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Sample records for spina bifida longitudinal

  1. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with spina bifida has an opening in the spine. A healthy spine is closed to protect the spinal cord, a ... a baby is growing inside its mother, the spine and spinal cord are developing. But sometimes part ...

  2. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having spina bifida: Take 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day. If you already have had a ... may need to take a higher dose of folic acid before getting pregnant and during the first few ...

  3. Spina bifida - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.org/baby/spina-bifida.aspx National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and ...

  4. Spina Bifida Association of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... View More… The mission of the Spina Bifida Association is to promote the prevention of Spina Bifida ... the lives of all affected. © 2015 Spina Bifida Association of America. All Rights Reserved. Contact | Privacy Policy | ...

  5. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pronounced SPAHY-nuh BIF-i-duh ) is a neural tube defect that frequently occurs in families. Spina ... meninges) alone, called a meningocele, or with some neural elements, called a meningomyelocele. Or the defect may ...

  6. Parent functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida: longitudinal implications for child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Deborah; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Jandasek, Barbara; Zukerman, Jill; Abad, Mona

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a strength-of-association model regarding possible longitudinal and bidirectional associations between parent functioning and child adjustment in families of children with spina bifida (n = 68) and families of able-bodied children (n = 68). Parent functioning was assessed across 3 domains: parenting stress, individual psychosocial adjustment, and marital satisfaction. Child adjustment was indexed by teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms, self-reported depressive symptoms, and observed adaptive behavior. Findings revealed that all 3 parent functioning variables predicted child adjustment outcomes, and that such results were particularly strong for externalizing symptoms. Associations between parent functioning and child adjustment tended to be in the direction of parent to child and were similar across both groups. These findings have implications for potential interventions targeted at helping families manage the transition into early adolescence in families of children with spina bifida as well as families of healthy children. PMID:15598166

  7. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults Videos My Story Data and Statistics Research & ... following links: Newborns and Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged ... and Teenagers Young Adults Read Nancy's personal story about her son ...

  8. Spina Bifida (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... close it. Causes Low levels of the vitamin folic acid during pregnancy are linked to spina bifida. Folic acid plays a large role in cell growth and ... as well as tissue formation. Not having enough folic acid in the diet before and during early pregnancy ...

  9. Spina Bifida Cystica

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, John

    1972-01-01

    The disappointing results of treatment in 270 consecutive unselected cases of spina bifida admitted during a 27-month period are detailed. Massive effort has led to much avoidable suffering at an exorbitant cost in manpower and money. This study confirms the validity of those adverse prognostic criteria defined in an earlier study and which form a basis for selection. These are (1) thoracolumbar lesions, (2) severe paraplegia, (3) gross enlargement of head, (4) kyphosis, and (5) other severe congenital defects, or birth injuries. It is shown again that selection is possible on the first day of life on purely objective criteria; that it is essential for the benefit of all those affected—whether they are for treatment or no treatment; and that it is in the interest of their families and the community. ImagesFIG. 2.FIG. 3.FIG. 4.FIG. 5.FIG. 6.FIG. 7. PMID:4567074

  10. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  11. Urologic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Douglass B.; Brock, John W., III; Joseph, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The urologist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team of physicians who provide care for patients with spina bifida. We review common strategies for managing the urinary tract in these patients. The primary objective in all phases of life is protecting kidney function by minimizing bladder hostility and establishing a good capacity,…

  12. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

  13. Mathematical Development in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the…

  14. Hypertension and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, also called high blood pressure , is a condition in which the arteries of the body have too much ... 60% do not. What are the causes of hypertension in Spina Bil da? It is unclear whether ...

  15. Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

  16. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Spina Bifida?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the condition—are allergic to latex, or natural rubber. While researchers still don’t entirely understand why ... html [top] Spina Bifida Association. (2008). Latex (natural rubber) allergy in spina bifida. Retrieved March 30, 2012, ...

  17. Neocortical Reorganization in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hasan, Khader M.; Breier, Joshua I.; Cirino, Paul T.; Pazo-Alvarez, Paula; Diaz, Javier D.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Normal brain development throughout childhood and adolescence is usually characterized by decreased cortical thickness in the frontal regions as well as region-specific patterns of increased white matter myelination and volume. We investigated total cerebral volumes, neocortical surface area, and neocortical thickness in 16 children with a neural tube defect, spina bifida myelomeningocele (SB), and 16 age-matched typically developing controls using a semi-automated, quantitative approach to MRI-based brain morphometry. The results revealed no significant group differences in total cerebral volume. However, group differences were observed in the global distribution of distinct tissue classes within the cerebrum: the SB group demonstrated a significant 15% reduction in total white matter and a 69% increase in cerebrospinal fluid, with no differences in total gray matter. Group comparisons of neocortical surface area assessments were significantly smaller in the occipital regions for SB, with no significant group differences in the frontal regions. Group comparisons of cortical thickness measurements demonstrated reduced cortical thickness in all regions except the frontal regions, where the SB group exhibited an increase relative to the PC group. Although regional patterns of thinning may be associated with the mechanical effects of hydrocephalus, the overall reduction in white matter and increased neocortical thickness in the frontal regions suggest that SB reflects a long term disruption of brain development that extends far beyond the neural tube defect in the first weeks of gestation. PMID:18337124

  18. The Spina Bifida Child in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Beverly; And Others

    Learning characteristics of children with spina bifida (lesions on the spinal cord) are reviewed in the text of a presentation with slides, and the effects of such factors as hospitalization experiences and the presence of hydrocephalus are considered. Characteristics related to intelligence, sensory integration, tactile responsiveness, tactile…

  19. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  20. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to…

  1. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  2. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

  3. Symposium on Spina Bifida (Denver, Colorado, November, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

    The objectives of the symposium were to define the problems of the child with spina bifida and to present practical means of management, using a multi-disciplinary team approach. Eight papers defining the problem cover the epidemiology of spina bifida, pathophysiology, musculoskeletal defects, incontinence of bladder and bowel, problems of…

  4. Spina bifida occulta: radiographic and operative correlation.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, M; Bhatnagar, V; Mitra, D K; Mishra, N K; Rohatgi, M; Upadhyaya, P

    1989-01-01

    The clinical and myelographic evaluation in 24 children with spina bifida occulta has been correlated with the operative findings. Myelograms were done using Myodil in 11 patients and Metrizamide in 13 patients. The diagnostic quality of myelograms done with Metrizamide was comparatively better. Myodil myelography failed to demonstrate diastematomyelia in one case and a dural sac in 3 cases of lipomeningomyelocele, whereas, Metrizamide failed to demonstrate a sac in one case of lipomeningomyelocele only. Worsening of the neurological status was observed in only 3 cases in whom myelography was done with Myodil. The radiographic and operative correlation has been discussed. PMID:2699314

  5. 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida

    E-print Network

    2009-11-27

    Invited Lectures, firstly from Neil Buxton (Liverpool, UK), on 'Pain Management in Spina Bifida: a Neurosurgical Perspective' and from Pro- fessor Sivert Lindström, (Linköping, Sweden) on 'The Bladder Cooling Test in Spina Bifida'. Retiring President... , and included sessions on 'Spina Bifida: Incidence, Survival and Cognitive Outcome', 'Hydrocephalus', 'Animal Studies', 'Hydrocephalus Shunts', 'Long Term Management of Spina Bifida Patients', 'Urology and Bowel Management' and 'Spina Bifida'. We also had two...

  6. Verb generation in children with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    DENNIS, MAUREEN; JEWELL, DERRYN; HETHERINGTON, ROSS; BURTON, CHRISTINE; BRANDT, MICHAEL E.; BLASER, SUSAN E.; FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated verb generation in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM; n = 55) and in typically developing controls (n = 32). Participants completed 6 blocks (40 trials each) of a task requiring them to produce a semantically related verb in response to a target noun and an additional 40 trials on which they were simply required to read target nouns aloud. After controlling for reading response time, groups did not differ significantly in verb generation response time or learning. Children with SBM produced more non-verb errors than controls and tended to repeat their mistakes over blocks. Verb generation performance was associated with brain volume measures in participants with SBM. Congenital cerebellar dysmorphology is associated with impaired performance in verb generation accuracy, although not with increased response times to produce verbs. PMID:18282316

  7. A Longitudinal Assessment of Early Pubertal Timing as a Predictor of Psychosocial Changes in Adolescent Girls With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Rachel M.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Amaro, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective?A longitudinal comparison of adolescent girls with and without spina bifida (SB), regarding the effects of early pubertal timing on girls’ depressive symptoms, mother–daughter conflict, and emotional distancing.?Methods?62 mother–daughter dyads (31 with SB and 31 without) reported on psychosocial outcomes at 5 time points (ages 8/9 to 16/17 years).?Results?A pubertal timing?×?SB status interaction predicted emotional distancing (T2), conflict (T2, T5), and depressive symptoms (T4), such that early maturing girls without SB reported the greatest increase in each outcome. Main effects of pubertal timing predicted emotional distancing (T4), conflict (T4), and depressive symptoms (T2, T3, T5). Findings were not always consistent across reporters, assessments of pubertal timing, and time-points.?Conclusions?Although early maturing girls in both groups may experience greater psychosocial difficulties, early maturing girls without SB may be most at-risk. The somewhat reduced impact of early pubertal timing in girls with SB is discussed. PMID:22271794

  8. Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with Spina Bilda have problems with motor skills, attention, memory and organization. Research linking medical aspects of ... sometimes have a hard time understanding concepts. 3. Attention Children with Spina Bilda often have trouble paying ...

  9. Reaching for Independence: Counseling Implications for Youth with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Dawn C.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida, a congenital physical disability, is indirectly associated with difficulties in scholastic achievement, social development, and self-determination. Environment can have an impact on psychosocial development and impede functioning academically, socially, and vocationally. Counselors must be aware of the societal atmosphere to identify…

  10. Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Carl L.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

  11. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with…

  12. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  13. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  14. From Wheelchair to Cane: Elective Transtibial Amputations in a Patient with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-11-01

    Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  15. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina...bifida and covered birth defects. 21...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina...Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General...program for certain children of Vietnam veterans...bifida and covered birth defects. VA...

  16. The Impact of Family, Peer, and School Contexts on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Essner, Bonnie S.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Based on social ecological theory, this study examined the joint relations among adolescents’ family, peer, and school contexts and depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida using cumulative, protective, and specific effects models. Method Sixty families of adolescents with spina bifida and 65 comparison families reported on adolescent’s positive experiences within these contexts and on depressive symptoms when youth were 14–15 and 16–17 years old. Results Adolescents with spina bifida had fewer total positive contexts and less positive experience within peer and school contexts, as compared to typically developing adolescents. Greater total number of positive contexts and higher levels of positive experiences within family and school contexts were associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both groups; peer positive experiences were related to lower depressive symptoms for typically developing adolescents only. Conclusion Adolescents with spina bifida have fewer positive contexts, which may place them at risk for higher levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:21171793

  17. The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaer, Catherine M.

    1997-01-01

    This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

  18. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  19. Upper limb cerebellar motor function in children with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Derryn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Hetherington, Ross; MacGregor, Daune; Drake, James M.; Salman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate upper limb cerebellar motor function in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and in typically developing controls. Methods Participants with SBM, who had either upper level spinal lesions (n=23) or lower level spinal lesions (n=65), and controls (n=37) completed four upper limb motor function tasks (posture, rebound, limb dysmetria, and diadochokinesis) under four different physical and cognitive challenge conditions. Functional independence was assessed by parental questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM participants were able to complete the posture task, and they were less likely than controls to obtain a perfect rebound score. Participants with SBM showed impaired performance in either time, accuracy, or both, on the limb dysmetria and diadochokinesis tasks but responded like controls to physical and cognitive challenges. Conclusions Because upper limb motor performance predicted aspects of functional independence, we conclude that upper limb impairments in children with SBM are significant and have direct implications for the level of independent functioning in children with SBM. PMID:19823846

  20. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...would otherwise be paid at Level I or II has one or more disabilities, such as blindness, uncontrolled seizures, or renal failure that result either from spina bifida, or from treatment procedures for spina bifida, the Director of the...

  1. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...would otherwise be paid at Level I or II has one or more disabilities, such as blindness, uncontrolled seizures, or renal failure that result either from spina bifida, or from treatment procedures for spina bifida, the Director of the...

  2. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother... spina bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran. (a) Monthly monetary... person who VA has determined is an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological mother...

  3. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended. PMID:26090048

  4. Natural History of Spina Bifida Cystica and Cranium Bifidum Cysticum

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, K. M.; Tew, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    The 425 cases of spina bifida cystica and cranium bifidum cysticum born in a population of 850,000 between 1956 and 1962 (with an incidence of 4·12 per 1000 births) were followed. Most did not receive the modern treatment for the condition. Follow-up in 1968 showed that 25% were stillborn, 13% died during the first week of perinatal causes, a further 47% died mostly of the complications of the condition, and 15% are still alive. Life table survival figures suggest for the liveborns a 12·8% life expectancy to the 11th birthday. The series included 18 cases of meningocele (4·2% of the total), diagnosed largely by exclusion; all are surviving and are largely free from physical and mental handicap. 26 cases of encephalocele include 8 survivors who are all retarded but not much crippled. Of the 381 myeloceles, 37 survive who though not much affected mentally are severely handicapped physically with limb paralysis and incontinence, the pattern of which was largely determined by the level of the lesion. There is a close relation between degree of hydrocephalus and severity of mental retardation. Boys surviving show better performance than girls. The incontinent, whether treated or untreated, show no more emotional disturbance than the continent. This series provides a `baseline' allowing modern and surgical treatment to be evaluated. 60% of the total (or 85% of those liveborn) should be regarded as potentially salvageable. Nearly all cases should probably have the `open' lesion closed as a surgical emergency, but thereafter no further procedure should be undertaken on those with severe hydrocephalus, established renal damage, persistent intracranial infection, or severe kyphosis, or if other severe malformations are present. PMID:4930541

  5. Urinary incontinence in spina bifida: Initial instrument validation.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Katherine C; Sideridis, Georgios; Sherlock, Rebecca; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kringle, Greta; Johnson, Kathryn; Bauer, Stuart B; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a psychometric assessment of the Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric (ISI-P) in a cohort of adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and neuropathic urinary incontinence (UI) to test its validity and reliability. The ISI-P, an 11-item instrument with domains for symptom severity and impairment, was self-administered by subjects 11-17 years old with SB and UI. Controls were 11-17 years old, with nephrolithiasis and no history of UI. Formal psychometric assessment included an evaluation of internal consistency, test re-test reliability and factor analysis. Of 78 study-eligible subjects we attempted to contact, 33 (66.7% female) with a median age of 13.1 years completed the ISI-P (42.3% response rate). 21 control patients also completed the ISI-P. Cronbach's alpha was 0.936 and 0.792 for the severity and bother factors respectively. The delta Chi-square test for the two-factor (vs. one-factor) model was significantly [?(2)(89) = 107.823, p < 0.05] in favor of the former model with descriptive fit indices being excellent (e.g., comparative fit index = 0.969). Furthermore, category information analysis showed that all categories were associated with different threshold values, namely that each category contributed unique information for the measurement of the latent trait. In conclusion, the ISI-P has desirable psychometric properties for the measurement of UI symptom severity and impairment in adolescents with SB. PMID:25841183

  6. Issues of medical management in adults with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, G V; McCann, J P

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the range of medical issues among those attending a clinic for adults with spina bifida (SB) and hydrocephalus (CASBAH). Owing to improvements in medical care in the past 3-4 decades, an increasing number of SB patients go on to prosper in adult life. Since 1990 there has been a CASBAH service in Belfast serving Northern Ireland on a regional basis. There are now 237 patients with SB remaining on the live register at CASBAH. All records were reviewed with regard to site of lesion, ambulatory ability, shunt placement and regularity of attendance. The records of 193 were also reviewed with reference to musculoskeletal problems, bladder function, bowel function, renal impairment and hypertension, skin breakdown, epilepsy and the incidence of clinically significant Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia. Of the patients on the register, 36% are wheelchair dependent, 8% have some ambulatory capacity but are largely wheelchair dependent, 22% are ambulatory with aid and 34% are independently ambulatory. Bladder function is normal in 8%, whilst 32% describe normal bowel function. Renal impairment is present in 48% of patients, and 15% are on anti-hypertensive therapy. Epilepsy is an active issue in 9%, and intraventricular shunts are in situ in 37% of patients. Scoliosis is present in 50% and 70% have joint deformities or contractures. Five patients have become symptomatic from the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex. These data reflect the considerable range of disability in adult SB patients, the challenges presented in long-term management and the need for organised follow-up. PMID:10855520

  7. [Maternal-fetal surgery for spina bifida: future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Joyeux, L; Chalouhi, G E; Ville, Y; Sapin, E

    2014-06-01

    Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is a frequent congenital abnormality (450 cases per year in France) associated with high morbidity. Immediate postnatal surgery is aimed at covering the exposed spinal cord, preventing infection, treating hydrocephalus with a ventricular shunt. MMC surgical techniques haven't achieved any major progress in the past decades. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the MMC "two-hit" hypothetic pathogenesis: a primary embryonic congenital abnormality of the nervous system due to a failure in the closure of the developing neural tube, followed by secondary damages of spinal cord and nerves caused by long-term exposure to amniotic fluid. This malformation frequently develops cranial consequences, i.e. hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation, due to leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. After 30 years of research, a randomized trial published in February 2011 proved open maternal-fetal surgery (OMFS) for MMC to be a real therapeutic option. Comparing prenatal to postnatal surgery, it confirmed better outcomes of MMC children after a follow up of 2.5 years: enhancement of lower limb motor function, decrease of the degree of hindbrain herniation associated with the Chiari II malformation and the need for shunting. At 5 years of age, MMC children operated prenatally seems to have better neurocognitive, motor and bladder-sphincter outcomes than those operated postnatally. However, risks of OMFS exist: prematurity for the fetus and a double hysterotomy at approximately 3-month interval for the mother. Nowadays, it seems crucial to inform parents of MMC patients about OMFS and to offer it in France. Future research will improve our understanding of MMC pathophysiology and evaluate long-term outcomes of OMFS. Tomorrow's prenatal surgery will be less invasive and more premature using endoscopic, robotic or percutaneous techniques. Beforehand, Achilles' heel of maternal-fetal surgery, i.e. preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor and preterm birth, must be solved. PMID:24582882

  8. The Influence of Juggling on Mental Rotation Performance in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Jennifer; Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of juggling training on mental rotation ability in children with spina bifida. Children between the ages of 8 and 12 solved a chronometric mental rotation test. Half of the children received juggling training (EG) over an 8 week time period; the other half did not receive training (CG). Afterwards, all…

  9. Health Risk Behaviors in Spina Bifida: The Need for Clinical and Policy Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Brei, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Health risk behaviors (HRBs) in adults with spina bifida such as poor diet, reduced physical activity, increased television viewing time, and substance abuse often have their genesis in early childhood. They are potentially preventable but if not addressed aggressively may continue to progress across the lifespan. Findings from a population-based…

  10. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  11. A family showing apparent X linked inheritance of both anencephaly and spina bifida.

    PubMed Central

    Jensson, O; Arnason, A; Gunnarsdottir, H; Petursdottir, I; Fossdal, R; Hreidarsson, S

    1988-01-01

    A family is reported which includes five males, two with spina bifida, two sibs with anencephaly, and one with both high and low spinal lesions. The affected subjects came from four sibships in three generations. The mode of inheritance of these neural tube defects is consistent with X linkage. PMID:3285008

  12. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  13. Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and…

  14. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

  15. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 ?g/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan. PMID:25999131

  16. The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ?30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

  17. Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele and potential compensatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hannay, H. Julia; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry; Blaser, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    After a review of Arthur Benton’s conceptual and methodological contributions to the understanding of normal and pathological development, we discuss agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC), criteria for potential neuroanatomical compensatory mechanisms in CC agenesis, and the results of an examination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the CC in 193 children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM). There were 26 CC regional patterns. Although complete agenesis did not occur, partial agenesis was observed in 102 children and within 15 CC regional patterns. Only 4.1% had a normal CC. Quantitative assessment of the area of the CC in 26 NC children and 68 children with SBM revealed that all subgroups with CC anomalies had smaller areas than did a subgroup with a normal CC. Areas were especially small in rostral/splenial agenesis and splenial agenesis but larger with rostral agenesis. Subgroups with normal/hypoplastic regions or complete hypoplasia also had CC areas that were smaller than normal but larger than the areas for the splenial agenesis groups. The relative rarity of anterior commissure enlargement (3.1%) and longitudinal bundles of Probst (0.1%) suggest that these particular fiber tract anomalies are unlikely candidates for structural compensatory mechanisms. The hippocampal commissure, enlarged in 13%, may be a more promising candidate. Overall, however, the functionality of anomalous fiber tracts and commissures in SBM is yet to be determined. PMID:19052950

  18. The use of self-modeling to improve the swimming performance of spina bifida children.

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, P W; Dove, C

    1980-01-01

    The use of edited videotape replay (which showed only "positive" behaviors) to improve the water skills of three spina bifida children, aged 5 to 10 years was examined. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used, and behavioral changes were observed to occur in close association with intervention. One child was given successive reapplications of videotaped self-modeling with continuing improvements. It appears that a useful practical technique has been developed. PMID:6988381

  19. 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida

    E-print Network

    2010-12-15

    Rothstein, Acting Head of the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine at the University of British Columbia. The scientific programme was opened on Thursday Morning by a welcome from Dr. Ross MacGillivray, Vice- Dean of Medicine, University of British... ’. This year we were pleased to have three excellent Invited Lectures, from Dr. Benjamin Warf (Boston Childrens Hospital, MA, USA), entitled ‘Endo- scopic Management of Children with Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida in East Africa’, from Professor Rima Rozen (Mc...

  20. Racial/ethnic differences in the birth prevalence of spina bifida - United States, 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 microg of folic acid daily to help prevent pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration mandated adding folic acid to all enriched cereal grain products by January 1998. During October 1998--December 1999, the birth prevalence of spina bifida in the United States decreased 22.9% compared with 1995--1996; however, by 2003--2004, no further decrease had been observed. Notably, the prevalence of NTD-affected pregnancies remained higher among Hispanic women than among women in other racial/ethnic populations. To update previously reported data and assess racial/ethnic differences, CDC analyzed birth certificate data for four periods during 1995--2005. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that from the early postfortification period, 1999--2000, to the most recent period of analysis, 2003--2005, the prevalence of spina bifida declined 6.9%, from 2.04 to 1.90 per 10,000 live births (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87--1.00). Among infants with non-Hispanic black mothers, prevalence fell 19.8%, from 2.17 to 1.74 per 10,000 live births (PR = 0.80; CI = 0.67--0.96), while prevalence among infants with non-Hispanic white and Hispanic mothers remained nearly constant. Additional public health efforts targeting women with known risk factors (e.g., obesity and certain genetic factors) likely are needed to further reduce the prevalence of spina bifida in the United States. PMID:19129744

  1. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother... for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a...

  2. How I Do It: Management of spina bifida in a hospital in The People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Nan; Lazareff, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We present our personal experience on patients with Spina Bifida. It is the result of having treated 1600 children for 12 years at Shanghai Children's Medical Center. We classify the cases on Spina Bifida Manifesta (myelomeningocele, myelocele, lypomyelomeningocele) or Spina Bifida Oculta (lipoma, dermal sinus and thickened filum terminale). For the former, we recommend surgery within 24–48 h after birth. For the latter we recommend preventive surgery months after birth. We acknowledge that the diameter of the spinal canal is a problem for large remnant lesions. In cases of myelomeningocele, we prefer to place the shunt and close the defect in the same procedure, it reduces the risks inherent to exposure to anesthesia, reduces hospital stay, and related costs. If there is a suspicious of infection, we do not place the shunt on the same procedure. The personal description of the preferred techniques for closure of the different defects is described. PMID:26236554

  3. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  4. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  5. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schiano, C.M.; Demb, H.B.; Brown, W.T.

    1995-12-04

    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  6. The Influence of Condition Parameters and Internalizing Symptoms on Social Outcomes in Youth With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Essner, Bonnie S.; Murray, Caitlin B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective?To test a model of social competence in youth with spina bifida (SB). Involvement in social activities was expected to mediate associations between SB-related condition parameters (pain, body mass index, and motor function) and social competence. Internalizing symptoms were predicted to amplify the negative impact of condition parameters on social activity involvement.?Methods?108 youth with SB, their caregivers, peers, and teachers participated in a multimethod study that included cognitive testing, questionnaires, and observational interaction tasks.?Results?Social activity involvement partially mediated the relation between pain and lower social competence. Internalizing symptoms had a significant indirect effect on social competence via decreased involvement in social activities.?Conclusions?Pain and internalizing symptoms interfere with social activity involvement, which is, in turn, important for social competence development in youth with SB. Assessing and treating these condition parameters and activity factors may be important areas of focus in clinical practice and research with these youth. PMID:24914086

  7. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  8. Altered Expression of 14-3-3? Protein in Spinal Cords of Rat Fetuses with Spina Bifida Aperta

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-na; Wei, Xiao-wei; Fan, Yang; Miao, Jia-ning; Wang, Li-li; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Di; Yuan, Zheng-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs). A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3? expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E) 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3? plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3? in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3? and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. Methodology/Principal Findings We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 14-3-3? and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3? and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3? was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3? were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7), microRNA-375 (miR-375) and microRNA-451 (miR-451), which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3? in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3? and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3? expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3? plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida. PMID:23936434

  9. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition happens when the lower part of the brain sits in the upper part of the neck. Some babies with this condition have hydrocephalus (fluid ... condition happens when the lower part of the brain sits in the upper part of the neck. Some babies with this condition have hydrocephalus (fluid ...

  10. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spine, or spinal cord. It happens if the spinal column of the fetus doesn't close completely during the first month of pregnancy. This can damage the nerves and spinal cord. Screening tests during pregnancy can check for ...

  11. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... plate of cells along the back of an embryo (called the neural plate). Early in development, the ... form the brain and spinal cord of the embryo. As development progresses, the top of the tube ...

  12. Upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. S.; Jewell, D.; Hetherington, R.; Spiegler, B. J.; MacGregor, D. L.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Gentili, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to measure upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and typically developing age peers. Method Participants were 26 young adults with SBM, with a Verbal or Performance IQ score of at least 70 on the Wechsler scales, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls. Four upper limb motor function tasks were performed under four different visual and cognitive challenge conditions. Motor independence was assessed by questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM than control participants obtained perfect posture and rebound scores. The SBM group performed less accurately and was more disrupted by cognitive challenge than controls on limb dysmetria tasks. The SBM group was slower than controls on the diadochokinesis task. Adaptive motor independence was related to one upper limb motor task, arm posture, and upper rather than lower spinal lesions were associated with less motor independence. Conclusions Young adults with SBM have significant limitations in upper limb function and are more disrupted by some challenges while performing upper limb motor tasks. Within the group of young adults with SBM, upper spinal lesions compromise motor independence more than lower spinal lesions. PMID:19672605

  13. The role of urodynamic studies in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Alatas, I.; Demirci, H.; Canaz, Huseyin; Akdemir, O.; Baydin, S.; Ozel, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital deformity that is frequently seen in infancy. Surgical treatment and clinical follow-up of patients with the diagnosis of SB are important to provide education to the patients and their relatives, to increase patient survival, to ensure that they have a more comfortable life. Neuro-urological problems are highly important for the patients in terms of both social and medical. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for SB and tethered cord syndrome at our clinic in the past year were retrospectively evaluated. The results of urodynamic studies of the patients were evaluated. The results of patients who underwent control urodynamic studies during the follow-up period were compared with the previous results, and their clinical courses were determined. Results: The most frequent urodynamic changes in patients were hyperactive detrusor activity and detrusor sphincter dyssynergy preoperatively. Conclusion: A significant improvement was observed when the results of postoperative urodynamic studies were evaluated in patients who underwent surgery for tethered cord. PMID:25972935

  14. Associations of Ethnicity and SES with IQ and Achievement in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Garnaat, Sarah L.; Myszka, Katherine A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives?We evaluated whether the phenotypic pattern of higher verbal than nonverbal IQ in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is consistent across subgroups differing in ethnicity and SES. We also explored the relation of cognitive and academic performance.?Methods?Non-Hispanic White (n = 153) and Hispanic (n = 80) children with SBM received the Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence-IV and achievement subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the family environment [socioeconomic status (SES), resources, and educational opportunities].?Results?Multivariate analysis revealed that Hispanic children with lower SES had lower verbal than nonverbal scores. Hispanic children with higher SES and non-Hispanic White children demonstrated the reverse pattern. Verbal and nonverbal IQ interacted to predict reading and math performance.?Conclusions?Lower SES is associated with lower verbal IQ in economically disadvantaged Hispanic children with SBM. Academic achievement is largely correlated with verbal IQ, but children with lower verbal IQ may partially compensate with higher nonverbal ability. PMID:20150339

  15. Spina bifida in fetus is associated with an altered pattern of DNA methylation in placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Pei, Lijun; Li, Runting; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hua; Li, Yongchao; Guo, Yu; Tan, Pingping; Han, Jingdong J; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ma, Runlin Z

    2015-10-01

    Failure in closure of neural tube leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common symptoms of human birth defects. Although epigenetic status in placenta is linked to fetal development, the mechanism behind this remains unknown. Because of the importance of DNA methylation in gene function, we set to explore whether or not DNA methylation in human placenta is also linked to fetal NTDs. Here we show for the first time that alteration of DNA methylation in placenta is closely associated with the phenotypes of fetal spina bifida (Sb). We found that patterns of DNA methylation for genes in neurological system process were differentially altered in the Sb placenta. In particular, the transcription regulatory regions of TRIM26 and GANS were kept at the hypomethylation status in Sb placenta alone. Accordingly, the protein levels of TRIM26 and GNAS were significantly elevated only in the Sb placenta but not in the Sb-affected fetuses. In cellular model of CHO cells deficient in Dihydrofolate reductase and treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, the protein levels of GNAS and TRIM26 were significantly higher than those in normal control cells. These findings suggested that epigenetic status of genes in placenta have profound impacts on the development of NTDs. PMID:26178427

  16. A model of comprehension in spina bifida meningomyelocele: meaning activation, integration, and revision.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Huber, Joelene; Johnston, Amber M; Dennis, Maureen

    2007-09-01

    Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with adequate development of word reading and single word comprehension, but deficient text and discourse comprehension. Studies of comprehension in children with SBM are reviewed in relation to a comprehension model in which meanings are either activated from the surface code or constructed through resource-intensive integration and revision processes to form representations of the text base and models of the situation described by the text. Two new studies probed the construction of situation models in SBM. Experiment 1 tested the ability to build spatial and affective situation models from single sentences in 86 children with SBM (8 to 18 years of age) and 37 control children (8 to 16 years of age). Experiment 2 tested the ability to integrate across sentences to build spatial situation models in 15 children with SBM and 15 age-matched controls. Compared to age peers, children with SBM did not construct situation models that required integration of information across sentences, even though they could construct such models from single sentences. The data bear on the distinctive SBM neurocognitive profile, and more generally, on the significance of integration processes for the constructive aspects of language comprehension. PMID:17697417

  17. The Influence of Social Adjustment on Normative and Risky Health Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Devine, Katie A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Klages, Kimberly; Potthoff, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the rates of normative and risky health behaviors and the influence of prior and current social adjustment on health risk behaviors in emerging adults with spina bifida (SB). Method These data are part of a larger longitudinal study of youth with SB; at ages 18–19, 50 emerging adults with SB and 60 typically developing (TD) youth participated. Social adjustment was measured at ages 12/13, 14/15, 16/17, and 18/19. Substance use and sexual activity were self-reported by emerging adults. Results The SB group reported similar frequencies (i.e., number of days in the previous month) of cigarette and marijuana use. Fewer individuals with SB reported initiation of both alcohol use (i.e., ever used) and sexual activity (i.e., ever had sex) compared to TD peers. The SB group also reported less frequent alcohol use and fewer sexual partners. Better social adjustment during early adolescence (ages 12/13) predicted more frequent alcohol use and a greater number of sexual partners for all youth. Social adjustment also mediated the effect of group status on health risk behaviors. Conclusions Emerging adults with SB lag behind TD peers in terms of normative initiation of alcohol use and sexual activity. However, this population participates in some risky health behaviors at similar rates compared to their TD peers (e.g., smoking). Youths’ health risk behaviors may be influenced by their level of social adjustment. A challenge for future interventions for this population will be finding methods of improving social functioning without increasing the rate of health risk behavior. PMID:24490647

  18. A Description of Spina Bifida Cases and Co-Occurring Malformations, 1976–2011

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400 ?g/day) or high intake (?400 ?g/day). SB cases (n=1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

  19. Quality of life related to urinary continence in adult spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caroline; Casey, Jessica T.; Greiman, Alyssa; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Kielb, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlations of bladder management technique, ambulatory status and urologic reconstruction on quality of life (QOL) as affected by urinary symptoms in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. Material and methods Sixty–six adult SB patients completed the RAND 36–Item Health Survey (mSF–36) and Incontinence Quality of Life (I–QOL). Demographic information, history of urinary reconstruction, and bladder management techniques were reviewed and analyzed with respect to survey scores. Results Mean age of patients was 32.3 (SD ±7.2) years and 44 patients (66.7%) were female. Forty–five patients (68.2%) were mainly ambulatory, 21 (31.8%) use a wheelchair and 10 (15.2%) had urologic reconstruction, while 56 (83.3%) did not. Twelve patients (18.2%) void, 42 (63.6%) perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), 4 (6.1%) use an indwelling catheter, 3 (4.5%) have an ileal conduit (IC) and 5 (7.6%) mainly use diapers. Mean mSF–36 General Health score was 56.5 (SD ±22.9) and mean I–QOL Sum score was 50.9 (SD ±21.7), where lower scores reflect lower QOL. mSF–36 and I–QOL scores did not significantly correlate with bladder management technique, ambulatory status or urologic reconstruction. A correlation was noted between I–QOL scales and most mSF–36 scales (all p <0.02). Conclusions In our cohort study of adult SB patients, bladder management technique and urologic reconstruction did not correlate with urinary (I–QOL) or general health (mSF–36) domains, although I–QOL and mSF–36 scores correlated closely, suggesting urinary continence is significantly related to general QOL. However, we are unable to identify a single factor that improves either urinary or general QOL. PMID:25914840

  20. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  1. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Benedum, Corey M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ?10/day), alcohol intake (average ?4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ?2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 ?g/day). PMID:23917813

  2. Genetic Association Study of Putative Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes in Folate Metabolism and Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Carla A.; Northrup, Hope; Lin, Jone-Ing; Morrison, Alanna C.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Tyerman, Gayle H.; Au, Kit Sing

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes which regulate the folate/homocysteine metabolism pathway for their contribution to spina bifida (SB) susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN The study consisted of 610 unrelated simplex SB patient families. Genotypes of 46 SNPs located in the coding sequence or promoter region of 11 genes were investigated. Associations between transmission of alleles and SB in the offspring were examined using the reconstruction-combined transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS Significant association of SNP rs5742905 in cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), rs1643649 in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), rs2853533 in thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), and rs3737965 in methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) was found (p= 0.015, 0.041, 0.021, and 0.007 respectively). CONCLUSION Transmission disequilibrium of SNP alleles in CBS, DHFR, MTHFR and TYMS confers an increased susceptibility to SB. PMID:19683694

  3. Outcomes of Clinicians, Caregivers, Family Members and Adults with Spina Bifida Regarding Receptivity to use of the iMHere mHealth Solution to Promote Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Andrea D.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Datt, Nicole; Garver, Amanda; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding the receptivity of clinicians, caregivers and family members, and adults with spina bifida (SB) to the use of a mHealth application, iMobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere) system. Surveys were administered to end user groups in conjunction with a conference presentation at the Spina Bifida Association’s 38th Annual Conference. The survey results were obtained from a total of 107 respondents. Likert scale and qualitative results are provided in consideration of future application of the iMHere system in clinical practice. The results of this survey indicate respondents were receptive and supportive with regard to adopting such a system for personal and professional use. Challenges likely to be encountered in the introduction of the iMHere system are also revealed and discussed. PMID:25945209

  4. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...

  5. Neurological level at birth predicts survival to the mid-40s and urological deaths in open spina bifida: a complete prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oakeshott, Pippa; Reid, Fiona; Poulton, Alison; Markus, Hugh; Whitaker, Robert H; Hunt, Gillian M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To conduct a 50-year complete, community-based, prospective cohort study to investigate long-term survival, causes of death, and influence of level of the lesion in treated open spina bifida. Method The cohort comprised 117 consecutive cases whose backs were closed non-selectively at birth between 1963 and 1971 in Cambridge, UK. In 2013 we surveyed the survivors (n=39, 18 males, 21 females; mean age 46y, range 43–49y) by postal questionnaire and telephone interview. We compared outcomes in those born with a neurological deficit in terms of sensory and motor levels of L1 and above versus L2 and below. Results Two-thirds of the cohort (78/117) had died. Causes of death were cardiorespiratory (n=26), neurological (n=24), urological (n=22), or other (n=6). Only the urological deaths were related to level of the lesion: there were none in those with a sensory level of L2 or below (p<0.001). Birth findings also predicted survival: of the 57 infants with a neurological level of L1 or above, only 12% (n=7) survived compared with 55% (30/55) of the remainder (p<0.001). Interpretation The increased mortality in those born with an extensive neurological deficit was mainly due to urological deaths. Neurological level, particularly the sensory level, is the best predictor of long-term outcome and should be assessed routinely at birth. What this paper adds In open spina bifida, sensory level predicts urological life expectancy. Death due to urological causes only occurred in those with a sensory level of T6–L1. Neurological level predicts outcome better than cutaneous or radiological level. Sensory level should be assessed in all infants with open spina bifida. This article is commented on by Worley on pages 594–595 of this issue. PMID:25683691

  6. Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Marks, Andrew J; Kollhoff, David M; Rao, Manoj V; Hota, Partha V; Matoka, Derek J; Edassery, Seby L; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F; Janicki, Joseph A; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2013-03-01

    Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34(+) grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies. PMID:23431178

  7. Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

  8. Inpatient and Emergency Room Visits for Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida Living in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Joshua R.; Royer, Julie A.; Turk, Margaret A.; McDermott, Suzanne; Holland, Margaret M.; Ozturk, Orgul D.; Hardin, James W.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare emergency room (ER) and inpatient hospital (IP) use rates for persons with spina bifida (SB) to peers without SB, when transition from pediatric to adult health care is likely to occur; and to analyze those ER and IP rates by age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and type of residential area. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Secondary data analysis in South Carolina. Participants We studied individuals who were between 15 and 24 years old and enrolled in the State Health Plan (SHP) or state Medicaid during the 2000–2010 study period. Methods Individuals with SB were identified using ICD-9 billing codes (741.0, 741.9) in SHP, Medicaid, and hospital uniform billing (UB) data. ER and IP encounters were identified using UB data. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) Poisson models were estimated to compare rates of ER and IP use among the SB group to the comparison group. Main Outcome Measures Total ER rate and IP rate, in addition to cause-specific rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) and other condition categories. Results We found higher rates of ER and IP use in persons with SB compared to the control group. Among individuals with SB, young adults (those 20–24 years old) had higher rates of ER use due to all ACSC (P = .023), other ACSC (P = .04), and urinary tract infections (UTI; P = .002) compared to adolescents (those 15–19 years old). Conclusions Young adulthood is associated with increased ER use overall, as well as in specific condition categories (most notably UTI) in individuals 15–24 years old with SB. This association may be indicative of changing healthcare access as people with SB move from adolescent to adult health care, and/or physiologic changes during the age range studied. PMID:25511690

  9. US Pilot Study of Lumbar to Sacral Nerve Rerouting to Restore Voiding and Bowel Function in Spina Bifida: 3-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kenneth M; Gilmer, Holly; Feber, Kevin; Girdler, Benjamin J; Nantau, William; Trock, Gary; Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report our experience with creating a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex arc with intradural lumbar to sacral motor root microanastomosis to restore bladder/bowel function in spina bifida patients. Methods. Urinary/bowel changes from baseline to three years were evaluated with questionnaires, voiding diaries, urodynamics (UDS), and renal function studies. Treatment response was defined as CIC ? once/day with stable renal function, voiding efficiency > 50%, and no worsening of motor function. Results. Of 13 subjects (9 female, median age 8 years), 3 voided small amounts at baseline, one voided 200?cc (voiding efficiency 32%), 4/13 reported normal bowels, and 2/13 were continent of stool. Postoperatively, all had transient lower extremity weakness; one developed permanent foot drop. Over three years, renal function remained stable and mean maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) increased (P = 0.0135). In the 10 that returned at 3 years, 7 were treatment responders and 9 had discontinued antimuscarinics, but most still leaked urine. Only 2/8 with baseline neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) still had NDO, all 3 with compliance <10?mL/cm H2O had normalized, 7/10 considered their bowels normal, 5/10 were continent of stool, and 8/10 would undergo the procedure again. Conclusion. Lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting can improve elimination in spina bifida patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378664. PMID:24987412

  10. Prenatal Ablation of Nicotinic Receptor alpha7 Cell Lineages Produces Lumbosacral Spina Bifida the Severity of Which is Modified by Choline and Nicotine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Scott W; Tvrdik, Petr; Capecchi, Mario R; Gahring, Lorise C

    2012-01-01

    Lumbosacral spina bifida is a common debilitating birth defect whose multiple causes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first genetic delineation of cholinergic nicotinic receptor alpha7 (Chrna7) expression and link the ablation of the Chrna7 cell lineage to this condition in the mouse. Using homologous recombination, an IRES-Cre bi-cistronic cassette was introduced into the 3? noncoding region of Chrna7 (Chrna7:Cre) for identifying cell lineages expressing this gene. This lineage first appears at embryonic day E9.0 in rhombomeres 3 and 5 of the neural tube and extends to cell subsets in most tissues by E14.5. Ablation of the Chrna7:Cre cell lineage in embryos from crosses with conditionally expressed attenuated diphtheria toxin results in precise developmental defects including omphalocele (89%) and open spina bifida (SB; 80%). We hypothesized that like humans, this defect would be modified by environmental compounds not only folic acid or choline but also nicotine. Prenatal chronic oral nicotine administration substantially worsened the defect to often include the rostral neural tube. In contrast, supplementation of the maternal diet with 2% choline decreased SB prevalence to 38% and dramatically reduced the defect severity. Folic acid supplementation only trended towards a reduced SB frequency. The omphalocele was unaffected by these interventions. These studies identify the Chrna7 cell lineage as participating in posterior neuropore closure and present a novel model of lower SB that can be substantially modified by the prenatal environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22473653

  11. The assessment of weight status in children and young people attending a spina bifida outpatient clinic: a retrospective medical record review

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Judy Anne; Yung, Emily; Lyons, Julia; Church, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Children with disabilities are two to three times more likely to become overweight or obese than typically developing children. Children with spina bifida (SB) are at particular risk, yet obesity prevalence and weight management with this population are under-researched. This retrospective chart review explored how weight is assessed and discussed in a children’s SB outpatient clinic. Method Height/weight data were extracted from records of children aged 2–18 with a diagnosis of SB attending an outpatient clinic at least once between June 2009–2011. Body mass index was calculated and classified using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-offs. Notes around weight, diet and physical/sedentary activities were transcribed verbatim and analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Results Of 180 eligible patients identified, only 63 records had sufficient data to calculate BMI; 15 patients were overweight (23.81%) and 11 obese (17.46%). Weight and physical activity discussions were typically related to function (e.g. mobility, pain). Diet discussions focused on bowel and bladder function and dietary challenges. Conclusions Anthropometrics were infrequently recorded, leaving an incomplete picture of weight status in children with SB and suggesting that weight is not prioritised. Bowel/bladder function was highlighted over other benefits of a healthy body weight, indicating that health promotion opportunities are being missed. Implications for Rehabilitation It is important to assess, categorise and record anthropometric data for children and youth with spina bifida as they may be at particular risk of excess weight. Information around weight categorisation should be discussed openly and non-judgmentally with children and their families. Health promotion opportunities may be missed by focusing solely on symptom management or function. Healthcare professionals should emphasise the broad benefits of healthy eating and physical activity, offering strategies to enable the child to incorporate healthy lifestyle behaviours appropriate to their level of ability. PMID:23510013

  12. Genetics and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... times greater) • Family history of SB • Mother with insulin- dependent diabetes • Mother with medically diagnosed obesity www.spinabildaassociation.org • ... African-Americans and more common in Hispanics than non-Hispanics.) • Mother’s use of some prescription drugs, which ...

  13. Spina Bifida Occulta

    MedlinePLUS

    ... purple spot made up of blood vessels; • a dark spot or a birth mark—these are red and don’t include blue-black marks, called “Mongolian spots”; • a skin tract (tunnel) or sinus—this can look like a deep dimple, especially if it’s too high (higher than ...

  14. Can Naturoptics fund Naturopathic Universities to Develop Interlocked Mentoring Relationships with Proposed Universities to Check Sensitivities of Individuals with Spina Bifida, to Environmentally Generated EMF Information about 'Quakes, Hurricanes, etc.?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, David M.; Ataide, Italani; McLeod, Roger D.

    2006-03-01

    Individuals harboring the herpes zoster virus following chicken pox, are susceptible to attacks of shingles. They may indicate peculiar awareness of pricking `pin and needle' sensations and co-symptoms of tinnitus and/or Meuniere's syndrome. RDM used similar symptoms in FL to predict the earthquake ninety miles north of Guantanamo bay in 1998. An astounding burial site in Florida from over six thousand years ago had a teenaged boy with severe spina bifida, with non-Asian genes, who could not have survived without very capable health support. Two youthful individuals likewise afflicted with spina bifida were unearthed from one site at Pompeii, entombed by the eruption of Vesuvius, August 24 and 25, CE 79. We know how to locate sites, active with EMF, which have tornado, hurricane and earthquake associations, and would like to foster joint research also involving Hawaiian and other volcanoes.

  15. Brain stem/brain stem occipital bone ratio and the four-line view in nuchal translucency images of fetuses with open spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Piras, Alessandra; Arras, Maurizio; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: Brain stem depth/brain stem occipital bone distance (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view, in images obtained for nuchal translucency (NT) screening in fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). Methods: Single center, retrospective study based on the assessment of NT screening images of fetuses with OSB. A ratio between the BS depth and the BSOB distance was calculated (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view observed, and the sensitivity for a BS/BSOB ratio superior/equal to 1, and for the lack of detection of the four-line view were calculated. Results: There were 17 cases of prenatal diagnosis OSB. In six cases, the suspicion on OSB was raised during NT screening, in six cases, the diagnosis was made before 20 weeks and in five cases during anomaly scan. The BS/BSOB ratio was superior/equal to 1 in all 17 cases, and three lines, were visualized in 15/17 images of the OSB cases, being the sensitivity 100% (95% CI, 81 to 100%) and 88% (95% CI, 65 to 96%). Conclusion: Assessment of BS/BSOB ratio and four-line view in NT images is feasible detecting affected by OSB with high sensitivity. The presence of associated anomalies or of an enlarged NT enhances the early detection. PMID:25123518

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Crytzer, Theresa M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Fairman, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and poor exercise tolerance are health issues concerning adults with spina bifida (SB). Our aim is to describe exercise participation and identify motivating tactics and exercise devices that increase participation. Design In a quasi-experimental randomized crossover design, the GameCycle was compared to a Saratoga Silver I arm ergometer. Personalized free or low cost text/voice message reminders to exercise were sent. Methods Nineteen young adults with SB were assigned to either the GameCycle or Saratoga exercise group. Within each group, participants were randomized to receive reminders to exercise, or no reminders, then crossed over to the opposite message group after eight weeks. Before and after a 16 week exercise program we collected anthropometric, metabolic, exercise testing and questionnaire data, and recorded participation. Results Miles traveled by the GameCycle group were significantly higher than the Saratoga exercise groups. No significant differences were found in participation between the message reminder groups. Low participation rates were seen overall. Conclusions Those using the GameCycle traveled more miles. Barriers to exercise participation may have superseded ability to motivate adults with SB to exercise even with electronic reminders. Support from therapists to combat deconditioning and develop coping skills may be needed. PMID:24620701

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Spina bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the spine forms, the bones of the spinal column do not close completely around the developing nerves ... severe, depending on where the opening in the spinal column is located and how much of the spinal ...

  18. Men's Health and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tadalall (Cialis) which regulate blood mow to the penis but still require some form of sexual stimulation ... constriction ring to an device blood into the penis.) device to to stimulate blood mow. into the ...

  19. Spina Bifida Data and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of childbearing age consume 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily to reduce the risk of having a ... enriched’, such as breads, cereals, and rice, have folic acid added to them to help reduce the risk ...

  20. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section...

  1. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section...

  2. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...bifida whose biological father or mother is or was a Vietnam veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section...

  3. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood sugars can Also called adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabet , es damage the kidneys, heart, and eyes; and predispose type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how diabetics ...

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allowed to dive. Q: How can you get health insurance and help paying for medications if you don' ... gov/hillburton These sites can help with finding health insurance: High Risk Pools for Insurance: www.healthinsuranceinfo.net ...

  5. Hydrocephalus and Shunts in the Person with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VA) shunts—VA shunts move the to a vein, usually in the neck or under the collarbone; • ... from the general information presented here, SBA advises readers to consult a qualiled medical or other professional ...

  6. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... an opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., ... medical rehabilitation. For more information, visit the Institute’s Web site at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/ . The ...

  7. What Are the Treatments for Spina Bifida and Related Conditions?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they may use braces, crutches, walkers, or wheelchairs. Urinary Tract Infections, Lack of Bladder and Bowel Control People with ... from completely emptying, a condition that can cause urinary tract infections and kidney damage. The child or parent can ...

  8. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related ... spine. Sometimes there is a hairy patch, dimple, dark spot, or swelling on the infant’s back, at ...

  9. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  10. Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

  11. Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for all years exclude data for Maryland, New Mexico, and New York, which in various years had ... 26.52 NOTE: Excludes data for Maryland, New Mexico, and New York, which did not require reporting ...

  12. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...jointly filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. The document was published with an error in the title of the document signer's signature. This document...

  13. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Judith Kidwell...CFR 172.345) to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. The Agency has determined under 21 CFR...

  14. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... in the Federal Register of June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35317). The document announced that Gruma Corporation..., Silver Spring, MD 20993, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2012-14263, appearing on... amended to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. The document was published with...

  15. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Judith Kidwell... folic acid in corn masa flour. The Agency has determined under 21 CFR 25.32(k) that this action is of...

  16. Deliberate termination of life of newborns with spina bifida, a critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objects Deliberate termination of life of newborns (involuntary euthanasia) with meningomyelocele (MMC) is practiced openly only in the Netherlands. ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ is the single most cited criterion for this termination, together with the notion that ‘there are no other proper medical means to alleviate this suffering’. In this paper, both (and other) statements are questioned, also by putting them in a broader perspective. Methods First, a historical overview of the treatment of newborns with MMC is presented, concentrating on the question of selection for treatment. Second, a thorough analysis is made of the criteria used for life termination. Third, a case of a newborn with a very severe MMC is presented as a ‘reference case’. Conclusion ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ cannot be applied to newborns with MMC. They are not ‘terminally ill’ and do have ‘prospects of a future’. In these end-of-life decisions, ‘quality of life judgments’ should not be applied. When such a newborn is not treated, modern palliative care always will suffice in eliminating possible discomfort. There is no reason whatsoever for active life-termination of these newborns. PMID:17929034

  17. Characteristics of a Spina Bifida Population Including North American Caucasian and Hispanic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Au, Kit Sing; Tran, Phong X.; Tsai, Chester C.; O’Byrne, Michelle R.; Lin, Jone-Ing; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hampson, Amy W.; Cirino, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M.; Ostermaier, Kathryn K.; Tyerman, Gayle H.; Doebel, Sabine; Northrup, Hope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meningomyelocele (MM) is a common human birth defect. MM is a disorder of neural development caused by contributions from genes and environmental factors that result in the neural tube defect and lead to a spectrum of physical and neurocognitive phenotypes. METHODS A multi-disciplinary approach has been taken to develop a comprehensive understanding of MM through collaborative efforts from investigators specializing in genetics, development, brain imaging, and neurocognitive outcome. Patients have been recruited from five different sites: Houston and the Texas-Mexico border area; Toronto, Canada; Los Angeles, California; and Lexington, Kentucky. Genetic risk factors for MM have been assessed by genotyping and association testing using the transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS A total of 509 affected child/parent trios and 309 affected child/parent duos have been enrolled to date for genetic association studies. Subsets of the patients have also been enrolled for studies assessing development, brain imaging, and neurocognitive outcomes. The study recruited two major ethnic groups with 45.9% Hispanics of Mexican descent and 36.2% North American Caucasians of European descent. The remaining patients are African American, South and Central American, Native American and Asian. Studies of this group of patients have already discovered distinct corpus callosum morphology and neurocognitive deficits that associate with MM. We have identified maternal MTHFR 667T allele as a risk factor for MM. In addition, we also found that several genes for glucose transport and metabolism are potential risk factors for MM. CONCLUSIONS The enrolled patient population provides a valuable resource for elucidating the disease characteristics and mechanisms for MM development. PMID:18937358

  18. Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

  19. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible child to determine the child's potential for achieving a vocational goal. If this evaluation establishes that it is feasible for the child to achieve a vocational goal, VA will provide the child with the... subpart that VA finds the child needs to achieve a vocational goal, including employment. (Authority: 38...

  20. Low Temperature Mitigates Cardia Bifida in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Che-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Chen; Wang, Wen-Der; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Wu, Yi-Ting; Lu, Yu-Fen; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L.

    2013-01-01

    The coordinated migration of bilateral cardiomyocytes and the formation of the cardiac cone are essential for heart tube formation. We investigated gene regulatory mechanisms involved in myocardial migration, and regulation of the timing of cardiac cone formation in zebrafish embryos. Through screening of zebrafish treated with ethylnitrosourea, we isolated a mutant with a hypomorphic allele of mil (s1pr2)/edg5, called s1pr2as10 (as10). Mutant embryos with this allele expressed less mil/edg5 mRNA and exhibited cardia bifida prior to 28 hours post-fertilization. Although the bilateral hearts of the mutants gradually fused together, the resulting formation of two atria and one tightly-packed ventricle failed to support normal blood circulation. Interestingly, cardia bifida of s1pr2as10 embryos could be rescued and normal circulation could be restored by incubating the embryos at low temperature (22.5°C). Rescue was also observed in gata5 and bon cardia bifida morphants raised at 22.5°C. The use of DNA microarrays, digital gene expression analyses, loss-of-function, as well as mRNA and protein rescue experiments, revealed that low temperature mitigates cardia bifida by regulating the expression of genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix (fibronectin 1, tenascin-c, tenascin-w). Furthermore, the addition of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased the effect of low temperature on mitigating cardia bifida in s1pr2as10 embryos. Our study reveals that temperature coordinates the development of the heart tube and somitogenesis, and that extracellular matrix genes (fibronectin 1, tenascin-c and tenascin-w) are involved. PMID:23922799

  1. The wart-like chorion of Edessa bifida (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Wolf, K W; Reid, W

    2003-10-01

    There is the suspicion that the stink bug Edessa bifida invades cotton fields in Southern parts of North America. To assist in the early detection of the bug, the morphology of deposited eggs of E. bifida is described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study revealed a surface pattern not yet seen in the Pentatomidae. The almost spherical eggs are deposited in batches and fastened both to one another and to the plant surface by secretions in all likelihood produced by the female. The egg surface is characterized by pentagons and hexagons formed by slender ridges. The lumen of these polygons shows 1 to 4 circular elevations of variable size and a flat upper face. In contrast to the ridges the elevations are relatively conspicuous. They are reminiscent of tiny warts and therefore the chorion of E. bifida is referred to as 'wart-like chorion'. Twenty-eight to 31 short aero-micropylar processes are mounted in a circumferential row at the anterior pole of the eggs. The discussion focuses on the variability of the chorion in the stink bugs. PMID:15137688

  2. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  3. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... of medication or other means to control incontinence. (ii) Level II. Provided that none of the... impairment of the upper extremities, but is able to grasp pen, feed self, and perform self care; or, has...

  4. MATERNAL PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, GENETIC VARIATION OF INFANT REDUCED FOLATE CARRIER (A80G) AND RISK OF SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. EVALUATION OF INFANT METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENOTYPE, MATERNAL VITAMIN USE, AND RISK OF HIGH VERSUS LOW LEVEL SPINA BIFIDA DEFECTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1812, 1821, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 5101, 5110, 5111, 5112) Cross Reference: 38 CFR 3.307(a)(6)(iv). ... have been exposed to an herbicide agent during such service. Exposure to an herbicide agent will be... the Department of Defense, operated in or near the Korean DMZ in an area in which herbicides are...

  7. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:25403653

  8. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...related to the spina bifida or covered birth defects. Requests for provision of...collection requirements in this section under control number...

  9. 75 FR 9276 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ...health care services and benefits for children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and certain other covered birth defects. DATES: Written comments and...to spina bifida and certain covered birth defects. Affected Public:...

  10. 75 FR 9276 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and certain other covered birth defects. DATES: Written comments...-7959e to claim payment/ ] reimbursement of expenses related to spina bifida and certain covered...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement... individual's spina bifida and/or other covered birth defect(s) which are so severe as to...

  12. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the condition—are allergic to latex, or natural rubber. Although researchers still do not entirely understand why ... html [top] Spina Bifida Association. (2008). Latex (natural rubber) allergy in spina bifida. Retrieved March 30, 2012, ...

  13. Health Issues and Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spina Bifida Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers School-Aged Adolescents & Teens Young Adults Videos My Story Data and Statistics Research & Tracking Spina Bifida Patient Registry Findings from Patient Registry Articles & Key Findings Free Materials About Us Information For... ...

  14. Relationship Between Erectores Spinae Voltage and Back-Lift Strength for Isometric, Concentric, and Eccentric Contractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, T. Edwin J.; Singh, Mohan

    1975-01-01

    This study determined the maximal mean values for concentric and eccentric back-lift strength as well as isometric, and examined and compared the relationships between the mean peak voltage of the erectores spinae muscle(s) and maximal force exerted for the three types of muscle contractions. (RC)

  15. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  16. Autophagy is involved in ethanol-induced cardia bifida during chick cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Gao, Lin-Rui; Lu, Wen-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-10-18

    Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been acknowledged to increase the incidence of congenital disorders, especially the cardiovascular system. However, the mechanism involved in ethanol-induced cardiac malformation in prenatal fetus is still unknown. We demonstrated that ethanol exposure during gastrulation in the chick embryo increased the incidence of cardia bifida. Previously, we reported that autophagy was involved in heart tube formation. In this context, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure increased ATG7 and LC3 expression. mTOR was found to be inhibited by ethanol exposure. We activated autophagy using exogenous rapamycin (RAPA) and observed that it induced cardiac bifida and increased GATA5 expression. RAPA beads implantation experiments revealed that RAPA restricted ventricular myosin heavy chain (VMHC) expression. In vitro explant cultures of anterior primitive streak demonstrated that both ethanol and RAPA treatments could reduce cell differentiation and the spontaneous beating of cardiac precursor cells. In addition, the bead experiments showed that RAPA inhibited GATA5 expression during heart tube formation. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that BMP2 expression was increased while GATA4 expression was suppressed. In the embryos exposed to excess ethanol, BMP2, GATA4 and FGF8 expression was repressed. These genes are associated with cardiomyocyte differentiation, while heart tube fusion is associated with increased Wnt3a but reduced VEGF and Slit2 expression. Furthermore, the ethanol exposure also caused the production of excess ROS, which might damage the cardiac precursor cells of developing embryos. In sum, our results revealed that disrupting autophagy and excess ROS generation are responsible for inducing abnormal cardiogenesis in ethanol-treated chick embryos. PMID:26317250

  17. Comparison of the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors and erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors, erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region, and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises. [Subjects] Twelve males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed various back extension exercises. The activities of the T7 erector spinae muscles, L3 erector spinae muscles, and the gluteus maximus were measured, and the isolation contraction ratios were calculated. [Results] The isolated contraction ratio of the T7 erector spinae muscles significantly increased during exercise 2. The isolated contraction ratio of the gluteus maximus increased by a significant degree during exercise 1 compared with the other exercises. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the back extension exercises 1 and 2 can be applied to selectively exercise the hip extensors, thoracic muscles, and muscles of the lumbar region. PMID:25729158

  18. 38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth...

  19. ACCESSIBILITY NEEDS IN RESIDENCE "The University of Toronto respects your privacy. The information on this form is collected pursuant to section 2(14) of the University of

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    of Hearing Mobility Spina Bifida Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Heart Condition Monoplegia Bowel Hemiplegia (nonprogressive) Arthritis/Rheumatic Syndrome Hemophilia Fibrosis (specify) __________ Paraplegia Blind Deaf Chronic Health Condition

  20. Visual narratives of the pediatric illness experience: children communicating with clinicians through video.

    PubMed

    Rich, Michael; Polvinen, Julie; Patashnick, Jennifer

    2005-07-01

    The pediatric illness experience is a complex subject that requires a multidimensional, flexible, and patient-centered approach. The video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA) method, with its diverse source data and multidisciplinary analytical frameworks, generates findings that can be examined from any number of perspectives simply by asking different questions. As an exploration of human experience, VIA can be applied to various medical and psychiatric conditions. It has been used to investigate the experiences of children and adolescents who live with asthma, obesity, spina bifida, and diabetes mellitus. VIA currently is being applied to a longitudinal examination of the transition to adulthood by pediatric patients with spina bifida, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and HIV. PMID:15936674

  1. Subsequent Births in Families of Children with Disabilities: Using Demographic Data to Examine Parents' Reproductive Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Meghan M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors determined family reproductive patterns after the birth of a child with (vs. without) a disability. Using Tennessee birth records, the authors examined families of children with Down syndrome (N = 1,123), spina bifida (N = 368), and population group (N = 734,189). Families of children with Down syndrome and with spina bifida were more…

  2. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  3. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...Assessment of the Development, Health, and Condition Progression in Young Children With Spina Bifida,and RFA DP 10-006 Epidemiologic...Assessment of the Development, Health, and Condition Progression in Young Children with Spina Bifida, and RFA DP 10-006...

  4. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  5. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  6. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA will provide a Vietnam veteran's child who has...

  7. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  8. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Provision of health care... Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  9. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  10. Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation on cumulative fatigue and muscle tone of the erector spinae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect. PMID:25642049

  11. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  12. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Mernick, K.

    2015-05-03

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2?. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1?.

  13. The Effects of Bag Style on Muscle Activity of the Trapezius, Erector Spinae and Latissimus Dorsi During Walking in Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Rebecca; Haskew, Rachel; Harris, Joel; Hughes, Gerwyn

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi was recorded for the last 30 s of each condition. Two-way ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to identify differences between right and left muscles and between bag conditions. Results showed that muscle activity of the left trapezius was significantly higher than the right trapezius during the 1 strap rucksack condition. For the left trapezius, the 2 strapped rucksack and the control condition had significantly lower muscle activity compared to the 1 strapped rucksack and the ipsilateral shoulder strap. For the left erector spinae muscle, there was significantly greater muscle activity when wearing the contralateral shoulder strap compared to the control. For the right erector spinae, significantly lower muscle activity was observed when wearing the 2 strapped rucksack compared to the ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap. There were no significant differences in muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi muscles between any of the bag conditions. These findings suggest that a two strapped rucksack should be used when carrying loads to reduce spinal muscle activity which may, in turn, reduce reports of back pain in female adolescents. PMID:25964808

  14. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. The following muscles were assessed: the right upper trapezius (RtUT), left upper trapezius (LtUT), right cervical erector spinae (RtCES), and left cervical erector spinae (LtCES). A cervical range of motion instrument was attached to the subjects' heads to measure the cervical angle during the experiment. [Results] The RtUT and LtUT showed the highest muscle fatigue at a cervical flexion angle of 50° and the lowest fatigue at an angle of 30°. There was no significant difference in the muscle fatigue of the RtCES and LtCES at any of the cervical flexion angles. [Conclusion] UT muscle fatigue depends on the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone. PMID:26180333

  15. Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Ken-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration, in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact, i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions.

  16. Longitudinal Functional Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We consider dependent functional data that are correlated because of a longitudinal-based design: each subject is observed at repeated times and at each time a functional observation (curve) is recorded. We propose a novel parsimonious modeling framework for repeatedly observed functional observations that allows to extract low dimensional features. The proposed methodology accounts for the longitudinal design, is designed to study the dynamic behavior of the underlying process, allows prediction of full future trajectory, and is computationally fast. Theoretical properties of this framework are studied and numerical investigations confirm excellent behavior in finite samples. The proposed method is motivated by and applied to a diffusion tensor imaging study of multiple sclerosis.

  17. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  19. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  20. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  1. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  2. Longitudinally graded optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, A.; James, A.; Hawkins, T.; Foy, P.; Dong, L.; Stolen, R.; Ballato, J.; Dragic, P.; Rice, R.

    2013-03-01

    Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are results on optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along its length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight % GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. The method employed is very straight-forward and provides for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, which could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high-energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  3. Topics in analyzing longitudinal data 

    E-print Network

    Ju, Hyunsu

    2005-02-17

    We propose methods for analyzing longitudinal data, obtained in clinical trials and other applications with repeated measures of responses taken over time. Common characteristics of longitudinal studies are correlated ...

  4. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  5. Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, Alexander George

    Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  6. ALS longitudinal kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, F.

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses the coupled-bunch instability and how it applies to the ALS accelerator. The longitudinal ALS kicker is part of the bunch-to-bunch feedback system planned to control coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. The mechanical features of the kicker are described, and the analytic tools developed to aid in the design are discussed. A method to predict the performance of the kicker in the accelerator from measurements on a prototype are described.

  7. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... and a copy of the transcription shall be provided to the claimant. After reviewing the matter,...

  8. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... and a copy of the transcription shall be provided to the claimant. After reviewing the matter,...

  9. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... and a copy of the transcription shall be provided to the claimant. After reviewing the matter,...

  10. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that... and a copy of the transcription shall be provided to the claimant. After reviewing the matter,...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry. (a) Date of program entry. VA may...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

  20. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing supplies. VA will provide the child...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing supplies. VA will provide the child...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and assistance....

  4. 38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

  5. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry. (a) Date of program entry. VA may...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and assistance....

  8. 38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing supplies. VA will provide the child...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8286 Training resources. (a)...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8286 Training resources. (a)...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry. (a) Date of program entry. VA may...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8286 Training resources. (a)...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  12. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and assistance....

  16. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida and...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida and...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida and...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea-spina bifida and...

  12. 78 FR 4411 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...several better-known childhood conditions, including Down Syndrome and Spina Bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital...g., increased parental anxiety, ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB approval for one...

  13. 77 FR 58395 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...several better-known childhood conditions, including Down syndrome and spina bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital...g., increased parental anxiety, ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB approval for one...

  14. 76 FR 52572 - Rules Governing Hearings Before the Agency of Original Jurisdiction and the Board of Veterans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ..., Monthly Allowance for Children of Vietnam Veterans Born with Spina Bifida; and 64.128, Vocational Training... hearings by the Board and hearings conducted by employees at regional offices.'' 58 FR 27934, 27934 (May...

  15. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Needs Spina Bifida In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral Palsy Steven's Story: Power Player Going to a Physical ...

  16. For What Conditions Are Assistive Devices Used?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who have spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida , osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple sclerosis, ... Z Topics Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Birth Defects Cerebral Palsy All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights Vacancy ...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0580) (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  18. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0580) (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  19. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0580) (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  20. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training...training program to an eligible child who has completed training...under this subpart, if the child is otherwise eligible...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training...through 21.298 apply to children pursuing a vocational...rehabilitation apply to children under this subpart in...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training...8022, the date an eligible child is inducted into a vocational...program will be the date the child first begins to...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation...necessary for an eligible child to pursue a vocational...in this paragraph apply to children under this subpart in...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit...VA will approve an eligible child's pursuit of a vocational...circumstances affecting the child's ability to pursue...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program...assistance that VA approves for the individual child's program under this subpart....

  7. 38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210...supplies. VA will provide the child with the supplies that the child needs to pursue training, to...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of...employment services, apply to children under this subpart in...considered as referring to the child's individualized...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations...The following regulations are applicable to children in this program in a manner...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct...in this section, apply to children under this subpart in a...program. If an eligible child fails to meet these...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement...entry. VA may not enter a child into a vocational training...Reentry. If an eligible child interrupts or ends...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Requirement for evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21...Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Requirement for evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21...Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21...chapter 35. An eligible child may not receive benefits...under this subpart. If the child is eligible for both...

  16. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of...employment services, apply to children under this subpart in a...considered as referring to the child's individualized...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit ...VA will approve an eligible child's pursuit of a vocational...circumstances affecting the child's ability to pursue...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations...following regulations are applicable to children in this program in a manner...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and...

  3. 75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...for certain veterans' children with birth defects in self-employment...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans--Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects 0 7. The authority...assistance. An eligible child may receive the...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational...months and days of an eligible child's participation in a vocational...actual months and days of the child's: (i) Pursuit of...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of...

  6. 38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21...supplies. VA will provide the child with the supplies that the child needs to pursue...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary...

  8. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance...

  10. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal...through 17.905, if a health care provider, child, or representative...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  12. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  13. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application. (a) Filing an... time after September 30, 1997. For a child claiming eligibility based on a covered birth defect,...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  15. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General... birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed at any time after November 30, 2001....

  16. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as heart defects, cleft lip and palate, or cerebral palsy, you may find yourself having to serve as ... and Children Cleft Lip and Palate Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Down Syndrome Birth Defects When Your Baby Is ...

  17. Scoliosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem that affects the muscles. Problems can include cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy , spina bifida, and polio . ... They may have another serious disorder such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, so their goals are much ...

  18. Going to an Occupational Therapist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Last? Mornings are tough for Joe. He has cerebral palsy , a condition that affects the brain's control over ... in the lines. Some kids with conditions like cerebral palsy (like Joe), muscular dystrophy , or spina bifida may ...

  19. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1355 - Adoption Data Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...condition that adversely affects the child's day-to-day motor functioning, such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, orthopedic impairments, and other physical disabilities. Emotionally Disturbed (DSM...

  20. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  1. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  2. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  3. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  4. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...affected educational performance. (b) An orthopedic impairment includes, but is not limited to, spina bifida, cerebral palsy, loss of or deformed limbs, contractures caused by burns, arthritis, or muscular...

  5. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the following: (i) Down syndrome and other Trisomies; (ii) Fragile X syndrome; (iii) Klinefelter's... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  6. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the following: (i) Down syndrome and other Trisomies; (ii) Fragile X syndrome; (iii) Klinefelter's... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  7. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the following: (i) Down syndrome and other Trisomies; (ii) Fragile X syndrome; (iii) Klinefelter's... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  8. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the following: (i) Down syndrome and other Trisomies; (ii) Fragile X syndrome; (iii) Klinefelter's... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  9. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the following: (i) Down syndrome and other Trisomies; (ii) Fragile X syndrome; (iii) Klinefelter's... atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland...

  10. Dear Jamie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Sandra

    1974-01-01

    The letter from an adult woman handicapped by spina bifida myelomeningocele is addressed to an adolescent similarly handicapped and focuses on problems of emotional adjustment and coping with bladder incontinence. (DB)

  11. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... DP 10-006 Epidemiologic Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Initial Review In accordance with... Condition Progression in Young Children with Spina Bifida, and RFA DP 10-006 Epidemiologic Study...

  12. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida....

  13. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida....

  14. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida....

  15. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida....

  16. Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003.

  17. Preparing for Multiple Births

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tube defects (such as spina bifida ). Another dietary requirement that needs to be increased if you're expecting more than one baby is protein. Getting enough protein can help your babies grow ...

  18. Eating right during pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supply. It also prevents anemia in the mother. Folic acid, for reducing the risk of spina bifida (incomplete ... baby's growth. Whole-grain and fortified products have folic acid and iron. Vegetables: Vegetables are a good source ...

  19. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    Prevention of birth defects with folic acid (folate) ... There is good evidence that taking folic acid before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of certain birth defects ( spina bifida , anencephaly , and some heart defects). Experts recommend taking ...

  20. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are born with spina bifida will have normal intelligence, but some will have learning or intellectual disabilities . ... effects, some children with this condition have normal intelligence. 6 Iniencephaly Iniencephaly(pronounced in-ee-ehn-SEF- ...

  1. Rhodophiala bifida (Cultivated) 2 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    , lose their nitrogen. The loss of nitrogen may have the value of $3.00 per acre. Therefore, the loss of plant food involved in wasting the by? products of the farm may be considerable, and should be avoided as much as possible. Winter rains may w... is the cheapest form in which phosphoric acid may be purchased. If used in connection with manure or organic matter, its use may be profitable on staple farm crops. It cannot be recom? mended for truck crops. Bones, like phosphate rock, contain phosphate...

  2. Longitudinal Stern-Gerlach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higinbotham, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach split a beam of silver atoms using a transverse gradient field. This experiment, which lead to the understanding that electrons have intrinsic spin, oddly enough does not work for free electrons due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and Heisenberg uncertainly principle. Recent calculations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 4517 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 4508, have shown that a dismissed idea of L. Brillouin from 1928 to use a longitudinal gradient field to minimize the effect of the Lorentz force may in fact be possible. The history of the Stern-Gerlach device will be presented along with the revived ideas for separating a beam of free electrons into its two spin states.

  3. The National Longitudinal Surveys Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Human Resource Research.

    This volume discussed the research methodology used in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Ecperience (NLS). The survey studied employment market conditions for four groups in the labor force: men, aged 45-59; women, aged 30-44; young men, aged 14-24; and young women, aged 14-24. Data were collected on 20,000 individuals over a five…

  4. Comparison of Attenuation of Striated Muscle between Postmortem and Antemortem Computed Tomography: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, Hidemi; Gonoi, Wataru; Ishida, Masanori; Shirota, Go; Shintani, Yukako; Abe, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the postmortem changes of striated muscle by comparing computed tomography (CT) images obtained postmortem and antemortem in the same patients. Materials and Methods We studied 33 consecutive patients who underwent antemortem CT, postmortem CT, and pathological autopsy in our tertiary care hospital between April 2009 and December 2010. Postmortem CT was performed within 20 h after death and was followed by pathological autopsy. Pathological autopsy confirmed the absence of muscular diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, myositis, and myasthenia, in all of the patients. The CT attenuation values of four cardiac muscle sites (anterior wall of the left ventricle, left ventricular free wall, posterior wall of the left ventricle, and the ventricular septum) and two skeletal muscle sites (the pectoralis major muscle and the erector spinae muscle) were compared between antemortem and postmortem CT using paired t test. Results Striated muscle had significantly greater attenuation on postmortem CT than on antemortem CT (P<0.001) in all six tissue sites. No significant association was found between postmortem change in the CT attenuation of striated muscle and gender, age, or elapsed time since death. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study to show hyperattenuation of striated muscle on postmortem CT images compared with antemortem CT images in the same patients. PMID:25365255

  5. Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Multivariate Longitudinal Data

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Peihua

    Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Multivariate Longitudinal Data Dongdong Xiang1, Peihua Qiu2 models are invalid. On the other hand, all existing nonparametric methods for analyzing longitudinal data are for univariate cases only. When longitudinal data are multivariate, nonparametric modeling becomes challenging

  6. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  7. Longitudinal spin fluctuations in nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böni, P.; Martínez, J. L.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1990-05-01

    The longitudinal and transverse spin fluctuations in Ni have been measured below Tc by means of polarized neutron scattering in the momentum range 0.06longitudinal magnetic scattering ?L(q,E), on the other hand, is quasielastic without any signature of inelastic peaks near Eq. The q and T dependencies of ?L(q,E) resemble the paramagnetic scattering above TC, i.e., the linewidth is roughly proportional to q2.5 and the integrated intensity I(q) is proportional to (q2+?2z)-1.

  8. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Liu, Yun; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  9. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J.

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  10. Longitudinal spin fluctuations in nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böni, P.; Martnez, J. L.; Tranquada, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The longitudinal, transverse, and paramagnetic spin fluctuations in Ni have been measured near TC by means of polarized neutron scattering in the momentum range 0.06longitudinal fluctuations are quasielastic, in agreement with predictions of a recent mode-mode coupling theory and renormalization-group theory. The data indicate that the longitudinal dynamical scaling function is smaller than 1 just below TC. The scaling function for the paramagnetic scattering is shown to be in agreement with the Résibois-Piette scaling function for energy scales up to kBTC. The measured field dependence of the scattering is rather weak, indicating that the internal fields H are rather large. Therefore it was impossible to observe the H-1/2 divergence of ?L(q-->0) that is predicted for the isotropic Heisenberg model in three dimensions. In contrast, we found ?L(q-->0)~(1-T/TC)-?, which also appears to be a result of the internal fields. The q dependence of ?L is Lorentzian-like. The T dependence of the correlation length indicates critical behavior. These features closely resemble the behavior of the paramagnetic fluctuations, and they are in agreement with results obtained with use of ?-expansion techniques.

  11. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  12. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  13. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  14. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marcus L. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  15. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  16. 14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... speed increase. (d) It must be possible, with a pilot control force of not more than 10 pounds, to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section 23.145... Maneuverability § 23.145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane as nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VS1,...

  17. Longitudinal mode spectra of diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Streifer, W.; Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.

    1982-02-15

    A theory is presented which explains the longitudinal mode spectra of diode lasers. The theory is based on spontaneous emission coupling into the longitudinal modes and the excellent agreement with experimental data for both gain guided and real refractive index waveguide diode lasers is obtained because of the more accurate and detailed modeling of the spontaneous emission coupling and the laser itself.

  18. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  19. Modeling Disease Progression With Longitudinal Markers

    E-print Network

    Morrell, Christopher H.

    Modeling Disease Progression With Longitudinal Markers Lurdes Y. T. INOUE, Ruth ETZIONI, Christopher MORRELL, and Peter MÜLLER In this article we propose a Bayesian natural history model for disease progression based on the joint modeling of longitudinal biomarker levels, age at clinical detection of disease

  20. Statistical image analysis of longitudinal RAVENS images

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonjoo; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Reich, Daniel S.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-01-01

    Regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space (RAVENS) are transformation images used in the study of brain morphometry. In this paper, RAVENS images are analyzed using a longitudinal variant of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and longitudinal functional principal component analysis (LFPCA) for high-dimensional images. We demonstrate that the latter overcomes the limitations of standard longitudinal VBM analyses, which does not separate registration errors from other longitudinal changes and baseline patterns. This is especially important in contexts where longitudinal changes are only a small fraction of the overall observed variability, which is typical in normal aging and many chronic diseases. Our simulation study shows that LFPCA effectively separates registration error from baseline and longitudinal signals of interest by decomposing RAVENS images measured at multiple visits into three components: a subject-specific imaging random intercept that quantifies the cross-sectional variability, a subject-specific imaging slope that quantifies the irreversible changes over multiple visits, and a subject-visit specific imaging deviation. We describe strategies to identify baseline/longitudinal variation and registration errors combined with covariates of interest. Our analysis suggests that specific regional brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression. PMID:26539071

  1. LONGITUDINAL TUNING OF THE SNS SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, Timofey V

    2012-01-01

    The SNS superconducting linac delivers about 1 GeV of energy driven by self-consistent RF cavities. Here, we present an experience of the longitudinal tune-up of the SNS linac where a new application for quick RF phase setup and cavity fault adaptation was created. The routine of superconducting linac tune-up, longitudinal beam manipulation, and radio frequency cavity phase scaling for beam state recovery is presented. The application has direct value for beam optics study and will serve as the basis for longitudinal beam-size manipulation for the laser stripping project.

  2. Longitudinal dynamics and tomography in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Stogin, J.; Sen, T.; Moore, R. S.

    2012-01-10

    Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report too on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

  3. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  4. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  5. Longitudinal forces in pinched electric currents

    E-print Network

    F. O. Minotti

    2014-02-13

    It is shown that the theory of Mbelek and Lachi\\`eze-Rey predicts longitudinal forces of gravitational origin in pinched current distributions, with magnitudes large enough to have noticeable effects.

  6. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  7. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2012-03-01

    Longitudinal surface structures ("flowstripes") are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems; the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, the Taylor and Ferrar Glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, Crane and Jorum Glaciers (ice-shelf tributary glaciers) on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  8. Entanglement from longitudinal and scalar photons

    SciTech Connect

    Franson, J. D

    2011-09-15

    The covariant quantization of the electromagnetic field in the Lorentz gauge gives rise to longitudinal and scalar photons in addition to the usual transverse photons. It is shown here that the exchange of longitudinal and scalar photons can produce entanglement between two distant atoms or harmonic oscillators. The form of the entangled states produced in this way is very different from that obtained in the Coulomb gauge, where the longitudinal and scalar photons do not exist. A generalized gauge transformation is used to show that all physically observable effects are the same in the two gauges, despite the differences in the form of the entangled states. An approach of this kind may be useful for a covariant description of the dynamics of quantum information processing.

  9. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  10. Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Lynley

    2010-01-01

    Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.…

  11. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Brad

    # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delin- eated the two major fiber connections of the human Md in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy

  12. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  13. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  14. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  15. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., no change in trim control, or exertion of more than 50 pounds control force (representative of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 25.145 Section 25.145... control. (a) It must be possible, at any point between the trim speed prescribed in § 25.103(b)(6)...

  16. Delinquency Prone Youth: Longitudinal and Preventive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, James J.; And Others

    The first two phases of the EAU Claire County Youth Study were concerned with the relationships between classroom behavior and various facets of the child's family life. Phase II took two forms: (1) a major longitudinal evaluation of the relationships among classroom aggression, social adjustment, subsequent academic achievement, and juvenile…

  17. Longitudinal light clock vs special relativity

    E-print Network

    Giovanni Zanella

    2015-11-13

    In order to respect the Principle of Relativity, the analysis of the behavior of the longitudinal light clock reveals the necessity to extend the Doppler effect also to space and time. As a consequence, the bodies in inertial motion must dilate along the direction of their movement.

  18. Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model: Longitudinal Shape Changes

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Niksch - 1 Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model: Longitudinal Shape Changes Adam Niksch, John Valasek Inviscid flow This is a good starting point for this simulation. However, if micro-air-vehicles are going to be considered, a viscous analysis will become necessary in the future #12;Niksch - 9 Aerodynamic Development

  19. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  20. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  1. Preschool Fears: Longitudinal Sequence and Cohort Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Thomas W.; James, Rebecca Smoak

    1985-01-01

    Using longitudinal data gathered between 1966 and 1981, parent-reported fears of 49 university preschool children were examined with particular attention given to age changes and sex differences. Categories of types of fears reported by Jersild and Holmes (1933) determined a substantial increase in preschool children's fears of the dark, being…

  2. Design and Implementation Issues in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Pedulla, Joseph; Reagan, Emile Mitescu; Enterline, Sarah; Cannady, Mac; Chappe, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a…

  3. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseborough, David J.; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Bradshaw, William H.

    2012-01-01

    This effectiveness study examined the course of treatment longitudinally and outcomes associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy for a sample of 1,050 people undertaking this treatment in a community setting, over the course of 4 years, at 3-month intervals, using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ)-45.2. The authors used multilevel modeling to look…

  4. Longitudinal Study in Curriculum Engineering--VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, George A.; Conran, Patricia C.

    This study was a sixth account of a longitudinal investigation of the effects of the operation of a curriculum engineering system in a school district. Specific objectives were to observe the effects of leadership, climate, and curriculum engineering on teacher attitudes and teacher performance in a curriculum system and on student achievement. A…

  5. NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

  6. Joint Models for Longitudinal and Survival Data & Dynamic Predictions

    E-print Network

    Davis, Jesse

    Joint Models for Longitudinal and Survival Data & Dynamic Predictions Dimitris Rizopoulos increasing interest in joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data (Tsiatis & Davidian, Stat has focused on: several extensions of the standard joint model, new estimation approaches

  7. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  8. EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

  9. LINEAR MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...

  10. 14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 27.173... longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal control must be designed so that a rearward movement of the... the maneuvers specified in § 27.175(a) through (d), the slope of the control position versus...

  11. 14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 29.173... Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal control must be designed so that a rearward movement... constant during the maneuvers specified in § 29.175(a) through (d), the slope of the control...

  12. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  13. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an effective... shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without...

  14. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  15. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet...

  16. Roughing It Smoothly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Donna

    1988-01-01

    A mother of a 17-year-old son with spina bifida recounts the family's experiences camping in the Adirondack Mountains. Her son has enjoyed swimming, modified waterskiing, riding to the top of a mountain during the summer on a ski chair lift, and blueberry picking from a toboggan rather than his wheelchair. (VW)

  17. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the...

  19. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  20. 38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance...that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom...finds the child no longer has a covered birth defect. The effective date of...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance...that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom...finds the child no longer has a covered birth defect. The effective date of...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance...that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom...finds the child no longer has a covered birth defect. The effective date of...

  3. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900 Definitions. ...this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual ...815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect means the same as defined...

  4. A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake's Pouch Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Ibba, Rosa Maria; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The intracranial translucency (IT) is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB). In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake's pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening. PMID:24523974

  5. A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake's Pouch Cyst.

    PubMed

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Ibba, Rosa Maria; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The intracranial translucency (IT) is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB). In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake's pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening. PMID:24523974

  6. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and ?-(para-nonylphenyl)-?-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  7. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578) [68 FR 1010, Jan. 8, 2003, as...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application...claiming eligibility based on a covered birth defect, an application under this subpart...collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0579) (Authority:...

  9. 38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment...title. (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after December...Address, (C) Date of birth, and (D) Social Security...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  10. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578) [68 FR 1010, Jan. 8, 2003, as...

  11. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will...need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  12. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will...need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  13. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will...need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  14. 38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment...title. (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after December...Address, (C) Date of birth, and (D) Social Security...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  15. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578) [68 FR 1010, Jan. 8, 2003, as...

  16. 38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment...title. (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after December...Address, (C) Date of birth, and (D) Social Security...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  17. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902...cases of other covered birth defects, authorization...related to the covered birth defects.Requests...following: (1) Name of child, (2) Child's...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program...assistance that VA approves for the individual child's program under this subpart....

  19. 38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational...months and days of an eligible child's participation in a vocational...actual months and days of the child's: (i) Pursuit of...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence...leave system is to enable the child to maintain his or her status...E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for...

  1. 38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903...or after the date the child was determined eligible... (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after...or after the date the child was determined...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training...290 through 21.298 apply to children pursuing a vocational training...vocational rehabilitation apply to children under this subpart in a...

  3. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence...leave system is to enable the child to maintain his or her status...case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for...

  4. 38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016...chapter 35. An eligible child may not receive benefits concurrently...under this subpart. If the child is eligible for both...

  5. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal...17.905, if a health care provider, child, or representative...

  6. 38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903...or after the date the child was determined eligible... (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after...or after the date the child was determined...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training...training program to an eligible child who has completed training...under this subpart, if the child is otherwise eligible and...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct...in this section, apply to children under this subpart in a manner...31 program. If an eligible child fails to meet these...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services...services necessary for an eligible child to pursue a vocational training...in this paragraph apply to children under this subpart in a...

  10. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina...Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17...or certificate. Child for purposes of...purposes of covered birth defects means the...with the covered birth defect(s) according...appropriate members of a child's family or...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement...entry. VA may not enter a child into a vocational training...Reentry. If an eligible child interrupts or ends...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training...8022, the date an eligible child is inducted into a vocational...program will be the date the child first begins to receive...

  13. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Elective Termination of Pregnancies Involving Fetuses with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christy D.; Stough, Laura M.; Parrish, Linda H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 69 women at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability found most would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability regardless of type of disability (either Down syndrome or spina bifida). The decision was not related to knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to knowledge of…

  14. Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2000-01-01

    A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

  15. Ethical Problems of Screening for Neural Tube Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habgood, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Among the ethical problems in screening for severe spina bifida in a fetus are deciding who should be screened; whether the procedure, which has medical risks, is justified; and how to deal with the only known solution--abortion. Journal availability: see EC 114 865. (PHR)

  16. 78 FR 4411 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...-known childhood conditions, including Down Syndrome and Spina Bifida. The birth prevalence of congenital CMV infection is several times higher than the combined birth prevalence of all metabolic or endocrine..., ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB approval for one year to collect information...

  17. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation services. 21.8370 Section 21.8370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization of transportation services. (a) General. VA authorizes transportation...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  19. 38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900... individual as defined at § 3.814(c)(2) or § 3.815(c)(2) of this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual as defined at § 3.815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  1. 75 FR 3168 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Self-Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Register on April 28, 2009 (74 FR 19164), we proposed to amend VA's regulations concerning self-employment... birth defects in self-employment programs. In addition, we are amending our regulations regarding the... employability arising from the effects of the individual's spina bifida or other covered birth defects,...

  2. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  3. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  4. 38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects....

  5. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  6. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  7. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8010 Definitions and... birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3) of this title. Eligible child means, as... an individual as defined at § 3.815(c)(2) of this title who has a covered birth defect other than...

  8. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth... abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at § 3.815(c)(3... title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect described in § 3.815(a)(2)....

  9. 38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training..., administrative error, or finding that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom... covered birth defect. The effective date of termination will be the earliest of the following...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The VR&E Division will evaluate each...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be...

  14. Swimming for the Handicapped Child and Adult: Occasional Papers No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neishloss, Lou

    Outlined are physiological and psychological values of swimming for the handicapped, basic principles and teaching procedures for instructing physically handicapped persons, and specific suggestions for teaching swimming to persons with the following conditions; amputations, polio, paraplegia, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, Legg-Perthes Disease,…

  15. 38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training resources. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance,...

  16. Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

  17. Incontinent Children Discover Hope at Camp Oakhurst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raps, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes summer-camp experiences of young people who are incontinent because of spina bifida. Focuses on residential camp program as encouragement for youth to learn independent incontinence management. Describes self-catheterization program and process as minor inconvenience and positive alternative to soiled clothing and accompanying…

  18. 38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical records. 17.905 Section 17.905 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905...

  19. Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, or inborn errors of metabolism frequently have associated gastrointestinal problems. These include oral motor dysfunction leading to feeding difficulties, risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise.…

  20. 38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Provision of health care. 17.901 Section 17.901...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of...Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health care. (a) Spina bifida. VA...

  1. Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

  2. The Illinois Medical District Commission developed and distributed

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    commercialization center Develop transportation center Develop mixed-use complex Consider shared parking deck 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Develop Spina Bifida center Develop technology/service center Improve Damen Police District 12 campus Develop District services center Develop technology/services or retail

  3. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...complete VA Form 10-7959e to claim payment/ reimbursement of expenses related to spina bifida and certain covered birth defects. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to a collection of information...

  4. Folic acid fortification and cancer risk: plea for objective evaluation of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The letter from Bayston and colleagues,1 representing the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus, dismisses concerns raised by two recent studies2, 3 of a possible increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk following a high intake of folic acid. In relation to the postulated link between forti...

  5. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that can... defects result from failure of closure of the covering of the brain or spinal cord during early embryonic... defects spina bifida or anencephaly,” “birth defects of the brain or spinal cord anencephaly or...

  6. Spirituality, Loss and Recovery in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on loss, recovery and spiritual dimensions of trauma in spinal cord injury (SCI) during adolescence. From a clinical perspective, while there are physical characteristics in common with congenital childhood disabilities such as spina bifida, life adjustment issues associated with acquired disabilities can be quite different,…

  7. Factors Associated with Self-Worth in Young People with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.

    2004-01-01

    Having a positive sense of self is associated with success for children and adults, with and without disabilities. This article reports on a cross-sectional study examining the correlates of global self-worth for 85 young people (ages eight to 23) with spina bifida (a condition present at birth) or spinal cord injury (an acquired condition).…

  8. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that can... defects result from failure of closure of the covering of the brain or spinal cord during early embryonic... defects spina bifida or anencephaly,” “birth defects of the brain or spinal cord anencephaly or...

  9. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... defects—(1) Definition. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain or spinal cord that can... defects result from failure of closure of the covering of the brain or spinal cord during early embryonic... defects spina bifida or anencephaly,” “birth defects of the brain or spinal cord anencephaly or...

  10. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational training. VA may provide an additional period...

  11. 38 CFR 21.8120 - Vocational training, services, and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vocational training... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... induction into a vocational training program. 21.8280 Section 21.8280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction into a vocational training program. Subject to...

  13. Living with a Handicap. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 3, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc., Watson.

    Autobiographical sketches of four Australians living with physical handicaps are presented in this Australian early childhood resource booklet. Life experiences in school and out are reported by a blind man, a young woman who was brain damaged due to injuries in an automobile accident, a mother of a child with spina bifida, and a Doctor of…

  14. Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alice; And Others

    The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

  15. Longitudinal injection transients in an electron storagering

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; De Santis, S.

    2000-11-02

    We present the results of an experimental study of the longitudinal beam dynamics at injection in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), an electron storage ring. By measuring the longitudinal bunch distribution following injection using a streak camera, we were able to study several useful and interesting e.ects as well as improve overall injection efficiency. These include measurement and correction of the phase and energy offsets at injection, measurement of the injected bunch length and energy spread, direct observation of phase space filamentation due to the spread in synchrotron frequencies, and measurement of the effective damping rate of the bunch shape including radiation damping and decoherence. We have also made some initial studies of the decay of an uncaptured beam at injection which may provide a novel means of measuring the radiation loss per turn.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of microtubules —A longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdravkovi?, S.; Satari?, M. V.; Zekovi?, S.

    2013-05-01

    In the present letter we describe a model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules (MTs) assuming a single longitudinal degree of freedom per tubulin dimer. This is a longitudinal displacement of a dimer at a certain position with respect to the neighbouring one. A nonlinear partial differential equation, describing dimer's dynamics within MT, is solved both analytically and numerically. It is shown that such a nonlinear model can lead to the existence of kink solitons moving along the MTs. The internal electrical field strength is calculated using two procedures and a perfect agreement between the results is demonstrated. This enabled the estimation of the total energy, kink velocity and kink width. To simplify the calculation of the total energy we stated and proved a useful auxiliary theorem.

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  18. STAR results on longitudinal spin dynamics

    E-print Network

    Joanna Kiryluk; for the STAR Collaboration

    2006-08-08

    We present preliminary results on the double longitudinal spin asymmetries A_LL in inclusive jet production and the longitudinal spin transfer asymmetries D_LL in inclusive Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon production. The data amount to about 0.5 pb-1 collected at RHIC in 2003 and 2004 with beam polarizations up to 45 %. The jet A_LL asymmetries, measured over 5 < pT < 17 GeV/c, are consistent with evaluations based on deep-inelastic scattering parametrizations for the gluon polarization in the nucleon, and disfavor large positive values of gluon polarization in the nucleon. The Lambda and anti-Lambda D_LL, measured at midrapidity and at low average transverse momentum of 1.5 GeV/c, are consistent with zero within their dominant statistical uncertainties.

  19. RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  20. Longitudinal RF excitation of carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal RF excitation of CO2-lasers at relatively low radio frequencies in the 100 to 200 kHz range permits an efficient ac to RF conversion in the power supply while maintaining all the advantages of RF excited lasers. Existing tube designs for dc excitations can be easily modified, and peripheral circuitry like laser stabilizers remain useable too. Experimental results for a prototype laser are given.

  1. Renormalization of QCD under longitudinal rescaling

    E-print Network

    Jing Xiao

    2009-05-31

    The form of the quantum Yang-Mills action, under a longitudinal rescaling is determined using a Wilsonian renormalization group. The high-energy limit, is the extreme limit of such a rescaling. We compute the anomalous dimensions and discuss the validity of the high-energy limit. This thesis is an expanded version of joint work with P. Orland, which appeared in arXiv:0901.2955.

  2. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    SciTech Connect

    David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O'Neill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-11-12

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 3}He were measured at Q{sup 2} = 0.4 (GeV/c){sup 2} for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in {sup 3>}He at {bar W} = 1.60 GeV. The {bar W} = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Análisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

  4. Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-02-01

    Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.

  5. Longitudinal wakefield for an axisymmetric collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh A.; Krinsky, S.

    2012-05-25

    We consider the longitudinal point-charge wakefield, w(s), for an axisymmetric collimator having inner radius b, outer radius d, inner length g, and taper length L. The taper angle {alpha} is defined by tan {alpha} = (d-b)/L. Using the electromagnetic simulation code ECHO, we explore the dependence of the wakefield on a collimator's geometric parameters over a wide range of profiles: from small-angle tapers to step-function transitions. The point-charge wakefield is determined using an approximation introduced by Podobedov and Stupakov. We have found it useful to exhibit the wakefield as a function of the scaled variable s/d{alpha}. For small taper angles, our results illustrate the satisfaction of the longitudinal scaling found by Stupakov, Bane, and Zagorodnov; and for larger taper angles, the breaking of this longitudinal scaling is clearly depicted. The use of the scaled variable s/d{alpha} turns out to be especially well suited to describing the wakefield for a collimator with step-function profile ({alpha} = {pi}/2).

  6. Amyloid Deposition, Hypometabolism, and Longitudinal Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Susan M.; Mintun, Mark A.; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Aisen, Paul S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Jagust, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) population, we examined (1) cross-sectional relationships between amyloid deposition, hypometabolism, and cognition, and (2) associations between amyloid and hypometabolism measurements and longitudinal cognitive measurements. Methods We examined associations between mean cortical florbetapir uptake, mean 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) within a set of predefined regions, and Alzhiemer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) performance in 426 ADNI participants (126 normal, 162 early mild cognitive impairment [EMCI], 85 late MCI [LMCI], 53 Alzheimer disease [AD] patients). For a subset of these (76 normal, 81 LMCI) we determined whether florbetapir and FDG-PET were associated with retrospective decline in longitudinal ADAS-cog measurements. Results Twenty-nine percent of normal subjects, 43% of EMCI patients, 62% of LMCI patients, and 77% of AD patients were categorized as florbetapir positive. Florbetapir was negatively associated with concurrent FDG and ADAS-cog in both MCI groups. In longitudinal analyses, florbetapir-positive subjects in both normal and LMCI groups had greater ongoing ADAS-cog decline than those who were florbetapir negative. However, in normal subjects, florbetapir positivity was associated with greater ADAS-cog decline than FDG, whereas in LMCI, FDG positivity was associated with greater decline than florbetapir. Interpretation Although both hypometabolism and ?-amyloid (A?) deposition are detectable in normal subjects and all diagnostic groups, A? showed greater associations with cognitive decline in normal participants. In view of the minimal cognitive deterioration overall in this group, this suggests that amyloid deposition has an early and subclinical impact on cognition that precedes metabolic changes. At moderate and later stages of disease (LMCI/AD), hypometabolism becomes more pronounced and more closely linked to ongoing cognitive decline. PMID:23109153

  7. Cohort Profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS)

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

  8. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; ,

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

  9. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K.; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with alteration in eigenvector centrality, clustering coefficient (inter-regional) and participation co-efficient (inter-modular) alterations of frontal–striatal and fronto-limbic nodes suggesting re-organization of these pathways. Both along tract and structural topology network measurements correlated strongly with motor and visual clinical outcome scores. This study shows the value of combining along-tract analysis and structural network topology in depicting not only selective parietal occipital regional vulnerability but also reorganization of frontal–striatal and frontal–limbic pathways in preterm children with cerebral palsy. These finding also support the concept that widespread, but selective posterior–anterior neural network connectivity alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy likely contribute to the pathogenesis of neurosensory and cognitive impairment in this group. PMID:26509119

  10. Advances in Analysis of Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Hedeker, Donald; DuToit, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we explore recent developments in the area of linear and nonlinear generalized mixed-effects regression models and various alternatives, including generalized estimating equations for analysis of longitudinal data. Methods are described for continuous and normally distributed as well as categorical (binary, ordinal, nominal) and count (Poisson) variables. Extensions of the model to three and four levels of clustering, multivariate outcomes, and incorporation of design weights are also described. Linear and nonlinear models are illustrated using an example involving a study of the relationship between mood and smoking. PMID:20192796

  11. Modeling the correlation between binary longitudinal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Suraiya; Jemain, Aziz; Hasan, Husna

    2014-09-01

    Binary outcomes which are observed repeatedly over time may be dependent not only on the covariates but also on each other. The repeated outcomes represent correlated binary longitudinal data and the modeling of such data was initiated by Liang and Zeger (1986) through the use of generalized estimating equations (GEE). Specification of the association structure among the outcomes remains a challenge associated with the GEE approach. This paper compares the GEE approach that uses correlation to the alternating logistic regression (ALR) approach that uses odds ratio, to model the association among outcomes.

  12. Optical dissector for longitudinal beam profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinin, E. I.; Meshkov, O. I.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental study of beam profile dynamics at circular accelerator was carried out due to creation of the sources of synchrotron radiation and colliders, at which the beam consists of several tens or hundreds of bunches distributed over the separatrices. Dynamics of a longitudinal profile of separate bunches was studied by means of streak cameras, however, they are not applied for regular, permanent diagnostics unlike beam position monitors or CCD cameras Streak cameras are very good for study of single processes, not for routine accelerator performance. BINP SB RAS has developed the optical analyzer on the basis of LI-602 dissector which was used for studying the beam dynamics at VEPP-2, VEPP-3, VEPP-4, electron-positron colliders and other electron circular accelerators: Siberia-2, ESRF, etc The dissector provides permanent measurements of the longitudinal beam profile. Nevertheless, the ultimate temporal resolution of the device is about 20 picoseconds Now it is not enough for application at modern accelerators. In this paper we describe the first experimental results obtained with the dissector of the next generation. The measured technical resolution of this device is about 2 picoseconds, but we believe that this value can be improved.

  13. Event Time Analysis of Longitudinal Neuroimage Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncu, Mert R.; Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L.; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N.; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the statistical analysis of the associations between longitudinal neuroimaging measurements, e.g., of cortical thickness, and the timing of a clinical event of interest, e.g., disease onset. The proposed approach consists of two steps, the first of which employs a linear mixed effects (LME) model to capture temporal variation in serial imaging data. The second step utilizes the extended Cox regression model to examine the relationship between time-dependent imaging measurements and the timing of the event of interest. We demonstrate the proposed method both for the univariate analysis of image-derived biomarkers, e.g., the volume of a structure of interest, and the exploratory mass-univariate analysis of measurements contained in maps, such as cortical thickness or gray matter density. The mass-univariate method employs a recently developed spatial extension of the LME model. We applied our method to analyze structural measurements computed using FreeSurfer, a widely used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We provide a quantitative and objective empirical evaluation of the statistical performance of the proposed method on longitudinal data from subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. PMID:24736175

  14. Anonymization of Longitudinal Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Tamersoy, Acar; Loukides, Grigorios; Nergiz, Mehmet Ercan; Saygin, Yucel; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have enabled healthcare providers to collect detailed patient information from the primary care domain. At the same time, longitudinal data from EMRs are increasingly combined with biorepositories to generate personalized clinical decision support protocols. Emerging policies encourage investigators to disseminate such data in a deidentified form for reuse and collaboration, but organizations are hesitant to do so because they fear such actions will jeopardize patient privacy. In particular, there are concerns that residual demographic and clinical features could be exploited for reidentification purposes. Various approaches have been developed to anonymize clinical data, but they neglect temporal information and are, thus, insufficient for emerging biomedical research paradigms. This paper proposes a novel approach to share patient-specific longitudinal data that offers robust privacy guarantees, while preserving data utility for many biomedical investigations. Our approach aggregates temporal and diagnostic information using heuristics inspired from sequence alignment and clustering methods. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate anonymized data that permit effective biomedical analysis using several patient cohorts derived from the EMR system of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:22287248

  15. Longitudinal density monitor for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeff, A.; Andersen, M.; Boccardi, A.; Bozyigit, S.; Bravin, E.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Roncarolo, F.; Welsch, C. P.; Fisher, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    The longitudinal density monitor (LDM) is primarily intended for the measurement of the particle population in nominally empty rf buckets. These so-called satellite or ghost bunches can cause problems for machine protection as well as influencing the luminosity calibration of the LHC. The high dynamic range of the system allows measurement of ghost bunches with as little as 0.01% of the main bunch population at the same time as characterization of the main bunches. The LDM is a single-photon counting system using visible synchrotron light. The photon detector is a silicon avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode, which allows the longitudinal distribution of the LHC beams to be measured with a resolution of 90 ps. Results from the LDM are presented, including a proposed method for constructing a 3-dimensional beam density map by scanning the LDM sensor in the transverse plane. In addition, we present a scheme to improve the sensitivity of the system by using an optical switching technique.

  16. Modeling longitudinal data in acute illness.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of sepsis could allow early identification of high-risk patients, in whom aggressive interventions can be life-saving. Among those interventions are the immunomodulatory therapies, which will hopefully become increasingly available to clinicians. However, optimal use of such interventions will probably be patient specific and based on longitudinal profiles of such biomarkers. Modeling techniques that allow proper interpretation and classification of these longitudinal profiles, as they relate to patient characteristics, disease progression, and therapeutic interventions, will prove essential to the development of such individualized interventions. Once validated, these models may also prove useful in the rational design of future clinical trials and in the interpretation of their results. However, only a minority of mathematicians and statisticians are familiar with these newer techniques, which have undergone remarkable development during the past two decades. Interestingly, critical illness has the potential to become a key testing ground and field of application for these emerging modeling techniques, given the increasing availability of point-of-care testing and the need for titrated interventions in this patient population. PMID:17688677

  17. Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

  18. Modeling Sparse Generalized Longitudinal Observations With Latent Gaussian Processes

    E-print Network

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    analysis or clustering. We illustrate these nonparametric methods with longitudinal data on primary biliary cirrhosis and show in simulations that they are competitive in comparisons with Generalized Estimating

  19. Longitudinal Muscle Dysfunction in Achalasia Esophagus and Its Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Bhargava, Valmik

    2013-01-01

    Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. PMID:23667744

  20. Random-effects models for longitudinal data

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, N.M.; Ware, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but some random-effects parameters vary across individuals, with a distribution specified at the second stage. A general family of models is discussed, which includes both growth models and repeated-measures models as special cases. A unified approach to fitting these models, based on a combination of empirical Bayes and maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters and using the EM algorithm, is discussed. Two examples are taken from a current epidemiological study of the health effects of air pollution.

  1. Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.

    1997-05-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.

  2. Occupational Exposures and Longitudinal Lung Function Decline

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shu-Yi; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies have been conducted on occupational exposure and lung function. This study investigated occupational dust exposure effects on lung function and whether genetic variants influence such effects. Methods The study population (1,332 participants) was from the Framingham Heart Study, in which participant lung function measures were available from up to five examinations over nearly 17 years. Occupational dust exposures were classified into “more” and “less” likely dust exposure. We used linear mixed effects models for the analysis. Results Participants with more likely dust exposure had a mean 4.5 mL/year excess loss rate of FEV1 over time. However, occupational dust exposures alone or interactions with age or time had no significant effect on FEV1/FVC. No statistically significant effects of genetic modifications in the different subgroups were identified for FEV1 loss. Conclusions Occupational dust exposures may accelerate the rate of FEV1 loss but not FEV1/FVC loss. PMID:25384732

  3. Van Kampen modes for bunch longitudinal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability of bunch steady states are considered. For the existence uniqueness problem, simple algebraic equations are derived, showing the result both for the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. Emerging of discrete van Kampen modes show either loss of Landau damping, or instability. This method can be applied for an arbitrary impedance, RF shape and beam distribution function Available areas on intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Language of van Kampen modes is a powerful tool for studying beam stability. Its unique efficiency reveals itself in those complicated cases, when the dielectric function cannot be obtained, as it is for the longitudinal bunch motion. Emergence of a discrete mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. By definition, the discrete modes lie outside the continuous incoherent spectrum, but they still may stay within the bucket. In the last case, the discrete mode would disappear after a tiny portion of resonant particles would be added. However, if the discrete mode lie outside the bucket, the Landau damping cannot be restored by tiny perturbation of the particle distribution; LLD is called radical in that case. For a given bunch emittance and RF voltage, the intensity is limited either by reduction of the bucket acceptance or by (radical) LLD. In this paper, results are presented for longitudinal bunch stability in weak head-tail approximation and resistive wall impedance; three RF configurations are studied: single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening. It is shown that every RF configuration may be preferable, depending on the bunch emittance and intensity.

  4. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  5. The Longitudinal Variation of Equatorial Electrodynamics Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.; Valladares, C. E.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Biouele, C. M.; Yumoto, K.; Pfaff, R. F.; Heelis, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The uneven distribution of ground-based instruments due to the large ocean coverage in the equatorial regions hinders our ability to obtain a global understanding of the dynamics and structure of the equatorial ionosphere. In Africa, which has been mostly devoid of ground-based instruments, the ionospheric density structure has been traditionally estimated by model interpolation over vast geographic areas. Recent ground- and space-based observations have shown that geomagnetic storms can have dramatic longitudinal differences in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, such as enhanced generation of F-region plasma irregularities, and super fountain effect at low latitudes. For example, satellite observations have shown very unique equatorial ionospheric density structures in the African region. The African region is the longitude sector where the occurrence of large scale bubble activity (zonal width, depletion level, and spacing) peaks. No other region in the globe shows similar characteristics. One of the possible driving mechanisms that govern the equatorial electrodynamics is the vertical ExB drift, which strongly affects the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/mid-latitude region. According to the observations performed at different longitudes, using recently deployed limited ground-based instruments, the vertical ExB drift has significant longitudinal differences. This paper presents initial results of vertical ExB drifts observed at three different longitudes: East African, West African, and West American sectors. The drift is estimated using a pairs of ground-based magnetometers technique. In the African sector stations from the AMBER, INTERMAGNET, and MAGDAS, and in the American sector SAMBA and LISN magnetometer arrays have been used for this study. Finally, the comparison between the magnetometer estimated ExB drift and the vertical drift observations (VEFI and IVM) on board C/NOFS satellites have also been performed, showing promising results.

  6. Participatory Approaches to Longitudinal Research with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Dan; Tyler, Debra

    2007-01-01

    The Life-Patterns project is a panel-cohort longitudinal study following the life trajectories of 1,908 young people who left school in Victoria in 1991. The project attempts to obtain nuanced pictures of young people's lives in three ways: using a reflexive longitudinal study design, with opportunities for participant feedback and influence on…

  7. Longitudinal Predictors of Very Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Reitsma, Pieter; Rispens, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4-6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across…

  8. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  9. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 25.175, the characteristics of the elevator...

  10. 14 CFR 23.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... stability. 23.175 Section 23.175 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Stability § 23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal stability must be shown as follows: (a) Climb. The stick force curve must have a stable slope at speeds...

  11. 14 CFR 25.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... stability. 25.175 Section 25.175 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal stability must be shown as follows:...

  12. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  13. A Cautionary Note on Modeling Growth Trends in Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuljanin, Goran; Braun, Michael T.; DeShon, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Random coefficient and latent growth curve modeling are currently the dominant approaches to the analysis of longitudinal data in psychology. The application of these models to longitudinal data assumes that the data-generating mechanism behind the psychological process under investigation contains only a deterministic trend. However, if a…

  14. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  15. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  17. Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Longitudinal Data Version: Sept. 22, 2003

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jane-Ling

    Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Longitudinal Data Version: Sept. 22, 2003 Jane-Ling Wang the development of more complex and flexible ap- proaches to model longitudinal data. Nonparametric regression@wald.ucdavis.edu Abstract. Nonparametric approaches have recently emerged as a flexible way to model lon- gitudinal data

  18. Epid 766 D. Zhang EPID 766: Analysis of Longitudinal Data

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Daowen

    Epid 766 D. Zhang EPID 766: Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Epidemiologic Studies Daowen Zhang zhang@stat.ncsu.edu http://www4.stat.ncsu.edu/dzhang2 Graduate Summer Session in Epidemiology Slide 1 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Epid 766, D. Zhang Contents 1 Review and introduction to longitudinal studies 5

  19. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  20. The modified electromagnetism and the emergent longitudinal wave

    E-print Network

    Arbab I Arbab; Mudhahir Al-Ajmi

    2014-01-22

    The classical theory of electromagnetism has been revisited and the possibility of longitudinal photon wave is explored. It is shown that the emergence of longitudinal wave is a consequence of Lorenz gauge (condition) violation. Proca, Vlaenderen & Waser and Arbab theories are investigated.

  1. Causality on Longitudinal Data: Stable Specification Search in Constrained Structural

    E-print Network

    Groot, Perry

    on simulated data set and real-world data for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Keywords: Causal modeling, Structural longitudinal data set and one real-world longitudinal data set for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2 Proposed method University Nijmegen. 3 Expert Centre for Chronic Fatigue, Radboud University Medical Centre, the Netherlands

  2. Delay of left ventricular longitudinal expansion with diastolic dysfunction: impact on load dependence of e? and longitudinal strain rate

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Pu, Min; Upadhya, Bharathi; Meyers, Brett; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of diastolic dysfunction (DD) on the timing of left ventricular (LV) diastolic longitudinal and circumferential expansion and their load dependence is not known. This study evaluated the timing of the peak early diastolic LV inflow velocity (E), mitral annular velocity (e?), and longitudinal and circumferential global strain rates (SRE) in 161 patients in sinus rhythm. The intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) from the left atrium to the LV apex was obtained using color M?mode Doppler data to integrate the Euler equation. The diastolic function was graded according to the guidelines. In normals (N = 57), E, e?, longitudinal SRE, and circumferential SRE occurred nearly simultaneously during the IVPD. With DD (N = 104), e? and longitudinal SRE were delayed occurring after the IVPD (e?: 18 ± 23 msec, longitudinal SRE: 13 ± 21 msec from the IVPD), whereas circumferential SRE (?8 ± 28 msec) and E (?2 ± 13 msec) were not delayed. The normal dependence of e? and longitudinal SRE on IVPD was reduced in DD; while the relation of circumferential SRE and E to IVPD were unchanged in DD. Thus, normally, the LV expands symmetrically during early diastole and both longitudinal and circumferential expansions are related to the IVPD. With DD, early diastolic longitudinal LV expansion is delayed, occurring after the IVPD and LV filling, resulting in their relative independence from the IVPD. In contrast, with DD, circumferential SRE and mitral inflow are not delayed and their normal relation to the IVPD is unchanged. PMID:25035279

  3. 49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. 192.113 Section 192.113 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.113 Longitudinal joint factor (E ) for steel pipe. The longitudinal joint factor...

  4. 49 CFR 192.113 - Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Longitudinal joint factor (E) for steel pipe. 192.113 Section 192.113 Transportation...PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.113 Longitudinal joint factor (E ) for steel pipe. The longitudinal joint factor...

  5. Signal processing for longitudinal parameters of the Tevatron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, S.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Flora, R.; Para, A.; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We describe the system known as the Tevatron SBD [1] which is used to provide information on the longitudinal parameters of coalesced beam bunches in the Tevatron. The system has been upgraded over the past year with a new digitizer and improved software. The quantities provided for each proton and antiproton bunch include the intensity, the longitudinal bunch profile, the timing of the bunch with respect to the low-level RF, the momentum spread and the longitudinal emittance. The system is capable of 2 Hz operation and is run at 1 Hz.

  6. Longitudinal emittance growth due to nonlinear space charge effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Yu, Simon S.; Barnard, John J.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2012-03-01

    Emittance posts limits on the key requirements of final pulse length and spot size on target in heavy ion fusion drivers. In this paper, we show studies on the effect of nonlinear space charge on longitudinal emittance growth in the drift compression section. We perform simulations, using the 3D PIC code WARP, for a high current beam under conditions of bends and longitudinal compression. The linear growth rate for longitudinal emittance turns out to depend only on the peak line charge density, and is independent of pulse length, velocity tilt, and/or the pipe and beam size. This surprisingly simple result is confirmed by simulations and analytic calculations.

  7. Longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalcea, D.; Bohn, C.L.; Happek, U.; Piot, P.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches in the Fermilab/Nicadd A0 photoinjector was determined using the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons passing through a thin metallic foil. The autocorrelation of the transition radiation signal was measured with a Michelson-type interferometer. The response function of the interferometer was determined from measured and simulated power spectra for low electron bunch charge and maximum longitudinal compression. A Kramers-Kronig technique was used to determine longitudinal charge distribution. Measurements were performed for electron bunch lengths in the range from 0.3 to 2 ps (rms).

  8. Longitudinal performance of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christopher; Ling, Leo; Oxford, Trey; Nowack, Amy; Nie, Kaibao; Rubinstein, Jay T; Phillips, James O

    2015-04-01

    Loss of vestibular function may be treatable with an implantable vestibular prosthesis that stimulates semicircular canal afferents with biphasic pulse trains. Several studies have demonstrated short-term activation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with electrical stimulation. Fewer long-term studies have been restricted to small numbers of animals and stimulation designed to produce adaptive changes in the electrically elicited response. This study is the first large consecutive series of implanted rhesus macaque to be studied longitudinally using brief stimuli designed to limit adaptive changes in response, so that the efficacy of electrical activation can be studied over time, across surgeries, canals and animals. The implantation of a vestibular prosthesis in animals with intact vestibular end organs produces variable responses to electrical stimulation across canals and animals, which change in threshold for electrical activation of eye movements and in elicited slow phase velocities over time. These thresholds are consistently lower, and the slow phase velocities higher, than those obtained in human subjects. The changes do not appear to be correlated with changes in electrode impedance. The variability in response suggests that empirically derived transfer functions may be required to optimize the response of individual canals to a vestibular prosthesis, and that this function may need to be remapped over time. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25245586

  9. Longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools.

    PubMed

    Kline, Emily; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Bussell, Kristin; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-07-01

    The development of widely used interview tools has helped to standardize the criteria for a "clinical high risk" syndrome, thus enabling advances in efforts to develop interventions for this phase of illness. These assessments, however, are burdensome to administer and not likely to be adopted for widespread use. Scalable early intervention depends on the availability of brief, low-cost assessment tools that can serve to screen populations of interest or triage treatment-seekers toward specialized care. The current study examines the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive strength of three self-report measures (Prime Screen-Revised, Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, and Youth Psychosis at Risk Questionnaire-Brief) with regard to psychosis onset and symptom persistence over six months of follow-up within an indicated sample of 54 adolescents and young adults ages 12-22. Within this sample, all three measures demonstrated excellent sensitivity to emerging psychosis and strong agreement with clinician evaluations of attenuated psychosis symptoms. Additionally, all screeners obtained negative predictive values of 1.00 with regard to psychosis onset, indicating that an individual scoring below the recommended threshold score would be extremely unlikely to develop psychosis over the following six months. The longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools constitutes an important step toward establishing a standard of care for early identification and monitoring in this vulnerable population. PMID:25975827

  10. Analysis of critically refracted longitudinal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Ning Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-31

    Fabrication processes, such as, welding, forging, and rolling can induce residual stresses in metals that will impact product performance and phenomena such as cracking and corrosion. To better manage residual stress tools are needed to map their distribution. The critically refracted ultrasonic longitudinal (LCR) wave is one such approach that has been used for residual stress characterization. It has been shown to be sensitive to stress and less sensitive to the effects of the texture of the material. Although the LCR wave is increasingly widely applied, the factors that influence the formation of the LCR beam are seldom discussed. This paper reports a numerical model used to investigate the transducers' parameters that can contribute to the directionality of the LCR wave and hence enable performance optimization when used for industrial applications. An orthogonal test method is used to study the transducer parameters which influence the LCR wave beams. This method provides a design tool that can be used to study and optimize multiple parameter experiments and it can identify which parameter or parameters are of most significance. The simulation of the sound field in a 2-D 'water-steel' model is obtained using a Spatial Fourier Analysis method. The effects of incident angle, standoff, the aperture and the center frequency of the transducer were studied. Results show that the aperture of the transducer, the center frequency and the incident angle are the most important factors in controlling the directivity of the resulting LCR wave fields.

  11. Automatic parcellation of longitudinal cortical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alassaf, Manal H.; Hahn, James K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel automatic method to parcellate the cortical surfaces of the neonatal brain longitudinal atlas at different stages of development. A labeled brain atlas of newborn at 41 weeks gestational age (GA) is used to propagate labels of anatomical regions of interest to an unlabeled spatio-temporal atlas, which provides a dynamic model of brain development at each week between 28-44 GA weeks. First, labels from the cortical volume of the labeled newborn brain are propagated to an age-matched cortical surface from the spatio-temporal atlas. Then, labels are propagated across the cortical surfaces of each week of the spatio-temporal atlas by registering successive cortical surfaces using a novel approach and an energy optimization function. This procedure incorporates local and global, spatial and temporal information when assigning the labels to each surface. The result is a complete parcellation of 17 neonatal brain surfaces of the spatio-temporal atlas with similar points per labels distributions across weeks.

  12. Optimization on Emergency Longitudinal Ventilation Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Camby M. K.; Yuen, Richard K. K.; Cheung, Sherman C. P.; Tu, Jiyuan

    2010-05-01

    Emergency ventilation design in longitudinally ventilated vehicular tunnels is vital to provide safe egress route for tunnel user under fire situations. In this study, the influences of the location of active fan groups on the upstream velocity are investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The numeric model was firstly validated again the experimental data from Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program (MTFVTP). Based on the validated model, parametric studies were then preformed attempting to establish a semi-empirical correlation between the location of fan groups and the upstream velocity. In the presence of solid fire, it was found that the buoyant force by the fire source and inertial force by the fans interact with each other and resulted in a "leveling-off" characteristic when the inertial force is no longer dominating. Such interaction re-distributed the ventilation flow direction and sequentially reduces the magnitude of the upstream velocity. In other word, the industrial practice of activating furthest fan group may not be able to prevent the backlayering as a consequence of solid fires. Fans closer to the fire source are recommended to be activated for preventing the hazard of backlayering. Furthermore, through the parametric study, location of ventilation fans is found to have significant effect on the upstream velocity. Such finding suggests that other geometrical parameters could also impose adverse effects to the ventilation system. Existing empirical equation could be insufficient to cover all possible ventilation design scenarios.

  13. Analysis of critically refracted longitudinal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Fabrication processes, such as, welding, forging, and rolling can induce residual stresses in metals that will impact product performance and phenomena such as cracking and corrosion. To better manage residual stress tools are needed to map their distribution. The critically refracted ultrasonic longitudinal (LCR) wave is one such approach that has been used for residual stress characterization. It has been shown to be sensitive to stress and less sensitive to the effects of the texture of the material. Although the LCR wave is increasingly widely applied, the factors that influence the formation of the LCR beam are seldom discussed. This paper reports a numerical model used to investigate the transducers' parameters that can contribute to the directionality of the LCR wave and hence enable performance optimization when used for industrial applications. An orthogonal test method is used to study the transducer parameters which influence the LCR wave beams. This method provides a design tool that can be used to study and optimize multiple parameter experiments and it can identify which parameter or parameters are of most significance. The simulation of the sound field in a 2-D "water-steel" model is obtained using a Spatial Fourier Analysis method. The effects of incident angle, standoff, the aperture and the center frequency of the transducer were studied. Results show that the aperture of the transducer, the center frequency and the incident angle are the most important factors in controlling the directivity of the resulting LCR wave fields.

  14. Personality and Smoking Status: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munafó, Marcus R.; Black, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    We attempted to clarify the strength and nature of the association between personality and smoking status in early and middle adulthood, using a longitudinal study design. Data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, based on a stratified sample of all single, legitimate births occurring in England, Wales, and Scotland in one week of March 1946 (N=5,362), were analyzed using generalized estimating equations methods to account for the correlation between the smoking status variables for the same individual over time. The unadjusted estimates indicated that the odds of being a current smoker increased with higher personality score for both extraversion (p<.0001) and neuroticism (p<.0001) traits. Sex was significantly associated with being a current smoker (p<.0001), with males more likely than females to be current smokers. Current smoking decreased with increasing age (p<.0001). These relationships were maintained in the fully adjusted model. These data indicate that both higher levels of extraversion and higher levels of neuroticism, as measured at age 16, are independently associated with an increased likelihood of subsequently being a current smoker rather than a nonsmoker at all time points, although the observed effect sizes were small. Males also were more likely than females to be current smokers, and increasing age reduced the likelihood of being a current smoker, which is consistent with an attempt by a subset of smokers in the cohort to subsequently stop smoking. PMID:17365771

  15. Dual imputation model for incomplete longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Jolani, Shahab; Frank, Laurence E; van Buuren, Stef

    2014-05-01

    Missing values are a practical issue in the analysis of longitudinal data. Multiple imputation (MI) is a well-known likelihood-based method that has optimal properties in terms of efficiency and consistency if the imputation model is correctly specified. Doubly robust (DR) weighing-based methods protect against misspecification bias if one of the models, but not necessarily both, for the data or the mechanism leading to missing data is correct. We propose a new imputation method that captures the simplicity of MI and protection from the DR method. This method integrates MI and DR to protect against misspecification of the imputation model under a missing at random assumption. Our method avoids analytical complications of missing data particularly in multivariate settings, and is easy to implement in standard statistical packages. Moreover, the proposed method works very well with an intermittent pattern of missingness when other DR methods can not be used. Simulation experiments show that the proposed approach achieves improved performance when one of the models is correct. The method is applied to data from the fireworks disaster study, a randomized clinical trial comparing therapies in disaster-exposed children. We conclude that the new method increases the robustness of imputations. PMID:23909566

  16. Exploring longitudinal pathways from intelligence to morbidity and mortality risk 

    E-print Network

    Calvin, Catherine Mary

    2012-11-28

    Human population-based studies of longitudinal design observe that higher intelligence in youth confers protection from premature mortality in adulthood. This field of study (“cognitive epidemiology”; Deary & Batty, 2007) ...

  17. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal waves in piano strings.

    PubMed

    Etchenique, Nikki; Collin, Samantha R; Moore, Thomas R

    2015-04-01

    The existence of longitudinal waves in vibrating piano strings has been previously established, as has their importance in producing the characteristic sound of the piano. Modeling of the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of strings indicates that the amplitude of the longitudinal waves are quadratically related to the transverse displacement of the string, however, experimental verification of this relationship is lacking. In the work reported here this relationship is tested by driving the transverse motion of a piano string at only two frequencies, which simplifies the task of unambiguously identifying the constituent signals. The results indicate that the generally accepted relationship between the transverse motion and the longitudinal motion is valid. It is further shown that this dependence on transverse displacement is a good approximation when a string is excited by the impact of the hammer during normal play. PMID:25920829

  18. Longitudinal study of ASR performance on ageing voices 

    E-print Network

    Vipperla, Ravichander; Renals, Steve; Frankel, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study of ASR performance on ageing voices. Experiments were conducted on the audio recordings of the proceedings of the Supreme Court Of The United States (SCOTUS). Results ...

  19. Room 106, A laboratory with longitudinal arrangement of benches. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 106, A laboratory with longitudinal arrangement of benches. View to west. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE STRESS OF BARGES IN CANAL LOCKS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS