192 spina bifida patients from a California population to determine the contribution of CELSR1 mutations in the studied population. Novel and rare variants identified in these patients were subsequently genotyped in 190 ethnically matched control individuals. Six missense mutations not found in controls were predicted to be deleterious by both SIFT and PolyPhen. Two TG dinucleotide repeat variants were individually detected in 2 spina bifida patients but not detected in controls. In vitro functional analysis showed that the two TG dinucleotide repeat variants not only changed subcellular localization of the CELSR1 protein, but also impaired the physical association between CELSR1 and VANGL2, and thus diminished the ability to recruit VANGL2 for cell-cell contact. In total, 3% of our spina bifida patients carry deleterious or predicted to be deleterious CELSR1 mutations. Our findings suggest that CELSR1 mutations contribute to the risk of spina bifida in a cohort of spina bifida patients from California. PMID:24632739

Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

2014-01-01

49

How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?  

MedlinePLUS

... examines blood in several ways to look for neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, and other ... 30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) NICHD News and Spotlights Teaming ...

50

Handicap and social status of adults with spina bifida cystica  

PubMed Central

The present physical handicaps and social status of 202 survivors of spina bifida cystica attending The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street before 1954 are described. Ninety-three of the patients, mostly with uncomplicated meningocele, had escaped serious disability and were living normal lives. But 109 had a serious disability, including three who are mentally retarded. Some of the difficulties of living with spina bifida are described, and a record of work, marriage, and reproduction in the whole group of survivors is shown. Of the 106 with serious locomotor problems and/or incontinence, 58 work regularly, 17 have long spells off work, and 31 have never worked at all; 24 have married, 16 have 26 children none of whom has spina bifida. Of the 96 without physical handicap, 93 work regularly, 47 are married, and 34 have 75 children one of whom has spina bifida cystica and one anencephaly.

Evans, Kathleen; Hickman, Veronica; Carter, C. O.

1974-01-01

51

Screening for spina bifida cystica. A cost-benefit analysis.  

PubMed Central

The costs and economic benefits are examined of introducing a programme for the mass-screening of pregnancies for the detection and abortion of fetuses with spina bifida cystica. A benefit-cost index is derived, and the possible effects on it of making different input assumptions are discussed. It is considered that, on economic grounds, screening may be worthwhile only in populations in which the incidence of spina bifida is high.

Hagard, S; Carter, F; Milne, R G

1976-01-01

52

Spina bifida and anencephaly: are miscarriages a possible cause?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marriage-to-conception interval in 151 pregnancies producing infants with anencephaly or spina bifida was not significantly different from that in 218 pregnancies resulting in normal infants. Significantly more miscarriages occurred before than after the birth of 285 infants with anencephaly or spina bifida, but in 133 controls no before-after difference was observed. These observations seem to favour the idea that

K M Laurence; C J Roberts

1977-01-01

53

Pathogenesis of diastematomyelia and spina bifida.  

PubMed

Three cases of spina bifida (SB) associated with diastematomyelia (DM) are described and possible differences in pathogenesis are discussed. The frequent simultaneous occurrence of both malformations and the possibility that the cord can be split above, at the level of or below the SB indicate a common pathogenesis for SB and DM. Splitting of the cord symmetrically, asymmetrically, bilateraly or even antero-posteriorly can be explained only by the existence of a destructive phenomenon which is responsible for the bifurcation of the neural tube or its anlage. The existence of such a phenomenon indicates that myelocele can develop due to re-opening of a previously closed neural tube. Meningocele may be a manifestation of early embryonic antero-posterior DM in which the anterior tubule develops into an almost normal spinal cord, whereas the posterior tubule provides the wall of the cystic sac of meningocele in which most or all the neural tissue undergoes fibrous replacement. PMID:765440

Rokos, J

1975-11-01

54

Ultrasound in the diagnosis of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Three patients who were at risk of having a baby with a neural-tube defect were investigated by ultrasonic examination and alpha-fetoprotein (A;F.P.) estimation. In all three cases amniotic-fluid A.F.P. levels were significantly raised and pregnancy was terminated. In the first case ultrasound failed to detect a small lumbo-sacral meningocele; In the second case ultrasound successfully diagnosed a dorso-lumbar meningo-myelocele but did not recognise internal hydrocephalus. In the third case ultrasound did not define any lesion, and pathological examination of the fetus revealed no abnormality. It is concluded that ultrasonic examination is an important diagnostic technique in the antneatal investigation of spina bifida. PMID:48732

Campbell, S; Pryse-Davies, J; Coltart, T M; Seller, M J; Singer, J D

1975-05-10

55

Executive functions in adolescents with spina bifida: Relations with autonomy development and parental intrusiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was part of a larger longitudinal investigation and examined the relation of parent-report and performance measures of executive functioning (EF) with measures of behavioral and emotional autonomy and parental intrusiveness in adolescents with and without spina bifida (SB; n = 65 in a comparison sample and 61 in an SB sample; M age = 14.55, SD =

Elizabeth R. Tuminello; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Rick Olson

2012-01-01

56

Executive functions in adolescents with spina bifida: Relations with autonomy development and parental intrusiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was part of a larger longitudinal investigation and examined the relation of parent-report and performance measures of executive functioning (EF) with measures of behavioral and emotional autonomy and parental intrusiveness in adolescents with and without spina bifida (SB; n = 65 in a comparison sample and 61 in an SB sample; M age = 14.55, SD =

Elizabeth R. Tuminello; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Rick Olson

2011-01-01

57

The Adolescent with Spina Bifida: Academic Achievement and Employment Prospects. Research Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of 52 adolescents with spina bifida reveals information about their intelligence and attainments at age 16, achievement examinations, the relationship between IQ and academic achievement, and employment at 18 years. Among findings are significantly lower performance among Ss with shunts and intracranial complications. (CL)

Tew, Brian

1986-01-01

58

Bracing of Children with Paraplegia Resulting from Spina Bifida and Cerebral Palsy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two workshops (1969) on bracings of children with (1) paraplegia from spina bifida and (2) cerebral palsy reflected the current state of treatment programs for these patients. As far as the spina bifida patient with paraplegia was concerned, the consensus...

1970-01-01

59

Perceived health in young adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to compare the perceived health of young adults with spina bifida with a population without disability, and to determine the effect of the disease characteristics and resulting impairments on perceived health. This cross-sectional study is part of the Adolescents with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands study. Data were collected by physical examination and a questionnaire. In total, 179 patients (age range 16-25y) participated in the study and perceived health data were completed for 164 participants (92 females, 72 males; mean age 20y 7mo [SD 2y 9mo]). Twenty-six participants had spina bifida occulta and 138 had spina bifida aperta, of whom 115 also had hydrocephalus. Perceived health was measured with the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36), a generic health status measure. SF-36 scores of young adults with spina bifida were below those of an age-matched population group for six of the eight domains. This difference was largest for the physical functioning domain. Although these differences were statistically significant they were small. Findings for the emotional health domains (vitality, mental health, role problems due to emotional problems) did not differ at all from the population group. PMID:17355475

Verhoef, M; Post, M W M; Barf, H A; van Asbeck, F W A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H

2007-03-01

60

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21...Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General...children of Vietnam veteransâspina bifida and covered birth...

2009-07-01

61

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21...Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General...children of Vietnam veteransâspina bifida and covered birth...

2010-07-01

62

Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB.

Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

2012-01-01

63

Prospective memory in adults with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Introduction Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders have been observed to show accelerated cognitive aging or even dementia as early as 30 and 40 years of age. Memory deficits are an important component of age-related cognitive loss. Methods In this study, we investigated prospective memory, which is often impaired in aging, in a group of 32 adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), including members of the oldest living cohort successfully treated with shunts to divert excess cerebrospinal fluid, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus, who are now around 50 years of age. Seventeen typically developing adults provided a comparison group. Results The SBM and comparison groups differed in the prospective memory total score as well as in both time-based and event-based subscores. Prospective memory was impaired in both older and younger individuals with SBM. However, the percentage of individuals with impaired or poor prospective memory was three times higher in the older SBM group than in the younger SBM group. The results are considered in relation to specific features of the complex brain reorganization in SBM.

Dennis, Maureen; Nelson, Rebekah; Jewell, Derryn; Fletcher, Jack M.

2011-01-01

64

Cerebellar Motor Function in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, involves dysmorphology of the cerebellum, and its most obvious manifestations are motor deficits. This paper reviews cerebellar neuropathology and motor function across several motor systems well studied in SBM in relation to current models of cerebellar motor and timing function. Children and adults with SBM have widespread motor deficits in trunk, upper limbs, eyes, and speech articulators that are broadly congruent with those observed in adults with cerebellar lesions. The structure and function of the cerebellum are correlated with a range of motor functions. While motor learning is generally preserved in SBM, those motor functions requiring predictive signals and precise calibration of the temporal features of movement are impaired, resulting in deficits in smooth movement coordination as well as in the classical cerebellar triad of dysmetria, ataxia, and dysarthria. That motor function in individuals with SBM is disordered in a manner phenotypically similar to that in adult cerebellar lesions, and appears to involve similar deficits in predictive cerebellar motor control, suggests that age-based cerebellar motor plasticity is limited in individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder.

Dennis, Maureen; Salman, Michael S.; Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M.

2010-01-01

65

Long-term outcome in open spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background: Doctors need reliable data on outcome in order to help parents faced with difficult decisions about termination of an affected pregnancy or treatment after birth. Aim: To determine survival, health and lifestyle at the mean age of 30 years in a complete cohort of adults born with open spina bifida. Design of study: Prospective cohort study. Participants: Well-documented

Pippa Oakeshott; Gillian M Hunt

66

Correlates of Self Esteem in Adolescents with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…

Eckart, M. L.

67

Spina bifida and anencephaly: miscarriage as possible cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two retrospective Liverpool surveys the domestic, family, dietary, and medical environments of the mothers of children affected by anencephaly or spina bifida, or both (ASB) were examined. None seemed to be of more than minor importance and the findings of others were therefore examined to see if they suggested a major factor. The most promising lead came from the

C Clarke; D Hobson; O M McKendrick; S C Rogers; P M Sheppard

1975-01-01

68

Adolescents with spina bifida. How they see their situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six adolescents with spina bifida were interviewed at home to find out how they felt about their situation. Some degree of misery was very common indeed but was more likely to be severe in girls than in boys. About half the girls had, on some occasion in the past year, felt that life was hopeless or not worth living. Since

S Dorner

1976-01-01

69

Latex Allergy and Sensitization in Children with Spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of latex sensitization and latex allergy among children with spina bifida and to evaluate risk factors for natural rubber latex hypersensitivity. Methods: A total of 34 children between 2.5 and 17 years of age participated in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with

Andrzej Obojski; Jacek Chodorski; Wojciech Barg; Andrzej M. Fal

2002-01-01

70

Physical Status and Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study, in which mothers of 62 children with spina bifida completed the Child Behavior Checklist, found that children with differing degrees of physical problems and disability (determined from medical charts) did not differ significantly in their psychosocial adjustment. (Author/DB)

Wallander, Jan L.; And Others

1989-01-01

71

Reaching for Independence: Counseling Implications for Youth with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida, a congenital physical disability, is indirectly associated with difficulties in scholastic achievement, social development, and self-determination. Environment can have an impact on psychosocial development and impede functioning academically, socially, and vocationally. Counselors must be aware of the societal atmosphere to identify…

Brislin, Dawn C.

2008-01-01

72

Increasing Community Independence for Adolescents with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether a community-based habilitation program focusing on normalization and individual goal setting was effective in enhancing levels of independence in teenagers with spina bifida. Subjects (N=14) participated in an eight-week summer program. Results suggested the program was effective with the greatest strength being support and…

Sherman, Roberta G.; And Others

1985-01-01

73

Physical Education for Students with Spina Bifida: Mothers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods…

An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.

2007-01-01

74

Team Management of Cognitive Dysfunction in Children with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a summary of the cognitive difficulties often encountered when a multidisciplinary team attempts to manage children with spina bifida. Suggestions for intervention and program planning are presented. A model for team management incorporating medical, allied health, and psychosocial professionals is presented. (Author/CL)

Knowlton, Douglas D.; And Others

1985-01-01

75

Children with Spina Bifida: Educational Implications of Their Medical Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with spina bifida present organic characteristics such as muscle weakness below the spinal lesion. These medical aspects are discussed with respect to their influence on teaching self-care and motor skills and reducing self-injurious behavior. Recommendations for educational programming are made. (Author/JDD)

Korabek, Cynthia A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

1986-01-01

76

Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

Remmel, Carl L.

1982-01-01

77

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother...for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother...is an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological mother or...

2009-07-01

78

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother...for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother...is an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological mother or...

2010-07-01

79

Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

80

Isolated and ventriculomegaly-associated cases of spina bifida in genetic counseling: focus on fetal pathology.  

PubMed

Cases of spina bifida alone and in association with ventriculomegaly represent important but different malformations according to clinical characteristics. In our study, we analyzed the data on pregancies terminated because of isolated cases (n=307) and ventriculomegaly-associated cases (n=372) of spina bifida. In spina bifida cases in association with hydrocephalus, positive obstetric history was found approximately 1.5 times more frequently than in the isolated ones. The incidence of positive genetic history was nearly two-fold in the latter cases. In isolated cases of spina bifida, associated malformations were more common than in cases of spina bifida and ventriculomegaly together. The most frequent associated malformations were those of the urogenital system (in cases of spina bifida: 11.1%; in cases of SB+V: 9.14%). The risk of recurrence of SB+V is significantly higher than that of isolated SB (8.9% vs. 2.1%). It can be concluded that positive genetic history is more common in cases of isolated spina bifida. Malformations out of the nervous system are more commonly observed in cases of isolated spina bifida. During the prenatal diagnostics of spina bifida, sonography must focus on malformations of the urogenital system. PMID:23706941

Joó, József Gábor; Csaba, Ákos; Szigeti, Zsanett; Rigó, János

2013-07-01

81

Mental rotation performance in children with hydrocephalus both with and without spina bifida.  

PubMed

The mental rotation ability in children with hydrocephalus and those with both hydrocephalus and spina bifida in comparison to healthy controls was investigated in this study. All groups performed a chronometric mental rotation test. Compared to children with hydrocephalus, children with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus showed an impaired mental rotation performance, demonstrated by slower reaction times. No significant performance difference was found between children with spina bifida and healthy controls. Error rates were comparable between groups indicating that the impaired mental rotation performance in children with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus is primarily due to motor impairment. PMID:24138214

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2013-01-01

82

Do Family Dynamics Mediate the Relationshp Between Early Pubertal Development and Depression for Girls With and Without Spina Bifida?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls who experience premature puberty have higher levels of depressive symptoms than their peers (Rierdan & Koff, 1991; Hayward et al., 1997). However, girls with spina bifida (SB) experience different psychosocial changes during puberty. This study proposed two longitudinal, mediated moderation models to investigate whether family variables (i.e., parent-child conflict and emotional distancing) contributed to differences in the connection between

Rachel Wasserman

2010-01-01

83

[Neuropsychic development in children born with spina bifida].  

PubMed

The authors present the outcome of 42 patients operated at birth for closure of the spinal malformation. The age of patients at first observation ranged from 3 months to 21 years (mean 8.3 years); 7 patients (16.7%) had a close spina bifida, 35 (83.3%) had an open spina bifida and 30 (85.7%) of them developed hydrocephalus. The protocol included neurological evaluation, determination of development quotient using the Griffith's scale and intelligence quotient using the Wise-R scale. Adolescents underwent also the Blacky pictures test and Offer's interview. Verticalization and tutorial deambulation were achieved in 95.2% of patients; 76% of patients had a I.Q. > 90. The emotional situation was unsatisfactory in the majority of patients due to reduced autonomy and limited self-consideration. PMID:9173408

Piazza, F; Astori, M G; Mollica, F; Locatelli, D; Pezzotta, S; Pluderi, C; Caroli, A; Santi, L; Ferrari Ginevra, O; Lanzi, G

1996-01-01

84

Mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as a risk factor for spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural-tube defects. We studied the frequency of the 677C?T mutation in the 5,10–methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in 55 patients with spina bifida and parents of such patients (70 mothers, 60 fathers), 5% of 207 controls were homozygous for the 677C?T mutation compared with 16% of mothers, 10% of fathers, and 13% of patients.

N. M. J. van der Put; F. J. M. Trijbels; L. P. van den Heuvel; H. J. Blom; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen; T. K. A. B. Eskes; E. C. M. Mariman; M. den Heyer; P. Frosst; R. Rozen

1995-01-01

85

Assessment of health status in children with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Prospective multidimensional study by means of: (1) clinical assessment, (2) parental-administered questionnaire for general health (CHQ-PF50), and (3) standardised disability measurements.Objectives:To assess the health-related quality of life (QoL) and disability in children with spina bifida (SB) and to correlate them with the clinical picture and our previous study on adolescents with SB.Setting:SB Centre at a University Hospital in Italy.Methods:A

C Rendeli; E Ausili; F Tabacco; P Caliandro; I Aprile; P Tonali; E Salvaggio; L Padua

2005-01-01

86

Shifting genetic patterns in anencephaly and spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term decline in the incidence of the neural tube malformations, anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB), ended in the mid-1950's in New York State. Since that time, the rate of these birth defects has remained between 1 and 1.5\\/1000 births. In this low incidence population, we tested the basic tenets which support a genetic aetiology. We found that the full

D T Janerich; J Piper

1978-01-01

87

The Treatment of Hydrocephalus in Spina Bifida — Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth rates several times those in developed countries, the lack of preventive measures, and the rarity of prenatal diagnosis\\u000a all contribute to the fact that spina bifida is a very common condition among children of developing countries. At the CURE\\u000a Children’s Hospital of Uganda (CCHU), a center for pediatric neurosurgery established in 2001, 75–100 new infants with myelomeningocele\\u000a (MMC) present

Benjamin Warf

88

Neurobehavioral outcomes in spina bifida: Processes versus outcomes  

PubMed Central

We review neurobehavioral outcomes and interventions for children with spina bifida. Focusing on children with spina bifida myelomeningocele, we contrast historical views of outcomes based on comparisons across content domains (e.g., language versus visual perceptual skills) with a view based on overarching processes that underlie strengths and weakness within content domains. Thus, we suggest that children with SBM have strengths when the skill involves the capacity to retrieve information from semantic memory and generate material that has been associatively linked or learned (associative processing) and general difficulties on tasks that require the construction or integration of a response (assembled processing). We use a hypothetical case to illustrate the differences in content domains versus general processes and also identify interventions that may be effective in addressing some of the cognitive and behavioral difficulties experienced variably by people with SBM. We extend these general principles to a discussion of variability in outcomes and use data from a large sample of children with spina bifida to illustrate the basis for this variability.

Fletcher, Jack M.; Ostermaier, Kathryn K.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen

2010-01-01

89

Spatial knowledge of children with spina bifida in a virtual large-scale space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children with spina bifida showed impaired route knowledge but

Gunnar Wiedenbauer; Petra Jansen-Osmann

2006-01-01

90

Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

2009-01-01

91

Spina Bifida: Guidelines of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with spina bifida. The booklet begins with general information about spina bifida. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures. The child's health care…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.

92

Impairment of a Motor Skill in Children with Spina Bifida Cystica and Hydrocephalus: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty 7-10 year old children with spina bifida cystica and hydrocephalus and 20 normals matched for age, sex and IQ were compared on a 12-trial target task, first used by Connolly, Brown & Bassett (1968). Findings are discussed in relation to neurological abnormalities in the spina bifida group. (Editor/RK)

Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Plewis, Ian

1977-01-01

93

Work Participation among Young Adults with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…

Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

2008-01-01

94

Changes in Medical Practice towards the Child with Spina Bifida: Implications for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The improved surgical management of children with spina bifida is among the reasons for a decreased number of severely physically and/or mentally affected children. Such improvements have resulted in more spina bifida children attending British ordinary schools and fewer attending special schools. (Author/DB)

Tew, Brian

1987-01-01

95

Fetal surgery for spina bifida: past, present, future.  

PubMed

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is a common birth defect that is associated with significant lifelong morbidity. Little progress has been made in the postnatal surgical management of the child with spina bifida. Postnatal surgery is aimed at covering the exposed spinal cord, preventing infection, and treating hydrocephalus with a ventricular shunt. Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that the primary cause of the neurologic defects associated with MMC is not simply incomplete neurulation, but rather chronic, mechanical and amniotic-fluid induced chemical trauma that progressively damages the exposed neural tissue during gestation. The cerebrospinal fluid leak through the MMC leads to hindbrain herniation and hydrocephalus. In utero repair of open spina bifida is now performed in selected patients and presents an additional therapeutic alternative for expectant mothers carrying a fetus with MMC. In the past, studies in animal models and clinical case series laid the groundwork for a clinical trial to test the safety and efficacy of fetal MMC repair. In the present, a prospective, randomized study (the MOMS trial) has shown that fetal surgery for MMC before 26 weeks' gestation may preserve neurologic function, reverse the hindbrain herniation of the Chiari II malformation, and obviate the need for postnatal placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. However, this study also demonstrates that fetal surgery is associated with significant risks related to the uterine scar and premature birth. In the future, research will expand our understanding of the pathophysiology of MMC, evaluate the long-term impact of in-utero intervention, and to refine timing and technique of fetal MMC surgery using tissue engineering technology. PMID:23395140

Adzick, N Scott

2013-02-01

96

Motor sequence learning in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Cognitive and motor problems are common in children with spina bifida (SB), particularly in those children with cerebral malformations (SBM). Little is known about how these conditions affect motor learning. This study examines motor sequence learning in children with SB, SBM, and healthy controls. Assessment consisted of neuropsychological tests, a simple drawing task, and a spatial motor sequence learning task. Implicit motor learning was unaffected in children with SB(M), and their sequence learning ability was also similar to that of controls. However, both groups (SB and SBM) showed impaired motor performance. The role of cerebellar malformation with SB(M) is discussed. PMID:23066938

Vinck, Anja; Maassen, Ben A M; Hulstijn, Wouter; Diender, Marije G; Mullaart, Reinier A; Rotteveel, Jan J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

2012-01-01

97

Pressure ulcer treatment in a patient with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Pressure ulcers can have a significant effect on patients' health and quality of life. They may also be associated with increased treatment-related costs, including product selection, length of interventions, prolonged hospitalisation, and resources and time required to care for patients. Pressure ulcers may be more common in patients with comorbidities. This article presents a case study of a man with spina bifida who was admitted to hospital with a pressure ulcer on his chest. It examines the clinical and social issues that affected the patient's wound healing, with the aim of identifying appropriate assessment and management of such patients. PMID:24779845

Porter, Michelle; Kelly, Jenny

2014-04-30

98

Neuropsychological profile of young adults with spina bifida with or without hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the relative impact of hydrocephalus and spinal dysraphism in young adults on intellectual and cognitive functioning. Sub-groups of patients with congenital hydrocephalus and/or spina bifida were assessed between 1995 and 2003. The entry criteria were that individuals should have (i) intact global function, (ii) average verbal intelligence (or above), and (iii) should not have clinical depression. There were three sub-groups: patients with hydrocephalus and spina bifida, patients with hydrocephalus without spina bifida, and patients with spina bifida without hydrocephalus. Methods: Patients were neuropsychologically assessed as part of their normal clinical assessment during their annual medical review. Each individual completed a screening battery assessing global functioning, verbal intelligence, and mood. In addition they completed additional tests including measures of emotional intelligence, memory, attention, and executive function. Results were analysed to compare the performance of the patient sub-groups and to compare them to a healthy control group. Results: Patients with hydrocephalus (with or without spina bifida) were significantly impaired on the vast majority of all test scores as compared to patients with spina bifida and healthy controls. They were particularly poor on measures assessing executive function. By contrast for patients with spina bifida with no associated hydrocephalus, the significant majority of all test scores fell within the average range or above. Conclusions: The neuropsychological profile of patients with hydrocephalus is one of relative impairment and this is so whether or not spina bifida is present. In spina bifida alone, in the absence of hydrocephalus, cognitive function is relatively spared.

Iddon, J; Morgan, D; Loveday, C; Sahakian, B; Pickard, J

2004-01-01

99

Spina bifida advocacy--a case study in public policy success.  

PubMed

Advocacy. Public policy. Politics. Congress and the Administration. Given recent events, these words often cause people to groan, roll their eyes, tune-out, or launch into a litany of complaints about the government. While each of these responses is understandable, the Spina Bifida Association (SBA) maintains a steadfast commitment to working with individuals, families, physicians, nurses, and other caregivers to channel their sense of frustration with government, public policy, and regulations into positive change for the Spina Bifida community. SBA engages in health policy advocacy to help fulfill its mission and achieve its goals and objectives as an organization to enhance the lives of those with Spina Bifida and those whose lives are touched by this challenging birth defect. To that end, SBA seeks local, state, federal support for policies and programs that reduce and prevent suffering from Spina Bifida. PMID:17891312

Brownstein, Cindy; Paul, Ilisa Halpern; Quinn, Anne House

2007-01-01

100

The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

Shaer, Catherine M.

1997-01-01

101

Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excerpt from "Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida" (Lynn Rosenfeld) provides guidelines for parents concerning health insurance, health maintenance organizations, and questions to ask concerning health insurance coverage and filing claims. (DB)

Rosenfeld, Lynn; And Others

1987-01-01

102

Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

Culatta, Barbara

1978-01-01

103

Early Information Processing among Infants with and without Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

This study focuses on the development of early visual information processing among infants with Spina Bifida (SB) compared to typically developing infants using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First infants were evaluated to determine if 18 month old infants (SB = 47; Control =40) differed in their ability to shift attention and habituate to two female faces, as well as their responses to composite and novel stimuli. Second, relations between these variables and infant motor and mental functioning were evaluated. The results of the study indicated that difficulties with visual attention skills can be detected as early as 18 months-of-age among infants with SB. Infants with SB differed significantly from controls on attention getting. Although there were no differences found on habituation and composite tasks, infants with SB differed significantly from controls on their ability to dishabituate. Implications are discussed.

Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia; Swank, Paul; Cohen, Leslie B.; Fletcher, Jack

2010-01-01

104

Shifting genetic patterns in anencephaly and spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

The long-term decline in the incidence of the neural tube malformations, anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB), ended in the mid-1950's in New York State. Since that time, the rate of these birth defects has remained between 1 and 1.5/1000 births. In this low incidence population, we tested the basic tenets which support a genetic aetiology. We found that the full sib recurrence rate (1.8%) was higher than the half sib recurrence rate (0.8%) and the twin concordance rate (6.8%) was higher than the full sib recurrence rate. We found the incidence of ASB in twins to be the same as the incidence of ASB in singletons. Our findings are compatible with polygenic inheritance aetiology for ASB. The genetic molecular pathway of these birth defects may be identifiable through biochemical screening of families with one or more ASB children.

Janerich, D T; Piper, J

1978-01-01

105

Foot deformities in adolescents and young adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida is generally accompanied by a high incidence of foot deformities. The goal of management is to achieve a plantigrade foot. Deformities are related to the level of the lesion. With thoracic lesions, the most frequent deformity is an equinus lesion (55%), a club foot with mid-lumbar lesion (87%) and a calcaneal foot with sacral lesions (34%). No deformity was present in 56% of feet in sacral lesion children. Club foot surgery before the age of 2 years entails a high rate of recurrence (78%), necessitating redo surgery. A calcaneo-valgus deformity developed in 45% of ambulating patients with sacral lesions requiring operative stabilization of the foot. Patients with sacral lesions were almost the only ones who remained ambulators. Ambulation was not seen to be related to foot deformities in adolescents and young adults. PMID:10904902

Frischhut, B; Stöckl, B; Landauer, F; Krismer, M; Menardi, G

2000-06-01

106

Survival and handicap of infants with spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

A follow-up study was carried out on 213 infants born with spina bifida cystica (including encephalocele and occipital meningocele) from 1965 to 1972 to women resident in Oxfordshire and the western part of Berkshire. The 5-year survival rate was 36% (39/107) for those with open lesions, 60% (30/50) for those with closed ones, and 18% (10/56) for those with lesions which could not be classified (not known) but which were probably nearly all open. The extent of handicap among these survivors was assessed by means of criteria described by Lorber; among those with open lesions (including 'not known') 84% (41/49) were severely handicapped, 10% (4/49) were moderately handicapped, and only 6% (3/49) had no handicap; among those with closed lesions, 37% (11/30) were severely handicapped, 33% (10/30) were moderately handicapped, and the remaining 30% (9/30) were not handicapped. Closed head lesions (encephalocele or occipital meningocele) were more often associated with severe handicap (6/8; 75%) than were closed spinal lesions (5/22; 23%). The children with open lesions who survived for at least 5 years spent, on average, at least 6 months in hospital during the first 5 years of their life and had, on average, at least 6 major surgical operations. In comparison, those with closed lesions spent one-third less time in hospital, and had fewer than half as many operations. During the period of the study a selective treatment policy was adopted typical of that commonly practised now, and all the infants were born before antenatal screening had been introduced. Our results therefore may be helpful in assessing the benefits to be expected from antenatal screening for open spina bifida.

Althouse, R; Wald, N

1980-01-01

107

Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Renal damage and renal failure are among the most severe complications of spina bifida. Over the past decades, a comprehensive treatment strategy has been applied that results in minimal renal scaring. In addition, the majority of patients can be dry for urine by the time they go to primary school. To obtain such results, it is mandatory to treat detrusor overactivity from birth onward, as upper urinary tract changes predominantly start in the first months of life. This means that new patients with spina bifida should be treated from birth by clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacological suppression of detrusor overactivity. Urinary tract infections, when present, need aggressive treatment, and in many patients, permanent prophylaxis is indicated. Later in life, therapy can be tailored to urodynamic findings. Children with paralyzed pelvic floor and hence urinary incontinence are routinely offered surgery around the age of 5 years to become dry. Rectus abdominis sling suspension of the bladder neck is the first-choice procedure, with good to excellent results in both male and female patients. In children with detrusor hyperactivity, detrusorectomy can be performed as an alternative for ileocystoplasty provided there is adequate bladder capacity. Wheelchair-bound patients can manage their bladder more easily with a continent catheterizable stoma on top of the bladder. This stoma provides them extra privacy and diminishes parental burden. Bowel management is done by retrograde or antegrade enema therapy. Concerning sexuality, special attention is needed to address expectations of adolescent patients. Sensibility of the glans penis can be restored by surgery in the majority of patients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00467-008-0780-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Chrzan, Rafal; Klijn, Aart J.

2008-01-01

108

Trajectories of Family Processes across the Adolescent Transition in Youth with Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated change in family processes, including conflict, cohesion, and stress, across the adolescent transition, comparing the developmental trajectories of youth with and without spina bifida. Individual growth curve modeling procedures were utilized to describe the developmental course of family processes across 4 waves of data collection, from ages 9 to 15, and to test whether illness status [spina bifida vs. matched comparison group (N = 68 for both groups at Time 1)] would significantly predict individual variability in family processes. Potential moderators (child gender, SES, and child verbal ability) of the association between illness status and family functioning were also examined. Differences were found between the trajectories of family processes for families of youth with and without spina bifida. For families of youth with spina bifida, changes in family conflict and cohesion may be less dramatic than or inconsistent with what is expected during typical adolescence. Families of youth with spina bifida from low SES homes appear to demonstrate resilience in terms of family stress.

Jandasek, Barbara; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah

2009-01-01

109

Maternal Genetic Effects, Exerted by Genes Involved in Homocysteine Remethylation, Influence the Risk of Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

There is currently considerable interest in the relationship between variation in genes that are involved in the folate-homocysteine metabolic axis and the risk of spina bifida. The evaluation of this relationship is, however, complicated by the potential involvement of both the maternal and the embryonic genotype in determination of disease risk. The present study was designed to address questions regarding both maternal and embryonic genetic risk factors for spina bifida by use of the two-step transmission/disequilibrium test. Analysis of data on variants of two genes involved in homocysteine remethylation/methionine biosynthesis—methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G—provided evidence that both variants influence the risk of spina bifida via the maternal rather than the embryonic genotype. For both variants, the risk of having a child with spina bifida appears to increase with the number of high-risk alleles in the maternal genotype: MTR (R1=2.16, 95% CI 0.92–5.06; R2=6.58, 95% CI 0.87–49.67) and MTRR (R1=2.05, 95% CI 1.05–3.99; R2=3.15, 95% CI 0.92–10.85). These findings highlight the importance of considering both the maternal and embryonic genotype when evaluating putative spina bifida susceptibility loci.

Doolin, Marie-Therese; Barbaux, Sandrine; McDonnell, Maeve; Hoess, Katy; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Mitchell, Laura E.

2002-01-01

110

Mutations in planar cell polarity gene SCRIB are associated with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) (OMIM #182940) including anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, are severe congenital malformations that affect 0.5-1 in 1,000 live births in the United States, with varying prevalence around the world. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes are believed to cause a variety of NTDs in both mice and humans. SCRIB is a PCP-associated gene. Mice that are homozygous for the Scrib p.I285K and circletail (Crc) mutations, present with the most severe form of NTDs, namely craniorachischisis. A recent study reported that mutations in SCRIB were associated with craniorachischisis in humans, but whether SCRIB mutations contribute to increased spina bifida risk is still unknown. We sequenced the SCRIB gene in 192 infants with spina bifida and 190 healthy controls. Among the spina bifida patients, we identified five novel missense mutations that were predicted-to-be-deleterious by the PolyPhen software. Of these five mutations, three of them (p.P1043L, p.P1332L, p.L1520R) significantly affected the subcellular localization of SCRIB. In addition, we demonstrated that the craniorachischisis mouse line-90 mutation I285K, also affected SCRIB subcellular localization. In contrast, only one novel missense mutation (p.A1257T) was detected in control samples, and it was predicted to be benign. This study demonstrated that rare deleterious mutations of SCRIB may contribute to the multifactorial risk for human spina bifida. PMID:23922697

Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Duhon, Cody; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

2013-01-01

111

Interhemispheric Effective and Functional Cortical Connectivity Signatures of Spina Bifida Are Consistent with Callosal Anomaly  

PubMed Central

Abstract The impact of the posterior callosal anomalies associated with spina bifida on interhemispheric cortical connectivity is studied using a method for estimating cortical multivariable autoregressive models from scalp magnetoencephalography data. Interhemispheric effective and functional connectivity, measured using conditional Granger causality and coherence, respectively, is determined for the anterior and posterior cortical regions in a population of five spina bifida and five control subjects during a resting eyes-closed state. The estimated connectivity is shown to be consistent over the randomly selected subsets of the data for each subject. The posterior interhemispheric effective and functional connectivity and cortical power are significantly lower in the spina bifida group, a result that is consistent with posterior callosal anomalies. The anterior interhemispheric effective and functional connectivity are elevated in the spina bifida group, a result that may reflect compensatory mechanisms. In contrast, the intrahemispheric effective connectivity is comparable in the two groups. The differences between the spina bifida and control groups are most significant in the ? and ? bands.

Malekpour, Sheida; Li, Zhimin; Cheung, Bing Leung Patrick; Castillo, Eduardo M.; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.; Kramer, Larry A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

2012-01-01

112

The reliability of prediction of outcome in spina bifida.  

PubMed

The clinical findings in 85 neonates with spina bifida were given to two neurosurgeons and two paediatricians, who were asked to predict from them the length of survival and quality of survival with regard to intellect, locomotion and continence, without their knowing the actual outcome. All four clinicians correctly predicted the survival of infants with meningocele, closed myelocele and encephalocele. The paediatricians correctly predicted the survival of all infants with open myelocele who actually survived, but also included some who had died. The surgeons correctly predicted the deaths of all those with open myelocele who actually died, but expected a considerable number to die who in fact survived. All four clinicians were similar in their predictions of intellect: they underestimated the outcome in patients with successfully shunted hydrocephalus, they overestimated the intellect in patients who had developed intracranial infection and shunt blockage, and they largely underestimated the outcome in the patients who did not require shunts. They made correct predictions for limb and sphincter function in nearly all the survivors. This investigation underlines the problem of selection for treatment caused by the inability to predict the complications of hydrocephalus and infection. Reasons for the differences between the expectations of the paediatricians and surgeons, and the implications of the results of this study for selection for surgery are discussed. It is suggested that limb paralysis and incontinence ought not to be considered as factors excluding infants from treatment. PMID:797609

Laurence, K M; Evans, R C; Weeks, R D; Thomas, M D; Frazer, A K; Tew, B J

1976-01-01

113

Motor Contingency Learning and Infants with Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.

Taylor, Heather B.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M.; Huang, Furong

2014-01-01

114

Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.  

PubMed

Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB. PMID:23298791

Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

2013-02-01

115

[Visual motor and visual defects in spina bifida].  

PubMed

Among the numerous problems that spina bifida (SB) patients are faced with, impairments to the visual apparatus are often considered late and are not covered extensively in the literature. At the Pediatric Department of the University of Padua, an assessment of the visual function of 59 SB patients between 5 months and 26 years of age (29 male and 30 female) has been carried out by means of an ophthalmologic protocol. As far as the alteration of the exstrinsic ocular mobility is concerned, 44% (26/59) of our patients revealed a manifest squint and only 3% (two patients) suffered from a latent squint. The most frequent type is a convergent squint (80%). The assessment of visual acuity made through Optotype was good in 82% of the cases (unlike what is commonly reported in the literature) and mild in 18%. None of the patients manifested hypovision. Refraction defects were present in 59% (34/59) of the patients. Regular ophthalmologic evaluations from birth or from diagnosis allow ophthalmologic treatments that are tailored to children suffering from SB and also enable them to reach and maintain a good visual standard and to observe the subtle symptoms of endocranial hypertension sooner. An early discovery and correct treatment of visual problems improves cognitive and motive performance as well as the autonomy of SB patients. PMID:15279369

Pinello, L; Bortolin, C; Drigo, P

2003-01-01

116

[Visual motor and visual defects in spina bifida].  

PubMed

Among the numerous problems that Spina Bifida (SB) patients are faced with, impairments to the visual apparatus are often considered late and are not covered extensively in the literature. At the Pediatric Department of the University of Padua, an assessment of the visual function of 59 SB patients between 5 months and 26 years of age (29 male and 30 female) has been carried out by means of an ophthalmologic protocol As far as the alteration of the exstrinsic ocular mobility is concerned, 44% (26/59) of our patients revealed a manifest squint and only 3% (two patients) suffered from a latent squint. The most frequent type is a convergent squint (80%). The assessment of visual acuity made through Optotype was good in 82% of the cases (unlike what is commonly reported in the literature) and mild in 18%. None of the patients manifested hypovision. Refraction defects were present in 59% (34/59) of the patients. Regular ophthalmologic evaluations from birth or from diagnosis allow ophthalmologic treatments that are tailored to children suffering from SB and also enable them to reach and maintain a good visual standard and to observe the subtle symptoms of endocranial hypertension sooner. An early discovery and correct treatment of visual problems improves cognitive and motive performance as well as the autonomy of SB patients. PMID:16363771

Pinello, L; Bortolin, C; Drigo, P

2004-01-01

117

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra associated with sacral spina bifida occulta: a case report.  

PubMed

Congenital malformations such as lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and spina bifida occulta constitute unrare anomalies and could affect the symptomatology of low back pain. A transitional vertebra is characterized by elongation of one or both transverse processes, leading to the appearance ofa sacralized fifth lumbar vertebra or a lumbarized first sacral vertebra. Furthermore, sacral spina bifida occulta is a developmental anomaly that corresponds to the incomplete closure of the vertebral column. In the present case report, we describe a case of a dried sacrum presenting a partially sacralized fifth lumbar vertebra and total spina bifida, extended from first to fifth sacral vertebra. A pseudoarthrosis is formed on the left side and the specimen could be incorporated in Castellvi's type IIa. Moreover, the incidence, morphology, clinical and surgical significance of these spinal malformations are discussed. PMID:24592751

George, Paraskevas; Maria, Tzika; Panagiotis, Kitsoulis

2013-01-01

118

Adolescents born with spina bifida: experiential worlds and biopsychosocial developmental challenges.  

PubMed

The author used phenomenological (interpretive) ethnography to investigate the experience of physical disability and its attached meanings in relation to self, world, and other for adolescents born with spina bifida. Multiple in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 late-stage adolescents (aged 18-24 years). Analysis of their narrative accounts illustrated commonalities with respect to the biopsychosocial impact of living with the physical disability of spina bifida. The theme, "Experiencing self as dissimilar other" is reported upon. Findings imply that youth born with spina bifida face biological, psychological, and social challenges that might interfere with normative developmental tasks of adolescence, including identity formation. Greater emphasis needs to be directed toward humanizing and emancipating the physical and social environment for youth with physical disabilities to maximize developmental opportunities and potential while fostering positive identity. PMID:18041630

Kinavey, Christine

2007-01-01

119

The influence of juggling on mental rotation performance in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all participants completed the mental rotation test again. Children of the EG showed a significant decrease in reaction time and an increase in mental rotation speed compared to the control group. This indicates that juggling improves the rotation in the mental rotation process in children with spina bifida. PMID:22929606

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2012-11-01

120

Spina bifida and anencephaly: miscarriage as possible cause.  

PubMed Central

In two retrospective Liverpool surveys the domestic, family, dietary, and medical environments of the mothers of children affected by anencephaly or spina bifida, or both (ASB) were examined. None seemed to be of more than minor importance and the findings of others were therefore examined to see if they suggested a major factor. The most promising lead came from the hypothesis that ASB is usually due to an interaction between twin fetuses or between a fetus and residual trophoblastic material from the previous normal pregnancy, particularly when this is of the opposite sex to the propositus. The sex finding was not confirmed. It was noted that hydatidiform moles, like children with ASB, were usually female and that moles and choriocarcinomas on the one hand and children with ASB on the other occurred in mothers of similar ages, but were to some extent reciprocal in geographical incidence. This suggested that trophoblastic disease might be a factor common to all three and if so then one would expect the frequency of miscarriages to be higher immediately before than immediately after the birth of an ASB child, since mole and choriocarcinoma seldom follow a normal pregnancy. An analysis of published data confirmed that this was almost certainly so. Hence residual pathological trophoblastic material from either a previous miscarriage or a co-twin may interact unfavourably with another fetus to produce ASB and this may be the primary cause of the condition. The hypothesis is consistent with the observed lack of concordance in twins, the high incidence in females, the maternal age effect, and the greater prevalence in social classes IV and V.

Clarke, C; Hobson, D; McKendrick, O M; Rogers, S C; Sheppard, P M

1975-01-01

121

Natural History of Spina Bifida Cystica and Cranium Bifidum Cysticum  

PubMed Central

The 425 cases of spina bifida cystica and cranium bifidum cysticum born in a population of 850,000 between 1956 and 1962 (with an incidence of 4·12 per 1000 births) were followed. Most did not receive the modern treatment for the condition. Follow-up in 1968 showed that 25% were stillborn, 13% died during the first week of perinatal causes, a further 47% died mostly of the complications of the condition, and 15% are still alive. Life table survival figures suggest for the liveborns a 12·8% life expectancy to the 11th birthday. The series included 18 cases of meningocele (4·2% of the total), diagnosed largely by exclusion; all are surviving and are largely free from physical and mental handicap. 26 cases of encephalocele include 8 survivors who are all retarded but not much crippled. Of the 381 myeloceles, 37 survive who though not much affected mentally are severely handicapped physically with limb paralysis and incontinence, the pattern of which was largely determined by the level of the lesion. There is a close relation between degree of hydrocephalus and severity of mental retardation. Boys surviving show better performance than girls. The incontinent, whether treated or untreated, show no more emotional disturbance than the continent. This series provides a `baseline' allowing modern and surgical treatment to be evaluated. 60% of the total (or 85% of those liveborn) should be regarded as potentially salvageable. Nearly all cases should probably have the `open' lesion closed as a surgical emergency, but thereafter no further procedure should be undertaken on those with severe hydrocephalus, established renal damage, persistent intracranial infection, or severe kyphosis, or if other severe malformations are present.

Laurence, K. M.; Tew, B. J.

1971-01-01

122

Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and intellectual outcomes in spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Object Patients with spina bifida (SB) have variable intellectual outcomes. The authors used diffusion tensor (DT) imaging to quantify whole-brain volumes of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and perform regional quantitative microstructural assessments of gray matter nuclei and white matter tracts in relation to intellectual outcomes in patients with SB. Methods Twenty-nine children with myelomeningoceles and 20 age- and sex-matched children with normal neural tube development underwent MR imaging with DT image acquisition and assessments of intelligence. The DT imaging-derived metrics were the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (parallel), and transverse (perpendicular) diffusivities. These metrics were also used to segment the brain into white matter, gray matter, and CSF. A region-of-interest analysis was conducted of the white and gray matter structures implicated in hydrocephalus. Results The amount of whole-brain gray matter was decreased in patients with SB, with a corresponding increase in CSF (p < 0.0001). Regional transverse diffusivity in the caudate nucleus was decreased (p < 0.0001), and the corresponding FA was increased (p < 0.0001), suggesting reduced dendritic branching and connectivity. Fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule increased in the myelomeningocele group (p = 0.02), suggesting elimination of some divergent fascicles; in contrast, the FA in several white matter structures (such as the corpus callosum genu [p < 0.001] and arcuate fasciculus) was reduced, suggesting disruption of myelination. Diffusion tensor imaging-metrics involving gray matter volume and the caudate nucleus, but not other structures, predicted variations in IQ (r = 0.37-0.50; p < 0.05). Conclusions Diffusion tensor imaging-derived metrics provide noninvasive neuronal surrogate markers of the pathogenesis of SB and predict variations in general intellectual outcomes in children with this condition.

Hasan, Khader M.; Sankar, Ambika; Halphen, Christopher; Kramer, Larry A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2011-01-01

123

Decreased activation and increased lateralization in brain functioning for selective attention and response inhibition in adolescents with spina bifida.  

PubMed

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate functional activity in the brain of adolescents with spina bifida when performing selective attention and response inhibition tasks. We then compared the results to that of age-matched controls. Our results showed that adolescents with spina bifida had decreased frontal and superior parietal activation and more apparently low involvement of left brain hemisphere during these tasks. Our results indicated activation deficits and possibly abnormal functional organization in adolescents with spina bifida and associated pathologies such as hydrocephalus. PMID:22145814

Ou, Xiawei; Snow, Jeffrey H; Byerley, Amy K; Hall, John J; Glasier, Charles M

2013-01-01

124

Assistive Technology Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine the use of assistive technology among a population of individuals with spina bifida. Methods. We performed a descriptive analysis of individuals aged 13 to 27 years diagnosed with myelomeningocele (n = 348) using data obtained from an existing database at Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. We summarized disease characteristics, utilization of assistive

Kurt L. Johnson; Brian Dudgeon; Carrie Kuehn; William Walker

2007-01-01

125

Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)…

Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

2010-01-01

126

The Impact of Spina Bifida on Development Across the First 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early cognitive, motor, and language skills were evaluated in 165 children, 91 with Spina Bifida (SB) and 74 developing typically. Assessments were given at 5 time points (6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age). Three latent growth curve models were conducted to evaluate the development of these early skills, with social economic status and etiology as predictors of

Laura E. Lomax-Bream; Marcia Barnes; Kim Copeland; Heather B. Taylor; Susan H. Landry

2007-01-01

127

Lifestyle in adults aged 35 years who were born with open spina bifida: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: From 1963 to 1971, 117 babies with open spina bifida were treated non-selectively from birth. In 2002 we reviewed all the survivors by postal questionnaire and telephone call. The aims were to find out how many were living independently in the community or were in open employment or drove a car. In addition to these achievements we

Gillian M Hunt; Pippa Oakeshott

2004-01-01

128

The Use of Self-Modeling to Improve the Swimming Performance of Spina Bifida Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of edited videotape replay (which showed only "positive" behaviors) to improve the water skills of three spina bifida children (ages 5 to 10) was examined. A multiple baseline across Ss design was used, and behavioral changes were observed to occur in close association with intervention. One child was given successive reapplications of…

Dowrick, Peter W.; Dove, Cynthia

1980-01-01

129

Role of early parenting and motor skills on development in children with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6–36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development and faster growth in cognitive and language skills for

Laura E. Lomax-Bream; Heather B. Taylor; Susan H. Landry; Marcia A. Barnes; Jack M. Fletcher; Paul Swank

2007-01-01

130

Birth Ranks Of Spontaneous Abortions In Sibships Of Children Affected By Anencephaly Or Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the birth rank of miscarriages within sibships in which a case of anencephaly or spina bifida (ASB) had occurred were analysed by the Haldane-Smith statistical test. This showed that miscarriages in ASB sibships tend to have a negative birth order effect--that is, they occur in earlier rather than later pregnancies within the sibship. The strongest source of bias

William H. James

1978-01-01

131

Amniotic fluid macrophages and the antenatal diagnosis of anencephaly and spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrophage content of amniotic fluid has been measured and the upper limit of normal on an arbitrary scale is 41. Amongst 65 amniotic fluids collected for antenatal diagnostic studies before 22weeks' gestation there were eight which had macrophage counts ranging from 82 to 6226,three of these were shown to have anencephaly and two spina bifida. The reasons for three

G R Sutherland; D J Brock; J B Scrimgeour

1975-01-01

132

Apparently monogenic inheritance of anencephaly and spina bifida in a kindred  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anencephaly and\\/or spina bifida has been observed in 5 of 8 children from 2 related families. The fathers of both families were brothers and had married 2 sisters. By further investigation they could be shown to be third degree cousins to their marriage partners. No malformations were known among further relatives. The family pattern suggests autosomal recessive inheritance of anencephalus

W. Fuhrmann; W. Seeger; Renate Böhm

1971-01-01

133

A family showing apparent X linked inheritance of both anencephaly and spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is reported which includes five males, two with spina bifida, two sibs with anencephaly, and one with both high and low spinal lesions. The affected subjects came from four sibships in three generations. The mode of inheritance of these neural tube defects is consistent with X linkage.

O Jensson; A Arnason; H Gunnarsdottir; I Petursdottir; R Fossdal; S Hreidarsson

1988-01-01

134

Decline in the Prevalence of Spina Bifida and Anencephaly by Race\\/Ethnicity: 1995–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. In an effort to reduce the oc- currence of neural tube defects (NTDs), folic acid forti- fication of US enriched grain products was authorized by the Food and Drug Administration in March 1996 and required by January 1998. Fortification has been shown to result in an important decline in the prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the

Laura J. Williams; Mph Sonja A. Rasmussen; Alina Flores; Mph Russell S. Kirby; Larry D. Edmonds

135

Does lumbosacral spina bifida arise by failure of neural folding or by defective canalisation?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine whether open lumbosacral spina bifida results from an abnormality of neural folding (primary neurulation) or medullary cord canalisation (secondary neurulation). Homozygous curly tail (ct) mouse embryos were studied as a model system for human neural tube defects. The rostral end of the spina bifida was found to lie at the level of somites 27 to 32 in over 90% of affected ct/ct embryos. Indian ink marking experiments using non-mutant embryos showed that the posterior neuropore closes, and primary neurulation is completed, at the level of somites 32 to 34. Since neurulation in mammals progresses in a craniocaudal sequence, without overlap between regions of primary and secondary neurulation, we conclude that spina bifida in ct/ct embryos arises initially as a defect of primary neurulation. The position of posterior neuropore closure in human embryos is estimated to lie at the level of the future second sacral segment indicating that in humans, as in the ct mouse, lumbosacral spina bifida usually arises as a defect of posterior neuropore closure. Cranial NTD affect females predominantly, whereas lower spinal NTD are more common in males, both in humans and ct mice. We offer an explanation for this phenomenon based on (a) differences in the effect of embryonic growth retardation on the likelihood that an embryo will develop either cranial or lower spinal NTD and (b) differences in the rate of growth and development of male and female embryos at the time of neurulation. Images

Copp, A J; Brook, F A

1989-01-01

136

Health Risk Behaviors in Spina Bifida: The Need for Clinical and Policy Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health risk behaviors (HRBs) in adults with spina bifida such as poor diet, reduced physical activity, increased television viewing time, and substance abuse often have their genesis in early childhood. They are potentially preventable but if not addressed aggressively may continue to progress across the lifespan. Findings from a population-based…

Sawin, Kathleen J.; Brei, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

137

Percutaneous Fetoscopic Patch Coverage of Spina Bifida Aperta in the Human – Early Clinical Experience and Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current operative approach for fetal repair of spina bifida aperta requires maternal laparotomy and hysterotomy. Following technical feasibility studies in sheep, we performed percutaneous fetoscopic patch coverage of this lesion in 3 human fetuses between 23 + 4 and 25 + 3 weeks of gestation. Methods and Results: Whereas the patch detached in the first case 3 weeks

Thomas Kohl; Rudolph Hering; Axel Heep; Carlo Schaller; Bernhard Meyer; Claudia Greive; Gabriele Bizjak; Tim Buller; Patricia Van de Vondel; Wiebke Gogarten; Peter Bartmann; Gisela Knöpfle; Ulrich Gembruch

2006-01-01

138

Handwriting Skills in Children with Spina Bifida: Assessment, Monitoring and Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of three students with spina bifida (ages 8-11) illustrate an individualized six-week handwriting intervention program which stressed assessment, monitoring, and measurement of changes in writing performance. Appropriate changes in physical support (sitting position, writing surface, and choice of writing tool) are recommended. (JW)

Hancock, Julie; Alston, Jean

1986-01-01

139

Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

2010-01-01

140

The Arnold-Chiari Malformation and Its Implications for Individuals with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arnold-Chiari malformation is present in most infants born with myelomeningocele (a form of spina bifida) and hydrocephalus. The syndrome is responsible for structural abnormalities in the brain, and peripheral nervous system. Etiology, symptoms, impact on central nervous system structures, surgical treatment, and implications for education…

Mittler, Joel E.

1986-01-01

141

Arithmetic Processing in Children with Spina Bifida: Calculation Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Fact Retrieval Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies compared 98 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM)--a disorder associated with high rates of math disability and spatial deficits--to 94 typically developing children on multidigit subtraction and cognitive addition tasks. Children with SBM were classified into those with reading decoding and math disability, only math…

Barnes, Marcia A.; Wilkinson, Margaret; Khemani, Ekta; Boudesquie, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2006-01-01

142

Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

2009-01-01

143

Spatial Knowledge of Children with Spina Bifida in a Virtual Large-Scale Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…

Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

2006-01-01

144

Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

2010-01-01

145

Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

2012-01-01

146

Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

2007-01-01

147

The Management and Education of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report describes the population of children in Australia with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus, notes their needs and characteristics, reviews their school placement and social circumstances, and considers future educational services for them. Initial chapters review the literature on medical, psychoeducational, and social-family aspects of…

Andrews, Robert J.; Elkins, John

148

The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all…

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2012-01-01

149

Risk and Protective Influences in the Lives of Siblings of Youths with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of childhood chronic health conditions like spina bifida (SB) is a shared family experience. However, the lived experience of siblings is not well known. One hundred and fifty-five brothers and sisters of a child with SB responded to an open-ended question included in an anonymous self-administered mail questionnaire designed to enhance…

Bellin, Melissa H.; Kovacs, Pamela J.; Sawin, Kathleen J.

2008-01-01

150

The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

2011-01-01

151

The Language of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus: Meeting Task Demands and Mastering Syntax.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic performance of 7 children (mean age=68 months) with spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and average intelligence was evaluated. Subjects dealt with the semantic-pragmatic requirements of linguistically posed problems in an age-appropriate manner. Performance declined as task demands increased but no more than performance of nondisabled…

Byrne, Karen; And Others

1990-01-01

152

Gender and morphogenetic variability of patients with spina bifida occulta and spina bifida aperta: prospective population-genetic study  

PubMed Central

Background: Aim of our study was to evaluate degree of genetic homozygosity in male and female gender of spina bifida (SB) occulta and SB aperta patients. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 95 patients with SB occulta and 51 with SB aperta. Degree of genetic homozygosity was evaluated by direct observation of 15 homozygously recessive characteristics (HRC) by HRC-test separately for SB occulta and SB aperta participants. Additionally 370 individuals without SB from Serbia were randomly selected and evaluated as control group. Male and female gender was separately evaluated for assessing degree of genetic homozygosity. Results: There was no significant difference in mean values of HRC between male and female gender in control group (male gender –3.9±1.2, female gender -4.0±1.4, z=0.39; p>0.05), SB occulta (male gender –4.1±1.5, female gender -4.7±1.4, z=1.87, p>0.05) and SB aperta patients (male gender –4.3±1.6, female gender -4.5±1.4, z=0.66, p>0.05), while there was significantly increased recessive homozygosity in female SB occulta group versus control female group (Females: SB occulta –4.7±1.4, Control group –4.0±1.4, z=3.16, p<0.01) and female SB aperta group versus control female group (Females: SB aperta –4.5±1.4, Control group –4.0±1.4, z=2.05, p<0.05). Conclusion: There is increased recessive homozygosity in tested female SB occulta and female SB aperta individuals versus SB male participants and significantly increased recessive homozygosity in female groups of SB patients versus control female group. These findings could lead to the possible assumption that different genes in different degree might be expressed in SB occulta and SB aperta patients.

Nikolic, D; Petronic, I; Cvjeticanin, S; Brdar, R; Cirovic, D; Bizic, M; Konstantinovic, L; Matanovic, D

2012-01-01

153

Survival and mobility in open spina bifida: Comparison of results from the United States and the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis for survival in spina bifida is an important issue for life-care planners and care-givers. This study documents and compares long-term survival in open spina bifida in California, United States of America, and Cambridge, United Kingdom and investigates the relation between mobility in childhood and long-term survival. Survival after the age 6 years was similar in the two series,

Pippa Oakeshott; Gillian M Hunt; Sally Kerry; David J. Strauss; Robert M. Shavelle; Robert J. Reynolds

154

Disruption of PDGFR?-initiated PI3K activation and migration of somite derivatives leads to spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida, or failure of the vertebrae to close at the midline, is a common congenital malformation in humans that is often synonymous with neural tube defects (NTDs). However, it is likely that other etiologies exist. Genetic disruption of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) ? results in spina bifida, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified. To elucidate the cause of this birth defect in PDGFR? mutant embryos, we examined the developmental processes involved in vertebrae formation. Exposure of chick embryos to the PDGFR inhibitor imatinib mesylate resulted in spina bifida in the absence of NTDs. We next examined embryos with a tissue-specific deletion of the receptor. We found that loss of the receptor from chondrocytes did not recapitulate the spina bifida phenotype. By contrast, loss of the receptor from all sclerotome and dermatome derivatives or disruption of PDGFR?-driven phosphatidylinositol 3? kinase (PI3K) activity resulted in spina bifida. Furthermore, we identified a migration defect in the sclerotome as the cause of the abnormal vertebral development. We found that primary cells from these mice exhibited defects in PAK1 activation and paxillin localization. Taken together, these results indicate that PDGFR? downstream effectors, especially PI3K, are essential for cell migration of a somite-derived dorsal mesenchyme and disruption of receptor signaling in these cells leads to spina bifida.

Pickett, Elizabeth A.; Olsen, Gregory S.; Tallquist, Michelle D.

2010-01-01

155

Pituitary gland and axial skeletal malformations in human fetuses with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to describe the pituitary gland and axial skeleton, including the sella turcica, in human fetuses with spina bifida. Ten fetuses with gestational ages (GA) 15 1/2-28 weeks were investigated radiographically (Faxitron X-ray apparatus) and immunohistochemically. Four of the fetuses have been described previously. The study showed that nine fetuses had minor or no skeletal abnormalities in the vertebral bodies of the spine, and one fetus had severely malformed vertebral bodies. In all cases the sella turcica and the pituitary gland were malformed. Adenopituitary tissue was in all cases located in both the sella turcica and the pharyngeal submucosa. The most severe sella turcica/pituitary gland malformation was seen in the fetus with the malformed spine. The connection between the prenatally registered sella turcica/pituitary gland malformation and the endocrinological status of children with spina bifida should be emphasized in future studies. PMID:10661842

Kjaer, I; Fischer Hansen, B; Reintoft, I; Keeling, J W

1999-12-01

156

Degree of physical handicap, education, and occupation of 51 adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

51 adults with spina bifida, aged between 18 and 56 years, resident in South Wales, were interviewed in their home. Although only four had obvious hydrocephalus, one-third of them were severely handicapped and a further 40% had moderate handicap. Over half of them had had their secondary education in a normal school, with the remainder having special schooling or home tuition. Seventy per cent of the series was in normal, full-time occupation, including half those severely handicapped. Those in work were largely in managerial/technical, clerical, and light manual occupations. It is concluded that extendance and training, followed by special job placement, would help to integrate them into the community. These patients show that, in the absence of mental retardation, even severe physical handicap is no bar to normal occupation and that paralysis and incontinence alone are probably not valid selection factors for or against 'aggressive' treatment for spina bifida.

Laurence, K M; Beresford, A

1976-01-01

157

Evidence for spatial navigational impairments in hydrocephalus patients without spina bifida.  

PubMed

The cognitive sequelae of hydrocephalus have mostly been explored with standardised clinical tasks. The aim of the present research was determine whether impairments on these abstract tasks extend to everyday spatial and navigational behaviour. Patients with hydrocephalus, but without spina bifida, were compared to a control group on tests of searching behaviour, landmark memory, route learning, and path integration. Participants with hydrocephalus displayed reduced sensitivity to spatial cueing, less accurate route-learning, and significantly less accurate spatial updating. These data represent an important empirical demonstration of spatial navigational impairments due to hydrocephalus outside of the context of spina bifida. We discuss some of the cognitive, neural, and individual differences factors that might contribute to this particular pattern of impairments. PMID:23959082

Buckley, Matthew G; Smith, Alastair D

2013-10-01

158

The Cerebellum in Children with Spina Bifida and Chiari II Malformation: Quantitative Volumetrics by Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few volumetric MRI studies of the entire cerebellum have been published; even less quantitative information is available in\\u000a patients with hindbrain malformations, including the Chiari II malformation which is ubiquitous in patients with spina bifida\\u000a meningomyelocele (SBM). In the present study, regional volumetric analyses of the cerebellum were conducted in children with\\u000a SBM\\/Chiari II and typically developing (TD) children. Total

Jenifer Juranek; Maureen Dennis; Paul T. Cirino; Lyla El-Messidi; Jack M. Fletcher

2010-01-01

159

Muscle strength, aerobic capacity and physical activity in independent ambulating children with lumbosacral spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. This cross-sectional study investigates deficits and associations in muscle strength, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), aerobic capacity (VO2peak), and physical activity (PA) in independent ambulatory children with lumbosacral spina bifida. Method. Twenty-tree children participated (13 boys, 10 girls). Mean age (SD): 10.4 (+3.1) years. Muscle strength (manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometry), 6MWD, VO2peak (maximal exercise test on a treadmill),

Marja A. G. C. Schoenmakers; Janke F. de Groot; Jan Willem Gorter; Jobke L. M. Hillaert; Paul J. M. Helders; Tim Takken

2009-01-01

160

Urinary tract infections in children with spina bifida: an inventory of 41 European centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in 1972 and low-dose chemoprophylaxis (LDCP, antibiotic prophylaxis),\\u000a anticholinergic medication and urological surgery in the mid-1980s has improved the long-term outcome of renal function in\\u000a children with neurogenic bladder sphincter dysfunction (NBSD) due to spina bifida (SB). We have conducted a European survey\\u000a of the protocols for diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections

Bas S. H. J. Zegers; Cuno S. P. M. Uiterwaal; Tom V. P. M. de Jong; Jan L. L. Kimpen

2009-01-01

161

Biomechanical comparison of lumbar spine with or without spina bifida occulta. A finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Biomechanical study using finite element model (FEM) of lumbar spine.Objectives:Very high coincidence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) has been reported more than in 60% of lumbar spondylolysis. The altered biomechanics due to SBO is one considerable factor for this coincidence. Thus, in this study, the biomechanical changes in the lumbar spine due to the presence of SBO were evaluated.Setting:United

K Sairyo; V K Goel; S Vadapalli; S L Vishnubhotla; A Biyani; N Ebraheim; T Terai; T Sakai

2006-01-01

162

[The subject with spina bifida and his family: psychological and social aspects. I].  

PubMed

This paper is to examine the psychological and social effects in spina bifida. In 130 subjects, aged from 4 to 24 years old, the levels of the I.Q. have been studied and they have been distributed into revelant percentual groupings, and the psychologic perception problems of the malformation of the subject have been studied. Finally, dominant psychologic and social problems have also been considered. PMID:6356050

Cracco, A

1983-01-01

163

The renal axes in spina bifida: issues of confusion and fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The occurrence of horseshoe kidneys in myelodysplasia has been suggested to be overestimated because of the concurrent prevalence\\u000a of kyphotic spine in the spina bifida population. Pseudohorseshoe kidneys result from the actual medial migration and apposition\\u000a of the lower renal poles in the deep fossa created by the gibbus deformity. The presence of a lumbosacral kyphosis, however,\\u000a does not

G. A. Mandell; K. Maloney; N. H. Sherman; B. Filmer

1996-01-01

164

Individual Phenotype Trait Variability as Genetic Markers of Gender Susceptibility to Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

We compared individual trait variability in 65 male and 81 female patients with spina bifida occulta (SBO) or spina bifida aperta (SBA) against 170 male and 200 female subjects randomly selected Serbian subjects without these conditions. Variability was evaluated by direct observation of 15 homozygous recessive traits (HRT), while gender was evaluated separately. Individual trait variations between genders in SBO patients (4/15 HRT) and in SBA patients (12/15 HRT) showed remarkable differences. Individual trait variations between the male control group and SBO (9/15 HRT), between the female control group and SBO (5/15 HRT), between the male control group and SBA (8/15 HRT), between the female control group and SBA (9/15 HRT), between male SBO and SBA patients (6/15 HRT), between female SBO and SBA patients (6/15 HRT), also indicated remarkable differences. These differences could be explained by different expression of genes that may contribute to expression of spina bifida (SB).

Nikolic, DP; Cvjeticanin, S; Petronic, I; Brdar, R; Cirovic, D; Bizic, M; Milincic, Z; Karan, R

2011-01-01

165

Non-surgical Intervention of Knee Flexion Contracture in Children with Spina Bifida: Case Report  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to describe for the first time, the use of serial casting in the management of knee joint flexion contracture for a young child with spina bifida. [Case Description] The child was 6?years old, and had L3–L4 spina bifida level lesion with quadriceps muscle strength grade 3 +. The child had previously received weekly physiotherapy including stretching for knee flexion contracture on both lower limbs, but without improvement. [Results] The knee flexion contracture, which was not corrected with passive stretching, improved with casting from ?40° knee extension to ?5° knee extension as measured by a standard goniometer over a period of 4 weeks. Careful measures were taken to ensure skin integrity. At follow up after one-year, the child could ambulate independently with the help of walking aids. [Conclusion] The outcome indicates that using serial casting and follow-up with the use of bracing may be useful for enhancing the walking ability of a young child with spina bifida with knee flexion contractures. Further investigations of serial casting as well as investigation of serial casting with other interventions are warranted.

Al-Oraibi, Saleh

2014-01-01

166

Non-surgical Intervention of Knee Flexion Contracture in Children with Spina Bifida: Case Report.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to describe for the first time, the use of serial casting in the management of knee joint flexion contracture for a young child with spina bifida. [Case Description] The child was 6?years old, and had L3-L4 spina bifida level lesion with quadriceps muscle strength grade 3 +. The child had previously received weekly physiotherapy including stretching for knee flexion contracture on both lower limbs, but without improvement. [Results] The knee flexion contracture, which was not corrected with passive stretching, improved with casting from -40° knee extension to -5° knee extension as measured by a standard goniometer over a period of 4 weeks. Careful measures were taken to ensure skin integrity. At follow up after one-year, the child could ambulate independently with the help of walking aids. [Conclusion] The outcome indicates that using serial casting and follow-up with the use of bracing may be useful for enhancing the walking ability of a young child with spina bifida with knee flexion contractures. Further investigations of serial casting as well as investigation of serial casting with other interventions are warranted. PMID:24926155

Al-Oraibi, Saleh

2014-05-01

167

Spina bifida subtypes and sub-phenotypes by maternal race/ethnicity in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.  

PubMed

Spina bifida refers to a collection of neural tube defects, including myelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocele (SB(M) ), as well as lipomyelomeningocele and lipomeningocele (SB(L) ). Maternal race/ethnicity has been associated with an increased risk for spina bifida among offspring. To better understand this relationship, we evaluated different spina bifida subtypes (SB(M) vs. SB(L) ) and sub-phenotypes (anatomic level or presence of additional malformations) by maternal race/ethnicity using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. This study is a large, multisite, population-based study of nonsyndromic birth defects. Prevalence estimates were obtained using data from spina bifida cases (live births, fetal deaths, and elective terminations) and total live births in the study regions. From October 1997 through December 2005, 1,046 infants/fetuses with spina bifida were delivered, yielding a prevalence of 3.06 per 10,000 live births. Differences in the prevalences of SB(M) vs. SB(L) , isolated versus non-isolated SB(M) , and lesion level in isolated SB(M) among case offspring were observed by maternal race/ethnicity. Compared to non-Hispanic (NH) White mothers, offspring of Hispanic mothers had higher prevalences of each subtype and most sub-phenotypes, while offspring of NH Black mothers generally had lower prevalences. Furthermore, differences in race/ethnicity among those with isolated SB(M) were more pronounced by sex. For instance, among male offspring, the prevalence of isolated SB(M) was significantly higher for those with Hispanic mothers compared to NH White mothers [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.95]. These findings provide evidence that certain spina bifida subtypes and sub-phenotypes may be etiologically distinct. PMID:22140002

Agopian, A J; Canfield, Mark A; Olney, Richard S; Lupo, Philip J; Ramadhani, Tunu; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Moore, Cynthia A

2012-01-01

168

Extensive cervical intradural and intramedullary lipoma and spina bifida occulta of C1: a case report.  

PubMed

A 17-year-old boy presented with a 1-year history of progressive gait difficulties and slowing of fine hand movements. On neurological examination there was tetraspasticity, bilateral pes equinovarus and a decreased position sense in the feet. CT and MRI scan of the cervical spine demonstrated a spina bifida occulta of C1, an extensive intradural lipoma from the foramen magnum to C4 with a small intramedullary portion at C3, and a distal syringomyelia reaching down to D12. After excision of the extramedullary portion of the lipoma, there was a marked improvement of the gait and a reduction of the spasticity. PMID:8453814

Crols, R; Appel, B; Klaes, R

1993-03-01

169

A unifying hypothesis for hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, anencephaly and spina bifida  

PubMed Central

This work is a modified version of the Casey Holter Memorial prize essay presented to the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, June 29th 2007, Heidelberg, Germany. It describes the origin and consequences of the Chiari malformation, and proposes that hydrocephalus is caused by inadequate central nervous system (CNS) venous drainage. A new hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis, anencephaly and spina bifida is described. Any volume increase in the central nervous system can increase venous pressure. This occurs because veins are compressible and a CNS volume increase may result in reduced venous blood flow. This has the potential to cause progressive increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Venous insufficiency may be caused by any disease that reduces space for venous volume. The flow of CSF has a beneficial effect on venous drainage. In health it moderates central nervous system pressure by moving between the head and spine. Conversely, obstruction to CSF flow causes localised pressure increases, which have an adverse effect on venous drainage. The Chiari malformation is associated with hindbrain herniation, which may be caused by low spinal pressure relative to cranial pressure. In these instances, there are hindbrain-related symptoms caused by cerebellar and brainstem compression. When spinal injury occurs as a result of a Chiari malformation, the primary pathology is posterior fossa hypoplasia, resulting in raised spinal pressure. The small posterior fossa prevents the flow of CSF from the spine to the head as blood enters the central nervous system during movement. Consequently, intermittent increases in spinal pressure caused by movement, result in injury to the spinal cord. It is proposed that posterior fossa hypoplasia, which has origins in fetal life, causes syringomyelia after birth and leads to damage to the spinal cord in spina bifida. It is proposed that hydrocephalus may occur as a result of posterior fossa hypoplasia, where raised pressure occurs as a result of obstruction to flow of CSF from the head to the spine, and cerebral injury with raised pressure occurs in anencephaly by this mechanism. The current view of dysraphism is that low central nervous system pressure and exposure to amniotic fluid, damage the central nervous system. The hypothesis proposed in this essay supports the view that spina bifida is a manifestation of progressive hydrocephalus in the fetus. It is proposed that that mesodermal growth insufficiency influences both neural tube closure and central nervous system pressure, leading to dysraphism.

Williams, Helen

2008-01-01

170

Some sources of stress found in mothers of spina bifida children.  

PubMed Central

The scores on a malaise inventory for 51 mothers of spina bifida children born between 1956 and 1962 in South Wales revealed significantly higher scores when the child was incontinent, had a severe locomotor disability, had an IQ less than 80, and was attending a special school rather than a normal school. No difference in scores was found between the sexes or for size of family, and only a slight difference occurred between the malaise scores of mothers of mildly and moderately handicapped children.

Tew, B; Laurence, K M

1975-01-01

171

Spina bifida: a multidisciplinary perspective on a many-faceted condition.  

PubMed

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (SBM) is the most common birth defect involving the central nervous system, second only in incidence to congenital cardiac disease. Outcomes in this disorder were poor until the mid-20th century, when modern neurosurgical techniques (closing the lesion and treating hydrocephalus) and treatment for the neuropathic bladder addressed the major causes of mortality, although SBM may still be poorly treated in the developing world. Initial management - or mismanagement - has a profound impact on survival and long-term quality of life. PMID:24897828

Fieggen, G; Fieggen, K; Stewart, C; Padayachy, L; Lazarus, J; Donald, K; Dix-Peek, S; Toefy, Z; Figaji, A

2014-03-01

172

[The spina bifida patient and his family: psychologic and social aspects. 2].  

PubMed

In the second part of the present work the data which was obtained through questionnaires and interviews with 130 families with children affected by spina bifida is presented. Presented first are the immediate sociopsychological aspects of the family when they are informed about the malformation, the derived psychological effects and the preoccupations relating to the life of their child. Then the aspects of the successive social and psychological problems of these parents are presented, and finally the expectations and demands of the same parents following the psychological operations carried out at the centre to the benefit of the children and their families. PMID:6359078

Cracco, A; Valli, F

1983-01-01

173

The epidemiology of anencephaly and spina bifida in Izmir, Turkey, in the light of recent aetiological theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from this study suggest that, in western Turkey, potato consumption and water hardness do not play a significant role in the aetiology of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB). Several of the predictions of the fetus-fetus interaction theory are not supported. Other predictions could not be tested because of lack of information on the dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate. Twin

M. R. Buckley; Oktay Erten

1979-01-01

174

Injury Risk for Research Subjects with Spina Bifida Occulta in a Repeated Impact Study: A Case Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spina bifida occulta (SBO) occurs in 18-34% of the normal U. S. population. Recently, 16.5% of normal, asymptomatic male soldier volunteer candidates in a U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory ride motion study were excluded from the study because the...

J. P. Albano S. G. Shannon N. M. Alem K. T. Mason

1996-01-01

175

CHKA and PCYT1A gene polymorphisms, choline intake and spina bifida risk in a California population  

PubMed Central

Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of all human congenital defects. Over the last two decades, accumulating evidence has made it clear that periconceptional intake of folic acid can significantly reduce the risk of NTD affected pregnancies. This beneficial effect may be related to the ability of folates to donate methyl groups for critical physiological reactions. Choline is an essential nutrient and it is also a methyl donor critical for the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and methyl metabolism. Perturbations in choline metabolism in vitro have been shown to induce NTDs in mouse embryos. Methods This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human choline kinase A (CHKA) gene and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylytransferase (PCYT1A) gene were risk factors for spina bifida. Fluorescence-based allelic discrimination analysis was performed for the two CHKA intronic SNPs hCV1562388 (rs7928739) and hCV1562393, and PCYT1A SNP rs939883 and rs3772109. The study population consisted of 103 infants with spina bifida and 338 non-malformed control infants who were born in selected California counties in the period 1989–1991. Results The CHKA SNP hCV1562388 genotypes with at least one C allele were associated with a reduced risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.38–0.94). The PCYT1A SNP rs939883 genotype AA was associated with a twofold increased risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.97–3.67). These gene-only effects were not substantially modified by analytic consideration to maternal periconceptional choline intake. Conclusion Our analyses showed genotype effects of CHKA and PCYT1A genes on spina bifida risk, but did not show evidence of gene-nutrient interactions. The underlying mechanisms are yet to be resolved.

Enaw, James O Ebot; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Lu, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Finnell, Richard H

2006-01-01

176

IgE Reactivity to 14-kD and 27-kD Natural Rubber Proteins in Latex-Allergic Children with Spina bifida and Other Congenital Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined by immunoblotting sera from 39 latex-allergic patients, 19 from USA and 20 from Finland, including 15 children with spina bifida and 5 children with other congenital anomalies, for IgE antibodies to natural rubber latex (latex) antigens. IgE antibodies in 10 of the 12 (83%) US spina bifida patients and in 2 of the 3 Finnish spina bifida patients

Harri Alenius; Timo Palosuo; Kevin Kelly; Viswanath Kurup; Timo Reunala; Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Jordan Fink

1993-01-01

177

Altered Expression of 14-3-3? Protein in Spinal Cords of Rat Fetuses with Spina Bifida Aperta  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs). A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3? expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E) 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3? plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3? in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3? and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. Methodology/Principal Findings We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 14-3-3? and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3? and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3? was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3? were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7), microRNA-375 (miR-375) and microRNA-451 (miR-451), which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3? in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3? and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3? expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3? plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida.

Wu, Li-na; Wei, Xiao-wei; Fan, Yang; Miao, Jia-ning; Wang, Li-li; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Di; Yuan, Zheng-wei

2013-01-01

178

Dermoid sinus and spina bifida in three dogs and a cat.  

PubMed

This case series describes four cases of concomitant dermoid sinus and spina bifida in a Chinese crested dog, two Swedish vallhunds and a Burmese cat. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography, computed tomography fistulography and pathology. Two dogs that showed abnormalities during neurological examination underwent magnetic resonance imaging. One of them had imaging findings interpreted as syringohydromyelia. All the dogs underwent surgery and the outcome was considered good in all the cases. Based on clinical and pathological examination as well as diagnostic imaging findings, two of the dermoid sinuses were classified as type IV, and two of them showed a previously unreported type of dermoid sinus. This new type is suggested here as type VI. PMID:21627660

Kiviranta, A-M; Lappalainen, A K; Hagner, K; Jokinen, T

2011-06-01

179

Reading and writing skills in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Reading and writing were studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH). Like children with this condition, young adults with SBH had better word decoding than reading comprehension, and, compared to population means, had lower scores on a test of writing fluency. Reading comprehension was predicted by word decoding and listening comprehension. Writing was predicted by fine motor finger function, verbal intelligence, and short-term and working memory. These findings are consistent with cognitive models of reading and writing. Writing, but not reading, was related to highest level of education achieved and writing fluency predicted several aspects of functional independence. Reading comprehension and writing remain deficient in adults with SBH and have consequences for educational attainments and functional independence. PMID:15327713

Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen; Hetherington, Ross

2004-09-01

180

Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

Schiano, C.M. [United Cerebral Palsy of Nassau County, Roosevelt, NY (United States); Demb, H.B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brown, W.T. [Inst. for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)

1995-12-04

181

Correlates of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adults with Spina Bifida *  

PubMed Central

Objective?Based on social ecological theory, this study was designed to examine the unique relationships between multi-level ecological factors and psychological symptoms in young adults with spina bifida (SB).?Method?A sample of 61 individuals with SB, 18–25 years of age, completed standardized self-report measures of attitude toward SB, satisfaction with family functioning, Chronic Care Model (CCM) services, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. A chart review yielded SB clinical data.?Results?High rates of depressive and anxiety symptoms were found. Hierarchical regression analysis identified the proximal individual (attitude toward SB) and family (satisfaction with family functioning) factors as more strongly related to depressive symptoms than the distal healthcare system factor (CCM services). Self-reported pain was the only ecological factor associated with anxiety symptoms.?Conclusions?Study findings provide a potential foundation for multi-factor screening of young adults with SB at risk for psychological symptoms.

Zabel, T. Andrew; Dicianno, Brad E.; Levey, Eric; Garver, Kim; Linroth, Ronna; Braun, Patricia

2010-01-01

182

Over-expression of Grhl2 causes spina bifida in the Axial defects mutant mouse.  

PubMed

Cranial neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in mice carrying mutant alleles of many different genes, whereas isolated spinal NTDs (spina bifida) occur in fewer models, despite being common human birth defects. Spina bifida occurs at high frequency in the Axial defects (Axd) mouse mutant but the causative gene is not known. In the current study, the Axd mutation was mapped by linkage analysis. Within the critical genomic region, sequencing did not reveal a coding mutation whereas expression analysis demonstrated significant up-regulation of grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) in Axd mutant embryos. Expression of other candidate genes did not differ between genotypes. In order to test the hypothesis that over-expression of Grhl2 causes Axd NTDs, we performed a genetic cross to reduce Grhl2 function in Axd heterozygotes. Grhl2 loss of function mutant mice were generated and displayed both cranial and spinal NTDs. Compound heterozygotes carrying both loss (Grhl2 null) and putative gain of function (Axd) alleles exhibited normalization of spinal neural tube closure compared with Axd/+ littermates, which exhibit delayed closure. Grhl2 is expressed in the surface ectoderm and hindgut endoderm in the spinal region, overlapping with grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3). Axd mutants display delayed eyelid closure, as reported in Grhl3 null embryos. Moreover, Axd mutant embryos exhibited increased ventral curvature of the spinal region and reduced proliferation in the hindgut, reminiscent of curly tail embryos, which carry a hypomorphic allele of Grhl3. Overall, our data suggest that defects in Axd mutant embryos result from over-expression of Grhl2. PMID:21262862

Brouns, Madeleine R; De Castro, Sandra C P; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, Els A; Massa, Valentina; Hekking, Johan W; Hirst, Caroline S; Savery, Dawn; Munts, Chantal; Partridge, Darren; Lamers, Wout; Köhler, Eleonore; van Straaten, Henny W; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

2011-04-15

183

Over-expression of Grhl2 causes spina bifida in the Axial defects mutant mouse  

PubMed Central

Cranial neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in mice carrying mutant alleles of many different genes, whereas isolated spinal NTDs (spina bifida) occur in fewer models, despite being common human birth defects. Spina bifida occurs at high frequency in the Axial defects (Axd) mouse mutant but the causative gene is not known. In the current study, the Axd mutation was mapped by linkage analysis. Within the critical genomic region, sequencing did not reveal a coding mutation whereas expression analysis demonstrated significant up-regulation of grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) in Axd mutant embryos. Expression of other candidate genes did not differ between genotypes. In order to test the hypothesis that over-expression of Grhl2 causes Axd NTDs, we performed a genetic cross to reduce Grhl2 function in Axd heterozygotes. Grhl2 loss of function mutant mice were generated and displayed both cranial and spinal NTDs. Compound heterozygotes carrying both loss (Grhl2 null) and putative gain of function (Axd) alleles exhibited normalization of spinal neural tube closure compared with Axd/+ littermates, which exhibit delayed closure. Grhl2 is expressed in the surface ectoderm and hindgut endoderm in the spinal region, overlapping with grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3). Axd mutants display delayed eyelid closure, as reported in Grhl3 null embryos. Moreover, Axd mutant embryos exhibited increased ventral curvature of the spinal region and reduced proliferation in the hindgut, reminiscent of curly tail embryos, which carry a hypomorphic allele of Grhl3. Overall, our data suggest that defects in Axd mutant embryos result from over-expression of Grhl2.

Brouns, Madeleine R.; De Castro, Sandra C.P.; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, Els A.; Massa, Valentina; Hekking, Johan W.; Hirst, Caroline S.; Savery, Dawn; Munts, Chantal; Partridge, Darren; Lamers, Wout; Kohler, Eleonore; van Straaten, Henny W.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

2011-01-01

184

A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

2011-03-01

185

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... taking extra care of their bodies and paying attention if something seems wrong. It can mean taking longer to do things, because braces, crutches, and wheelchairs just aren't as fast as walking and running. But as Andrea has shown, that doesn't ...

186

[Hepato-renal polycystosis, Marfan's syndrome and spina bifida occulta: a complex association. Description of a clinical case].  

PubMed

The simultaneous diagnosis of polycystic kidney, Marfan's syndrome and silent spina bifida in a young woman is described. The coexistence of the first two entities has recently been reported as not rare, but the pathogenetic mechanism is not clear. The prognostic importance and the frequency of these two clinical entities make complete assessment of patients with only one of the two malformations mandatory. PMID:3062498

Ortino, O; Bonanni, F; Ruffino, C; Maiolino, L; Tedoldi, A

1988-12-01

187

A cost-of-illness study of spina bifida in Italy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord, nerves, and adjacent covering structures, with different levels of severity and functional disability. The economic cost of spina bifida and its prevention using folic acid have never been estimated in Italy. This study was conducted to define the cost of illness of SB in Italy. Methods A retrospective multicenter observational study on the social cost of patients with SB was carried out in three SB centers in Italy. Cost data were collected relating to the 12 months preceding the enrollment time (T0), and subsequently 3 months after the T0 time (±20 days) through a case report form designed to collect the relevant information on the costs incurred during the period considered. The data for all patients were analyzed through multivariate analysis on the main parameters. Results We enrolled 128 patients equally divided between males and females, with a mean age of 13 years (minimum, 0; maximum, 29). Diagnosis was mostly postnatal, with 64 cases diagnosed at birth and 33 cases diagnosed subsequently. The lesion severity levels, as defined in the inclusion criteria, were walking (52 patients); walking with simple orthoses (33 patients); walking with complex orthoses (16 patients); and nonwalking, (25 patients). The anatomic type identified is open SB in most cases (84 patients), followed by closed SB (37 patients) and SB occulta (3 patients). The most significant cost per year was for assistive devices, for a total of 4307.00 €, followed by hospitalization (907.00 €), examinations (592.00 €), and drug therapy (328.00 €). Cost breakdown by age range shows that the highest costs are incurred in the 0–4 age range. The highest cost was for cases of open SB (12,103.00 €). The cost/degree of severity ratio showed that the highest cost was for nonwalking patients (14,323.00 €), followed by patients walking with complex orthoses (13,799.00 €). Conclusion The data from this study show that the mean total cost for a patient with SB was 11,351.00 € per year. Based on data provided by the Italian Institute of Health, we can estimate a total annual social cost of about 60 million Euros per year for SB in Italy. Cost of illness was correlated with age and degree of severity of SB.

Colombo, Giorgio L; Di Matteo, Sergio; Vinci, Marta; Gatti, Claudia; Pascali, Maria Paola; De Gennaro, Mario; Macrellino, Elena; Mosiello, Giovanni; Redaelli, Tiziana; Schioppa, Francesca; Dieci, Cristina

2013-01-01

188

Neuropsychological Profiles of Children with Aqueductal Stenosis and Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

We compared neuropsychological profiles in children with shunted hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis (AS), a rare form of congenital hydrocephalus, and spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), a common form of congenital hydrocephalus. Participants were 180 children with shunted hydrocephalus grouped according to etiology: SBM (n = 151), AS (n = 29), and typically developing (TD; n = 60) individuals. The group with AS performed below the TD group on all tasks except for reading, and their overall performance was higher than the group with SBM, who had the lowest performance in the sample. Both clinical groups significantly differed from the TD group on tasks of spatial function, concept formation, motor function, and memory. Performance of the subgroup of AS children with normal cerebellum status approximated that of the TD group, while those with cerebellar anomalies performed lower than others with AS. Cerebellar abnormalities (present in the whole SBM group and in a subset of the AD group) are associated with more compromise of cognitive as well as motor function.

Hampton, Lyla E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul; Blaser, Susan; Kramer, Larry A.; Dennis, Maureen

2014-01-01

189

Ethics of selective treatment of spina bifida. Report by a working party.  

PubMed

Ethical problems in medicine usually arise when normal guiding principles appear to be in conflict. In the case of babies with severe spina bifida, or similar abnormalities, two such fundamental principles may be applied with opposing conclusions. The first is that any decision requires an estimate of the balance of suffering and happiness for those concerned in an action, and the other is the assertion that human life is sacred. Resolution of the conflict between these is possible by looking at the problem in a different and less fundamental way, and one such approach is through the concept of ordinary and extraordinary means. While man does not possess power of absolute ownership over life, his duties of stewardship require him to use ordinary means of safeguarding life; he may use, but is not obliged to use, extraordinary means. The distinction between ordinary and extraordinary means may vary with circumstance, and so the application of this principle involves decisions at a third or more practical level. These include an assessment of the child's abnormality, of the effects of this upon the quality of life possible for the child, and of the burdens that will be placed on the family and society. At each level the ethical decisions involve complex choices, and clearly any present policies must be regarded as temporary unavoidable compromises rather than as final solutions. PMID:46034

1975-01-11

190

The quality of life of mothers of children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) is a common birth defect associated with significant lifelong morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life and psychological status of mothers of children with SB. In this study, we included 30 mothers with children with SB and 30 mothers of healthy children. The groups were similar for background variables (child's age, sex, and number of siblings; mother's age, marital status; economic status of the families, and presence of health insurance). The 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to all mothers. Except for social functioning and mental health, all SF-36 subscale scores were significantly lower and the mean STAI and BDI scores were higher for mothers of children with SB (P<0.001). SF-36, STAI, and BDI scores were not associated significantly with the child's age, sex, number of siblings, and mother's age. This study shows that the quality of life is affected negatively for mothers of children with SB. The clinician should pay close attention to the psychosocial status of mothers of these children within the scope of disease management. PMID:24811087

Civilibal, Mahmut; Suman, Murat; Elevli, Murat; Duru, Nilgün Selcuk

2014-07-01

191

Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73) with SBM and typically developing (TD) controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus), with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density.

Ware, Ashley L.; Juranek, Jenifer; Williams, Victoria J.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2014-01-01

192

Associations of Ethnicity and SES with IQ and Achievement in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Objectives?We evaluated whether the phenotypic pattern of higher verbal than nonverbal IQ in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is consistent across subgroups differing in ethnicity and SES. We also explored the relation of cognitive and academic performance.?Methods?Non-Hispanic White (n = 153) and Hispanic (n = 80) children with SBM received the Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence-IV and achievement subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the family environment [socioeconomic status (SES), resources, and educational opportunities].?Results?Multivariate analysis revealed that Hispanic children with lower SES had lower verbal than nonverbal scores. Hispanic children with higher SES and non-Hispanic White children demonstrated the reverse pattern. Verbal and nonverbal IQ interacted to predict reading and math performance.?Conclusions?Lower SES is associated with lower verbal IQ in economically disadvantaged Hispanic children with SBM. Academic achievement is largely correlated with verbal IQ, but children with lower verbal IQ may partially compensate with higher nonverbal ability.

Garnaat, Sarah L.; Myszka, Katherine A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Dennis, Maureen

2010-01-01

193

Discontinuity of primary and secondary neural tube in spina bifida induced by retinoic acid in mice.  

PubMed

This report shows by light microscopy the appearance of secondary neurulation separated from primary neurulation and its developmental fate in the spinal cord of mice exposed to retinoic acid in utero. The embryos and fetuses were derived from pregnant mice (ICR strain) given 60, 40, or 0 mg/kg of retinoic acid in olive oil on day 8 of gestation orally and killed 1, 2, or 10 days later. Separation of the primary neural fold from the secondary neural tube was seen in 9- and 10-day-old embryos: the caudal part of the neuroepithelium of the primary neural fold was disarranged with non-closed posterior neuropore, and underneath it the secondary neural tissue extended caudally with abnormal notochord. At term, fetuses showed spina bifida, including myeloschisis, myelocele, and diplomyelia (diastematomyelia) with abnormal distribution of ganglionic cells. These cord lesions were located between the third lumbar and second coccygeal levels. The former two cord anomalies were associated with diplomyelia and split the dorsal and ventral portions of the spinal cord with an overlapping zone between the third lumbar and third sacral levels. These findings suggest that the separation from primary neurulation is due to the lesions in both primary neural folds and notochord induced by retinoic acid and that the spinal cord caudal to the third lumbar level originates from both neuroectoderm and mesenchyme-like cells while that caudal to the third sacral level originates from mesenchyme-like cells only. PMID:2183387

Yasuda, Y; Konishi, H; Kihara, T; Tanimura, T

1990-03-01

194

Physical fitness and exercise training on individuals with Spina Bifida: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Spina Bifida (SB) is characterized by several physical impairments; however, data on physical fitness and on the benefits of exercise training in individuals with SB are dispersed in the literature. Thus, this systematic review aimed to describe (i) physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition, flexibility and neuromotor) and (ii) exercise training effects on the physical fitness of individuals with SB. CINAHL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January to March 2013 and updated in December 2013. Twenty-three studies were included. A summary of the results was performed using a best-evidence synthesis. Participants with SB had lower cardiorespiratory endurance (-32 to 54% in VO2 peak) and muscle strength (-58 to 90%) and higher body fat (159%) than their healthy peers. Mobility restrictions were present in 26.3-61% of participants. No data on neuromotor fitness were found. Aerobic and strength training improved participants' cardiorespiratory endurance (effect sizes 0.78-1.4) and muscle strength (effect sizes 0-0.59). Individuals with SB have impaired cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition and flexibility when compared to healthy peers. Exercise training seems to improve two of these fitness components (cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength). Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of the studies' designs, methods and instruments used limits the establishment of firm conclusions and highlights the need for further research. PMID:24612860

Oliveira, Ana; Jácome, Cristina; Marques, Alda

2014-05-01

195

Computer-mediated support for adolescents with cerebral palsy or spina bifida.  

PubMed

Social support plays a key role in improving health outcomes for children with chronic conditions. Internet connections are an important component of adolescents' social networks and may overcome geographic and environmental barriers for those with disabilities. This article focuses on the processes associated with a 6-month online support intervention for adolescents with cerebral palsy or spina bifida. Specifically, the purpose was to determine the extent to which adolescents used an online peer support intervention, the processes used, and the perceived benefits and satisfaction with the intervention. Five peer mentors with the same disabilities provided information, affirmation, and emotional support. The online environment created a safe space to foster reciprocal interpersonal connections and appropriate social comparison. Two-thirds of the participants viewed the computer-mediated support intervention as fun. Factors influencing the perceived utility of the intervention included typing speed, cognitive skills, and perceived need for additional support. Girls were significantly more likely to contribute messages than were boys. Peer mentors wished that this type of support program had been available when they were teens, appreciated the supportive elements, and reported learning from the teen participants. Health professionals wanting to implement online support need to consider the age and ability levels of participants and the optimal length and format of the support program. PMID:21099541

Barnfather, Alison; Stewart, Miriam; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

2011-01-01

196

A Genetic Signature of Spina Bifida Risk from Pathway-Informed Comprehensive Gene-Variant Analysis  

PubMed Central

Despite compelling epidemiological evidence that folic acid supplements reduce the frequency of neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns, common variant association studies with folate metabolism genes have failed to explain the majority of NTD risk. The contribution of rare alleles as well as genetic interactions within the folate pathway have not been extensively studied in the context of NTDs. Thus, we sequenced the exons in 31 folate-related genes in a 480-member NTD case-control population to identify the full spectrum of allelic variation and determine whether rare alleles or obvious genetic interactions within this pathway affect NTD risk. We constructed a pathway model, predetermined independent of the data, which grouped genes into coherent sets reflecting the distinct metabolic compartments in the folate/one-carbon pathway (purine synthesis, pyrimidine synthesis, and homocysteine recycling to methionine). By integrating multiple variants based on these groupings, we uncovered two provocative, complex genetic risk signatures. Interestingly, these signatures differed by race/ethnicity: a Hispanic risk profile pointed to alterations in purine biosynthesis, whereas that in non-Hispanic whites implicated homocysteine metabolism. In contrast, parallel analyses that focused on individual alleles, or individual genes, as the units by which to assign risk revealed no compelling associations. These results suggest that the ability to layer pathway relationships onto clinical variant data can be uniquely informative for identifying genetic risk as well as for generating mechanistic hypotheses. Furthermore, the identification of ethnic-specific risk signatures for spina bifida resonated with epidemiological data suggesting that the underlying pathogenesis may differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups.

Marini, Nicholas J.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Lammer, Edward J.; Hardin, Jill; Lazaruk, Katherine; Stein, Jason B.; Gilbert, Dennis A.; Wright, Crystal; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len A.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Witte, John S.; Shaw, Gary M.; Rine, Jasper

2011-01-01

197

Parents' psychological adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Spina Bifida (SB) is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interventions to fostering the quality of life for these children and their families. Little is known, however, about the impact of SB on family adjustment. Reviewers have struggled to synthesize the few contradictory studies available. In this systematic review a new attempt was made to summarize the findings by using meta-analysis and by delimiting the scope of review to one concept of family adjustment: Parents' psychological adjustment. The questions addressed were: (a) do parents of children with SB have more psychological distress than controls? (b) do mothers and fathers differ? and (c) which factors correlate with variations in psychological adjustment? Methods PsycInfo, Medline, and reference lists were scanned. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. Results SB had a negative medium-large effect on parents' psychological adjustment. The effect was more heterogeneous for mothers than for fathers. In the reviewed studies child factors (age, conduct problems, emotional problems, and mental retardation), parent factors (SES, hope, appraised stress, coping, and parenting competence), family factors (family income, partner relationship, and family climate), and environmental factors (social support) were found to be associated with variations in parents' psychological adjustment. Conclusion Meta-analysis proved to be helpful in organizing studies. Clinical implications indicate a need to be especially alert to psychological suffering in mothers of children with SB. Future research should increase sample sizes through multi-center collaborations.

Vermaes, Ignace PR; Janssens, Jan MAM; Bosman, Anna MT; Gerris, Jan RM

2005-01-01

198

A description of spina bifida cases and co-occurring malformations, 1976-2011.  

PubMed

Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400?µg/day) or high intake (?400?µg/day). SB cases (n?=?1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Mitchell, Allen A; Demmer, Laurie A; Werler, Martha M

2014-02-01

199

Epidemiologic and genetic aspects of spina bifida and other neural tube defects  

PubMed Central

The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public health officials to design and implement policies to prevent NTD pregnancies, and (c) individuals to take precautions to reduce the chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. Despite extensive research, our knowledge of the genetic etiology of human NTDs is limited. Although more than 200 small animal models with NTDs exist, most of these models do not replicate the human disease phenotype. Over a hundred candidate genes have been examined for risk association to human SB. The candidate genes studied include those important in folic acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, retinoid metabolism, and apoptosis. Many genes that regulate transcription in early embryogenesis and maintain planar cell polarity have also been tested as candidates. Additionally, genes identified through mouse models of NTDs have been explored as candidates. We do not know how many genes in the human genome may confer risk for NTDs in human. Less than 20% of the studied candidate genes have been determined to confer even a minor effect on risk association. Many studies have provided conflicting conclusions due to limitations in study design that potentially affect the power of statistical analysis. Future directions such as genomewide association studies (GWAS) and whole exome or even whole genome sequencing are discussed as possible avenues to identify genes that affect risk for human NTDs.

Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

2011-01-01

200

Peripersonal spatial attention in children with spina bifida: Associations between horizontal and vertical line bisection and congenital malformations of the corpus callosum, midbrain, and posterior cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal and vertical line bisection was studied in 129 children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years of age, one group (n=32) of typically developing controls and one group (n=97) with spina bifida (SBM), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with dysmorphology of the corpus callosum, posterior cortex, and midbrain. For each participant, structural brain MRIs were analyzed qualitatively to identify beaking

Maureen Dennis; Kim Edelstein; Jon Frederick; Kim Copeland; David Francis; Susan E. Blaser; Larry A. Kramer; James M. Drake; Michael Brandt; Ross Hetherington; Jack M. Fletcher

2005-01-01

201

Executive Functions and Parenting Behaviors in Association With Medical Adherence and Autonomy Among Youth With Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective?This study was designed to examine whether executive functions and parenting behaviors (acceptance, behavioral control, and psychological control) are associated with medical adherence and autonomy among preadolescents and adolescents with spina bifida (SB).?Methods?Questionnaire and observational data were collected from a sample of 8–15 year olds with SB (N = 140) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Youth also completed neuropsychological testing.?Results?Youth with SB demonstrated impairment on measures of executive functions, based on questionnaire and test data. Executive functions (questionnaire data only) and parenting behaviors were associated with medical adherence, but only executive functions (test data only) were associated with medical autonomy. Analyses also suggest that maternal and paternal behavioral control and paternal psychological control moderate relations between executive functions and adherence.?Conclusions?Interventions that target executive functions and parenting behaviors may facilitate positive health care behavior outcomes among youth with SB.

Holmbeck, Grayson N.

2013-01-01

202

Genetic Association Study of Putative Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes in Folate Metabolism and Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We tested putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes which regulate the folate/homocysteine metabolism pathway for their contribution to spina bifida (SB) susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN The study consisted of 610 unrelated simplex SB patient families. Genotypes of 46 SNPs located in the coding sequence or promoter region of 11 genes were investigated. Associations between transmission of alleles and SB in the offspring were examined using the reconstruction-combined transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS Significant association of SNP rs5742905 in cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), rs1643649 in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), rs2853533 in thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), and rs3737965 in methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) was found (p= 0.015, 0.041, 0.021, and 0.007 respectively). CONCLUSION Transmission disequilibrium of SNP alleles in CBS, DHFR, MTHFR and TYMS confers an increased susceptibility to SB.

Martinez, Carla A.; Northrup, Hope; Lin, Jone-Ing; Morrison, Alanna C.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Tyerman, Gayle H.; Au, Kit Sing

2009-01-01

203

Effect of Preschool Working Memory, Language, and Narrative Abilities on Inferential Comprehension at School-Age in Children with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele and Typically Developing Children  

PubMed Central

Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature.

Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A.

2014-01-01

204

Identification and Characterization of an Xq26–q27 Duplication in a Family with Spina Bifida and Panhypopituitarism Suggests the Involvement of Two Distinct Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated a family with a duplication, dup(X)q26–q27, that was present in two brothers, their mother, and their maternal grandmother. The brothers carrying the duplication displayed spina bifida and panhypopituitarism, whereas a third healthy brother inherited the normal X chromosome. Preferential inactivation of the X chromosome containing the duplication was evident in healthy carrier females. We determined the boundaries of

Frans A. Hol; Marga T. Schepens; Sylvia E. C. van Beersum; Elena Redolfi; Maurizio Affer; Paolo Vezzoni; Ben C. J. Hamel; Pamela S. Karnes; Edwin C. M. Mariman; Ileana Zucchi

2000-01-01

205

Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34(+) grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies. PMID:23431178

Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Marks, Andrew J; Kollhoff, David M; Rao, Manoj V; Hota, Partha V; Matoka, Derek J; Edassery, Seby L; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F; Janicki, Joseph A; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y

2013-03-01

206

PAX genes and human neural tube defects: an amino acid substitution in PAX1 in a patient with spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

From studies in the mouse and from the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with type 1 Waardenburg syndrome, particular members of the PAX gene family are suspected factors in the aetiology of human neural tube defects (NTD). To investigate the role of PAX1, PAX3, PAX7, and PAX9, allelic association studies were performed in 79 sporadic and 38 familial NTD patients from the Dutch population. Sequence variation was studied by SSC analysis of the paired domain regions of the PAX1, PAX7, and PAX9 genes and of the complete PAX3 gene. In one patient with spina bifida, a mutation in the PAX1 gene was detected changing the conserved amino acid Gln to His at position 42 in the paired domain of the protein. The mutation was inherited through the maternal line from the unaffected grandmother and was not detected in 300 controls. In the PAX3 gene, variation was detected at several sites including a Thr/Lys amino acid substitution in exon 6. All alleles were present among patients and controls in about the same frequencies. However, an increased frequency of the rare allele of a silent polymorphism in exon 2 was found in NTD patients, but no significant association was observed (p = 0.06). No sequence variation was observed in the paired domain of the PAX7 and PAX9 genes. Our findings so far do not support a major role of the PAX genes examined in the aetiology of NTD. However, the detection of a mutation in PAX1 suggests that, in principle, this gene can act as a risk factor for human NTD. Images

Hol, F A; Geurds, M P; Chatkupt, S; Shugart, Y Y; Balling, R; Schrander-Stumpel, C T; Johnson, W G; Hamel, B C; Mariman, E C

1996-01-01

207

Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

Bassuk, Alexander G; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L; Hulstrand, Alissa M; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M; Yung, Christina K; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W; Cornell, Robert A; Manak, J Robert

2013-03-15

208

Distribution of alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in familial spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida cystica (SB) is one of the most common and disabling of birth defects. Folic acid supplementation in mothers during the periconceptional period has been shown to prevent more than 70% of neural tube defects (NTD) including SB. However, the mechanism is unknown. We tested a series of multicase SB families in which 224 individuals were genotyped and a group of 215 unrelated unaffected (external) control individuals for association of SB with the T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism that produces a heat-labile enzyme protein. The data were analyzed using first the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and second a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods. No association of SB with the MTHFR T allele was found by either method. Presently, association between SB and the T allele has been found in four studies, a Dutch study, an Irish study, a North American study, and an Italian study. But no association was found in four other studies, a British study, a French study, a Turkish study, and a German study. A California population-based study found only modestly increased risk of SB with this allele that was not significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present study finds no evidence of the association. Only one other study, the German study, has used TDT analysis. The present study is the first to use a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods to test this association. Thus, it appears that the MTHFR T allele is a risk factor for SB in some populations but not others. Major genetic risk factors for folate-related SB remain to be found. PMID:10594879

Johnson, W G; Stenroos, E S; Heath, S C; Chen, Y; Carroll, R; McKoy, V V; Chatkupt, S; Lehner, T

1999-12-22

209

Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development.

Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

2013-01-01

210

Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Birth prevalence of Spina Bifida-United States, 1995-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 57, No. 53, January 9, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 micro g of folic acid daily to help prevent pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Adminis...

2009-01-01

211

Prenatal Ablation of Nicotinic Receptor alpha7 Cell Lineages Produces Lumbosacral Spina Bifida the Severity of Which is Modified by Choline and Nicotine Exposure  

PubMed Central

Lumbosacral spina bifida is a common debilitating birth defect whose multiple causes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first genetic delineation of cholinergic nicotinic receptor alpha7 (Chrna7) expression and link the ablation of the Chrna7 cell lineage to this condition in the mouse. Using homologous recombination, an IRES-Cre bi-cistronic cassette was introduced into the 3? noncoding region of Chrna7 (Chrna7:Cre) for identifying cell lineages expressing this gene. This lineage first appears at embryonic day E9.0 in rhombomeres 3 and 5 of the neural tube and extends to cell subsets in most tissues by E14.5. Ablation of the Chrna7:Cre cell lineage in embryos from crosses with conditionally expressed attenuated diphtheria toxin results in precise developmental defects including omphalocele (89%) and open spina bifida (SB; 80%). We hypothesized that like humans, this defect would be modified by environmental compounds not only folic acid or choline but also nicotine. Prenatal chronic oral nicotine administration substantially worsened the defect to often include the rostral neural tube. In contrast, supplementation of the maternal diet with 2% choline decreased SB prevalence to 38% and dramatically reduced the defect severity. Folic acid supplementation only trended towards a reduced SB frequency. The omphalocele was unaffected by these interventions. These studies identify the Chrna7 cell lineage as participating in posterior neuropore closure and present a novel model of lower SB that can be substantially modified by the prenatal environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rogers, Scott W; Tvrdik, Petr; Capecchi, Mario R; Gahring, Lorise C

2012-01-01

212

Inter-tester reliability and precision of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometry in lower limb muscles of children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical therapists and a student physical therapist. Inter-tester reliability [ICC(2,1)] for HHD varied from 0.76 to 0.83, indicating excellent reliability for the three muscle groups. Inter-tester reliability for MMT was 0.75 for the hip abductor muscle group, indicating good reliability, and 0.37 to 0.40 for the remaining muscle groups. The minimum detectable change was 15N for HHD and 1 scale unit of a 0 to 5 MMT scale. The results suggest a situation-specific solution to the question of which method to use. To detect small strength changes over time in children with spina bifida, MMT should be used when the child has insufficient strength to move the limb against gravity; otherwise, HHD should be used. PMID:19197758

Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

2009-01-01

213

Promotor genotype of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha gene shows population stratification but not association with spina bifida meningomyelocele.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) constitute a major group of congenital malformations with an overall incidence of approximately 1-2 in 1,000 live births in the United States. Hispanic Americans have a 2.5 times higher risk than the Caucasian population. Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBMM) is a major clinical presentation of NTDs resulting from lack of closure of the spinal cord caudal to the head. In a previous study of spina bifida (SB) patients of European Caucasian descent, it was suggested that specific haplotypes of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) gene P1 promoter strongly affected the rate of NTD genesis. In our study, we evaluated the association of PDGFRA P1 in a group of 407 parent-child triads (167 Caucasian, 240 Hispanics) and 164 unrelated controls (89 Caucasian, 75 Hispanic). To fully evaluate the association of PDGFRA P1, we performed both transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) and association analyses to test the hypotheses that PDGFRA P1 was (1) transmitted preferentially in SBMM affected children and (2) associated with the condition of SBMM comparing affected children to unaffected controls. We did find that there was a different allelic and genotypic distribution of PDGFRA P1 when comparing Hispanics and Caucasians. However, neither ethnic group showed strong association between SBMM and the PDGFRA P1 region. These findings suggest that PDGFRA P1 does not have a major role in the development of SBMM. PMID:16283668

Au, K-S; Northrup, H; Kirkpatrick, T J; Volcik, K A; Fletcher, J M; Townsend, I T; Blanton, S H; Tyerman, G H; Villarreal, G; King, T M

2005-12-15

214

US Pilot Study of Lumbar to Sacral Nerve Rerouting to Restore Voiding and Bowel Function in Spina Bifida: 3-Year Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective. To report our experience with creating a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex arc with intradural lumbar to sacral motor root microanastomosis to restore bladder/bowel function in spina bifida patients. Methods. Urinary/bowel changes from baseline to three years were evaluated with questionnaires, voiding diaries, urodynamics (UDS), and renal function studies. Treatment response was defined as CIC ? once/day with stable renal function, voiding efficiency > 50%, and no worsening of motor function. Results. Of 13 subjects (9 female, median age 8 years), 3 voided small amounts at baseline, one voided 200?cc (voiding efficiency 32%), 4/13 reported normal bowels, and 2/13 were continent of stool. Postoperatively, all had transient lower extremity weakness; one developed permanent foot drop. Over three years, renal function remained stable and mean maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) increased (P = 0.0135). In the 10 that returned at 3 years, 7 were treatment responders and 9 had discontinued antimuscarinics, but most still leaked urine. Only 2/8 with baseline neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) still had NDO, all 3 with compliance <10?mL/cm H2O had normalized, 7/10 considered their bowels normal, 5/10 were continent of stool, and 8/10 would undergo the procedure again. Conclusion. Lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting can improve elimination in spina bifida patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378664.

Peters, Kenneth M.; Gilmer, Holly; Feber, Kevin; Girdler, Benjamin J.; Nantau, William; Trock, Gary; Killinger, Kim A.; Boura, Judith A.

2014-01-01

215

Effects of reading goals on reading comprehension, reading rate, and allocation of working memory in children and adolescents with spina bifida meningomyelocele.  

PubMed

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intact word decoding and deficient text and discourse comprehension. This study investigated the ability to adjust reading in accordance with specified reading goals in 79 children and adolescents with SBM (9-19 years of age) and 39 controls (8-17 years of age). Both groups demonstrated slower reading times and enhanced comprehension when reading to study or to come up with a title than when reading for specific information or for entertainment. For both groups, verbal working memory contributed to comprehension performance in those reading conditions hypothesized to require more cognitive effort. Despite their sensitivity to the goals of reading, the group with SBM answered fewer comprehension questions correctly across all reading goal conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesized cognitive underpinnings of comprehension deficits in SBM and to current models of text comprehension. PMID:20338082

English, Lianne; Barnes, Marcia A; Fletcher, Jack M; Dennis, Maureen; Raghubar, Kimberly P

2010-05-01

216

Amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase electrophoresis as a secondary test in the diagnosis of anencephaly and open spina bifida in early pregnancy. Report of the Collaborative acetylcholinesterase Study.  

PubMed

Fifteen centres collaborated in a study to determine the value of amniotic fluid acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) electrophoresis in the diagnosis of fetal open neural-tube defects (NTDs) between 13 and 24 weeks of gestation among women with positive amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) results. Pregnancies with positive amniotic fluid AFP results were identified from about 34 000 tested; on average they had values greater than the 99.6th percentile for non-NTD pregnancies. Amniotic fluid samples were available from 1099 pregnancies with positive AFP results, and the percentages which yielded positive AChE results were as follows: anencephaly 99.6% (476/478); open spina bifida 99.4% (333/335); non-NTD pregnancies (i) without serious malformation and not ending in miscarriage 6% (8/125), (ii) without serious malformation but ending in miscarriage 47% (34/73), (iii) exomphalos 75% (47/63), (iv) congenital nephrosis 0% (0/11), (v) other serious malformations 50% (7/14). The gel-AChE test was thus found to be very effective when applied to amniotic fluid samples with positive AFP results, substantially reducing the number of false positives with only a very small loss in the detection of open neural-tube defects. Among women with positive amniotic fluid AFP results, the risk of having a fetus with an open NTD compared to having one without a serious malformation or a miscarriage is raised about 16-fold if the AchE test is also positive. The actual risk will depend on the birth prevalence and the reason for amniocentesis. For example, in the U.K. the risk of open spina bifida (expressed as an odds ratio) when both the amniotic fluid AFP result and the gel AChE results are positive would be as follows for women referred for amniocentesis in different categories; approximately 288:1 for those referred because of single raised serum AFP level (greater than or equal to 2.5 time the normal median at 16-18 weeks of gestation, 80:1 for women referred because of having previously had an infant with an NTD, and 8:1 for women referred for other reasons. It the amniotic fluid sample is stained with blood which is mainly fetal in origin, the corresponding odds are much lower (36:1, 10:1, and 1:1 respectively): if it is not blood-stained or is stained mainly with maternal blood, they are higher (954:1, 265:1, and 26:1 respectively). PMID:6115108

1981-08-15

217

Functional significance of atypical cortical organization in spina bifida myelomeningocele: relations of cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity.  

PubMed

The cortex in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is atypically organized, but it is not known how specific features of atypical cortical organization promote or disrupt cognitive and motor function. Relations of deviant cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity were investigated in 64 individuals with SBM and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals, aged 8-28 years. Cortical thickness and 3D local gyrification index (LGI) were quantified from 33 cortical regions per hemisphere using FreeSurfer. Results replicated previous findings, showing regions of higher and lower cortical thickness and LGI in SBM relative to the TD comparison individuals. Cortical thickness and LGI were negatively associated in most cortical regions, though less consistently in the TD group. Whereas cortical thickness and LGI tended to be negatively associated with IQ and fine motor outcomes in regions that were thicker or more gyrified in SBM, associations tended to be positive in regions that were thinner or less gyrified in SBM. The more deviant the levels of cortical thickness and LGI-whether higher or lower relative to the TD group-the more impaired the IQ and fine motor outcomes, suggesting that these cortical atypicalities in SBM are functionally maladaptive, rather than adaptive. PMID:22875857

Treble, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M

2013-10-01

218

New 19 bp deletion polymorphism in intron-1 of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR): a risk factor for spina bifida acting in mothers during pregnancy?  

PubMed

Up to 72% of spina bifida cystica (SB) is preventable by maternal periconceptual folic acid supplementation. The C677T allele of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and some other functional polymorphisms are risk factors for SB in some populations. However, despite extensive study, the genetic risk factors for SB are incompletely understood. Polymorphic alleles that diminish bioavailability of reduced folate in the mother during pregnancy could contribute to SB in her fetus, acting in the mother as teratogenic alleles. We recently discovered a polymorphic 19 bp deletion allele (frequency 0.45) within intron-1 of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that is a good candidate for such a genetic factor. Since there is precedence for intron-1 regulatory elements and the deletion allele removes a potential Sp1 transcription factor binding site, we hypothesized that the deletion allele could be functional and act in SB mothers to increase the risk of SB in her fetus. We found that homozygosity for this deletion allele was significantly more frequent in SB mothers, but not in SB fathers or patients, compared with controls and was associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) (2.035) of being an SB mother compared with other genotypes. Genotype distribution obeyed the constraints of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, SB patients and fathers, but not in SB mothers. If confirmed, these findings could lead to improved forms of folate supplementation for pregnancy. About half of dietary folates and all of folic acid supplements must be reduced by DHFR to be available for mother and fetus. Reduced folates could be preferable for supplements during pregnancy to prevent SB. PMID:14735580

Johnson, William G; Stenroos, Edward S; Spychala, John R; Chatkupt, Sansnee; Ming, Sue X; Buyske, Steven

2004-02-01

219

Amniotic-fluid alpha-fetoprotein measurement in antenatal diagnosis of anencephaly and open spina bifida in early pregnancy. Second report of the U.K. Collaborative Study on Alpha-fetoprotein in Relation to Neural-tube Defects.  

PubMed

Results of a collaborative study performed in the United Kingdom of the correlation between amniotic fluid alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels and occurrence of open neural tube defects (NTDs) are presented. AFP measurement between 13 and 24 weeks of pregnancy was investigated as a tool for diagnosing NTDs early in pregnancy. Data on 13,105 singleton pregnancies without fetal NTDs and on 385 with fetal NTDs (222 with anencephaly and 152 with spina bifida) were collected. The percentage of unaffected pregnancies with amniotic fluid AFP values equal to or greater than a given cut-off level (expressed as a multiple of the normal median) increased with gestational age, but similar percentages could be obtained by using different cut-off levels at different gestational ages such as 2.5 times median at 13-15 weeks, 3 times at 16-18, 3.5 at 19-21, and 4 at 22-24 weeks. Using these cut-off levels, 98% (120/123) of spnia bifida cases and 98% (218/222) of anencephalics gave positive results; .48% (61/12,804) of unaffected singleton pregnancies not associated with miscarriage also gave positive results (excluding 7 positive results relating to cases of serious fetal malformations). Where amniotic fluid samples were blood-free, detection rates were the same (98% and 98%), but the false positive rate was much lower (.27%, i.e., 31/11,625). In the study area as a whole, the estimated approximate odds of having a fetus with open spina bifida, given 1 amniocentesis sample for AFP measurement, are 18:1 among women with AFP equal to or greater than 2.5 times the median at 16-18 weeks, 5:1 among women who have previously had an infant with an NTD, and 1:2 among other women. The corresponding odds for all open NTDs are approximately 35:1, 9:1, and 1:1, respectively. Raising the cut-off levels by .5 times the median at every gestational period reduced the detection en spina bifida to 93% and reduced the false positive rate to .24%. PMID:90757

1979-09-29

220

Spina Bifida and Agent Orange  

MedlinePLUS

... VA » Health Care » Public Health » Page Not Found Public Health Public Health Public Health Home Military Exposures Military Exposures Home 4 Ways ... Publications & Reports About Us About the Office of Public Health Post-Deployment Health Clinical Public Health About Clinical ...

221

Human tail with spina bifida.  

PubMed

A true human tail is a rare occurrence and is defined as a caudal, vestigial, midline protrusion with skin covering connective tissue, muscle, vessels and nerves. We report a case of true human tail in a child, which is a very rare happening in humans. PMID:19922280

Chauhan, S P S; Gopal, N N; Jain, Mohit; Gupta, Anurag

2009-12-01

222

Anorectal motility after surgery for spina bifida.  

PubMed

Anorectal motility was studied in 93 children (aged 15 days to 16 1/2 years) who had undergone surgery for myelocele or meningomyelocele, and 80 controls, matched for age and sex. Mean resting pressure in the anal canal of patients was markedly decreased, particularly in the presence of incontinence, and unstable. The recording of a rectoanal inhibitory reflex both in the upper anal canal and at the anal margin was associated with the presence of fecal incontinence and motor disorders of the lower extremities. Patients could be divided into four groups according to manometric pattern: 1) those with normal recordings (incontinence in 63 per cent), 2) those with spontaneous intermittent relaxations of the upper anal canal and simultaneous rectal contractions (incontinence in 91 per cent), 3) those with normal manometry except for unstable upper anal canal pressure (incontinence in 92 per cent), and 4) those with absence of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex and hypotonic anal canal (patients too young to appraise continence, all under 2 years). PMID:6365486

Arhan, P; Faverdin, C; Devroede, G; Pierre-Kahn, A; Scott, H; Pellerin, D

1984-03-01

223

76 FR 19995 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review The meeting announced below concerns ``National Spina Bifida Registry Longitudinal Data Collection and Evaluation...of applications received in response to ``National Spina Bifida Registry Longitudinal Data Collection and...

2011-04-11

224

Hydrocephalus and Shunts in the Person with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... with the water on and a partially clogged drain, this fluid on the brain can’t drain fast enough. This fluid is made by special ... to insert a tube, called a shunt, to drain excess fluid from the head to another place ...

225

Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... forms & job-related information Meetings, Conferences & Events Upcoming & past scientific meetings & public events Partnering & Donations Guidance on ... NICHDWWWPageContent2 Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Infant Care and Infant Health Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) All ...

226

Progression of terminal syrinx in occult spina bifida after untethering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object. The association of spinal dysraphism and terminal syringomyelia is a well-known entity, and untethering with or without syrinx drainage is usually the surgery of choice. However, progression of the previously existing syrinx after an untethering procedure is an uncommon course. The objective of this study was to discuss the diagnostic, surgical, and follow-up consequences of such an occurrence. Methods.

B. Sade; L. Beni-Adani; S. Constantini

2003-01-01

227

Ethnic differences in the prevalence of anencephaly and sina bifida in Boston, Massachusetts.  

PubMed

because of the large Irish population, a group with high prevalence rates of anencephaly and spina bifida, and the small Jewish population, a group with very low prevalences of these anomalies, cases of anencephaly and spina bifida born in 1 of 4 Boston maternity hospitals were compared with a systematic 1 in 300 sample of all births in the same facilities. Estimates of prevalence were made according to ethnic group, socioeconomic status, and parity. As expected, Irish offspring showed high rates (3.1 per 1000 births) of prevalence for these congenital defects, and these rates did not change in degree if the investigation was restricted to mother only, father only, or both parents Irish heritage. If mothers were born in Ireland, however, the prevalence rate was 4.9/1000. Offspring of Jewish mothers had the lowest rates of any ethnic group examined (Protestant, Irish Catholic, Roman Catholic, and other religions), .77/1000. However, in the highest economic classes, differences between the 3 major religions were not significant. Other ancestories showed the following prevalences: Italian, 1.09; Canadian, 3.18; English, 1.49; and other U.S., 2.58. Overall in Massachusetts the rate was 3.11. Prevalence rates increased dramatically with increasing socioeconomic status. Association with parity was also noticed; parity and ehtnic group were independent associations, as were ethnic and socioeconomic class. PMID:4861562

Naggan, L; MacMahon, B

1967-11-23

228

Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

2014-03-01

229

Fetal Spina Bifida Repair – Current Trends and Prospects of Intrauterine Neurosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele is a common dysraphic defect leading to severe impairment throughout the patient’s lifetime. Although surgical closure of this anomaly is usually performed in the early postnatal period, an estimated 330 cases of intrauterine repair have been performed in a few specialized centers worldwide. It was hoped prenatal intervention would improve the prognosis of affected patients, and preliminary findings suggest

M. A. Fichter; U. Dornseifer; J. Henke; K. T. M. Schneider; L. Kovacs; E. Biemer; J. Bruner; N. S. Adzick; M. R. Harrison; N. A. Papadopulos

2008-01-01

230

Parent- and self-ratings of executive functions in adolescents and young adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study examined the agreement and consistency of parent- and self-report of executive functioning (EF) (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions; BRIEF) in an adolescent cohort of youth with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MMH). A total of 30 youth participants with MMH and their parents were recruited during adolescence (age 11-18, mean age 14), and a smaller sample (n?=?13) was re-evaluated during young adulthood (age 18-26, mean age 22). Parent- and self-report T-scores were moderately correlated during adolescence (General Executive Composite, GEC, r?=?.504, p?=?.007) and adulthood (GEC, r?=?.571, p?=?.041). Compared to adolescent self-ratings, parent-ratings suggested higher levels of overall executive dysfunction and problems with metacognitive abilities during adolescence. Preliminary results from a small follow up sample, however, suggest that self- and parent-report of executive functioning may become more comparable during young adulthood. These preliminary data also suggest stability of deficit and/or possible improvement in executive presentation during the transition from adolescence to adulthood in this clinical population. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21955110

Zabel, T Andrew; Jacobson, Lisa A; Zachik, Claire; Levey, Eric; Kinsman, Stephen; Mahone, E Mark

2011-08-01

231

Deliberate termination of life of newborns with spina bifida, a critical reappraisal  

PubMed Central

Objects Deliberate termination of life of newborns (involuntary euthanasia) with meningomyelocele (MMC) is practiced openly only in the Netherlands. ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ is the single most cited criterion for this termination, together with the notion that ‘there are no other proper medical means to alleviate this suffering’. In this paper, both (and other) statements are questioned, also by putting them in a broader perspective. Methods First, a historical overview of the treatment of newborns with MMC is presented, concentrating on the question of selection for treatment. Second, a thorough analysis is made of the criteria used for life termination. Third, a case of a newborn with a very severe MMC is presented as a ‘reference case’. Conclusion ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ cannot be applied to newborns with MMC. They are not ‘terminally ill’ and do have ‘prospects of a future’. In these end-of-life decisions, ‘quality of life judgments’ should not be applied. When such a newborn is not treated, modern palliative care always will suffice in eliminating possible discomfort. There is no reason whatsoever for active life-termination of these newborns.

2007-01-01

232

77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council...Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council...Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National...

2012-06-13

233

77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza; Filing...Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza...

2012-07-18

234

The embryogenesis of trypan-blue induced spina bifida aperta and short tail in the rat.  

PubMed

The study of litters from 140 Wistar-derived rats injected with trypan blue during gestation leads to conclusion that a myelocele can result from faulty closure of the neural plate and that this is accompanied in many cases by blebs in the paraxial mesoderm. Haematomata usually underlie the open neural plate at an early stage and they form by extravasation of blood from the dorsal aortae into the blebs. Local ventral deflection of the notochord beneath a myelocele probably results from delayed separation of the notochord from the hindgut. Complete failure of separation and abnormality induced in the tail-bud could result in sacral agenesis and/or a short tail. All these malformations may result from varying severity of the action of the trypan blue at different developmental stages. PMID:1107114

Lendon, R G

1975-01-01

235

IS SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH) A CANDIDATE GENE FOR SPINA BIFIDA? (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

236

Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

2009-01-01

237

JUMONJI GENE AND RISK FOR SPINA BIFIDA AND CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

238

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYMORPHISMS WITHIN THE THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE GENE AND SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

239

[Vesico-renal reflux caused by neurogenic bladder from spina bifida in childhood].  

PubMed

The authors report their experience related to 35 cases of neuropathic bladder examined during the last 12 months. They discuss the method followed for the study of each patient. Particularly they underline the importance of: scintiscan in the valuation of the renal function and urodynamic tests for a better knowledge of vesical disfunction. In the patient with vesicorenal reflux they propose two kinds of treatment (medical or surgical), selected after a complete valuation of radiologic, functional and urodynamic tests. They underline the importance of the pharmacological treatment, single or associated with surgical operation, in the patients with reflux and with a low vesical compliance and/or hyperreflexic bladder. Finally the Authors discuss the antireflux surgical techniques that they prefer and that have consented them to obtain excellent results. PMID:2943101

Beseghi, U; Potenzoni, D; Mori, M; Sacchini, P; Ghinelli, C

1986-01-01

240

Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications and Electronic Media Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service Data and ...

241

Information for Expectant Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Spina Bifida Homepage Facts Health Issues & Treatments Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida ...

242

Health Issues and Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... 888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Spina Bifida Homepage Facts Health Issues & Treatments Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida ...

243

75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the effects of the individual's spina bifida or other covered birth defects...Vietnam Veterans' Children with Spina Bifida or Other Covered Defects. List...Children of Vietnam Veterans--Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects 0...

2010-01-20

244

77 FR 74281 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Benefits for Certain Children With Disabilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under title 38 U.S.C. 1805, Spina Bifida Benefits Eligibility, authorizes payment to a spina bifida child-claimant of parent(s...Vietnam during the Vietnam era. Spina Bifida benefits are payable for all...

2012-12-13

245

38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General...of this title who suffers from spina bifida, or an individual as defined...program under this subpart. Spina bifida means the same as defined...

2010-07-01

246

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...certificate. Child for purposes of spina bifida means the same as individual ...residing in such private residence. Spina bifida means all forms and...

2009-07-01

247

77 FR 60745 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Benefits for Certain Children With Disabilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under title 38 U.S.C. 1805, Spina Bifida Benefits Eligibility, authorizes payment to a spina bifida child-claimant of parent(s...Vietnam during the Vietnam era. Spina Bifida benefits are payable for all...

2012-10-04

248

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...certificate. Child for purposes of spina bifida means the same as individual ...residing in such private residence. Spina bifida means all forms and...

2010-07-01

249

Neural tube defect-specific acetylcholinesterase: its properties and quantitation in the detection of anencephaly and spina bifida.  

PubMed

Amniotic fluid from neural tube defect-affected pregnancies (NTD) contains three forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the major species of which is present only in trace amounts in normal pregnancies or those associated with a non-NTD fetal malformation. The activity of this 'specific' AChE is increased 62-fold in the presence of NTD and its measurement provides a sensitive and specific test for the biochemical detection of this disorder. The sedimentation coefficient of 'NTD specific' AChE (10.3S) indicates that it is a tetrameric species, and that the two additional forms present, (4.0S and 5.5S) are monomer and dimer, respectively. Gel filtration studies also support these findings. Combining these data, the molecular masses of monomer, dimer and tetramer are shown to be 78, 126 and 256 kDa (+/- 10%). 'NTD-Specific' AChE does not react with the detergent Triton X-100, indicating that it is a soluble, and probably secreted, species without membrane associating properties. PMID:2449304

Bonham, J R; Dale, G; Atack, J R

1987-11-30

250

The significance of the percentage of the defect size in spina bifida cystica in determination of the surgical technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. Our aim was to classify meningoceles and meningomyeloceles in terms of defect area as a percentage of the thoracolumbar region to make it possible to select the surgical technique accordingly. Materials and methods. Thirty-two cases were included in the study program. Any defect smaller than 8% of the thoracolumbar region was primarily sutured and classed as grade 1. Results.

M. F. Ozveren; F. S. Erol; C. Topsakal; M. T. Tiftikci; I. Akdemir

2002-01-01

251

RISK FACTORS FOR NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS: ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN UNCOUPLING PROTEIN 2 POLYMORPHISMS AND SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

252

EVALUATION OF THE CITED2 GENE AND RISK FOR SPINA BIFIDA AND CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

253

Idiom Comprehension Deficits in Relation to Corpus Callosum Agenesis and Hypoplasia in Children with Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Idioms are phrases with figurative meanings that are not directly derived from the literal meanings of the words in the phrase. Idiom comprehension varies with: literality, whether the idiom is literally plausible; compositionality, whether individual words contribute to a figurative meaning; and contextual bias. We studied idiom comprehension in…

Huber-Okrainec, J.; Blaser, S.E.; Dennis, M.

2005-01-01

254

The Many Layers of Social Support: Capturing the Voices of Young People with Spina Bifida and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people with physical disabilities experience greater difficulty than their able-bodied peers in many psychosocial domains as they transition toward adulthood. However, firsthand knowledge of the dimensions of social support that young people with physical disabilities find useful during this stage is lacking. This qualitative study involved…

Antle, Beverley J.; Montgomery, Gert; Stapleford, Christine

2009-01-01

255

Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the butanol extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.), Willd (Rhamnaceae) leaves and its major saponin glycoside, christinin-A, on the serum glucose and insulin levels was studied in non-diabetic control, type-I (insulin-dependent) and type-II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic rats. Pretreatment either with 100mg\\/kg butanol extract or christinin-A potentiated glucose-induced insulin release in non-diabetic control rats. In type-II but not in type-I

Ahmed O. Abdel-Zaher; Safa Y. Salim; Mahmoud H. Assaf; Randa H. Abdel-Hady

2005-01-01

256

75 FR 9276 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits); Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and certain other covered birth defects. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the...reimbursement of expenses related to spina bifida and certain covered birth defects. Affected Public: Individuals or households....

2010-03-01

257

75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10-002 Public Health Research on Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults...evaluation of ``RFA DD 10-002 Public Health Research on Spina Bifida,...

2010-03-22

258

45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specific types of cases or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...facility of an infant with a diagnosis specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

2009-10-01

259

45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specific types of cases or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...facility of an infant with a diagnosis specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

2010-10-01

260

Facts about Anencephaly  

MedlinePLUS

... decline in pregnancies affected by nueral tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly) since the United States began fortifying ... die shortly after birth. Related Pages Folic Acid Spina Bifida Disability & Health Pediatric Genetics Healthy Pregnancy Planning for ...

261

Meningocele repair  

MedlinePLUS

... dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... medical team experienced in caring for children with spina bifida. Your baby will likely have an MRI (magnetic ...

262

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... defects of the brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ) happen in the first few weeks of pregnancy; ... materials » Q: I already have a child with spina bifida. Should I do anything different to prepare for ...

263

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... of the baby's brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ). How much folic acid a woman needs 400 ... audiocast about folic acid. Related Pages Healthy Pregnancy spina bifida Birth Defects CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects ...

264

76 FR 58567 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the information needed to determine children with spina bifida eligibility for reimbursement of transportation expenses...Abstract: Children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and receiving vocational training or seeking...

2011-09-21

265

76 FR 9578 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Spina Bifida Patient Registry--Clinic Demonstration Project...review, discussion, and evaluation of the ``National Spina Bifida Patient Registry--Clinic Demonstration...

2011-02-18

266

76 FR 52572 - Rules Governing Hearings Before the Agency of Original Jurisdiction and the Board of Veterans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allowance for Children of Vietnam Veterans Born with Spina Bifida; and 64.128, Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Vietnam Veterans' Children with Spina Bifida or Other Covered Birth Defects. Signing Authority...

2011-08-23

267

77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...solicits comments on information needed to determine a spina bifida child of Vietnam veterans' eligibility for ancillary...21-0307 is used to provide children of veterans who have spina bifida with information about a VA health care and...

2012-10-04

268

77 FR 23128 - Rules Governing Hearings Before the Agency of Original Jurisdiction and the Board of Veterans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allowance for Children of Vietnam Veterans Born with Spina Bifida; and 64.128, Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Vietnam Veterans' Children with Spina Bifida or Other Covered Birth Defects. Signing Authority...

2012-04-18

269

What Are the Treatments for Neural Tube Defects?  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormalities in the skull and face. Treatment for spina bifida depends on the severity of the condition and ... depending on the severity or complications. 1 Open spina bifida. An infant with myelomeningocele, in which the spinal ...

270

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... pregnancy, it can prevent major birth defects, including: Spina bifida (SPEYE-nuh BIF-ih-duh), which occurs when ... and other functions do not work. Children with spina bifida often have lifelong disabilities. They may also need ...

271

Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... during fetal development, and is closely linked to spina bifida. Tethered spinal cord syndrome may go undiagnosed until ... 800-999-NORD (6673) Fax: 203-798-2291 Spina Bifida Association 4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW Suite 250 Washington, ...

272

76 FR 17544 - Board of Veterans' Appeals: Remand or Referral for Further Action; Notification of Evidence...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allowance for Children of Vietnam Veterans Born with Spina Bifida; and 64.128, Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Vietnam Veterans' Children with Spina Bifida or Other Covered Birth Defects. Signing Authority...

2011-03-30

273

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...law administered by VA. An individual suffering...is entitled to only one monthly allowance...member, etc. (5) VA will pay individuals under the age of one year at Level I unless...reaches the age of one year. (6) VA will reassess the...

2013-07-01

274

Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway  

PubMed Central

The mammalian Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway is essential for embryonic development and the patterning of multiple organs. Disruption or activation of Shh signalling leads to multiple birth defects, including holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects and polydactyly, and in adults results in tumours of the skin or central nervous system. Genetic approaches with model organisms continue to identify novel components of the pathway, including key molecules that function as positive or negative regulators of Shh signalling. Data presented here define Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We have identified a new mouse mutant that is a strongly hypomorphic allele of Tulp3 and which exhibits expansion of ventral markers in the caudal spinal cord, as well as neural tube defects and preaxial polydactyly, consistent with increased Shh signalling. We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically downstream of Shh and Smoothened (Smo) in neural tube patterning and exhibits a genetic interaction with Gli3 in limb development. We show that Tulp3 does not appear to alter expression or processing of Gli3, and we demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of other negative regulators (Rab23, Fkbp8, Thm1, Sufu and PKA) is not affected. We discuss the possible mechanism of action of Tulp3 in Shh-mediated signalling in light of these new data.

Patterson, Victoria L.; Damrau, Christine; Paudyal, Anju; Reeve, Benjamin; Grimes, Daniel T.; Stewart, Michelle E.; Williams, Debbie J.; Siggers, Pam; Greenfield, Andy; Murdoch, Jennifer N.

2009-01-01

275

A frameshift mutation in the gene for PAX3 in a girl with spina bifida and mild signs of Waardenburg syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most prevalent congenital malformations in man. Based on the molecular defect of Splotch, an established mouse model for NTD, and on the clinical association between NTD and Waardenburg syndrome (WS), mutations in the PAX3 gene can be expected to act as factors predisposing to human NTD. To test this hypothesis, 39 patients with familial NTD were screened by SSC analysis for mutations in exons 2 to 6 of the human PAX3 gene. One patient with lumbosacral meningomyelocele was identified with a 5 bp deletion in exon 5 approximately 55 bp upstream of the conserved homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift with a stop codon almost immediately after the mutated site. Clinical investigation of the index patient indicated mild signs of WS type I. Varying signs of this syndrome were found to cosegregate with the mutation in the family. Our results support the hypothesis that mutations in the gene for PAX3 can predispose to NTD, but also show that, in general, mutations within or near the conserved domains of the PAX3 protein are only very infrequently involved in familial NTD. Images

Hol, F A; Hamel, B C; Geurds, M P; Mullaart, R A; Barr, F G; Macina, R A; Mariman, E C

1995-01-01

276

The testing of blighted, aged, and control Russet Burbank potato tuber preparation for ability to produce spina bifida and anencephaly in rats, rabbits, hamsters, and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding trials were performed in which we tested for specific teratogenicity certain freeze-dried preparations from Russet\\u000a Burbank potatoes. The preparations were experimentally infected under conditions designed to ensure vigorous infection withPhytophthora infestans or infected similarly with the early blight organismAlternaria solani. Some preparations were cut and aged under conditions that enhanced the alkaloid level. Some preparations were untreated.\\u000a None of

R. F. Keeler; D. R. Douglas; G. F. Stallknecht

1975-01-01

277

MATERNAL PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, GENETIC VARIATION OF INFANT REDUCED FOLATE CARRIER (A80G) AND RISK OF SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

278

EVALUATION OF INFANT METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENOTYPE, MATERNAL VITAMIN USE, AND RISK OF HIGH VERSUS LOW LEVEL SPINA BIFIDA DEFECTS. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

279

[Evaluation of pathogenesis of encephalocele, high spina bifida and congenital clubfoot not forming part of any known syndrome: a case report].  

PubMed

The authors report the case, non forming part of any known syndrome, of a newborn with encephalocele, high cranial schisis, ocular anomalies, cleft palate and congenital clubfoot. The photographic documentation of the malformations is not possible due to a technical error in taking the photographs (lack of light in the room). Alterations to cerebral nervous tissue were histologically and cytologically characterised by immaturity and block of normal development during the early stages. For this reason the alteration of primary neuro-ectodermal tissue appears to be the initial factor with secondary involvement of anatomically and functionally contiguous fields and tissues, such as cranial bones and the eyes. The alteration of the nervous system resulted in the incapacity of the fetus to make fetal movements, making it vulnerable to extrinsic compression, above all uterine pressure. This led to the adoption of fixed postures with articular blockage most evident in the lower limbs (congenital clubfoot). The pathogenic noxa was not identified. PMID:8766676

Colombo, P; Bianchi, G A; Meregalli, V

1996-03-01

280

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA will provide a Vietnam...815 of this title to suffer from spina bifida with such health care as the...

2009-07-01

281

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA will provide a Vietnam...815 of this title to suffer from spina bifida with such health care as the...

2010-07-01

282

The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered \\

Amots Dafni; Shay Levy; Efraim Lev

2005-01-01

283

Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

284

Longitudinal melanonychias.  

PubMed

Melanonychia is black or brown pigmentation that appears in the fingernails and toenails. The pigment can come from exogenous sources, such as bacteria or fungal infection, tar, or blood. Endogenous causes include aberrant melanin production in the nail bed, resulting in a longitudinal presentation. Melanonychia can indicate the presence of cancerous growths, as well as infection. Diagnostic measures, including dermatoscopy, biopsy, and histopathology, can determine the cause and direct the course of treatment. Malignant lesions should be excised, and underlying infections should be addressed with antibiotics or antifungals. Benign lesions and hyperpigmentation may benefit from a wait-and-see approach. PMID:24079589

Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Ruben, Beth S; Loureiro, Walter Refkalevsky

2013-01-01

285

Effects of seated posture on erector spinae EMG activity during whole body vibration.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) response of the erector spinae to whole body vibration in three different unsupported seated postures: neutral upright, forward lean, and posterior lean. Subjects were 11 healthy college-age men. EMG was collected using bipolar surface electrodes placed bilaterally over the erector spinae at the L4 level. A modified chair with attached accelerometer was affixed to an induction type vibrator. Subjects were vibrated vertically at 4.5 Hz and 6.21 m.s-2 RMS. Data were collected in each of the three postures for 30 s pre- and post-vibration and for 2 min during vibration. Mean EMG values were determined for each sampling period and compared using ANOVA. The mean value for anterior lean was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than that for posterior lean and neutral. EMG data analysed by triggered averaging showed a phase-dependent response to the vibratory cycle for the forward leaning and neutral upright postures. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of the vibration synchronous response of the erector spinae musculature is dependent upon body posture. This response may be an important factor in the onset of muscular fatigue and the increased incidence of back disorders among individuals exposed to whole body vibration. PMID:8513774

Zimmermann, C L; Cook, T M; Goel, V K

1993-06-01

286

The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel  

PubMed Central

This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze.

Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

2005-01-01

287

A Massive Tuberculosis Abscess at the Erector Spinae Muscles and Subcutaneous Tissues in a Young Man  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous infection which can present in an atypical form. Isolated muscle involvement is very rare. We report a 25-year-old man who presented with a massive cystic swelling on the right side of his back, extending from the lower thoracic to the gluteal region. He had a history of contact with a friend who was suspected of having TB. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the origin of the cyst was from the erector spinae muscles. The result of a fluid aspirate showed acid fast bacilli. The swelling disappeared after treatment with anti-tuberculous medications. Muscular involvement in TB is very rare. In our patient, the reports of an ultrasound and MRI confirmed isolated muscle and subcutaneous involvement without bony lesions. This case is reported to increase physician awareness regarding soft tissue TB. Although it is rare, similar cases may be seen in the future.

Elshafie, Kawther T.; Al-Hinai, Mustafa M.; Al-Habsi, Hamdan A.; Al-Hattali, Mohammed S.; Hassan, Osama; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid

2013-01-01

288

Longitudinal Stability Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

Blaskiewicz,M.

2009-01-02

289

Morbus de Anquin or spinous engagement syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a rare disease called to Anquin's disease or spinous engagement or impingement syndrome. Low-back pain in this specific syndrome probably combined with sciatica is caused by a hypertrophic spinous process along with a spina bifida occulta of the underlying vertebra. Mostly, the enlarged spinous process is seen at L5 and the spina bifida occulta at S I.

J. Bruns; U. Rehder; G. P. Dahmen; P. Behrens; L. Meiss

1994-01-01

290

Congenital malformations associated with anencephaly and iniencephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necropsy reports of 294 cases of anencephaly and 50 cases of iniencephaly have been examined, and a tubulated list of associated malformations produced. Cases were divided by sex and the presence or absence of spina bifida. Forty-one per cent of the series had other malformations, and other malformations were more common in those cases with spina bifida than in

T J David; A Nixon

1976-01-01

291

Thoracic Meningocele, Meningomyelocele or Myelocystocele? Diagnostic Difficulties, Consequent Implications and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida cystica is a closing disorder of the neural tube which infrequently occurs in the thoracic region. A rare lesion called myelocystocele is a variant of spina bifida cystica and is associated with syringomyelia, Chiari type 2 malformation and hydrocephalus. Usually the patient has no neurological deficit, but future deterioration can occur due to posterior tethering of the spinal

M. P. Arts; T. H. R. de Jong

2004-01-01

292

Subsequent Births in Families of Children with Disabilities: Using Demographic Data to Examine Parents' Reproductive Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors determined family reproductive patterns after the birth of a child with (vs. without) a disability. Using Tennessee birth records, the authors examined families of children with Down syndrome (N = 1,123), spina bifida (N = 368), and population group (N = 734,189). Families of children with Down syndrome and with spina bifida were more…

Burke, Meghan M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

2011-01-01

293

Neural Tube Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina bifida, the fetal spinal column doesn't close completely. There is usually nerve damage that causes at least some paralysis of the legs. In anencephaly, ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

294

Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

2011-01-01

295

Longitudinal Magnification Drawing Mistake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral magnification in image formation by positive lenses, mirrors, and dioptrics is usually appropriately developed in most optics textbooks.1-9 However, the image of a three-dimensional object occupies a three-dimensional region of space. The optical system affects both the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions of the object and, in general, does it in different ways. The magnification in the direction of the optical axis (the longitudinal magnification) is seldom treated. In several texts, the concept of longitudinal magnification is not even considered. Symmetrical objects (such as arrows) are used and their images appear laterally inverted. It is not shown how a longitudinally nonsymmetric object is imaged. One of the few books where this subject is well treated is in the textbook by Hecht.10 We have repeatedly verified in our classes that there is some confusion related to this subject. Students tend to believe that the image is longitudinally symmetric with respect to the lens optic center. Some prestigious texts commit the same mistake. In addition, a very nice optics book,11 a catalogue of optical hardware,12 a worldwide scientific magazine,13 a paper in an optics journal,14 and a Spanish encyclopedia,15 for example, have also been found to contain this error in drawing the image of a three-dimensional object formed by a positive lens. In this paper we suggest that the teaching of longitudinal magnification should be done with some care and we include a figure showing a properly drawn image.

Rabal, Héctor; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

2004-01-01

296

Formulation and evaluation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.  

PubMed

This study deals with the formulation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd. A bioactivity guided fractionation of different leaf extracts [defatted ethanol 70% (a), butanol (b), ethanol 70% (c), ethyl acetate (d) and petroleum ether (e) extracts] revealed that extract (c) possessed the highest antihyperglycemic activity followed by (b) and (a). HPLC was adopted for standardization of the extract (c) based on evaluation of the major saponin christinin-A which was used as marker. The detection limit was 9.45 mg/ml for Christinin-A. Extracts (a), (b) and (c) were separately formulated in soft (S) and hard (H) gelatin capsules. Two different formulations (F1 and F2) were tried using different excipients suitable for oral drug delivery. Formula 1, used for soft gelatin capsules [(F1) Sa, Sb, Sc] Formula 2, used for hard gelatin capsules [(F2) - Ha, Hb, Hc]. The recovery rates of the samples of saponin were in the range 99.43-101.86% at 200, 800 microg/ml and 1200 microg/ml. Saponin release rates from different formulae were carried out using dissolution tester USP XXIV. The highest release was obtained from formulation Sc. The release of the extracts followed diffusion mechanism. The selected formula Sc exhibited highest anti-diabetic activity (P < 0.01) on acute and long-term administration and highest saponin release. This formula (Sc) contained poly-oxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (BC-20TX), PEG 400, PEG 6000, purified water, meglyol 810, ascorbic acid and 200 mg of extract (c). PMID:19320283

Nesseem, D I; Michel, C G; Sleem, A A; El-Alfy, T S

2009-02-01

297

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOEpatents

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01

298

Bellows With Longitudinal Beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bellows assembled using two longitudinal side seams allow seam joints to be placed in axial directions of bellows. Design of particular importance in difficult situations where frequent assembly or repair required or in limited-access areas not desirable to disassemble total unit to replace one-piece bellows.

Garvin, W.

1984-01-01

299

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOEpatents

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

1994-08-23

300

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOEpatents

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

1994-06-07

301

Spectral analysis of the electromyograph of the erector spinae muscle before and after a dynamic manual load-lifting test.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the spectral behavior of the erector spinae muscle during isometric contractions performed before and after a dynamic manual load-lifting test carried out by the trunk in order to determine the capacity of muscle to perform this task. Nine healthy female students participated in the experiment. Their average age, height, and body mass (+/- SD) were 20 +/- 1 years, 1.6 +/- 0.03 m, and 53 +/- 4 kg, respectively. The development of muscle fatigue was assessed by spectral analysis (median frequency) and root mean square with time. The test consisted of repeated bending movements from the trunk, starting from a 45 masculine angle of flexion, with the application of approximately 15, 25 and 50% of maximum individual load, to the stand up position. The protocol used proved to be more reliable with loads exceeding 50% of the maximum for the identification of muscle fatigue by electromyography as a function of time. Most of the volunteers showed an increase in root mean square versus time on both the right (N = 7) and the left (N = 6) side, indicating a tendency to become fatigued. With respect to the changes in median frequency of the electromyographic signal, the loads used in this study had no significant effect on either the right or the left side of the erector spinae muscle at this frequency, suggesting that a higher amount and percentage of loads would produce more substantial results in the study of isotonic contractions. PMID:15264016

Cardozo, A C; Gonçalves, M; Gauglitz, A C F

2004-07-01

302

Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

303

Muon Cooling: Longitudinal Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10 MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2 ?s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 107. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 104.

Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M.; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

2014-06-01

304

Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.  

PubMed

A 10??MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2???s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}. PMID:24949772

Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

2014-06-01

305

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

306

ALS longitudinal kickers  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the coupled-bunch instability and how it applies to the ALS accelerator. The longitudinal ALS kicker is part of the bunch-to-bunch feedback system planned to control coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. The mechanical features of the kicker are described, and the analytic tools developed to aid in the design are discussed. A method to predict the performance of the kicker in the accelerator from measurements on a prototype are described.

Voelker, F.

1992-10-01

307

Longitudinal Magnification Drawing Mistake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral magnification in image formation by positive lenses, mirrors, and dioptrics is usually appropriately developed in most optics textbooks.1-9 However, the image of a three-dimensional object occupies a three-dimensional region of space. The optical system affects both the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions of the object and, in general, does it in different ways. The magnification in the direction of

Héctor Rabal; Nelly Cap; Marcelo Trivi

2004-01-01

308

An infant with congenital fibula deficiency accompanying with deafness.  

PubMed

Congenital longitudinal deficiency of the fibula (CLDF) is the most common congenital defect involving the long bones. There have been many different classifications developed for fibula deficiency. Achterman and Kalamchi's classification is most commonly used and will be described. Our case was complied with type II. Other anomalies includes cardiac anomalies, thrombocytopenia absent-radius (TAR) syndrome, thoracoabdominal schisis, spina bifida and renal anomalies, but most associated anomalies are skeletal. We here presented firstly in literature an infant with congenital fibula deficiency accompanying with deafness. PMID:23090811

Cekmez, F; Pirgon, O; Canpolat, F E

2012-10-01

309

Magnetic resonance imaging of the erector spinae muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implication for scoliotic deformities  

PubMed Central

Background In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the muscular degeneration often leads to the development of scoliosis. Our objective was to investigate how anatomical changes in back muscles can lead to scoliosis. Muscular volume and the level of fat infiltration in those muscles were thus evaluated, in non-scoliotic, pre-scoliotic and scoliotic patients. The overlying skin thickness over the apex level of scoliotic deformations was also measured to facilitate the interpretation of electromyographic signals when recorded on the skin surface. Methods In 8 DMD patients and two healthy controls with no known muscular deficiencies, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure continuously at 3 mm intervals the distribution of the erector spinae (ES) muscle in the T8-L4 region as well as fat infiltration in the muscle and overlying skin thickness: four patients were non-scoliotic (NS), two were pre-scoliotic (PS, Cobb angle < 15°) and two were scoliotic (S, Cobb angle ? 15°). For each subject, 63 images 3 mm thick of the ES muscle were obtained in the T8-L4 region on both sides of the spine. The pixel dimension was 0.39 × 0.39 mm. With a commercial software, on each 12 bits image, the ES contour on the left and on the right sides of the spine were manually determined as well as those of its constituents i.e., the iliocostalis (IL), the longissimus (LO) and the spinalis (SP) muscles. Following this segmentation, the surfaces within the contours were determined, the muscles volume were obtained, the amount of fat infiltration inside each muscle was evaluated and the overlying skin thickness measured. Findings The volume of the ES muscle of our S and PS patients was found smaller on the convex side relative to the concave one by 5.3 ± 0.7% and 2.8 ± 0.2% respectively. For the 4 NS patients, the volume difference of this muscle between right and left sides was 2.1 ± 1.5% and for the 2 controls, it was 1.4 ± 1.2%. Fat infiltration for the S and the PS patients was larger on the convex side than on the concave one (4.4 ± 1.6% and 4.5 ± 0.7% respectively) and the difference was more important near the apex. Infiltration was more important in the lateral IL muscle than in the medial SP and it was always larger near L2 than at any other spinal level. Fat infiltration was much more important in the ES for the DMD patients (49.9% ± 1.6%) than for the two controls (2.6 ± 0.8%). As for the overlying skin thickness measured near the deformity of the patients, it was larger on the concave than on the convex side: 14.8 ± 6.1 vs 13.5 ± 5.7 mm for the S and 10.3 ± 6.3 vs 9.8 ± 5.6 mm for the PS. Interpretation In DMD patients, our results indicate that a larger replacement of muscles fibers by fat infiltration on one side of the spine is a factor that can lead to the development of scoliosis. Efforts to slow such an infiltration on the most affected side of the spine could thus be beneficial to those patients by delaying the apparition of the scoliotic deformation. In addition to anatomical considerations, results obtained from the same patients but in experiments dealing with electromyography recordings, point to differences in the muscular contraction mechanisms and/or of the neural input to back muscles. This is similar to the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) where a role of the nervous system in the development of the deformation has also been suggested.

Zoabli, Gnahoua; Mathieu, Pierre A; Aubin, Carl-Eric

2008-01-01

310

Modeling nonstationary longitudinal data.  

PubMed

An important theme of longitudinal data analysis in the past two decades has been the development and use of explicit parametric models for the data's variance-covariance structure. A variety of these models have been proposed, of which most are second-order stationary. A few are flexible enough to accommodate nonstationarity, i.e., nonconstant variances and/or correlations that are not a function solely of elapsed time between measurements. We review five nonstationary models that we regard as most useful: (1) the unstructured covariance model, (2) unstructured antedependence models, (3) structured antedependence models, (4) autoregressive integrated moving average and similar models, and (5) random coefficients models. We evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of each model, emphasizing when it is inappropriate or unlikely to be useful. We present three examples to illustrate the fitting and comparison of the models and to demonstrate that nonstationary longitudinal data can be modeled effectively and, in some cases, quite parsimoniously. In these examples, the antedependence models generally prove to be superior and the random coefficients models prove to be inferior. We conclude that antedependence models should be given much greater consideration than they have historically received. PMID:10985205

Núñez-Antón, V; Zimmerman, D L

2000-09-01

311

A meningomyelocele with normal intracranial signs on ultrasound and false-negative amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects are the major targets of prenatal diagnoses, along with Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida is possible at second trimester of gestation through ?-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase biochemistry assays and ultrasound. In particular, the discovery of characteristic intracranial signs on ultrasound leads to a very high diagnosis rate. However, it is rare for spina bifida to present without intracranial signs while also showing normal values of maternal serum ?-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid ?-fetoprotein, and acetylcholinesterase. In our hospital, a fetus with spina bifida was delivered at 37+5 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, and was continually followed up over 2 years to date.

Yoon, Chong Hyeok; Kang, Sang Kyu; Jin, Chan Hee; Park, Moon Sun

2014-01-01

312

A meningomyelocele with normal intracranial signs on ultrasound and false-negative amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects are the major targets of prenatal diagnoses, along with Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida is possible at second trimester of gestation through ?-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase biochemistry assays and ultrasound. In particular, the discovery of characteristic intracranial signs on ultrasound leads to a very high diagnosis rate. However, it is rare for spina bifida to present without intracranial signs while also showing normal values of maternal serum ?-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid ?-fetoprotein, and acetylcholinesterase. In our hospital, a fetus with spina bifida was delivered at 37+5 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, and was continually followed up over 2 years to date. PMID:24883294

Yoon, Chong Hyeok; Kang, Sang Kyu; Jin, Chan Hee; Park, Moon Sun; Rho, Jeong Hoon

2014-05-01

313

Longitudinal cystic fibrosis care.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis is a complex disease entity that presents considerable lifelong challenges. Implementation of medical and surgical treatment options involves multisystem interventions to prevent and treat lung and gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis and associated comorbidities. From birth through adulthood, cystic fibrosis care entails a longitudinal regimen aimed at achieving relief of disease symptoms and enhanced life expectancy. With increased knowledge of the molecular behavior of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in health and disease, clinical practice has been enriched by the prospect of novel strategies, including mutation-specific drug and gene therapy targeting restoration of corrupted transepithelial ion transport. Emerging paradigms of comprehensive care increasingly enable personalized solutions to address the root cause of disease-transforming management options for individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:23149927

Antunovic, S S; Lukac, M; Vujovic, D

2013-01-01

314

Longitudinal space charge amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal space charge (LSC) driven microbunching instability in electron beam formation systems of X-ray FELs is a recently discovered effect hampering beam instrumentation and FEL operation. The instability was observed in different facilities in infrared and visible wavelength ranges. In this paper we propose to use such an instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray radiation. A typical longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA) consists of few amplification cascades (drift space plus chicane) with a short undulator behind the last cascade. If the amplifier starts up from the shot noise, the amplified density modulation has a wide band, on the order of unity. The bandwidth of the radiation within the central cone is given by inverse number of undulator periods. A wavelength compression could be an attractive option for LSCA since the process is broadband, and a high compression stability is not required. LSCA can be used as a cheap addition to the existing or planned short-wavelength FELs. In particular, it can produce the second color for a pump-probe experiment. It is also possible to generate attosecond pulses in the VUV and X-ray regimes. Some user experiments can profit from a relatively large bandwidth of the radiation, and this is easy to obtain in LSCA scheme. Finally, since the amplification mechanism is broadband and robust, LSCA can be an interesting alternative to self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL) in the case of using laser-plasma accelerators as drivers of light sources.

Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

2013-05-01

315

Tuberculous dactylitis (spina ventosa) with concomitant ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma in an immunocompetent child: A rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculous dactylitis is a distinctly uncommon, yet well recognized form of tuberculosis involving the small bones of the hand or foot. It occurs in young children in endemic areas under 5 years of age. Tuberculosis of the short tubular bones like phalanges, metacarpals or metatarsals is quite uncommon beyond 6 years of age, once the epiphyseal centers are well established. The radiographic features of cystic expansion have led to the name "Spina Ventosa" for tuberculous dactylitis of the short bones. Scrofuloderma is a mycobacterial infection affecting children and young adults, representing direct extension of tuberculosis into the skin from underlying structures e.g. lymph nodes. An 8-year-old malnourished girl had multiple axillary ulcers with lymphadenopathy. Tuberculous dactylitis with ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma was suspected on clinical and radiological grounds. The suspicion was confirmed by histology and bacteriology. The patient responded to antitubercular drugs with progressive healing of the lesions without surgery. Concomitant presence of these dual lesions suggesting active disseminated tuberculosis in immune-competent child over 6 years is very rare and hardly reported. PMID:23977657

Bhaskar; Khonglah, Tashi; Bareh, Jerryson

2013-01-01

316

38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth...participate in a vocational training program, the child of a Vietnam veteran (or the child's parent or guardian, an authorized...

2009-07-01

317

38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Requirement for evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered... Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

2010-07-01

318

38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Requirement for evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered... Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

2009-07-01

319

38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

2013-07-01

320

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

2013-07-01

321

38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

2013-07-01

322

38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefitsâchapter 35. An...

2013-07-01

323

38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

2013-07-01

324

38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

2013-07-01

325

What Can a Woman Do to Promote a Healthy Pregnancy Before She Gets Pregnant?  

MedlinePLUS

... can reduce the risk of complications such as neural tube defects (NTDs) —abnormalities that can occur in ... number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. MMWR, 41 (No. RR-14), 1– ...

326

Iniencephaly  

MedlinePLUS

... development. Iniencephaly is in the same family of neural tube defects as spina bifida, but it is more severe. ... with iniencephaly have additional birth defects, such as anencephaly (in which major sections of the brain fail ...

327

Encephaloceles  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Organizations What are Encephaloceles? Encephaloceles are rare neural tube defects characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain ... families with a history of spina bifida and anencephaly in family members. Is there any treatment? Generally, ...

328

Spinal dysraphism  

PubMed Central

To review the clinical features and current understanding of spina bifida with an emphasis on the Indian Scenario. Selected articles and current English language texts were reviewed. The authors experience was also reviewed and analysed. Spina bifida is a common congenital anomaly encompassing a wide spectrum of neural tube defects.It is broadly classified as spina bifida aperta and occulta. With the prenatal screening, the incidence of aperta is gradually declining, whereas the detection of occulta has increased with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging. Over the years, the understanding of pathophysiology has made a significant changein the management of these anomalies. Early detection and complete correction can significantly reduce the neurological disability. This article is an overview of spina bifida with a special emphasis on Indian scenario.

Venkataramana, N. K.

2011-01-01

329

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida and...

2013-07-01

330

Folic Acid Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... folic acid supplement d) eat a cup of broccoli 5. Spina bifida and anencephaly: Hint a) are ... acid every day. This question is tricky because broccoli is a natural source of food folate, however ...

331

Related Services and the Supreme Court: A Family's Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes the efforts of a woman in securing, through court litigation, clean intermittent catheterization as a related service for her child with spina bifida. Effects of the decision process on the mother, family, and child are noted. (CL)

Tatro, Mary

1984-01-01

332

Dear Jamie  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The letter from an adult woman handicapped by spina bifida myelomeningocele is addressed to an adolescent similarly handicapped and focuses on problems of emotional adjustment and coping with bladder incontinence. (DB)

Helton, Sandra

1974-01-01

333

Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003....

334

A Legal Brief: Very Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses previous litigation relevant to the case of a child suffering from "spina bifida" whose parents have brought suit against a Texas school district for failing to include catheterization in the child's individual education program. (Author/WD)

Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

1981-01-01

335

75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information. e. Beneficiaries complete VA Form 10-7959e to claim payment/ reimbursement of expenses related to spina bifida and certain covered birth defects. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond...

2010-05-07

336

77 FR 58395 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood conditions, including Down syndrome and spina bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital CMV infection is several times higher than the combined birth prevalence of...

2012-09-20

337

78 FR 4411 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood conditions, including Down Syndrome and Spina Bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital CMV infection is several times higher than the combined birth prevalence of...

2013-01-22

338

76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: Children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and receiving vocational training or seeking employment may request reimbursement for transportation expenses. To...

2011-11-28

339

Areas of Responsibility in the Health Care of Multiply Handicapped Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-four mothers of children ages birth to 17-years-old with spina bifida were interviewed to determine whether primary physicians, specialists or other sources had taken responsibility for providing each of nine areas of health care. (CL)

Kanthor, Harold; And Others

1974-01-01

340

Children with Disabilities Who Use Assistive Technology: Ethical Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the ethical concerns that early childhood professionals should consider when identifying or adapting assistive technologies for young children with such disabilities as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, visual impairments, and hearing impairments. (BB)

Holder-Brown, Loreta; Parette, Howard P. Jr.

1992-01-01

341

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2013-07-01

342

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2013-07-01

343

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 17.902 Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2013-07-01

344

Overexpression of autotaxin, a lysophosphatidic acid-producing enzyme, enhances cardia bifida induced by hypo-sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in zebrafish embryo.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are second-generation lysophospholipid mediators that exert multiple biological functions through their own cognate receptors. They are both present in the blood stream, activate receptors with similar structures (endothelial differentiation gene receptors), have similar roles in the vasculature and are vasoactive. However, it is unclear whether these lysophospholipid mediators cross-talk downstream of each receptor. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that LPA signaling counteracted S1P signaling. When autotaxin (Atx), an LPA-producing enzyme, was overexpressed in zebrafish embryos by injecting atx mRNA, the embryos showed cardia bifida, a phenotype induced by down-regulation of S1P signaling. A similar cardiac phenotype was not induced when catalytically inactive Atx was introduced. The cardiac phenotype was synergistically enhanced when antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) against S1P receptor (s1pr2/mil) or S1P transporter (spns2) was introduced together with atx mRNA. The Atx-induced cardia bifida was prominently suppressed when embryos were treated with an lpar1 receptor antagonist, Ki16425, or with MO against lpar1. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of cross-talk between LPA and S1P signaling. PMID:24451492

Nakanaga, Keita; Hama, Kotaro; Kano, Kuniyuki; Sato, Takanao; Yukiura, Hiroshi; Inoue, Asuka; Saigusa, Daisuke; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Nishina, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Atsuo; Aoki, Junken

2014-04-01

345

Child with a Tail  

PubMed Central

Spina Bifida occulta usually presents with some cutaneous stigmata e.g. hair patch, sinus, lipoma, hyperpigmented skin and very rarely a congenital tail. A congenital tail may and may not be associated with spina bifida occulta and tethered cord. A four month old male child presented with congenital tail which was associated with spinal dysraphism and caused tethering of the cord itself. The tail and tethering lesion were excised successfully.

Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Khan, Feeroz Alam; Ehmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed

2013-01-01

346

Effect of leg support on muscle cross-correlation of bilateral erector spinae during trunk flexion-extension performance.  

PubMed

Investigations corresponding to the affected factors of the cross-correlation of pair muscles are limited though muscle activation patterns of bilateral erector spinae (ES) during trunk flexion-extension performance in standing have been utilized as an indicator in the evaluation of low back pain condition. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of leg support on the cross-correlation of bilateral ES, and to test if the average of bilateral ES could weaken this effect. Twenty male university students volunteered for this study. Each performed the trunk flexion-extension in three leg support conditions randomly with the condition of single left leg support, double leg support and single right leg support, respectively. Each condition included three trials of trunk flexion-extension with the cycle of 5s flexion and 5s extension in standing. Surface electromyography from the right ES muscle as well as from the left one was recorded. The cross-correlation both in pair muscle of right-left ES and in pair muscle of right-average of bilateral ES was calculated in the flexion as well as extension period. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used. The results showed that leg support has some effect on cross-correlation of bilateral ES, which causes the absolute value of phase lag to be significantly larger in flexion period. It is suggested that this effect could be weakened by the average of bilateral ES through significantly increasing the cross-correlation coefficient, and decreasing the absolute value of phase lag. PMID:23867280

Shan, Xinhai; Wei, Yugang; Chen, Zhentao; Fan, Lixia; Shi, Weifei; Yang, Shulong

2014-01-01

347

The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discussed the research methodology used in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Ecperience (NLS). The survey studied employment market conditions for four groups in the labor force: men, aged 45-59; women, aged 30-44; young men, aged 14-24; and young women, aged 14-24. Data were collected on 20,000 individuals over a five…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

348

LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

349

Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mechanical Waves are waves which propagate through a material medium (solid, liquid, or gas) at a wave speed which depends on the elastic and inertial properties of that medium. There are two basic types of wave motion for mechanical waves: longitudinal waves and transverse waves.

350

Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

Ellis, Nick

351

14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability and...145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane...e) By using normal flight and power controls, except as...

2014-01-01

352

Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina

Singh, Delar K.

353

Memory Strategy Development: Lessons from Longitudinal Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews development of rehearsal and organizational strategies based on cross-sectional and longitudinal research, focusing on the Munich Longitudinal Study. Found that longitudinal data reveal greater individual variability in strategy acquisition, suggesting that canonical development patterns inferred from cross-sectional studies obfuscate…

Schneider, Wolfgang; Sodian, Beate

1997-01-01

354

Attrition in Longitudinal Household Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over much more widely used cross-sectional data for capturing dynamic demographic relationships. Because the collection of longitudinal data may be difficult and expensive, analysts need to assess the magnitude of the particular problems associated with longitudinal but not with cross-sectional data. One problem that has concerned many analysts is that sample attrition may

Harold Alderman; Jere R. Behrman; Hans-Peter Kohler; John A. Maluccio; Susan Watkins

2001-01-01

355

Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor  

SciTech Connect

A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J. [Department of Micro and Nanotechnology-DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Bldg. 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2009-07-20

356

Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

2010-01-01

357

Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator  

DOEpatents

A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

Hutchinson, Donald P [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Marcus L [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Knoxville, TN

2003-03-11

358

Longitudinal tear of the tibialis anterior tendon.  

PubMed

Diagnosis and treatment of longitudinal tears of the tibialis anterior tendon are not well documented in the surgical literature. Described here is successful primary surgical repair of a longitudinally torn tibialis anterior tendon in a 60-year-old woman. PMID:16037556

Hamilton, Graham A; Ford, Lawrence A

2005-01-01

359

Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

2013-01-01

360

14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Longitudinal control. 25.145 Section...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability and...145 Longitudinal control. (a) It must...steady, straight, level flight at 1.08 VSR1 for...of the power or thrust controls to the go-around...

2014-01-01

361

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal

Ivy Jansen; Caroline Beunckens; Geert Molenberghs; Geert Verbeke; Craig Mallinckrodt

2006-01-01

362

Attrition in longitudinal household survey data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over much more widely used cross-sectional data. The collection of longitudinal data, however, may be difficult and expensive. One problem that has concerned many analysts is that sample attrition may make the interpretation of estimates problematic. Such attrition may be particularly severe in areas where there is considerable mobility because of migration between

Harold Alderman; Susan Cotts Watkins; Hans-Peter Kohler; John A. Maluccio; Jere R. Behrman

2000-01-01

363

Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

2010-01-01

364

Longitudinal vortices in boundary layer transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is recognized that longitudinal vortices in boundary layer can attain significant amplitudes under the influence of moderate to high freestream turbulence owing to transient growth. The present theoretical-numerical study is carried out in order to understand the origin and effect of longitudinal vortices in boundary layer transition. The origin of longitudinal vortices is connected to freestream turbulence through the continuum modes of the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations. With the inclusion of transverse flow velocity, the theoretical results match several inherent characteristics of longitudinal vortices observed experimentally. The linear instability of the flow with longitudinal vortices superimposed upon an otherwise unperturbed boundary layer is examined using the Floquet theory. Under mild modulations, the three-dimensional unstable modes have the same spanwise wavelength as longitudinal vortices and maintain the characteristics of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. If the spanwise modulation is sufficiently strong, a new type of instability, very different from TS waves, appears. The unstable modes of the new instability intensify as a result of subharmonic resonance at rates and frequencies much higher than TS waves. The subharmonic modes have a modal shape different from that of TS waves and they propagate faster than the TS waves. Longitudinal vortices with narrower spanwise length scales will cause subharmonic secondary modes to grow at higher frequencies. It is likely that the fast amplification of the secondary modes, not longitudinal vortices themselves, will lead to imminent transition.

Su, Yi-Chung

1999-11-01

365

LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

2009-02-01

366

14 CFR 25.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal stability must be shown as follows...must have a stable slope at speeds between...Static longitudinal stability must be shown in the...must have a stable slope at all...

2009-01-01

367

14 CFR 25.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal stability must be shown as follows...must have a stable slope at speeds between...Static longitudinal stability must be shown in the...must have a stable slope at all...

2010-01-01

368

Longitudinal oscillation of launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During powered flight a vehicle may develop longitudinal self-excited oscillations, so-called oscillations, of its structure. The energy supplying the vibration is tapped from the thrust by the activity of the system itself; that is, oscillation of the structure causes oscillation of the propellant system, especially of the pumps. In this way an oscillating thrust can be created that, by a feedback loop, may sustain the structural oscillation under certain circumstances. Two special features of the system proved to be essential for creation of instability. One is the effect of the inherent time interval that the thrust oscillation is lagging behind the structural oscillation. The other is the decreased of system mass caused by the exhausting of gas. The latter feature may cause an initially stable system to become unstable. To examine the stability of the system, a single mass-spring model, which is the result of a one-term Galerkin approach to the equation of motion, has been considered. The Nyquist stability criterion leads to a stability graph that shows the stability conditions in terms of the system parameter and also demonstrates the significance of time lag, feedback magnitude, and loss of mass. An important conclusion can be drawn from the analysis: large relative displacements of the pump-engine masses favor instability. This is also confirmed by flight measurements.

Glaser, R. F.

1973-01-01

369

Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

2010-01-01

370

Longitudinal Variability of Thermospheric Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A topic of great current interest in atmospheric dynamics is the developing recognition of the influence of the diurnal eastward-propagating non-migrating tide of wavenumber 3 (DE3) on the thermosphere. Longitudinal variations of F-region ionospheric electron density show a zonal wavenumber 4 pattern, expected for satellite observations at a fixed local time with respect to a rotating Earth. WINDII observations of airglow O(1S) volume emission rate (VER), excited by photoelectron impact on atomic oxygen at 250 km were interpreted as neutral density observations; they have shown the wavenumber 4 to be a common density perturbation in the equatorial thermosphere. The analysis has been extended further by examining thermospheric neutral temperatures at 245 km height derived from the observed daytime O(1S)VERs and the atomic oxygen density scale heights centred at this altitude. The observations examined have shown a distinct wave-4 signature at 20°S-40°S for the period from September to April with a more pronounced increase during fall equinox. Another enhancement of the wave 4 amplitude is observed during January. At the same time the quasi 2-day wave was observed in the MLT region in Rayleigh scattering temperatures and up to 180 km in O(1S) airglow and wind observations. The thermospheric temperatures at 245 km are further analysed for quasi 2-day wave signatures in attempt to determine the source of the observed thermospheric temperature wave-4 perturbations and their coupling with the neutral atmosphere below.

Shepherd, M.; Shepherd, G.; Cho, Y.-M.

2012-04-01

371

Breaking of Longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin (AP) waves is demonstrated using a one-dimensional simulation based on the Dawson sheet model. It is found that the AP longitudinal waves break through the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below the breaking amplitude for AP waves, when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. Results from the simulation show a good agreement with the Dawson phase mixing formula modified to include relativistic mass variation effects. This result may be of direct relevance to the laser- or particle-beam plasma wakefield experiments.

Verma, Prabal Singh; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

2012-03-01

372

LONGITUDINAL TUNING OF THE SNS SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC  

SciTech Connect

The SNS superconducting linac delivers about 1 GeV of energy driven by self-consistent RF cavities. Here, we present an experience of the longitudinal tune-up of the SNS linac where a new application for quick RF phase setup and cavity fault adaptation was created. The routine of superconducting linac tune-up, longitudinal beam manipulation, and radio frequency cavity phase scaling for beam state recovery is presented. The application has direct value for beam optics study and will serve as the basis for longitudinal beam-size manipulation for the laser stripping project.

Gorlov, Timofey V [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

373

Modeling Disease Progression with Longitudinal Markers  

PubMed Central

In this paper we propose a Bayesian natural history model for disease progression based on the joint modeling of longitudinal biomarker levels, age at clinical detection of disease and disease status at diagnosis. We establish a link between the longitudinal responses and the natural history of the disease by using an underlying latent disease process which describes the onset of the disease and models the transition to an advanced stage of the disease as dependent on the biomarker levels. We apply our model to the data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging on prostate specific antigen (PSA) to investigate the natural history of prostate cancer.

Inoue, Lurdes Y. T.; Etzioni, Ruth; Morrell, Christopher; Muller, Peter

2013-01-01

374

Breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin waves.  

PubMed

The breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin (AP) waves is demonstrated using a one-dimensional simulation based on the Dawson sheet model. It is found that the AP longitudinal waves break through the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below the breaking amplitude for AP waves, when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. Results from the simulation show a good agreement with the Dawson phase mixing formula modified to include relativistic mass variation effects. This result may be of direct relevance to the laser- or particle-beam plasma wakefield experiments. PMID:22540592

Verma, Prabal Singh; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

2012-03-23

375

Longitudinal wake field corrections in circular machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In computations of longitudinal particle motions in accelerators and storage rings, the fields produced by the interactions of the beam with the cavity in which it circulates are usually calculated by multiplying Fourier components of the beam current by ...

K. R. Symon

1996-01-01

376

Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing  

SciTech Connect

A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple quantitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstaetter effect) and finally the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, especially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a galaxy-like'' pattern. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Bogacz, S.A.

1991-11-01

377

Longitudinal beam dynamics at transition crossing  

SciTech Connect

A brief outline of the longitudinal single particle dynamics at transition is presented in terms of phase-space mappings. Simple quantitative prediction about the phase-space dilution is made. More realistic simulation (ESME) of the transition crossing is carried out (including various collective and single particle effects contributing to the longitudinal emittance blow up). The simulation takes into account the longitudinal space-charge force (bunch length oscillation), the transverse space-charge (the Umstaetter effect) and finally the dispersion of the momentum compaction factor (the Johnsen effect). As a result of this simulation one can separate relative strengths of the above mechanisms and study their individual effects on the longitudinal phase-space evolution, especially filamentation of the bunch and formation of a ``galaxy-like`` pattern. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Bogacz, S.A.

1991-11-01

378

Longitudinal research strategies: advantages, problems, and prospects.  

PubMed

The single-cohort, long-term longitudinal survey has many advantages in comparison with a cross-sectional survey in advancing knowledge about offending and other types of psychopathology, notably in providing information about onset and desistance, about continuity and prediction, and about within-individual change. However, the longitudinal survey also has significant problems, notably in confounding aging and period effects, delayed results, achieving continuity in funding and research direction, and cumulative attrition. This paper suggests the use of a multiple-cohort sequential strategy (the "accelerated longitudinal design") as a way of achieving the benefits of the longitudinal method while minimizing the problems in advancing knowledge about the natural history, causes, prevention, and treatment of psychopathological disorders. PMID:2055872

Farrington, D P

1991-05-01

379

Longitudinal Study of Nurse Practitioners, Phase III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the third report of the nurse practitioner movement in the United States emanating from a longitudinal study initiated in 1973 by the Division of Nursing, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. This report not only describes the circumstanc...

H. A. Stultz M. Zielezny J. M. Gentry

1980-01-01

380

Personalized Introductory Courses: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a longitudinal study, students from Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) and lecture physics course are compared grade-wise in subsequent chemistry and biology courses. Results indicate students from PSI courses obtained higher grades in subsequent courses. (SL)

Hedges, Larry

1978-01-01

381

Predicting the Longitudinal Course of Marriages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies which indicated physiological arousal, particularly of husband, as well as husband's stonewalling and the wife's verbal expressions of contempt, predicted longitudinal deterioration of marital satisfaction. Presents stages of disengagement and emotional withdrawal. (ABL)

Gottman, John M.

1991-01-01

382

Parameter Identification and Modeling of Longitudinal Aerodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the...

J. W. Aksteter E. K. Parks R. E. Bach

1995-01-01

383

Longitudinal damping system for the Fermilab Booster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the different building blocks of a longitudinal damping system in the Fermilab Booster and the main design considerations. In addition to a discussion of the two-path IF section, the damper software is presented

I. Haberman; I. Rypshtein

1991-01-01

384

Longitudinal Measurement of Work Stressors in Pregnancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goals of this developmental and planning grant were to obtain preliminary data assessing two models of occupational stress during pregnancy, in particular measuring repeatedly and longitudinally across the course of pregnancy to evaluate the p...

G. Nichols J. D. Meyer N. Mahooti-Brooks N. Warren

2009-01-01

385

Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the\\u000a first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties,\\u000a and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary\\u000a examination of the test

Sally J. Wadsworth; John C. DeFries; Richard K. Olson; Erik G. Willcutt

2007-01-01

386

Longitudinal space charge effects near transition  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

2009-05-04

387

Extended longitudinal scaling and the thermal model  

SciTech Connect

The property of extended longitudinal scaling of rapidity distributions was noticed recently over a broad range of beam energies. It is shown here that this property is consistent with predictions of the statistical thermal model up to the highest BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam energies; however, we expect that at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies the rapidity distribution of produced particles will violate extended longitudinal scaling.

Cleymans, J.; Struempfer, J. [UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Turko, L. [UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2008-07-15

388

Nonlinear control of longitudinal flight dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the nonlinear analysis and control of a third-order model for longitudinal flight dynamics. Bifurcation analysis using numerical study for F-8 aircraft reveals that Hopf bifurcations may occur at some critical values of the elevator commands. These results agree with the well-known nonlinear phenomena existed in longitudinal flight dynamics. Furthermore, bifurcation control using both washout filter and direct

Der-Cherng Liawt; Chau-Chung Song; Wen-Ching Chungt

2003-01-01

389

Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam.

Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

1999-03-26

390

Prenatal screening and diagnosis of neural tube defects.  

PubMed

This review article discusses prenatal screening and diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTD). High detection rates occur in countries operating ultrasound screening programmes because classical two-dimensional ultrasound cranial signs (lemon shaped head, banana cerebellum, ventriculomegaly) are important diagnostic clues to the presence of spina bifida. Careful evaluation of both the spine and a search for other abnormalities is warranted. Important prognostic information for spina bifida relates to the lesion level, with a "watershed" between L3 and L4 marking a very high chance of being wheelchair bound with the higher lesions. Three-dimensional ultrasound using multiplanar views can achieve diagnostic accuracy within one vertebral body in around 80% of patients. There are high rates of pregnancy termination for spina bifida in many European countries, but the use of new imagining techniques allow better prediction of outcome, and consequently a refinement of prenatal counselling. PMID:19301349

Cameron, Martin; Moran, Paul

2009-04-01

391

The impact of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein screening on open neural tube defect births in north-east Scotland.  

PubMed

Over the three years period 1980-1982, 18 256 pregnancies in the Grampian Region of N-E Scotland including the islands of Orkney and Shetland were screened for raised levels of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) in the second trimester. Thirty six cases of fetal open neural tube defect in singletons were detected (18 anencephaly and 18 spina bifida). Four additional cases of open spina bifida were associated with normal MSAFP levels although two of these were detected by amniotic fluid AFP measurement when amniocentesis was carried out because of previous NTD history. A further three cases of open spina bifida and two of anencephaly occurred in unscreened pregnancies. The MSAFP screening programme alone was thus instrumental in reducing the birth incidence of open neural tube defects by 36 out of 45 cases (80 per cent) in singletons. PMID:2579374

Thom, H; Campbell, A G; Farr, V; Fisher, P M; Hall, M H; Swapp, G H; Gray, E S

1985-01-01

392

Symmetric Diffeomorphic Modeling of Longitudinal Structural MRI  

PubMed Central

This technology report describes the longitudinal registration approach that we intend to incorporate into SPM12. It essentially describes a group-wise intra-subject modeling framework, which combines diffeomorphic and rigid-body registration, incorporating a correction for the intensity inhomogeneity artifact usually seen in MRI data. Emphasis is placed on achieving internal consistency and accounting for many of the mathematical subtleties that most implementations overlook. The implementation was evaluated using examples from the OASIS Longitudinal MRI Data in Non-demented and Demented Older Adults.

Ashburner, John; Ridgway, Gerard R.

2013-01-01

393

ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

394

Fmcw Mmw Radar For Automotive Longitudinal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents information on millimeter wave (MMW) radar for automotive longitudinal control. It addresses the fundamental capabilities and limitations of millimeter waves for ranging and contrasts their operation with that of conventional microwave radar. The report analyzes pulsed and FMCW radar configurations, and provides detailed treatment of FMCW radar operating at MMW frequency, its advantages and disadvantages as they

William David

1997-01-01

395

Analysis of longitudinal marginal structural models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this article we construct and study estimators of the causal effect of a time-dependent treatment on survival in longitudinal studies. We employ a particular marginal structural model (MSM), proposed by Robins (2000), and follow a general methodology for constructing estimating functions in censored data models. The inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) estimator of Robins et al. (2000)

JENNY BRYAN; ZHUO YU; MARK J. VAN DER LAAN

2004-01-01

396

Longitudinally polarized proton beams at TRIUMF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beam line 4B at TRIUMF has been modified to allow production of polarized proton beams of all polarization components (normal, sideways and longitudinal). This was achieved by the installation of two 2.4 T m superconducting solenoids in the cyclotron vault section of the beam line. It was also required to be able to rotate one vault quadrupole. It was found

R. Abegg; G. S. Clark; M. K. Craddock; W. Felske; T. Gathright; A. Otter; P. Reeve; R. Schubank; G. M. Stinson; S. Yen

1988-01-01

397

Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

Morrow, Paula C.

2011-01-01

398

Longitudinal dental arch changes in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined changes in the dental arches that occur in untreated persons between late adolescence and the fifth or sixth decade of life. Longitudinal dental casts from 82 subjects were obtained as part of a recall study of subjects from the University of Michigan Elementary and Secondary School Growth Study. From the parent sample, three groups were identified. The

Gary A. Carter; James A. McNamara

1998-01-01

399

Effects of Weld Eccentricity on Longitudinal Shrinkage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation is concerned with effects of weld eccentricity on longitudinal shrinkage. Tests on a total of 31 single-pass weld specimens were conducted in 5083 aluminum, with the aim of studying how shrinkage takes place in welded plates. The result...

M. P. Wong

1981-01-01

400

NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

2006-01-01

401

Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

2007-01-01

402

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This effectiveness study examined the course of treatment longitudinally and outcomes associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy for a sample of 1,050 people undertaking this treatment in a community setting, over the course of 4 years, at 3-month intervals, using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ)-45.2. The authors used multilevel modeling to look…

Roseborough, David J.; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Bradshaw, William H.

2012-01-01

403

Urban infrastructure and longitudinal stream profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban streams usually are highly engineered or modified by human activity and are conventionally thought of as being geometrically, and thus hydraulically, simple. The work presented here, a contribution to NSF CNH Project 0709659, is designed to capture the influence of urban infrastructure on the character of longitudinal profiles and flow hydraulics along streams in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Detailed

G. A. Lindner; A. J. Miller

2009-01-01

404

Dual longitudinal mode Nd:YAG laser  

SciTech Connect

We have obtained dual-longitudinal-mode operation of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser by simultaneously injection-seeding two frequencies to produce pulses with modulation frequency discretely tunable from 185 MHz to greater than 17 GHz. 3 refs.

Raymond, T.D.; Smith, A.V.; Esherick, P.

1991-01-01

405

A longitudinal stern-gerlach atomic interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new magnetic field configuration has been used in the mixing and elongating regions of the longitudinal Stern-Gerlach interferometer. This configuration has proven to considerably improve the performances of the interferometer. An analysis in terms of the vector model of a spin 1 particle is presented.

Ch. Miniatura; J. Robert; S. Boiteux; J. Reinhardt; J. Baudon

1992-01-01

406

Longitudinal Dyad Models in Family Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilevel modeling allows for the simultaneous analysis of data gathered at more than 1 unit of analysis (e.g., children nested in schools). It is often used to examine the effects of various contexts on individual differences in change. This paper promotes the application of multilevel models to longitudinal dyadic data in family research. By…

Lyons, Karen S.; Sayer, Aline G.

2005-01-01

407

Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to

KUNG-YEE LIANG; SCOTT L. ZEGER

1986-01-01

408

Longitudinal Follow-up of Tinnitus Complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the long-term outcome of patients with tinnitus, the long-term effects of cognitive behavioral therapy, and what properties of tinnitus predict distress at follow-up. Design: A longitudinal follow-up of a consecutive sample of patients with tinnitus initially seen by a clinical psy- chologist.

Gerhard Andersson; Pernilla Vretblad; Hans C. Larsen; Leif Lyttkens

2001-01-01

409

Nonlinear evolution of longitudinal plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-time nonlinear behavior of single-mode longitudinal plasma waves is studied on the basis of the Vlasov equation with Fokker-Planck collision terms. The resonant layer, trapped island, collisional sublayers, and X-point neighborhoods are analyzed. A nonlinear evolution equation is obtained and the wave-generated current is also evaluated.

Pao, Young-Ping

1988-01-01

410

Development of Metacognitive Skillfulness: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows the results of a two-year longitudinal study where the same participants were followed for two consecutive years as they enter secondary school (aged 12-14 years). The main issue was to investigate the development of both the quantity and the quality of metacognitive skills. Another issue was to establish whether the development…

van der Stel, Manita; Veenman, Marcel V. J.

2010-01-01

411

Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens. PMID:24477924

Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

2014-05-01

412

Design and Implementation Issues in Longitudinal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a…

Ludlow, Larry H.; Pedulla, Joseph; Reagan, Emile Mitescu; Enterline, Sarah; Cannady, Mac; Chappe, Stephanie

2011-01-01

413

Storage-ring fel longitudinal dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modifications induced on the longitudinal dynamical behaviour of an e-beam circulating in a Storage-Ring (S.R.) and undergoing a FEL (Fokker-Planck equation) interaction are studied. The low gain amplifier case and, using the Fokker-Planck equation, i...

G. Dattoli L. Giannessi A. Renieri

1994-01-01

414

MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

2008-01-01

415

Imbedded Longitudinal Vortices in Turbulent Boundary Layers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements, including all Reynolds stresses and triple products, have been made in three turbulent flows with imbedded longitudinal vortices generated by skewing of the mean flow ('secondary flow of the first kind') (i) flow in an idealized wing-body ju...

R. D. Mehta I. M. M. A. Shabaka P. Bradshaw

1980-01-01

416

Measurement of the medial longitudinal arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical evidence suggests a causal relationship between arch structure and musculoskeletal injury patterns, biological variations in soft-tissue structures effect the accuracy of arch-height measurements. Medial longitudinal arch (MLA) structure was assessed clinically and radiographically in 100 consecutive patients with foot problems. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for three radiographic parameters and three anthropometric parameters of the MLA. Intrarater and

Charles L. Saltzman; Deborah A. Nawoczenski; Kyle D. Talbot

1995-01-01

417

Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

2012-01-01

418

Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research that uses longitudinal microdata to document productivity movements and to examine factors behind productivity growth. The research explores the dispersion of productivity across firms and establishments, the persistence of productivity differentials, the consequences of entry and exit, and the contribution of resource reallocation across firms to aggregate productivity growth. The research also reveals important factors correlated

Eric J. Bartelsman; Mark Doms

2000-01-01

419

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

420

Extensions of the Longitudinal Envelope Equation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, longitudinal space charge effects have become of increased importance in a variety of dynamical situations. The CEBAF FEL injector beam dynamics shows large space-charge effects, even at 10 MeV ((gamma) (approx) 20). Space-charge dominated longi...

D. Neuffer

2004-01-01

421

Extensions of the longitudinal envelope equation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, longitudinal space charge effects have become of increased importance in a variety of dynamical situations. The CEBAF FEL injector beam dynamics shows large space-charge effects, even at 10 MeV ((gamma) (approx) 20). Space-charge dominated longi...

D. Neuffer

1996-01-01

422

Analysis of Longitudinal Behaviour of Buried Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The longitudinal behavior of a buried pipeline is analyzed in relation to two cases: a pipeline beneath a load area, and a pipeline situated in a swelling or shrinking soil. The effects of various factors such as the relative flexibility of the pipe, the ...

H. G. Poulos

1973-01-01

423

Control Design for Longitudinal Flight Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the control issues of longitudinal flight dynamics is presented. System controllability with respect to the variation of the elevator deflection angle is first discussed. Stabilization controllers using washout filter-aided feedback control law is then proposed. Case study for F-8 aircraft is explicitly derived for constructing a feasible set of controllers. Numerical simulations for bifurcation scenarios are also

Der-cherng Liaw; Wen-ching Chung; Chien-shu Hsieh

2006-01-01

424

Empirical data on longitudinal dispersion in rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Empirical data on longitudinal dispersion process in rivers are compiled from published and unpublished sources. Fifty-one sets of data, covering flows from about 30 cubic feet per second to 241,000 cubic feet per second (0.85 to 6,820 cubic meters per second), are analyzed graphically.

Nordin, Carl F.; Sabol, George V.

1974-01-01

425

Vehicle Longitudinal Control and Reliability Project. Longitudinal and Lateral Control Cost and Weight Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UMTA's Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program is oriented toward the analyses of systems and the development of system elements which may be used in a variety of advanced urban transportation systems. The Vehicle Longitudinal Control and Rel...

W. C. Womack C. A. Graver

1979-01-01

426

[Klippel-Feil syndrome and associated malformations. Comments on an unusual case].  

PubMed

An unusual association of Klippel-Feil syndrome and other abnormalities (Sprengel's deformity, 1st cervical and 1st dorsal spina bifida, homovertebral bone, scoliosis, plagiocephaly, basilar impression, pterygium colli, nanism, hypogenitalism, etc.) together with neurological signs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in a 36-yr-old woman is reported. The clinical and radiological pictures are examined and the exterior morphology is examined. The three types of Klippel-Feil syndrome are discussed, together with the particular alterations observed in the present case: Sprengel's deformity, spina bifida, craniostenosis, basilar impression, etc. PMID:1093066

Rodriguez Cuartero, A; Vilchez Medina, J; Peláez Redondo, J

1975-04-14

427

14 CFR 23.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal stability must be shown as follows: ...force curve must have a stable slope at speeds between 85 and 115...

2010-01-01

428

Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

Demchik, Michael J.

1999-01-01

429

LINEAR MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...

430

Longitudinal dunes on Mars: Relation to current wind regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal dunes are extremely rare on Mars, but constitute a substantial fraction of terrestrial desert dunes. We report finding isolated examples of longitudinal dunes on Mars and relate their occurrence to expected sand transport regimes. Terrestrial longitudinal dunes form in bimodal and multimodal transport regimes. General circulation models and streak data indicate that bimodal and multimodal transport of sand should be very rare on Mars. Thus the dearth of longitudinal dunes on Mars is consistent with their apparent formation conditions on Earth.

Lee, Pascal; Thomas, Peter C.

1995-01-01

431

Longitudinal research and data collection in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This article reviews examples of and experience with longitudinal research in family medicine. The objective is to use this empirical information to formulate recommendations for improving longitudinal research. METHODS: The article discusses 3 longitudinal studies from the Nijmegen academic family practice research network: 1 on the prognosis of depression and 1 each on the prognosis of and outcomes of

Chris van Weel

2005-01-01

432

Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how measurement error biases longitudinal estimates of union effects. It develops numerical examples, statistical models, and econometric estimates which indicate that measurement error is a major problem in longitudinal data sets, so that longitudinal analyses do not provide the research panacea for determining the effects of unionism (or other economic forces) some have suggested. There are three

Richard Barry Freeman

1984-01-01

433

Ring RF and longitudinal dynamics in the SNS  

SciTech Connect

Average beam currents of 40 A will be present in the Spallation Neutron Source. Even though the entire cycle time is only one synchrotron oscillation the longitudinal phase space determines peak beam current and momentum spread. Both factors play a role in space charge and instability dynamics. Longitudinal simulations with beam loading and longitudinal space charge have been done in the design phase.

Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brodowski, J.; Delong, J.; Meth, M.; Onillon, E.; Zaltsman, A.

2000-06-30

434

Linac Coherent Light Source Longitudinal Feedback Model  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, it is critical to preserve the high quality of the electron beam during acceleration and compression. The peak current and final energy are very sensitive to system jitter. To minimize this sensitivity, a longitudinal feedback system on the bunch length and energy is required, together with other diagnostics and feedback systems (e.g., on transverse phase space). Here, we describe a simulation framework, which includes a realistic jitter model for the LCLS accelerator system, the RF acceleration, structure wakefield, and second order optics. Simulation results show that to meet the tight requirements set by the FEL, such a longitudinal feedback system is mandatory.

Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; Hendrickson, L.; /SLAC

2005-06-15

435

The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA).  

PubMed

ABSTRACTCanadians are living longer, and older persons are making up a larger share of the population (14% in 2006, projected to rise to 20% by 2021). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national longitudinal study of adult development and aging that will recruit 50,000 Canadians aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. All participants will provide a common set of information concerning many aspects of health and aging, and 30,000 will undergo an additional in-depth examination coupled with the donation of biological specimens (blood and urine). The CLSA will become a rich data source for the study of the complex interrelationship among the biological, physical, psychosocial, and societal factors that affect healthy aging. PMID:19860977

Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan A; Griffith, Lauren E; Oremus, Mark; Patterson, Christopher; Tuokko, Holly; Penning, Margaret; Balion, Cynthia M; Hogan, David; Wister, Andrew; Payette, Hélène; Shannon, Harry; Brazil, Kevin

2009-09-01

436

Longitudinal vortices imbedded in turbulent boundary layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of skew-induced longitudinal vortices by turbulent or viscous stresses is studied for the case of pure, artificially-generated longitudinal vortices entrained into initially two-dimensional boundary layers in nominally zero pressure gradients. Three types of vortex-boundary interactions are studied in detail: (1) an isolated vortex in a two-dimensional boundary layer; (2) a vortex pair in a turbulent boundary layer with the common flow between the vortices moving away from the surface; (3) a vortex pair in a boundary layer with the common flow moving towards the surface. Detailed mean flow and turbulence measurements are made, showing that the eddy viscosities defined for the different shear-stress components behave in different and complicated ways. Terms in the Reynolds stress transport equations, notably the triple products that effect turbulent diffusion of Reynolds stress, also fail to obey simple rules.

Mehta, R. D.; Shabaka, I. M. M.; Shibl, A.; Bradshaw, P.

1983-01-01

437

Longitudinal profiles in simple alluvial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical considerations suggest that exponential or quadratic functions are apt for describing the longitudinal profiles of aggrading, alluvial systems that are unaffected by significant lateral inputs of water or sediment. A new set of field data confirms this for individual sedimentary links along a wandering gravel-bed river in British Columbia, Canada. Each link is viewed as a simple alluvial system, without major water or sediment inputs, within which grain size typically fines downstream in a relatively systematic manner. Such homogeneous reaches are suitable for the investigation of simple profile form. It is found that quadratic approximations are the most flexible descriptor for link longitudinal profiles. Overall, the river forms an irregularly cuspate long profile structured by these fundamental length-scale units. Both link gradients and link fining rate reflect size-selective aggradation associated with the bounding lateral inputs.

Rice, Stephen P.; Church, Michael

2001-02-01

438

Flow in a channel with longitudinal ribs  

SciTech Connect

The laminar, viscous flow between parallel plates with evenly spaced longitudinal ribs is solved by an eigenfunction expansion and point-match method. The ribs on both plates may by symmetrically placed or staggered. For a given pressure gradient, the mean velocity is plotted as a function of the geometric parameters. The authors find the wetted perimeter and the friction factor-Reynolds number product are unsuitable parameters for the flow through ducts of complex geometry.

Wang, C.Y. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Mechanical Engineering)

1994-06-01

439

Simulation of longitudinal micro-bunch dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The longitudinal aspects of H{sup -} charge exchange injection into the CERN PS from a future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) are studied with due regard to space charge effects. The micro-structure of the beam introduced by the Linac RF is taken into account in the simulation. Algorithmic principles of the applied code are outlined. Recommendations are made on the characteristics of the beam to be provided by the new Linac in as far as the chopping factor is concerned.

Knaus, Patrick R. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN, Division PS, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

1998-11-05

440

Frequency and Polarization Transformer: Longitudinal Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency transformer that converts an elliptically polarized standing wave into frequency-shifted circularly polarized standing waves is considered. The transformer is a one-dimensional cavity in which a magnetoplasma, that supports ‘longitudinal modes’, is created. Theoretical derivation for the case of sudden and uniform creation of the magnetoplasma is given. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique is developed to numerically simulate the problem.

Dikshitulu K. Kalluri; Monzurul M. Ehsan

2004-01-01

441

Random-effects models for longitudinal data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but

N. M. Laird; J. H. Ware

1982-01-01

442

RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space  

SciTech Connect

Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

1997-07-01

443

Anomalous dispersion of cylindrical longitudinal guided modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous dispersion, phase velocity increases with frequency, of longitudinal modes in five cylindrical waveguides are numerically analyzed and summarized in this paper. The aim is to study the types and characteristics of modes exhibit anomalous dispersion, and the factors affect the anomalous. The analyses results show anomalous dispersion is relative to the surface and interface waves, and it could reflect the variations of shear modulus, density, and geometric structures.

Cui, H.; Zhang, B.; Trevelyan, J.; Johnstone, S.; Millman, S.

2013-01-01

444

CLADA: Cortical Longitudinal Atrophy Detection Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower-resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5mm3 voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm3 isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm3 voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post- mortem tissue. CLADA’s sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1 mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation = 0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images.

Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

445

Nonlinear longitudinal control of a supermaneuverable aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described which can be used for design of feedback controllers for high-performance aircraft operating in flight conditions in which nonlinearities significantly affect performance. Designs are performed on a mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a hypothetical aircraft similar to proposed supermaneuverable flight test vehicles. Nonlinear controller designs are performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Preliminary results show that the method yields promising results.

Garrard, William L.; Snell, Anthony; Enns, Dale F.

1989-01-01

446

Extensions of the longitudinal envelope equation  

SciTech Connect

Recently, longitudinal space charge effects have become of increased importance in a variety of dynamical situations. The CEBAF FEL injector beam dynamics shows large space-charge effects, even at 10 MeV ({gamma} {approx} 20). Space-charge dominated longitudinal motion has also been studied in the IUCF ion storage ring. Previously a longitudinal envelope equation with a self-consistent phase-space distribution has been developed, and has been of considerable use in analyzing the motion of these cases. Longitudinal motion in detailed agreement with this envelope equation has been observed at the U. of Maryland Laboratory for Plasma Research, and at the GSI electron cooling storage ring ESR, as well as at the IUCF. However, the initial presentation in ref. 4 used non-relativistic linear- accelerator bunching motion as a simplifying approximation in order to avoid inadvertent errors and minimize misprints, and must be adapted to include relativistic and/or synchrotron effects. In the present note we extend the envelope equation formulae to include relativistic, synchrotron, and acceleration effects, and define the various factors in the equations in explicit detail. The object is to obtain a set of debugged formulae for these extended cases, with all of the various factors defined explicitly, so that the formulae can be used as a reference without repetitive rederivations. The usual ambiguities over emittance definitions and units and {beta}, {gamma}, g factors should be resolved. The reader (or readers) is invited to discover any remaining errors, ambiguities or misprints for removal in the next edition. 12 refs.

Neuffer, D.

1996-12-01

447

Extensions of the longitudinal envelope equation  

SciTech Connect

Recently, longitudinal space charge effects have become of increased importance in a variety of dynamical situations. The CEBAF FEL injector beam dynamics shows large space-charge effects, even at 10 MeV ({gamma} {approx} 20). Space-charge dominated longitudinal motion has also been studied in the IUCF ion storage ring. Previously a longitudinal envelope equation with a self-consistent phase-space distribution has been developed, and has been of considerable use in analyzing the motion of these cases. Longitudinal motion in detailed agreement with this envelope equation has been observed at the U. of Maryland Laboratory for Plasma Research, and at the GSI electron cooling storage ring ESR, as well as at the IUCF. However, the initial presentation in ref. 4 used non-relativistic linear-accelerator bunching motion as a simplifying approximation in order to avoid inadvertent errors and minimize misprints, and must be adapted to include relativistic and/or synchrotron effects. In the present note we extend the envelope equation formulae to include relativistic, synchrotron, and acceleration effects, and define the various factors in the equations in explicit detail. The object is to obtain a set of debugged formulae for these extended cases, with all of the various factors defined explicitly, so that the formulae can be used as a reference without repetitive rederivations. The usual ambiguities over emittance definitions and units and {beta}, {gamma}, g factors should be resolved. The reader (or readers) is invited to discover any remaining errors, ambiguities or misprints for removal in the next edition.

Neuffer, David

1997-04-30

448

Longitudinal wakefield for an axisymmetric collimator  

SciTech Connect

We consider the longitudinal point-charge wakefield, w(s), for an axisymmetric collimator having inner radius b, outer radius d, inner length g, and taper length L. The taper angle {alpha} is defined by tan {alpha} = (d-b)/L. Using the electromagnetic simulation code ECHO, we explore the dependence of the wakefield on a collimator's geometric parameters over a wide range of profiles: from small-angle tapers to step-function transitions. The point-charge wakefield is determined using an approximation introduced by Podobedov and Stupakov. We have found it useful to exhibit the wakefield as a function of the scaled variable s/d{alpha}. For small taper angles, our results illustrate the satisfaction of the longitudinal scaling found by Stupakov, Bane, and Zagorodnov; and for larger taper angles, the breaking of this longitudinal scaling is clearly depicted. The use of the scaled variable s/d{alpha} turns out to be especially well suited to describing the wakefield for a collimator with step-function profile ({alpha} = {pi}/2).

Blednykh A.; Krinsky, S.

2012-05-25

449

Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.

1988-01-01

450

PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, K., E-mail: tyamamot@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

2012-06-20

451

Operation of PEP longitudinal feedback system  

SciTech Connect

In order to suppress longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations which might limit the capabilities of PEP, the 18 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at SLAC, a longitudinal feedback system is utilized. A frequency domain feedback system was chosen with the frequency spectrum of the stored beam being sampled close to a symmetry point in the ring where the feedback cavity itself is also located. The symmetry point chosen is symmetry point 5 which lies half-way between interaction regions 4 and 6. The system has been installed in PEP and is now operational. However, at stored currents up to the maximum stored in PEP to date at 14.5 GeV (approximately 40 mA in 6 bunches), the ring has been stable to all modes of longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations both barycentric and the other fundamental modes. By deliberately detuning the main accelerating cavities, small multibunch oscillations can be introduced which, in turn, can be damped by the feedback system. Under optimized beam conditions the feedback system could be adjusted to positive feedback and excite oscillations with relatively small power to the feedback cavity. This will be described along with other details of the system.

Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.; McConnell, R.A.; Schwarz, H.

1981-03-01

452

Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from  

SciTech Connect

Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 3}He were measured at Q{sup 2} = 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in {sup 3>}He at {bar W} = 1.60 GeV. The {bar W} = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production.

David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O'Neill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

2001-11-12

453

Sequential Progressions in a Theory of Mind Scale: Longitudinal Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Consecutive re-testings of 92 U.S. preschoolers (n = 30), Chinese preschoolers (n = 31), and deaf children (n = 31) examined whether the sequences of development apparent in cross-sectional results with a theory-of-mind scale also appeared in longitudinal assessment. Longitudinal data confirmed that theory-of-mind progressions apparent in cross-sectional scaling data also characterized longitudinal sequences of understanding for individual children. The match between cross-sectional and longitudinal sequences appeared for children who exhibit different progressions across cultures (U.S. vs. China) and for children with substantial delays (deaf children of hearing parents). Moreover, greater scale distances reflected larger longitudinal age differences.

Wellman, Henry M.; Fuxi, Fang; Peterson, Candida C.

2011-01-01

454

Consistent Reconstruction of Cortical Surfaces from Longitudinal Brain MR Images  

PubMed Central

Accurate and consistent reconstruction of cortical surfaces from longitudinal human brain MR images is of great importance in studying longitudinal subtle change of the cerebral cortex. This paper presents a novel deformable surface method for consistent and accurate reconstruction of inner, central and outer cortical surfaces from longitudinal brain MR images. Specifically, the cortical surfaces of the group-mean image of all aligned longitudinal images of the same subject are first reconstructed by a deformable surface method, which is driven by a force derived from the Laplace’s equation. And then the longitudinal cortical surfaces are consistently reconstructed by jointly deforming the cortical surfaces of the group-mean image to all longitudinal images. The proposed method has been successfully applied to two sets of longitudinal human brain MR images. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate the accuracy and consistency of the proposed method. Furthermore, the reconstructed longitudinal cortical surfaces are used to measure the longitudinal changes of cortical thickness in both normal and diseased groups, where the overall decline trend of cortical thickness has been clearly observed. Meanwhile, the longitudinal cortical thickness also shows its potential in distinguishing different clinical groups.

Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Yaping

2011-01-01

455

Longitudinally Polarized Hadroproduction of Heavy Quarks  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of double-spin asymmetries for single-inclusive heavy flavor production and for heavy quark correlations are expected to provide valuable information about the spin structure of the nucleon, in particular, the elusive gluon polarization. We discuss progress towards a versatile parton-level Monte-Carlo code for the production and decay of heavy quarks in longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at next-to-leading order accuracy of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First phenomenological studies are presented for BNL-RHIC.

Riedl, Johann; Schaefer, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Stratmann, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

2009-08-04

456

Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches  

SciTech Connect

Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

Loos, H.; /SLAC; ,

2010-06-11

457

Information technology for longitudinal birth cohorts.  

PubMed

Developing computer-based information systems to manage data in a longitudinal birth survey is a challenging task. There are many elements to such a system and good planning and design is essential to produce a system capable of maintaining and providing information both to manage the study and to facilitate research. There are many options and routes that can be taken. Finding the best can be difficult. The key to a good system is to talk to its users, define the operational parameters and plan as much flexibility as is possible. PMID:19490458

Carmichael, David

2009-07-01

458

A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

1993-06-01

459

A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

1993-01-01

460

Advances in Analysis of Longitudinal Data  

PubMed Central

In this review, we explore recent developments in the area of linear and nonlinear generalized mixed-effects regression models and various alternatives, including generalized estimating equations for analysis of longitudinal data. Methods are described for continuous and normally distributed as well as categorical (binary, ordinal, nominal) and count (Poisson) variables. Extensions of the model to three and four levels of clustering, multivariate outcomes, and incorporation of design weights are also described. Linear and nonlinear models are illustrated using an example involving a study of the relationship between mood and smoking.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Hedeker, Donald; DuToit, Stephen

2010-01-01

461

Thoracic Posterior Longitudinal Ligament Ossification in a Fixed Population; Longitudinal Radiological Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All lateral chest radiographs of 34 persons with posterior longitudinal ligament ossification (PLLO) in the thoracic spine were reviewed for date of its onset and its progress. These observations spanned as long as 18 years. Upper mid-thoracic PLLO first ...

M. Ono W. J. Russell S. Kudo

1984-01-01

462

Singular Longitudinal Waves in Nonlinear Viscoelastic Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many fluid materials with strong correlations and memory possess properties which can be described by hydrodynamic equations with viscoelastic transport coefficients, namely, equations of generalized hydrodynamics (Frenkel). Examples of such materials are strongly coupled dusty plasmas, strongly dense astrophysical plasmas, complex fluids, colloidal suspensions, polymeric liquids, blood flowing in arteries etc. We examine the generalized hydrodynamic equations for longitudinal disturbances in the limit of large memory relaxation time. Here longitudinal disturbances propagate as shearless elastic waves and the nonlinear effects arise dominantly through inertial terms. For small amplitude waves, we carry out a reductive perturbation expansion and show that the nonlinear disturbances are described by the Hunter-Saxton equation, an equation with a dual Hamiltonian structure and an infinite number of conservation laws. Nonlinear propagating step like solutions leading to ``shock waves of zero strength'' are the novel solutions of this equation. For arbitrary amplitudes, exact equations are solved with a stationarity ansatz somewhat different from the standard moving frame ansatz. Exact cusp like solutions with an integrable singularity in the energy like integral, are found.

Kaw, Predhiman; Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita; Sen, Abhijit

2012-10-01

463

Event time analysis of longitudinal neuroimage data.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for the statistical analysis of the associations between longitudinal neuroimaging measurements, e.g., of cortical thickness, and the timing of a clinical event of interest, e.g., disease onset. The proposed approach consists of two steps, the first of which employs a linear mixed effects (LME) model to capture temporal variation in serial imaging data. The second step utilizes the extended Cox regression model to examine the relationship between time-dependent imaging measurements and the timing of the event of interest. We demonstrate the proposed method both for the univariate analysis of image-derived biomarkers, e.g., the volume of a structure of interest, and the exploratory mass-univariate analysis of measurements contained in maps, such as cortical thickness and gray matter density. The mass-univariate method employs a recently developed spatial extension of the LME model. We applied our method to analyze structural measurements computed using FreeSurfer, a widely used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We provide a quantitative and objective empirical evaluation of the statistical performance of the proposed method on longitudinal data from subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. PMID:24736175

Sabuncu, Mert R; Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

2014-08-15

464

Longitudinal instability analysis for the IPNS upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The proposed 1-MW spallation neutron source upgrade calls for a 2-GeV rapidly-cycling synchrotron (RCS) with an intensity of 1.04 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse. Due to the high intensity, the potential exists for collective instabilities. Emphasis is placed on controlling these by (a) minimizing the machine impedance by using a contour-following rf shield and (b) maximizing the momentum spread to make use of Landau damping. The coupling impedance is estimated and is dominated by space charge effects. It is found that the longitudinal microwave stability limit can be exceeded unless the momentum spread is sufficient. A longitudinal tracking code was developed to simulate injection and acceleration, including the effects of space charge and other sources of impedance. With the aid of the simulation, and under the assumptions of the instability theory, we arrive at an rf voltage profile and beam injection parameters which avoid both the instability and beam loss through the entire cycle. The limitations of the analysis are explored.

Harkay, K.; Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.

1995-06-01

465

Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed. PMID:24875699

Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

2014-01-01

466

The GPR-1 longitudinal radioisotope gamma tomograph  

SciTech Connect

Instruments for visualization of the distribution of radioindicators administered for diagnostic purposes, including scanners and gamma cameras, have become widely used in the diagnosis of diseases of organs and systems such as the liver, kidney, brain, lungs, thyroid gland, and skeletal system and also to detect primary and metastatic neoplasms. In these instruments the three-dimensional test object is shown as two-dimensional projections. This leads to loss or distortion of diagnostic information, for the surrounding structures, which accumulate the radioindicator, mask pathological foci and interfere with their correct identification. These disadvantages can be overcome completely or partially by the use of tomographic methods and systems of radioisotope visualization. Tomographic instruments (gamma tomographs) visualize the distribution of a radioindicator in several parallel layers of the object. Taken together, a sufficient number of these layer-by-layer images (gamma tomograms) gives a more complete and accurate picture of the true spatial distribution of the radioindicator in the test organ. Radioisotope gamma tomographs can be divided into two types: longitudinal and transverse. Instruments of the first type give tomograms in sections parallel to the patient's longitudinal axis. In instruments of the second type, the pictures obtained correspond to sections made perpendicular to this direction.

El'kind, E.Yu.; Chernobrovkin, V.P.; Kalantarov, K.D.; Kangun, A.L.; Sidorov, Yu.M.; Tyurin, V.G.

1983-03-01

467

Anonymization of Longitudinal Electronic Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have enabled healthcare providers to collect detailed patient information from the primary care domain. At the same time, longitudinal data from EMRs are increasingly combined with biorepositories to generate personalized clinical decision support protocols. Emerging policies encourage investigators to disseminate such data in a deidentified form for reuse and collaboration, but organizations are hesitant to do so because they fear such actions will jeopardize patient privacy. In particular, there are concerns that residual demographic and clinical features could be exploited for reidentification purposes. Various approaches have been developed to anonymize clinical data, but they neglect temporal information and are, thus, insufficient for emerging biomedical research paradigms. This paper proposes a novel approach to share patient-specific longitudinal data that offers robust privacy guarantees, while preserving data utility for many biomedical investigations. Our approach aggregates temporal and diagnostic information using heuristics inspired from sequence alignment and clustering methods. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate anonymized data that permit effective biomedical analysis using several patient cohorts derived from the EMR system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Tamersoy, Acar; Loukides, Grigorios; Nergiz, Mehmet Ercan; Saygin, Yucel; Malin, Bradley

2013-01-01

468

A Class of Markov Models for Longitudinal Ordinal Data  

PubMed Central

Summary Generalized linear models with serial dependence are often used for short longitudinal series. Heagerty (2002, Biometrics 58, 342–351) has proposed marginalized transition models for the analysis of longitudinal binary data. In this article, we extend this work to accommodate longitudinal ordinal data. Fisher-scoring algorithms are developed for estimation. Methods are illustrated on quality-of-life data from a recent colorectal cancer clinical trial.

Lee, Keunbaik; Daniels, Michael J.

2009-01-01

469

Longitudinal feedback system kicker for the PLS storage ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher order modes (HOMs) of RF cavities at the Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring cause longitudinal coupled bunch mode instabilities. A longitudinal feedback system (LFS) is introduced to cure these instabilities. As a key component of the LFS, there is a single-ridged waveguide-overloaded cavity for a longitudinal bunch-by-bunch LFS kicker. Since the RF frequency is 500 MHz, the

Yujong Kim; M. Kwon; J. Y. Huang; W. Namkung; I. S. Ko

2000-01-01

470

Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.  

PubMed

Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques. PMID:22770885

Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

2012-12-01

471

Longitudinal emittance in high-current ion accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The control of longitudinal emittance in an ion linear accelerator is important for minimizing both chromatic aberrations and beam halo. The root-mean-square (rms) longitudinal emittance grouth can result from either the nonlinear rf focusing fields or the nonlinear space-charge fields. We will present conclusions based on numerical beam-dynamics studies for both the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and the drift-tube linac (DTL). We will discuss the scaling of longitudinal emittance produced during the adiabatic bunching in an RFQ and will show the benefits of ramped DTL accelerating field designs to maintain high longitudinal focusing strength with increasing particle energy. 15 refs., 8 figs.

Wangler, T.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Pabst, M.

1989-01-01

472

Longitudinal ultrasonic waves in DC electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experimental studies of the propagation of longitudinal waves in saturated rock samples in which there is a flow of electric charges are presented. It is shown that the electric field affects elastic parameters in heterophase media by changing their dynamic characteristics. The aim of the study of the effect of electric field on the propagation of elastic waves in saturated porous media was to determine the optimum conditions for this effect, and to construct a set of effective parameters which could be used to increase the effectiveness of seismoacoustic prospecting methods, particularly acoustic logging, and be helpful for developing new methods of increasing the effectiveness of oil extraction from productive wells.

Sobotka, Jerzy

2009-06-01

473

Simulation of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this note is to document some work done as part of the effort directed at designing and simulating a bunch-by-bunch feedback system to control longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in the B-factory. In particular, I discuss the ring model used in the simulation program developed to study this feedback system. Basically the simulation is a simple tracking program in which the rf drive voltage, the wakefields due to all the bunches, the synchrotron radiation losses, and the kicks applied to the bunches by the bunch-by-bunch feedback are all modelled as voltages applied at a single, discrete point in the ring. The computation of the bunch-by-bunch feedback voltages may of course be done by any desired algorithms. An example and discussion of the general behavior without bunch-by-bunch feedback is given at the end of this report.

Thompson, K.A.

1991-02-07

474

Parameter identification and modeling of longitudinal aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a comprehensive flight test database and a parameter identification software program produced at NASA Ames Research Center, a math model of the longitudinal aerodynamics of the Harrier aircraft was formulated. The identification program employed the equation error method using multiple linear regression to estimate the nonlinear parameters. The formulated math model structure adhered closely to aerodynamic and stability/control theory, particularly with regard to compressibility and dynamic manoeuvring. Validation was accomplished by using a three degree-of-freedom nonlinear flight simulator with pilot inputs from flight test data. The simulation models agreed quite well with the measured states. It is important to note that the flight test data used for the validation of the model was not used in the model identification.

Aksteter, J. W.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.

1995-01-01

475

Sonic well logging tool longitudinal wave attenuator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an attenuator for use with a well logging tool in attenuating a wave propagating longitudinally along the tool when the tool is disposed in a borehole of an oil well. It comprises: a plurality of layers of a first material. The first material including metal washers; a plurality of layers of a second material interleaved with the plurality of layers of the first material. The second material including rubber-like washers; and an inner member. The interleaved rubber-like washers and metal washers being wrapped around the inner member. The inner member including an outwardly directed flange on which one end of the interleaved rubber-like washers and metal washers rest.

Wignall, A.H.; Hoyle, D.C.

1989-10-10

476

Longitudinal changes in peripheral refraction with age.  

PubMed

The changes in the patterns of refraction (skiagrams) over the central +/-35 degrees of the horizontal field of 3 originally near-emmetropic eyes of 2 subjects were determined over a time interval of 26 years. The subjects were aged 32 and 40 years at the time of the first measurements. The central refractions shifted in the expected hyperopic direction, while the radial and tangential image fields in the periphery became more myopic. These longitudinal results agree with recent transverse studies, provided that allowance is made for the change in central refraction: the reported loss with age in peripheral visual performance does not seem to be attributable to markedly increased peripheral astigmatism. PMID:16918768

Charman, W N; Jennings, J A M

2006-09-01

477

Random-effects models for longitudinal data  

SciTech Connect

Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but some random-effects parameters vary across individuals, with a distribution specified at the second stage. A general family of models is discussed, which includes both growth models and repeated-measures models as special cases. A unified approach to fitting these models, based on a combination of empirical Bayes and maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters and using the EM algorithm, is discussed. Two examples are taken from a current epidemiological study of the health effects of air pollution.

Laird, N.M.; Ware, J.H.

1982-12-01

478

Congruence between Mother and Handicapped Child's View of the Child's Sense of Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only diagnosis of handicap was significantly related to the tendency for children to be either less or more positive in response to the items than their mothers, with cerebral palsy children more positive and spina bifida children consistently less positive in direction. (Author)

Harvey, David; Greenway, Philip

1982-01-01

479

Tethered cord syndrome versus low-placed conus medullaris in an over-distended spinal cord following initial repair for myelodysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present findings obtained from a total of 100 patients who had previously undergone surgery for spina bifida and whose progress had been monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our meningomyelocele clinic. Fourteen of these patients (14.0%) developed delayed symptom(s) of progressive spinal neurologic dysfunction. In those with myeloschisis, increase of motor deficit was the most common clinical manifestation

S. Oi; H. Yamada; S. Matsumoto

1990-01-01

480

38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Authority: Sec. 8 of Pub. L. 102-54, 105 Stat. 271, 38 U.S.C. 501) Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in KoreaâSpina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Source: 68...

2013-07-01

481

Computerized analysis and modelling of patients with deformities of lower limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to model the human gait of typical subjects and patients with such deformities of lower limbs as: spastic diplegia cerebral palsy and spina bifida occulta. Model coefficients will lead to the development of a better computer system to support clinical decision-making in human gait in terms of assessment, diagnosis, and classificatio,mnn. Human gait was

JOLANTA PAUK

2009-01-01

482

Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

Del Bigio, Marc R.

2010-01-01

483

Irving Independent School District, Petitioner v. Henri Tatro, et Ux., Individually and as Next Friend of Amber Tatro, a Minor. On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circiut. No. 83-558.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Supreme Court ruling is presented regarding the provision of clean intermittent catheterization as part of related services mandated under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The case argued focused on the needs of a young girl with spina bifida for intermittent catheterization to remove urine from her bladder. The court…

Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

484

Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.  

PubMed

We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and ?-(para-nonylphenyl)-?-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Padula, Amy M; English, Paul B; Shaw, Gary M

2014-03-15

485

Congenital malformations of the central nervous system in spontaneous abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 2620 pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortion revealed a CNS defect in 3.6% of embryos and fetuses, and 3% of all complete conceptuses. The type of malformation observed varied with the gestational age at expulsion, encephaloceles being predominant in earlier specimens, while more typical anencephalus and spina bifida were more common among later abortions. Chromosome abnormalities were found

M R Creasy; E D Alberman

1976-01-01

486

Roughing It Smoothly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mother of a 17-year-old son with spina bifida recounts the family's experiences camping in the Adirondack Mountains. Her son has enjoyed swimming, modified waterskiing, riding to the top of a mountain during the summer on a ski chair lift, and blueberry picking from a toboggan rather than his wheelchair. (VW)

Turner, Donna

1988-01-01

487

Neural Tube Defects: Review of Experimental Evidence on Stem Cell Therapy and Newer Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of closure of the neural tube during development leads to malformations called neural tube defects (NTDs). The most common neural malformations in humans include anencephaly, encephalocele, exencephaly, craniorachischisis spina bifida with or without myelomeningocele, lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelocystocele. Current preventive strategies are mainly based on pharmacologic\\/folic acid supplementation. However, stem cell-based and other combination approaches may emerge

Dhara B. Dhaulakhandi; Seema Rohilla; Kamal Nain Rattan

2010-01-01

488

Sustained attention in children with two etiologies of early hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have attention problems on parent ratings and difficulties in stimulus orienting associated with a posterior brain attention system. Less is known about response control and inhibition associated with an anterior brain attention system. Using the Gordon Vigilance Task (Gordon, 1983), we studied error rate, reaction time, and

Maegan D. Swartwout; Paul T. Cirino; Amy W. Hampson; Jack M. Fletcher; Michael E. Brandt; Maureen Dennis

2008-01-01

489

A Molecular Basis for Retinoic Acid-Induced Axial Truncation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary deprivation and gene disruption studies clearly demonstrate that biologically active retinoids, such as retinoic acid (RA), are essential for numerous developmental programs. Similar ontogenic processes are also affected by retinoic acid excess, suggesting that the effects of retinoid administration reflect normal retinoid-dependent events. In the mouse, exogenous retinoic acid can induce both anterior (anencephaly, exencephaly) and posterior (spina bifida)

Angelo Iulianella; Barbara Beckett; Martin Petkovich; David Lohnes

1999-01-01

490

Survival of infants with unoperated myeloceles.  

PubMed

Of the infants with spina bifida referred to a neonatal surgical unit over three years and denied early closure of the myelocele, a significant proportion survived long enough for procedures to drain hydrocephalus to be needed. The key decision in the management of this condition is not whether myeloceles should be closed but whether hydrocephalus should be treated. PMID:1100192

Robards, M F; Thomas, G G; Rosenbloom, L

1975-10-01

491

Harvey Cushing's Early Management of Hydrocephalus: An historical picture of the conundrum of hydrocephalus until modern shunts after WWII  

PubMed Central

Purpose Throughout his early career, Cushing proposed a variety of methods for temporary and permanent drainage and diversion of CSF in his patients, and acknowledged that certain techniques were more suited to particular subsets of hydrocephalus. Methods Following IRB approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, the surgical records of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, from 1896 to 1912, were reviewed. Patients operated upon by Harvey Cushing were selected for further analysis. Within this cohort, we recovered all available records for a single patient with hydrocephalus and spina bifida, who was treated with a ventriculosubgaleal shunt prior to repair of the spina bifida. Results A 3 month-old infant presented with hydrocephalus associated with spina bifida. Cushing performed serial lumbar and ventricular punctures. Following this, Cushing took the patient to the operating room for placement of a ventriculosubgaleal shunt. The patient subsequently underwent excision of the myelomeningocele sac, with post-operative mortality due to unspecified causes. Conclusions Cushing’s publications document a preference for translumbar-peritoneal drainage in patients with congenital hydrocephalus, particularly those with spina bifida. Although the placement of ventriculosubgaleal shunts has become an accepted practice for contemporary neurosurgeons, this case illustrates the challenges that early neurosurgeons faced in developing operative approaches for the treatment of congenital hydrocephalus.

Chesler, David A.; Pendleton, Courtney; Ahn, Edward S.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

2013-01-01

492

Survival of infants with unoperated myeloceles.  

PubMed Central

Of the infants with spina bifida referred to a neonatal surgical unit over three years and denied early closure of the myelocele, a significant proportion survived long enough for procedures to drain hydrocephalus to be needed. The key decision in the management of this condition is not whether myeloceles should be closed but whether hydrocephalus should be treated.

Robards, M F; Thomas, G G; Rosenbloom, L

1975-01-01

493

Neural tube defects in Mexican-Americans living on the US-Mexico border: The effects of folic acid and dietary folate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are malformations of the developing brain and spinal cord; the most common are anencephaly and spina bifida. Evidence from many populations suggests that 50% of NTDs can be prevented through daily consumption of folic acid. A recent study has reported that folic acid may not protect populations of Mexican descent. This finding has serious implications for

Lucina Suarez; Katherine A. Hendricks; Sharon P. Cooper; Anne M. Sweeney; Robert J. Hardy; Russell D. Larsen

1998-01-01

494

The Genetics of Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a complex, behaviorally de- fined, static disorder of the immature brain that is of great concern to the practicing pediatrician because of an astonishing 556% reported increase in pediatric preva- lence between 1991 and 1997, to a prevalence higher than that of spina bifida, cancer, or Down syndrome. This jump is probably attributable to heightened awareness and changing

Rebecca Muhle; Stephanie V. Trentacoste; Isabelle Rapin

2010-01-01

495

Incontinent Children Discover Hope at Camp Oakhurst.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes summer-camp experiences of young people who are incontinent because of spina bifida. Focuses on residential camp program as encouragement for youth to learn independent incontinence management. Describes self-catheterization program and process as minor inconvenience and positive alternative to soiled clothing and accompanying…

Raps, Marvin A.

1991-01-01

496

Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

Arc, Arlington, TX.

497

Phentermine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect. Neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, occur when the baby’s ... serum alpha fetoprotein test), which can detect many neural tube defects. Now that I know I’m pregnant, can ...

498

Commentaries Scientific Evidence Supporting Folic Acid Fortification of Flour in Australia and New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fortification of flour with folic acid is a safe, sustainable, and cost-effective approach for preventing spina bifida and anencephaly, and it is likely to confer multiple health benefits to the adult population. Scientists and advocates are bringing this intervention to the attention of policymakers in countries around the world, and consequently the demand for sound, science-backed policy rationale is

Godfrey P. Oakley; Mary Beth Weber; Karen N. Bell; Paul Colditz

499