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1

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... babies are born with spina bifida each year in the United States. How can spina bifida affect your baby? Spina ... re pregnant. Because nearly half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned, it's important that all women of ...

2

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... from MedlinePlus What is Spina Bifida? Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect (a disorder involving ... the first month of pregnancy. Infants born with SB sometimes have an open lesion on their spine ...

3

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... by spina bifida. Because half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned, it is important that all women who can become pregnant take folic acid before and during pregnancy. Living ... disability. Others are limited in the way they can move or function. They ...

4

Genetics and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... are born in the U.S. have Spina Bifida (SB) or a similar birth defect of the brain ... Spina Bifida. Ninety-five percent of people with SB have no family history. Many things affect pregnancy, ...

5

Spina Bifida Experience  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... talk about their lives and spina bifida. Related Videos Developing Independence Managing Your Own Medical Care The Importance of Physical Activity More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch ...

6

Spina Bifida Clinic Directory  

MedlinePLUS

... Minneapolis Spina Bifida Clinic 2001 Blaisdell Ave. Minneapolis, MN 55404 (952) 993-9100 www.parknicollett.com Shriners ... Clinic (pediatric only) 2025 E. River Parkway Minneapolis, MN 55414 (612) 596-6128 www.shrinershospitals.org Mayo ...

7

Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... help people living with spina bifida. Spina Bifida End-Stage Renal Disease Project This project looks at the connection between spina bifida and kidney failure (end-stage renal disease). CDC researchers are determining whether ...

8

Spina Bifida Occulta  

MedlinePLUS

... connected by what looks like a band of tissue. Signs of Occulta People can have these forms of Spina Bifida Occulta even if there is nothing wrong with the spine. However, there can be neurological complications associated with SBO. The most frequently occuring complication ...

9

A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing, Parent-Child Conflict, and Cohesion in Families of Young Adolescents With Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study longitudinal associations between perceived pubertal timing and family conflict and co- hesion during the transition to adolescence in 68 families of children with spina bifida and 68 matched fami- lies with able-bodied children. Children were 8 or 9 years old at Time 1 and 10 or 11 years old at Time 2. Methods: Family conflict and cohesion

Rachael Millstein Coakley; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Deborah Friedman; Rachel Neff Greenley; Azure Welborn Thill

2002-01-01

10

Spina Bifida Experience: Developing Independence  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Independence Your browser does not support iFrames. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Managing Your Own Medical Care The Importance of Physical Activity More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch ...

11

Women's Health and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamins. Preventive Care — What medical screening is necessary? Breast cancer screening — Women with Spina Bifida have at least the same risk for developing breast cancer as the general population. Therefore, breast cancer ...

12

Mathematical Development in Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the…

English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

2009-01-01

13

Spina Bifida Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... our Team Request More Info Registration Form - NYC Marathon 4b4the4th Team Captains Donate to 4b4the4th Volunteer Be ... Upcoming Events Sign up for the ASICS LA Marathon Today! Team Spina Bifida to debut at LA ...

14

Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

Exceptional Parent, 2007

2007-01-01

15

Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

2010-01-01

16

Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... when doing math, telling time and counting change. Decision Making/Problem Solving People with Spina Bifida have trouble ... appears to not improve their problem solving or decision-making, contact professionals. This information does not constitute medical ...

17

Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... To-School Resources Family Planning and Prenatal Care Orthopedic Needs and Care FAQs About Spina Bifida Adult ... General Health & Fitness Hydrocephalus Insurance Latex Allergy Neuropsychology Orthopedics Pain Precocious Puberty Pregnancy Risk, Prevention, & Treatment Sexuality ...

18

Spina Bifida Experience: Managing Your Own Medical Care  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... The Spina Bifida Experience: Managing Your Own Medical Care Your browser does not support iFrames. Source: National ... about how the child participates in his medical care. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Developing Independence The ...

19

[Fetal pathology study of 88 cases of letal spina bifida].  

PubMed

Lethal spina bifida continue to be frequent in Tunisia; we report 88 cases of letal spina bifida: 1.05 per thousand births. This pathology was more frequent with women. The up letal spina bifida situated is predominant with female and the dow spina bifida situated is frequent with male. We have noted an association with anencephalia (46 cases) and hydrocephaly (21 cases). Prevention is based on obstetric health care and hygiene dietetic advices to avoid alimentary deficit. PMID:11155378

Gaigi, S S; Masmoudi, A; Mahjoub, S; Jabnoun, S; Ouni, S; Channoufi, M B; Oueslati, H; Chabchoub, A; Marrakchi, Z; Sfar, E; Lebbi, I; Rezigua, H; Zouari, F; Chelli, H; Khrouf, N

2000-12-01

20

Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

2010-01-01

21

Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

Adequate treatment of pre-diabetes and diabetes can add years to the life of people with Spina Bifida, and are worth the effort What ... comes on slowly, and may initially appear as “pre-diabetes,” also called metabolic syndrome. What is Pre-diabetes? ...

22

Anencephalus and spina bifida: An ecological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological approach to the etiology of disease involves consideration of the complex interactions of factors related to the host, agent, and environment. Although the ecological approach was developed with regard to infectious diseases, this article suggests its application as a meaningful approach to understanding the etiology of anencephalus and spina bifida. Host, agent, and environmental factors thought to be

Lowell E. Sever

1976-01-01

23

Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

Webb, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

24

Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

2010-01-01

25

Mathematical Skills in 3- and 5-Year-Olds with Spina Bifida and Their Typically Developing Peers: A Longitudinal Approach  

PubMed Central

Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual–spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21418718

Barnes, Marcia A.; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.; Smith-Chant, Brenda

2011-01-01

26

Spina Bifida Experience: The Importance of Physical Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... Activity Your browser does not support iFrames. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Developing Independence Managing Your Own Medical Care More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch ...

27

A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Pubertal Timing as a Predictor of Psychosocial Changes in Adolescent Girls With and Without Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective?A longitudinal comparison of adolescent girls with and without spina bifida (SB), regarding the effects of early pubertal timing on girls’ depressive symptoms, mother–daughter conflict, and emotional distancing.?Methods?62 mother–daughter dyads (31 with SB and 31 without) reported on psychosocial outcomes at 5 time points (ages 8/9 to 16/17 years).?Results?A pubertal timing?×?SB status interaction predicted emotional distancing (T2), conflict (T2, T5), and depressive symptoms (T4), such that early maturing girls without SB reported the greatest increase in each outcome. Main effects of pubertal timing predicted emotional distancing (T4), conflict (T4), and depressive symptoms (T2, T3, T5). Findings were not always consistent across reporters, assessments of pubertal timing, and time-points.?Conclusions?Although early maturing girls in both groups may experience greater psychosocial difficulties, early maturing girls without SB may be most at-risk. The somewhat reduced impact of early pubertal timing in girls with SB is discussed. PMID:22271794

Wasserman, Rachel M.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Amaro, Christina M.

2012-01-01

28

Verb generation in children with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

We investigated verb generation in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM; n = 55) and in typically developing controls (n = 32). Participants completed 6 blocks (40 trials each) of a task requiring them to produce a semantically related verb in response to a target noun and an additional 40 trials on which they were simply required to read target nouns aloud. After controlling for reading response time, groups did not differ significantly in verb generation response time or learning. Children with SBM produced more non-verb errors than controls and tended to repeat their mistakes over blocks. Verb generation performance was associated with brain volume measures in participants with SBM. Congenital cerebellar dysmorphology is associated with impaired performance in verb generation accuracy, although not with increased response times to produce verbs. PMID:18282316

DENNIS, MAUREEN; JEWELL, DERRYN; HETHERINGTON, ROSS; BURTON, CHRISTINE; BRANDT, MICHAEL E.; BLASER, SUSAN E.; FLETCHER, JACK M.

2008-01-01

29

Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in Greater London  

PubMed Central

In order to make comparisons with the findings in a high frequency area, South Wales, with those in a low frequency area, south-east England, a birth frequency and family study was made of all births with neural tube malformations (spina bifida cystica, encephalocele, anencephaly, and iniencephaly) in 32 of the 33 London Boroughs over a 3-year period from 1 April 1965 to 31 March 1968. The births were ascertained through local authority registers, stillbirth and infant death certificates, and hospital records. The frequencies found were 1·54 for spina bifida (including encephalocele) and 1·41 for anencephaly (including iniencephaly). This was less than four tenths of the South Wales frequency. Evidence of an excess of winter births was found for both types of malformation, with a peak for conceptions in February, March, and April. The parents of 870 of the original 1209 index patients were traced and visited for the family survey. The usual social class effect was seen, a deficit of fathers in social class I and II. The birth order distribution of legitimately born patients standardized for maternal age showed only a small excess of firstborn and a deficit rather than an excess of lateborn. For maternal age, however, standardized for birth order, there was an excess of patients born to mothers under 20 and over 35 years of age. The whole family study sample showed a striking excess of patients born to parents from India and Pakistan compared to parents born in the West Indies in relation to households of immigrant parents in the 1966 sample Census. A small sample of 164 patients with matched controls had more parents born in Ireland and India and Pakistan and fewer born in south-east England and the West Indies than the controls. The proportions of sibs affected with spina bifida and anencephaly were 3·42% for spina bifida index patients and 5·44% for anencephaly. For patients born after the index patient the proportions were 5·17 and 4·17%, respectively. The overall risk to sibs was lower than that shown in the South Wales survey, but substantially higher relative to the population birth frequency. The risk to sibs was not apparently influenced by father's social class but there was an indication of an effect of mother's father's social class, with a lower risk where mother had grown up in a class I, II, or IIIa home. There was no apparent influence of grandparental birth place. There was no apparent effect of a relative affected other than a sib. Among cousins a significant increase over the population birth frequency was seen only in mother's sisters' children. The findings, like those of earlier surveys, suggest a multifactorial aetiology of the neural tube malformations, depending both on genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. PMID:4590246

Carter, C. O.; Evans, Kathleen

1973-01-01

30

Assessment of social skills and problem behaviors in young children with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed social and emotional adjustment in young children with spina bifida. Role-play tests, and parents' and teachers' ratings of social competence and problem behaviors were utilized in this evaluation. Results indicated that children with spina bifida did not differ significantly from controls on verbal and nonverbal components of conversational skill and negative assertion. Also, spina bifida and

Vincent B. Van Hasselt; Robert T. Ammerman; Michel Hersen; Donald H. Reigel; Fern L. Rowley

1991-01-01

31

Cerebellar motor function in spina bifida meningomyelocele.  

PubMed

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, involves dysmorphology of the cerebellum, and its most obvious manifestations are motor deficits. This paper reviews cerebellar neuropathology and motor function across several motor systems well studied in SBM in relation to current models of cerebellar motor and timing function. Children and adults with SBM have widespread motor deficits in trunk, upper limbs, eyes, and speech articulators that are broadly congruent with those observed in adults with cerebellar lesions. The structure and function of the cerebellum are correlated with a range of motor functions. While motor learning is generally preserved in SBM, those motor functions requiring predictive signals and precise calibration of the temporal features of movement are impaired, resulting in deficits in smooth movement coordination as well as in the classical cerebellar triad of dysmetria, ataxia, and dysarthria. That motor function in individuals with SBM is disordered in a manner phenotypically similar to that in adult cerebellar lesions, and appears to involve similar deficits in predictive cerebellar motor control, suggests that age-based cerebellar motor plasticity is limited in individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:20652468

Dennis, Maureen; Salman, Michael S; Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M

2010-12-01

32

Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

2012-01-01

33

Cerebellar Motor Function in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, involves dysmorphology of the cerebellum, and its most obvious manifestations are motor deficits. This paper reviews cerebellar neuropathology and motor function across several motor systems well studied in SBM in relation to current models of cerebellar motor and timing function. Children and adults with SBM have widespread motor deficits in trunk, upper limbs, eyes, and speech articulators that are broadly congruent with those observed in adults with cerebellar lesions. The structure and function of the cerebellum are correlated with a range of motor functions. While motor learning is generally preserved in SBM, those motor functions requiring predictive signals and precise calibration of the temporal features of movement are impaired, resulting in deficits in smooth movement coordination as well as in the classical cerebellar triad of dysmetria, ataxia, and dysarthria. That motor function in individuals with SBM is disordered in a manner phenotypically similar to that in adult cerebellar lesions, and appears to involve similar deficits in predictive cerebellar motor control, suggests that age-based cerebellar motor plasticity is limited in individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:20652468

Dennis, Maureen; Salman, Michael S.; Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M.

2010-01-01

34

Prospective memory in adults with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Introduction Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders have been observed to show accelerated cognitive aging or even dementia as early as 30 and 40 years of age. Memory deficits are an important component of age-related cognitive loss. Methods In this study, we investigated prospective memory, which is often impaired in aging, in a group of 32 adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), including members of the oldest living cohort successfully treated with shunts to divert excess cerebrospinal fluid, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus, who are now around 50 years of age. Seventeen typically developing adults provided a comparison group. Results The SBM and comparison groups differed in the prospective memory total score as well as in both time-based and event-based subscores. Prospective memory was impaired in both older and younger individuals with SBM. However, the percentage of individuals with impaired or poor prospective memory was three times higher in the older SBM group than in the younger SBM group. The results are considered in relation to specific features of the complex brain reorganization in SBM. PMID:20393850

Dennis, Maureen; Nelson, Rebekah; Jewell, Derryn; Fletcher, Jack M.

2011-01-01

35

Habilitation of Children and Young Adults with Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida is a complex congenital condition that has far reaching complications and consequences for the affected child.\\u000a There are implications for mobility and self-care, independence, sensory function continence, schooling and social functioning,\\u000a and a range of medical complications that can also result in chronic illness [1–3].

Giuliana C. Antolovich; Alison C. Wray

36

Selective and sustained attention in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neural tube defect that has been related to deficits in several cognitive domains including attention. Attention function in children with SBM has often been studied using tasks that are confounded by complex motor demands or tasks that do not clearly distinguish perceptual from response-related components of attention. We used a verbal-report paradigm based on

Ida Dyhr Caspersen; Thomas Habekost

2012-01-01

37

Mental rotation performance in children with hydrocephalus both with and without spina bifida.  

PubMed

The mental rotation ability in children with hydrocephalus and those with both hydrocephalus and spina bifida in comparison to healthy controls was investigated in this study. All groups performed a chronometric mental rotation test. Compared to children with hydrocephalus, children with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus showed an impaired mental rotation performance, demonstrated by slower reaction times. No significant performance difference was found between children with spina bifida and healthy controls. Error rates were comparable between groups indicating that the impaired mental rotation performance in children with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus is primarily due to motor impairment. PMID:24138214

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2013-01-01

38

The cost of preventable conditions in adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Adults with spina bifida are at risk of developing secondary health conditions that are causally related to the primary condition and are to some degree preventable. By investigating preventable secondary conditions in adults with spina bifida, we can determine the burden of care that might be reduced if preventive strategies were developed. We audited hospitalizations of adults with spina bifida to gain insight into serious secondary conditions in this population. We reviewed all admissions of adults with spina bifida to a large American tertiary care center (Johns Hopkins Hospital; Baltimore, Maryland) over 11 years. We determined the discharge diagnoses for each admission and the hospital costs associated with admission. We defined preventable secondary conditions in this adult population and calculated the percentage of total admissions and of total costs for these secondary conditions. The patient population consisted of spina bifida patients 18 years and over admitted from January 1982 to December 1992, including 59 females and 39 males. 77 of our patients were identified as white, 20 as black, and 1 as "other". Patient age ranged from 18 to 61 years with an average age of 25.8 years. There were 353 admissions and admissions per patient ranged from 1 to 25 over the 11-year period. The average number of admissions per patient was 3.6 and the average length of stay for all admissions was 11.2 days. Of the 353 total admissions, 166 (47.0%) were due to potentially preventable secondary conditions such as serious urologic infections, renal calculi, pressure ulcers, and osteomyelitis. For admissions due to these secondary conditions, the average length of stay was 12.5 days. The total hospital costs, excluding professional fees, were $175,885, $247,355, and $437,262 for 1990, 1991, and 1992 respectively. Permanent loss of function resulting from secondary conditions, not investigated in this study, can also be a source of long-term financial and psychological cost to the patient. This study found a high number of patients with multiple admissions and that many admissions qualified as potentially preventable. More information is needed if we are to understand the factors associated with secondary health conditions in adults with spina bifida. We need to investigate the roles played by physician and patient knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in contributing to patient outcome. PMID:9008813

Kinsman, S L; Doehring, M C

1996-12-01

39

The Treatment of Hydrocephalus in Spina Bifida — Endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth rates several times those in developed countries, the lack of preventive measures, and the rarity of prenatal diagnosis\\u000a all contribute to the fact that spina bifida is a very common condition among children of developing countries. At the CURE\\u000a Children’s Hospital of Uganda (CCHU), a center for pediatric neurosurgery established in 2001, 75–100 new infants with myelomeningocele\\u000a (MMC) present

Benjamin Warf

40

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered birth...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth...training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans—spina bifida and covered...

2010-07-01

41

Neurobehavioral outcomes in spina bifida: Processes versus outcomes  

PubMed Central

We review neurobehavioral outcomes and interventions for children with spina bifida. Focusing on children with spina bifida myelomeningocele, we contrast historical views of outcomes based on comparisons across content domains (e.g., language versus visual perceptual skills) with a view based on overarching processes that underlie strengths and weakness within content domains. Thus, we suggest that children with SBM have strengths when the skill involves the capacity to retrieve information from semantic memory and generate material that has been associatively linked or learned (associative processing) and general difficulties on tasks that require the construction or integration of a response (assembled processing). We use a hypothetical case to illustrate the differences in content domains versus general processes and also identify interventions that may be effective in addressing some of the cognitive and behavioral difficulties experienced variably by people with SBM. We extend these general principles to a discussion of variability in outcomes and use data from a large sample of children with spina bifida to illustrate the basis for this variability. PMID:20798790

Fletcher, Jack M.; Ostermaier, Kathryn K.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen

2010-01-01

42

Neurological and medico-social problems of spina bifida patients in adolescence and adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronological changes in the neurological manifestations of spina bifida are well recognized in the early developmental periods: fetal, neonatal, infantile, pre-school and school life. However, little has been written about the medical and medico-social problems of spina bifida patients in adulthood. Patients now in this age group had the condition diagnosed and managed in an era when modern neurosurgical concepts

Shizuo Oi; Osamu Sato; Satoshi Matsumoto

1996-01-01

43

A reproductive history of mothers with spina bifida offspring-a new look at old issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spina bifida is a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system associated with failure of neural tube closure in the fetus. Reproductive history studies of mothers with spina bifida offspring have often been conducted shortly after the affected child's birth. In this study, a large group of community-based mothers were studied after most had completed their families. The aims were

Thomas L Farley

2006-01-01

44

The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

Shaer, Catherine M.

1997-01-01

45

Prognosis of Spina Bifida in the Era of Prenatal Diagnosis and Termination of Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the current outcome of a selected prenatally diagnosed spina bifida group. Materials andMethods: We analyzed and followed up 74 cases of prenatally diagnosed spina bifida. Results: Termination of pregnancy was chosen in 72% of the cases and 28% were live-born. Chromosomal defects were identified in 16%, although only 1.6% in isolated cases. Of the 21 live births,

Susana Aguilera; Peter Soothill; Mark Denbow; Ian Pople

2009-01-01

46

[Care plan in a patient with spina bifida. Case report].  

PubMed

Spina bifida is a congenital malformation of the lumbar spine. We developed a nursing care plan in a 12-year-old girl with this malformation who attended a special education school. Using Gordon's health patterns, we assessed the patient and identified the following nursing diagnoses: imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements, urinary incontinence, impaired transfer ability, risk for infection, risk of impaired skin integrity, risk for latex allergy, readiness for enhanced urinary elimination, and readiness for enhanced self-concept. Each nursing diagnosis was individualized, and related factors, risk factors and defining characteristics were identified for each. Likewise, we established the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) outcomes and Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) interventions, with descriptors and activities, respectively. The use of the nursing process will improve patient care and team work. PMID:17683689

González Gancedo, Jacob; Fernández García, Daniel

2007-01-01

47

Physical education for students with spina bifida: mothers' perspectives.  

PubMed

This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods of semistructured interviews, artifacts, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: a good thing but . . . , connection to sports, and beyond the curriculum. The mothers valued their children's participation in physical education and provided instrumental support to teachers and teaching associates. They also valued sport as an avenue for developing sport specific skills, which in turn enriched the school experience. The findings are discussed within the context of Peters' (1996) model of disablement. PMID:17703061

An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L

2007-01-01

48

Parental involvement in the decision to treat spina bifida cystica.  

PubMed

Twenty couples whose newborn baby had an open myelomeningocoele were given a detailed account of the baby's clinical state and likely future by the paediatrician. They each said how they wanted their child treated. I believe a high percentage of parents would like to be involved in the decision on how to treat their spina bifida baby. When parents are given all the facts (including an interpretation of the clinical assessment) by an experienced doctor-and who better for the job than the paediatrician-then the chances of reaching the right decision for child and family which that joint consultation offers are greater than when the doctor has to act as adviser and sole adjudicator. PMID:4594584

Ellis, H L

1974-03-01

49

Upper limb cerebellar motor function in children with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate upper limb cerebellar motor function in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and in typically developing controls. Methods Participants with SBM, who had either upper level spinal lesions (n=23) or lower level spinal lesions (n=65), and controls (n=37) completed four upper limb motor function tasks (posture, rebound, limb dysmetria, and diadochokinesis) under four different physical and cognitive challenge conditions. Functional independence was assessed by parental questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM participants were able to complete the posture task, and they were less likely than controls to obtain a perfect rebound score. Participants with SBM showed impaired performance in either time, accuracy, or both, on the limb dysmetria and diadochokinesis tasks but responded like controls to physical and cognitive challenges. Conclusions Because upper limb motor performance predicted aspects of functional independence, we conclude that upper limb impairments in children with SBM are significant and have direct implications for the level of independent functioning in children with SBM. PMID:19823846

Jewell, Derryn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Hetherington, Ross; MacGregor, Daune; Drake, James M.; Salman, Michael S.

2011-01-01

50

Long-term outcome in open spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Doctors need reliable data on outcome in order to help parents faced with difficult decisions about termination of an affected pregnancy or treatment after birth. AIM: To determine survival, health and lifestyle at the mean age of 30 years in a complete cohort of adults born with open spina bifida. DESIGN OF STUDY: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Well-documented cohort of 117 consecutive cases of open spina bifida whose backs were closed non-selectively at birth between 1963 and 1971. METHOD: Survivors (age range = 26 to 33 years) were surveyed by postal questionnaire and telephone interview. The main outcome measures were the health, independence and lifestyle of the survivors in terms of living in the community, driving a car and working in open employment. RESULTS: Ascertainment was 100%. Sixty (51%) had died, mainly the most disabled. Of the 57 survivors, 84% had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt, 70% had an IQ of 80 or more, 37% lived independently in the community, 39% drove a car, 30% could walk more than 50 metres and 26% were in open employment. However one-third (19) still needed daily care, three were on respiratory support, two were blind, two had diabetes mellitus, and one was on dialysis. Mortality, disability and achievement reflected the neurological deficit that had been recorded in infancy in terms of sensory level. Attainment and independence were reduced in those who had needed revision of CSF shunt. CONCLUSION: The survivors in this unselected cohort showed a wide range of outcome from apparent normality to very severe disability. This reflected both the extent of their original neurological deficit and events in the history of their CSF shunt. PMID:14601340

Oakeshott, Pippa; Hunt, Gillian M

2003-01-01

51

Depressive symptoms and self-concept in young people with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Examined self-reported depressive symptoms in 72 young people with spina bifida, ages 9 to 18:11, and matched able-bodied comparison subjects, using the Dimensions of Depression Profile for Children and Adolescents (Harter & Nowakowski, 1987). Independent variables included gender, self-perceptions (including physical appearance), and perceived social support. Young people with spina bifida were at greater risk of depressive mood, low self-worth, and suicidal ideation. Girls, independent of disability, were at greater risk of depressive mood, low self-worth, and self-blame. Multiple regression analyses suggest that global self-worth serves as a mediating variable for the effect of physical appearance self-concept on depressed mood (particularly in young people with spina bifida), and that perceived parental social support has a direct effect on depressed mood (particularly in girls). PMID:9383931

Appleton, P L; Ellis, N C; Minchom, P E; Lawson, V; Böll, V; Jones, P

1997-10-01

52

Mental rotation ability of children with spina bifida: what influence does manual rotation training have?  

PubMed

We investigated the mental rotation ability of children with spina bifida, a malformation of the spinal cord due to a neural tube defect, and how it is influenced by a manual rotation training. In comparison to a healthy control group these children showed longer reaction times and a higher number of errors in a computer-based mental rotation test. Furthermore, a manual rotation training was applied. The spina bifida group benefited considerably from the manual rotation training. The training effect was not limited to stimuli learned in the training. While the children with spina bifida showed a lower speed of mental rotation than their healthy peers in the mental rotation pretest, the two groups did not differ in their mental rotation speed in the posttest. PMID:17956183

Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

2007-01-01

53

Imaging diagnosis--cerebellar displacement and spina bifida in a calf.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe a calf affected by cerebellar displacement and spina bifida, diagnosed by ultrasonography. A full-term, newborn female calf with paralysis of the pelvic limbs was examined. The dorsal skin at the sacral level contained a circular defect; this was subsequently diagnosed as spina bifida. Cerebellar displacement into the cervical vertebral canal was suspected because of the frequent association of these anomalies. Spinal ultrasound examination carried out at the level of the craniocervical junction allowed identification of herniation of the cerebellum, the caudal part of brain stem, and part of an occipital lobe into the cervical vertebral canal. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was confirmed as post mortem examination. This type of brain defect, associated with spina bifida, resembles the Arnold-Chiari malformation in humans. PMID:20402403

Testoni, Stefania; Dalla Pria, Angela; Gentile, Arcangelo

2010-01-01

54

Sensory tract abnormality in the chick model of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida aperta (SBA) is an open neural tube defect that occurs during the embryonic period. We created SBA chicks by incising the roof plate of the neural tube in the embryo. The area of the dorsal funiculus was smaller in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. Additionally, the SBA group had fewer nerve fibres in the dorsal funiculus than the normal controls. The pathway of the ascending sensory nerves was revealed by tracing the degenerated nerve fibres using osmification. We cut the sciatic nerve (L5) of the control and SBA chicks at the central end of the dorsal root ganglion 1 day after hatching and fixed the tissue 3 days later. Degenerated sensory nerve fibres were observed in the ipsilateral dorsal funiculus in the control chicks. In contrast, degenerated sensory nerve fibres were observed in the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsal, ventral and lateral funiculi of the spinal cord in the SBA chicks. Consequently, fewer sensory nerve fibres ascended to the thoracic dorsal funiculus in the SBA chicks than in the normal controls. This is the first report of abnormal changes in the ascending sensory nerve fibres in SBA. PMID:21658418

Tsujimura, Ryusuke; Mominoki, Katsumi; Kinutani, Masae; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

2011-09-01

55

Quality of life in spina bifida: importance of parental hope  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Prognosis in spina bifida (SB) is often based only on neurological deficits present at birth. We hypothesised that both parental hope and the neurophysical examination predict quality of life in children and adolescents with SB.?METHODS—A previously validated disease and age specific health related quality of life (HRQL) instrument was posted to families of children (aged 5-12 years) and adolescents (aged 13-20 years) with SB. We measured parental hope, determined the child's current physical function, and obtained retrospective data on the neonatal neurophysical examination (NPE). Regression analysis modelled HRQL firstly as a dependent variable on parental hope and NPE ("birth status"); and secondly on parental hope and current physical function ("current function").?RESULTS—Response rates were 71% (137 of 194) for families of children, and 54% (74 of 138) for families of adolescents. NPE data were available for 121 children and 60 adolescents. In children, the birth status model predicted 26% of the variability (R2 hope 21%) compared with 23% of the variability (R2 hope 23%)in the adolescents. The current function model explained 47% of the variability (R2 hope 19%) in children compared with 31% of the variability (R2 hope 24%) in the adolescents.?CONCLUSIONS—In both age groups, parental hope was more strongly associated with the HRQL than neonatal or current physical deficits. A prospective study is required to determine whether a causal relation exists between parental hope and HRQL of children and adolescents with SB.?? PMID:10999858

Kirpalani, H.; Parkin, P.; Willan, A.; Fehlings, D.; Rosenbaum, P.; King, D; Van Nie, A. J

2000-01-01

56

Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB participated (41% male, age range 16-25y; 79% SB aperta, 67% hydrocephalus [HC], 39% wheelchair-dependent). Most were satisfied with their life as a whole (24% dissatisfied). No difference was found from a population reference group (28% dissatisfied). Highest proportions of dissatisfaction were found for financial situation (44%), partnership relations (49%), and sex life (55%). Least dissatisfaction was found for contact with friends (17%) and families (15%). Young adults with SB and HC were more satisfied with their financial situation and family life but were less satisfied with self-care ability and partnership relations than those without HC and the reference group. However, except for self-care ability, relationships between life satisfaction and having SB were weak. In conclusion, self-care ability and partnership relations were rated least favourable and may need more attention from care providers. Overall, SB does not seem to be an important determinant of life satisfaction. PMID:17518933

Barf, H A; Post, M W M; Verhoef, M; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Gooskens, R H J M; Prevo, A J H

2007-06-01

57

Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid of pregnant rats with spina bifida aperta.  

PubMed

Congenital spina bifida aperta is a common congenital malformation in children and has an incidence of 1‰ to 5‰ in China. However, we currently lack specific biomarkers for screening or prenatal diagnosis and there is no method to entirely cure or prevent such defects. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize differentially expressed proteins in amniotic-fluid samples (AFSs) of embryonic day (E) 17.5 rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta induced by retinoic acid (RA). We identified five proteins differentially expressed in AFSs of spina bifida aperta, including three upregulated proteins (transferrin, alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor, B subunit [SRPRB] 55 kDa), two downregulated proteins (apolipoprotein A IV [APO A4] and Srprb 77 kDa). Specifically, we found 11 alpha-1 fetoprotein (AFP) fragments that were downregulated and 35 AFP fragments that were upregulated in AFSs from embryos with spina bifida aperta. Of the downregulated AFP fragments, 72.7% (8/11) were confined to the AFP N-terminus (amino acids [aas] 25-440) and 77.1% (27/35) of upregulated AFP fragments were confined to the AFP C-terminus (aas 340-596). We also confirmed APO A4 and AFP by immunoblot analysis. This is the first comparative proteomic study of AFSs from rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta. We demonstrate proteomic alterations in the AFS of spina bifida aperta, which may provide new insights in neural tube defects and contribute to the prenatal screening. PMID:22108047

Shan, Liping; Fan, Yang; Li, Hui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Fenghua; Yuan, Zhengwei

2012-02-01

58

The influence of juggling on mental rotation performance in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all participants completed the mental rotation test again. Children of the EG showed a significant decrease in reaction time and an increase in mental rotation speed compared to the control group. This indicates that juggling improves the rotation in the mental rotation process in children with spina bifida. PMID:22929606

Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

2012-11-01

59

Natural History of Spina Bifida Cystica and Cranium Bifidum Cysticum  

PubMed Central

The 425 cases of spina bifida cystica and cranium bifidum cysticum born in a population of 850,000 between 1956 and 1962 (with an incidence of 4·12 per 1000 births) were followed. Most did not receive the modern treatment for the condition. Follow-up in 1968 showed that 25% were stillborn, 13% died during the first week of perinatal causes, a further 47% died mostly of the complications of the condition, and 15% are still alive. Life table survival figures suggest for the liveborns a 12·8% life expectancy to the 11th birthday. The series included 18 cases of meningocele (4·2% of the total), diagnosed largely by exclusion; all are surviving and are largely free from physical and mental handicap. 26 cases of encephalocele include 8 survivors who are all retarded but not much crippled. Of the 381 myeloceles, 37 survive who though not much affected mentally are severely handicapped physically with limb paralysis and incontinence, the pattern of which was largely determined by the level of the lesion. There is a close relation between degree of hydrocephalus and severity of mental retardation. Boys surviving show better performance than girls. The incontinent, whether treated or untreated, show no more emotional disturbance than the continent. This series provides a `baseline' allowing modern and surgical treatment to be evaluated. 60% of the total (or 85% of those liveborn) should be regarded as potentially salvageable. Nearly all cases should probably have the `open' lesion closed as a surgical emergency, but thereafter no further procedure should be undertaken on those with severe hydrocephalus, established renal damage, persistent intracranial infection, or severe kyphosis, or if other severe malformations are present. PMID:4930541

Laurence, K. M.; Tew, B. J.

1971-01-01

60

Factors Associated With Strabismus in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Purpose Higher prevalence of strabismus in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) has previously been attributed to hydrocephalus; however, SBM is associated with many other complications. This study investigates the relation between strabismus and other factors in SBM. Methods Children aged 3 to 18 years with SBM (n = 112) received an eye examination including assessment of ocular alignment by cover or Hirschberg test. Gestational age, respiratory distress at birth, birth weight, maternal age at birth, number of shunt revisions, and spinal lesion level were also obtained. The relation between these factors and strabismus was analyzed. Results Forty-two participants had strabismus. Maternal age (P = .4) and respiratory distress (P = .6) were not significantly related to strabismus. Lower birth weight was suggestive of a relation with strabismus (logistic regression, P = .05) and younger gestational age was related to strabismus (logistic regression, P = .01). Participants who had at least one shunt revision were more likely to have strabismus (Fisher’s exact test, P = .038). Spinal lesion level was significantly related to strabismus with increased likelihood of strabismus for spinal lesions closer to the brain (Wald chi-square, 1,100 = 4.29, P = .038). Conclusion These findings indicate that several factors are associated with strabismus in SBM. Some of these factors (lower birth weight and younger gestational age) are associated with strabismus in the general population, whereas the association of strabismus and level of spinal lesion may be unique to SBM and may be related to the more severe brain dysmorphology associated with upper level spinal lesions. PMID:22588727

Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Buncic, Ray; Mazow, Malcolm; Fletcher, Jack M.

2013-01-01

61

Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

2012-01-01

62

Risk and Protective Influences in the Lives of Siblings of Youths with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of childhood chronic health conditions like spina bifida (SB) is a shared family experience. However, the lived experience of siblings is not well known. One hundred and fifty-five brothers and sisters of a child with SB responded to an open-ended question included in an anonymous self-administered mail questionnaire designed to enhance…

Bellin, Melissa H.; Kovacs, Pamela J.; Sawin, Kathleen J.

2008-01-01

63

Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

2007-01-01

64

Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)…

Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

2010-01-01

65

Percutaneous Fetoscopic Patch Coverage of Spina Bifida Aperta in the Human – Early Clinical Experience and Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current operative approach for fetal repair of spina bifida aperta requires maternal laparotomy and hysterotomy. Following technical feasibility studies in sheep, we performed percutaneous fetoscopic patch coverage of this lesion in 3 human fetuses between 23 + 4 and 25 + 3 weeks of gestation. Methods and Results: Whereas the patch detached in the first case 3 weeks

Thomas Kohl; Rudolph Hering; Axel Heep; Carlo Schaller; Bernhard Meyer; Claudia Greive; Gabriele Bizjak; Tim Buller; Patricia Van de Vondel; Wiebke Gogarten; Peter Bartmann; Gisela Knöpfle; Ulrich Gembruch

2006-01-01

66

Birth Ranks Of Spontaneous Abortions In Sibships Of Children Affected By Anencephaly Or Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the birth rank of miscarriages within sibships in which a case of anencephaly or spina bifida (ASB) had occurred were analysed by the Haldane-Smith statistical test. This showed that miscarriages in ASB sibships tend to have a negative birth order effect--that is, they occur in earlier rather than later pregnancies within the sibship. The strongest source of bias

William H. James

1978-01-01

67

Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and…

Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

2010-01-01

68

Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

2010-01-01

69

A model of neurocognitive function in spina bifida over the life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), a neural tube defect that is the product of a complex pattern of gene-environment interactions, is associated with naturally occurring, systematic variability in the neural phenotype and in environmental factors that lead to systematic variability in the cognitive phenotype. We characterize the basis for variability in the cognitive phenotype of children with SBM with reference to

MAUREEN DENNIS; SUSAN H. LANDRY; MARCIA BARNES; JACK M. FLETCHER

2006-01-01

70

Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

2010-01-01

71

The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ?30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

2013-01-01

72

[Absent intracranial translucency--new ultrasound marker for spina bifida at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation].  

PubMed

Spina bifida is the most common abnormality of the fetal central nervous system. Prenatal diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. However, first trimester detection of spina bifida is still a challenge. A new indirect ultrasound sign of open spina bifida between 11-13 6 weeks of gestation (w.g.) has been recently described. The marker is associated with an absence of intracranial translucency (IT) in the mid-sagittal plane. We present a case report of an open spina bifida detected at 13+2 weeks of gestation with an absent IT. The main ultrasound characteristics of normal and absent IT are described. In addition, the diagnostic role of three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasound is also discussed. PMID:21427878

Markov, D; Pavlova, E; Atanasova, D; Markov, P; Ivanov, St

2010-01-01

73

Genes encoding critical transcriptional activators for murine neural tube development and human spina bifida: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spina bifida is a malformation of the neural tube and is the most common of neural tube defects (NTDs). The etiology of spina bifida is largely unknown, although it is thought to be multi-factorial, involving multiple interacting genes and environmental factors. Mutations in transcriptional co-activator genes-Cited2, p300, Cbp, Tfap2?, Carm1 and Cart1 result in NTDs in murine models, thus

Wei Lu; Adrian R Guzman; Wei Yang; Claudia J Chapa; Gary M Shaw; Robert M Greene; M Michele Pisano; Edward J Lammer; Richard H Finnell; Huiping Zhu

2010-01-01

74

Pituitary gland and axial skeletal malformations in human fetuses with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to describe the pituitary gland and axial skeleton, including the sella turcica, in human fetuses with spina bifida. Ten fetuses with gestational ages (GA) 15 1/2-28 weeks were investigated radiographically (Faxitron X-ray apparatus) and immunohistochemically. Four of the fetuses have been described previously. The study showed that nine fetuses had minor or no skeletal abnormalities in the vertebral bodies of the spine, and one fetus had severely malformed vertebral bodies. In all cases the sella turcica and the pituitary gland were malformed. Adenopituitary tissue was in all cases located in both the sella turcica and the pharyngeal submucosa. The most severe sella turcica/pituitary gland malformation was seen in the fetus with the malformed spine. The connection between the prenatally registered sella turcica/pituitary gland malformation and the endocrinological status of children with spina bifida should be emphasized in future studies. PMID:10661842

Kjaer, I; Fischer Hansen, B; Reintoft, I; Keeling, J W

1999-12-01

75

Spina Bifida / Children of Korean and Vietnam Veterans  

MedlinePLUS

... financed health care benefits to certain Korea and Vietnam Veterans' birth children who have been diagnosed with ... If you are the birth child of a Vietnam Veteran and you have been diagnosed with spina ...

76

The Cerebellum in Children with Spina Bifida and Chiari II Malformation: Quantitative Volumetrics by Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few volumetric MRI studies of the entire cerebellum have been published; even less quantitative information is available in\\u000a patients with hindbrain malformations, including the Chiari II malformation which is ubiquitous in patients with spina bifida\\u000a meningomyelocele (SBM). In the present study, regional volumetric analyses of the cerebellum were conducted in children with\\u000a SBM\\/Chiari II and typically developing (TD) children. Total

Jenifer Juranek; Maureen Dennis; Paul T. Cirino; Lyla El-Messidi; Jack M. Fletcher

2010-01-01

77

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. METHODS: The cases were children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were children born healthy in the same period as the cases, from hospitals and from the general population. Data collection was carried out in two steps. Firstly, postal questionnaires were sent to all the parents of cases and controls to gather information on occupations and potential confounders. In the second phase of the study, information on specific exposures was collected by means of job and task specific personal interviews. Interviews were performed with 55 case mothers and 66 control mothers who had occupations with a potential for chemical or physical exposure. Those exposures were assumed to be negligible for--for example, teachers and secretaries, so personal interviews were not indicated for these women. Information was collected on specific tasks in the period just after conception, and on the associated use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. RESULTS: The analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4, CI:1.3-9.0), and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7, CI:0.9-3.4). Only a few women seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures of the mother during pregnancy were infrequent and did not seem to play an important part in the aetiology of spina bifida in this study. The association found between spina bifida and maternal agricultural occupations could not be explained by the use of pesticides by the mother or by any other occupational exposure. PMID:8777455

Blatter, B M; Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreels, F J; Verbeek, A L

1996-01-01

78

Predisposition to spina bifida: Search for a relation to maternal gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed Central

The peak acid output of the stomach in a group of 71 mothers of spina bifida children and in 71 matched controls was estimated indirectly by the serum level of group I pepsinogens. The mean levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that the conjectured teratogen is not specially acid-labile. The variance was significantly higher in index subjects than in controls, but the interpretation of this finding is not clear. PMID:563466

Stanway, P A; Samloff, I M; Brace, C J; Renwick, J H

1977-01-01

79

Genetic Polymorphisms in the Thioredoxin 2 (TXN2) Gene and Risk for Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

TXN2 encodes human thioredoxin 2, a small redox protein important in cellular antioxidant defenses, as well as in the regulation of apoptosis. Txn2 knockout mice fail to complete neural tube closure by E10.5 and die in utero. We hypothesized that genetic variation in human TXN2 gene may alter the function of the encoded protein in a manner associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). A DNA re-sequencing effort of the human TXN2 gene was taken. After a variation in the promoter was identified, the transcriptional activity of different alleles was investigated. The possible association between these variations and the risk of spina bifida was further evaluated in a subset of samples obtained from a large population-based case-control study in California in two different ethnicity groups, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic white. We identified a novel promoter insertion polymorphism located 9 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site of exon 1(?9 insertion). The GA, G and GGGA insertions were associated with a marked decrease of transcriptional activity when overexpressed in both U2-OS (an osteosarcoma cell line) and 293 cells (derived from human embryonic kidney). Further analysis revealed that the GA insertion was associated with increased spina bifida risk for Hispanic whites. Our study revealed a novel Ins/Del polymorphism in the human TXN2 gene proximal promoter region that altered the transcriptional activity and is associated with spina bifida risk. This polymorphism may be a genetic modifier of spina bifida risk in this California population. PMID:19165900

Wen, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.; Islam, Ana; Finnell, Richard H.

2010-01-01

80

Family and peer issues among adolescents with spina bifida and cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Increasingly, children with disabling conditions are surviving through childhood into adolescence and beyond. This places increased importance on understanding adolescent, family, and peer relationships, which are critical to healthy development among adolescents in general and to transitions to successful adulthood among youths with physical disabilities in particular. The purpose of this study was to identify the patterns of family and peer interactions. One hundred two youths with spina bifida and 60 adolescents with cerebral palsy between the ages of 12 and 22 completed written psychological measures as well as an in-depth structured interview. Approximately 90% of youths with spina bifida and cerebral palsy resided at home, of whom 80.4% and 72% lived with both parents. Almost without exception, parental relationships were defined as positive, with no difference of attitude noted toward the mother and father. Relationships with parents for teenagers with spina bifida were marked by high levels of dependence on parents for personal care such as bowel programs and, for both groups, low levels of responsibility at home and lack of discussion with parents about sexuality or menstruation. Although friends were viewed as very important by most respondents (approximately 83%), relationships were characterized by extremely limited out-of-school contacts, negligible participation with organized social activities, and a primary orientation toward sedentary activities. Finally, regarding heterosexual relationships, whereas 44.1% of respondents with spina bifida and 54.2% of respondents with cerebral palsy said their friends dated, only 14.7% and 28.3% of study participants indicated that they had ever been on a date and, even for those teenagers, heterosexual social contacts were infrequent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1861926

Blum, R W; Resnick, M D; Nelson, R; St Germaine, A

1991-08-01

81

Racial/ethnic differences in the birth prevalence of spina bifida - United States, 1995-2005.  

PubMed

In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to help prevent pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration mandated adding folic acid to all enriched cereal grain products by January 1998. During October 1998--December 1999, the birth prevalence of spina bifida in the United States decreased 22.9% compared with 1995--1996; however, by 2003--2004, no further decrease had been observed. Notably, the prevalence of NTD-affected pregnancies remained higher among Hispanic women than among women in other racial/ethnic populations. To update previously reported data and assess racial/ethnic differences, CDC analyzed birth certificate data for four periods during 1995--2005. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that from the early postfortification period, 1999--2000, to the most recent period of analysis, 2003--2005, the prevalence of spina bifida declined 6.9%, from 2.04 to 1.90 per 10,000 live births (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87--1.00). Among infants with non-Hispanic black mothers, prevalence fell 19.8%, from 2.17 to 1.74 per 10,000 live births (PR = 0.80; CI = 0.67--0.96), while prevalence among infants with non-Hispanic white and Hispanic mothers remained nearly constant. Additional public health efforts targeting women with known risk factors (e.g., obesity and certain genetic factors) likely are needed to further reduce the prevalence of spina bifida in the United States. PMID:19129744

2009-01-01

82

Comparative proteomics of spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are complex congenital anomalies of the central nervous system, with a prevalence of 5 per 10,000 worldwide. However, current therapeutics for NTDs are unsatisfactory. The neurological complications remain the main problem for therapy. Neurological dysfunction could result from the primary defect or injuries to the uncovered neural tissue in the uterus. However, the pathological changes in the uncovered neural tissue have not been described. Here, we present our comparative proteomics study of the spinal cord from rat fetuses with all-trans retinoic-acid-induced spina bifida aperta. Proteins from spinal cords were subjected to 2-D gel electrophoresis, then protein identification by mass spectrometry. We identified 13 proteins with differential expression between normal spinal cords and those with spina bifida aperta. These identified proteins were reported to be involved in signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration, protein folding and apoptosis. We confirmed 4 identified proteins by immunoblot analysis and assessed their mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR. This is the first comparative proteomics of spinal cords from rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta. We demonstrate protein alterations that reflect the pathological situation of the uncovered neural tissue, which may help improve the treatment of NTDs. PMID:21945729

Fan, Yang; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Fenghua; Zhang, Yi; Li, Hui; Shan, Liping; Yuan, Zhengwei

2011-12-21

83

Neurogenic bowel and continence programs for the individual with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The neurogenic bowel in the person with spina bifida has been difficult to manage. Current literature reveals very little research conducted on the outcome of continence programs in the person with spina bifida. It has different characteristics than the neurogenic bowel seen with spinal cord injury because it occurs during fetal development. Management of the neurogenic bowel to achieve continence is based upon thirteen assessment items that include stool form, individual physiologic parameters, family patterns, diet and medications. Programs are developmentally related to appropriately support the child's involvement. Continence strategies include the use of oral medication early in the day and timed sitting, suppositories or enemas later in the day at a time convenient to the family. The timing of the medications and evacuation is very important to the success. An interdisciplinary team is important in supporting the family as the child with spina bifida grows into an independent adult. The dietician and occupational therapist have invaluable insight into diet, fluids, adaptive aids and techniques that contribute to positive outcomes of the continence program. PMID:21791784

Leibold, Susan

2008-01-01

84

Disturbed apoptosis and cell proliferation in developing neuroepithelium of lumbo-sacral neural tubes in retinoic acid-induced spina bifida aperta in rat.  

PubMed

Spina bifida is a complex congenital malformation resulting from failure of fusion in the spinal neural tube during embryogenesis. However, the cellular mechanism underlying spina bifida is not fully understood. Here, we investigated cell apoptosis in whole embryos and proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the spinal neural tube during neurulation in all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-induced spina bifida in fetal rats. Cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay on whole-mount and serially sectioned samples of rat embryos with spina bifida. Cell proliferation of lumbo-sacral neural progenitor cells was assessed by staining for the mitotic marker Ki67 and pH3. We found an excess of apoptosis in the neuroepithelium of embryos with spina bifida, which became more marked as embryos progress from E11 to E13. Conversely, there was a reduction in cell proliferation in spina bifida embryos, with a progressively greater difference from controls with stage from E11 to 13. Thus, atRA-induced spina bifida in rat shows perturbed apoptosis and proliferation of neural progenitors in the lumbo-sacral spinal cord during embryonic development, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of spina bifida. PMID:22504176

Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Zhou, Fenghua; Liu, Bo; Wu, Di; Li, Shujing; Wang, Lili; Fan, Yang; Wang, Weilin; Yuan, Zhengwei

2012-08-01

85

Maternal vitamin use, genetic variation of infant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and risk for spina bifida.  

PubMed

Maternal periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid substantially reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. The mechanism underlying this reduction in risk is unknown. Several recent studies have reported an association between homozygosity for a variant form (the C677T genotype) of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and risk for NTDs in individuals. It has been hypothesized that maternal folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs by partially correcting reduced MTHFR activity associated with the variant form of the enzyme. Using data from two California case-control interview studies (1987-1991 birth cohorts), the authors investigated whether an interaction for spina bifida risk existed between infant MTHFR C677T genotype and maternal use of supplements containing folic acid. The authors genotyped the allelic variants of MTHFR in 214 liveborn case infants with spina bifida and 503 control infants for whom information on maternal periconceptional vitamin use was available. The percentage of all case infants with the C677T MTHFR mutation, for both homozygous (TT) and heterozygous (TC) genotypes, was slightly higher than that of controls. The C677T genotype was substantially more frequent among both case and control Hispanic infants than among non-Hispanic infants. Among all infants whose mothers did not periconceptionally use vitamins containing folic acid, the risk of spina bifida, as measured by the odds ratio, was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-3.1) for all infants with the TT genotype and 2.0 (95% CI 0.5-7.4) for non-Hispanic white infants with the TT genotype, as compared with infants with the CC genotype. This result indicates a modestly increased risk associated with the C677T genotype. A lower risk estimate (odds ratio=1.2, 95% CI 0.4-4.0) was observed among infants whose mothers periconceptionally used vitamin supplements containing folic acid. This population-based California study found a modestly increased risk of spina bifida among infants who were homozygous for the C677T genotype, but only minimal evidence of an interaction between the C677T genotype and maternal folic acid intake in the occurrence of spina bifida. If this mutant MTHFR genotype plays a role in the association between maternal vitamin use and NTD risk, it may be a small role, or it may be conditional on maternal genotype. PMID:9663401

Shaw, G M; Rozen, R; Finnell, R H; Wasserman, C R; Lammer, E J

1998-07-01

86

Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

2013-11-01

87

Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida. PMID:19894129

Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L

2010-01-01

88

Link between the CSF shunt and achievement in adults with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—A few enterprising adults with shunt treated spina bifida live independently in the community, have a job in competitive employment, and drive to work in their own car. By contrast others with similar disability but lacking their motivation remain dependent on care and supervision. The aim of this study was to identify events in the history of their shunt which may have influenced their subsequent achievement.?METHODS—Between June 1963 and January 1971 117 babies born in East Anglia with open spina bifida had their backs closed regardless of the severity of their condition. When reviewed in 1997 every case was ascertained. Sixty had died and the 57 survivors had a mean age of 30. These were assigned to two groups: achievers and non-achievers, according to their attainments in independence, employment, and use of a car.?RESULTS—Of the 57 survivors nine had no shunt and eight of these were achievers. All were of normal intelligence (IQ?80) and only one was severely disabled. Of the 48 with shunts only 20 were achievers (OR 11.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-96.8). Lack of achievement in these 48 was associated with revisions of the shunt, particularly when revisions were performed after the age of 2. Sixteen patients had never required a revision and 11 (69%) were achievers; 10 had had revisions only during infancy and five (50%) were achievers; 22 had had revisions after their second birthday and only four (18%) were achievers (p<0.001). Elective revisions were not performed in this cohort and in 75% of patients revisions had been preceded by clear symptoms of raised intracranial pressure.?CONCLUSION—Revisions of the shunt, particularly after the age of 2, are associated with poor long term achievement in adults with spina bifida.?? PMID:10519863

Hunt, G.; Oakeshott, P.; Kerry, S.

1999-01-01

89

Perineal sensation: an important predictor of long-term outcome in open spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Objectives To see if perineal sensation in infants with open spina bifida is associated with a better long?term outcome, particularly in terms of survival, renal?related deaths and incontinence. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on a complete cohort of 117 consecutive patients with open spina bifida, whose backs were closed non?selectively at birth between 1963 and 1971. A meticulous neurological examination in infancy showed that 33 (28%) of them had perineal sensation, defined as intact sensation to pinprick in at least one dermatome on one side in the saddle area (S2–4). Data recorded within 48?h of birth and during six reviews between 1972 and 2002 were used. Details of deaths were obtained from medical records and from the Office of National Statistics. Results By December 2005, 57% (67/117) of the cohort had died. There were 50 survivors with a mean age 38?years (range 35–41). More of those with perineal sensation survived than those without (23/33 v 27/84, p<0.001). This difference was mainly caused by 19 renal deaths in those lacking perineal sensation. Crucially there were no renal?related deaths in those with perineal sensation (0/33 v 19/84, p?=?0.003). Among the survivors, those with perineal sensation were more likely than the remainder to be continent of urine and faeces (10/23 v 1/27, p<0.001 and 18/23 v 9/27, p?=?0.002 respectively). They were also more likely to be able to walk at least 50?m (11/23 v 5/27, p?=?0.027) and never to have had pressure sores (15/23 v 9/27, p?=?0.025). Conclusions A simple assessment of perineal sensation in infancy predicts long?term outcome in terms of survival, renal prognosis and incontinence in open spina bifida. PMID:16943260

Oakeshott, P; Hunt, G M; Whitaker, R H; Kerry, S

2007-01-01

90

Cognitive and functional outcome in spina bifida–Chiari II malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The long-term outcome in spina bifida–Chiari II–hydrocephalus complex is poorly understood. Traditional neurosurgical outcome\\u000a measures are crude. Neuropsychological testing is increasingly important in outcome assessment. We investigated the health,\\u000a disability, lifestyle and cognitive function in adults who had myelomeningocoele closure at birth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adult patients under routine follow-up were assessed in a joint neurosurgery\\/neuropsychology clinic. Patients completed lifestyle\\u000a questionnaires, the hydrocephalus

Michael D. Jenkinson; Sophie Campbell; Caroline Hayhurst; Simon Clark; Jothy Kandasamy; Maggie K. Lee; Ann Flynn; Peter Murphy; Conor L. Mallucci

2011-01-01

91

A unifying hypothesis for hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, anencephaly and spina bifida  

PubMed Central

This work is a modified version of the Casey Holter Memorial prize essay presented to the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, June 29th 2007, Heidelberg, Germany. It describes the origin and consequences of the Chiari malformation, and proposes that hydrocephalus is caused by inadequate central nervous system (CNS) venous drainage. A new hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis, anencephaly and spina bifida is described. Any volume increase in the central nervous system can increase venous pressure. This occurs because veins are compressible and a CNS volume increase may result in reduced venous blood flow. This has the potential to cause progressive increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Venous insufficiency may be caused by any disease that reduces space for venous volume. The flow of CSF has a beneficial effect on venous drainage. In health it moderates central nervous system pressure by moving between the head and spine. Conversely, obstruction to CSF flow causes localised pressure increases, which have an adverse effect on venous drainage. The Chiari malformation is associated with hindbrain herniation, which may be caused by low spinal pressure relative to cranial pressure. In these instances, there are hindbrain-related symptoms caused by cerebellar and brainstem compression. When spinal injury occurs as a result of a Chiari malformation, the primary pathology is posterior fossa hypoplasia, resulting in raised spinal pressure. The small posterior fossa prevents the flow of CSF from the spine to the head as blood enters the central nervous system during movement. Consequently, intermittent increases in spinal pressure caused by movement, result in injury to the spinal cord. It is proposed that posterior fossa hypoplasia, which has origins in fetal life, causes syringomyelia after birth and leads to damage to the spinal cord in spina bifida. It is proposed that hydrocephalus may occur as a result of posterior fossa hypoplasia, where raised pressure occurs as a result of obstruction to flow of CSF from the head to the spine, and cerebral injury with raised pressure occurs in anencephaly by this mechanism. The current view of dysraphism is that low central nervous system pressure and exposure to amniotic fluid, damage the central nervous system. The hypothesis proposed in this essay supports the view that spina bifida is a manifestation of progressive hydrocephalus in the fetus. It is proposed that that mesodermal growth insufficiency influences both neural tube closure and central nervous system pressure, leading to dysraphism. PMID:18405364

Williams, Helen

2008-01-01

92

[Post-infectious transverse myelitis and thoracic spina bifida: report of a case].  

PubMed

The patient, a 30 year-old man, dentist, started having an influenza-like infection which lasted five days, with malaise, muscle pain throughout the body and fever. One day before the hospital admission he presented urinary retention followed in the next day by ataxia and numbness sensation in both feet and lower third of his legs. The neurological examination disclosed a thoracic spinal cord impairment at T9-T10 level and the diagnosis of a post- infectious transverse myelitis was made. The plain Rx of the spine showed a spina bifida oculta in the T7 vertebra, which is roughly at the same level of the T9-T10 spinal cord segment. An iodinated myelography showed no abnormalities. The CSF examination showed small increase in the white cells (6.4 cells/cu.mm). The patient received dexamethasone (4. 5g /day) and two weeks later was entirely free of symptoms. The authors think that the congenital bone defect (spina bifida) might have played a role in the development of the myelitis, probably because of an ontogenetically determined "vulnerable point" ("locus minor resistentia ") at that level, either anatomical or immunological. PMID:6375643

Andrade, L A; Rosado, P S

1984-03-01

93

118 SNPs of folate-related genes and risks of spina bifida and conotruncal heart defects  

PubMed Central

Background Folic acid taken in early pregnancy reduces risks for delivering offspring with several congenital anomalies. The mechanism by which folic acid reduces risk is unknown. Investigations into genetic variation that influences transport and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused on 118 SNPs involved in folate transport and metabolism. Methods Using data from a California population-based registry, we investigated whether risks of spina bifida or conotruncal heart defects were influenced by 118 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the complex folate pathway. This case-control study included 259 infants with spina bifida and a random sample of 359 nonmalformed control infants born during 1983–86 or 1994–95. It also included 214 infants with conotruncal heart defects born during 1983–86. Infant genotyping was performed blinded to case or control status using a designed SNPlex assay. We examined single SNP effects for each of the 118 SNPs, as well as haplotypes, for each of the two outcomes. Results Few odds ratios (ORs) revealed sizable departures from 1.0. With respect to spina bifida, we observed ORs with 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1.0 for the following SNPs (heterozygous or homozygous) relative to the reference genotype: BHMT (rs3733890) OR = 1.8 (1.1–3.1), CBS (rs2851391) OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1); CBS (rs234713) OR = 2.9 (1.3–6.7); MTHFD1 (rs2236224) OR = 1.7 (1.1–2.7); MTHFD1 (hcv11462908) OR = 0.2 (0–0.9); MTHFD2 (rs702465) OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9); MTHFD2 (rs7571842) OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9); MTHFR (rs1801133) OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1); MTRR (rs162036) OR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9); MTRR (rs10380) OR = 3.4 (1.6–7.1); MTRR (rs1801394) OR = 0.7 (0.5–0.9); MTRR (rs9332) OR = 2.7 (1.3–5.3); TYMS (rs2847149) OR = 2.2 (1.4–3.5); TYMS (rs1001761) OR = 2.4 (1.5–3.8); and TYMS (rs502396) OR = 2.1 (1.3–3.3). However, multiple SNPs observed for a given gene showed evidence of linkage disequilibrium indicating that the observed SNPs were not individually contributing to risk. We did not observe any ORs with confidence intervals that did not include 1.0 for any of the studied SNPs with conotruncal heart defects. Haplotype reconstruction showed statistical evidence of nonrandom associations with TYMS, MTHFR, BHMT and MTR for spina bifida. Conclusion Our observations do not implicate a particular folate transport or metabolism gene to be strongly associated with risks for spina bifida or conotruncal defects. PMID:19493349

Shaw, Gary M; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Briggs, Farren BS; Carmichael, Suzan L; Barcellos, Lisa F; Lammer, Edward J; Finnell, Richard H

2009-01-01

94

A Review of the Potential for Cardiometabolic Dysfunction in Youth with Spina Bifida and the Role for Physical Activity and Structured Exercise  

PubMed Central

Children and adolescents who have decreased mobility due to spina bifida may be at increased risk for the components of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia due to low physical activity. Like their nondisabled peers, adolescents with spina bifida that develop metabolic risk factors early in life have set the stage for adult disease. Exercise interventions can improve metabolic dysfunction in nondisabled youth, but the types of exercise programs that are most effective and the mechanisms involved are not known. This is especially true in adolescents with spina bifida, who have impaired mobility and physical function and with whom there have been few well-controlled studies. This paper highlights the current lack of knowledge about the role of physical activity and the need to develop exercise strategies targeting the reduction of cardiometabolic risk and improving quality of life in youth with spina bifida. PMID:22778758

Short, Kevin R.; Frimberger, Dominic

2012-01-01

95

Altered Expression of 14-3-3? Protein in Spinal Cords of Rat Fetuses with Spina Bifida Aperta  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs). A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3? expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E) 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3? plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3? in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3? and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. Methodology/Principal Findings We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 14-3-3? and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3? and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3? was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3? were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7), microRNA-375 (miR-375) and microRNA-451 (miR-451), which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3? in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3? and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3? expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3? plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida. PMID:23936434

Wu, Li-na; Wei, Xiao-wei; Fan, Yang; Miao, Jia-ning; Wang, Li-li; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Di; Yuan, Zheng-wei

2013-01-01

96

Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

2011-01-01

97

Developmental delay in islet-1-positive motor neurons in chick spina bifida.  

PubMed

Spina bifida aperta (SBA) is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord with complications such as spinal ataxia and bowel and bladder dysfunction. We have developed a chick model with surgery-induced SBA that shows spinal ataxia after hatching. In the present study, motor neurons in the early stages in chicks with and without SBA were observed by immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody against Islet-1, a motor neuron marker. Delay in migration and maturation of motor neurons was observed in SBA. Although the final numbers of Islet-1-positive neurons in these two groups were not different, a defect in the production and elimination of excess motor neurons in the early developmental stages in the SBA group may be involved in the pathological mechanism of the motor complications of this disease. PMID:21127393

Wang, Min; Mominoki, Katsumi; Kinutani, Masae; Wang, Zhong; Kobayashi, Naoto; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuda, Seiji

2011-04-01

98

Peripheral neurological involvement as the first manifestation of spina bifida occulta.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old male was admitted for right-sided sciatica with asymptomatic septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the right foot. He had a history of active chronic hepatitis C and septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the left foot. His symptoms included low back pain, poorly systematized right-sided sciatica, impairment of all forms of sensation in both lower limbs, absent ankle jerks, episodes of urinary retention, urgency, and painless septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the right foot. Roentgenograms showed a spina bifida occulta of L5 and a bony erosin in the distal interphalangeal joint of the right fifth toe. Distal denervation in the territory of L5 was demonstrated by the electromyographic study. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed an area of high signal on T1 and T2 images, located within the spinal canal opposite L4 and suggestive of an intraspinal lipoma, as well as tethering of the spinal cord in an abnormally distal position. Antimicrobial therapy was effective in ensuring resolution of the infectious arthritis. The low back pain and sciatica responded to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy and did not recur subsequently. Many patients who have roentgenograms taken to evaluate low back pain and sciatica are found to have a spina bifida occulta. This complex birth defect involving the spinal canal, meninges and spinal cord or cauda equina can cause neurologic and/or urinary symptoms in adulthood. Magnetic resonance imaging is essential in this situation to evaluate the spinal cord and to look for an intraspinal lipoma. PMID:9476274

Da Silva, L F; Robin, S; Guégan-Massardier, E; Krzanowska, K; Mejjad, O; Vittecoq, O; Le Loet, X

1997-12-01

99

Fetal Surgery: The Ochsner Experience with In Utero Spina Bifida Repair  

PubMed Central

Background Myelomeningocele is the most common form of congenital central nervous system defect that is compatible with life. Most patients with myelomeningocele have significant functional impairment of ambulation and bowel and bladder function, require permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion with shunting, and have significant morbidity and mortality from hindbrain herniation (Chiari II malformation). The advent of intrauterine surgery has provided new opportunities to better address this lifelong debilitating disease. Case Report The patient was a 19-year-old gravida 2 para 1 at 22-6/7 weeks whose fetus was diagnosed with an open neural tube defect and further demonstrated to have ventriculomegaly and hindbrain herniation. Amniocentesis confirmed normal karyotype and the presence of acetylcholinesterase. After an intrauterine procedure, the patient underwent cesarean section at 35-5/7 weeks and delivered a male infant. His spinal incision was well healed at birth without any evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and his extremities were normal in appearance, range of motion, and movement. The infant also has maintained relatively normal, age-appropriate bowel and bladder function and has no obvious neurologic deficit. Conclusion As the benefit of fetal surgery becomes more widely accepted, quality of care and patient safety must be at the forefront of any institution's effort to offer fetal surgery. Given the current prevalence of spina bifida and the amount of resources required to treat this disease effectively either in utero or postnatally, it is our opinion that the treatment of spina bifida should be regionalized to tertiary referral centers with the interdisciplinary expertise to offer comprehensive treatment for all aspects of the disease and all phases of care for the patients. PMID:24688343

Kahn, Lora; Mbabuike, Nnenna; Valle-Giler, Edison P.; Garces, Juanita; Moore, R. Clifton; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Bui, Cuong J.

2014-01-01

100

Over-expression of Grhl2 causes spina bifida in the Axial defects mutant mouse  

PubMed Central

Cranial neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in mice carrying mutant alleles of many different genes, whereas isolated spinal NTDs (spina bifida) occur in fewer models, despite being common human birth defects. Spina bifida occurs at high frequency in the Axial defects (Axd) mouse mutant but the causative gene is not known. In the current study, the Axd mutation was mapped by linkage analysis. Within the critical genomic region, sequencing did not reveal a coding mutation whereas expression analysis demonstrated significant up-regulation of grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) in Axd mutant embryos. Expression of other candidate genes did not differ between genotypes. In order to test the hypothesis that over-expression of Grhl2 causes Axd NTDs, we performed a genetic cross to reduce Grhl2 function in Axd heterozygotes. Grhl2 loss of function mutant mice were generated and displayed both cranial and spinal NTDs. Compound heterozygotes carrying both loss (Grhl2 null) and putative gain of function (Axd) alleles exhibited normalization of spinal neural tube closure compared with Axd/+ littermates, which exhibit delayed closure. Grhl2 is expressed in the surface ectoderm and hindgut endoderm in the spinal region, overlapping with grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3). Axd mutants display delayed eyelid closure, as reported in Grhl3 null embryos. Moreover, Axd mutant embryos exhibited increased ventral curvature of the spinal region and reduced proliferation in the hindgut, reminiscent of curly tail embryos, which carry a hypomorphic allele of Grhl3. Overall, our data suggest that defects in Axd mutant embryos result from over-expression of Grhl2. PMID:21262862

Brouns, Madeleine R.; De Castro, Sandra C.P.; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, Els A.; Massa, Valentina; Hekking, Johan W.; Hirst, Caroline S.; Savery, Dawn; Munts, Chantal; Partridge, Darren; Lamers, Wout; Kohler, Eleonore; van Straaten, Henny W.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

2011-01-01

101

Over-expression of Grhl2 causes spina bifida in the Axial defects mutant mouse.  

PubMed

Cranial neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in mice carrying mutant alleles of many different genes, whereas isolated spinal NTDs (spina bifida) occur in fewer models, despite being common human birth defects. Spina bifida occurs at high frequency in the Axial defects (Axd) mouse mutant but the causative gene is not known. In the current study, the Axd mutation was mapped by linkage analysis. Within the critical genomic region, sequencing did not reveal a coding mutation whereas expression analysis demonstrated significant up-regulation of grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2) in Axd mutant embryos. Expression of other candidate genes did not differ between genotypes. In order to test the hypothesis that over-expression of Grhl2 causes Axd NTDs, we performed a genetic cross to reduce Grhl2 function in Axd heterozygotes. Grhl2 loss of function mutant mice were generated and displayed both cranial and spinal NTDs. Compound heterozygotes carrying both loss (Grhl2 null) and putative gain of function (Axd) alleles exhibited normalization of spinal neural tube closure compared with Axd/+ littermates, which exhibit delayed closure. Grhl2 is expressed in the surface ectoderm and hindgut endoderm in the spinal region, overlapping with grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3). Axd mutants display delayed eyelid closure, as reported in Grhl3 null embryos. Moreover, Axd mutant embryos exhibited increased ventral curvature of the spinal region and reduced proliferation in the hindgut, reminiscent of curly tail embryos, which carry a hypomorphic allele of Grhl3. Overall, our data suggest that defects in Axd mutant embryos result from over-expression of Grhl2. PMID:21262862

Brouns, Madeleine R; De Castro, Sandra C P; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, Els A; Massa, Valentina; Hekking, Johan W; Hirst, Caroline S; Savery, Dawn; Munts, Chantal; Partridge, Darren; Lamers, Wout; Köhler, Eleonore; van Straaten, Henny W; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

2011-04-15

102

Evaluation of the MTHFR C677T allele and the MTHFR gene locus in a German spina bifida population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have demonstrated that the occurrence and recurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD) is reduced\\u000a by folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies have shown low plasma folate and raised\\u000a plasma homocysteine in women with spina bifida aperta (SB) children suggesting an abnormal folate metabolism. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase (MTHFR) variant C677T, resulting in

M. C. Koch; K. Stegmann; A. Ziegler; B. Schröter; A. Ermert

1998-01-01

103

Transition into adult healthcare services in Scotland: findings from a study concerning service users at the Scottish Spina Bifida Association  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Literature on interventions that enable young people with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus to have smooth transition, into adult healthcare services, stress the need for the process to start early and to include all family members. The study reported here was set to quantify and articulate the experiences of service users who are or due to be going through the transition process in Scotland today. Methods and Results Focus group sessions, in the North of Scotland and in the ‘Central Belt’, captured rich qualitative data. A survey, sent to eligible participants on the Spina Bifida National database, offered complimentary data source. Despite the fact that the number of returned questionnaires was low (n?=?20), data analysis identified a number of core recurring themes. These include issues concerning Communications, Respect, Choice and Control. Findings suggest that there is a significant chasm between the political rhetoric and the reality faced by young people with spina bifida moving to adult healthcare services. Conclusion A possible way to facilitate successful transition of young people is using personal healthcare information as the locus for needed change. More research is needed to ascertain whether a ‘Person-Centred Record’, which is set to empower young people on their transition pathway, is an appropriate transition tool. PMID:25358489

Wynd, Andrew HD; Carachi, Robert

2014-01-01

104

Maternal periconceptional vitamin use, genetic variation of infant reduced folate carrier (A80G), and risk of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Women who consume folic acid in early pregnancy reduced their risks for delivering offspring with neural tube defects (NTDs). The underlying process by which folic acid facilitated this risk reduction is unknown. Investigating genetic variation that influences cellular absorption, transport, and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused our studies on a candidate gene that is involved in folate transport, the reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1). Using data from a California population-based case control interview study (1989-1991 birth cohorts), we investigated whether spina bifida risk was influenced by an interaction between a polymorphism of infant RFC1 at nucleotide 80 (A80G) and maternal periconceptional use of vitamins containing folic acid. Allelic variants of RFC1 were determined by genotyping 133 live-born spina bifida case infants and 188 control infants. The percentages of case infants with the A80/A80, G80/G80, and G80/A80 genotypes were 27.2%, 28.0%, and 44.7%, respectively. The percentages of control infants were similar: 26.1%, 29.3%, and 44.7%. Odds ratios of 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.5-2.0) for the G80/G80 genotype and 1.1 (0.6-2.0) for the G80/A80 genotype were observed relative to the A80/A80 genotype. Among mothers who did not use vitamins, spina bifida risk was 2.4 (0.8-6.9) for infants with genotype G80/G80 compared to those with A80/A80 genotype. Among mothers who did use vitamins, the risk was 0.5 (0.1-3.1) for infants with the G80/G80 genotype. Although this study did not find an increased spina bifida risk for infants who were heterozygous or homozygous for RFC1 A80G, it did reveal modest evidence for a gene-nutrient interaction between infant homozygosity for the RFC1 G80/G80 genotype and maternal periconceptional intake of vitamins containing folic acid on the risk of spina bifida. PMID:11857541

Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Zhu, Huiping; Baker, Mei Wang; Neri, Eric; Finnell, Richard H

2002-02-15

105

Examination of Frontal and Parietal Tectocortical Attention Pathways in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele Using Probabilistic Diffusion Tractography  

PubMed Central

Abstract Abnormalities of the midbrain tectum are common but variable malformations in spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and have been linked to neuropsychological deficits in attention orienting. The degree to which variations in tectum structure influence white matter (WM) connectivity to cortical regions is unknown. To assess the relationship of tectal structure and connectivity to frontal and parietal cortical regions, probabilistic diffusion tractography was performed on 106 individuals (80 SBM, 26 typically developing [TD]) to isolate anterior versus posterior tectocortical WM pathways. Results showed that those with SBM exhibited significantly reduced tectal volume, along with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in posterior but not anterior tectocortical WM pathways when compared with TD individuals. The group with SBM also showed greater within-subject discrepancies between frontal and parietal WM integrity compared with the TD group. Of those with SBM, qualitative classification of tectal beaking based on radiological review was associated with increased axial diffusivity across both anterior and posterior tectocortical pathways, relative to individuals with SBM and a normal appearing tectum. These results support previous volumetric findings of greater impairment to posterior versus anterior brain regions in SBM, and quantifiably relate tectal volume, tectocortical WM integrity, and tectal malformations in this population. PMID:23937233

Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2013-01-01

106

Custom rotating-hinge total knee replacement in patients with spina bifida and severe neuromuscular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital disorder which may result in a number of musculoskeletal problems. Total knee replacement (TKR) in this patient group is technically demanding due to bone deformity, soft tissue contracture, muscle tone abnormality and ligament insufficiency. This is a retrospective review of three patients with SB and disabling knee arthritis who were managed with a custom rotating-hinge (RHK) total knee system. All patients reported an improvement in knee pain and stability at mean follow-up 47 months (43-53). Mean Oxford Knee score improved from 21 preoperatively to 32 at final follow-up. One patient required revision of tibial and patella components at 37 months for lateral patella instability and excessive wear. Custom RHK for patients with SB, severe neuromuscular dysfunction and bone deformity relieves pain, restores stability and improves early knee function; however there is a significant risk of extensor mechanism complications and functional outcome is worse than primary TKR in the general population. PMID:22718075

Sewell, M D; Al-Hadithy, N; Hanna, S A; Al-Khateeb, H; Carrington, R W J; Blunn, G W; Skinner, J A; Briggs, T W R

2012-09-01

107

Adolescent Predictors of Emerging Adulthood Milestones in Youth with Spina Bifida*  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine the predictive utility of demographic (illness status and SES), individual (neurocognitive functioning and intrinsic motivation), and family-based (parental intrusiveness) factors during adolescence on the achievement of emerging adulthood milestones in youth with and without spina bifida (SB).?Methods?Questionnaire and observational data were collected from 14/15-year-old adolescents with SB, typically developing peers, mothers, and teachers. Emerging adulthood milestones (i.e., leaving home, attending college, employment, romantic relationship experience, and number of friendships) were assessed at ages 18/19 years in the full sample and subset of youth who graduated from high school.?Results?Typically, developing youth were more likely to achieve milestones compared to youth with SB in the full sample but not when only high school graduates were compared. Executive function, SES, intrinsic motivation, and parental intrusiveness emerged as significant predictors for particular milestones.?Conclusions?Interventions targeting executive function, intrinsic motivation, and parenting behavior may facilitate achievement of emerging adulthood milestones. PMID:20855288

Zukerman, Jill M.; Devine, Katie A.

2011-01-01

108

Visual assessment of segmental muscle ultrasound images in spina bifida aperta.  

PubMed

In spina bifida aperta (SBA), spinal MRI provides a surrogate marker to estimate muscle damage caudal to the myelomeningocele (MMC). This muscle damage by the MMC can be quantified by intra-individual comparison of muscle ultrasound density (MUD) caudal versus cranial to the MMC (dMUD = [MUD(caudal-to-the-MMC)] - [MUD(cranial-to-the-MMC)]). Quantitative dMUD assessment requires time, equipment and expertise, whereas it could also be visually determined by differences in muscle echodensity caudal vs. cranial to the MMC (visual-dMUD). If visual and quantitative dMUD correspond, visual dMUD assessment could provide a clinical screening parameter. In 100 SBA muscle ultrasound recordings of patients with various MMC levels, we aimed to compare quantitative dMUD (dMUD = [MUD(calf-muscle/S1)] - [MUD(quadriceps-muscle/L2-L4)]) with visual dMUD assessments by 20 different observers. Results indicate that quantitative dMUD can be visually detected (sensitivity 86%; specificity 57%), implicating that visual dMUD screening could provide a quick, clinical screening tool for muscle impairment by the MMC. PMID:22698513

Brandsma, Rick; Verbeek, Renate J; Maurits, Natasha M; Hamminga, Janneke T; Brouwer, Oebele F; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Burger, Huibert; Sival, Deborah A

2012-08-01

109

Lifestyle in adults aged 35 years who were born with open spina bifida: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background and Methods From 1963 to 1971, 117 babies with open spina bifida were treated non-selectively from birth. In 2002 we reviewed all the survivors by postal questionnaire and telephone call. The aims were to find out how many were living independently in the community or were in open employment or drove a car. In addition to these achievements we recorded health, medication and admissions to hospital and asked how much daily help they needed. Results Ascertainment was 100%. There had been 63 deaths, mainly of the most severely affected. The mean age of the 54 survivors was 35 years. The outcome in terms of disability ranged from apparent normality to total dependency. It reflected both the neurological deficit, which had been recorded in infancy in terms of sensory level, and events in the CSF shunt history. Overall about 2 in 5 of the survivors lived independently in the community, 2 in 5 drove a car, 1 in 5 was in competitive employment and 1 in 5 could walk 50 metres. Conclusion Although those who survived to age 35 years tended to be less disabled, 2 in 5 continued to need daily care. PMID:15679938

Hunt, Gillian M; Oakeshott, Pippa

2004-01-01

110

Upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to measure upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and typically developing age peers. Method Participants were 26 young adults with SBM, with a Verbal or Performance IQ score of at least 70 on the Wechsler scales, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls. Four upper limb motor function tasks were performed under four different visual and cognitive challenge conditions. Motor independence was assessed by questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM than control participants obtained perfect posture and rebound scores. The SBM group performed less accurately and was more disrupted by cognitive challenge than controls on limb dysmetria tasks. The SBM group was slower than controls on the diadochokinesis task. Adaptive motor independence was related to one upper limb motor task, arm posture, and upper rather than lower spinal lesions were associated with less motor independence. Conclusions Young adults with SBM have significant limitations in upper limb function and are more disrupted by some challenges while performing upper limb motor tasks. Within the group of young adults with SBM, upper spinal lesions compromise motor independence more than lower spinal lesions. PMID:19672605

Salman, M. S.; Jewell, D.; Hetherington, R.; Spiegler, B. J.; MacGregor, D. L.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Gentili, F.

2011-01-01

111

Neuroependymal denudation is in progress in full-term human foetal spina bifida aperta.  

PubMed

In human spina bifida aperta (SBA), cerebral pathogenesis [hydrocephalus, Sylvius aqueduct (SA) stenosis and heterotopias] is poorly understood. In animal models, loss of ventricular lining (ependymal denudation) causes SA stenosis and hydrocephalus. We aimed to investigate whether ependymal denudation also takes place in human foetal SBA. Considering that ependymal denudation would be related to alterations in junction proteins, sections through SA of five SBA and six control foetuses (gestational ages ranged between 37 and 40 weeks) were immunostained for markers of ependyma (caveolin 1, ?IV-tubulin, S100), junction proteins (N-cadherin, connexin-43, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), blood vessels (Glut-1) and astrocytes [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)]. In control foetuses, ependymal denudation was absent. In SBA foetuses different stages of ependymal denudation were observed: (i) intact ependyma/neuroepithelium; (ii) imminent ependymal denudation (with abnormal subcellular location of junction proteins); (iii) ependymal denudation (with protrusion of neuropile into SA, formation of rosettes and macrophage invasion); (iv) astroglial reaction. It is suggested that abnormalities in the formation of gap and adherent junctions result in defective ependymal coupling, desynchronized ciliary beating and ependymal denudation, leading to hydrocephalus. The presence of various stages of ependymal denudation within the same full-term SBA foetuses suggests continuation of the process after birth. PMID:21269337

Sival, Deborah A; Guerra, Montserrat; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Bátiz, Luis F; Alvial, Genaro; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Rodríguez, Esteban M

2011-03-01

112

The C677T mutation of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a moderate risk factor for spina bifida in Italy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk for spina bifida associated with the common mutation C677T of the MTHFR gene in a country with a relatively low prevalence of NTDs. DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS: Cases: 203 living patients affected with spina bifida (173 myelomeningocele and 30 lipomeningocele); controls: 583 subjects (306 young adults and 277 unselected newborns) from northern and central-southern Italy. SETTING: Cases: three spina bifida centres; young adult controls: DNA banks; newborn controls: regional neonatal screening centres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of the C677T genotypes in cases and controls by place of birth; odds ratios for spina bifida and estimated attributable fraction. RESULTS: The prevalence of T/T, T/C, and C/C genotype was 16.6%, 53.7%, and 29.7% in controls and 25.6%, 43.8%, and 30.6% in cases, respectively. We found no differences between type of defect or place of birth. The odds ratio for spina bifida associated with the T/T genotype v C/C plus T/C was 1.73 (95% CI 1.15, 2.59) and the corresponding attributable fraction was 10.8%. No increased risk was found for heterozygous patients (OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1.18). CONCLUSION: This study, as well as the meta-analysis we updated, shows that homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation is a moderate risk factor in Europe, and even in Italy where there is a relatively low prevalence of spina bifida. The estimated attributable fraction associated with this risk factor explains only a small proportion of cases preventable by periconceptional folic acid supplementation. Thus, other genes involved in folate-homocysteine metabolism, their interaction, and the interaction between genetic and environmental factors should be investigated further. PMID:9863598

de Franchis, R; Buoninconti, A; Mandato, C; Pepe, A; Sperandeo, M P; Del Gado, R; Capra, V; Salvaggio, E; Andria, G; Mastroiacovo, P

1998-01-01

113

Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age. PMID:24332229

Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

2013-12-01

114

Experiences of participation in a Swedish society among adults with cerebral palsy or spina bifida: involvement and challenges.  

PubMed

Participation in society is vital to mental health and is beneficial to individuals and society. The goal of this study was to provide insight into how people with cerebral palsy and spina bifida view their experiences of participation and to examine factors that might influence this issue. The results show that participants emphasized the importance of being accepted and treated equally. Living independently and being able to play an active and leading role in their lives was also essential. Participation was described as a process of interaction between a person and society, with mutual responsibility in respect to integration. PMID:24224972

Törnbom, Karin; Törnbom, Marie; Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant

2013-01-01

115

A 3-year follow-up of the driving status of 32 young adults with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Thirty-two young spina bifida adults with or without hydrocephalus were assessed for car driving potential in 1983. A postal questionnaire procedure was used to follow their decisions on driving and early driving experiences. This study reports the driving status (non-driver, learner driver or driver) of this group at December 1986 in relation to scores on the perpetual--cognitive battery completed on assessment. Results indicated that although nearly half of this group had passed the driving test, clinical assessment of cognitive functioning did not discriminate between drivers and non-drivers. PMID:2964434

Simms, B

1987-01-01

116

GDNF plasma levels in spina bifida: correlation with severity of spinal damage and motor function.  

PubMed

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is one of several powerful survival factors for spinal motoneurons that play a key role in sprouting, synaptic plasticity, and reorganization after spinal cord damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GDNF in plasma of children with spina bifida (SB) and to determine its correlation with both the severity of spinal cord damage and the motor function of these patients. To measure the GDNF expression, we collected plasma samples from 152 children with SB and in 149 matched controls. Endogenous GDNF levels were quantified using a two-site immuno-enzymatic assay. The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney two-tailed two-sample test. In children with SB the mean levels of GDNF (131.2 +/- 69.6 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) with respect to the mean levels of the control group (102.7 +/- 6.8 pg/mL). Moreover, in open SB, the GDNF levels (139.2 +/- 81.1 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) with respect to closed SB (117.2 +/- 41.3 pg/mL). In terms of the motor function of patients, we found that in children with poorer motor function, the GDNF levels (134.5 +/- 67.4 pg/mL) were higher, but not statistically significant (p < 0.1), than in patients with better motor outcome (122.3 +/- 72.2 pg/mL). Our study demonstrates GDNF over-expression in children with SB. This upregulation is significantly associated with the severity of spinal cord damage in SB patients and appears to correlate with poor motor function of children, representing an important biochemical marker of the severity of spine injury. PMID:19125682

Chiaretti, Antonio; Rendeli, Claudia; Antonelli, Alessia; Barone, Giuseppe; Focarelli, Benedetta; Tabacco, Fabrizia; Massimi, Luca; Ausili, Emanuele

2008-12-01

117

Is There Any Association between Spina bifida occulta and Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux?  

PubMed Central

Objective Spina bifida occulta (SBO) has been largely considered a benign entity without clinical significance; however, there has been dispute among various authorities, and some believe that the lesion may be linked with various neurologic conditions like urologic dysfunctions. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and lower urinary tract dysfunction are closely related. We examined whether the existence of SBO is related to the prevalence and severity of VUR in children. Methods We investigated 359 children, 2–14 years old, referred to radiology department for obtaining voiding cystourethrogram after the first attack of febrile urinary tract infection. After treatment of infection, with written order of responsible physicians all underwent a standard voiding cystourethrogram to detect VUR and other lower urinary tract anomalies. The patients were divided into two groups: group1 patients who had not SBO and group 2 patients with SBO in postvoiding or KUB films. In each group the presence and severity of VUR was determined in relation to the location of SBO. Findings Out of 359 children, 228 (63.5%) had normal spine and 131 (36.5%) had SBO. Fifty four (23.7%) out of 228 children with normal spine had VUR and 40 (30.5%) out of 131 children with SBO had VUR. The prevalence of VUR in children without SBO and children with SBO was not statistically different. Also we compared the severity of VUR between the two groups and there was no significant difference or trend between presence of SBO and severity of reflux (Chi2 for trend). VUR was more common in children with SBO in L5-S1 (38.3%). There was no significant relation between location of SBO and prevalence of VUR. Conclusion Location of SBO and prevalence of VUR are not related. PMID:23056728

Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Roohi, Azadeh; Hemami, Mohsen; Esfahani, Seyed-Taher

2010-01-01

118

Parents' psychological adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Spina Bifida (SB) is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interventions to fostering the quality of life for these children and their families. Little is known, however, about the impact of SB on family adjustment. Reviewers have struggled to synthesize the few contradictory studies available. In this systematic review a new attempt was made to summarize the findings by using meta-analysis and by delimiting the scope of review to one concept of family adjustment: Parents' psychological adjustment. The questions addressed were: (a) do parents of children with SB have more psychological distress than controls? (b) do mothers and fathers differ? and (c) which factors correlate with variations in psychological adjustment? Methods PsycInfo, Medline, and reference lists were scanned. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. Results SB had a negative medium-large effect on parents' psychological adjustment. The effect was more heterogeneous for mothers than for fathers. In the reviewed studies child factors (age, conduct problems, emotional problems, and mental retardation), parent factors (SES, hope, appraised stress, coping, and parenting competence), family factors (family income, partner relationship, and family climate), and environmental factors (social support) were found to be associated with variations in parents' psychological adjustment. Conclusion Meta-analysis proved to be helpful in organizing studies. Clinical implications indicate a need to be especially alert to psychological suffering in mothers of children with SB. Future research should increase sample sizes through multi-center collaborations. PMID:16120229

Vermaes, Ignace PR; Janssens, Jan MAM; Bosman, Anna MT; Gerris, Jan RM

2005-01-01

119

A Genetic Signature of Spina Bifida Risk from Pathway-Informed Comprehensive Gene-Variant Analysis  

PubMed Central

Despite compelling epidemiological evidence that folic acid supplements reduce the frequency of neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns, common variant association studies with folate metabolism genes have failed to explain the majority of NTD risk. The contribution of rare alleles as well as genetic interactions within the folate pathway have not been extensively studied in the context of NTDs. Thus, we sequenced the exons in 31 folate-related genes in a 480-member NTD case-control population to identify the full spectrum of allelic variation and determine whether rare alleles or obvious genetic interactions within this pathway affect NTD risk. We constructed a pathway model, predetermined independent of the data, which grouped genes into coherent sets reflecting the distinct metabolic compartments in the folate/one-carbon pathway (purine synthesis, pyrimidine synthesis, and homocysteine recycling to methionine). By integrating multiple variants based on these groupings, we uncovered two provocative, complex genetic risk signatures. Interestingly, these signatures differed by race/ethnicity: a Hispanic risk profile pointed to alterations in purine biosynthesis, whereas that in non-Hispanic whites implicated homocysteine metabolism. In contrast, parallel analyses that focused on individual alleles, or individual genes, as the units by which to assign risk revealed no compelling associations. These results suggest that the ability to layer pathway relationships onto clinical variant data can be uniquely informative for identifying genetic risk as well as for generating mechanistic hypotheses. Furthermore, the identification of ethnic-specific risk signatures for spina bifida resonated with epidemiological data suggesting that the underlying pathogenesis may differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups. PMID:22140583

Marini, Nicholas J.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Lammer, Edward J.; Hardin, Jill; Lazaruk, Katherine; Stein, Jason B.; Gilbert, Dennis A.; Wright, Crystal; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len A.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Witte, John S.; Shaw, Gary M.; Rine, Jasper

2011-01-01

120

Epidemiologic and genetic aspects of spina bifida and other neural tube defects  

PubMed Central

The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public health officials to design and implement policies to prevent NTD pregnancies, and (c) individuals to take precautions to reduce the chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. Despite extensive research, our knowledge of the genetic etiology of human NTDs is limited. Although more than 200 small animal models with NTDs exist, most of these models do not replicate the human disease phenotype. Over a hundred candidate genes have been examined for risk association to human SB. The candidate genes studied include those important in folic acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, retinoid metabolism, and apoptosis. Many genes that regulate transcription in early embryogenesis and maintain planar cell polarity have also been tested as candidates. Additionally, genes identified through mouse models of NTDs have been explored as candidates. We do not know how many genes in the human genome may confer risk for NTDs in human. Less than 20% of the studied candidate genes have been determined to confer even a minor effect on risk association. Many studies have provided conflicting conclusions due to limitations in study design that potentially affect the power of statistical analysis. Future directions such as genomewide association studies (GWAS) and whole exome or even whole genome sequencing are discussed as possible avenues to identify genes that affect risk for human NTDs. PMID:20419766

Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

2011-01-01

121

Executive Functions and Parenting Behaviors in Association With Medical Adherence and Autonomy Among Youth With Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective?This study was designed to examine whether executive functions and parenting behaviors (acceptance, behavioral control, and psychological control) are associated with medical adherence and autonomy among preadolescents and adolescents with spina bifida (SB).?Methods?Questionnaire and observational data were collected from a sample of 8–15 year olds with SB (N = 140) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Youth also completed neuropsychological testing.?Results?Youth with SB demonstrated impairment on measures of executive functions, based on questionnaire and test data. Executive functions (questionnaire data only) and parenting behaviors were associated with medical adherence, but only executive functions (test data only) were associated with medical autonomy. Analyses also suggest that maternal and paternal behavioral control and paternal psychological control moderate relations between executive functions and adherence.?Conclusions?Interventions that target executive functions and parenting behaviors may facilitate positive health care behavior outcomes among youth with SB. PMID:23428651

Holmbeck, Grayson N.

2013-01-01

122

Auditory interhemispheric transfer in relation to patterns of partial agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida meningomyelocele with hydrocephalus (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC). We describe MRI patterns of regional CC agenesis and relate CC anomalies to functional laterality based on a dichotic listening test in 90 children with SBM and 27 typically developing controls. Many children with SBM (n = 40) showed regional CC anomalies in the form of agenesis of the rostrum and0or splenium, and a smaller number (n = 20) showed hypoplasia (thinning) of all CC regions (rostrum, genu, body, and splenium). The expected right ear advantage (REA) was exhibited by normal controls and children with SBM having a normal or hypoplastic splenium. It was not shown by children with SBM who were left handed, missing a splenium, or had a higher level spinal cord lesion. Perhaps the right hemisphere of these children is more involved in processing some aspects of linguistic stimuli. PMID:18764972

Hannay, H. Julia; Walker, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry; Blaser, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.

2009-01-01

123

Effect of preschool working memory, language, and narrative abilities on inferential comprehension at school-age in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and typically developing children.  

PubMed

Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature. PMID:23388065

Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A

2013-04-01

124

Home monitoring of bladder pressure in pediatric patients with spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with spins bifida who can not empty their bladder are at high risk for developing kidney dysfunction due to high bladder pressures. Currently, because of the high cost of a cystometrogram (CMG), a filling bladder pressure-volume curve, bladder pressure monitoring is not performed very frequently. Therefore, we have developed a simple method of measuring bladder pressures at home in

M. S. Damaser; Greg J. Andros; James S. Walter; Lisa Schlehahn; Kim Brzezinski; John S. Wheeler; David A. Hatch

1997-01-01

125

Prospective detection of open spina bifida at 11-13 weeks by assessing intracranial translucency and posterior brain.  

PubMed

We describe a case series of six fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB) from four different prenatal units, where the anomaly was detected at the routine 11-13-week ultrasound examination. Crown-rump length ranged from 49 to 78 mm. All cases were first suspected during nuchal translucency thickness measurement in the mid-sagittal plane of the face. OSB was lumbosacral in five fetuses and cervical in one. The intracranial translucency (IT) was obliterated in two cases, but some fluid was found in the other four cases. However, in all cases the typical landmarks of a normal posterior brain and normal IT were absent. In all six cases the ratio of brainstem diameter to brainstem-occipital bone distance was increased (? 1). This detection of an abnormal posterior brain led to a targeted examination and detection of the spinal lesion during the same examination in five cases, whereas in one suspicious case the patient was recalled at 17 weeks, when the abnormality was detected. Two fetuses had both multiple anomalies and trisomy 18. These prospective cases demonstrate the feasibility of using the standard mid-sagittal plane commonly used for NT measurement to assess the IT and the posterior brain and to determine the presence of OSB during NT screening. PMID:21984530

Chaoui, R; Benoit, B; Heling, K S; Kagan, K O; Pietzsch, V; Sarut Lopez, A; Tekesin, I; Karl, K

2011-12-01

126

Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34+ grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies. PMID:23431178

Sharma, Arun K.; Bury, Matthew I.; Fuller, Natalie J.; Marks, Andrew J.; Kollhoff, David M.; Rao, Manoj V.; Hota, Partha V.; Matoka, Derek J.; Edassery, Seby L.; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F.; Janicki, Joseph A.; Ameer, Guillermo A.; Cheng, Earl Y.

2013-01-01

127

Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34(+) grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies. PMID:23431178

Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Marks, Andrew J; Kollhoff, David M; Rao, Manoj V; Hota, Partha V; Matoka, Derek J; Edassery, Seby L; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F; Janicki, Joseph A; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y

2013-03-01

128

Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

2013-01-01

129

Prenatal Ablation of Nicotinic Receptor alpha7 Cell Lineages Produces Lumbosacral Spina Bifida the Severity of Which is Modified by Choline and Nicotine Exposure  

PubMed Central

Lumbosacral spina bifida is a common debilitating birth defect whose multiple causes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first genetic delineation of cholinergic nicotinic receptor alpha7 (Chrna7) expression and link the ablation of the Chrna7 cell lineage to this condition in the mouse. Using homologous recombination, an IRES-Cre bi-cistronic cassette was introduced into the 3? noncoding region of Chrna7 (Chrna7:Cre) for identifying cell lineages expressing this gene. This lineage first appears at embryonic day E9.0 in rhombomeres 3 and 5 of the neural tube and extends to cell subsets in most tissues by E14.5. Ablation of the Chrna7:Cre cell lineage in embryos from crosses with conditionally expressed attenuated diphtheria toxin results in precise developmental defects including omphalocele (89%) and open spina bifida (SB; 80%). We hypothesized that like humans, this defect would be modified by environmental compounds not only folic acid or choline but also nicotine. Prenatal chronic oral nicotine administration substantially worsened the defect to often include the rostral neural tube. In contrast, supplementation of the maternal diet with 2% choline decreased SB prevalence to 38% and dramatically reduced the defect severity. Folic acid supplementation only trended towards a reduced SB frequency. The omphalocele was unaffected by these interventions. These studies identify the Chrna7 cell lineage as participating in posterior neuropore closure and present a novel model of lower SB that can be substantially modified by the prenatal environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22473653

Rogers, Scott W; Tvrdik, Petr; Capecchi, Mario R; Gahring, Lorise C

2012-01-01

130

[Vascular diseases, spina bifida and schizophrenia in a single family associated with the heterozygote mutation of the heat-sensitive variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase].  

PubMed

Homozygous mutation of the thermolabile variant of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may result in hyperhomocystinemia, leading to an increased risk for early cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects, and possibly major depression, schizophrenia. According to recent studies heterozygosity for the thermolabile variant of the MTHFR gene mutation is also more frequent in patients with thrombotic disease compared to that in the average population. We report on a family with different types of early vascular disease. In four consecutive generations MTHFR heterozygosity was detected: in the proband and in her mother, grandfather and daughter. Further conditions of the family members, possibly due to carrying the mutation, came to light by the pedigree analysis and examinations. The patient had pulmonary emboli at young age, her aunt died of spina bifida shortly after birth. The patient's mother suffers from schizophrenia and depression. The grandfather had pulmonary emboli, her sister with spina bifida occulta also carries the same mutation, as does her daughter who is sofar asymptomatic. In other asymptomatic members of the family no mutations were found. Unexpectedly, hyperhomocystinemia was detected in all heterozygote individuals. Our study demonstrates the necessity for folic acid therapy in mutation carriers to prevent early vascular events, depression and schizophrenia, and also to reduce the risk for neural tube defects in a preconception setting. PMID:11481907

Horváth, A; Morava, E; Tóth, G; Czakó, M; Melegh, B; Kosztolányi, G

2001-07-01

131

Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH) are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB/SH. Methods Twenty six children with SB/SH and 26 controls (age: 7 – 16 y) with average intelligence, and monolingual English-speaking backgrounds participated in the study. Exclusion criteria for the SB/SH group were: prior history of shunt infection, history of seizure or shunt malfunction within the previous three months, prior diagnoses of attention disorders and/or clinical depression. Children were presented lists of words with equal exemplars each of two distinct semantic categories (e.g. fruits, animals), and told to make as high a score as possible by learning the words. The value of the words was designated by category membership (e.g. animals = low value; fruits = high value). The total number of words learned across three learning trials was used to determine memory span. Selective learning efficiency (SLE) was computed as the efficiency with which items of greater value were selectively learned across three trials. Results Children with SB/SH did worse than controls on memory span (P < 0.05). Although SLE was not significantly different between groups, when asked what strategy was used in the selective learning tasks, 65% of the SB/SH children said they tried to remember all words (inefficient strategy). In contrast, 85% of controls said they tried to remember the higher value words – the more efficient strategy. Conclusion Success in school is often dependent on the ability to recall important facts selectively and ignore less important information. Children with SB/SH in our study had a poor memory span and were unable to monitor and report an efficient and workable metacognitive strategy required to remember a list of words. Preliminary findings may begin to explain our previous clinical and research findings wherein children with SB/SH often focus on extraneous details, but demonstrate difficulty remembering the main gist of a story/event. PMID:16293188

Vachha, Behroze; Adams, Richard C

2005-01-01

132

Discrepancies in Mother and Child Perceptions of Spina Bifida Medical Responsibilities During the Transition to Adolescence: Associations With Family Conflict and Medical Adherence  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated mother–child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence.?Method?140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict.?Results?Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother–child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks.?Conclusions?Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time. PMID:23843631

Psihogios, Alexandra M.

2013-01-01

133

Hypertension and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... smoking. What are the risk factors for hypertension? Family history; Obesity; High salt intake; Sleep apnea; High stress; Excessive alcohol consumption; Smoking; High cholesterol and triglycerides. All of these ...

134

Osteoporosis and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... to Osteoporosis. What causes Osteoporosis? The normal bone cycle is that old bone breaks down and is ... bone. Osteoporosis creates an imbalance in this rebuilding cycle – old bone breaks down but new bone does ...

135

Living with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... Content source: National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Follow CDC ... Contact Us National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division ...

136

EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity, deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and poor exercise tolerance are health issues concerning adults with spina bifida (SB). Our aim is to describe exercise participation and identify motivating tactics and exercise devices that increase participation. Design In a quasi-experimental randomized crossover design, the GameCycle was compared to a Saratoga Silver I arm ergometer. Personalized free or low cost text/voice message reminders to exercise were sent. Methods Nineteen young adults with SB were assigned to either the GameCycle or Saratoga exercise group. Within each group, participants were randomized to receive reminders to exercise, or no reminders, then crossed over to the opposite message group after eight weeks. Before and after a 16 week exercise program we collected anthropometric, metabolic, exercise testing and questionnaire data, and recorded participation. Results Miles traveled by the GameCycle group were significantly higher than the Saratoga exercise groups. No significant differences were found in participation between the message reminder groups. Low participation rates were seen overall. Conclusions Those using the GameCycle traveled more miles. Barriers to exercise participation may have superseded ability to motivate adults with SB to exercise even with electronic reminders. Support from therapists to combat deconditioning and develop coping skills may be needed. PMID:24620701

Crytzer, Theresa M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Fairman, Andrea D.

2013-01-01

137

Functional Significance of Atypical Cortical Organization in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele: Relations of Cortical Thickness and Gyrification with IQ and Fine Motor Dexterity  

PubMed Central

The cortex in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is atypically organized, but it is not known how specific features of atypical cortical organization promote or disrupt cognitive and motor function. Relations of deviant cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity were investigated in 64 individuals with SBM and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals, aged 8–28 years. Cortical thickness and 3D local gyrification index (LGI) were quantified from 33 cortical regions per hemisphere using FreeSurfer. Results replicated previous findings, showing regions of higher and lower cortical thickness and LGI in SBM relative to the TD comparison individuals. Cortical thickness and LGI were negatively associated in most cortical regions, though less consistently in the TD group. Whereas cortical thickness and LGI tended to be negatively associated with IQ and fine motor outcomes in regions that were thicker or more gyrified in SBM, associations tended to be positive in regions that were thinner or less gyrified in SBM. The more deviant the levels of cortical thickness and LGI—whether higher or lower relative to the TD group—the more impaired the IQ and fine motor outcomes, suggesting that these cortical atypicalities in SBM are functionally maladaptive, rather than adaptive. PMID:22875857

Treble, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2013-01-01

138

A diffusion tensor imaging study of deep gray and white matter brain maturation differences between patients with spina bifida cystica and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify differences in the maturation of deep gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between patients with spina bifida cystica (SBC) (n=29) with normal-appearing brains on conventional MRI, and age-matched and sex-matched healthy control participants (n=33). Changes in DTI metrics were calculated using a log-linear regression model. We observed increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) with age in the occipital, fornix, cingulum and middle cerebellar peduncles and decreasing FA with age in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC) and caudate nuclei in patients compared to controls. Increasing FA values in some of the WM structures probably represent faulty WM maturation, whereas decreasing FA values in the CC represents changes secondary to the affected WM fibers contributing to the CC. DTI changes in deep GM and WM in the absence of any abnormality on conventional MRI might provide the basis for cognitive decline in these patients. PMID:20400314

Kumar, Manoj; Gupta, Rakesh K; Saksena, Sona; Behari, Sanjay; Malik, Gyanendra K; Kureel, Shiv N; Pandey, Chandra M; Rathore, Ram K S

2010-07-01

139

Men's Health and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... sexual or transgender relationships. Similarly, sexually transmitted infections (STI’s), also called sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) can affect anyone who has sexual activity, because some STI’s can occur with or without penetrative sex. Genital, ...

140

Natural Rubber Latex Allergy in Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... can be dipped to make softer products like balloons or medical examination gloves. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy ... with skin, inhaling latex proteins, or internally through medical ... Powder from latex balloons or gloves gets into the air. Therefore, people ...

141

Obesity among Persons with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... help others. Watching television or sitting in front of a computer are activities that demand few calories, and should be limited. I’m obese. How do I lose weight? Once people become ... lose about 10% to 15% of their body weight, and even these individuals usually ...

142

How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?  

MedlinePLUS

... and bones in the back using an image scan such as an X-ray, MRI, or CT. « What causes it? Is there a cure? » Last Updated Date: 11/30/2012 Last Reviewed Date: 11/30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) NICHD ...

143

Depression and Anxiety in Individuals with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... medical condition is treated or corrected. To help determine if a person is depressed, it is critical to know his or her medical history including healthy or unhealthy behaviors such as drug use, eating, and physical activity. Other information regarding a person’s ...

144

The Role of Fetal Neurosurgery in Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a nonlethal form of neural tube defect (NTD) that results from failure of the neural tube to fuse\\u000a during early embryogenesis. The lesion is characterized by protrusion of the meninges through a midline bony defect of the\\u000a spine, a sac containing cerebrospinal fluid and dysplastic neural tissue not covered by skin. MMC represents an important\\u000a congenital defect

Sergio Cavalheiro; Wagner J. Hisaba; Antonio F. Moron; Carlos G. Almodin

145

Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

2014-03-01

146

Driver education: the needs of the learner driver with spina bifida and hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Eighty one young people with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus were assessed for driving ability during the period 1982-1984. All except 6 were eligible to hold a provisional license. At December 1988, over 50% were qualified drivers. Differences in the number of hours of tuition, tests and the difficulties encountered varied for both the driver group and those who had discontinued tuition. Difficulties related to (a) practical and financial considerations and (b) the organisation of tuition. A smaller group of 20 was monitored during tuition within a two year period. Prior to tuition, 10 attended a one week driving course designed to introduce car control skills and simple road procedures. A further 10 learner drivers, who had not attended a course, were similarly monitored through the tuition period. Learner drivers were reviewed by in-car testing and interview after each ten hours' tuition. At the end of the two year period, 40% of learner drivers had passed the driving test, 45% were still receiving tuition and 15% had discontinued lessons. Equal numbers from both groups were qualified drivers but 30% of those who had not attended a course had discontinued tuition. Significant factors for driving success included the availability of instructors and suitably adapted cars, frequency of tuition and level of parental and community support. Future planning for driver education should consider providing driving facilities in local centres. Facilities would need to include adapted cars, experienced instructors and key-workers to coordinate tuition and fulfill a supportive role. PMID:2623960

Simms, B

1989-12-01

147

Fetal Spina Bifida Repair – Current Trends and Prospects of Intrauterine Neurosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele is a common dysraphic defect leading to severe impairment throughout the patient’s lifetime. Although surgical closure of this anomaly is usually performed in the early postnatal period, an estimated 330 cases of intrauterine repair have been performed in a few specialized centers worldwide. It was hoped prenatal intervention would improve the prognosis of affected patients, and preliminary findings suggest

M. A. Fichter; U. Dornseifer; J. Henke; K. T. M. Schneider; L. Kovacs; E. Biemer; J. Bruner; N. S. Adzick; M. R. Harrison; N. A. Papadopulos

2008-01-01

148

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...with spina bifida according to the scientific literature). Vietnam veteran for purposes of spina bifida means the same as...

2010-07-01

149

The significance of the percentage of the defect size in spina bifida cystica in determination of the surgical technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. Our aim was to classify meningoceles and meningomyeloceles in terms of defect area as a percentage of the thoracolumbar region to make it possible to select the surgical technique accordingly. Materials and methods. Thirty-two cases were included in the study program. Any defect smaller than 8% of the thoracolumbar region was primarily sutured and classed as grade 1. Results.

M. F. Ozveren; F. S. Erol; C. Topsakal; M. T. Tiftikci; I. Akdemir

2002-01-01

150

Therapeutic potential of in utero mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplantation in rat foetuses with spina bifida aperta.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are complex congenital malformations resulting from incomplete neurulation in embryo. Despite surgical repair of the defect, most of the patients who survive with NTDs have a multiple system handicap due to neuron deficiency of the defective spinal cord. In this study, we successfully devised a prenatal surgical approach and transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to foetal rat spinal column to treat retinoic acid induced NTDs in rat. Transplanted MSCs survived, grew and expressed markers of neurons, glia and myoblasts in the defective spinal cord. MSCs expressed and perhaps induced the surrounding spinal tissue to express neurotrophic factors. In addition, MSC reduced spinal tissue apoptosis in NTD. Our results suggested that prenatal MSC transplantation could treat spinal neuron deficiency in NTDs by the regeneration of neurons and reduced spinal neuron death in the defective spinal cord. PMID:22004004

Li, Hui; Gao, Fei; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Junhong; Miao, Jianing; Jiang, Mingyu; Fan, Yang; Wang, Lili; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Wang, Weilin; Lui, Vincent Chi Hang; Yuan, Zhengwei

2012-07-01

151

Age-related Differences in Executive Function Among Children with Spina Bifida\\/Hydrocephalus Based on Parent Behavior Ratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that adolescents with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (MMH) have difficulties with aspects of executive functioning and, in turn, with functional independence. There is little research, however, examining patterns of executive functioning across adolescence in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine parent ratings of executive function in children with MMH and in

Reem A. Tarazi; T. Andrew Zabel; E. Mark Mahone

2008-01-01

152

Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB  

PubMed Central

Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

2012-01-01

153

Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB.  

PubMed

Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50-85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

Bernadac, A; Wu, L-F; Santini, C-L; Vidaud, C; Sturgis, J N; Menguy, N; Bergam, P; Nicoletti, C; Xiao, T

2012-01-01

154

Yale Pediatrics A PRACTICE OF THE YALE MEDICAL GROUP PEDIATRIC SPECIALTY NEW PATIENT FORM Date  

E-print Network

-785-3365 Rheumatology 203-737-7635 Bone Clinic 203-737-7635 Infectious Diseases 203-785-6961 Spina Bifida 203/Behavioral Pediatrics Rheumatology Endocrinology Spina Bifida GI Thyroid Center MDA/Neuromuscular Type 2 Diabetes

155

61 FR 41442 - Disease Not Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...association between nasal cancers and occupational exposure to nickel and chromates. Exposure to wood dust is also a risk factor...spina bifida, birth defects (other than spina bifida), neonatal/infant deaths and stillbirths, low birthweights, and...

1996-08-08

156

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... baby has spina bifida or other birth defects? Prenatal testing for neural tube defects (such as spina bifida) ... AFP level is found to be high, further prenatal testing, such as a specialized ultrasound exam, and/or ...

157

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran. 3.814 Section 3.814...biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran. (a) Monthly monetary allowance...biological mother or father is or was a Vietnam veteran. Receipt of this...

2010-07-01

158

Quantification of Lower Extremity Muscle Fat Infiltration in Pediatric Patients with Spina Bifida using Water-Fat MRI Houchun Harry Hu1  

E-print Network

and the spinal canal fail to close before birth. This results in permanent spinal cord and nerve damage. A secondary goal was to assess inter-rater reproducibility of measurements of muscle fat-signal fraction-evaluator agreement. Results ­ Fig. 1 presents five similar plots. MMT scores are plotted on the x-axis; fat

Southern California, University of

159

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

...of Defense, to have been exposed to an herbicide agent during such service. Exposure to an herbicide agent will be conceded if the veteran...near the Korean DMZ in an area in which herbicides are known to have been applied...

2014-07-01

160

MATERNAL PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, GENETIC VARIATION OF INFANT REDUCED FOLATE CARRIER (A80G) AND RISK OF SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

161

EVALUATION OF INFANT METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENOTYPE, MATERNAL VITAMIN USE, AND RISK OF HIGH VERSUS LOW LEVEL SPINA BIFIDA DEFECTS. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

162

A frameshift mutation in the gene for PAX3 in a girl with spina bifida and mild signs of Waardenburg syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most prevalent congenital malformations in man. Based on the molecular defect of Splotch, an established mouse model for NTD, and on the clinical association between NTD and Waardenburg syndrome (WS), mutations in the PAX3 gene can be expected to act as factors predisposing to human NTD. To test this hypothesis, 39 patients with familial NTD were screened by SSC analysis for mutations in exons 2 to 6 of the human PAX3 gene. One patient with lumbosacral meningomyelocele was identified with a 5 bp deletion in exon 5 approximately 55 bp upstream of the conserved homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift with a stop codon almost immediately after the mutated site. Clinical investigation of the index patient indicated mild signs of WS type I. Varying signs of this syndrome were found to cosegregate with the mutation in the family. Our results support the hypothesis that mutations in the gene for PAX3 can predispose to NTD, but also show that, in general, mutations within or near the conserved domains of the PAX3 protein are only very infrequently involved in familial NTD. Images PMID:7897628

Hol, F A; Hamel, B C; Geurds, M P; Mullaart, R A; Barr, F G; Macina, R A; Mariman, E C

1995-01-01

163

Examination of the flexion relaxation phenomenon in erector spinae muscles during short duration slumped sitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the myoelectric activity of the erector spinae muscles of the back in order to determine if the flexion relaxation phenomenon occurs in seated forward flexion or slumped postures.Background. The flexion relaxation phenomenon during standing forward flexion is well documented. However, flexion relaxation in seated forward flexion has not been studied. It

Jack P Callaghan; Nadine M Dunk

2002-01-01

164

The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered \\

Amots Dafni; Shay Levy; Efraim Lev

2005-01-01

165

The Histology and Activities of the Tube-feet of Antedon bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The histology of the tube-feet and adjacent parts of the water-vascular canal of the crinoid Antedon bifida is described. The tube-feet possess the same basic structure as other, better-known tube-feet; here, however, they are adapted to collect food particles. They shoot out mucus by means of special muscle-operated glands and bend rapidly inwards to waft the mucus with entrapped

DAVID NICHOLS

166

The effects of repetitive motion on lumbar flexion and erector spinae muscle activity in rowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in lumbar flexion together with the pattern and level of muscle activity of selected erector spinae during a rowing trial.Design. Cross-sectional repeated measures design.Background. Low back pain is a common problem in rowers. The amount of lumbar flexion occurring during rowing might influence the possibility of injury.Methods. Sixteen young adult

Jillian S. Caldwell; Peter J. McNair; Maynard Williams

2003-01-01

167

The Agnano–Monte Spina eruption (4100 years BP) in the restless Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agnano–Monte Spina tephra (AMST), dated at 4100 years BP by 40Ar\\/39Ar and 14C AMS techniques, is the product of the highest-magnitude eruption in the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) during its last epoch of activity (4800–3800 years BP). The sequence alternates magmatic and phreatomagmatic pyroclastic-fallout, -flow and -surge beds and bedsets. Two main pumice-fallout deposits with variable easterly-to-northeasterly dispersal axes

S de Vita; G Orsi; L Civetta; A Carandente; M D'Antonio; A Deino; T di Cesare; M. A Di Vito; R. V Fisher; R Isaia; E Marotta; A Necco; M Ort; L Pappalardo; M Piochi; J Southon

1999-01-01

168

ACCESSIBILITY NEEDS IN RESIDENCE "The University of Toronto respects your privacy. The information on this form is collected pursuant to section 2(14) of the University of  

E-print Network

of Hearing Mobility Spina Bifida Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Heart Condition Monoplegia Bowel Hemiplegia (nonprogressive) Arthritis/Rheumatic Syndrome Hemophilia Fibrosis (specify) __________ Paraplegia Blind Deaf Chronic Health Condition

Sokolowski, Marla

169

2014 NH White Mountain Winter Adventure Overnight Camps for Teens with Disabilities in Military Families!  

E-print Network

, Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Autism spectrum, Down Syndrome, visual impairment, amputation, Traumatic disabilities January 10-13, 2014: Camp for teens with developmental and cognitive disabilities Activities

New Hampshire, University of

170

Brief Report: Testing the Factorial Invariance of the CBCL Somatic Complaints Scale as a Measure of Internalizing Symptoms for Children with and without Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the factorial invariance of the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist as a measure of Internalizing Behavior Problems across a sample of children with and without spina bifida. Methods Multisample confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare mother and father report on the Somatic Complaints subscale across a sample of children with spina bifida and

Deborah Friedman; Fred B. Bryant; Grayson N. Holmbeck

2007-01-01

171

Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

2011-01-01

172

Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

2014-01-01

173

Longitudinal Multistage Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

Pohl, Steffi

2013-01-01

174

The Agnano Monte Spina eruption (4100 years BP) in the restless Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agnano-Monte Spina tephra (AMST), dated at 4100 years BP by 40Ar/ 39Ar and 14C AMS techniques, is the product of the highest-magnitude eruption in the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) during its last epoch of activity (4800-3800 years BP). The sequence alternates magmatic and phreatomagmatic pyroclastic-fallout, -flow and -surge beds and bedsets. Two main pumice-fallout deposits with variable easterly-to-northeasterly dispersal axes are about 10 cm thick at 42 km from the vent area. High particle concentration pyroclastic currents were confined to the caldera depression; lower concentration flows overtopped the morphological boundary of the caldera and traveled at least 15 km over the surrounding plain. The unit is subdivided into six members, named A through F in stratigraphic sequence, based upon their sedimentological characteristics. Isopachs and isopleths maps suggest a vent location in the Agnano plain. A volcano-tectonic collapse begun during the course of the eruption, took place along the faults of the northeastern sector of the resurgent block within the CFc, and generated the Agnano plain. The early erupted trachytic magma had a homogeneous alkali-trachytic composition, whereas later-erupted magma shows small-scale hetereogeneities. Trace elements and Sr-isotope compositions, indicate that two isotopically distinct magmas, one alkali-trachytic and the other trachytic, were tapped and partially mixed during the eruption. The small volume (1.2 km 3 DRE) of erupted magma and the structural position of the vent suggest that the eruption was fed by a dyke intruded along a normal fault in the sector of the resurgent block under a tensional stress regime.

de Vita, S.; Orsi, G.; Civetta, L.; Carandente, A.; D'Antonio, M.; Deino, A.; di Cesare, T.; Di Vito, M. A.; Fisher, R. V.; Isaia, R.; Marotta, E.; Necco, A.; Ort, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Piochi, M.; Southon, J.

1999-08-01

175

Reliability difference between spectral and entropic measures of erector spinae muscle fatigability.  

PubMed

This study investigated back muscle fatigability of the erector spinae (ES) muscles during submaximal contractions with the use of surface electromyography (sEMG). It was important to confirm the reliability of measurements for characterizing neuromuscular alterations by establishing the difference between the Shannon (information) entropy and the power spectrum analysis in subjects with low back pain (LBP). The data was collected on two different days, one week apart, and the between-days reliability of these measures was examined. Thirty-two gender-matched subjects completed the modified Sorenson test; 16 of the subjects were female while 16 were male. The entropy of the sEMG signal was more reliable than either the median frequency (MF) or the slope of the MF. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was higher for the entropy than for the MF slope. The ICC values of entropy for between-day measurements were higher (0.82-0.85) than MF (0.54-0.64) and MF slope (0.26-0.30). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) values for entropy were lower (0.04-0.05) than MF (3.10-3.60) and MF slope (0.03-0.04). The Pearson correlation coefficients of the entropy were significantly higher (0.75-0.77) than those of the MF (0.38-0.47) and the MF slope (0.15-0.18). Therefore, the results of this study indicated that the entropy analysis could provide a reliable measure of muscle fatigability. PMID:19121587

Sung, Paul S; Zurcher, Ulrich; Kaufman, Miron

2010-02-01

176

LONGITUDINAL SOLUTIONS IN RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Stable, coherent, longitudinal oscillations have been observed in the RHIC accelerator. Within the context of perturbation theory, the beam parameters and machine impedance suggest these oscillations should be Landau damped. When nonlinear effects are included, long lived, stable oscillations become possible for low intensity beams. Simulations and theory are compared with data.

BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.FISCHER,W.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.LUQUE,A.SCHAMEL,H.

2003-05-12

177

Longitudinal Tire Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with a brief review of the traditional concept of lateral relaxation length. The review illustrates that this concept yields a useful approximation which can be used with semi-empirical tire models which assume lateral forces are a function of steady-state slip angles. The article then presents an analogous derivation for longitudinal slip. Like its lateral counterpart, the derivation

C. L. CLOVER; J. E. BERNARD

1998-01-01

178

WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

179

Longitudinal magnet forces?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ampere electrodynamics of metallic conductors and experiments supporting it predict that the interaction of a current-carrying wire with its own magnetic field should produce longitudinal mechanical forces in the conductor, existing in addition to the transverse Lorentz forces. The longitudinal forces should stretch the conductor and have been referred to as Ampere tension. In 1964 it was discovered that a current pulse would break a straight copper wire into many fragments without visible melting. A metallurgical examination of the pieces confirmed that the metal parted in the solid state. The same observation has now been made with aluminum wires. In the latest experiments the wire was bent into a semicircle and arc-connected to a capacitor discharge circuit. The arc connections ruled out rupture by Lorentz hoop tension and indicated the longitudinal forces may also arise in circular magnet windings. Explanations of wire fragmentation by thermal shock, longitudinal stress waves, Lorentz pinch-off, bending stresses, and material defects have been considered and found unconvincing. Computed Ampere tensions would be sufficient to fracture hot wires. The Ampere tension would double the hoop tension normally expected in dipole magnets. This should be borne in mind in the design of large dipole magnets contemplated for MHD power generators and railgun accelerators.

Graneau, P.

1984-03-01

180

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOEpatents

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01

181

Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

182

Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.  

PubMed

A 10??MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2???s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}. PMID:24949772

Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

2014-06-01

183

Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket.  

PubMed

A longitudinal epiphyseal bracket (LEB) is a defect of the tubular bones and has been primarily described in the hands and feet, especially the proximal phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. The LEB results from a defective C-shaped secondary ossification center that brackets the diaphysis and metaphysis, causing restricted longitudinal growth in these bones with resultant shortening and angular deformities. Deformities associated with metatarsal epiphyseal bracket include a short, broad metatarsal and medial deviation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (hallux varus deformity). Excision of the cartilaginous LEB has been proposed to prevent future soft tissue contractures and osseous deformities. The LEB has been associated with numerous syndromes including Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Cenani-Lenz syndactyly, isolated oligosyndactyly, and Nievergelt syndrome. We describe a two-month-old patient in whom plain film and MR imaging demonstrated bilateral bracketed first metatarsals with associated hallux varus deformities. Bilateral bracket excision was performed with excellent clinical results. PMID:18085094

Nguyen, Jimmy Q; Gatewood, Jason B; Beall, Douglas; Herndon, William; Puffinberger, William R; Ly, Justin; Fish, Jon R

2007-10-01

184

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

185

Longitudinal-Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Longitudinal-experimental studies are follow-up surveys that include an experimental intervention. The main advantage of these\\u000a surveys is that it is possible to study both the natural history of development and the impact of interventions in one research\\u000a project. This chapter focusses on large-scale community surveys with repeated personal interviews with participants spanning\\u000a at least 5 years. It reviews the advantages

David P. Farrington; Rolf Loeber; Brandon C. Welsh

186

Longitudinal Magnification Drawing Mistake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral magnification in image formation by positive lenses, mirrors, and dioptrics is usually appropriately developed in most optics textbooks.1-9 However, the image of a three-dimensional object occupies a three-dimensional region of space. The optical system affects both the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions of the object and, in general, does it in different ways. The magnification in the direction of

Héctor Rabal; Nelly Cap; Marcelo Trivi

2004-01-01

187

Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials [1-7]. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration [4], in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact [7], i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity [8]. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view [6]. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008).[0pt] [2] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010).[0pt] [3] C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010).[0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 172505 (2010).[0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 10, 737 (2011).[0pt] [6] A. Kirihara et al., Nature Mater. 11, 686 (2012).[0pt] [7] T. Kikkawa et al., arXiv:1211.0139 (2012). [0pt] [8] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107204 (2012).

Uchida, Ken-Ichi

2013-03-01

188

Interaction between particles transported by fallout and surge in the deposits of the Agnano–Monte Spina eruption (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agnano–Monte Spina Tephra (AMST) is a complex sequence of beds generated by contrasting fragmentation and transportation dynamics. The 4.1 ka eruption was accompanied by a volcano-tectonic collapse, part of which is the present Agnano plain. The pyroclastic sequence is subdivided into members and submembers, each characterized by different lithological and sedimentological features. Plinian\\/subplinian fallout deposits frequently alternate with base-surge

Pierfrancesco Dellino; Roberto Isaia; Luigi La Volpe; Giovanni Orsi

2004-01-01

189

Statistical analysis of textural data from complex pyroclastic sequences: implications for fragmentation processes of the Agnano-Monte Spina Tephra (4.1 ka), Phlegraean Fields, southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.1 ka) generated pyroclastic deposits with complex internal stratigraphy that reflects variations in eruptive style. To obtain constraints on the fragmentation processes, we analysed grain-size and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data by means of multivariate statistical techniques of the cluster and factor analysis types. The results allow the identification of end-member deposits related to either pure

P. Dellino; R. Isaia; La L. Volpe; G. Orsi

2001-01-01

190

Experimental demonstration of longitudinal magnification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a teaching sequence to suppress them is suggested. As an illustration, an experiment clearly showing the presence of longitudinal inversion for the real image of a 3D object formed by a concave mirror is also described.

Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; ?epi?, Mojca

2009-01-01

191

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2013-10-01

192

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2011-10-01

193

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2010-10-01

194

45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability...includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns,...

2012-10-01

195

Yale Pediatrics A PRACTICE OF THE YALE MEDICAL GROUP PEDIATRIC SPECIALTY NEW PATIENT FORM Date  

E-print Network

-737-7635 Develop. & Behavioral 203-737-7635 Hepatology 203-785-3365 Rheumatology 203-737-7635 Endocrinology Rheumatology Spina Bifida Patientor referring officecalls 203-785-4081 #1 to schedule appointment Appointment

196

38 CFR 21.8082 - Inability of child to complete individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Inability of child to complete individualized written plan...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and...Rehabilitation § 21.8082 Inability of child to complete individualized written...

2010-07-01

197

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For...

2010-07-01

198

38 CFR 21.8080 - Requirement for an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation §...

2010-07-01

199

38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry....

2010-07-01

200

38 CFR 21.8120 - Vocational training, services, and assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training, Services, and Assistance § 21.8120...

2010-07-01

201

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional...

2010-07-01

202

38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050...

2010-07-01

203

38 CFR 21.8032 - Evaluations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8032 Evaluations. (a) Scope and nature of...

2010-07-01

204

38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information...

2010-07-01

205

38 CFR 21.8072 - Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8072 Authorizing...

2010-07-01

206

38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources...

2010-07-01

207

38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child....

2010-07-01

208

38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General...

2010-07-01

209

38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing...

2010-07-01

210

Preoperative Care of the Newborn with Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with spina bifida comprise one of the largest groups of patients for whom pediatric neurosurgeons care. Management\\u000a of these children is extraordinarily complex and may require the integrated efforts of caregivers from many disciplines.

M. Memet Özek

211

Giant congenital nevus  

MedlinePLUS

... hairy nevus; Giant pigmented nevus; Bathing trunk nevus; Congenital melanocytic nevus - large ... cells (lipomas) Neurofibromatosis Other nevi Spina bifida Smaller ... cause problems most of the time. Larger or giant nevi are rare.

212

78 FR 4411 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...several better-known childhood conditions, including Down Syndrome and Spina Bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital...g., increased parental anxiety, ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB approval for one...

2013-01-22

213

77 FR 58395 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...several better-known childhood conditions, including Down syndrome and spina bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital...g., increased parental anxiety, ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB approval for one...

2012-09-20

214

Birth Defects Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... 13 1 in 7,906 528 Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) 1 in 691 6,037 Trisomy 18 1 ... cleft palate Esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula Gastroschisis Down syndrome Anencephaly Spina bifida Encephalocele Gastroschisis Down syndrome Tetralogy ...

215

When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Problem Birth Defects Cleft Lip and Palate Down Syndrome Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Genes What Is a Gene? Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Down Syndrome The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders Cerebral ...

216

Scoliosis  

MedlinePLUS

... problem that affects the muscles. Problems can include cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy , spina bifida, and polio . ... They may have another serious disorder such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, so their goals are much ...

217

Wheelchairs  

MedlinePLUS

... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Needs Spina Bifida In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral Palsy Steven's Story: Power Player Going to a Physical ...

218

Going to an Occupational Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

... Last? Mornings are tough for Joe. He has cerebral palsy , a condition that affects the brain's control over ... in the lines. Some kids with conditions like cerebral palsy (like Joe), muscular dystrophy , or spina bifida may ...

219

For What Conditions Are Assistive Devices Used?  

MedlinePLUS

... who have spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida , osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple sclerosis, ... Z Topics Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Birth Defects Cerebral Palsy All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights A ...

220

Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)  

MedlinePLUS

... and can occur in one or both feet. Causes Cavus foot is often caused by a neurologic disorder or other medical condition such as cerebral palsy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, spina bifida, polio, muscular ...

221

64 FR 59232 - Diseases Not Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nasal/Nasopharyngeal Cancer NAS noted that exposure to nickel, chromates, wood dust and formaldehyde are risk factors for...spontaneous abortion, spina bifida and other birth defects, neonatal/infant deaths and stillbirths, low birth weights, and...

1999-11-02

222

Evaluation pertinent to the gait of children with myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with spina bifida who require long term and costly clinical management and rehabilitation are seen at the Ontario Crippled Children's Centre (OCCC). The aims of orthopaedic management can best be achieved through an \\

N. C. CARROLL; D. JONES; M. MILNER; C. WHITE

223

[Children with meningomyelocele become adults!].  

PubMed

The survival for children with spina bifida has dramatically increased during the last 30 years. In Sweden today 40-50 adolescents with spina bifida are reaching adulthood each year the next 10 years. Children with spina bifida are from birth to adulthood followed by a multidisciplinary medical and paramedical team within the habilitation organisation. However, from the age of 18 this responsibility is discontinued, often with less readiness in adult medicine to meet the spina bifida adolescents and their special needs. Facing adolescence and adulthood both children and parents need a careful preparation from several points of view for the transition. It is also most important to prepare the adult medical disciplines about the special needs of this group. This process has to start early to reach successful management, including improvement in self-care. PMID:16200903

Mattsson, Sven; Gladh, Gunilla

224

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

... 2014-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida....

2014-07-01

225

WINTER 2013 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS | COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL, CONSUMER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

, training for a career in which she'll support the emotional needs of sick children and their families. Both competitive edge in the Russian orphanage where I lived until I was six. Born with spina bifida, I

Sims, Gerald K.

226

38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.  

Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8020 Entitlement to vocational training and employment...

2014-07-01

227

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...  

Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...

2014-07-01

228

38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.  

Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and...

2014-07-01

229

Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation  

E-print Network

Orthopaedic Surgery Rehab Neural Engineering Lab Biomechanics & Neuro- prosthetics Lab Adaptive Sports http. Boninger, MD Professor and Chair Adaptive Sports Assistive Technology Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Collinger Dicianno, MD Associate Professor Adaptive Sports Assistive Technology Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury

Sibille, Etienne

230

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2011-07-01

231

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 17.902 Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2013-07-01

232

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 17.902 Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2011-07-01

233

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2012-07-01

234

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2011-07-01

235

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 17.902 Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2012-07-01

236

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2013-07-01

237

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2013-07-01

238

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 17.902 Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902...

2010-07-01

239

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905...

2010-07-01

240

38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered...for under the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs...

2010-07-01

241

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2012-07-01

242

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

... 17.904 Section 17.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2014-07-01

243

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

... 17.902 Section 17.902 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2014-07-01

244

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

... 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida...

2014-07-01

245

Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis. PMID:25008019

Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

2014-10-01

246

Tuberculous dactylitis (spina ventosa) with concomitant ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma in an immunocompetent child: A rare presentation of skeletal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculous dactylitis is a distinctly uncommon, yet well recognized form of tuberculosis involving the small bones of the hand or foot. It occurs in young children in endemic areas under 5 years of age. Tuberculosis of the short tubular bones like phalanges, metacarpals or metatarsals is quite uncommon beyond 6 years of age, once the epiphyseal centers are well established. The radiographic features of cystic expansion have led to the name “Spina Ventosa” for tuberculous dactylitis of the short bones. Scrofuloderma is a mycobacterial infection affecting children and young adults, representing direct extension of tuberculosis into the skin from underlying structures e.g. lymph nodes. An 8-year-old malnourished girl had multiple axillary ulcers with lymphadenopathy. Tuberculous dactylitis with ipsilateral axillary scrofuloderma was suspected on clinical and radiological grounds. The suspicion was confirmed by histology and bacteriology. The patient responded to antitubercular drugs with progressive healing of the lesions without surgery. Concomitant presence of these dual lesions suggesting active disseminated tuberculosis in immune-competent child over 6 years is very rare and hardly reported. PMID:23977657

Bhaskar; Khonglah, Tashi; Bareh, Jerryson

2013-01-01

247

Longitudinal vortices in granular flows.  

PubMed

We present a new instability observed in rapid granular flows down rough inclined planes. For high inclinations and flow rates, the free surface of the flow experiences a regular deformation in the transverse direction. Measurements of the surface velocities imply that this instability is associated with the formation of longitudinal vortices in the granular flow. From the experimental observations, we propose a mechanism for the longitudinal vortex formation based on the concept of granular temperature. PMID:11415386

Forterre, Y; Pouliquen, O

2001-06-25

248

Passive longitudinal phase space linearizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the possibility to passively linearize the bunch compression process in electron linacs for the next generation x-ray free electron lasers. This can be done by using the monopole wakefields in a dielectric-lined waveguide. The optimum longitudinal voltage loss over the length of the bunch is calculated in order to compensate both the second-order rf time curvature and the second-order momentum compaction terms. Thus, the longitudinal phase space after the compression process is linearized up to a fourth-order term introduced by the convolution between the bunch and the monopole wake function.

Craievich, P.

2010-03-01

249

Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings  

SciTech Connect

The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected.

Colton, E.P.

1986-01-01

250

Longitudinal Observation of Infant Temperament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Convergent validity, temporal stability, and age-related patterning of measures of infant temperament were examined in a longitudinal study of 46 infants at three, six, and nine months of age. Infant Behavior Questionnaire and home observations showed convergent validity. Composite measures of positive and negative reactivity and overall…

Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

1986-01-01

251

The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume discussed the research methodology used in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Ecperience (NLS). The survey studied employment market conditions for four groups in the labor force: men, aged 45-59; women, aged 30-44; young men, aged 14-24; and young women, aged 14-24. Data were collected on 20,000 individuals over a five…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

252

Longitudinal Relationships Between Alzheimer Disease Progression and  

E-print Network

Longitudinal Relationships Between Alzheimer Disease Progression and Psychosis, Depressed Mood characterized independent cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between three BPSD (psychosisMental State Exam- ination, and Dependence Scale. Results: Both psychosis and depressed mood at study entry

253

Comparison of Attenuation of Striated Muscle between Postmortem and Antemortem Computed Tomography: Results of a Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We evaluated the postmortem changes of striated muscle by comparing computed tomography (CT) images obtained postmortem and antemortem in the same patients. Materials and Methods We studied 33 consecutive patients who underwent antemortem CT, postmortem CT, and pathological autopsy in our tertiary care hospital between April 2009 and December 2010. Postmortem CT was performed within 20 h after death and was followed by pathological autopsy. Pathological autopsy confirmed the absence of muscular diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, myositis, and myasthenia, in all of the patients. The CT attenuation values of four cardiac muscle sites (anterior wall of the left ventricle, left ventricular free wall, posterior wall of the left ventricle, and the ventricular septum) and two skeletal muscle sites (the pectoralis major muscle and the erector spinae muscle) were compared between antemortem and postmortem CT using paired t test. Results Striated muscle had significantly greater attenuation on postmortem CT than on antemortem CT (P<0.001) in all six tissue sites. No significant association was found between postmortem change in the CT attenuation of striated muscle and gender, age, or elapsed time since death. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study to show hyperattenuation of striated muscle on postmortem CT images compared with antemortem CT images in the same patients. PMID:25365255

Okuma, Hidemi; Gonoi, Wataru; Ishida, Masanori; Shirota, Go; Shintani, Yukako; Abe, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Ohtomo, Kuni

2014-01-01

254

Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter? Laetitia-14Dec2010 #12;Longitudinal evidence on financial expectations in Albania: Do remittances matter of remittances on financial expectations in Albania using longitudinal data covering the period 2002

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants. PMID:19579919

Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

2009-01-01

256

Nabag (Zizyphus spina-christi) extract prevents aberrant crypt foci development in colons of azoxymethane-treated rats by abrogating oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed

Zizyphus spina-christi (ZSC) fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds but any medicinal properties in chemoprevention of colon cancer have hitherto not been studied. The aim of the present study was to examine in vivo protective effects of ZSC water extract on colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Our results showed that ZSC significantly reduced AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci development and AOM-induced oxidative stress as indicated by restoration of endogenous glutathione depletion and abrogating the impairment of total antioxidant capacity. Caspase-3 cleavage, which has been considered as an apoptotic index, was almost undetectable in AOM-treated rats and ZSC exhibited pro-apoptotic effects evidenced by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3. In the studied model, our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that ZSC extract could inhibit the early stage of colon carcinogenesis by preventing oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24175771

Guizani, Nejib; Waly, Mostafa Ibrahim; Singh, Vandita; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

2013-01-01

257

Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor  

SciTech Connect

A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J. [Department of Micro and Nanotechnology-DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Bldg. 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2009-07-20

258

[Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament].  

PubMed

Ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a hyperostotic disease of the spine associated with myelopathy which is occurred by an anterior compression to the spinal cord. OPLL was first reported by Key GA in 1838, and was previously considered specific to east Asian people, especially Japanese. However, now OPLL is recognized as a subtype of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperosteosis, which is detected in Europe and the United States. We discuss the etiology and natural history of OPLL in this review. PMID:24473355

Watanabe, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Takeshi

2014-02-01

259

A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics  

SciTech Connect

A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992.

Larson, D.J.

1993-12-01

260

Interaction between particles transported by fallout and surge in the deposits of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agnano-Monte Spina Tephra (AMST) is a complex sequence of beds generated by contrasting fragmentation and transportation dynamics. The 4.1 ka eruption was accompanied by a volcano-tectonic collapse, part of which is the present Agnano plain. The pyroclastic sequence is subdivided into members and submembers, each characterized by different lithological and sedimentological features. Plinian/subplinian fallout deposits frequently alternate with base-surge beds of phreatomagmatic origin. Analysis of lateral facies variations and vertical facies associations of correlated layers of submembers B2, D2 and E2 reveals that during some eruption phases the contrasting eruptive dynamics were almost contemporaneous. Base-surge deposits of submember B2 formed during the declining stage of a plinian column. They resulted from highly energetic and steady pyroclastic density currents that traveled long distances from the vent area and surmounted topographic obstacles such as the Posillipo hill (˜150 m) and the northern sector of the Camaldoli hill (˜250 m). Submember D2 pyroclastic density currents formed when contemporaneous fallout from an eruptive column was present. Coarse particles from the column settled throughout the pyroclastic density current, determining a significant increase of the solid load of the base surge. The consequent increase of supply rate from the transportation to the depositional zone of the base surge led to the formation of unsteady flows that could not efficiently transport the solid load and did not have the ability to travel long distances. Base-surge deposits of submember E2 were fed by a pulsating phreatomagmatic activity, which was punctuated by a short-lived fallout phase. Fallout material, which was incorporated as an additional load to the base surges, was partially transported by low-energy, steady pyroclastic density currents that traveled over the Agnano plain but did not surmount either the Camaldoli or the Posillipo hills. Only the very fine material, in continuous suspension in the upper, no-shearing part of the base-surge cloud, was dispersed higher in the atmosphere and quietly settled over a large area outside the caldera rim. The phreatomagmatic origin of base surges, which contrasts with the magmatic origin of fallout activity, suggests that the pyroclastic density currents of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption did not result from eruption column collapses. They were most likely related to radially spreading clouds which were contemporaneous with fallout activity but issued from distinct zones in the vent area. The turbulent nature and the high expansion of base surges made them capable, under certain conditions, of passing over high topographic obstacles, with hazardous effects in distal areas.

Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Isaia, Roberto; La Volpe, Luigi; Orsi, Giovanni

2004-05-01

261

Introduction to Longitudinal Beam Dynamics  

E-print Network

This chapter gives an overview of the longitudinal dynamics of the particles in an accelerator and, closely related to that, the issue of synchronization between the particles and the accelerating field. Beginning with the trivial case of electrostatic accelerators, the synchronization condition is explained for a number of driven accelerators like Alvarez linacs, cyclotrons and finally synchrotrons and storage rings, where it plays a crucial role. In the case of the latter, the principle of phase focusing is motivated qualitatively as well as on a mathematically more correct level and the problem of operation below and above the transition energy is discussed. Throughout, the main emphasis is more on physical understanding rather than on a mathematically rigorous treatment.

Holzer, B J

2013-01-01

262

Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator  

DOEpatents

A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

Hutchinson, Donald P [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Marcus L [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Knoxville, TN

2003-03-11

263

Determination of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Net  

E-print Network

Determination of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Net Advection in the Tidal Hudson River in the tidal Hudson River to examine longitudinal dispersion and net advection. SF6 was injected into the Hudson River near Newburgh, NY, and surveyed for 13 days using a new, fully automated, high-resolution SF

Ho, David

264

Longitudinal trends in track and field performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigation of aging effects in track and field performances has relied on cross-sectional data. In the present study, the shapes were examined of longitudinal performances on age curves from 81 older, elite, male athletes. The mean duration of the longitudinal span was 5.3 years, and performances were obtained from six events. The prediction made was that the performance on

M. J. Stones; Albert Kozma

1984-01-01

265

College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

2010-01-01

266

Venturing a 30-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal inquiry has long been recognized as a uniquely powerful method for seeking understanding of psychological development. A 30-year longitudinal venture is described--its theoretical motivation, methodological rationale, and details of implementation. Some of the novel and implicative findings the study has generated are briefly…

Block, Jack; Block, Jeanne H.

2006-01-01

267

Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

2010-01-01

268

Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

2007-01-01

269

MODELING LONGITUDINAL DAMAGE IN SHIP COLLISIONS  

E-print Network

SSC Report SR- 1426 MODELING LONGITUDINAL DAMAGE IN SHIP COLLISIONS SHIP STRUCTURE COMMITTEE 2004 and Subtitle Modeling LongitudinalDamage in Ship Collisions 5. Report Date October 2004 6. Performing or Grant No. DTCG32-02-C-R00002 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Ship Structure Committee US Coast

Brown, Alan

270

LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

2009-02-01

271

46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section 154.176 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal...

2013-10-01

272

46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section 154.176 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal...

2012-10-01

273

46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section 154.176 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal...

2010-10-01

274

46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section 154.176 Shipping...Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal...

2011-10-01

275

49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section...Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To...car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of...

2013-10-01

276

14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 29.173 Section 29.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2011-01-01

277

49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section...Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To...car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of...

2011-10-01

278

49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section...Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To...car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of...

2012-10-01

279

14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 29.173 Section 29.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2013-01-01

280

14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 29.173 Section 29.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2014-01-01

281

14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 27.173 Section 27.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2012-01-01

282

14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 27.173 Section 27.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2013-01-01

283

14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 29.173 Section 29.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2012-01-01

284

14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 27.173 Section 27.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2014-01-01

285

14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 27.173 Section 27.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

2011-01-01

286

Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study  

PubMed Central

Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629

Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2014-01-01

287

Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study.  

PubMed

Background The source of variability in people's response to stressful life events is poorly understood. Aims We examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience (i.e. the difference between the twins' internalising symptoms and their predicted symptoms based on cumulative stressful life events). Method Stressful life event exposure and internalising symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalising symptom total score, twin modelling was conducted for each wave separately and longitudinally. Results Resilience was found to have a moderate genetic heritability at each wave (?31%). Qualitative gender effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (?50%). When measurement error and occasion-specific effects were removed, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to level of resilience. Conclusions Both genes and environment influence level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. Environmental influences can have an enduring effect on resilience. PMID:24723629

Amstadter, Ananda B; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S

2014-10-01

288

Longitudinal Dynamics and Tomography in the Tevatron  

Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

Stogin, J [Princeton U.; Sen, T [Fermilab; Moore, R S [Fermilab

2012-01-10

289

Panel - Generic Longitudinal Business Process Model  

E-print Network

This presentation described a model for the processes involved in a longitudinal study. The model was developed at a symposium-style workshop held at Dagstuhl in September of 2011 (http://www.dagstuhl.de/11382). The Generic ...

Barkow, Ingo; Block, William C.; Greenfield, Jay; Hebing, Marcel; Hoyle, Larry; Thomas, Wendy

2013-04-03

290

Longitudinal Measurement of Work Stressors in Pregnancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goals of this developmental and planning grant were to obtain preliminary data assessing two models of occupational stress during pregnancy, in particular measuring repeatedly and longitudinally across the course of pregnancy to evaluate the p...

G. Nichols, J. D. Meyer, N. Mahooti-Brooks, N. Warren

2009-01-01

291

On the identification of vehicle longitudinal dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional model of vehicle-propulsion system\\/roadway-interface dynamics is specified, and a model-matching procedure, wherein closed-loop vehicle longitudinal controllers are employed, is detailed for identifying the parameters of this model. This procedure was employed to determine the longitudinal dynamics of a dual-mode test vehicle. The derived dynamics, which are highly velocity dependent, were validated in a series of full-scale tests in

G. Takasaki; R. Fenton

1977-01-01

292

Longitudinal space charge effects near transition  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

2009-05-04

293

Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'') are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area). Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

2011-11-01

294

Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal surface structures ("flowstripes") are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems; the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, the Taylor and Ferrar Glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, Crane and Jorum Glaciers (ice-shelf tributary glaciers) on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

2012-03-01

295

Entanglement from longitudinal and scalar photons  

SciTech Connect

The covariant quantization of the electromagnetic field in the Lorentz gauge gives rise to longitudinal and scalar photons in addition to the usual transverse photons. It is shown here that the exchange of longitudinal and scalar photons can produce entanglement between two distant atoms or harmonic oscillators. The form of the entangled states produced in this way is very different from that obtained in the Coulomb gauge, where the longitudinal and scalar photons do not exist. A generalized gauge transformation is used to show that all physically observable effects are the same in the two gauges, despite the differences in the form of the entangled states. An approach of this kind may be useful for a covariant description of the dynamics of quantum information processing.

Franson, J. D [Physics Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)

2011-09-15

296

Visual analysis of longitudinal brain tumor perfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In clinical research on diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors, longitudinal perfusion MRI studies are acquired for tumor grading as well as to monitor and assess treatment response and patient prognosis. Within this work, we demonstrate how visual analysis techniques can be adapted to multidimensional datasets from such studies within a framework to support the computer-aided diagnosis of brain tumors. Our solution builds on two innovations: First, we introduce a pipeline yielding comparative, co-registered quantitative perfusion parameter maps over all time steps of the longitudinal study. Second, based on these time-dependent parameter maps, visual analysis methods were developed and adapted to reveal valuable insight into tumor progression, especially regarding the clinical research area of low grade glioma transformation into high grade gliomas. Our examination of four longitudinal brain studies demonstrates the suitability of the presented visual analysis methods and comprises new possibilities for the clinical researcher to characterize the development of low grade gliomas.

Glaßer, Sylvia; Oeltze, Steffen; Preim, Uta; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hauser, Helwig; Preim, Bernhard

2013-02-01

297

Longitudinal control of intense charged particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the accelerator frontier shifts from high energy to high intensity, accelerator facilities are demanding beams with higher quality. Applications such as Free Electron Lasers and Inertial Fusion Energy production require the minimization of both transverse emittance and longitudinal energy spread throughout the accelerator. Fluctuations in beam energy or density at the low-energy side of the accelerator, where space-charge forces dominate, may lead to larger modulations downstream and the eventual degradation of the overall beam quality. Thus it is important to understand the phenomenon that causes these modulations in space-charge dominated beams and be able to control them. This dissertation presents an experimental study on the longitudinal control of a space-charge dominated beam in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER). UMER is a scaled model of a high-intensity beam system, which uses low-energy high-current electron beams to study the physics of space-charge. Using this facility, I have successfully applied longitudinal focusing to the beam edges, significantly lengthening the propagation distance of the beam to 1000 turns (>11.52 km). This is a factor of 10 greater than the original design conceived for the accelerator. At this injected current, the space-charge intensity is several times larger than the standard limit for storage rings, an encouraging result that raises the possibility of operating these machines with far more space-charge than previously assumed possible. I have also explored the transverse/longitudinal correlations that result when a beam is left to expand longitudinally under its own space-charge forces. In this situation, the beam ends develop a large correlated energy spread. Through indirect measurements, I have inferred the correlated energy profile along the bunch length. When the bunch is contained using longitudinal focusing, I have shown that errors in the applied focusing fields induce space-charge waves at the bunch edges that propagate into the middle region of the beam. In some cases, these waves sustain multiple reflections before damping away. I conclude that space-charge in an intense beam without longitudinal focusing can cause the bunch to develop a large correlated energy spread, increasing the risk that the beam is lost to the pipe walls as it requires a larger aperture. When longitudinal focusing is applied however, we are able to transport the beam over a much longer path length and reduce the correlated energy spread.

Beaudoin, Brian Louis

298

Symmetric Diffeomorphic Modeling of Longitudinal Structural MRI  

PubMed Central

This technology report describes the longitudinal registration approach that we intend to incorporate into SPM12. It essentially describes a group-wise intra-subject modeling framework, which combines diffeomorphic and rigid-body registration, incorporating a correction for the intensity inhomogeneity artifact usually seen in MRI data. Emphasis is placed on achieving internal consistency and accounting for many of the mathematical subtleties that most implementations overlook. The implementation was evaluated using examples from the OASIS Longitudinal MRI Data in Non-demented and Demented Older Adults. PMID:23386806

Ashburner, John; Ridgway, Gerard R.

2013-01-01

299

Diffusion effects on longitudinal relaxation in poorly mixed compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of spins between physical or virtual, communicating compartments having different states of longitudinal magnetization leads to diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation. Herein, in two model systems, the effects of diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation are explored experimentally and analyzed quantitatively. In the first case, longitudinal relaxation in a single slice of a water phantom is monitored spectroscopically as a function of slice thickness. In the second case, mimicking vascular flow/diffusion effects, longitudinal relaxation is monitored in a two-compartment, semi-permeable fiber phantom. In both cases, apparent longitudinal relaxation, though clearly multi-exponential, is well-modeled as bi-exponential.

Anderson, J. R.; Ye, Q.; Neil, J. J.; Ackerman, J. J. H.; Garbow, J. R.

2011-07-01

300

What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?  

PubMed Central

This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

Schaie, K. Warner

2005-01-01

301

Depression During the Longitudinal Course of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective research investigated the occurrence and persistence of depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. The research goals were to (1) compare depression in schizophrenia with that in schizoaffective and major depressive disorders, (2) assess whether some schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to depression, and (3) assess the relationship of depression to posthospital adjustment in schizophrenia. A total of 70

James R. Sands; Martin Harrow

1999-01-01

302

ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

303

Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to

KUNG-YEE LIANG; SCOTT L. ZEGER

1986-01-01

304

Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

2008-01-01

305

Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.  

PubMed

Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine. PMID:19579072

Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

2009-07-01

306

[Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: case report].  

PubMed

Posterior longitudinal ligament ossification of cervical spine is a rare condition among caucasians. A 42 years old japanese patient with progressive walking difficulty was diagnosed with this pathology by CT scan and MRI and treated surgically by an anterior approach with arthrodesis. Pathophysiology, racial prevalence, clinical picture, radiological characteristics and surgical approaches options are revised. PMID:16622577

Tella, Oswaldo Inácio de; Herculano, Marco Antonio; Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Faedo Neto, Atílio; Crosera, João Francisco

2006-03-01

307

Longitudinal Predictors of Implicit Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal predictive relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness skills in preschool-age children with speech-sound disorders. Method: Forty-seven children with speech-sound disorders were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year and again…

Rvachew, Susan

2006-01-01

308

Design and Implementation Issues in Longitudinal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a…

Ludlow, Larry H.; Pedulla, Joseph; Reagan, Emile Mitescu; Enterline, Sarah; Cannady, Mac; Chappe, Stephanie

2011-01-01

309

Issues in Longitudinal Research on Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two methodological issues regarding the analysis of longitudinal data using structural equation modeling that emerged during the reconsideration of the analysis of a recent study on the relationship between academic motivation and language achievement in elementary education [Stoel R.D., Peetsma, T.T.D. and Roeleveld, J.…

Stoel, Reinoud D.; Roeleveld, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van den Wittenboer, Godfried; Hox, Joop

2006-01-01

310

Longitudinal Case Analysis in Atopic Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current knowledge on atopic dermatitis comes mainly from cross-sectional studies, which are not suited to establish time- courses or causal links in complex diseases. As an alternative approach, the method of longitudinal case analysis by the auto- regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method has been introduced to investigate the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The method was applied to the

PETER HELMBOLD; GABRIELE GAISBAUER; JOÈ RG KUPFER; UWE-FRITHJOF HAUSTEIN

311

Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75% to 88%. Model A, which included the Behavioral Symptoms Index,

Melissa Barry; Amy L. Reschly

2012-01-01

312

Development of Metacognitive Skillfulness: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows the results of a two-year longitudinal study where the same participants were followed for two consecutive years as they enter secondary school (aged 12-14 years). The main issue was to investigate the development of both the quantity and the quality of metacognitive skills. Another issue was to establish whether the development…

van der Stel, Manita; Veenman, Marcel V. J.

2010-01-01

313

Beam subjected to eccentric longitudinal impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the bending stresses in a bar subjected to eccentric longitudinal impact. The test beam was a round steel bar, 1 in. in diam and 8 ft long which was suspended by wires at two points. Strains were measured by SR-4 strain gages at 18 stations along the bar. The signals were

Shan S. Kuo

1961-01-01

314

Nonparametric Modeling of Longitudinal Covariance Structure in  

E-print Network

the statistical properties and advantages of the proposed method. A real example from a mouse genome projectNonparametric Modeling of Longitudinal Covariance Structure in Functional Mapping of Quantitative of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA and 2 Department of Operation Research and Financial Engineering

Fan, Jianqing

315

WHO COMES BACK? A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

(Borman and Dowling 2008). Research on teacher attrition is motivated by concern about the high rates National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. We find that younger, better paid, and more experienced teachers of turnover among teachers--approximately 7 percent of teachers leave the profession each year, with rates

Straight, Aaron

316

Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

2007-01-01

317

Longitudinal Impedance of Skinned Frog Muscle Fibers  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal impedance of skinned muscle fibers was measured with extracellular electrodes and an oil gap method in which a central longitudinal section of fiber is insulated by oil while the ends of the fiber are bathed in conducting pools of relaxing solution. Intact single fibers were isolated from frog semitendinosus muscle and the sarcolemma removed either by mechanical or chemical methods. Stray capacitance across the oil gap was measured after each experiment and its admittance subtracted from the admittance of the fiber and oil gap. Effects of impedance at the ends of the fiber were eliminated by measuring the impedance with two lengths of fiber in the oil gap and subtracting the impedance at the shorter length from that at the longer length. Longitudinal impedance so determined for mechanically and chemically skinned fibers exhibited zero phase shift from 1 to 10,000 Hz, i.e., the longitudinal impedance of skinned fibers is purely resistive. If we assume that our skinned fibers are a model of the sarcoplasm of muscle, we conclude that the equivalent circuit of the sarcoplasm is a resistor. PMID:4545146

Mobley, Bert A.; Leung, J.; Eisenberg, R. S.

1974-01-01

318

Analyzing Change in Longitudinal Qualitative Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines inquiry-based methods for analyzing longitudinal qualitative data to assess participant changes in three long-term theater education studies. Encourages qualitative researchers in drama and theatre education to devote more extended periods of time to systematically observing young people or adult practitioners experiencing the art form.…

Saldana, Johnny

2002-01-01

319

Measurements of the longitudinal proton structure  

E-print Network

Measurements of the longitudinal proton structure function, FL, at HERA Lake Louise Winter Institute 2009 Tim Namsoo (DESY) On behalf of the ZEUS & H1 collaborations #12;16th February, 2009 Tim strategy · Results (from ZEUS & H1) · Summary #12;16th February, 2009 Tim Namsoo (DESY) 2 Framework p p

320

Nonlinear evolution of longitudinal plasma waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-time nonlinear behavior of single-mode longitudinal plasma waves is studied on the basis of the Vlasov equation with Fokker-Planck collision terms. The resonant layer, trapped island, collisional sublayers, and X-point neighborhoods are analyzed. A nonlinear evolution equation is obtained and the wave-generated current is also evaluated.

Pao, Young-Ping

1988-01-01

321

MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

2008-01-01

322

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Longitudinal immunomonitoring following  

E-print Network

arthritis Yves-Marie Pers1,2* , Pascale Louis-Plence1 , Pierre Portales3 , Julie Quentin1 , Sylvie Fabre1 treatment with tocilizumab. Con- cerning the longitudinal analyses of the B cell populations, an increase- erogeneity of the patients before treatment was confirmed. However the CD4CD25FoxP3 staining was confined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Longitudinal ruptures of polyester knitted vascular prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The purpose of the study was the characterization of a type of rupture occurring on warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 cases of warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses that were explanted from humans that showed a longitudinal rupture as a part of a collaborative retrieval program. All the prostheses were immediately fixed in a 10% formaldehyde

Nabil Chakfe; Gunnar Riepe; Florence Dieval; Jean-Francois Le Magnen; Lu Wang; Elisabeth Urban; Marc Beaufigeau; Bernard Durand; Herbert Imig; Jean-Georges Kretz

2001-01-01

324

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

325

An electromagnetic shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation  

E-print Network

A novel technique for longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters has been tested in the CERN West Area beam facility. A 25 tower very fine samplings e.m. calorimeter has been built with vacuum photodiodes inserted in the first 8 radiation lengths to sample the initial development of the shower. Results concerning energy resolution, impact point reconstruction and electron/pion separation are reported.

CALEIDO collaboration; A. C. Benvenuti; I. Britvich; T. Camporesi; P. Checchia; A. Feniouk; V. Hedberg; V. Lishin; M. Margoni; M. Mazzucato; V. Obraztsov; M. Paganoni; V. Poliakov; F. Simonetto; F. Terranova; E. Vlasov

1999-02-06

326

DROPOUTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES: DEFINITIONS AND MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely used distinction of Little and Rubin [1] about types of randomness for missing data presents difficulties in its application to dropouts in longitudinal repeated measurement studies. In its place, a new typology of randomness for dropouts is proposed that relies on using a survival model for the dropout process.In terms of a stochastic process, dropping out is a

J. K. Lindsey

2000-01-01

327

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation  

E-print Network

# Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delin- eated the two major fiber connections of the human Md in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy

Dickerson, Brad

328

Titan's Longitudinal Dunes in the Lab.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini Radar observations of Titan's surface have revealed various landscapes. In particular, flybys probing Titan's equator unveiled linear features [1], which are morphologically similar to longitudinal dunes [2,3]. They appear pervasive in the range +-30° in latitude and could cover up to 20% of Titan's surface [4]. Their characteristics in term of width, length and spacing [1,4,5], or height and slope [6] are comparable to dunes of the Namib Desert [2]. On Earth, longitudinal dunes are the most commonly encountered dune and are observed in regions where the wind regime is composed of two main directions, the dunes orientation giving the mean sand transport. While terrestrial dunes are mostly formed by quartz sand grains, Titan's dunes are likely to be composed of hydrocarbon particulates [7]. Despite their different compositions, their morphological resemblances suggest similar processes of formation. Thus studying the formation of such structures could help to constrain models of Titan's winds [8]. However, formation of longitudinal dunes or even more generally longitudinal bedforms [9] have rarely been observed or reproduced in controlled conditions. Underwater experiments, in which sand transport timescale and lengthscale are decreased, have been used to successfully reproduce the dynamics of barchan dunes [10]. We show here how it is possible to explore the morphogenesis of longitudinal dunes using such a method combined with a numerical model. References: [1] Boubin et al. DPS 2005. [2] Lorenz et al. LPSC 2006. [3] Lorenz et al. Science 2006. [4] Radebaugh et al. Icarus (in revision). [5] Radebaugh et al. LPSC 2006. [6] Kirk et al. LPSC 2005. [7] Soderblom et al. P&SS (in press). [8] Tokano et al. Icarus 2002. [9] Rubin et al. Science 1987. [10] Hersen et al. PRL, 2003.

Reffet, Erwan; Courrech du Pont, S.; Hersen, P.; Douady, S.; Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Boubin, G.; Fulchignoni, M.

2007-10-01

329

LINEAR MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...

330

14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173 Section 23.173 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2013-01-01

331

14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173 Section 23.173 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2014-01-01

332

14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2011-01-01

333

14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2012-01-01

334

14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2010-01-01

335

14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173 Section 23.173 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2011-01-01

336

14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2014-01-01

337

14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173 Section 23.173 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2012-01-01

338

14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173 Section 23.173 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2010-01-01

339

14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

2013-01-01

340

EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

341

Longitudinal dunes on Mars: Relation to current wind regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal dunes are extremely rare on Mars, but constitute a substantial fraction of terrestrial desert dunes. We report finding isolated examples of longitudinal dunes on Mars and relate their occurrence to expected sand transport regimes. Terrestrial longitudinal dunes form in bimodal and multimodal transport regimes. General circulation models and streak data indicate that bimodal and multimodal transport of sand should be very rare on Mars. Thus the dearth of longitudinal dunes on Mars is consistent with their apparent formation conditions on Earth.

Lee, Pascal; Thomas, Peter C.

1995-01-01

342

Performances of the Virgo interferometer longitudinal control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of the longitudinal sensing and control system of the Virgo gravitational wave detector are described. This system is able to stably maintain the RMS residual fluctuation of the interferometer longitudinal degrees of freedom around or below 10-11m, compatible with the original Virgo requirements. Moreover the detector sensitivity is not limited by longitudinal control noise at any frequency. Indeed the noise re-introduced by the longitudinal control system does not affect the Virgo design sensitivity.

Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Aoudia, S.; Arun, K. G.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Bauer, Th. S.; Beker, M. G.; Bigotta, S.; Birindelli, S.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bosi, L.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corda, C.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dari, A.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; de Rosa, R.; Del Prete, M.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hild, S.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; La Penna, P.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Mackowski, J.-M.; Majorana, E.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Menzinger, F.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Moreau, J.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabaste, O.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Salemi, F.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Trummer, J.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.

2010-03-01

343

Ring RF and longitudinal dynamics in the SNS  

SciTech Connect

Average beam currents of 40 A will be present in the Spallation Neutron Source. Even though the entire cycle time is only one synchrotron oscillation the longitudinal phase space determines peak beam current and momentum spread. Both factors play a role in space charge and instability dynamics. Longitudinal simulations with beam loading and longitudinal space charge have been done in the design phase.

Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brodowski, J.; Delong, J.; Meth, M.; Onillon, E.; Zaltsman, A.

2000-06-30

344

Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape  

PubMed Central

Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2009-01-01

345

Longitudinal asymmetry of the Io plasma torus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote observations of the Io plasma torus have revealed a persistent longitudinal asymmetry in the brightness of optical S(+) emission lines but not of ultraviolet S(2+) emission lines. The S(+) asymmetry (with respect to the corotating System III coordinates) has been attributed to an asymmetric plasma source; the question then arises, why do the higher ionization states of sulfur not reflect a similar asymmetry? The explanation proposed here is based on the fact that torus ions do not quite corotate at the System III rate because of mass loading. If the resulting System III drift period of the ions is intermediate between the ionization lifetimes of S(+) and S(2+), then the asymmetry of the source will be obscured by longitudinal drift for the relatively long-lived multiply-ionized sulfur ions, but not for short-lived S(+).

Hill, T. W.

1983-01-01

346

Demographic and health surveillance: longitudinal ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Longitudinal data gathered from health surveillance, when combined with detailed demographic information, can provide invaluable insight into disease outcomes. Many such surveillance sites exist in the developing world, particularly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and focus on diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. The indistinct positions of such surveillance systems, often inhabiting an area between research, treatment and population health monitoring, means that the necessity of and responsibility for ethical oversight is unclear. This regulatory vacuum is further compounded by a lack of attention to longitudinal surveillance systems in ethics literature. In this paper, we explore some key ethical questions that arise during demographic and health surveillance in relation to ethical principles of beneficence, respect for persons and justice: health-care provision, informed consent and study sustainability. PMID:18797619

Carrel, Margaret; Rennie, Stuart

2008-08-01

347

A 2-D numerical simulation study on longitudinal solute transport and longitudinal dispersion coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient, DL, is a fundamental parameter of longitudinal solute transport models: the advection-dispersion (AD) model and various deadzone models. Since DL cannot be measured directly, and since its calibration using tracer test data is quite expensive and not always available, researchers have developed various methods, theoretical or empirical, for estimating DL by easier available cross-sectional hydraulic measurements (i.e., the transverse velocity profile, etc.). However, for known and unknown reasons, DL cannot be satisfactorily predicted using these theoretical/empirical formulae. Either there is very large prediction error for theoretical methods, or there is a lack of generality for the empirical formulae. Here, numerical experiments using Mike21, a software package that implements one of the most rigorous two-dimensional hydrodynamic and solute transport equations, for longitudinal solute transport in hypothetical streams, are presented. An analysis of the evolution of simulated solute clouds indicates that the two fundamental assumptions in Fischer's longitudinal transport analysis may be not reasonable. The transverse solute concentration distribution, and hence the longitudinal transport appears to be controlled by a dimensionless number ?, where Q is the average volumetric flowrate, Dt is a cross-sectional average transverse dispersion coefficient, and W is channel flow width. A simple empirical ? relationship may be established. Analysis and a revision of Fischer's theoretical formula suggest that ? influences the efficiency of transverse mixing and hence has restraining effect on longitudinal spreading. The findings presented here would improve and expand our understanding of longitudinal solute transport in open channel flow.

Zhang, Wei

2011-07-01

348

Key longitudinal-experimental studies in criminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the tradition of Joan McCord's work, this paper reviews longitudinal-experimental studies in criminology with community samples of at least 100 persons, follow-up periods of at least 5 years, personal interviews, and measures of offending. The main advantages of such studies are in investigating both the natural history of development (including the effects of risk\\/protective factors and life events) and

David P. Farrington

2006-01-01

349

Random-effects models for longitudinal data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but

N. M. Laird; J. H. Ware

1982-01-01

350

Longitudinal Waves Organize and Control Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of longitudinal waves in plants (W-waves)in 1988 I have taken data related to influences of these waves. These data include spacings betweenstructures on plants,sap flow data, electrical data from probes traceable to effects produced by these waves, data related to the influences of gravity, data related to these waves traveling between plants and on and on. All

Orvin Wagner

2002-01-01

351

Extensions of the longitudinal envelope equation  

SciTech Connect

Recently, longitudinal space charge effects have become of increased importance in a variety of dynamical situations. The CEBAF FEL injector beam dynamics shows large space-charge effects, even at 10 MeV ({gamma} {approx} 20). Space-charge dominated longitudinal motion has also been studied in the IUCF ion storage ring. Previously a longitudinal envelope equation with a self-consistent phase-space distribution has been developed, and has been of considerable use in analyzing the motion of these cases. Longitudinal motion in detailed agreement with this envelope equation has been observed at the U. of Maryland Laboratory for Plasma Research, and at the GSI electron cooling storage ring ESR, as well as at the IUCF. However, the initial presentation in ref. 4 used non-relativistic linear-accelerator bunching motion as a simplifying approximation in order to avoid inadvertent errors and minimize misprints, and must be adapted to include relativistic and/or synchrotron effects. In the present note we extend the envelope equation formulae to include relativistic, synchrotron, and acceleration effects, and define the various factors in the equations in explicit detail. The object is to obtain a set of debugged formulae for these extended cases, with all of the various factors defined explicitly, so that the formulae can be used as a reference without repetitive rederivations. The usual ambiguities over emittance definitions and units and {beta}, {gamma}, g factors should be resolved. The reader (or readers) is invited to discover any remaining errors, ambiguities or misprints for removal in the next edition.

Neuffer, David

1997-04-30

352

Extensions of the longitudinal envelope equation  

SciTech Connect

Recently, longitudinal space charge effects have become of increased importance in a variety of dynamical situations. The CEBAF FEL injector beam dynamics shows large space-charge effects, even at 10 MeV ({gamma} {approx} 20). Space-charge dominated longitudinal motion has also been studied in the IUCF ion storage ring. Previously a longitudinal envelope equation with a self-consistent phase-space distribution has been developed, and has been of considerable use in analyzing the motion of these cases. Longitudinal motion in detailed agreement with this envelope equation has been observed at the U. of Maryland Laboratory for Plasma Research, and at the GSI electron cooling storage ring ESR, as well as at the IUCF. However, the initial presentation in ref. 4 used non-relativistic linear- accelerator bunching motion as a simplifying approximation in order to avoid inadvertent errors and minimize misprints, and must be adapted to include relativistic and/or synchrotron effects. In the present note we extend the envelope equation formulae to include relativistic, synchrotron, and acceleration effects, and define the various factors in the equations in explicit detail. The object is to obtain a set of debugged formulae for these extended cases, with all of the various factors defined explicitly, so that the formulae can be used as a reference without repetitive rederivations. The usual ambiguities over emittance definitions and units and {beta}, {gamma}, g factors should be resolved. The reader (or readers) is invited to discover any remaining errors, ambiguities or misprints for removal in the next edition. 12 refs.

Neuffer, D.

1996-12-01

353

Longitudinal Bunch Dynamics in the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The authors present their observations of the longitudinal bunch dynamics in Tevatron for uncoalesced proton bunches at 150 GeV and coalesced proton bunches at 150 GeV and 980 GeV. They have observed long-term (> 15 minutes) coherent oscillations of uncoalesced protons that preserve already existing oscillations from upstream accelerators. A single-bunch instability in large intensity protons bunches at 980 GeV has also been observed.

R. Moore et al.

2003-06-02

354

EAS Longitudinal Development and the Knee  

E-print Network

It is shown that Extensive Air Shower (EAS) longitudinal development has a critical point where an equilibrium between the main hadronic component and the secondary electromagnetic one exhibits a brake. This results in a change of slope in quasi-power law function $N_{e}(Eo)$. The latter leads to a knee in the EAS size spectrum at primary energy of about 100 TeV/nucleon. Many ``strange'' experimental results can be successfully explained in the frames of current approach.

Yuri V. Stenkin

2007-07-15

355

Multilevel cross-dependent binary longitudinal data.  

PubMed

We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements. PMID:24131242

Serban, Nicoleta; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Carroll, Raymond J

2013-12-01

356

Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.

1988-01-01

357

Modeling HIF relevant longitudinal dynamics in UMER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The foremost challenge for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) is achieving sufficiently low emittances and small energy spreads in the presence of intense space-charge, to achieve the high deposition densities necessary for pellet ignition. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) uses intense low-energy electron beams to access the scaled physics of HIF drivers. In particular, the long path-length propagation in UMER presents an opportunity to study, at realistic scales, the longitudinal beam dynamics and manipulations required for such a driver. With the use of induction modules, as in the ion machines such as NDCX-II, the resulting bunch dynamics show evidence of space-charge waves excited by an initial mismatch between the detailed initial beam distribution at the bunch ends and the applied focusing waveforms, persisting with multiple damped reflections propagating along the bunch flat-top. Using the induction module we are able to suppress space-charge waves with great accuracy, at amplitudes that include wave steepening prior to the formation of solitary wave trains. The longitudinal dynamics largely dominates when no containment fields are applied, coupling through the natural chromaticity of the ring even within the first turn. After subsequent turns, the bunch elongates and wraps the circumference of the machine multiple times; eventually reaching a point of instability that has also been shown through simulation, obtaining excellent agreement when the detailed longitudinal dynamics of the experiment are carefully incorporated into the model.

Beaudoin, B. L.; Bernal, S.; Blanco, C.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koeth, T.; Mo, Y.

2014-01-01

358

Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from  

SciTech Connect

Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 3}He were measured at Q{sup 2} = 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in {sup 3>}He at {bar W} = 1.60 GeV. The {bar W} = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production.

David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O'Neill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

2001-11-12

359

Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse  

SciTech Connect

Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.

Jian-Ping Chen

2011-02-01

360

Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.  

PubMed

Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

2013-04-01

361

Magnetization Transfer Induced Biexponential Longitudinal Relaxation  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal relaxation of brain water 1H magnetization in mammalian brain in vivo is typically analyzed on a per voxel basis using a monoexponential model, thereby assigning a single relaxation time constant to all 1H magnetization within a given voxel. This approach was tested by obtaining inversion recovery data from grey matter of rats at 64 exponentially-spaced recovery times. Using Bayesian probability for model selection, brain water data were best represented by a biexponential function characterized by fast and slow relaxation components. At 4.7 T, the amplitude fraction of the rapidly relaxing component is 3.4 ± 0.7 % with a rate constant of 44 ± 12 s-1 (mean ± SD; 174 voxels from 4 rats). The rate constant of the slow relaxing component is 0.66 ± 0.04 s-1. At 11.7 T, the corresponding values are 6.9 ± 0.9 %, 19 ± 5 s-1, and 0.48 ± 0.02 s-1 (151 voxels from 4 rats). Several putative mechanisms for biexponential relaxation behavior were evaluated, and magnetization transfer between bulk water protons and non-aqueous protons was determined to be the source of biexponential longitudinal relaxation. MR methods requiring accurate quantification of longitudinal relaxation may need to take this effect explicitly into account. PMID:18759367

Prantner, Andrew M.; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Garbow, Joel R.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.

2009-01-01

362

Tethered cord syndrome versus low-placed conus medullaris in an over-distended spinal cord following initial repair for myelodysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present findings obtained from a total of 100 patients who had previously undergone surgery for spina bifida and whose progress had been monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our meningomyelocele clinic. Fourteen of these patients (14.0%) developed delayed symptom(s) of progressive spinal neurologic dysfunction. In those with myeloschisis, increase of motor deficit was the most common clinical manifestation

S. Oi; H. Yamada; S. Matsumoto

1990-01-01

363

Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

2008-01-01

364

A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake's Pouch Cyst  

PubMed Central

The intracranial translucency (IT) is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB). In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake's pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening. PMID:24523974

Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Ibba, Rosa Maria; Monni, Giovanni

2014-01-01

365

Harvey Cushing's Early Management of Hydrocephalus: An historical picture of the conundrum of hydrocephalus until modern shunts after WWII  

PubMed Central

Purpose Throughout his early career, Cushing proposed a variety of methods for temporary and permanent drainage and diversion of CSF in his patients, and acknowledged that certain techniques were more suited to particular subsets of hydrocephalus. Methods Following IRB approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, the surgical records of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, from 1896 to 1912, were reviewed. Patients operated upon by Harvey Cushing were selected for further analysis. Within this cohort, we recovered all available records for a single patient with hydrocephalus and spina bifida, who was treated with a ventriculosubgaleal shunt prior to repair of the spina bifida. Results A 3 month-old infant presented with hydrocephalus associated with spina bifida. Cushing performed serial lumbar and ventricular punctures. Following this, Cushing took the patient to the operating room for placement of a ventriculosubgaleal shunt. The patient subsequently underwent excision of the myelomeningocele sac, with post-operative mortality due to unspecified causes. Conclusions Cushing’s publications document a preference for translumbar-peritoneal drainage in patients with congenital hydrocephalus, particularly those with spina bifida. Although the placement of ventriculosubgaleal shunts has become an accepted practice for contemporary neurosurgeons, this case illustrates the challenges that early neurosurgeons faced in developing operative approaches for the treatment of congenital hydrocephalus. PMID:22944467

Chesler, David A.; Pendleton, Courtney; Ahn, Edward S.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

2013-01-01

366

The Malone Antegrade Colonic Enema Enhances the Quality of Life in Children Undergoing Urological Incontinence Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFunctional alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, and physical limitations in children with spina bifida, imperforate anus and spinal cord injury challenge the ability to have independent fecal and urinary continence. Urologists have successfully helped these patients achieve urinary continence. We report our experience with the antegrade colonic enema procedure, which allows select individuals to achieve continence of stool,

P. I. Ellsworth; H. W. Webb; J. M. Crump; M. A. Barraza; P. S. Stevens; H.-G. J. Mesrobian

1996-01-01

367

38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General...same as defined at § 3.814(c)(3) of this title. Vietnam veteran means, in the case of a child suffering from...

2010-07-01

368

38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth...vocational training program, the child of a Vietnam veteran (or the child's parent...claim number, if any, and the parent Vietnam veteran's full name and Social...

2010-07-01

369

Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

2009-01-01

370

76 FR 4245 - Herbicide Exposure and Veterans With Covered Service in Korea  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...f [a] veteran served in Vietnam or Korea during the specified...as abnormally high levels of dioxins, then service connection can...Monthly Allowance for Children of Vietnam Veterans Born with Spina Bifida...Training and Rehabilitation for Vietnam Veterans' Children with...

2011-01-25

371

derived growth factor ? -receptor gene predispose to human neural tube defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube defects (NTDs), including anencephaly and spina bifida, are multifactorial diseases that occur with an incidence of 1 in 300 births in the United Kingdom 1 . Mouse models have indicated that deregulated expression of the gene encoding the platelet-derived growth factor ? -receptor (Pdgfra) causes congenital NTDs (refs. 2-4), whereas mutant forms of Pax-1 that have been associated

Paul H. L. J. Joosten; Mascha Toepoel; Edwin C. M. Mariman; J. J. Van Zoelen

372

Neural Tube Defects: Review of Experimental Evidence on Stem Cell Therapy and Newer Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of closure of the neural tube during development leads to malformations called neural tube defects (NTDs). The most common neural malformations in humans include anencephaly, encephalocele, exencephaly, craniorachischisis spina bifida with or without myelomeningocele, lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelocystocele. Current preventive strategies are mainly based on pharmacologic\\/folic acid supplementation. However, stem cell-based and other combination approaches may emerge

Dhara B. Dhaulakhandi; Seema Rohilla; Kamal Nain Rattan

2010-01-01

373

Elerrrophorcsis 1997. IR. 2803-2810 Latex allergen database 2803 Anton Posch'  

E-print Network

cause of the latex type I allergy affecting especially health care workers and spina bifida children allergy will allow better diagnosis of latex allergy and to monitor the success of prevention strategies that are needed to reduce the high prevalence of latex allergy among both risk groups. 1 Introduction Since 1979

Leubner, Gerhard

374

Tech to the Future: Problems with Balance, Troubles with Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to balance is a prerequisite to sitting, standing, and walking and requires complicated physiological coordination. The disruption of any components of the equilibrioceptive, proprioceptive, or visual systems can significantly handicap balance, such as in some cases of cerebral palsy, spina bifida, arthrogryposis, cystic fibrosis, and many other diseases and injuries. Unfortunately, in patients with damaged brain function the

Drew Berger; Matt Jones; Michelle Pyle; Irina Patrikeeva

2012-01-01

375

Natural rubber latex allergy in children who had not undergone surgery and children who had undergone multiple operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Children with spina bifida and other children requiring multiple surgical procedures represent a well-known risk group for natural rubber latex allergy. Children not undergoing surgery can also be sensitized, but findings in this group of children with latex allergy have not been thoroughly examined. Objectives: We sought to examine the frequency of latex allergy in a large group of

Leea Ylitalo; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Timo Palosuo; Timo Reunala

1997-01-01

376

Natural rubber latex allergy after 12 years: Recommendations and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is a “new” illness whose prevalence reached epidemic proportions in highly exposed populations during the last decade. In children with spina bifida and in patients exposed to NRL during radiologic procedures, institution of prophylactic safety measures has had demonstrable effects in preventing allergic reactions. The risk of NRL allergy appears to be largely linked to

B. Lauren Charous; Carlos Blanco; Susan Tarlo; Robert G. Hamilton; Xaver Baur; Donald Beezhold; Gordon Sussman; John W. Yunginger

2002-01-01

377

Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

Arc, Arlington, TX.

378

Human Tail and Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human tail is rarely reported and is usually associated with underlying spina bifida occulta. A male newborn presenting a caudal appendage (human tail) with skin-covered myelomeningocele and tethered cord is described. Surgical excision of the human tail and repair of the myelomeningocele were performed 3 days after birth. After the operation, the patient had an uneventful convalescence and received

Pei-Jung Lin; Yu-Tang Chang; Hsing-I Tseng; Jan-You Lin; Yu-Sheng Huang

2007-01-01

379

The Genetics of Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a complex, behaviorally de- fined, static disorder of the immature brain that is of great concern to the practicing pediatrician because of an astonishing 556% reported increase in pediatric preva- lence between 1991 and 1997, to a prevalence higher than that of spina bifida, cancer, or Down syndrome. This jump is probably attributable to heightened awareness and changing

Rebecca Muhle; Stephanie V. Trentacoste; Isabelle Rapin

2010-01-01

380

LATEX ALLERGY IN CHILDREN WITH UROLOGICAL MALFORMATION AND CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeChildren with spina bifida, bladder exstrophy and anorectal anomalies are at risk for latex allergy. Severe intraoperative anaphylaxis in a boy treated with kidney transplantation prompted this study to evaluate the prevalence of latex allergy in a cohort of children with chronic renal failure (CRF).

GIUSEPPINA SPARTÀ; MARKUS J. KEMPER; ANDREAS C. GERBER; PHILIPPE GOETSCHEL; THOMAS J. NEUHAUS

2004-01-01

381

A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake's Pouch Cyst.  

PubMed

The intracranial translucency (IT) is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB). In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake's pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening. PMID:24523974

Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Ibba, Rosa Maria; Monni, Giovanni

2014-01-01

382

Using the mouse to identify genes involved in human disease Jenny Murdoch  

E-print Network

Lab, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway-University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX ABSTRACT: Allows us to identify the genetic defect that causes the disease Mouse mutant with severe spina bifidaUsing the mouse to identify genes involved in human disease Jenny Murdoch Neural Tube Development

Royal Holloway, University of London

383

Malignancy after gastrointestinal augmentation in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: To review the incidence and risks of bladder cancer following gastrointestinal augmentations done for congenial anomalies in childhood. Materials and Methods: A literature search using PubMed and Ovid Medline search engines was performed. MeSH terms evaluated were; bladder augmentations, enterocystoplasty, gastrocystoplasty, spina bifida, spinal dysraphism, myelodysplasia, neural tube defects, posterior urethral valves and bladder exstrophy were cross referenced with

Douglas A. Husmann

2009-01-01

384

Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

2005-01-01

385

Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

Wells, Alice; And Others

386

Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

2000-01-01

387

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

2010-07-01

388

Is tenofovir/emtricitabine teratogenic?  

PubMed Central

The Truvada® (tenofovir/emtricitabine) and nevirapine combination is increasingly being prescribed for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. There is presently no documented evidence of teratogenicity of either tenofovir/emtricitabine or nevirapine. We report two cases of spina bifida in infants of mothers on this drug combination. PMID:25083255

Egunsola, Oluwaseun

2013-01-01

389

Cohort profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS).  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

2014-02-01

390

Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches  

SciTech Connect

Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

Loos, H.; /SLAC; ,

2010-06-11

391

Modeling the correlation between binary longitudinal data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary outcomes which are observed repeatedly over time may be dependent not only on the covariates but also on each other. The repeated outcomes represent correlated binary longitudinal data and the modeling of such data was initiated by Liang and Zeger (1986) through the use of generalized estimating equations (GEE). Specification of the association structure among the outcomes remains a challenge associated with the GEE approach. This paper compares the GEE approach that uses correlation to the alternating logistic regression (ALR) approach that uses odds ratio, to model the association among outcomes.

Kassim, Suraiya; Jemain, Aziz; Hasan, Husna

2014-09-01

392

Longitudinal Laser Shaping in Laser Wakefield Accelerators  

E-print Network

We study the energetics of wake excitation during the laser-plasma interaction in application to laser wakefield accelerators. We find that both the wake amplitude and the accelerating efficiency (transformer ratio) can be maximized by properly shaping the longitudinal profile of the driving laser pulse. The corresponding family of laser pulse shapes is derived in the nonlinear regime of laser-plasma interaction. Such shapes provide theoretical upper limit on the magnitude of the wakefield and efficiency by allowing for uniform photon deceleration inside the laser pulse. We also construct realistic optimal pulse shapes that can be produced in finite-bandwidth laser systems.

Spitkovsky, A; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Chen, Pisin

2002-01-01

393

Geophysics. Longitudinal variation in springtime ozone trends.  

PubMed

Satellite measurements indicate that mid-latitude ozone depletion in the Northern Hemisphere spring during 1979-97 was worst over Europe and Russia. Here we show that these longitudinal differences in ozone trends are due to a combination of decadal variations in the circulation and transport of ozone-depleted air from the polar vortex. Any increase in ozone depletion in the polar vortex as a result of future cooling of the stratosphere would therefore be particularly bad over Europe and Russia. PMID:11607021

Knudsen, B M; Andersen, S B

2001-10-18

394

The International Tethered Cord Partnership: Beginnings, process, and status  

PubMed Central

Background: Spina bifida presents a significant cause of childhood morbidity in lower- and middle-income nations. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature examining outcomes among children with spina bifida in these countries. The goal of the International Tethered Cord Parternship is twofold: (1) to establish an international surveillance database to examine the correlation between time of repair and clinical outcomes in children with spina bifida and tethered cord; and (2) to foster collaboration among international institutions around pediatric neurosurgical concerns. Methods: Twelve institutions in 7 countries committed to participating in the International Tethered Cord Partnership. A neurosurgeon at each institution will evaluate all children presenting with spina bifida and/or tethered cord using the survey instrument after appropriate consent is obtained. The instrument was developed collaboratively and based on previous measures of motor and sensory function, ambulation, and continence. All institutions who have begun collecting data received appropriate Institutional Review Board approval. All data will be entered into a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant database. In addition, a participant restricted internet forum was created to foster communication and includes non–project-specific communications, such as case and journal article discussion. Results: From October 2010 to December 2010, 82 patients were entered from the various study sites. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first international pediatric neurosurgical database focused on clinical outcomes and predictors of disease progression. The collaborative nature of the project will not only increase knowledge of spina bifida and tethered cord, but also foster discussion and further collaboration between neurosurgeons internationally. PMID:21541204

Mulholland, Celene B.; Aranda, Guzman; Arredondo, Luis Angel; Calgua, Erwin; Contreras, Fernando; Espinoza, Dulce Maria; Gonzalez, Juan Bosco; Hoil, Jose A.; Komolafe, Edward; Lazareff, Jorge A.; Liu, Yunhui; Soto-Mancilla, Juan Luis; Mannucci, Graciela; Nan, Bao; Portillo, Santiago; Zhao, Hongyu

2011-01-01

395

Longitudinal density monitor for the LHC  

The longitudinal density monitor (LDM) is primarily intended for the measurement of the particle population in nominally empty rf buckets. These so-called satellite or ghost bunches can cause problems for machine protection as well as influencing the luminosity calibration of the LHC. The high dynamic range of the system allows measurement of ghost bunches with as little as 0.01% of the main bunch population at the same time as characterization of the main bunches. The LDM is a single-photon counting system using visible synchrotron light. The photon detector is a silicon avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode, which allows the longitudinal distribution of the LHC beams to be measured with a resolution of 90 ps. Results from the LDM are presented, including a proposed method for constructing a 3-dimensional beam density map by scanning the LDM sensor in the transverse plane. In addition, we present a scheme to improve the sensitivity of the system by using an optical switching technique.

Jeff, A.; Andersen, M.; Boccardi, A.; Bozyigit, S.; Bravin, E.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Roncarolo, F.; Welsch, C. P.; Fisher, A. S.

2012-03-01

396

Longitudinal Phase Space Tomography with Space Charge  

E-print Network

Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the non-linearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of...

Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

2000-01-01

397

Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

2011-01-01

398

Transversal and longitudinal mixing in compound channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental campaign, based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of free-surface velocities, forms the basis for an analysis of the mixing processes which occur in a compound-channel flow. The flow mixing is characterized in terms of Lagrangian statistics (absolute dispersion and diffusivity) and of the related mean flow characteristics. Mixing properties strongly depend on the ratiorh between the main channel flow depth (h*mc) and the floodplain depth (h*fp), and three flow classes can be identified, namely shallow, intermediate, and deep flows. In the present study the large time asymptotic behavior of the mixing characteristics is analyzed in terms of the absolute diffusivity in order to characterize typical values of longitudinal and transversal diffusivity coefficients. Various sets of experiments, which cover a wide range of the governing physical parameters, have been performed and the asymptotic values of the absolute diffusivity have been evaluated. The results are then compared with several studies of flow dispersion for both the longitudinal diffusivity coefficient and the transversal turbulent mixing coefficient. The present results highlight a stronger dependence of such coefficients with the flow-depth ratio than with the flow regime (Froude number).

Besio, G.; Stocchino, A.; Angiolani, S.; Brocchini, M.

2012-12-01

399

A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.  

PubMed

The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652

Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

2014-01-01

400

Impedance studies for the PS Finemet loaded longitudinal damper  

E-print Network

The impedance of the Finemet® loaded longitudinal damper cavity, installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron straight section 02 during the Long Shutdown 2013-2014, has been evaluated [1]. Time domain simulations with CST Particle Studio have been performed in order to get the longitudinal and transverse impedance of the device and make a comparison with the longitudinal impedance that was measured for a single cell prototype.

Persichelli, S; Paoluzzi, M; Salvant, B

2014-01-01

401

Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.  

PubMed

Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques. PMID:22770885

Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

2012-12-01

402

Perception of longitudinal components in piano string vibrations.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the audibility of longitudinal components in piano string vibrations with listening tests. The recorded fortissimo sounds of two grand and one upright pianos have been resynthesized with and without longitudinal components and used in ABX type listening tests. Results suggest that the longitudinal components are audible up to note C(5). However, a second test seeking the importance of the difference shows that the effect of longitudinal components for the range A(3)-C(5) is subtle. This means that modeling the phenomenon up to around note A(3) only is acceptable for sound synthesis applications. PMID:20815427

Bank, Balázs; Lehtonen, Heidi-Maria

2010-09-01

403

Longitudinal Muscle Dysfunction in Achalasia Esophagus and Its Relevance  

PubMed Central

Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. PMID:23667744

Hong, Su Jin; Bhargava, Valmik

2013-01-01

404

Predicting patient survival from longitudinal gene expression.  

PubMed

Characterizing dynamic gene expression pattern and predicting patient outcome is now significant and will be of more interest in the future with large scale clinical investigation of microarrays. However, there is currently no method that has been developed for prediction of patient outcome using longitudinal gene expression, where gene expression of patients is being monitored across time. Here, we propose a novel prediction approach for patient survival time that makes use of time course structure of gene expression. This method is applied to a burn study. The genes involved in the final predictors are enriched in the inflammatory response and immune system related pathways. Moreover, our method is consistently better than prediction methods using individual time point gene expression or simply pooling gene expression from each time point. PMID:21126232

Zhang, Yuping; Tibshirani, Robert J; Davis, Ronald W

2010-01-01

405

Why carry out a longitudinal birth survey?  

PubMed

In spite of technological progress throughout the world, ill health, both physical and mental, is widespread - but much of this is preventable. With rapid globalization, populations in both industrialised and developing countries are being exposed to various stresses and to new environmental factors, such as those related to climate change and to an increasing range of chemicals of unknown effect. There is substantial evidence that exposures to environmental risk factors in pregnancy and childhood have a major influence on health and development even into adulthood and future generations. In this paper we discuss the importance of longitudinal studies in identifying the processes underlying health and developmental problems and thus, by using the strengths of birth cohort studies, identifying preventative and other strategies which will protect public health from adverse environmental influences. PMID:19490440

Golding, Jean; Jones, Richard; Bruné, Marie-Noël; Pronczuk, Jenny

2009-07-01

406

Prospective, longitudinal assessment of developmental neurotoxicity.  

PubMed Central

Methodological issues in the design of prospective, longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity in humans are reviewed. A comprehensive assessment of potential confounding influences is important in these studies because inadequate assessment of confounders can threaten the validity of causal inferences drawn from the data. Potential confounders typically include demographic background variables, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, the quality of parental stimulation, the child's age at test, and the examiner. Exposure to other substances is assessed where significant exposure is expected in the target population. In most studies, control variables even weakly related to outcome are included in all multivariate statistical analyses, and a toxic effect is inferred only if the effect of exposure is significant after controlling for the potential confounders. Once a neurotoxic effect has been identified, suspected mediating variables may be added to the analysis to examine underlying processes or mechanisms through which the exposure may impact on developmental outcome. Individual differences in vulnerability may be examined in terms of either an additive compensatory model or a synergistic "risk and resilience" approach. Failure to detect real effects (Type II error) is of particular concern in these studies because public policy considerations make it likely that negative findings will be interpreted to mean that the exposure is safe. Important sources of Type II error include inadequate representation of highly exposed individuals, overcontrol for confounders, and inappropriate correction for multiple comparisons. Given the high cost and complexity of prospective, longitudinal investigations, cross-sectional pilot studies focusing on highly exposed individuals can be valuable for the initial identification of salient domains of impairment. PMID:9182034

Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

1996-01-01

407

TAILOR THE LONGITUDINAL ANAYSIS FOR NIH LONGITUDINAL NORMAL BRAIN DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

There are imminent needs for longitudinal analysis to make physiological inferences on NIH MRI study of normal brain development. But up to date, two critical aspects for longitudinal analysis, namely the selections of mean and covariance structures have not been addressed by the neuroimaging community. For the mean structure, we employed a linear free-knot B-spline regression in combination with quasi-least square estimating equations to approximate a nonlinear growth trajectory with piecewise linear segments for a friendly physiological interpretation. For covariance structure selection, we have proposed a novel time varying correlation structure considering not only the time separation between the repeated measures but also when these acquisitions occurred. We have demonstrated that the proposed covariance structure has a lower Akaike information criterion value than the commonly used Markov correlation structure.

Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili

2014-01-01

408

Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

Vanderstaay, Steven L.

2006-01-01

409

Longitudinal Predictors of Very Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4-6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across…

Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Reitsma, Pieter; Rispens, Judith

2011-01-01

410

Antisocial Behavior and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…

Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

2008-01-01

411

Epid 766 D. Zhang EPID 766: Analysis of Longitudinal Data  

E-print Network

Epid 766 D. Zhang EPID 766: Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Epidemiologic Studies Daowen Zhang zhang@stat.ncsu.edu http://www4.stat.ncsu.edu/dzhang2 Graduate Summer Session in Epidemiology Slide 1? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.6 Challenges in analyzing longitudinal data . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.7 Methods for analyzing

Zhang, Daowen

412

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted

Sarah Schmiege; Nancy Felipe Russo

2005-01-01

413

Uniformity of Longitudinal Distribution of Coronal Mass Ejections  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that the heliographic longitudinal distribution of the occurrence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) was not uniform around the solar minimum of cycle 21. This is confirmed by using the ?2 test for goodness of fit. Sunspot groups and flares show similar non-uniform distributions during the same period. This suggests that there was a longitudinal range where both

Shinichi Watari; Takashi Watanabe

2000-01-01

414

Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

415

Transformation to Achieve a Longitudinally Stationary Factor Pattern Matrix.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meredith's method of extracting a factorially invariant solution is adapted to longitudinal settings. An explorational estimation procedure is presented which attempts to identify the longitudinal factor components of an across occasion variance-covariance matrix. Data from 166 subjects on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is used to…

Bieber, Stephen L.; Meredith, William

1986-01-01

416

Sexual health after spinal cord injury: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisher TL, Laud PW, Byfield MG, Brown TT, Hayat MJ, Fiedler IG. Sexual health after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1043-51. Objectives: To clarify sexuality issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to identify the appropriate timing of sexual health interventions. Design: Longitudinal analysis of the survey responses of persons with SCI at 4 intervals

Thomas L. Fisher; Prakash W. Laud; Margaret G. Byfield; Traci T. Brown; Matthew J. Hayat; Irma G. Fiedler

2002-01-01

417

Measuring the Longitudinally Polarized Proton Gluon Distribution using Photoproduction Processes  

E-print Network

Little information is known about the polarization of gluons inside a longitudinally polarized proton. We investigate the sensitivity of photoproduction experiments with both beam and target longitudinally polarized to the polarization of the gluon distribution in the proton. We study the photoproduction of jets and heavy quarks and conclude that they are both sensitive to the gluon polarization.

S. Keller; J. F. Owens

1993-07-09

418

Transversal and longitudinal diffusion in polar disordered organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal and transversal diffusion of charge carriers in disordered polar organic materials has been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It was found that the simple Einstein relation is valid for the transversal diffusion coefficient, while neither the simple nor the modified Einstein relation is valid for the longitudinal diffusion coefficient. Effect of the field dependence of the transversal diffusion coefficient

Sergey V. Novikov; George G. Malliaras

2006-01-01

419

46 CFR 172.095 - Intact longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Intact longitudinal stability. Each tank barge must be shown by design calculations to have a longitudinal metacentric height (GM) in feet (meters) in each condition of loading and operation, at least equal to the following: EC01MR91.026...

2011-10-01

420

46 CFR 172.095 - Intact longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Intact longitudinal stability. Each tank barge must be shown by design calculations to have a longitudinal metacentric height (GM) in feet (meters) in each condition of loading and operation, at least equal to the following: EC01MR91.026...

2013-10-01

421

46 CFR 172.095 - Intact longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Intact longitudinal stability. Each tank barge must be shown by design calculations to have a longitudinal metacentric height (GM) in feet (meters) in each condition of loading and operation, at least equal to the following: EC01MR91.026...

2012-10-01

422

46 CFR 172.095 - Intact longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Intact longitudinal stability. Each tank barge must be shown by design calculations to have a longitudinal metacentric height (GM) in feet (meters) in each condition of loading and operation, at least equal to the following: EC01MR91.026...

2010-10-01

423

A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

2005-01-01

424

Estimation in semiparametric transition measurement error models for longitudinal data  

E-print Network

U.S. cities with the highest AIDS rates, one main outcome was whether an interviewee had hospitalEstimation in semiparametric transition measurement error models for longitudinal data BY WENQIN@hsph.harvard.edu August 21, 2006 SUMMARY We consider semiparametric transition measurement error models for longitudinal

Lin, Xihong

425

Longitudinal Study of Reading Scores of the Stanford Achievement Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2.5-year longitudinal study of the reading scales of the Stanford Achievement Test confirmed the redundancy in its subtests. Strong and stable test-retest reliability coefficients were evident and supported the use of the Stanford total reading scale for longitudinal evaluations. (Author)

Suddick, David E.; Bowen, Charles L.

1982-01-01

426

Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

2011-01-01

427

Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

2009-01-01

428

The modified electromagnetism and the emergent longitudinal wave  

E-print Network

The classical theory of electromagnetism has been revisited and the possibility of longitudinal photon wave is explored. It is shown that the emergence of longitudinal wave is a consequence of Lorenz gauge (condition) violation. Proca, Vlaenderen & Waser and Arbab theories are investigated.

Arbab I Arbab; Mudhahir Al-Ajmi

2014-01-22

429

Sequential Progressions in a Theory of Mind Scale: Longitudinal Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Consecutive re-testings of 92 U.S. preschoolers (n = 30), Chinese preschoolers (n = 31), and deaf children (n = 31) examined whether the sequences of development apparent in cross-sectional results with a theory-of-mind scale also appeared in longitudinal assessment. Longitudinal data confirmed that theory-of-mind progressions apparent in cross-sectional scaling data also characterized longitudinal sequences of understanding for individual children. The match between cross-sectional and longitudinal sequences appeared for children who exhibit different progressions across cultures (U.S. vs. China) and for children with substantial delays (deaf children of hearing parents). Moreover, greater scale distances reflected larger longitudinal age differences. PMID:21428982

Wellman, Henry M.; Fuxi, Fang; Peterson, Candida C.

2011-01-01

430

Delay of left ventricular longitudinal expansion with diastolic dysfunction: impact on load dependence of e? and longitudinal strain rate  

PubMed Central

Abstract The effect of diastolic dysfunction (DD) on the timing of left ventricular (LV) diastolic longitudinal and circumferential expansion and their load dependence is not known. This study evaluated the timing of the peak early diastolic LV inflow velocity (E), mitral annular velocity (e?), and longitudinal and circumferential global strain rates (SRE) in 161 patients in sinus rhythm. The intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) from the left atrium to the LV apex was obtained using color M?mode Doppler data to integrate the Euler equation. The diastolic function was graded according to the guidelines. In normals (N = 57), E, e?, longitudinal SRE, and circumferential SRE occurred nearly simultaneously during the IVPD. With DD (N = 104), e? and longitudinal SRE were delayed occurring after the IVPD (e?: 18 ± 23 msec, longitudinal SRE: 13 ± 21 msec from the IVPD), whereas circumferential SRE (?8 ± 28 msec) and E (?2 ± 13 msec) were not delayed. The normal dependence of e? and longitudinal SRE on IVPD was reduced in DD; while the relation of circumferential SRE and E to IVPD were unchanged in DD. Thus, normally, the LV expands symmetrically during early diastole and both longitudinal and circumferential expansions are related to the IVPD. With DD, early diastolic longitudinal LV expansion is delayed, occurring after the IVPD and LV filling, resulting in their relative independence from the IVPD. In contrast, with DD, circumferential SRE and mitral inflow are not delayed and their normal relation to the IVPD is unchanged. PMID:25035279

Iwano, Hiroyuki; Pu, Min; Upadhya, Bharathi; Meyers, Brett; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C.

2014-01-01

431

49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.113 Longitudinal joint factor (E ) for steel pipe. The longitudinal joint factor...following table: Specification Pipe class Longitudinal joint factor...

2010-10-01

432

Longitudinal determinants of substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have been linked with marital discord. Relatively little is known, however, about the antecedents of SUDs, the mediators of these factors over time, or their associations with the spousal/partner relationship among urban adults. A better understanding of the longitudinal pathways to marital conflict and to SUDs should help prevention and intervention programs target their precursors within the developmental period in which they occur. The present study, therefore, examined the longitudinal predictors of an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship and SUDs among a community sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican adults from East Harlem, NY. Participants (N?=?816) completed structured questionnaires at five time waves, from adolescence to adulthood (mean ages?=?14, 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). Structural equation modeling examined the effects of earlier environmental and social stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors on later SUDs in adulthood. There was a good fit of the structural equation model (CFI?=?0.91; RMSEA?=?0.06; and SRMR?=?0.06), which revealed three main pathways from adolescence to the spousal/partner relationship and SUDs in adulthood. One pathway linked a weak parent-adolescent attachment relationship with the participant's psychological symptoms in emerging adulthood (p?

Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Finch, Stephen J; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W

2013-12-01

433

Influence of age on practice effects in longitudinal neurocognitive change  

PubMed Central

Objective Longitudinal comparisons of neurocognitive functioning often reveal stability or age-related increases in performance among adults under about 60 years of age. Because nearly monotonic declines with increasing age are typically evident in cross-sectional comparisons, there is a discrepancy in the inferred age trends based on the two types of comparisons. The current research investigated the role of practice effects in longitudinal comparisons on the discrepancy. Method Longitudinal data over an average interval of 2.5 years were available on five abilities (i.e., reasoning, spatial visualization, episodic memory, perceptual speed, vocabulary) in a sample of 1,616 adults ranging from 18 to over 80 years of age. Practice effects were estimated from comparisons of the performance of people of the same age tested for either the first or second time, after adjusting for the possibility of selective attrition. Results Increased age was associated with significantly more negative longitudinal changes with each ability. All of the estimated practice effects were positive, but they varied in magnitude across neurocognitive abilities and as a function of age. After adjusting for practice effects the longitudinal changes were less positive at younger ages and slightly less negative at older ages. Conclusions It was concluded that some, but not all, of the discrepancy between cross-sectional and longitudinal age trends in neurocognitive functioning is attributable to practice effects positively biasing the longitudinal trends. These results suggest that the neurobiological substrates of neurocognitive functioning may change across different periods in adulthood. PMID:20804244

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

434

Effectiveness of emergency medicine in longitudinal integrated clerkships  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated third-year students’ experience with the emergency medicine (EM) component in integrated longitudinal programs. The study aimed to see if EM could be integrated into third-year integrated longitudinal programs while addressing accreditation standards and increasing interest in EM. Methods The authors surveyed students who participated in an integrated longitudinal program at University of California San Francisco School of Medicine (UCSF) from 2010 to 2012. The survey focused on four areas of EM: fit within an integrated longitudinal program; development of critical decision-making and judgment skills; development of differential diagnoses and treatment plans; increased interest in pursuing EM. Results Overall, students thought that EM fits well with the goals of an integrated longitudinal curriculum. They also thought that it helped them develop their decision-making, clinical judgment, differential diagnoses, and treatment plans. There was also an increased interest in pursuing EM as a career option because of the EM component. Conclusions EM can be well integrated into a third-year longitudinal curriculum. The undifferentiated patient work-up helps students develop critical skills in assessment and management. The lack of continuity did not interfere with the integrated longitudinal curriculum, instead the experience enhanced it. PMID:25227527

Banh, Kenny; Ramirez, Rene; Thabit, Christina

2014-01-01

435

Longitudinal Waves Organize and Control Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of longitudinal waves in plants (W-waves)in 1988 I have taken data related to influences of these waves. These data include spacings betweenstructures on plants,sap flow data, electrical data from probes traceable to effects produced by these waves, data related to the influences of gravity, data related to these waves traveling between plants and on and on. All of the data suggest that the waves provide a basis for a unified theory for plant growth and development. They likely provide a basis for growth and development for all life. The wave influences are present on the microscopic level in live plants but may not show in the microscopic pieces of material often scrutinized by the usual researcher. It is this author's conclusion that the waves mentioned are important in all life and provide what we call life which has been so difficult to pinpoint in previous work. The waves show in dead material but generally are of a much smaller amplitude in the resonating live material. In the wave theory one might compare something alive to a properly operating laser. See the Wagner web site.

Wagner, Orvin

2002-03-01

436

Laser Wakefield diagnostic using holographic longitudinal interferometry  

SciTech Connect

We propose a diagnostic technique for wakefield measurement in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor Heater scheme was proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen previously. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (sub 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used to heat the existing spark via in-verse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. Laser pulses injected into such plasma channels produce a plasma wake that has a phase velocity close to the speed of light. A discussion of plasma wake measurements, using a Longitudinal Interferometry Wakefield Diagnostic Based on Time Domain Rayleigh Refractometry with Holographic Inversion, will be presented.

Volfbeyn, P.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

1999-03-26

437

Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time. PMID:1509113

Groër, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

1992-06-01

438

SORL1 predicts longitudinal cognitive change  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding sortilin receptor 1 (SORL1) has been associated with Alzheimer’s disease risk. We examined 15 SORL1 variants and SNP-set risk scores in relation to longitudinal verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed performance, testing for age trends and sex-specific effects. Altogether, 1609 individuals from three population-based Swedish twin studies were assessed up to five times across 16 years. Controlling for APOE, multiple simple and sex-moderated associations were observed for spatial, episodic memory and verbal trajectories (p = 1.25E-03 to p = 4.83E-02). Five variants (rs11600875, rs753780, rs7105365, rs11820794, rs2070045) were associated across domains. Notably, in those homozygous for rs2070045 risk alleles, males demonstrated initially favorable performance but accelerating declines, while females showed overall lower performance. SNP-set risk scores predicted spatial (Card Rotations, p = 5.92E-03) and episodic memory trajectories (Thurstone Picture Memory, p = 3.34E-02), where higher risk scores benefitted men’s versus women’s performance up to age 75 but with accelerating declines. SORL1 is associated with cognitive aging, and may contribute differentially to change in men and women. PMID:23318115

Reynolds, Chandra A.; Zavala, Catalina; Gatz, Margaret; Vie, Loryana; Johansson, Boo; Malmberg, Bo; Ingelsson, Erik; Prince, Jonathan A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

2013-01-01

439

Shielding effects of vacuum chambers and longitudinal space charge impedances  

E-print Network

This paper presents the shielding effects of vacuum chambers with various cross-sections on the longitudinal space charge impedances. The space charge potentials and fields of a line charge within a given reference radius simulating a uniform round beam are calculated, the associated virtual longitudinal space charge impedances are compared to each other. The approximate analytical longitudinal space charge impedances of a round beam inside rectangular chamber and between parallel plates are derived respectively, which are consistent with the simulation results in a large range of ratios of beam diameter to chamber height and in the whole wavelength spectrum.

Li, Yingjie

2014-01-01

440

15. Photocopy of longitudinal sections, March 7, 1950. Original drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of longitudinal sections, March 7, 1950. Original drawing property of Continental Airlines. - Newark International Airport, Brewster Hangar, Brewster Road between Route 21 & New Jersey Turnpike Exchange No. 14, Newark, Essex County, NJ

441

Room 106, A laboratory with longitudinal arrangement of benches. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Room 106, A laboratory with longitudinal arrangement of benches. View to west. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

442

Longitudinal Study of Equity and Satisfaction in Intimate Relationships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The longitudinal study was aimed at illuminating some fundamental problems with respect to the application of equity theory in intimate relationships. The study first tested the relationship between perceived equity and satisfaction, and ascertained wheth...

N. W. VanYperen, B. P. Buunk

1990-01-01

443

14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.173 Static longitudinal...control position versus airspeed curve must be positive. However...control position versus airspeed curve may be neutral or negative...rotorcraft possesses flight characteristics that allow the pilot to...

2010-01-01

444

14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.173 Static longitudinal...control position versus airspeed curve must be positive. However...control position versus airspeed curve may be neutral or negative...rotorcraft possesses flight characteristics that allow the pilot to...

2010-01-01

445

A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR EXPOSURE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Many stochastic human exposure models require the construction of longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the time sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, the pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activiti...

446

29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE STRESS OF BARGES IN CANAL LOCKS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

447

Nonlinear correction to the longitudinal structure function at small x  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We computed the longitudinal proton structure function FL, using the nonlinear Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (NLDGLAP) evolution equation approach at small x . For the gluon distribution, the nonlinear effects are related to the longitudinal structure function. As the very small- x behavior of the gluon distribution is obtained by solving the Gribov, Levin, Ryskin, Mueller and Qiu (GLR-MQ) evolution equation with the nonlinear shadowing term incorporated, we show that the strong rise that corresponds to the linear QCD evolution equations can be tamed by screening effects. Consequently, the obtained longitudinal structure function shows a tamed growth at small x . We computed the predictions for all details of the nonlinear longitudinal structure function in the kinematic range where it has been measured by the H1 Collaboration and made comparisons with the computation by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt at the second order with input data from the MRST QCD fit.

Boroun, G. R.

2010-03-01

448

Further development of a pore site in longitudinal view.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Further development of a pore site in longitudinal view. Callose nearly fused at middle lamella, plasmalemma and ER cisternae cover the callose, plasmodesma extends from ER to ER through future pore. (Echium angustifolium petiole)

Esau, Katherine

2004-03-09

449

2. LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE CONCRETE ARCH (ONEWAY BRIDGE), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE CONCRETE ARCH (ONE-WAY BRIDGE), LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Concrete Arch Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

450

Psychologic Correlates of Serum Cholesterol in Man: A Longitudinal Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty Navy Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) trainees were repeatedly tested during their first two months of training to obtain longitudinal information concerning the correlations of subjects' mood and feeling states of motivation, arousal, happiness, d...

R. H. Rahe, R. T. Rubin, E. K. E. Gunderson, R. J. Arthur

1971-01-01

451

Parent–Child Relationships and ADHD Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence both from psychological research and clinical intervention studies suggests that there are bidirectional influences\\u000a between overt child behavior problems and parent–child relations. Very little research however, has considered the pattern\\u000a of relations that exists between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the parent–child relationship within\\u000a a longitudinal context. Using a longitudinal community sample from the United Kingdom which included

Kate J. Lifford; Gordon T. Harold; Anita Thapar

2008-01-01

452

Definition and application of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of longitudinal stability derivatives for elastic airplanes is defined from fundamental principles allowing perturbations in forward speed. Application of these derivatives to longitudinal stability analysis by use of approximate expressions for static stability and control parameters as well as the dynamic equations of motion is illustrated. One commonly used alternative formulation for elastic airplanes is shown to yield significant inaccuracies because of inappropriate interpretation of inertial effects.

Kemp, W. B., Jr.

1972-01-01

453

Differential Aging of the Human Striatum: Longitudinal Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Information about age-related changes in the striatum comes almost exclusively from cross-sectional studies. We examined age-related differences and longitudinal changes in the volume of the striatal nuclei, compared longitudinal measures of changes with their cross-sectional estimates, and addressed the question of differential aging of the basal ganglia. METHODS: We measured the volumes of the caudate nucleus (head),

Naftali Raz; Karen M. Rodrigue; Kristen M. Kennedy; Denise Head; Faith Gunning-Dixon; James D. Acker

2003-01-01

454

Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time–student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at kindergarten entry for all subgroups of students identified as LD during the elementary school

Sharon Judge; Silvana M. R. Watson

2011-01-01

455

Testbeam results for a Shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of research and development for electromagnetic calorimetry at future e+e- linear colliders, different techniques have been studied to implement longitudinal segmentation in Shashlik calorimeters. Two prototypes with 5×5 cm 2 lead\\/scintillator towers and readout by means of wavelength-shifting fibers have been built. The longitudinal segmentation of the shower is achieved by modifying the front part of the

S. Ask; A. C. Benvenuti; I. Britvich; T. Camporesi; P. Checchia; A. Feniouk; V. Hedberg; V. Lishin; M. Margoni; M. Mazzucato; V. Obraztsov; M. Paganoni; V. Poliakov; E. Simonetto; F. Terranova; E. Vlassov

2001-01-01

456

Phase Mixing of Longitudinal AKhiezer - Polovin Wave : An Analytical Treatment  

E-print Network

Phase mixing and eventual breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer Polovin mode, subjected to an arbitrary small amplitude longitudinal perturbation is studied analytically. It is found that phase mixing time scales with phase velocity linearly and inversely with the amplitude of the perturbation. It is also found that the phase mixing time has a complicated dependence on maximum fluid velocity of the electrons. This analytical dependence is further verified using numerical simulations based on Dawson Sheet Model.

Mukherjee, Arghya

2014-01-01

457

Modeling Longitudinal Data Containing Non-Normal Within Subject Errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) human research program is to advance safe human spaceflight. This involves conducting experiments, collecting data, and analyzing data. The data are longitudinal and result from a relatively few number of subjects; typically 10 – 20. A longitudinal study refers to an investigation where participant outcomes and possibly treatments are collected at multiple follow-up times. Standard statistical designs such as mean regression with random effects and mixed–effects regression are inadequate for such data because the population is typically not approximately normally distributed. Hence, more advanced data analysis methods are necessary. This research focuses on four such methods for longitudinal data analysis: the recently proposed linear quantile mixed models (lqmm) by Geraci and Bottai (2013), quantile regression, multilevel mixed–effects linear regression, and robust regression. This research also provides computational algorithms for longitudinal data that scientists can directly use for human spaceflight and other longitudinal data applications, then presents statistical evidence that verifies which method is best for specific situations. This advances the study of longitudinal data in a broad range of applications including applications in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics fields.

Feiveson, Alan; Glenn, Nancy L.

2013-01-01

458

Statistical resolution of missing longitudinal data in clinical pharmacogenomics.  

PubMed

Clinical pharmacogenomics, integrating genomic information with clinical practices to facilitate the prediction of drug response, has recently emerged as a vital area of public health. In clinical trials, phenotypic data on drug response are often longitudinal, with some patients dropping out early due to physiological or other unpredictable reasons. The genetic analysis of such missing longitudinal data presents a significant challenge in clinical pharmacogenomics. We develop a statistical algorithm for detecting haplotypes that control longitudinal responses subject to non-ignorable dropout. The model was derived by incorporating the selection model into a dynamic model - functional mapping, aimed to discover genetic variants that contribute to phenotypic variation in longitudinal traits. The selection models is a statistical approach for analyzing missing longitudinal data by assuming that dropout depends on the outcome of drug response. The model derived can jointly characterize the genetic control of longitudinal responses and dropout events. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the model and validate its practical usefulness. The model will find its implications for clinical pharmacogenomics toward personalized medicine. PMID:23523630

Wang, Zhong; Li, Hongying; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Jiahan; Wu, Rongling

2013-06-30

459

Specific features of formation and evolution of a longitudinal autosoliton in p-InSb in a longitudinal magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a longitudinal magnetic field on the formation and behavior of a longitudinal autosoliton in the excited nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma in p-InSb is studied experimentally. It is shown that, in a longitudinal magnetic field, the threshold characteristics of the formation of an autosoliton are reduced and the autosoliton takes on the diamagnetic properties that persist after removal of the magnetic field. In magnetic fields of 9.6 x 10{sup 3}-4.6 x 10{sup 4} A m{sup -1}, instabilities of the autosoliton current are excited, with a frequency in the range 2-20 kHz. In this case, the amplitude and frequency of these instabilities depend on the magnetic field. At elevated levels of excitation of the autosoliton and in increased magnetic fields, the instability of the longitudinal-autosoliton current exhibits synergetic properties.

Kamilov, I. K.; Stepurenko, A. A., E-mail: stepurenko-a@yandex.ru; Gummetov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Research Center (Russian Federation)

2010-06-15

460

Problems and Solutions in Longitudinal and Experimental Treatment Studies of Child Psychopathology and Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies questions in child psychopathology and delinquency that can best be answered by using longitudinal data and discusses the advantages and problems of longitudinal studies. The article also reviews methodological issues arising in longitudinal research on child psychopathology and proposes solutions to problems. Retrospective and prospective designs are contrasted with the accelerated longitudinal design. It is concluded that

Rolf Loeber; David P. Farrington

1994-01-01

461

Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

2011-04-14

462

Longitudinal analysis of sarcoidosis blood transcriptomic signatures and disease outcomes.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated concordance in differentially expressed genes in sarcoidosis blood and lung, implicating shared dysfunction of specific immune pathways. In the present study, we hypothesised that expression levels of candidate genes in sarcoidosis blood could predict and track with disease outcomes longitudinally. We applied Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to a cross-sectional derivation microarray dataset (n=38) to identify canonical pathways and candidate genes associated with sarcoidosis. In a separate longitudinal sarcoidosis cohort (n=103), we serially measured 48 candidate gene transcripts, and assessed their relation to disease chronicity and severity. In the cross-sectional derivation study, pathway analysis showed upregulation of genes related to interferon signalling and the role of pattern recognition receptors, and downregulation of T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling pathways in sarcoidosis. In the longitudinal cohort, factor analysis confirmed coregulation of genes marking these pathways and identified CXCL9 as an additional candidate pathway. CXCL9 and TCR factors discriminated between chronic versus nonprogressive disease, and CXCL9 predicted disease outcomes longitudinally. Interferon factor was similarly increased in both disease phenotypes. Factors associated with lung function decline included decreased TCR factor and increased CXCL9. These findings demonstrate blood transcriptomic signatures reflecting TCR signalling and CXCL9 predict sarcoidosis chronicity and correlate with disease severity longitudinally. PMID:25142485

Su, Robert; Li, Michael M; Bhakta, Nirav R; Solberg, Owen D; Darnell, Eli P B; Ramstein, Joris; Garudadri, Suresh; Ho, Melissa; Woodruff, Prescott G; Koth, Laura L

2014-10-01

463

Surgical Reconstruction of the Urinary Sphincter after Traumatic Longitudinal Disruption  

PubMed Central

The question is whether the urethral sphincter may be reconstructed after longitudinal injury similar to anal sphincter injuries. Analogue to obstetric, anal sphincter repair, an approximation repair of the sphincter may be feasible. An overlap repair is possible in anal sphincter repair, but because of the little tissue available in the urethral sphincter this is not an option. We describe three cases of urethral sphincter injury of different aetiologies. All resulted in a total longitudinal disruption of the muscular components of the urethral sphincter complex. After making the diagnosis of urethral sphincter injury, a primary approximation repair was done. Follow-up of at least two and up to three years is promising with one male patient being completely continent and the two female patients needing one safety pad per day. Longitudinal disruption of the muscular elements of the sphincteric urethra may be primarily reconstructed with good success using an approximation technique with simple interrupted sutures. PMID:25258694

Rehder, Peter; Schillfahrt, Florian; Skradski, Viktor

2014-01-01

464

Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion using WARPrz  

SciTech Connect

WARPrz is a 2.5 dimensional, cylindrically symmetric, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code. It is part of the WARP family of codes which has been developed to study heavy ion fusion driver issues. WARPrz is being used to study the longitudinal dynamics of heavy ion beams including a longitudinal instability that is driven by the impedance of the LINAC accelerating modules. This instability is of concern because it can enhance longitudinal momentum spread; chromatic abhoration in the lens system restricts the amount of momentum spread allowed in the beam in the final focusing system. The impedance of the modules is modeled by a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel in WARPrz. We discuss simulations of this instability including the effect of finite temperature and reflection of perturbations off the beam ends. We also discuss intermittency of axial confining fields (``ears`` fields) as a seed for this instability.

Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Haber, I. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-02-22

465

Young's modulus of BF wood material by longitudinal vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All engineered structures are designed and built with consideration of resisting the same fundamental forces of tension, compression, shear, bending and torsion. Structural design is a balance of these internal and external forces. So, it is interesting to calculate the Young's moduli of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood are quite important from the application point of view. The ultrasonic waves are closely related with the elastic and inelastic properties of the materials. In the present study, we measured longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocities in BF wood material by longitudinal vibration method. After measuring ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material, we calculated Young's modulus of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material. We used ultrasonic interferometer for measuring longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material made by Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India in our laboratory. Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material was collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Phadke, Sushil; Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N.

2014-09-01

466

Longitudinal Shower Profile Reconstruction from Fluorescence and Cherenkov Light  

E-print Network

Traditionally, longitudinal shower profiles are reconstructed in fluorescence light experiments by treating the Cherenkov light contribution as background. Here we will argue that, due to universality of the energy spectra of electrons and positrons, both fluorescence and Cherenkov light can be used simultaneously as signal to infer the longitudinal shower development. We present a new profile reconstruction method that is based on the analytic least-square solution for the estimation of the shower profile from the observed light signal and discuss the extrapolation of the profile with a Gaisser-Hillas function.

M. Unger; R. Engel; F. Schüssler; R. Ulrich

2007-06-11

467

Longitudinal Shift in Coupled Nanobeams and Mode Degeneracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled modes of two nanobeams brought together are shown to have pronounced frequency dependence on a spatial displacement of the resonators, while the quality factor of the coupled modes preserves the same order of magnitude as that of a single nanobeam. Both a longitudinal shift and transversal displacement of nanobeams with respect to each other are under investigation. We show that the mode degeneracy occurs at the longitudinal shift of about a half a modified lattice constant in the center of the defect region. To perform eigenmode analysis of the coupled system we used a 3D finite-difference frequency-domain method and a 48 Gb station.

Ivinskaya, A. M.; Lavrinenko, A. V.; Sukhorykov, A. A.; Ha, S.; Kivshar, Y. S.

2010-10-01

468

Longitudinal fMRI analysis: A review of methods  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations of a longitudinal nature, where participants are scanned repeatedly over time and imaging data are obtained at more than one time-point, are essential to understanding functional changes and development in healthy and pathological brains. The main objective of this paper is to provide a brief summary of common longitudinal analysis approaches, develop an overview of fMRI by introducing how such data manifest, and explore the statistical challenges that arise at the intersection of these two techniques. PMID:21691445

Skup, Martha

2010-01-01

469

Longitudinal fMRI analysis: A review of methods  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations of a longitudinal nature, where participants are scanned repeatedly over time and imaging data are obtained at more than one time-point, are essential to understanding functional changes and development in healthy and pathological brains. The main objective of this paper is to provide a brief summary of common longitudinal analysis approaches, develop an overview of fMRI by introducing how such data manifest, and explore the statistical challenges that arise at the intersection of these two techniques. PMID:22655113

Skup, Martha

2011-01-01

470

Residuals analysis of the generalized linear models for longitudinal data.  

PubMed

The generalized estimation equation (GEE) method, one of the generalized linear models for longitudinal data, has been used widely in medical research. However, the related sensitivity analysis problem has not been explored intensively. One of the possible reasons for this was due to the correlated structure within the same subject. We showed that the conventional residuals plots for model diagnosis in longitudinal data could mislead a researcher into trusting the fitted model. A non-parametric method, named the Wald-Wolfowitz run test, was proposed to check the residuals plots both quantitatively and graphically. The rationale proposedin this paper is well illustrated with two real clinical studies in Taiwan. PMID:10814977

Chang, Y C

2000-05-30

471

A Simple, Low Cost Longitudinal Phase Space Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

For proper operation of the LCLS [1] x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), and other similar machines, measurement and control of the electron bunch longitudinal phase space is critical. The LCLS accelerator includes two bunch compressor chicanes to magnify the peak current. These magnetic chicanes can generate significant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can distort the phase space distribution. We propose a diagnostic scheme by exciting a weak skew quadrupole at an energy-chirped, high dispersion point in the first LCLS bunch compressor (BC1) to reconstruct longitudinal phase space on an OTR screen after BC1, allowing a time-resolved characterization of CSR effects.

Bertsche, Kirk; Emma, Paul; /SLAC; Shevchenko, Oleg; /Novosibirsk, IYF

2009-05-15

472

Longitudinal myelitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a paediatric case.  

PubMed

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a very rare manifestation of the central nervous system in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in case of involvement of continuous segments (longitudinal myelitis). We describe a 12-year-old female with lupus correlated with transverse myelitis with a longitudinal involvement of the spinal cord (D2 to D10) at the onset of the disease. Despite the administration of an early aggressive therapy, the outcome proved to be unfavourable. After 2 years of follow-up, the child still complains of paraplegia, sphincter incontinency and ipo-paresthesias of both legs. PMID:21792641

Campana, Andrea; Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; Insalaco, Antonella; Bracaglia, Claudia; Di Capua, Matteo; Cortis, Elisabetta; Ugazio, Alberto G

2012-08-01

473

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a case report  

PubMed Central

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) has recently been recognized as a clinical entity. It is a rare condition, having a higher incidence in the Japanese population. It is characterized by hyperplasia of cartilage cells with eventual endochondral ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The radiographic signs are characteristic and consist of a linear band of ossified tissue along the posterior margin of the vertebral body. OPLL can be associated with mild to serious neurological complications due to spinal cord or nerve root compression, or it may be asymptomatic. This paper reviews the radiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this rare condition. ImagesFigures 1 and 2Figures 3 and 4

Aker, PD; O’Connor, SM; Mior, SA; Beauchemin, D

1989-01-01

474

Neural stem cells: are they the hope of a better life for patients with fetal-onset hydrocephalus?  

PubMed Central

I was honored to be awarded the Casey Holter Essay Prize in 2013 by the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida. The purpose of the prize is to encourage original thinking in a way to improve the care of individuals with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Having kept this purpose in mind, I have chosen the title: Neural stem cells, are they the hope of a better life for patients with fetal-onset hydrocephalus? The aim is to review and discuss some of the most recent and relevant findings regarding mechanisms leading to both hydrocephalus and abnormal neuro/gliogenesis. By looking at these outcome studies, it is hoped that we will recognize the potential use of neural stem cells in the treatment of hydrocephalus, and so prevent the disease or diminish/repair the associated brain damage. PMID:24685106

2014-01-01

475

Anencephaly and its Associated Malformations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Anencephaly is a serious neural tube defect in which parts of the brain and skull are not developed. But apart from this it is also associated with other malformations which are not related to neural tube in development. Aim: The present study was undertaken to find the associated congenital malformations in western region of India and establish a aetiological correlation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using 20 anencephalic fetuses. Results: Nearly 80% of fetuses had associated malformations. Spina bifida was seen in 9 fetuses and cleft palate in 8. Female fetus with cleft palate had other severe associated gastrointestinal and skeletal malformation. Conclusion: In cases of anencephaly other associated malfor–mations like spina bifida and cleft palate are commonly seen. PMID:25386414

Meshram, Pritee Madan; Hattangdi, Shanta Sunil

2014-01-01

476

Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

2014-01-01

477

Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring  

E-print Network

Tunable laser plasma accelerator based on longitudinal density tailoring A. J. Gonsalves1 , K,4 * Laser plasma accelerators1 have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

478

A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine if creative behavior could be developed in adolescents, a longitudinal (three year) evaluation of the Living Arts Program (held in the Dayton, Ohio schools) was conducted. An experimental group of 188 eighth, ninth, and tenth graders and a matched control group were compared with analysis by sex. The experimental group had the…

Skipper, Charles E.

479

Longitudinal shear in composite steel and concrete trusses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of longitudinal shear along an interface between steel and concrete of composite trusses is generally highly non-uniform, exhibiting peaks above truss nodes (unless after plastic redistribution). The investigation presented here examines experimentally the behaviour of two steel and concrete composite truss girders, using perforated shear connector to reach full shear connection. Experimental results have served to calibrate the

Josef Machacek; Martin Cudejko

2009-01-01

480

Prompting in CALL: A Longitudinal Study of Learner Uptake  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research presents a longitudinal study of learner uptake in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environment. Over the course of 3 semesters, 10 second language learners of German at a Canadian university used an online, parser-based CALL program that, for the purpose of this research, provided 2 different types of feedback of varying…

Heift, Trude

2010-01-01

481

SUPPLEMENT TO "CLUSTERING FOR MULTIVARIATE CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE LONGITUDINAL DATA"  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENT TO "CLUSTERING FOR MULTIVARIATE CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE LONGITUDINAL DATA" By Arnost Kom This is a supplement to the paper published by The Annals of Applied Statistics. It contains (A) more detailed of the Mayo Clinic PBC data; (D) more de- tailed results of the simulation study. This is a supplement

Komarek, Arnost

482

Arithmetic fact mastery in young children: A longitudinal investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with poor arithmetic fact mastery (n=45) at the end of third grade were compared to grade-level peers with good arithmetic fact mastery (n=60) in competencies related to reading and mathematics. Children were assessed longitudinally across second and third grades. When predictor variables such as IQ were held constant, the poor fact mastery and good fact mastery groups performed at

Nancy C. Jordan; Laurie B. Hanich; David Kaplan

2003-01-01

483

Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

2007-01-01

484

Longitudinal Adult Practical Problem-Solving: 1983, 1993, 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 20-year longitudinal study was conducted to examine adult performance on practical problems. Effects of independent variables of age, education, and administration time were assessed on solutions generated and quality points earned. Younger adults generated more solutions than other adults in 1983, 1993, and 2003. Both younger and middle adults…

Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

2007-01-01