Sample records for spina bifida longitudinal

  1. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... same country or region, who share language or culture. Spina bifida and other NTDs are more common in Caucasians and Hispanics and less common among Ashkenazi Jews, most Asian groups and African- Americans. Folic acid. Folic acid ...

  2. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SPY-nuh BIH-fuh-duh) and uses a wheelchair to get around. What Is Spina Bifida? Someone ... around, kids might use crutches, leg braces, or wheelchairs. Andrea, our dancer, was born with an opening ...

  3. Living with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... This section of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida ...

  4. Genetics and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    Many factors may cause Spina Bifida. What is Spina Bifida? Spina Bifida happens when the spine of a baby in the womb does not close all ... babies who are born in the U.S. have Spina Bifida (SB) or a similar birth defect of the ...

  5. Spina bifida - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih. ...

  6. Spina bifida (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Spina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close ... membranes protruding out of an affected infant's back. Spina bifida may also be nearly inconsequential, or may be ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Spina bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defect. The best-studied of these genes is MTHFR , which provides instructions for making a protein that ... risk of spina bifida. Read more about the MTHFR gene. How do people inherit spina bifida? Most ...

  8. Spina Bifida and Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakes, Olive

    1984-01-01

    Two women with spina bifida, a disability in which the spinal cord and nerves are damaged, gave birth to healthy babies. The article points out the need to provide young girls having this condition with information and counseling regarding sexual relationships, parenthood, and child rearing. (CL)

  9. Osteoporosis and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    Osteoporosis People with Spina Bifida are at higher risk for getting Osteoporosis. What is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become ... If Osteopenia is untreated, it can lead to Osteoporosis. What causes Osteoporosis? The normal bone cycle is ...

  10. The Child with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Spain, Bernie

    Intended for parents as well as professionals, the text provides information and practical suggestions on dealing with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Part I (chapters 1 and 2) concentrates on the medical and physical aspects of the condition with discussions covering such areas as spina bifida's development, locomotor problems, and the role of…

  11. Spina Bifida Data and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having a pregnancy affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), such as spina bifida. [ Read article ] Subsequently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated adding folic acid to all enriched cereal grain products by ...

  12. Integrating Pupils with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliwell, Miles; Spain, Bernie

    1977-01-01

    A followup survey of parents and teachers of 155 children born with spina bifida, who were mildly handicapped and attended ordinary schools in London, indicated that there were no major problems with the children's placements. (IM)

  13. Spina bifida (degrees of severity) (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Spina bifida is a congenital disorder (birth defect) in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close ... membranes protruding out of an affected infant's back. Spina bifida may also be nearly inconsequential, or may be ...

  14. Mathematical development in spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lianne H. English; Marcia A. Barnes; Heather B. Taylor; Susan H. Landry

    2009-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the deficits in visual-spatial processing that are also

  15. Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

    2010-01-01

    The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

  16. Urologic Management of Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Douglass B.; Brock, John W., III; Joseph, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The urologist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team of physicians who provide care for patients with spina bifida. We review common strategies for managing the urinary tract in these patients. The primary objective in all phases of life is protecting kidney function by minimizing bladder hostility and establishing a good capacity,…

  17. Children with spina bifida: key clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Adrian D

    2010-08-01

    Spina bifida is the most common of the neural tube defects, which include myelomeningocele, encephalocele, and anencephaly. Spina bifida is a complex and multisystem birth defect, in which one or more vertebral arches may be incomplete. This article discusses the sensory and motor impairments, neurologic disorders, orthopedic and cognitive impairments, and skin and other problems associated with spina bifida. This article also summarizes some of the key clinical issues in the care of children with this complex birth defect. PMID:20883878

  18. Spina Bifida Experience

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Defects and Developmental Disabilities National Center Homepage Media Archive Homepage Videos Share Compartir Contact Us The Spina ... The Importance of Physical Activity More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch and share. ...

  19. Anencephaly, spina bifida and hydrocephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Polman

    1951-01-01

    Summary  After the discussion of a number of publications concerning congenital deformities mention is made of two groups of families\\u000a containing children with anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele and other deformities involving an abnormal development\\u000a of the central nervous system and the surrounding supporting tissue; one group has been collected in accordance with the period\\u000a of birth, the other with the birth-place;

  20. Spina bifida and anencephaly in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Carstairs; S Cole

    1984-01-01

    Data obtained from routine sources showed that from 1971 to 1982 the birth prevalences of spina bifida and anencephaly in Scotland fell. When known terminations after routine alpha fetoprotein screening were added to total births the adjusted birth prevalence could be calculated. In 1974-82 this fell by 40% for spina bifida (3 X 0-1 X 8) and 36% for anencephaly

  1. Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

  2. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  3. Educational Placement of Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Calvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Procedures of school placement for 38 children (ages 5 to 18 years) with spina bifida in 23 school districts in western New York State were studied 5 years after a mandated process was enacted. (Author)

  4. Spina bifida occulta in high grade spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Babbi, L; Terzi, S; Bandiera, S; Barbanti Brodano, G

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with symptomatic high-grade dysplastic type spondylolisthesis, with a presence of spina bifida occulta, not diagnosed by plain radiographs, but confirmed on preoperative CT and MR. Circumferential fusion with partial reduction of L5/S1 was performed. Awareness of the coexistence of spondylolisthesis and spina bifida by an accurate preoperative planning is paramount to avoid iatrogenic damage to neural elements during surgery. PMID:24825035

  5. Spina Bifida Experience: Managing Your Own Medical Care

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... The Spina Bifida Experience: Managing Your Own Medical Care Your browser does not support iFrames. Source: National ... about how the child participates in his medical care. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Developing Independence The ...

  6. Neocortical Reorganization in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hasan, Khader M.; Breier, Joshua I.; Cirino, Paul T.; Pazo-Alvarez, Paula; Diaz, Javier D.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Normal brain development throughout childhood and adolescence is usually characterized by decreased cortical thickness in the frontal regions as well as region-specific patterns of increased white matter myelination and volume. We investigated total cerebral volumes, neocortical surface area, and neocortical thickness in 16 children with a neural tube defect, spina bifida myelomeningocele (SB), and 16 age-matched typically developing controls using a semi-automated, quantitative approach to MRI-based brain morphometry. The results revealed no significant group differences in total cerebral volume. However, group differences were observed in the global distribution of distinct tissue classes within the cerebrum: the SB group demonstrated a significant 15% reduction in total white matter and a 69% increase in cerebrospinal fluid, with no differences in total gray matter. Group comparisons of neocortical surface area assessments were significantly smaller in the occipital regions for SB, with no significant group differences in the frontal regions. Group comparisons of cortical thickness measurements demonstrated reduced cortical thickness in all regions except the frontal regions, where the SB group exhibited an increase relative to the PC group. Although regional patterns of thinning may be associated with the mechanical effects of hydrocephalus, the overall reduction in white matter and increased neocortical thickness in the frontal regions suggest that SB reflects a long term disruption of brain development that extends far beyond the neural tube defect in the first weeks of gestation. PMID:18337124

  7. Neurosurgical Management of Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Robin M.; McLone, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The neurosurgical goal when treating children with spina bifida (predominantly myelomeningocele) is to maintain stable neurological functioning throughout the patient's life time. Unfortunately, few long-term outcome studies are available to help direct the neurosurgical care of a child born with myelomeningocele and often treatment relies more…

  8. The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

  9. Obesity among Persons with Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be helpful. [ http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/index.htm] Children whose weight for height exceeds the 95th percentile ... eating patterns and genetic factors have led to obesity being commonplace. When a child has Spina Bifida and family members are somewhat ...

  10. Spina Bifida Experience: Developing Independence

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Defects and Developmental Disabilities National Center Homepage Media Archive Homepage Videos Share Compartir Contact Us The Spina ... The Importance of Physical Activity More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch and share. ...

  11. Anesthesiology of the Newborn with Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigar Baykan

    Neural tube malformations involving the spinal cord and vertebral arches are referred to as spina bifida and present as a\\u000a spectrum of malformations with protrusion of the spinal cord and\\/or meninges through a defect in the vertebral arch at the\\u000a most severe end. Neural tube defects do not appear to be associated with other congenital syndromes; however, cardiac and\\u000a renal

  12. Räumlich-kognitive Fähigkeiten von Kindern mitSpina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Wiedenbauer; Petra Jansen-Osmann

    2006-01-01

    In this study the cognitive and spatial abilities of children with spina bifida were extensively investigated. Due to this systematic investigation of the spatial cognitive abilities we could show for the first time that children with spina bifida performed worse than a healthy control group (matched by age, sex and verbal IQ) in the factors of visual-spatial abilities, which are

  13. Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

  14. Psychological and Educational Studies with Spina Bifida Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    To measure school achievements in spina bifida children, to relate these measures to certain variables, to obtain information on educational problems, and to study facets of cognition and its changes with age, 77 spina bifida children and 53 amputees (all aged 5 to 15) were tested. Sixty non-disabled children were at times used for controls. The…

  15. Prenatal tea consumption and risks of anencephaly and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Correa; A Stolley; Y Liu

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal tea consumption and risk of anencephaly and spina bifida.METHODS: Data from the population-based Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study were examined. Cases were infants with anencephaly (n = 122) or spina bifida (r = 154) and no other associated anomalies, and identified between 1968 and 1980. Controls were infants without birth defects (n =

  16. Spina bifida occulta: radiographic and operative correlation.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, M; Bhatnagar, V; Mitra, D K; Mishra, N K; Rohatgi, M; Upadhyaya, P

    1989-01-01

    The clinical and myelographic evaluation in 24 children with spina bifida occulta has been correlated with the operative findings. Myelograms were done using Myodil in 11 patients and Metrizamide in 13 patients. The diagnostic quality of myelograms done with Metrizamide was comparatively better. Myodil myelography failed to demonstrate diastematomyelia in one case and a dural sac in 3 cases of lipomeningomyelocele, whereas, Metrizamide failed to demonstrate a sac in one case of lipomeningomyelocele only. Worsening of the neurological status was observed in only 3 cases in whom myelography was done with Myodil. The radiographic and operative correlation has been discussed. PMID:2699314

  17. Identification of Novel CELSR1 Mutations in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Spina bifida is one of the most common neural tube defects (NTDs) with a complex etiology. Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been associated with NTDs including spina bifida in both animal models and human cohorts. In this study, we sequenced all exons of CELSR1 in 192 spina bifida patients from a California population to determine the contribution of CELSR1 mutations in the studied population. Novel and rare variants identified in these patients were subsequently genotyped in 190 ethnically matched control individuals. Six missense mutations not found in controls were predicted to be deleterious by both SIFT and PolyPhen. Two TG dinucleotide repeat variants were individually detected in 2 spina bifida patients but not detected in controls. In vitro functional analysis showed that the two TG dinucleotide repeat variants not only changed subcellular localization of the CELSR1 protein, but also impaired the physical association between CELSR1 and VANGL2, and thus diminished the ability to recruit VANGL2 for cell-cell contact. In total, 3% of our spina bifida patients carry deleterious or predicted to be deleterious CELSR1 mutations. Our findings suggest that CELSR1 mutations contribute to the risk of spina bifida in a cohort of spina bifida patients from California. PMID:24632739

  18. Spina bifida and anencephaly: are miscarriages a possible cause?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K M Laurence; C J Roberts

    1977-01-01

    The marriage-to-conception interval in 151 pregnancies producing infants with anencephaly or spina bifida was not significantly different from that in 218 pregnancies resulting in normal infants. Significantly more miscarriages occurred before than after the birth of 285 infants with anencephaly or spina bifida, but in 133 controls no before-after difference was observed. These observations seem to favour the idea that

  19. Testing the Feasibility of a National Spina Bifida Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Thibadeau, Judy K.; Ward, Elisabeth A.; Soe, Minn M.; Liu, Tiebin; Swanson, Mark; Sawin, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Kurt A.; Castillo, Heidi; Rauen, Karen; Schechter, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to describe the development and early implementation of a national spina bifida (SB) patient registry, the goal of which is to monitor the health status, clinical care, and outcomes of people with SB by collecting and analyzing patient data from comprehensive SB clinics. METHODS Using a web-based, SB-specific electronic medical record, 10 SB clinics collected health-related information for patients diagnosed with myelomeningocele, lipomyelomeningocele, fatty filum, or meningocele. This information was compiled and de-identified for transmission to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for quality control and analysis. RESULTS A total of 2070 patients were enrolled from 2009 through 2011: 84.9% were younger than 18 years of age; 1095 were women; 64.2% were non-Hispanic white; 6.5% were non-Hispanic black or African American; and 24.2% were Hispanic or Latino. Myelomeningocele was the most common diagnosis (81.5%). CONCLUSIONS The creation of a National Spina Bifida Patient Registry partnership between the CDC and SB clinics has been feasible. Through planned longitudinal data collection and the inclusion of additional clinics, the data generated by the registry will become more robust and representative of the population of patients attending SB clinics in the United States and will allow for the investigation of patient outcomes. PMID:23125114

  20. The Adolescent with Spina Bifida: Academic Achievement and Employment Prospects. Research Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, Brian

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 52 adolescents with spina bifida reveals information about their intelligence and attainments at age 16, achievement examinations, the relationship between IQ and academic achievement, and employment at 18 years. Among findings are significantly lower performance among Ss with shunts and intracranial complications. (CL)

  1. Health risk behaviors among young adults with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Minn M; Swanson, Mark E; Bolen, Julie C; Thibadeau, Judy K; Johnson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    AIM Persons with spina bifida who adopt unhealthy lifestyles could be at increased risk of adverse health outcomes because the presence of spina bifida may magnify this risk. We estimated overall and age-specific prevalence of selected health risk behaviors (HRBs) in young people with spina bifida and examined the association between HRBs and depression. METHOD We performed analyses on data obtained from individuals with spina bifida (n=130; mean age 23y SD 4y 5mo; 64 males, 66 females; 64% lumbosacral lesion; 77% with shunt) who participated in a population-based survey conducted by the Arkansas Spinal Cord Commission in 2005. RESULTS Compared with national estimates, young people with spina bifida tend to eat less healthy diets, do less exercise, and engage inmore sedentary activities. Respondents were less likely to use substances (alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs), which peaked among 25 to 31 year olds. About 90% saw a doctor in the previous year. Nearly one half reported mild or major depressive symptoms. In the logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, ethnic group, education, employment, marital status, living arrangement, level of lesion, presence of shunt, mobility, self-rated health and healthcare utilization), major depressive symptoms were associated with current alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio: 4.74; 95% CI 1.18–19.04). INTERPRETATION Young adults with spina bifida exhibit unhealthy behaviors that continue into their late 20s. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of their health risk profiles in the spina bifida community and show opportunities for mental health and health risk screening and counseling by healthcare providers. PMID:22937873

  2. Spina bifida and parental occupation: Results from three malformation monitoring programs in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Blatter; N. Roeleveld; E. Bermejo; M. L. Martínez-Frías; C. Siffel; A. E. Czeizel

    2000-01-01

    As the evidence for an association between spina bifida and parental agricultural occupations is inconclusive, we evaluated this association and the potential associations between spina bifida and other parental occupations. Three register-based case–referent studies were conducted in Sweden, Spain, and Hungary. From the registries of congenital malformations in each country, 482, 478, and 1119 cases with spina bifida were identified,

  3. Spina bifida and anencephaly: miscarriage as possible cause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Clarke; D Hobson; O M McKendrick; S C Rogers; P M Sheppard

    1975-01-01

    In two retrospective Liverpool surveys the domestic, family, dietary, and medical environments of the mothers of children affected by anencephaly or spina bifida, or both (ASB) were examined. None seemed to be of more than minor importance and the findings of others were therefore examined to see if they suggested a major factor. The most promising lead came from the

  4. Children with Spina Bifida: Educational Implications of Their Medical Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korabek, Cynthia A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    Many children with spina bifida present organic characteristics such as muscle weakness below the spinal lesion. These medical aspects are discussed with respect to their influence on teaching self-care and motor skills and reducing self-injurious behavior. Recommendations for educational programming are made. (Author/JDD)

  5. Physical Status and Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study, in which mothers of 62 children with spina bifida completed the Child Behavior Checklist, found that children with differing degrees of physical problems and disability (determined from medical charts) did not differ significantly in their psychosocial adjustment. (Author/DB)

  6. Increasing Community Independence for Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined whether a community-based habilitation program focusing on normalization and individual goal setting was effective in enhancing levels of independence in teenagers with spina bifida. Subjects (N=14) participated in an eight-week summer program. Results suggested the program was effective with the greatest strength being support and…

  7. Team Management of Cognitive Dysfunction in Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Douglas D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The article presents a summary of the cognitive difficulties often encountered when a multidisciplinary team attempts to manage children with spina bifida. Suggestions for intervention and program planning are presented. A model for team management incorporating medical, allied health, and psychosocial professionals is presented. (Author/CL)

  8. Physical Education for Students with Spina Bifida: Mothers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Jihoun; Goodwin, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children's physical education, the mothers' roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods…

  9. Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Carl L.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

  10. Evaluation of candidate genes for susceptibility to spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Ann Volcik

    2001-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common severely disabling birth defects in the United States, with a frequency of approximately 1–2 of every 1,000 births. This text includes the identification and evaluation of candidate susceptibility genes that confer risk for the development of neural tube defects (NTDs). The project focused on isolated meningomyelocele, also termed spina bifida (SB). ^

  11. Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, ... bifida Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, ...

  12. Shifting genetic patterns in anencephaly and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D T Janerich; J Piper

    1978-01-01

    The long-term decline in the incidence of the neural tube malformations, anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB), ended in the mid-1950's in New York State. Since that time, the rate of these birth defects has remained between 1 and 1.5\\/1000 births. In this low incidence population, we tested the basic tenets which support a genetic aetiology. We found that the full

  13. Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafal Chrzan; Aart J. Klijn; Pieter Dik

    2008-01-01

    Renal damage and renal failure are among the most severe complications of spina bifida. Over the past decades, a comprehensive\\u000a treatment strategy has been applied that results in minimal renal scaring. In addition, the majority of patients can be dry\\u000a for urine by the time they go to primary school. To obtain such results, it is mandatory to treat detrusor

  14. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  15. Work Participation among Young Adults with Spina Bifida in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…

  16. Impairment of a Motor Skill in Children with Spina Bifida Cystica and Hydrocephalus: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Plewis, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Twenty 7-10 year old children with spina bifida cystica and hydrocephalus and 20 normals matched for age, sex and IQ were compared on a 12-trial target task, first used by Connolly, Brown & Bassett (1968). Findings are discussed in relation to neurological abnormalities in the spina bifida group. (Editor/RK)

  17. Changes in Medical Practice towards the Child with Spina Bifida: Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The improved surgical management of children with spina bifida is among the reasons for a decreased number of severely physically and/or mentally affected children. Such improvements have resulted in more spina bifida children attending British ordinary schools and fewer attending special schools. (Author/DB)

  18. Spina Bifida: Guidelines of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.

    These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with spina bifida. The booklet begins with general information about spina bifida. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures. The child's health care…

  19. Labor analgesia for pregnant women with spina bifida: What does an obstetrician need to know?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof M. Kuczkowski

    2007-01-01

    Neural tube defects, with a birth incidence of approximately 1\\/1,000, are the second most common (after congenital heart defects) type of congenital birth defects. The most common clinical presentations of neural tube defects include spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida, which is one of the most common, serious malformations of human structure, is a general term that encompasses a wide

  20. Does lumbosacral spina bifida arise by failure of neural folding or by defective canalisation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Copp; F A Brook

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether open lumbosacral spina bifida results from an abnormality of neural folding (primary neurulation) or medullary cord canalisation (secondary neurulation). Homozygous curly tail (ct) mouse embryos were studied as a model system for human neural tube defects. The rostral end of the spina bifida was found to lie at the level of

  1. [Hyperthermia in spina bifida patients treated with oxybutynin].

    PubMed

    Cremer, R

    2012-07-01

    Paraplegic spina bifida patients often suffer from disturbed sweat secretion in the paretic regions. A diminished sweat production of caudal parts of the body is compensated by an increased secretion of sweat in parts cranial to the lesion to maintain temperature homoeostais. If the sweat secretion is blocked by anticholinergic effects of urotherapeutic drugs (for instance oxybutynin) hyperthermia can result as a side effect as these casuistic examples show.An 8-year-old girl with a lumbar meningomyelocele and a neurogenic bladder reported a dry skin and hyperthermia up to 38,5°C during oral therapy with oxybutynin (0.4 mg per kg body weight) during hot summer days. Similar symptoms were shown by a 7-year-old male patient with a sacral meningomyelocele and neurogenic bladder on oral therapy of 0.35 mg oxybutynin per kg body weight. A 4-year-old female patient with lumbar spina bifida and neurogenic bladder reacted to intravesical administration of 0.4 and 0.3 mg per kg body weight during early summertime with hyperthermia up to 38°C. In this case the medication had been started in wintertime and was primarily well tolerated.Hyperthermia under treatment with anticholinergic drugs has mainly been published for geriatric patients with sometimes fatal outcome. In the pediatric literature there is only one warning regarding the use of oxybutynin in children with spina bifida living in high temperature regions. It is remarkable that hyperthermia can also happen after intravesical administration of oxybutynin in usual dosage. PMID:22695976

  2. Spina bifida occulta and aperta: a review of current treatment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kahn, L; Biro, E E; Smith, R D; Bui, C J

    2015-03-01

    Spina bifida remains a challenging neurosurgical entity to manage despite both an increased awareness of the disease as well as a decreased incidence due to folic acid supplementation. We review the spectrum of neural tube defects, which are the second most common serious congenital defect and the most common of the central nervous system, and discuss the latest management paradigms. The challenges of timely diagnosis and treatment of spina bifida occulta and the latest advances in fetal repair of spina bifida aperta (myelomeningocele) will be discussed. The authors review the literature and share their experience with managing neural tube defects. PMID:25387659

  3. Heterogeneity of muscle fat infiltration in children with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Tishya A.L.; Ponrartana, Skorn; Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Ryan, Deirdre D.; Chia, Jonathan M.; Hu, Houchun H.

    2013-01-01

    Children with spina bifida have well recognized functional deficits of muscle, but little is known about the associated changes in muscle anatomy and composition. This study used water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure fat infiltration in the lower extremity muscles of 11 children with myelomeningocele, the most severe form of spina bifida. MRI measurements of muscle fat fraction (FF) were compared against manual muscle test (MMT) scores for muscle strength. The FF measurements were objective and reliable with mean inter-rater differences of <2% and intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.98. There was a significant inverse relationship between muscle FF and MMT scores (P ? 0.001). Surprisingly, however, muscles with negligible strength (MMT 0–1) exhibited a bimodal distribution of FF with one group having FF > 70% and another group having FF < 20%. The MRI also revealed striking heterogeneity amongst individual muscles in the same muscle group (e.g., 4% fat in one participant’s lateral gastrocnemius vs. 88% in her medial gastrocnemius), as well as significant asymmetry in FF in one participant with asymmetric strength and sensation. These results suggest that quantitative water-fat MRI may serve as a biomarker for muscle degeneration which may reveal subclinical changes useful for predicting functional potential and prognosis. PMID:24169376

  4. The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaer, Catherine M.

    1997-01-01

    This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

  5. Language Use without Comprehension: A Suggested Methodology for the Clinical Evaluation of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Three spina bifida children (mean age 66 months) were studied to illustrate the comprehension deficit and to demonstrate how evaluations can be structured. Available from Eterna Press, P.O. Box 19, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60439. (Author/PHR)

  6. Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Lynn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The excerpt from "Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida" (Lynn Rosenfeld) provides guidelines for parents concerning health insurance, health maintenance organizations, and questions to ask concerning health insurance coverage and filing claims. (DB)

  7. Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006 by T.J. Mathews, M.S., Division ... latest NHANES results ). Birth certificate data in the United States have been available for selected birth defects since ...

  8. Predictors of parenting stress in mothers of children with spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Kanaheswari; N N A Razak; V Chandran; L C Ong

    2011-01-01

    Study design:Prospective cross-sectional multidimensional study using clinical assessment and standard measures.Objectives:To determine the medical and social factors associated with parenting stress among mothers of children with spina bifida.Setting:Spina bifida clinics of two tertiary hospitals in urban Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Methods:A total of 81 mothers of children aged 1–18 years completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI\\/SF). Each child's adaptive skills were

  9. Global Prevention of All Folic Acid-Preventable Spina bifida and Anencephaly by 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly are pandemic, affecting 225,000 children a year. These birth defects are as preventable as polio. As we near the eradication of polio, it is time to make the commitment to global prevention of all folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FA-P SBA) by 2010. Folic acid fortification of centrally processed foods, such as wheat

  10. 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida

    E-print Network

    2010-12-15

    INTRODUCTION Open Access 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida Hugh Richards1*, Deborah Sival2 From 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida Vancouver, Canada... , Paul Thiessen, Judi Haddy, Nicola Valentine, Bev Irwin and Carol King. Proceedings began on Wednesday afternoon with the Annual General Meeting of Members. This was followed by a reception for all delegates and guests at the Museum of Anthropology where...

  11. Upper limb cerebellar motor function in children with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Derryn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Hetherington, Ross; MacGregor, Daune; Drake, James M.; Salman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate upper limb cerebellar motor function in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and in typically developing controls. Methods Participants with SBM, who had either upper level spinal lesions (n=23) or lower level spinal lesions (n=65), and controls (n=37) completed four upper limb motor function tasks (posture, rebound, limb dysmetria, and diadochokinesis) under four different physical and cognitive challenge conditions. Functional independence was assessed by parental questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM participants were able to complete the posture task, and they were less likely than controls to obtain a perfect rebound score. Participants with SBM showed impaired performance in either time, accuracy, or both, on the limb dysmetria and diadochokinesis tasks but responded like controls to physical and cognitive challenges. Conclusions Because upper limb motor performance predicted aspects of functional independence, we conclude that upper limb impairments in children with SBM are significant and have direct implications for the level of independent functioning in children with SBM. PMID:19823846

  12. The Relationship Between Function, Self-perception, and Spinal Deformity Implications for Treatment of Scoliosis in Children With Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene K. Wai; Nancy L. Young; Brian M. Feldman; Elizabeth M. Badley; James G. Wright

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rela- tionship of spinal deformity with physical function and self- perception in children with spina bifida. Ninety-eight eligible children with scoliosis and spina bifida were identified; 80 of them (82%) consented to participate. Spinal deformity was measured in many ways, including scoliosis, coronal balance, and pelvic obliquity. Mea- sures of physical

  13. Increased expression of Grainyhead-like-3 rescues spina bifida in a folate-resistant mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Gustavsson; Nicholas D. E. Greene; Dina Lad; Erwin Pauws; S. C. P. de Castro; P. Stanier; A. J. Copp

    2007-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), such as spina bifida, are common and severe birth defects in humans but the underlying causes are poorly understood. The pathogenesis and etiology of spina bifida in the curly tail mouse closely resemble defects in humans, providing a well-characterized model of NTDs. Grainyhead- like-3 (Grhl3), which encodes a transcription factor, was recently identified as a candidate

  14. Mutations in planar cell polarity gene SCRIB are associated with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Duhon, Cody; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) (OMIM #182940) including anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, are severe congenital malformations that affect 0.5-1 in 1,000 live births in the United States, with varying prevalence around the world. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes are believed to cause a variety of NTDs in both mice and humans. SCRIB is a PCP-associated gene. Mice that are homozygous for the Scrib p.I285K and circletail (Crc) mutations, present with the most severe form of NTDs, namely craniorachischisis. A recent study reported that mutations in SCRIB were associated with craniorachischisis in humans, but whether SCRIB mutations contribute to increased spina bifida risk is still unknown. We sequenced the SCRIB gene in 192 infants with spina bifida and 190 healthy controls. Among the spina bifida patients, we identified five novel missense mutations that were predicted-to-be-deleterious by the PolyPhen software. Of these five mutations, three of them (p.P1043L, p.P1332L, p.L1520R) significantly affected the subcellular localization of SCRIB. In addition, we demonstrated that the craniorachischisis mouse line-90 mutation I285K, also affected SCRIB subcellular localization. In contrast, only one novel missense mutation (p.A1257T) was detected in control samples, and it was predicted to be benign. This study demonstrated that rare deleterious mutations of SCRIB may contribute to the multifactorial risk for human spina bifida. PMID:23922697

  15. Mutations in Planar Cell Polarity Gene SCRIB Are Associated with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Duhon, Cody; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) (OMIM #182940) including anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, are severe congenital malformations that affect 0.5–1 in 1,000 live births in the United States, with varying prevalence around the world. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes are believed to cause a variety of NTDs in both mice and humans. SCRIB is a PCP-associated gene. Mice that are homozygous for the Scrib p.I285K and circletail (Crc) mutations, present with the most severe form of NTDs, namely craniorachischisis. A recent study reported that mutations in SCRIB were associated with craniorachischisis in humans, but whether SCRIB mutations contribute to increased spina bifida risk is still unknown. We sequenced the SCRIB gene in 192 infants with spina bifida and 190 healthy controls. Among the spina bifida patients, we identified five novel missense mutations that were predicted-to-be-deleterious by the PolyPhen software. Of these five mutations, three of them (p.P1043L, p.P1332L, p.L1520R) significantly affected the subcellular localization of SCRIB. In addition, we demonstrated that the craniorachischisis mouse line-90 mutation I285K, also affected SCRIB subcellular localization. In contrast, only one novel missense mutation (p.A1257T) was detected in control samples, and it was predicted to be benign. This study demonstrated that rare deleterious mutations of SCRIB may contribute to the multifactorial risk for human spina bifida. PMID:23922697

  16. The scientific basis for eliminating folic acid-preventable spina bifida: a modern miracle from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Godfrey P

    2009-04-01

    One of the most remarkable successes of epidemiology was the demonstration in the late twentieth century that spina bifida and anencephaly-two of the most common and severe birth defects-are caused primarily by folate deficiency. This article reviews the descriptive epidemiological studies that began when we did not have a clue about etiology. The paper tells the success story of the trials that proved that folic acid would prevent folic-acid-preventable spina bifida. Finally, it will tell how difficult it is to get prevention policy implemented, even when the scientific evidence is compelling. It concludes by noting that the inaction or inappropriate actions of food regulatory bodies in so many countries means that only 10% of folic-acid-preventable spina bifida is actually being prevented--a serious failure of public health policy. PMID:19344858

  17. Chiropractic Care of Acute Low Back Pain and Incidental Spina Bifida Occulta: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cofano, Gregory P.; Anderson, Benjamin C.; Stumpff, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic care of an adolescent with acute low back pain and incidental finding of spina bifida occulta managed with high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation. Clinical Features A 10-year-old boy was referred for chiropractic care by his pediatrician for the management of low back pain after a fall 3 days prior. Examination and medical records revealed the patient also had spina bifida occulta at the level of L5. Intervention and Outcome High-velocity low-amplitude treatment for lower back pain showed resolution of patient's pain after 6 visits. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion An adolescent patient with lower back pain and incidental finding of spina bifida occulta improved with a course of care that included with high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation therapy. PMID:25435841

  18. Motor Contingency Learning and Infants with Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Heather B.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M.; Huang, Furong

    2014-01-01

    Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB. PMID:23298791

  19. Fetal spina bifida: Loss of neural function in utero

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Dorothea; Copp, Andrew J.; Meuli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The devastating neurological deficit associated with myelomeningocele (MMC) has previously been assumed to be a direct and inevitable consequence of the primary malformation, failure of neural tube closure. An alternative view, however, is that secondary damage to the pathologically exposed spinal cord tissue in utero is responsible for the neurological deficiency. If the latter mechanism was shown to be correct, it would provide an objective rationale for the performance of in utero surgery for MMC, since coverage of the exposed spinal cord could be expected to alleviate or perhaps prevent neurodegeneration. To examine this question, we studied the development of neuronal connections and neurological function during fetal and neonatal stages in a mouse genetic model of open lumbosacral spina bifida (SB). During early gestation (embryonic days 13.5 to 16.5), the persistently open spinal cord of fetuses carrying both curly tail (ct) and loop-tail (Lp) mutations exhibited essentially normal anatomical and functional hallmarks of development, including sensory and motor projections to and from the cord. A significant proportion of early fetuses with SB exhibited sensorimotor function identical to that seen in unaffected age matched controls. With ongoing gestation, however, we detected increasing neurodegeneration within the SB lesion, and this was paralleled by a progressive loss of neurological function. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that neurological deficit in human MMC arises following secondary neural tissue destruction and loss of function during pregnancy. PMID:17465388

  20. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  1. Urinary incontinence in spina bifida: Initial instrument validation.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Katherine C; Sideridis, Georgios; Sherlock, Rebecca; Rosoklija, Ilina; Kringle, Greta; Johnson, Kathryn; Bauer, Stuart B; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a psychometric assessment of the Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric (ISI-P) in a cohort of adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and neuropathic urinary incontinence (UI) to test its validity and reliability. The ISI-P, an 11-item instrument with domains for symptom severity and impairment, was self-administered by subjects 11-17 years old with SB and UI. Controls were 11-17 years old, with nephrolithiasis and no history of UI. Formal psychometric assessment included an evaluation of internal consistency, test re-test reliability and factor analysis. Of 78 study-eligible subjects we attempted to contact, 33 (66.7% female) with a median age of 13.1 years completed the ISI-P (42.3% response rate). 21 control patients also completed the ISI-P. Cronbach's alpha was 0.936 and 0.792 for the severity and bother factors respectively. The delta Chi-square test for the two-factor (vs. one-factor) model was significantly [?(2)(89) = 107.823, p < 0.05] in favor of the former model with descriptive fit indices being excellent (e.g., comparative fit index = 0.969). Furthermore, category information analysis showed that all categories were associated with different threshold values, namely that each category contributed unique information for the measurement of the latent trait. In conclusion, the ISI-P has desirable psychometric properties for the measurement of UI symptom severity and impairment in adolescents with SB. PMID:25841183

  2. Prevalence of latex allergy in spina bifida patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Xiuzhen; Mohamed, Javid

    2013-01-01

    Background Latex allergy and its clinical presentation are rising in prevalence across the globe, especially amongst patients with spina bifida (SB). While studies have been well-established in Europe and America, data from Asia are limited. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the scenario in Singapore. Methods 35 subjects with SB, aged 5 to 32 years answered a questionnaire and underwent skin prick test (SPT) using a latex solution, 3 common house dust mites and 3 commonly cross-reacting food allergens (banana, kiwi and avocado). We also noted the relation between latex sensitization with atopy and doctor-diagnosed allergy. The prevalence of cross-reactivity with fruits was also studied. Results Sensitization to latex (i.e. a positive SPT) was found in 16 (46%, 95% confidence interval 29%-63%) of the subjects. Only 5 (31%) of the subjects who were sensitized to latex had clinical manifestations. Atopy (i.e. positive SPT to house dust mites) was present in 23 (66%) of the subjects and 13 (57%) of them was also sensitized to latex. There was a positive trend between latex sensitization and atopy (81.2% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.076), as well as latex sensitization with those having both atopy and doctor-diagnosed allergy (i.e. asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, drug allergy) (93.8% vs. 63.2%, p = 0.032). Only 6 (38%) subjects had allergy to the food allergens tested. Conclusion Almost half of the SB patients in Singapore are sensitized to latex. This number is comparable to that in Europe and America. Positive trend between latex sensitization and those with both atopy and doctor-diagnosed allergy (p = 0.032) is suggestive of a possible cause-effect relationship. PMID:23667832

  3. Amniotic fluid macrophages and the antenatal diagnosis of anencephaly and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G R Sutherland; D J Brock; J B Scrimgeour

    1975-01-01

    The macrophage content of amniotic fluid has been measured and the upper limit of normal on an arbitrary scale is 41. Amongst 65 amniotic fluids collected for antenatal diagnostic studies before 22weeks' gestation there were eight which had macrophage counts ranging from 82 to 6226,three of these were shown to have anencephaly and two spina bifida. The reasons for three

  4. A family showing apparent X linked inheritance of both anencephaly and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Jensson; A Arnason; H Gunnarsdottir; I Petursdottir; R Fossdal; S Hreidarsson

    1988-01-01

    A family is reported which includes five males, two with spina bifida, two sibs with anencephaly, and one with both high and low spinal lesions. The affected subjects came from four sibships in three generations. The mode of inheritance of these neural tube defects is consistent with X linkage.

  5. Birth Ranks Of Spontaneous Abortions In Sibships Of Children Affected By Anencephaly Or Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. James

    1978-01-01

    Data on the birth rank of miscarriages within sibships in which a case of anencephaly or spina bifida (ASB) had occurred were analysed by the Haldane-Smith statistical test. This showed that miscarriages in ASB sibships tend to have a negative birth order effect--that is, they occur in earlier rather than later pregnancies within the sibship. The strongest source of bias

  6. Apparently monogenic inheritance of anencephaly and spina bifida in a kindred

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Fuhrmann; W. Seeger; Renate Böhm

    1971-01-01

    Anencephaly and\\/or spina bifida has been observed in 5 of 8 children from 2 related families. The fathers of both families were brothers and had married 2 sisters. By further investigation they could be shown to be third degree cousins to their marriage partners. No malformations were known among further relatives. The family pattern suggests autosomal recessive inheritance of anencephalus

  7. Decline in the Prevalence of Spina Bifida and Anencephaly by Race\\/Ethnicity: 1995–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura J. Williams; Mph Sonja A. Rasmussen; Alina Flores; Mph Russell S. Kirby; Larry D. Edmonds

    ABSTRACT. Objective. In an effort to reduce the oc- currence of neural tube defects (NTDs), folic acid forti- fication of US enriched grain products was authorized by the Food and Drug Administration in March 1996 and required by January 1998. Fortification has been shown to result in an important decline in the prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the

  8. The effect of GABA receptor ligands in experimental spina bifida occulta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Briner

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology behind spina bifida and other neural tube defects (NTDs) is unclear. Folic acid is one variable, but other factors remain. Studies suggest that substances active at the GABA receptor may produce NTDs. To test this hypothesis pregnant rats were exposed to either the GABA a agonist muscimol (1, 2 or 4 mg\\/kg), the GABA a antagonist bicuculline

  9. Arithmetic Processing in Children with Spina Bifida: Calculation Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Fact Retrieval Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Wilkinson, Margaret; Khemani, Ekta; Boudesquie, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies compared 98 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM)--a disorder associated with high rates of math disability and spatial deficits--to 94 typically developing children on multidigit subtraction and cognitive addition tasks. Children with SBM were classified into those with reading decoding and math disability, only math…

  10. The Language of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus: Meeting Task Demands and Mastering Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Linguistic performance of 7 children (mean age=68 months) with spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and average intelligence was evaluated. Subjects dealt with the semantic-pragmatic requirements of linguistically posed problems in an age-appropriate manner. Performance declined as task demands increased but no more than performance of nondisabled…

  11. The Management and Education of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Robert J.; Elkins, John

    The report describes the population of children in Australia with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus, notes their needs and characteristics, reviews their school placement and social circumstances, and considers future educational services for them. Initial chapters review the literature on medical, psychoeducational, and social-family aspects of…

  12. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  13. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  14. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  15. Educational Attainments of Spina Bifida Children Attending Ordinary or Special Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Spina Bifida children (N=22) in regular and special schools were matched for IQ and their academic achievement compared. Data from tests revealed that Ss from special schools were behind their peers in mathematics with no significant differences in reading. (CL)

  16. The Use of Self-Modeling to Improve the Swimming Performance of Spina Bifida Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowrick, Peter W.; Dove, Cynthia

    1980-01-01

    The use of edited videotape replay (which showed only "positive" behaviors) to improve the water skills of three spina bifida children (ages 5 to 10) was examined. A multiple baseline across Ss design was used, and behavioral changes were observed to occur in close association with intervention. One child was given successive reapplications of…

  17. Handwriting Skills in Children with Spina Bifida: Assessment, Monitoring and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Julie; Alston, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Case studies of three students with spina bifida (ages 8-11) illustrate an individualized six-week handwriting intervention program which stressed assessment, monitoring, and measurement of changes in writing performance. Appropriate changes in physical support (sitting position, writing surface, and choice of writing tool) are recommended. (JW)

  18. Spatial Knowledge of Children with Spina Bifida in a Virtual Large-Scale Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

    2006-01-01

    The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…

  19. Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)…

  20. A unifying hypothesis for hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, anencephaly and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Williams

    2008-01-01

    This work is a modified version of the Casey Holter Memorial prize essay presented to the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, June 29th 2007, Heidelberg, Germany. It describes the origin and consequences of the Chiari malformation, and proposes that hydrocephalus is caused by inadequate central nervous system (CNS) venous drainage. A new hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis, anencephaly

  1. Risk and Protective Influences in the Lives of Siblings of Youths with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellin, Melissa H.; Kovacs, Pamela J.; Sawin, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of childhood chronic health conditions like spina bifida (SB) is a shared family experience. However, the lived experience of siblings is not well known. One hundred and fifty-five brothers and sisters of a child with SB responded to an open-ended question included in an anonymous self-administered mail questionnaire designed to enhance…

  2. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

  3. Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

  4. Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and…

  5. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 ?g/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0·48 in the first period, and 0·53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan. PMID:25999131

  6. Loss of function polymorphisms in NAT1 protect against spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Liselotte E; Hoess, Karen; Mitchell, Laura E; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2006-08-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of having a child with spina bifida. N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) participates in the catabolism of folates and the acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Hence, functional polymorphisms in NAT1, the gene encoding NAT1, could influence the risk of spina bifida via either folate catabolism or acetylation of exogenous agents. Individuals with spina bifida and their parents were genotyped for six NAT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which the less common allele is associated with reduced or absent enzyme activity (i.e. 97C>T, 190C>T, 559C>T/560G>A, 640T>G and 752A>T). In addition, a "composite" NAT1 genotype was defined as a function of the genotyped SNPs. Descriptive analyses of the SNPs and of the composite genotype indicated that heterozygous parents were more likely to transmit the common allele than the rare allele to their affected offspring. Furthermore, matings of mothers homozygous for the common allele and heterozygous fathers were more common than the reciprocal matings. Log-linear analyses confirmed that both the maternal (P = 0.008) and offspring (P = 0.003) composite NAT1 genotypes were significantly related to the risk of spina bifida. NAT1 variants that reduce or abolish enzyme activity appear to protect against spina bifida, and to exert their influence via both the maternal and the offspring genotypes. These associations may be attributable to a decrease in either folate catabolism or the conversion of exogenous agents to teratogenic derivatives in women and/or developing embryos with a NAT1 genotype that includes a loss of function allele relative to those who do not. PMID:16680433

  7. The impact of folic acid intake on the association between diabetes, obesity, and spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between spina bifida and two established risk factors, pregestational diabetes and obesity, in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Study Design Cases of spina bifida (n=1154) and controls (n=9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976–2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes (collected 1976+) and obesity (collected 1993+), defined as BMI ?30 kg/m2, were collected through interviews conducted within six months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated using both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400µg/day of folic acid, with food folate included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models, adjusted for maternal race, education, and study site, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes or obesity. Results Mothers of cases were more likely to have diabetes or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR:3.95; CI: 1.56, 10.00) than that of diabetes and higher folic acid intake (aOR:1.31; CI: 0.17, 10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Conclusion Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, though does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida associated with diabetes, than that with obesity. PMID:23711668

  8. Maternal periconceptional factors affect the risk of spina bifida-affected pregnancies: an Italian case–control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia De Marco; Elisa Merello; Maria Grazia Calevo; Samantha Mascelli; Daniela Pastorino; Lucia Crocetti; Pierangela De Biasio; Gianluca Piatelli; Armando Cama; Valeria Capra

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, are the second most common birth defects with an incidence in\\u000a Italy of 0.4–1\\/1,000. Information on factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of spina bifida is based on populations with\\u000a different exposures, lifestyle, social and cultural habits compared to Italian people. Our objective was to fill this gap\\u000a by using data

  9. Spina Bifida Experience: The Importance of Physical Activity

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

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  10. Parents? social adjustments in families of children with spina bifida: A theory-driven review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignace P. R. Vermaes; Jan R. M. Gerris; Jan M. A. M. Janssens

    2007-01-01

    Objective Five theoretical hypotheses about the impact of spina bifida (SB) on parents' social adjustment in the parent-child, the marital and the family-level relationship were tested. Methods PsycInfo, Medline and reference lists were searched. This yielded 27 eligible reports. Effect sizes (Hedges' d) were computed to estimate the impact of SB. Results Overall, the effects of SB were small to

  11. Orthopedic management of spina bifida. Part I: hip, knee, and rotational deformities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vineeta T. Swaroop; Luciano Dias

    2009-01-01

    Children with spina bifida develop a wide variety of congenital and acquired orthopedic deformities. Among these are hip deformities\\u000a such as contracture, subluxation, or dislocation. Patients may also have problems with the knee joint, such as knee flexion\\u000a or extension contracture, knee valgus deformity, or late knee instability and pain. In addition, rotational deformities of\\u000a the lower extremities, either internal

  12. Predisposition to spina bifida: Search for a relation to maternal gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Stanway, P A; Samloff, I M; Brace, C J; Renwick, J H

    1977-01-01

    The peak acid output of the stomach in a group of 71 mothers of spina bifida children and in 71 matched controls was estimated indirectly by the serum level of group I pepsinogens. The mean levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that the conjectured teratogen is not specially acid-labile. The variance was significantly higher in index subjects than in controls, but the interpretation of this finding is not clear. PMID:563466

  13. Observed and Perceived Dyadic and Systemic Functioning in Families of Preadolescents With Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grayson N. Holmbeck; Rachael Millstein Coakley; Jennifer S. Hommeyer; Wendy E. Shapera; Venette C. Westhoven

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine dyadic and systemic family functioning across several domains (conflict, cohesion, and stress) in families of preadolescents with spina bifida in comparison to families of able-bodied preado- lescents (8- and 9-year olds; n 68 in each sample). Methods: Mother-, father-, and child-reported questionnaire data and observational ratings of family behav- ior were employed. Results: Findings revealed significant group

  14. Diagnosis of Spina Bifida and Other Dysraphic States in the Fetus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dario Paladini

    Neural tube defects (NTD) include anencephaly, encephaloceles and spinal dysraphism. Although this volume deals primarily\\u000a with spina bifida, for the interest of the reader we include a brief summary of the current role of ultrasound in the assessment\\u000a of the normal and abnormal spine. Furthermore, an overview of other entities, anencephaly and encephaloceles, and, at the\\u000a end of the chapter,

  15. The prevalence and predictors of anencephaly and spina bifida in Texas.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Mark A; Marengo, Lisa; Ramadhani, Tunu A; Suarez, Lucina; Brender, Jean D; Scheuerle, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Texas shares a 1255-mile border with Mexico and encompasses a variety of ecosystems, industries and other potential environmental exposures. The Texas Birth Defects Registry is an active surveillance system which covers all pregnancy outcomes (livebirths, fetal deaths and elective pregnancy terminations). This study describes the occurrence and the predictors of neural tube defects (anencephaly and spina bifida) in Texas between 1999 and 2003. Birth prevalence, crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression, for each defect, by fetal/infant sex, delivery year and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Among approximately 1.8 million livebirths, a total of 1157 neural tube defects cases were ascertained by the Registry, resulting in an overall prevalence of 6.33 cases per 10 000 livebirths. The prevalences of anencephaly and spina bifida were 2.81 and 3.52 per 10 000 livebirths respectively. Prevalences of both defects were highest in Hispanics, among mothers living along the border with Mexico, among women of higher parity and among mothers who were 40+ years of age. In addition, the prevalence of each defect was higher among women with no record of prenatal care and among women with less than 7 years of education. Hispanic ethnicity was an important predictor for anencephaly, along with sex, maternal age, parity and border residence. However, only border residence and delivery year were significant predictors for spina bifida. PMID:19228313

  16. Distribution of affected muscles and degree of neurogenic lesion in patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Petronic, Ivana; Nikolic, Dejan; Cirovic, Dragana; Cvjeticanin, Suzana; Knezevic, Tatjana; Raicevic, Mirjana; Brdar, Radivoj; Dzamic, Dragana; Janic, Nenad; Golubovic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Patients with spina bifida in the lumbosacral region usually have various degrees of motor and sensory dysfunctions of the lower extremities and anal sphincter. The aim of our study was to evaluate the distribution and differences in frequencies of affected muscles, number of affected muscles and degree of neurogenic lesion between patients with spina bifida occulta (SBO) and spina bifida aperta (SBA). Material and methods In 100 patients with SB, 6 muscles in the lower limbs were separately analysed. Due to the number of affected muscles, we evaluated 5 groups of patients: with 1 affected muscle, 2 affected muscles, 3 affected muscles, 4 affected muscles and 5 affected muscles. Three degrees of neurogenic lesions were assessed: mild, moderate and severe. Results The tibialis anterior muscle was most frequently affected in SB patients. The outer anal sphincter was frequently affected in the group of SBA patients. Single muscle affection is frequent in the group of patients with SBO, while in the group of patients with SBA, 4 muscles were significantly frequently affected. The great majority of patients (45.46%) with affected outer anal sphincter (OAS) in the group of SBO were without affection of other muscles, while for the SBA group it was for every third patient. Mild neurogenic lesion was significantly frequent in SBO patients, while severe form was significantly frequent in SBA patients. Conclusions Patients with SBO usually present with mild to moderate clinical presentation, while multiple root involvement and severe degree of neurogenic lesion is associated more frequently with SBA. PMID:22328890

  17. 'My Mom was my left arm': the lived experience of ableism for girls with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    van Daalen-Smith, Cheryl

    In many cultures, people deemed different, deficient or of lesser value are socially marginalized, disempowered, devalued and face innumerable barriers to health and quality of life. Persons deemed disabled are one such group. Through oppression, discrimination, and constant degradation, marginalized groups are denied the basic human right of dignity. For five girls with Spina Bifida, the experience of societal ableism, i.e. the belief that being able bodied is normal, eroded their sense of self worth, impinged upon their human rights, and isolated them in their own degradation - until they came together and spoke. My Mom Was My Left Arm illuminates the impact of ableism on the health and well-being of girls living with Spina Bifida. Several focus groups with five girls concerning their lives, anger and health yielded compelling reasons for today's contemporary nurse to explicitly practice from a social justice framework. In being deemed other, less than and viewed as their disability, the young women interviewed believed they had never reached their actual life potential. The relationship between health and ableist discrimination as lived by young women with Spina Bifida will be explored. The paper will close with nursing's ethical imperative to advocate for social justice, equity, fairness and dignity. PMID:17343529

  18. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  19. How Does Participation of Youth With Spina Bifida Vary by Age?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin H. Kelly; Haluk Altiok; Julie A. Gorzkowski; Jennifer R. Abrams; Lawrence C. Vogel

    2011-01-01

    Background  Youth with disabilities are at risk for decreased participation in community activities. However, little is known about participation\\u000a at different developmental periods of childhood and adolescence among youth with spina bifida (SB) or whether child, family,\\u000a and SB-associated factors influence participation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  Our cross-sectional study examined participation among youth with SB and assessed how participation differs between youth\\u000a ages 2–5, 6–12,

  20. Cognitive and functional outcome in spina bifida–Chiari II malformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Jenkinson; Sophie Campbell; Caroline Hayhurst; Simon Clark; Jothy Kandasamy; Maggie K. Lee; Ann Flynn; Peter Murphy; Conor L. Mallucci

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  The long-term outcome in spina bifida–Chiari II–hydrocephalus complex is poorly understood. Traditional neurosurgical outcome\\u000a measures are crude. Neuropsychological testing is increasingly important in outcome assessment. We investigated the health,\\u000a disability, lifestyle and cognitive function in adults who had myelomeningocoele closure at birth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Adult patients under routine follow-up were assessed in a joint neurosurgery\\/neuropsychology clinic. Patients completed lifestyle\\u000a questionnaires, the hydrocephalus

  1. The epidemiology of anencephaly and spina bifida in Izmir, Turkey, in the light of recent aetiological theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Buckley; Oktay Erten

    1979-01-01

    The data from this study suggest that, in western Turkey, potato consumption and water hardness do not play a significant role in the aetiology of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB). Several of the predictions of the fetus-fetus interaction theory are not supported. Other predictions could not be tested because of lack of information on the dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate. Twin

  2. Assistive Technology Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kurt L.; Dudgeon, Brian; Kuehn, Carrie; Walker, William

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the use of assistive technology among a population of individuals with spina bifida. Methods. We performed a descriptive analysis of individuals aged 13 to 27 years diagnosed with myelomeningocele (n=348) using data obtained from an existing database at Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. We summarized disease characteristics, utilization of assistive technology, community and self-care independence, and other variables. Results. Eighty-four percent of the respondents lived with at least 1 of their natural parents. Fifty-seven percent used wheelchairs, 35% used braces, and 23% used walking aids. Independent self-care was a common skill, but 72% reported limited participation in structured activities. Half were aged 18 years or older; of those, only 50% had completed high school and 71% were unemployed. Those aged younger than 18 years were all still in school (100%). Conclusions. Adolescents and young adults with spina bifida rely on assistive technology and specialized care routines to maintain their health. Assistive technology use for mobility is common; little is known about secondary complications associated with use of these technologies or the use of assistive technology to address learning disabilities and other societal barriers. Underutilization of assistive technology could delay successful transitions to independent living and community participation. PMID:17194874

  3. Curly tail: a 50 year history of the mouse spina bifida model

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Henny W.M.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews 50 years of progress towards understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTD) in the curly tail (ct) mutant mouse. More than 45 papers have been published on various aspects of curly tail with the result that it is now the best understood mouse model of NTD pathogenesis. The failure of closure of the spinal neural tube, which leads to spina bifida in this mouse, has been traced back to a tissue-specific defect of cell proliferation in the tail bud of the E9.5 embryo. This cell proliferation defect results in a growth imbalance in the caudal region that generates ventral curvature of the body axis. Neurulation movements are opposed, leading to delayed neuropore closure and spina bifida, or tail defects. It is interesting to reflect that these advances have been achieved in the absence of information on the nature of the ct gene product, which remains unidentified. In addition to the principal ct gene, which maps to distal Chromosome 4, the curly tail phenotype is influenced by several modifier genes and by environmental factors. NTD in curly tail are resistant to folic acid, but can be prevented by myo-inositol. These and other features of NTD in this system bear striking similarities to the situation in humans, making curly tail a model for understanding a sub-type of human NTD. PMID:11396850

  4. Friendships of Children and Adolescents With Spina Bifida: Social Adjustment, Social Performance, and Social Skills

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Katie A.; Gayes, Laurie; Purnell, Jason Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective?To characterize dyadic and general friendships of youth with spina bifida (SB). Methods?Families of youth with SB recruited a peer to participate; 106 dyads participated. Youth with SB and peers completed questionnaires and interviews regarding characteristics of the dyadic friendship and each individual's general friendships.?Results?Youth with SB and their peers were similar in many ways. However, youth with SB rated the friendship as closer and were more likely to see peers as best friends rather than the reverse. Regarding general friendships, youth with SB spent fewer days with friends, reported lower levels of companionship, security, and closeness in their friendships, and reported lower levels of emotional support from peers and family.?Conclusions?Youth with SB experience significant differences in the quality and reciprocation of friendships. Targeted interventions may assist youth in developing high quality friendships. PMID:21930663

  5. Psychosocial and cultural factors associated with the management of spina bifida cystica in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, A; Adeloye, A; Adeyokunnu, A A

    1985-08-01

    A prospective study of the psychosocial and cultural factors influencing the management of spina bifida cystica was carried out on Nigerian children (48 males, 28 females) seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between January 1982 and December 1983. The parents of 74 of the 76 children had never heard of the disease, many had no idea of its causation and one-third incriminated witchcraft. Of primary concern was the cyst on the back. The better-educated parents tended to demand surgical treatment more than the illiterate parents. 22 children were treated surgically. The default rate was high because parents failed to get the expected hospital treatment. Most mothers showed relief rather than remorse on the death of their child. PMID:4029520

  6. Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schiano, C.M. [United Cerebral Palsy of Nassau County, Roosevelt, NY (United States); Demb, H.B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brown, W.T. [Inst. for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1995-12-04

    Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

  7. Evaluation of the MTHFR C677T allele and the MTHFR gene locus in a German spina bifida population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Koch; K. Stegmann; A. Ziegler; B. Schröter; A. Ermert

    1998-01-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated that the occurrence and recurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD) is reduced\\u000a by folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies have shown low plasma folate and raised\\u000a plasma homocysteine in women with spina bifida aperta (SB) children suggesting an abnormal folate metabolism. The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase (MTHFR) variant C677T, resulting in

  8. Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behroze Vachha; Richard C Adams

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB\\/SH) are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB\\/SH. METHODS: Twenty six children with SB\\/SH

  9. The methionine synthase reductase 66A>G polymorphism is a maternal risk factor for spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivon J. M. van der Linden; Martin den Heijer; Lydia A. Afman; Henkjan Gellekink; Sita H. H. M. Vermeulen; Leo A. J. Kluijtmans; Henk J. Blom

    2006-01-01

    The methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) enzyme restores methionine synthase (MTR) enzyme activity and therefore plays an essential role in homocysteine remethylation. In some studies, the 66A>G polymorphism in the MTRR gene was associated with increased neural tube defect (NTD) risk. Using a case-control design, we studied the association between the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism and spina bifida risk in 121 mothers,

  10. Polymorphisms of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and the methionine synthase reductase genes as independent risk factors for spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek J. PIETRZYK; Marek SANAK; Magdalena TWARDOWSKA

    We analyzed the role of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene- tetrahydrofolate and the A66G polymorphism of the methionine synthase reductase genes as risk factors for occurrence of spina bifida. The studied population included 106 mothers and 104 children from affected families, and a control group of 100 adults. We found statistically significant differences between the occurrence of the homozygosity

  11. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

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  12. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce the incidence of neural ... it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily. ...

  13. Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... plate of cells along the back of an embryo (called the neural plate). Early in development, the ... form the brain and spinal cord of the embryo. As development progresses, the top of the tube ...

  14. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005–2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Methods Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. Results From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Conclusion Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya.

  15. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kulesz, Paulina A.; Treble-Barna, Amery; Williams, Victoria J.; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM). Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting) and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control) attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus.

  16. The quality of life of mothers of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Civilibal, Mahmut; Suman, Murat; Elevli, Murat; Duru, Nilgün Selcuk

    2014-07-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a common birth defect associated with significant lifelong morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of life and psychological status of mothers of children with SB. In this study, we included 30 mothers with children with SB and 30 mothers of healthy children. The groups were similar for background variables (child's age, sex, and number of siblings; mother's age, marital status; economic status of the families, and presence of health insurance). The 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to all mothers. Except for social functioning and mental health, all SF-36 subscale scores were significantly lower and the mean STAI and BDI scores were higher for mothers of children with SB (P<0.001). SF-36, STAI, and BDI scores were not associated significantly with the child's age, sex, number of siblings, and mother's age. This study shows that the quality of life is affected negatively for mothers of children with SB. The clinician should pay close attention to the psychosocial status of mothers of these children within the scope of disease management. PMID:24811087

  17. Ethics of selective treatment of spina bifida. Report by a working party.

    PubMed

    1975-01-11

    Ethical problems in medicine usually arise when normal guiding principles appear to be in conflict. In the case of babies with severe spina bifida, or similar abnormalities, two such fundamental principles may be applied with opposing conclusions. The first is that any decision requires an estimate of the balance of suffering and happiness for those concerned in an action, and the other is the assertion that human life is sacred. Resolution of the conflict between these is possible by looking at the problem in a different and less fundamental way, and one such approach is through the concept of ordinary and extraordinary means. While man does not possess power of absolute ownership over life, his duties of stewardship require him to use ordinary means of safeguarding life; he may use, but is not obliged to use, extraordinary means. The distinction between ordinary and extraordinary means may vary with circumstance, and so the application of this principle involves decisions at a third or more practical level. These include an assessment of the child's abnormality, of the effects of this upon the quality of life possible for the child, and of the burdens that will be placed on the family and society. At each level the ethical decisions involve complex choices, and clearly any present policies must be regarded as temporary unavoidable compromises rather than as final solutions. PMID:46034

  18. [The diagnostic process in spina bifida: parents perception and viewpoint of clinical specialists].

    PubMed

    Herb, G; Streeck, S

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the subjective experience of communicative understanding between parents of spina bifida children and medical personnel. Research methods include content analysis of data from semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire to explore the quality of life as well as conversation analytic reconstructions of the "real" communication processes during outpatient clinic which were tape-recorded. Results of the interviews with parents and personnel demonstrate the great relevance of the quality of the relationship in the providing of clinical care; equally important is that the relationship between parents and clinic staff is shaped in a reciprocal fashion. Discrepancies in the perceptions of parents and personnel indicate individual reality constructions. It is desirable that parents and personnel construct a shared reality during their interaction. With respect to this end, the emotional resources of personnel should be regarded as competences and drawn upon more systematically. The parents' role as "experts" should be validated and their active participation in the construction of the communicative situation - which is normally determined by the institution - should be encouraged. PMID:7675749

  19. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Yaworsky, Paul J.; Muller, Yunhua L.; Salbaum, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development. PMID:23054727

  20. Transgenic studies on homeobox genes in nervous system development: spina bifida in Isl1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kappen, Claudia; Yaworsky, Paul J; Muller, Yunhua L; Salbaum, J Michael

    2013-04-01

    To develop in vivo assays for homeobox gene function in neural development, we generated transgenic mice in which the expression of a homeobox gene is altered only within the nervous system, in neurons or neuronal precursor cells. Transgenic expression of Hoxc8 did not result in gross abnormalities, while a Hoxd4 transgene caused death shortly after birth. In neural progenitor cells, the motorneuron-specific homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 induced early developmental defects, including absence of anterior neural structures, profound defects in the neuroepithelium and defective neural tube closure. A fraction of Isl1 transgenic mice exhibited spina bifida. Isl1 transgene expression was also associated with decreased proliferation and increased Pbx1 expression in the ventral neural tube. Our results suggest a function for some homeobox genes in development of the nervous system, and that cell-type- and region-specific transgenic models will be useful to identify the cellular and molecular targets of homeobox transcription factors in nervous system development. PMID:23054727

  1. Associations of Ethnicity and SES with IQ and Achievement in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Garnaat, Sarah L.; Myszka, Katherine A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives?We evaluated whether the phenotypic pattern of higher verbal than nonverbal IQ in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is consistent across subgroups differing in ethnicity and SES. We also explored the relation of cognitive and academic performance.?Methods?Non-Hispanic White (n = 153) and Hispanic (n = 80) children with SBM received the Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence-IV and achievement subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the family environment [socioeconomic status (SES), resources, and educational opportunities].?Results?Multivariate analysis revealed that Hispanic children with lower SES had lower verbal than nonverbal scores. Hispanic children with higher SES and non-Hispanic White children demonstrated the reverse pattern. Verbal and nonverbal IQ interacted to predict reading and math performance.?Conclusions?Lower SES is associated with lower verbal IQ in economically disadvantaged Hispanic children with SBM. Academic achievement is largely correlated with verbal IQ, but children with lower verbal IQ may partially compensate with higher nonverbal ability. PMID:20150339

  2. The Influence of Social Adjustment on Normative and Risky Health Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Devine, Katie A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Klages, Kimberly; Potthoff, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the rates of normative and risky health behaviors and the influence of prior and current social adjustment on health risk behaviors in emerging adults with spina bifida (SB). Method These data are part of a larger longitudinal study of youth with SB; at ages 18–19, 50 emerging adults with SB and 60 typically developing (TD) youth participated. Social adjustment was measured at ages 12/13, 14/15, 16/17, and 18/19. Substance use and sexual activity were self-reported by emerging adults. Results The SB group reported similar frequencies (i.e., number of days in the previous month) of cigarette and marijuana use. Fewer individuals with SB reported initiation of both alcohol use (i.e., ever used) and sexual activity (i.e., ever had sex) compared to TD peers. The SB group also reported less frequent alcohol use and fewer sexual partners. Better social adjustment during early adolescence (ages 12/13) predicted more frequent alcohol use and a greater number of sexual partners for all youth. Social adjustment also mediated the effect of group status on health risk behaviors. Conclusions Emerging adults with SB lag behind TD peers in terms of normative initiation of alcohol use and sexual activity. However, this population participates in some risky health behaviors at similar rates compared to their TD peers (e.g., smoking). Youths’ health risk behaviors may be influenced by their level of social adjustment. A challenge for future interventions for this population will be finding methods of improving social functioning without increasing the rate of health risk behavior. PMID:24490647

  3. [Familial congenital diaphragmatic hernia with anencephly-exencephaly and spina bifida].

    PubMed

    Hussey, Maria; W?asienko, Pawe?; Adamczyk, Tomasz; Dangel, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 to 2500 live births. Even though the exact etiology is still unknown, more and more often current research points out genetic factors as the possible cause of the defect. According to the latest data and the own experience 50-60% of CDH cases are isolated. The rest forms a group of CDH complicated by an additional anatomic defect or a genetic syndrome caused by a mutation of a single gene or the whole chromosome. We have presented a case study of a 32 years-old multigravida para 3, who has been referred to the Reference Centre of Prenatal Cardiology in 30 weeks of gestation due to the diagnosis of acrania with exencephaly, spina bifida and suspicion for CDH in a fetus. Although the patient's first child died due to CDH, the patient neither before nor during the pregnancy was getting a folic acid supplementation. Moreover, she has not agreed on a further cytogenetic testing or an advanced consultation with a clinical geneticist. The child died after delivery in a local hospital. The case was described to indicate the problem that the CDH diagnostic procedure is still missing a molecular genetic analysis especially in the cases of recurrent CDH. By saying that in the cases of CDH we should always strive to complete the molecular testing having in mind that by discovering pathogenesis and genes responsible for the formation of CDH we not only might improve the therapeutic methods but also find a way to prevent its development. PMID:25807842

  4. Tethering of the spinal cord in mouse fetuses and neonates with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Dorothea; Shibata, Takashi; Meuli, Martin; Duffy, Patrick G.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Object Tethering of the spinal cord is a well known complication in humans with spina bifida (SB) aperta or occulta. Its pathogenesis consists of a pathological fixation of the spinal cord resulting in traction on the neural tissue which, in turn, leads to ischemia and progressive neurological deterioration. Although well established in humans, the phenomenon of cord tethering has not been described in animal models of SB. Methods A fetal mouse model with naturally occurring, genetically determined SB was produced by generating double mutants between the curly tail (ct) and loop-tail (Lp) mutant strains. Microdissection, labelling with DiI, immunohistochemistry for neurofilaments, hematoxylin and eosin staining of histological sections and whole mount skeletal preparations were used in the comparison of mutant and normal fetuses. Conclusions Normal fetuses exhibit the onset of progressive physiological ascent of the spinal cord from embryonic day (E) 15.5. Spinal cord ascent results, by E18.5, in spinal nerve roots that pass caudo-laterally from the spinal cord towards the periphery. In contrast, fetuses with SB exhibit spinal cord tethering that results, at E18.5, in nerve roots that run in a cranio-lateral direction from the spinal cord. The region of closed spinal cord immediately cranial to the SB lesion exhibits marked narrowing, late in gestation, suggesting that a potentially damaging stretch force is applied to the spinal cord by the tethered SB lesion. This mouse model provides an opportunity to study the onset and early sequelae of spinal cord tethering in SB. PMID:12956464

  5. Quality of life related to urinary continence in adult spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caroline; Casey, Jessica T.; Greiman, Alyssa; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Kielb, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlations of bladder management technique, ambulatory status and urologic reconstruction on quality of life (QOL) as affected by urinary symptoms in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. Material and methods Sixty–six adult SB patients completed the RAND 36–Item Health Survey (mSF–36) and Incontinence Quality of Life (I–QOL). Demographic information, history of urinary reconstruction, and bladder management techniques were reviewed and analyzed with respect to survey scores. Results Mean age of patients was 32.3 (SD ±7.2) years and 44 patients (66.7%) were female. Forty–five patients (68.2%) were mainly ambulatory, 21 (31.8%) use a wheelchair and 10 (15.2%) had urologic reconstruction, while 56 (83.3%) did not. Twelve patients (18.2%) void, 42 (63.6%) perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), 4 (6.1%) use an indwelling catheter, 3 (4.5%) have an ileal conduit (IC) and 5 (7.6%) mainly use diapers. Mean mSF–36 General Health score was 56.5 (SD ±22.9) and mean I–QOL Sum score was 50.9 (SD ±21.7), where lower scores reflect lower QOL. mSF–36 and I–QOL scores did not significantly correlate with bladder management technique, ambulatory status or urologic reconstruction. A correlation was noted between I–QOL scales and most mSF–36 scales (all p <0.02). Conclusions In our cohort study of adult SB patients, bladder management technique and urologic reconstruction did not correlate with urinary (I–QOL) or general health (mSF–36) domains, although I–QOL and mSF–36 scores correlated closely, suggesting urinary continence is significantly related to general QOL. However, we are unable to identify a single factor that improves either urinary or general QOL. PMID:25914840

  6. Epidemiologic and genetic aspects of spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public health officials to design and implement policies to prevent NTD pregnancies, and (c) individuals to take precautions to reduce the chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. Despite extensive research, our knowledge of the genetic etiology of human NTDs is limited. Although more than 200 small animal models with NTDs exist, most of these models do not replicate the human disease phenotype. Over a hundred candidate genes have been examined for risk association to human SB. The candidate genes studied include those important in folic acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, retinoid metabolism, and apoptosis. Many genes that regulate transcription in early embryogenesis and maintain planar cell polarity have also been tested as candidates. Additionally, genes identified through mouse models of NTDs have been explored as candidates. We do not know how many genes in the human genome may confer risk for NTDs in human. Less than 20% of the studied candidate genes have been determined to confer even a minor effect on risk association. Many studies have provided conflicting conclusions due to limitations in study design that potentially affect the power of statistical analysis. Future directions such as genomewide association studies (GWAS) and whole exome or even whole genome sequencing are discussed as possible avenues to identify genes that affect risk for human NTDs. PMID:20419766

  7. Epidemiologic and genetic aspects of spina bifida and other neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public health officials to design and implement policies to prevent NTD pregnancies, and (c) individuals to take precautions to reduce the chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. Despite extensive research, our knowledge of the genetic etiology of human NTDs is limited. Although more than 200 small animal models with NTDs exist, most of these models do not replicate the human disease phenotype. Over a hundred candidate genes have been examined for risk association to human SB. The candidate genes studied include those important in folic acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, retinoid metabolism, and apoptosis. Many genes that regulate transcription in early embryogenesis and maintain planar cell polarity have also been tested as candidates. Additionally, genes identified through mouse models of NTDs have been explored as candidates. We do not know how many genes in the human genome may confer risk for NTDs in human. Less than 20% of the studied candidate genes have been determined to confer even a minor effect on risk association. Many studies have provided conflicting conclusions due to limitations in study design that potentially affect the power of statistical analysis. Future directions such as genomewide association studies (GWAS) and whole exome or even whole genome sequencing are discussed as possible avenues to identify genes that affect risk for human NTDs. PMID:20419766

  8. A Description of Spina Bifida Cases and Co-Occurring Malformations, 1976–2011

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Samantha E.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400 ?g/day) or high intake (?400 ?g/day). SB cases (n=1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

  9. On the allergenicity of Hev b 1 among health care workers and patients with spina bifida allergic to natural rubber latex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiping Chen; Reinhold Cremer; Anton Posch; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Hans-Peter Rihs; Xaver Baur

    1997-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have caused much controversy about the prevalence of IgE antibodies to Hev b 1 among health care workers (HCWs) and patients with spina bifida (SB) who are allergic to latex. This investigation was carried out to verify the results reported. Method: Serum samples from 140 patients with SB as well as from 105 HCWs allergic to latex

  10. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  11. Altered Folate Metabolism and Disposition in Mothers Affected by a Spina Bifida Pregnancy: Influence of 677c ? t Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and 2756a ? g Methionine Synthase Genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Lucock; Ioannis Daskalakis; David Briggs; Zoe Yates; Malcolm Levene

    2000-01-01

    Periconceptional folate prevents spina bifida although the mechanisms involved are unclear. We present the genotype frequency for the 677 ct methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 2756ag methionine synthase (MetSyn) polymorphisms. Calculated odds ratios (OR) show that neither the homozygous recessive genotype, carriage of the mutant allele, nor frequency of the mutant allele represent significantly increased risk for neural tube defect (NTD).

  12. Brain Mechanisms for Reading and Language Processing in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele: A Combined Magnetic Source and Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis G. Simos; Andrew C. Papanicolaou; Eduardo Martinez Castillo; Jenifer Juranek; Paul T. Cirino; Roozbeh Rezaie; Jack M. Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The development of the ability to process spoken and written language depends upon a network of left hemisphere temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. The present study explored features of brain organization in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and shunted hydrocephalus, who commonly present with precocious development of word reading skills and preservation of vocabulary and grammar skills. Method:

  13. Auditory interhemispheric transfer in relation to patterns of partial agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Hannay, H. Julia; Walker, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry; Blaser, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    Spina bifida meningomyelocele with hydrocephalus (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC). We describe MRI patterns of regional CC agenesis and relate CC anomalies to functional laterality based on a dichotic listening test in 90 children with SBM and 27 typically developing controls. Many children with SBM (n = 40) showed regional CC anomalies in the form of agenesis of the rostrum and0or splenium, and a smaller number (n = 20) showed hypoplasia (thinning) of all CC regions (rostrum, genu, body, and splenium). The expected right ear advantage (REA) was exhibited by normal controls and children with SBM having a normal or hypoplastic splenium. It was not shown by children with SBM who were left handed, missing a splenium, or had a higher level spinal cord lesion. Perhaps the right hemisphere of these children is more involved in processing some aspects of linguistic stimuli. PMID:18764972

  14. Distribution of alleles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in familial spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Stenroos, E S; Heath, S C; Chen, Y; Carroll, R; McKoy, V V; Chatkupt, S; Lehner, T

    1999-12-22

    Spina bifida cystica (SB) is one of the most common and disabling of birth defects. Folic acid supplementation in mothers during the periconceptional period has been shown to prevent more than 70% of neural tube defects (NTD) including SB. However, the mechanism is unknown. We tested a series of multicase SB families in which 224 individuals were genotyped and a group of 215 unrelated unaffected (external) control individuals for association of SB with the T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism that produces a heat-labile enzyme protein. The data were analyzed using first the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) and second a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods. No association of SB with the MTHFR T allele was found by either method. Presently, association between SB and the T allele has been found in four studies, a Dutch study, an Irish study, a North American study, and an Italian study. But no association was found in four other studies, a British study, a French study, a Turkish study, and a German study. A California population-based study found only modestly increased risk of SB with this allele that was not significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present study finds no evidence of the association. Only one other study, the German study, has used TDT analysis. The present study is the first to use a modified case-control study design with Monte Carlo sampling methods to test this association. Thus, it appears that the MTHFR T allele is a risk factor for SB in some populations but not others. Major genetic risk factors for folate-related SB remain to be found. PMID:10594879

  15. Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

  16. Inpatient and Emergency Room Visits for Adolescents and Young Adults With Spina Bifida Living in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Joshua R.; Royer, Julie A.; Turk, Margaret A.; McDermott, Suzanne; Holland, Margaret M.; Ozturk, Orgul D.; Hardin, James W.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare emergency room (ER) and inpatient hospital (IP) use rates for persons with spina bifida (SB) to peers without SB, when transition from pediatric to adult health care is likely to occur; and to analyze those ER and IP rates by age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and type of residential area. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Secondary data analysis in South Carolina. Participants We studied individuals who were between 15 and 24 years old and enrolled in the State Health Plan (SHP) or state Medicaid during the 2000–2010 study period. Methods Individuals with SB were identified using ICD-9 billing codes (741.0, 741.9) in SHP, Medicaid, and hospital uniform billing (UB) data. ER and IP encounters were identified using UB data. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) Poisson models were estimated to compare rates of ER and IP use among the SB group to the comparison group. Main Outcome Measures Total ER rate and IP rate, in addition to cause-specific rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) and other condition categories. Results We found higher rates of ER and IP use in persons with SB compared to the control group. Among individuals with SB, young adults (those 20–24 years old) had higher rates of ER use due to all ACSC (P = .023), other ACSC (P = .04), and urinary tract infections (UTI; P = .002) compared to adolescents (those 15–19 years old). Conclusions Young adulthood is associated with increased ER use overall, as well as in specific condition categories (most notably UTI) in individuals 15–24 years old with SB. This association may be indicative of changing healthcare access as people with SB move from adolescent to adult health care, and/or physiologic changes during the age range studied. PMID:25511690

  17. Marital quality of parents of children with spina bifida: a case-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, M; McGarth, P J; Daniels, T; Manion, I; Schillinger, J

    1994-10-01

    The impact of childhood chronic illness on parents' marital quality has received limited attention. Most studies have relied solely on mothers' reports and have not examined differences between mothers and fathers. Using a case-control design, this study compared the marital quality within and between dyads of 46 couples with children matched on the age and children matched on the age and sex of the child. During a home visit, parents completed both self-report measures and a communication observational task. Mothers' and fathers' reports of marital quality did not differ between the two groups. Also, no significant differences were found on other marital and psychosocial measures. The most interesting correlations were observed for fathers of children with spinal bifida whose marital quality was associated with parenting stress (r = -.51), depression (r = -.34), and role strain (r = -.34). Overall, the results of this study contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that parents of children with a chronic condition are at no greater risk for psychosocial dysfunction, including marital distress, than parents of healthy children. However, to generalize the results, additional research on marital quality with other chronic conditions is required. PMID:7868699

  18. Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vachha, Behroze; Adams, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    Background Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH) are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB/SH. Methods Twenty six children with SB/SH and 26 controls (age: 7 – 16 y) with average intelligence, and monolingual English-speaking backgrounds participated in the study. Exclusion criteria for the SB/SH group were: prior history of shunt infection, history of seizure or shunt malfunction within the previous three months, prior diagnoses of attention disorders and/or clinical depression. Children were presented lists of words with equal exemplars each of two distinct semantic categories (e.g. fruits, animals), and told to make as high a score as possible by learning the words. The value of the words was designated by category membership (e.g. animals = low value; fruits = high value). The total number of words learned across three learning trials was used to determine memory span. Selective learning efficiency (SLE) was computed as the efficiency with which items of greater value were selectively learned across three trials. Results Children with SB/SH did worse than controls on memory span (P < 0.05). Although SLE was not significantly different between groups, when asked what strategy was used in the selective learning tasks, 65% of the SB/SH children said they tried to remember all words (inefficient strategy). In contrast, 85% of controls said they tried to remember the higher value words – the more efficient strategy. Conclusion Success in school is often dependent on the ability to recall important facts selectively and ignore less important information. Children with SB/SH in our study had a poor memory span and were unable to monitor and report an efficient and workable metacognitive strategy required to remember a list of words. Preliminary findings may begin to explain our previous clinical and research findings wherein children with SB/SH often focus on extraneous details, but demonstrate difficulty remembering the main gist of a story/event. PMID:16293188

  19. The 14.6 kd rubber elongation factor (Hev b 1) and 24 kd (Hev b 3) rubber particle proteins are recognized by IgE from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoong Yeet Yeang; Kay Fong Cheong; Elumalai Sunderasan; Samsidar Hamzah; Nyu Ping Chew; Sharifah Hamid; Robert G. Hamilton; Mary Jane Cardosa

    1996-01-01

    Two major water-insoluble proteins are located on the surface of rubber particles in Hevea brasiliensis latex. A 14.6 kd protein (Hev b 1), found mainly on large rubber particles (>350 nm in diameter), and a 24 kd protein (Hev b 3), found mainly on small rubber particles (average diameter, 70 nm), are recognized by IgE from patients with spina bifida

  20. Spina Bifida (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... spine ) are developing. Sometimes, the defect causes an opening in the back, which is visible. The spinal cord and its coverings sometimes push through this opening. Other times, there is no opening and the ...

  1. Spina Bifida Clinic Directory

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pediatric only) 2425 Stockton Blvd. Sacramento, CA 95817 (916) 453-2059 www.shrinershq.org/Hospitals/Main/ Loma ... Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center Myelomeningocele Clinic (pediatric 0-30, will refer older adults) 1465 South Grand ...

  2. Functional Significance of Atypical Cortical Organization in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele: Relations of Cortical Thickness and Gyrification with IQ and Fine Motor Dexterity

    PubMed Central

    Treble, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    The cortex in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is atypically organized, but it is not known how specific features of atypical cortical organization promote or disrupt cognitive and motor function. Relations of deviant cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity were investigated in 64 individuals with SBM and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals, aged 8–28 years. Cortical thickness and 3D local gyrification index (LGI) were quantified from 33 cortical regions per hemisphere using FreeSurfer. Results replicated previous findings, showing regions of higher and lower cortical thickness and LGI in SBM relative to the TD comparison individuals. Cortical thickness and LGI were negatively associated in most cortical regions, though less consistently in the TD group. Whereas cortical thickness and LGI tended to be negatively associated with IQ and fine motor outcomes in regions that were thicker or more gyrified in SBM, associations tended to be positive in regions that were thinner or less gyrified in SBM. The more deviant the levels of cortical thickness and LGI—whether higher or lower relative to the TD group—the more impaired the IQ and fine motor outcomes, suggesting that these cortical atypicalities in SBM are functionally maladaptive, rather than adaptive. PMID:22875857

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Crytzer, Theresa M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Fairman, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and poor exercise tolerance are health issues concerning adults with spina bifida (SB). Our aim is to describe exercise participation and identify motivating tactics and exercise devices that increase participation. Design In a quasi-experimental randomized crossover design, the GameCycle was compared to a Saratoga Silver I arm ergometer. Personalized free or low cost text/voice message reminders to exercise were sent. Methods Nineteen young adults with SB were assigned to either the GameCycle or Saratoga exercise group. Within each group, participants were randomized to receive reminders to exercise, or no reminders, then crossed over to the opposite message group after eight weeks. Before and after a 16 week exercise program we collected anthropometric, metabolic, exercise testing and questionnaire data, and recorded participation. Results Miles traveled by the GameCycle group were significantly higher than the Saratoga exercise groups. No significant differences were found in participation between the message reminder groups. Low participation rates were seen overall. Conclusions Those using the GameCycle traveled more miles. Barriers to exercise participation may have superseded ability to motivate adults with SB to exercise even with electronic reminders. Support from therapists to combat deconditioning and develop coping skills may be needed. PMID:24620701

  4. Use of intravesicular amikacin irrigations for the treatment and prophylaxis of urinary tract infections in a patient with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Donna; Morgan, Jill A

    2011-04-01

    This case report describes the use of intravesicular amikacin irrigations to treat and prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a pediatric patient with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder. A 15 year old Hispanic female was admitted for a UTI caused by Enterobacter cloacae and multiple-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A 7 day course of daily intravenous amikacin and ceftazidime was initiated along with twice daily intravesicular amikacin irrigations (15 mg/30 mL) with a dwell time of 2 hours. The patient improved and was discharged on prophylactic Bactrim SS (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) 1 tablet daily and intravesicular amikacin irrigations (15 mg/30 mL) once every other day. Approximately 2 months after discharge, the patient developed another UTI from multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and was treated with a 14 day course of daily intravenous ciprofloxacin accompanied by daily intravesicular amikacin irrigations. Adjunctive therapy with either once daily or twice daily intravesicular amikacin irrigations successfully treated the patient's UTI. However, prophylactic treatment with intravesicular amikacin failed to prevent future UTIs in this patient. PMID:22477833

  5. Brain stem/brain stem occipital bone ratio and the four-line view in nuchal translucency images of fetuses with open spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Piras, Alessandra; Arras, Maurizio; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: Brain stem depth/brain stem occipital bone distance (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view, in images obtained for nuchal translucency (NT) screening in fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). Methods: Single center, retrospective study based on the assessment of NT screening images of fetuses with OSB. A ratio between the BS depth and the BSOB distance was calculated (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view observed, and the sensitivity for a BS/BSOB ratio superior/equal to 1, and for the lack of detection of the four-line view were calculated. Results: There were 17 cases of prenatal diagnosis OSB. In six cases, the suspicion on OSB was raised during NT screening, in six cases, the diagnosis was made before 20 weeks and in five cases during anomaly scan. The BS/BSOB ratio was superior/equal to 1 in all 17 cases, and three lines, were visualized in 15/17 images of the OSB cases, being the sensitivity 100% (95% CI, 81 to 100%) and 88% (95% CI, 65 to 96%). Conclusion: Assessment of BS/BSOB ratio and four-line view in NT images is feasible detecting affected by OSB with high sensitivity. The presence of associated anomalies or of an enlarged NT enhances the early detection. PMID:25123518

  6. Spina Bifida Association of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Difference Top Ten Tips for Calling Elected Officials Top Ten Tips for Meeting with Elected Officials Top Ten Tips for Working with Other Groups ... Attending a Town Hall Meeting with an Elected Official State Rate Fact Sheets Legislative Action Center Action ...

  7. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 8 years old. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Obesity is the main cause of Type 2 Diabetes. ... 95th percentile, a person is considered overweight; and obesity occurs when BMI is greater than the 95th ...

  8. Natural Rubber Latex Allergy in Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be dipped to make softer products like balloons or medical examination gloves. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy ... with skin, inhaling latex proteins, or internally through medical ... Powder from latex balloons or gloves gets into the air. Therefore, people ...

  9. Upper extremity function in spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jette Jansen; Karen Taudorf; Hans Pedersen; Kirsten Jensen; Åse Seitzberg; Torben Smith

    1991-01-01

    Poor upper extremity function is often recorded in meningomyelocele patients. Only 2 of the 25 patients we assessed, 5 to 19 years old, showed normal upper extremity function in the clinical neurological examination and a timed hand function test simulating daily activities. Slow performance with unsystematic variability was typical. Poor hand function correlated strongly with hydrocephalus. A trend towards better

  10. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... an opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., ... medical rehabilitation. For more information, visit the Institute’s Web site at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/ . The ...

  11. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  12. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

  13. Selective nontreatment and spina bifida: A case study in ethical theory and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Defective newborn children are to be considered human persons. Thus, primary duty in proxy consent is to act with the infant's best interest in mind. This duty may at times override the otherwise prima facie right to life, but only under restricted circumstances. Refinements of McCormick's “relational potential” criteria and of ordinary-extraordinary means analysis prove useful in such decisions. Utilitarian

  14. Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

  15. IS SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH) A CANDIDATE GENE FOR SPINA BIFIDA? (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYMORPHISMS WITHIN THE THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE GENE AND SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. JUMONJI GENE AND RISK FOR SPINA BIFIDA AND CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Curly tail: a 50-year history of the mouse spina bifida model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. M. van Straaten; Andrew J. Copp

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews 50 years of progress towards understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTD) in the curly tail (ct) mutant mouse. More than 45 papers have been published on various aspects of curly tail with the result that it is now the best understood mouse model of NTD pathogenesis. The failure of closure of the spinal

  19. Thinking Styles and Coping when Caring for a Child with Severe Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M. Limiñana Gras; Javier Corbalán Berná; Pilar Sánchez López

    2009-01-01

    This study now designed to identify the cognitive dimensions involved in coping and the psychological adjustment of parents\\u000a of children with myelomeningocele. The study included 118 adults who were parents of children diagnosed with myelomeningocele.\\u000a Comparison of means and regression analyses were performed to analyze variables and their contribution to parental adjustment.\\u000a Significant differences were found for four thinking styles;

  20. Deliberate termination of life of newborns with spina bifida, a critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objects Deliberate termination of life of newborns (involuntary euthanasia) with meningomyelocele (MMC) is practiced openly only in the Netherlands. ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ is the single most cited criterion for this termination, together with the notion that ‘there are no other proper medical means to alleviate this suffering’. In this paper, both (and other) statements are questioned, also by putting them in a broader perspective. Methods First, a historical overview of the treatment of newborns with MMC is presented, concentrating on the question of selection for treatment. Second, a thorough analysis is made of the criteria used for life termination. Third, a case of a newborn with a very severe MMC is presented as a ‘reference case’. Conclusion ‘Unbearable and hopeless suffering’ cannot be applied to newborns with MMC. They are not ‘terminally ill’ and do have ‘prospects of a future’. In these end-of-life decisions, ‘quality of life judgments’ should not be applied. When such a newborn is not treated, modern palliative care always will suffice in eliminating possible discomfort. There is no reason whatsoever for active life-termination of these newborns. PMID:17929034

  1. Fetal Spina Bifida Repair – Current Trends and Prospects of Intrauterine Neurosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Fichter; U. Dornseifer; J. Henke; K. T. M. Schneider; L. Kovacs; E. Biemer; J. Bruner; N. S. Adzick; M. R. Harrison; N. A. Papadopulos

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele is a common dysraphic defect leading to severe impairment throughout the patient’s lifetime. Although surgical closure of this anomaly is usually performed in the early postnatal period, an estimated 330 cases of intrauterine repair have been performed in a few specialized centers worldwide. It was hoped prenatal intervention would improve the prognosis of affected patients, and preliminary findings suggest

  2. 118 SNPs of folate-related genes and risks of spina bifida and conotruncal heart defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M Shaw; Wei Lu; Huiping Zhu; Wei Yang; Farren BS Briggs; Suzan L Carmichael; Lisa F Barcellos; Edward J Lammer; Richard H Finnell

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folic acid taken in early pregnancy reduces risks for delivering offspring with several congenital anomalies. The mechanism by which folic acid reduces risk is unknown. Investigations into genetic variation that influences transport and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused on 118 SNPs involved in folate transport and metabolism. METHODS: Using data from a California

  3. Maternal Vitamin Use, Genetic Variation of Infant Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, and Risk for Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Shaw; Rima Rozen; Richard H. Finnell; Cathy R. Wasserman; Edward J. Lammer

    Maternal periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid substantially reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. The mechanism underlying this reduction in risk is unknown. Several recent studies have reported an association between homozygosity for a variant form (the C677T genotype) of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and risk for NTDs in individuals. It has

  4. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Association for Retarded Citizens, Down's Syndrome Congress, Spina Bifida Association...or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

  5. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Association for Retarded Citizens, Down's Syndrome Congress, Spina Bifida Association...or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

  6. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Association for Retarded Citizens, Down's Syndrome Congress, Spina Bifida Association...or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

  7. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Association for Retarded Citizens, Down's Syndrome Congress, Spina Bifida Association...or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

  8. 45 CFR 84.55 - Procedures relating to health care for handicapped infants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Association for Retarded Citizens, Down's Syndrome Congress, Spina Bifida Association...or diagnoses, for example, Down's syndrome and spina bifida, and procedures...specified by the ICRC, e.g., Down's syndrome and spina bifida....

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils from Galeopsis bifida and Phlomoides tuberosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Olennikov; L. V. Dudareva; L. M. Tankhaeva

    2010-01-01

    Galeopsis bifida (Lamiaceae) and Phlomoides tuberosa (Lamiaceae) are broadly distributed over steppe and foreststeppe regions of the Selenga River basin [1]. Lamas in Buryatiya used G. bifida and P. tuberosa to treat diseases of the eyes and lungs and as sedative and antidiarrhea agents [2]. Chemical investigations found in G. bifida herb flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, iridoids, triterpenes, and lipids [3–5]; in

  10. RISK FACTORS FOR NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS: ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN UNCOUPLING PROTEIN 2 POLYMORPHISMS AND SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. The Many Layers of Social Support: Capturing the Voices of Young People with Spina Bifida and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.; Montgomery, Gert; Stapleford, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Young people with physical disabilities experience greater difficulty than their able-bodied peers in many psychosocial domains as they transition toward adulthood. However, firsthand knowledge of the dimensions of social support that young people with physical disabilities find useful during this stage is lacking. This qualitative study involved…

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CITED2 GENE AND RISK FOR SPINA BIFIDA AND CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Idiom Comprehension Deficits in Relation to Corpus Callosum Agenesis and Hypoplasia in Children with Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber-Okrainec, J.; Blaser, S.E.; Dennis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Idioms are phrases with figurative meanings that are not directly derived from the literal meanings of the words in the phrase. Idiom comprehension varies with: literality, whether the idiom is literally plausible; compositionality, whether individual words contribute to a figurative meaning; and contextual bias. We studied idiom comprehension in…

  14. A Common Variant in Methionine Synthase Reductase Combined with Low Cobalamin (Vitamin B 12) Increases Risk for Spina Bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Wilson; Robert Platt; Qing Wu; Daniel Leclerc; Benedicte Christensen; Hong Yang; Roy A. Gravel; Rima Rozen

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of folate and cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism has been observed in families with neural tube defects (NTDs). Genetic variants of enzymes in the homocysteine remethylation pathway might act as predisposing factors contributing to NTD risk. The first polymorphism linked to increased NTD risk was the 677C?T mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We now report a polymorphism in methionine synthase

  15. PAX genes and human neural tube defects: an amino acid substitution in PAX1 in a patient with spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Hol; M. P. A. Geurds; S. Chatkupt; Y. Y. Shugart; R. Balling; C. T. R. M. Schrander-Stumpel; W. G. Johnson; B. C. J. Hamel; E. C. M. Mariman

    1996-01-01

    From studies in the mouse and from the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with type 1 Waardenburg syndrome, particular members of the PAX gene family are suspected factors in the aetiology of human neural tube defects (NTD). To investigate the role of PAX1, PAX3, PAX7, and PAX9, allelic association studies were performed in 79 sporadic and 38 familial NTD

  16. CHKA and PCYT1A gene polymorphisms, choline intake and spina bifida risk in a California population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James O Ebot Enaw; Huiping Zhu; Wei Yang; Wei Lu; Gary M Shaw; Edward J Lammer; Richard H Finnell

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of all human congenital defects. Over the last two decades, accumulating evidence has made it clear that periconceptional intake of folic acid can significantly reduce the risk of NTD affected pregnancies. This beneficial effect may be related to the ability of folates to donate methyl groups for critical physiological reactions.

  17. Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB

    PubMed Central

    Bernadac, A.; Wu, L.-F.; Santini, C.-L.; Vidaud, C.; Sturgis, J. N.; Menguy, N.; Bergam, P.; Nicoletti, C.; Xiao, T.

    2012-01-01

    Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50–85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

  18. 76 FR 9578 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Spina Bifida Patient Registry--Clinic Demonstration Project...review, discussion, and evaluation of the ``National Spina Bifida Patient Registry--Clinic Demonstration...

  19. 76 FR 58567 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...on the information needed to determine children with spina bifida eligibility for reimbursement of transportation expenses...Abstract: Children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and receiving vocational training or seeking...

  20. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...related to the spina bifida or covered birth defects. Requests for provision of...collection requirements in this section under control number...

  1. Yale Pediatrics A PRACTICE OF THE YALE MEDICAL GROUP PEDIATRIC SPECIALTY NEW PATIENT FORM Date

    E-print Network

    -785-3365 Rheumatology 203-737-7635 Bone Clinic 203-737-7635 Infectious Diseases 203-785-6961 Spina Bifida 203/Behavioral Pediatrics Rheumatology Endocrinology Spina Bifida GI Thyroid Center MDA/Neuromuscular Type 2 Diabetes

  2. The testing of blighted, aged, and control Russet Burbank potato tuber preparation for ability to produce spina bifida and anencephaly in rats, rabbits, hamsters, and mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Keeler; D. R. Douglas; G. F. Stallknecht

    1975-01-01

    Feeding trials were performed in which we tested for specific teratogenicity certain freeze-dried preparations from Russet\\u000a Burbank potatoes. The preparations were experimentally infected under conditions designed to ensure vigorous infection withPhytophthora infestans or infected similarly with the early blight organismAlternaria solani. Some preparations were cut and aged under conditions that enhanced the alkaloid level. Some preparations were untreated.\\u000a None of

  3. MATERNAL PERICONCEPTIONAL VITAMIN USE, GENETIC VARIATION OF INFANT REDUCED FOLATE CARRIER (A80G) AND RISK OF SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. EVALUATION OF INFANT METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE GENOTYPE, MATERNAL VITAMIN USE, AND RISK OF HIGH VERSUS LOW LEVEL SPINA BIFIDA DEFECTS. (R828292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Victoria L.; Damrau, Christine; Paudyal, Anju; Reeve, Benjamin; Grimes, Daniel T.; Stewart, Michelle E.; Williams, Debbie J.; Siggers, Pam; Greenfield, Andy; Murdoch, Jennifer N.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway is essential for embryonic development and the patterning of multiple organs. Disruption or activation of Shh signalling leads to multiple birth defects, including holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects and polydactyly, and in adults results in tumours of the skin or central nervous system. Genetic approaches with model organisms continue to identify novel components of the pathway, including key molecules that function as positive or negative regulators of Shh signalling. Data presented here define Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We have identified a new mouse mutant that is a strongly hypomorphic allele of Tulp3 and which exhibits expansion of ventral markers in the caudal spinal cord, as well as neural tube defects and preaxial polydactyly, consistent with increased Shh signalling. We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically downstream of Shh and Smoothened (Smo) in neural tube patterning and exhibits a genetic interaction with Gli3 in limb development. We show that Tulp3 does not appear to alter expression or processing of Gli3, and we demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of other negative regulators (Rab23, Fkbp8, Thm1, Sufu and PKA) is not affected. We discuss the possible mechanism of action of Tulp3 in Shh-mediated signalling in light of these new data. PMID:19223390

  6. Genetic mapping of the human homologue (T) of mouse T(Brachyury) and a search for allele association between human T and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Morrison; Charalambos Papapetrou; John Attwood; Frans Hol; Sally A. Lynch; Anu Sampath; Ben Hamel; John Burn; Jane Sowden; David Stott; Edwin Mariman; Yvonne H. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    We describe a genetic analysis of the human homo- logue (T) of the mouse T (Brachyury) gene; human T was recently cloned in our laboratory. The protein product of the T gene is a transcription factor crucial in vertebrates for the formation of normal mesoderm. T mutant Brachyury mice die in midgestation with se- vere defects in posterior mesodermal tissues;

  7. A frameshift mutation in the gene for PAX3 in a girl with spina bifida and mild signs of Waardenburg syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Hol; B. C. J. Hamel; M. P. A. Geurds; R. A. Mullaart; F. G. Barr; R. A. Macina; E. C. M. Mariman

    1995-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most prevalent congenital malformations in man. Based on the molecular defect of Splotch, an established mouse model for NTD, and on the clinical association between NTD and Waardenburg syndrome (WS), mutations in the PAX3 gene can be expected to act as factors predisposing to human NTD. To test this hypothesis, 39 patients with

  8. 38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...biological mother or father is or was a Vietnam...individual's biological father and mother are or were...status, whose biological father or mother is or was...the biological son or daughter of a Vietnam veteran...this section. In the absence of adequate medical...

  9. Knowledge and Use of Folic Acid by Women of Childbearing Age — United States, 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Each year in the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies are affected by spina bifida and anencephaly. Babies born with spina bifida usually survive, often with serious disability, but anencephaly is invariably fatal. The B vitamin folic acid can re- duce the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly by at least 50% when consumed daily before conception and during early pregnancy.

  10. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living With Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-004 Developing a Prospective...Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living with Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-004 Developing a...

  11. PALYNOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF CROATIAN HONEYS - CHRIST'S THORN (PALIURUS SPINA CHRISTI MILL.) HONEY PALINOLOŠKA I FIZIKALNO-KEMIJSKA KARAKTERIZACIJA HRVATSKOG MEDA - DRA?IN (PALIURUS SPINA CHRISTI MILL.) MED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Primorac LJILJANA; Bubalo DRAGAN; Corn IVAN

    The aim of this research was to determine physicochemical parameters and pollen spectrum of Christ's thorn (Paliurus spina christi Mill.) honey. 15 samples of honey from three production seasons were analysed. Pollen spectrum indicated that all honey samples were unifloral, with Paliurus spina Christi pollen content of 46 - 92 %, while number of other botanical species varied in range

  12. Isolated Spontaneous Primary Tubercular Erector Spinae Abscess: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavuk; Poudel, Rishi Ram; Morey, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous primary tubercular erector spinae abscess in an immunocompetent patient is very rare. Here, we report such a case of 21-year-old female, which was successfully managed with timely diagnosis and intervention. Isolated primary tubercular abscess of erector spinae is a rare differential diagnosis of low back pain; however, it must be suspected in an endemic region for tuberculosis, especially when raised erythrocytic sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are present. Excision along with anti tubercular therapy proved to be a successful strategy in our patient. PMID:25901241

  13. Differentiation of two hemp nettle species ( Galeopsis bifida Boenn. and G. tetrahit L.) inferred from morphological characters and DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Maslova

    2008-01-01

    Two species of the genus Galeopsis L., G. tetrahit L. and G. bifida Boenn. (family Lamiaceae), are problematic to distinguish often wrongly recognized, and treated by some taxonomists as a\\u000a single species. Morphological diagnostical characters of these species are variable and partly overlap. Species independence\\u000a of G. tetrahit and G. bifida was evaluated and their diagnostic characters verified using ISSR

  14. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  15. Longitudinal melanonychias.

    PubMed

    Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Ruben, Beth S; Loureiro, Walter Refkalevsky

    2013-01-01

    Melanonychia is black or brown pigmentation that appears in the fingernails and toenails. The pigment can come from exogenous sources, such as bacteria or fungal infection, tar, or blood. Endogenous causes include aberrant melanin production in the nail bed, resulting in a longitudinal presentation. Melanonychia can indicate the presence of cancerous growths, as well as infection. Diagnostic measures, including dermatoscopy, biopsy, and histopathology, can determine the cause and direct the course of treatment. Malignant lesions should be excised, and underlying infections should be addressed with antibiotics or antifungals. Benign lesions and hyperpigmentation may benefit from a wait-and-see approach. PMID:24079589

  16. The effects of repetitive motion on lumbar flexion and erector spinae muscle activity in rowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jillian S. Caldwell; Peter J. McNair; Maynard Williams

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in lumbar flexion together with the pattern and level of muscle activity of selected erector spinae during a rowing trial.Design. Cross-sectional repeated measures design.Background. Low back pain is a common problem in rowers. The amount of lumbar flexion occurring during rowing might influence the possibility of injury.Methods. Sixteen young adult

  17. Unbiased Longitudinal Processing of

    E-print Network

    Reuter, Martin

    Unbiased Longitudinal Processing of Structural MRI Data Longitudinal image processing procedures in longitudinal image processing, focusing on the introduction of bias, and describe the approaches we have taken to avoid them in the FreeSurfer longitudinal processing stream. Compared with cross-sectional studies

  18. 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd | Disease Models & Mechanisms (2014) 7, 1153-1163 doi:10.1242/dmm.016758 Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the commonest and most

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    2014-01-01

    including anencephaly and spina bifida, therefore reflecting the defects observed in humans. Strikingly, resulting in irreparable neurological damage by birth (Stiefel et al., 2007). Folic acid supplementation has

  19. [Differentiation of two hemp nettle species (Galeopsis bifida Boenn. and G. tetrahit L.) inferred from morphological characters and DNA markers].

    PubMed

    Maslova, E V

    2008-03-01

    Two species of the genus Galeopsis L., G. tetrahit L. and G. bifida (family Lamiaceae), are problematic to distinguish often wrongly recognized, and treated by some taxonomists as a single species. Morphological diagnostical characters of these species are variable and partly overlap. Species independence of G. tetrahit and G. bifida was evaluated and their diagnostic characters verified using ISSR and RAPD markers. A total of 57 ISSR and 28 RAPD fragments were obtained providing distinct subdivision of the accessions examined into two groups. Analysis of molecular data using the neighbor-joining method showed that the accessions studied fell into two clades in the same way as demonstrated by the analysis of 20 morphological characters using single linkage method. The morphological characters were found to be more variable compared to the molecular markers, although the combined of these characters provided differentiation of the species. PMID:18664141

  20. Comparison of the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors and erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors, erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region, and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises. [Subjects] Twelve males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed various back extension exercises. The activities of the T7 erector spinae muscles, L3 erector spinae muscles, and the gluteus maximus were measured, and the isolation contraction ratios were calculated. [Results] The isolated contraction ratio of the T7 erector spinae muscles significantly increased during exercise 2. The isolated contraction ratio of the gluteus maximus increased by a significant degree during exercise 1 compared with the other exercises. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the back extension exercises 1 and 2 can be applied to selectively exercise the hip extensors, thoracic muscles, and muscles of the lumbar region. PMID:25729158

  1. Production of Brachycentrus spinae Ross (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and its Role in Seston Dynamics of a Southern Appalachian Stream (USA)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS H. ROSS; J. BRUCE WALLACE

    ABSTRACT Environ. Entomol. 10: 240-246 (1981) Brachycentrus,spinae Ross had a univoltine life cycle similar to other Brachycentrus ,spp. Larvae hatched in May, developed through five instars, and pupated in March. Larval production, excluding silk secretions, was 260.686 mg AFDW m~2 yr~', and mean annual standing crop was 40.396 mg AFDW m~2. Annual and cohort turnover ratios (Production\\/ Biomass) were 6.4

  2. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  3. Longitudinal Stability Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-01-02

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  4. Congenital malformations associated with anencephaly and iniencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T J David; A Nixon

    1976-01-01

    The necropsy reports of 294 cases of anencephaly and 50 cases of iniencephaly have been examined, and a tubulated list of associated malformations produced. Cases were divided by sex and the presence or absence of spina bifida. Forty-one per cent of the series had other malformations, and other malformations were more common in those cases with spina bifida than in

  5. Experimental Induction of Foetal Malformation with ``Blighted'' Potato: a Preliminary Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Poswillo; Dinah Sopher; Sandra Mitchell

    1972-01-01

    SEVERAL reports have linked anencephaly and spina bifida with a dietary factor related to the consumption of potatoes. Recently Renwick1 has examined epidemiological data on anencephaly and spina bifida and postulates a link between the incidence of these neural dysplasias and the consumption of winter-stored ``blighted'' potatoes. He cites Leck and Record (unpublished results), who suggested that potatoes might become

  6. Idiopathic Polydactylous Longitudinal Erythronychia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical features of idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia. Introduction: Longitudinal erythronychia presents as a linear red band on the nail plate. Idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia is a rarely described manifestation of longitudinal erythronychia in which one or more linear red bands present on the nails of multiple digits without any associated subungual malignant tumor, dermatological condition, or systemic disease. Methods: As part of a total body skin examination, the fingernails and toenails were evaluated for linear red bands. Results: One or more asymptomatic linear red bands (longitudinal erythronychia) was observed on multiple digits of the hands in one percent (3 men of 134 men and 112 women) of patients examined during a period of 75 days. The author also noted similar changes of his own nails. Between 3 to 10 digits were affected. Multiple linear red bands per nail were usually narrow (less than 1mm wide), whereas a single band on a nail often ranged from 4 to 6mm wide. The intensity of an individual wider linear red band was position-dependent in three individuals in whom the distal portion appeared less prominent when the affected digit was held upward above the level of the patient's heart—pseudolongitudinal erythronychia. Other nail changes in these patients included distal subungual hyperkeratosis, fissuring at the free end of the nail, leukonychia, red lunula, and splinter hemorrhages. Discussion: Idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia is a benign, usually asymptomatic, condition of undetermined etiology characterized by one or more linear red bands originating at the proximal nail fold or distal lunula and extending to the free edge of the nail. It appears to be more prevalent in men over 50 years of age and its incidence was noted to be one percent of adults attending a dermatology clinic. Patients are either unaware of the nail changes or seek medical attention because of the nail plate appearance. Other nail changes can concurrently be observed including pseudolongitudinal erythronychia in which the distal intensity of an individual wider red band is less pronounced when the digit is held upward. Idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia has not been associated with benign or malignant subungual tumors, dermatological conditions, or systemic diseases. Conclusion: Idiopathic polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia may represent as a benign, possibly age-related, nail change without any associated local or systemic adverse sequellae. PMID:21532874

  7. Spectral analysis of the electromyograph of the erector spinae muscle before and after a dynamic manual load-lifting test.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, A C; Gonçalves, M; Gauglitz, A C F

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the spectral behavior of the erector spinae muscle during isometric contractions performed before and after a dynamic manual load-lifting test carried out by the trunk in order to determine the capacity of muscle to perform this task. Nine healthy female students participated in the experiment. Their average age, height, and body mass (+/- SD) were 20 +/- 1 years, 1.6 +/- 0.03 m, and 53 +/- 4 kg, respectively. The development of muscle fatigue was assessed by spectral analysis (median frequency) and root mean square with time. The test consisted of repeated bending movements from the trunk, starting from a 45 masculine angle of flexion, with the application of approximately 15, 25 and 50% of maximum individual load, to the stand up position. The protocol used proved to be more reliable with loads exceeding 50% of the maximum for the identification of muscle fatigue by electromyography as a function of time. Most of the volunteers showed an increase in root mean square versus time on both the right (N = 7) and the left (N = 6) side, indicating a tendency to become fatigued. With respect to the changes in median frequency of the electromyographic signal, the loads used in this study had no significant effect on either the right or the left side of the erector spinae muscle at this frequency, suggesting that a higher amount and percentage of loads would produce more substantial results in the study of isotonic contractions. PMID:15264016

  8. Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation on cumulative fatigue and muscle tone of the erector spinae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect. PMID:25642049

  9. Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation on cumulative fatigue and muscle tone of the erector spinae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect. PMID:25642049

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Lindsey Prince; R. Dwight Hare; Esther M. Howard

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine if the differences in achievement that existed at the end of the 3rd grade among 367 students continued to exist throughout their school years. The students were divided into three groups based on whether they attended public kindergarten, non-public kindergarten, or no kindergarten at all. Indicators of achievement for the three

  11. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  12. Attrition in longitudinal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos Twisk; Wieke de Vente

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to illustrate the influence of missing data on the results of longitudinal statistical analyses [i.e., MANOVA for repeated measurements and Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE)] and to illustrate the influence of using different imputation methods to replace missing data. Besides a complete dataset, four incomplete datasets were considered: two datasets with 10% missing data and

  13. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  14. Topics in analyzing longitudinal data 

    E-print Network

    Ju, Hyunsu

    2005-02-17

    We propose methods for analyzing longitudinal data, obtained in clinical trials and other applications with repeated measures of responses taken over time. Common characteristics of longitudinal studies are correlated responses and observations...

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  16. Muon cooling: longitudinal compression.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Antognini, Aldo; Bertl, Wilhelm; Hildebrandt, Malte; Khaw, Kim Siang; Kirch, Klaus; Papa, Angela; Petitjean, Claude; Piegsa, Florian M; Ritt, Stefan; Sedlak, Kamil; Stoykov, Alexey; Taqqu, David

    2014-06-01

    A 10??MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon "swarm" has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2???s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 10^{7}. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 10^{4}. PMID:24949772

  17. A meningomyelocele with normal intracranial signs on ultrasound and false-negative amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chong Hyeok; Kang, Sang Kyu; Jin, Chan Hee; Park, Moon Sun

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects are the major targets of prenatal diagnoses, along with Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida is possible at second trimester of gestation through ?-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase biochemistry assays and ultrasound. In particular, the discovery of characteristic intracranial signs on ultrasound leads to a very high diagnosis rate. However, it is rare for spina bifida to present without intracranial signs while also showing normal values of maternal serum ?-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid ?-fetoprotein, and acetylcholinesterase. In our hospital, a fetus with spina bifida was delivered at 37+5 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, and was continually followed up over 2 years to date. PMID:24883294

  18. Effect of the cervical flexion angle during smart phone use on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone on muscle fatigue of the cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT). [Subjects] This study recruited 12 healthy adults. [Methods] Each subject sat on a chair, with his/her back against the wall and held a smart phone with both hands. Fatigue of the neck and shoulder muscles at different cervical flexion angles (0°, 30°, and 50°) was measured by electromyography. The following muscles were assessed: the right upper trapezius (RtUT), left upper trapezius (LtUT), right cervical erector spinae (RtCES), and left cervical erector spinae (LtCES). A cervical range of motion instrument was attached to the subjects’ heads to measure the cervical angle during the experiment. [Results] The RtUT and LtUT showed the highest muscle fatigue at a cervical flexion angle of 50° and the lowest fatigue at an angle of 30°. There was no significant difference in the muscle fatigue of the RtCES and LtCES at any of the cervical flexion angles. [Conclusion] UT muscle fatigue depends on the cervical flexion angle when using a smart phone.

  19. Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Tracking the Life Course

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Tracking the Life Course Copyright © 2006 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Handbook #12;Wisconsin Longitudinal Study handbook 2006 WLS Support The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, and PO1- AG21079. #12;Wisconsin Longitudinal Study handbook 2006 Organization of the WLS Handbook

  20. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital images had less spatial and contrast resolution. With the equipment improvements discussed in the thesis, digital tomography may have an important role in radiology.

  1. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are born with spina bifida will have normal intelligence, but some will have learning or intellectual disabilities . ... effects, some children with this condition have normal intelligence. 6 Iniencephaly Iniencephaly(pronounced in-ee-ehn-SEF- ...

  2. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myelodysplasia repair; Spinal dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... hydrocephalus, the doctor may put a shunt (plastic tube) in their brain to drain the extra fluid ...

  3. A Legal Brief: Very Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses previous litigation relevant to the case of a child suffering from "spina bifida" whose parents have brought suit against a Texas school district for failing to include catheterization in the child's individual education program. (Author/WD)

  4. Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003....

  5. 76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: Children of Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and receiving vocational training or seeking employment may request reimbursement for transportation expenses. To...

  6. Related Services and the Supreme Court: A Family's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatro, Mary

    1984-01-01

    The article describes the efforts of a woman in securing, through court litigation, clean intermittent catheterization as a related service for her child with spina bifida. Effects of the decision process on the mother, family, and child are noted. (CL)

  7. Children with Disabilities Who Use Assistive Technology: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder-Brown, Loreta; Parette, Howard P. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses some of the ethical concerns that early childhood professionals should consider when identifying or adapting assistive technologies for young children with such disabilities as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, visual impairments, and hearing impairments. (BB)

  8. Areas of Responsibility in the Health Care of Multiply Handicapped Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanthor, Harold; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Forty-four mothers of children ages birth to 17-years-old with spina bifida were interviewed to determine whether primary physicians, specialists or other sources had taken responsibility for providing each of nine areas of health care. (CL)

  9. 38 CFR 17.133 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...regulations providing reconsideration procedures do apply (this includes CHAMPVA (38 CFR 17.270 through 17.278) and spina bifida (38 CFR 17.904) and any other regulations that contain reconsideration procedures). Also, these...

  10. ATSDR MEDIA ANNOUNCEMENT Federal Health Agency Completes Analyses of Tarawa Terrace Drinking Water

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    literature has associated VOCs with birth defects and childhood cancers. ATSDR's study may provide further and childhood cancers, such as spina bifida, anencephaly, cleft lip, cleft palate, leukemia and non

  11. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... During Pregnancy Data Spina Bifida Data Healthy Pregnancy Planning for Pregnancy Pediatric Genetics Developmental Disabilities CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. Updated by SW/SSD/DDCE 8/4/08 Services for Students with Disabilities

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    , spina bifida, diabetes, asthma, etc. The diagnostician should not be a family member of the student to the accommodations request. In cases where a condition is permanent and unchanging (e.g. cerebral palsy, amputation

  13. Iniencephaly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... birth defect caused by improper closure of the neural tube (the part of a human embryo that ... development. Iniencephaly is in the same family of neural tube defects as spina bifida, but it is ...

  14. 78 FR 4411 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...childhood conditions, including Down Syndrome and Spina Bifida. The birth prevalence...the combined birth prevalence of all metabolic or endocrine disorders in the core U...parental anxiety, ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB...

  15. 77 FR 58395 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...childhood conditions, including Down syndrome and spina bifida. The birth prevalence...the combined birth prevalence of all metabolic or endocrine disorders in the core U...parental anxiety, ``fragile child syndrome''). CDC is requesting OMB...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0580) (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  17. 38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0580) (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  18. 38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application...claiming eligibility based on a covered birth defect, an application under this subpart...collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0579)...

  19. 78 FR 14553 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...spina bifida, anencephaly); muscular dystrophy; fragile X; deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE...attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and Tourette syndrome. The Children's Health Act of 2000 required the...

  20. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate Genetic Counseling Genetic Testing Gene Therapy and Children When Your Baby Is Born With a Health Problem Cerebral Palsy Down Syndrome Spina Bifida Birth Defects Down Syndrome Cleft Lip ...

  1. Scoliosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem that affects the muscles. Problems can include cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy , spina bifida, and polio . ... They may have another serious disorder such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, so their goals are much ...

  2. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Needs Spina Bifida In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral Palsy Steven's Story: Power Player Going to a Physical ...

  3. For What Conditions Are Assistive Devices Used?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who have spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida , osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple sclerosis, ... Z Topics Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Birth Defects Cerebral Palsy All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights Cernich ...

  4. Going to an Occupational Therapist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Last? Mornings are tough for Joe. He has cerebral palsy , a condition that affects the brain's control over ... in the lines. Some kids with conditions like cerebral palsy (like Joe), muscular dystrophy , or spina bifida may ...

  5. Vitamin B9 source (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often require additional supplementation of folic acid. Adequate folic acid is important for pregnant women because it has been shown to prevent some kinds of birth defects, including neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Many foods are now ...

  6. Yale Pediatrics A PRACTICE OF THE YALE MEDICAL GROUP PEDIATRIC SPECIALTY NEW PATIENT FORM Date

    E-print Network

    -737-7635 Develop. & Behavioral 203-737-7635 Hepatology 203-785-3365 Rheumatology 203-737-7635 Endocrinology Rheumatology Spina Bifida Patientor referring officecalls 203-785-4081 #1 to schedule appointment Appointment

  7. Embryology Applied to Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Catala

    Spina bifida is a frequent congenital malformation involving the spinal cord. It was first described by Nicolas Tulp in 1651\\u000a (Figs. 2.1 and 2.2). Nicolas Tulp is also famous for the portrait Rembrandt painted of him during his anatomical lessons.\\u000a The term spina bifida was suggested by Tulp and proposed solely to describe the vertebral anomaly that was considered a

  8. The role of genetic counseling in the elective termination of pregnancies involving fetuses with disabilities 

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    2002-01-01

    in the mother’s bloodstream. These tests identify pregnancies at risk for dis- abilities such as spina bifida and Down syndrome. Diagnos- tic tests, such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, are considered invasive procedures but provide more detailed... of disability of the fetus, either Down syndrome or spina bifida, made no dif- ference in the decision that women believed they would make. The women’s intention to terminate a pregnancy appeared to be unrelated to their overall knowledge about disabilities...

  9. Epidemiology and Aetiological Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivek Josan; Andrew Morokoff; Wirginia J. Maixner

    Spina bifida refers to a wide range of neural tube defects (NTDs) affecting the spine and spinal cord. These defects result\\u000a from the maldevelopment of the neuropore and the adjacent mesodermal and ectodermal structures during embryogenesis. Spina\\u000a bifida can be classified as either open or closed type according to the presence or absence of exposed neural tissue. These\\u000a are called

  10. Mouse Fkbp8 activity is required to inhibit cell death and establish dorso-ventral patterning in the posterior neural tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Lee; Yean Wong; Bogdan J. Wlodarczyk; Kyung Soo Min; Melissa L. Scott; Susan Kartiko; Wei Yu; Michelle Y. Merriweather; Peter Vogel; Brian P. Zambrowicz; Richard H. Finnell

    2008-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects that can be disabling or lethal and are second in their prevalence after cardiac defects among major human congenital malformations. Spina bifida is a NTD where the spinal cord is dysplastic, and the overlying spinal column is absent. At present, the molecular mechanisms under- lying the spinal bifida development are largely unknown. In

  11. Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects' lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

  12. Regression Splines with Longitudinal Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many clinical trial studies, patients are observed and/or measured on multiple occasions. To account for the longitudinal nature of the data, a mixed model analysis implemented using SAS PROC MIXED is commonly used. It is typical to make comparisons between dose or treatment groups, possibly cont...

  13. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  14. Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mechanical Waves are waves which propagate through a material medium (solid, liquid, or gas) at a wave speed which depends on the elastic and inertial properties of that medium. There are two basic types of wave motion for mechanical waves: longitudinal waves and transverse waves.

  15. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina

  16. Single longitudinal mode multiwavelength fiber ring lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Liu; Jianping Yao; Jian Yao; Tet Hin Yeap

    2004-01-01

    A single longitudinal mode multiwavelength fiber ring laser is demonstrated. The single longitudinal mode multiwavelength operation is obtained using a fiber loop mirror with a saturable absorber and a Lyot-Sagnac filter or a fiber grating array.

  17. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. H.; Teva, J.; Boisen, A.; Davis, Z. J. [Department of Micro and Nanotechnology-DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Bldg. 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-20

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10{sup -15} g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a minimum detectable mass of 0.5 fg in air.

  18. Rhodophiala bifida (Cultivated) 2 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    between the contingency index and the correlation coefficient and plots of these parameters indicate that the wet season rainfall distri- bution at San Carlos is similar to the warm season rain- fall distribution at Riesel. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author... Plantation in Ecuador 2. Station locations at Blacklands Experimental Watershed, Riesel, Texas 12 3. Light "general" rain day pattern (in inches) in San Carlos network 26 4. Showery light rain day pattern (in inches) in San Carlos network 27 5. Heavy...

  19. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants. PMID:19579919

  20. Longitudinal feedback system at SRRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. H.; Lau, W. K.; Yeh, M. S.; Hu, K. H.; Hsu, K. T.

    2000-11-01

    The DSP based longitudinal multi-bunch feedback system is being developed at SRRC. Various operation modes are supported for feedback and diagnostic. The feedback system consists of a digital signal processor array to execute feedback algorithm and to provide raw data for diagnostic purposes. Simulation tools are used to aid control rule development. Software components of feedback system include feedback control rules and data acquisition in DSPs, system resources management at VME host, signal analysis and simulation in console. Hardware structure includes of front end and back end electronics, timing circuitry. In order to develop, commissioning and operate longitudinal feedback system efficiently, an integrated software environment has been developed. The commercial off-the-shelf product solution was selected in DSP environment. Network based DSP development environment provide a convenient way to code debug, beam test, and operate the feedback system. System simulate tools on console computer is integrated with SRRC control system which offer a simple way to interface the feedback system. System structure and development status will be summaries in following paragraph.

  1. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  2. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marcus L. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  3. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  4. Longitudinal Single Bunch Instability Study on BEPCII

    E-print Network

    Dou, Wang; Zhe, Duan; Na, Wang; Li, Wang; Lin, Wang; Jie, Gao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the single bunch longitudinal instability in BEPCII, experiments on the positron ring (BPR) for the bunch lengthening phenomenon were made. By analyzing the experimental data based on Gao's theory, the longitudinal loss factor for the bunch are obtained. Also, the total wake potential and the beam current threshold are estimated.

  5. Functional Data Analysis for Sparse Longitudinal Data

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jane-Ling

    Functional Data Analysis for Sparse Longitudinal Data Fang Yao, Hans-Georg M¨uller, and Jane of repeated measurements available per subject is small. In contrast, classical functional data analysis. Functional data analysis for sparse longitudinal data enables prediction of individual smooth trajectories

  6. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  7. 14 CFR 29.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 29.173 Section 29.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

  8. 14 CFR 27.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. 27.175 Section...Characteristics § 27.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. (a) Climb. Static longitudinal stability must be shown in...

  9. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section...Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To...car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of...

  10. 14 CFR 29.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. 29.175 Section...Characteristics § 29.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. (a) Climb. Static longitudinal stability must be shown in...

  11. 14 CFR 27.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 27.173 Section 27.173 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.173 Static longitudinal stability. (a) The longitudinal...

  12. 14 CFR 23.175 - Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. 23.175 Section...Flight Stability § 23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal stability. Static longitudinal stability must be shown as...

  13. Quality of life and functional disability in skeletally mature patients with myelomeningocele-related spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Sibinski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Higgs, Zoe C J; Kujawa, Jolanta; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life, physical function, self-motivation, and self-perception of skeletally mature patients with spina bifida and scoliosis. This is a prospective study on 19 skeletally mature patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Several questionnaires were used for the study: Activities Scale for Kids, Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire, The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, and the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire. This study found no association between spinal deformity or other features related to spina bifida and self-perception, motivation, and overall physical function. More severe scoliosis affects quality of life and is related to the degree of pelvic obliquity and the age of the patients. Individuals with motor-level dysfunction below L3 had significantly better overall physical function compared with those with a higher level of lesions. This was the only factor found to affect physical function. Our findings suggest that most limitations in patients with spina bifida are not related to the degree of scoliosis but to other associated disabilities. PMID:23197183

  14. Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-

  15. LONGITUDINAL TUNING OF THE SNS SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, Timofey V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The SNS superconducting linac delivers about 1 GeV of energy driven by self-consistent RF cavities. Here, we present an experience of the longitudinal tune-up of the SNS linac where a new application for quick RF phase setup and cavity fault adaptation was created. The routine of superconducting linac tune-up, longitudinal beam manipulation, and radio frequency cavity phase scaling for beam state recovery is presented. The application has direct value for beam optics study and will serve as the basis for longitudinal beam-size manipulation for the laser stripping project.

  16. Breaking of Longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Prabal Singh; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

    2012-03-01

    The breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin (AP) waves is demonstrated using a one-dimensional simulation based on the Dawson sheet model. It is found that the AP longitudinal waves break through the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below the breaking amplitude for AP waves, when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. Results from the simulation show a good agreement with the Dawson phase mixing formula modified to include relativistic mass variation effects. This result may be of direct relevance to the laser- or particle-beam plasma wakefield experiments.

  17. Interaction of longitudinal modes in MWCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, Vladimir I.; Deichuly, Michail P.; Petkun, Andrei A.

    1999-07-01

    Interaction of relativistic electron beam with the electromagnetic field of two longitudinal modes near the (pi) -type oscillations of TM01-mode has been investigated by means of a nonlinear code in the overmoded one- and two-sectional slow-wave structures (SWS). Longitudinal mode interaction in Cerenkov one-sectional generators has shown to result in the changes of generation regime from the stable to unstable one. For a multiwave Cerenkov generator with a two-sectional SWS a generation regime classification depending on the type of longitudinal mode interaction has been carried out. Numerical simulation results are compared with the previously obtained experimental data.

  18. Longitudinal erythronychia: suggestions for evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal erythronychia is a frequent nail presentation with a limited differential diagnosis. This clinical entity may be divided into cases that involve one (localized) or multiple (polydactylous) nails. The different presentations have distinct differential diagnoses and workups yet often share a common pathogenesis. Localized longitudinal erythronychia most commonly represents onychopapilloma, yet malignancies may present identically. Therefore biopsy may be required. Polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia usually coincides with a regional or systemic cause. Occasionally, it may herald an important underlying disease. A thorough understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, and possible diagnoses is necessary for successful evaluation and management. PMID:20709428

  19. Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629

  20. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  1. Determination of Longitudinal Stress in Rails 

    E-print Network

    Djayaputra, Ferdinand

    2012-02-14

    The objective of this research is to determine the longitudinal stress in rails by using the polarization of Rayleigh waves. Analytical models are developed to describe the effect of applied stress on wave speed and on the polarization of Rayleigh...

  2. On the identification of vehicle longitudinal dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Takasaki; R. Fenton

    1977-01-01

    A functional model of vehicle-propulsion system\\/roadway-interface dynamics is specified, and a model-matching procedure, wherein closed-loop vehicle longitudinal controllers are employed, is detailed for identifying the parameters of this model. This procedure was employed to determine the longitudinal dynamics of a dual-mode test vehicle. The derived dynamics, which are highly velocity dependent, were validated in a series of full-scale tests in

  3. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  4. Bunched beam longitudinal instability: Coherent dipole motion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this paper, the authors present a new formulation for the longitudinal coherent dipole motion, where a quadrature response of the environmental impedance is shown to be the effective longitudinal impedance for the beam instability. The Robinson-Pedersen formulation for the longitudinal dipole motion is also presented, the difference of the two approaches is discussed in the comparison. The results by using the Sacherer integral equation for the coherent dipole motion can generate the same results as by using the other two approaches, except for a scaling difference. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  5. Reflectometry using longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wu, J

    2000-09-01

    A new technique of reflectometry using longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves is presented. Reflection coefficient as a function of angle incidence of an ultrasound beam with a finite beamwidth was measured for water-aluminum, water-brass, and water-glass interfaces. The measured values have matched very favorably with the results of numerical calculations based on the angular spectrum of waves method. It has been shown that the speeds of longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves of a solid can be determined very accurately by measuring a spectacularly reflected signal versus angle of incidence. PMID:11012013

  6. Diffusion Effects on Longitudinal Relaxation in Poorly Mixed Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. R.; Ye, Q.; Neil, J. J.; Ackerman, J. J. H.; Garbow, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion of spins between physical or virtual, communicating compartments having different states of longitudinal magnetization leads to diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation. Herein, in two model systems, the effects of diffusion-driven longitudinal relaxation are explored experimentally and analyzed quantitatively. In the first case, longitudinal relaxation in a single slice of a water phantom is monitored spectroscopically as a function of slice thickness. In the second case, mimicking vascular flow/diffusion effects, longitudinal relaxation is monitored in a two-compartment, semi-permeable fiber phantom. In both cases, apparent longitudinal relaxation, though clearly multi-exponential, is well-modeled as bi-exponential. PMID:21524595

  7. A fight for the right to life.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Dawn

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the experience of 'Pamela*, mother of a child with spina bifida, diagnosed prenatally. It was disclosed during a research project exploring 'Family Centred Care' (FCC) with disabled children, and a very challenging ethical dilemma arose. This mother felt unsupported in her decision to go ahead with having her baby with spina bifida; this was in contrast to the support she received for her disabled child, once born. The discussion will focus around the challenge of supporting parents in decision making in midwifery and health care practice. PMID:22216581

  8. Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model: Longitudinal Shape Changes

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Morphing Aircraft Dynamical Model: Longitudinal Shape Changes Adam Niksch , John Valasek , Thomas W develops an aerodynamic model and a dynamic model of a morphing flying wing aircraft. The dynamic model for the morphing wing based on the aerodynamic forces from the panel method. The model allows for multiple shape

  9. Longitudinal studies based on vital registration records.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J

    1989-01-01

    We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588

  10. Longitudinal Establishment And Enterprise Microdata (LEEM) Documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltan J. Acs; Catherine Armington

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces and documents the new Longitudinal Enterprise and Establishment Microdata (LEEM) database, which has been constructed by Census' Economic Planning and Coordination Division under contract to the Office of Advocacy of the U.S. Small Business Administration. The LEEM links three years (1990, 1994, and 1995) of basic data for each private sector establishment with payroll in any of

  11. Sex in lasting marriages: A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben N. Ard Jr

    1977-01-01

    In 1955 data were collected from 161 couples who had been married for approximately 20 years and who had been participants in a longitudinal study of marriage during the 20?year period. The data concerned the expectations, perceptions, and experiences of the couples in their sexual relationships. Results indicated that both men and women had held positive anticipations about sex from

  12. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  13. Longitudinal Follow-up of Tinnitus Complaints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Andersson; Pernilla Vretblad; Hans C. Larsen; Leif Lyttkens

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term outcome of patients with tinnitus, the long-term effects of cognitive behavioral therapy, and what properties of tinnitus predict distress at follow-up. Design: A longitudinal follow-up of a consecutive sample of patients with tinnitus initially seen by a clinical psy- chologist.

  14. A longitudinal method of evaluating employee turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan P. Tsai; Edward J. Bernacki; Lorraine J. Lucas

    1989-01-01

    This study presents a longitudinal method of evaluating employee turnover patterns using the life table technique. Whereas traditional cross-sectional analysis examines turnover at a given point in time, the life table method is a simple analytic technique to summarize employee turnover trends over time. Turnover probabilities calculated using this method are particularly useful in evaluating the effectiveness of job retention

  15. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  16. Spectrum of single bunch longitudinal dipole modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Towne; Jiunn-Ming Wang

    1998-01-01

    A mode of coherent longitudinal dipole motion of the beam in the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) ring with small frequency is observed by Biscardi et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1856 (1995)]. We point out in this paper that the coherent motion observed is, although a solution to the well-known secular equation for Robinson instability, a

  17. Modeling longitudinal variations the low latitude ionosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. England; T. J. Immel; J. D. Huba; S. B. Mende

    2006-01-01

    A new large-scale longitudinal structure has recently been discovered in the equatorial ionosphere. The peak plasma density and separation of the two bands of the post-sunset equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) observed by the FUV instruments onboard the NASA IMAGE and TIMED satellites were found to vary significantly, with maxima in 4 sectors around the planet during equinox. It has been

  18. Attrition in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorly J. H. Deeg; Theo van Tilburg; Johannes H. Smit; Edith D. de Leeuw

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between attrition and characteristics of the study protocol, specifically contact frequency, and respondent burden. The study is based on data from a longitudinal study with side studies on various topics, so that respondents have differential exposure to these study characteristics. Attrition outcomes are refusal and ineligibility through frailty. The effect of side study contact frequency

  19. Longitudinal Studies--Are They Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Judith

    A longitudinal study of otitis media in young children, begun in 1981, aimed to provide information on the incidence and prevalence of otitis media in young children in the Newcastle (England) region and to follow their academic progress. Subjects selected for the study were kindergartners in five schools and represented an ethnically homogeneous…

  20. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  1. PROJECT LASER - LONGITUDINAL ADF STUDY EVALUATING RETENTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Barton

    Personnel retention and turnover behaviour have received much attention in both the civilian and military environments as employers contend with a competitive labour market and the challenges of skill shortages and changing population demographics. To improve current personnel research in the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and subsequently, the quality of retention initiatives, a longitudinal research program based on a customized

  2. Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Bartelsman; Mark Doms

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews research that uses longitudinal microdata to document productivity movements and to examine factors behind productivity growth. The research explores the dispersion of productivity across firms and establishments, the persistence of productivity differentials, the consequences of entry and exit, and the contribution of resource reallocation across firms to aggregate productivity growth. The research also reveals important factors correlated

  3. Issues in Longitudinal Research on Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel, Reinoud D.; Roeleveld, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van den Wittenboer, Godfried; Hox, Joop

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses two methodological issues regarding the analysis of longitudinal data using structural equation modeling that emerged during the reconsideration of the analysis of a recent study on the relationship between academic motivation and language achievement in elementary education [Stoel R.D., Peetsma, T.T.D. and Roeleveld, J.…

  4. Stably stratified boundary layer over longitudinal ridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Falcomer; V. Armenio; G. C. Carnevale

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that a boundary layer (BL) developing over a topography behaves very differently from an analogous, plane BL. On the other hand, in geophysical applications topographic effects are often predominant. We analyze the turbulent boundary layer developing over a longitudinally-ridged wall in presence of stable stratification. The analysis is performed numerically, using large eddy simulation (LES). A

  5. Design and Implementation Issues in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Larry H.; Pedulla, Joseph; Reagan, Emile Mitescu; Enterline, Sarah; Cannady, Mac; Chappe, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    To meet demands for accountability, most schools and departments of education at institutions of higher education (IHEs) gather information on their current students and graduates. This paper describes issues to consider when designing a longitudinal data collection and management system, drawing on seven years' experience developing such a…

  6. Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KUNG-YEE LIANG; SCOTT L. ZEGER

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to

  7. Personnel Issues in Maintaining Longitudinal Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Sally; Rogers, Glen

    In longitudinal studies, the same variables must be measured, in the same way, on at least two occasions. Research personnel are very important in keeping the necessary continuity of the procedures and the comparability of the measurements over time. As staff turnover can create serious problems, this paper suggests several strategies for reducing…

  8. 14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173 Section 23.173 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

  9. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173 Section 25.173 Aeronautics...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions...

  10. EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

  11. Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Barry Freeman

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines how measurement error biases longitudinal estimates of union effects. It develops numerical examples, statistical models, and econometric estimates which indicate that measurement error is a major problem in longitudinal data sets, so that longitudinal analyses do not provide the research panacea for determining the effects of unionism (or other economic forces) some have suggested. There are three

  12. SUPPLEMENT TO "CLUSTERING FOR MULTIVARIATE CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE LONGITUDINAL DATA"

    E-print Network

    Komarek, Arnost

    SUPPLEMENT TO "CLUSTERING FOR MULTIVARIATE CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE LONGITUDINAL DATA" By Arnost Kom´arek to the paper "Clustering for multivariate continuous and discrete longitudinal data" (Kom´arek and Kom, multivariate longitudinal data, repeated observations 1 #12;2 A. KOM´AREK AND L. KOM´ARKOV´A A. Prior

  13. STAR results on longitudinal spin dynamics

    E-print Network

    Joanna Kiryluk; for the STAR Collaboration

    2006-08-08

    We present preliminary results on the double longitudinal spin asymmetries A_LL in inclusive jet production and the longitudinal spin transfer asymmetries D_LL in inclusive Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon production. The data amount to about 0.5 pb-1 collected at RHIC in 2003 and 2004 with beam polarizations up to 45 %. The jet A_LL asymmetries, measured over 5 < pT < 17 GeV/c, are consistent with evaluations based on deep-inelastic scattering parametrizations for the gluon polarization in the nucleon, and disfavor large positive values of gluon polarization in the nucleon. The Lambda and anti-Lambda D_LL, measured at midrapidity and at low average transverse momentum of 1.5 GeV/c, are consistent with zero within their dominant statistical uncertainties.

  14. Modelling repeated-series longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Heitjan, D F; Sharma, D

    1997-02-28

    We present a model for describing repeated-series longitudinal data, that is, longitudinal data where each unit may yield multiple series of the same variable. Such data arise commonly in ophthalmologic studies, where one obtains measurements on the same variable for the right and left eyes at each clinic visit. We model the mean as a linear function of predictors, and assume that the error term is a sum of a random subject effect and a vector AR(1) process. We fit the model by maximum likelihood and assess the adequacy of the error assumptions by an extension of the empirical semivariogram. We apply our model for data from a clinical trial comparing two treatments for ocular hypertension and glaucoma, with intra-ocular pressure as the primary endpoint. Results suggest that autocorrelation within and between eyes is a significant feature of the variance model. Standard errors depend critically on the variance assumption. PMID:9044525

  15. Linac Coherent Light Source Longitudinal Feedback Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; Hendrickson, L.; /SLAC

    2005-06-15

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, it is critical to preserve the high quality of the electron beam during acceleration and compression. The peak current and final energy are very sensitive to system jitter. To minimize this sensitivity, a longitudinal feedback system on the bunch length and energy is required, together with other diagnostics and feedback systems (e.g., on transverse phase space). Here, we describe a simulation framework, which includes a realistic jitter model for the LCLS accelerator system, the RF acceleration, structure wakefield, and second order optics. Simulation results show that to meet the tight requirements set by the FEL, such a longitudinal feedback system is mandatory.

  16. Longitudinal injection transients in an electron storagering

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; De Santis, S.

    2000-11-02

    We present the results of an experimental study of the longitudinal beam dynamics at injection in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), an electron storage ring. By measuring the longitudinal bunch distribution following injection using a streak camera, we were able to study several useful and interesting e.ects as well as improve overall injection efficiency. These include measurement and correction of the phase and energy offsets at injection, measurement of the injected bunch length and energy spread, direct observation of phase space filamentation due to the spread in synchrotron frequencies, and measurement of the effective damping rate of the bunch shape including radiation damping and decoherence. We have also made some initial studies of the decay of an uncaptured beam at injection which may provide a novel means of measuring the radiation loss per turn.

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  18. Speed of longitudinal sound in clathrate hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Whalley

    1980-01-01

    The relative speed of longitudinal sound in clathrate hydrates and in ice has been estimated to an accuracy of about 1\\/2%. It is 0.939 and 0.945 for the full structure I and structure II clathrates, respectively, and 1.011 for the empty clathrate of both kinds. The difference of the speed of sound in a porous rock when filled with ice

  19. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gaskell; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Pawel Ambrozewicz; H. Anklin; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; D. S. Brown; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Samuel Danagoulian; D. De Schepper; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; M. Harvey; O. Hashimoto; Wendy Hinton; G. Hofman; Ceasar Jackson; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Ed Kinney; Doug Koltenuk; G. Kyle; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom ONeill; V. Papavassiliou; Dave Potterveld; Juerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; T. Takahashi; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; J. Volmer; T. P. Welch; Stephen Wood; Lulin Yuan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-01-01

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from ¹H, ²H, and ³He were measured at Q² = 0.4 (GeV\\/c)² for two values of the invariant mass, {bar W} = 1.15 GeV and {bar W} = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such

  20. Random-effects models for longitudinal data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Laird; J. H. Ware

    1982-01-01

    Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but

  1. Operation of PEP longitudinal feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.; McConnell, R.A.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-03-01

    In order to suppress longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations which might limit the capabilities of PEP, the 18 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at SLAC, a longitudinal feedback system is utilized. A frequency domain feedback system was chosen with the frequency spectrum of the stored beam being sampled close to a symmetry point in the ring where the feedback cavity itself is also located. The symmetry point chosen is symmetry point 5 which lies half-way between interaction regions 4 and 6. The system has been installed in PEP and is now operational. However, at stored currents up to the maximum stored in PEP to date at 14.5 GeV (approximately 40 mA in 6 bunches), the ring has been stable to all modes of longitudinal coupled-bunch oscillations both barycentric and the other fundamental modes. By deliberately detuning the main accelerating cavities, small multibunch oscillations can be introduced which, in turn, can be damped by the feedback system. Under optimized beam conditions the feedback system could be adjusted to positive feedback and excite oscillations with relatively small power to the feedback cavity. This will be described along with other details of the system.

  2. Quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Tooth, Leigh; Ware, Robert; Bain, Chris; Purdie, David M; Dobson, Annette

    2005-02-01

    Observational longitudinal research is particularly useful for assessing etiology and prognosis and for providing evidence for clinical decision making. However, there are no structured reporting requirements for studies of this design to assist authors, editors, and readers. The authors developed and tested a checklist of criteria related to threats to the internal and external validity of observational longitudinal studies. The checklist criteria concerned recruitment, data collection, biases, and data analysis and descriptive issues relevant to study rationale, study population, and generalizability. Two raters independently assessed 49 randomly selected articles describing stroke research published from 1999 to 2003 in six journals: American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Stroke, Annals of Neurology, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. On average, 17 of the 33 checklist criteria were reported. Criteria describing the study design were better reported than those related to internal validity. No relation was found between study type (etiologic or prognostic) or word count and quality of reporting. A flow diagram for summarizing participant flow through a study was developed. Editors and authors should consider using a checklist and flow diagram when reporting on observational longitudinal research. PMID:15671260

  3. Longitudinal wakefield for an axisymmetric collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh A.; Krinsky, S.

    2012-05-25

    We consider the longitudinal point-charge wakefield, w(s), for an axisymmetric collimator having inner radius b, outer radius d, inner length g, and taper length L. The taper angle {alpha} is defined by tan {alpha} = (d-b)/L. Using the electromagnetic simulation code ECHO, we explore the dependence of the wakefield on a collimator's geometric parameters over a wide range of profiles: from small-angle tapers to step-function transitions. The point-charge wakefield is determined using an approximation introduced by Podobedov and Stupakov. We have found it useful to exhibit the wakefield as a function of the scaled variable s/d{alpha}. For small taper angles, our results illustrate the satisfaction of the longitudinal scaling found by Stupakov, Bane, and Zagorodnov; and for larger taper angles, the breaking of this longitudinal scaling is clearly depicted. The use of the scaled variable s/d{alpha} turns out to be especially well suited to describing the wakefield for a collimator with step-function profile ({alpha} = {pi}/2).

  4. Longitudinal wakefield for an axisymmetric collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blednykh, A.; Krinsky, S.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the longitudinal point-charge wakefield, w(s), for an axisymmetric collimator having inner radius b, outer radius d, inner length g, and taper length L. The taper angle ? is defined by tan??=(d-b)/L. Using the electromagnetic simulation code ECHO, we explore the dependence of the wakefield on a collimator’s geometric parameters over a wide range of profiles: from small-angle tapers to step-function transitions. The point-charge wakefield is determined using an approximation introduced by Podobedov and Stupakov. We have found it useful to exhibit the wakefield as a function of the scaled variable s/d?. For small taper angles, our results illustrate the satisfaction of the longitudinal scaling found by Stupakov, Bane, and Zagorodnov; and for larger taper angles, the breaking of this longitudinal scaling is clearly depicted. The use of the scaled variable s/d? turns out to be especially well suited to describing the wakefield for a collimator with step-function profile (?=?/2).

  5. Modeling HIF relevant longitudinal dynamics in UMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Bernal, S.; Blanco, C.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koeth, T.; Mo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The foremost challenge for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) is achieving sufficiently low emittances and small energy spreads in the presence of intense space-charge, to achieve the high deposition densities necessary for pellet ignition. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) uses intense low-energy electron beams to access the scaled physics of HIF drivers. In particular, the long path-length propagation in UMER presents an opportunity to study, at realistic scales, the longitudinal beam dynamics and manipulations required for such a driver. With the use of induction modules, as in the ion machines such as NDCX-II, the resulting bunch dynamics show evidence of space-charge waves excited by an initial mismatch between the detailed initial beam distribution at the bunch ends and the applied focusing waveforms, persisting with multiple damped reflections propagating along the bunch flat-top. Using the induction module we are able to suppress space-charge waves with great accuracy, at amplitudes that include wave steepening prior to the formation of solitary wave trains. The longitudinal dynamics largely dominates when no containment fields are applied, coupling through the natural chromaticity of the ring even within the first turn. After subsequent turns, the bunch elongates and wraps the circumference of the machine multiple times; eventually reaching a point of instability that has also been shown through simulation, obtaining excellent agreement when the detailed longitudinal dynamics of the experiment are carefully incorporated into the model.

  6. Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

  7. Alternative description of particle shower longitudinal profile

    E-print Network

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel

    2015-01-01

    Alternative parameterization of particle shower longitudinal profile is presented. The accuracy of obtained shower profile description is about 2-3% for the 0-1500 g/cm^2 atmosphere slant depths and primary H, He,... Fe nuclei in 1 PeV-10 EeV energy range. It is shown that the shape of shower profile depends only on the nucleon energy, whereas the maximum shower size also depends on the energy of parental nucleus. Results are based on the CORSIKA simulated shower profiles and are presented in comparison with Gaisser-Hillas parameterization.

  8. Modeling the correlation between binary longitudinal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Suraiya; Jemain, Aziz; Hasan, Husna

    2014-09-01

    Binary outcomes which are observed repeatedly over time may be dependent not only on the covariates but also on each other. The repeated outcomes represent correlated binary longitudinal data and the modeling of such data was initiated by Liang and Zeger (1986) through the use of generalized estimating equations (GEE). Specification of the association structure among the outcomes remains a challenge associated with the GEE approach. This paper compares the GEE approach that uses correlation to the alternating logistic regression (ALR) approach that uses odds ratio, to model the association among outcomes.

  9. Longitudinal quark polarization in transversely polarized nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzinian, A.M. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Brothers St. 2, AM-375036, Yerevan (Armenia)] [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Brothers St. 2, AM-375036, Yerevan (Armenia); Mulders, P.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Free University of Amsterdam and National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics, P.O. Box 41882, NL-1009 DB Amsterdam (The Netherlands)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Free University of Amsterdam and National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics, P.O. Box 41882, NL-1009 DB Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

    1996-07-01

    Accounting for transverse momenta of the quarks, a longitudinal quark spin asymmetry exists in a transversely polarized nucleon target. The relevant leading quark distribution {ital g}{sub 1{ital T}}({ital x},{ital k}{sup 2}{sub {ital T}}) can be measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. The average {ital k}{sup 2}{sub {ital T}} weighted distribution function {ital g}{sub 1{ital T}}{sup (1)} can be obtained directly from the inclusive measurement of {ital g}{sub 2}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Alternative description of particle shower longitudinal profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel

    2015-05-01

    An alternative parametrization of the particle shower longitudinal profile is presented. The accuracy of the obtained shower profile description is about 2-3% for the 0 -1500 g /cm2 atmosphere slant depths and primary H, He, …Fe nuclei in the 1 PeV-10 EeV energy range. It is shown that the shape of the shower profile depends only on the nucleon energy, whereas the maximum shower size also depends on the energy of the parental nucleus. Results are based on the corsika simulated shower profiles and are presented in comparison with the Gaisser-Hillas parametrization.

  11. Digital vector magnetograph. I. Longitudinal field channel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopasyuk, S. I.; Zalesov, I. P.

    1996-01-01

    A digital magnetograph for measuring longitudinal magnetic fields is described. The principle of digital synchronous detection is applied in the magnetograph system. Results of test observations made in 1995 are presented. The maximum noise amplitude was found to be less than 1.5 mT with an integration time of 0.05 s and an aperture of 1×4 arcsec. Observations of a region of 200×200 arcsec on the solar surface require about 10 min with an aperture of 1×4 arcsec.

  12. Resonant longitudinal Zitterbewegung in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Manchon, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Zitterbewegung of a wave packet in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated. The coupling between edge states and bulk states results in intriguing properties. Apart from the oscillation in position perpendicular to the direction of motion, we also observe an oscillation along the direction of propagation which is not present in semiconductor nanowires or infinite graphene sheets. We also observe a resonance of its amplitude with respect to the central momentum of the wave packet. We show here that this longitudinal Zitterbewegung is caused by the interplay between bulk and edge states, which is a unique property of a zigzag nanoribbon.

  13. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; /SLAC; ,

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

  14. RHIC OPERATION WITH LONGITUDINALLY POLARIZED PROTONS.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.BAI,M.BEEBE-WANG,J.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    Polarized proton beams have been accelerated, stored and collided at 100GeV per beam in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) with longitudinal polarization. The essential equipment includes four Siberian snakes, eight spin rotators and fast relative polarimeters in each of the two RHIC rings as well as local polarimeters at the STAR and PHENIX detectors. This paper summarizes the performance of RHIC as a polarized proton collider in the FY03 run with emphasis on polarization issues. Preliminary data from the FY04 run is also shown.

  15. Advances in analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert D; Hedeker, Donald; DuToit, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we explore recent developments in the area of linear and nonlinear generalized mixed-effects regression models and various alternatives, including generalized estimating equations for analysis of longitudinal data. Methods are described for continuous and normally distributed as well as categorical (binary, ordinal, nominal) and count (Poisson) variables. Extensions of the model to three and four levels of clustering, multivariate outcomes, and incorporation of design weights are also described. Linear and nonlinear models are illustrated using an example involving a study of the relationship between mood and smoking. PMID:20192796

  16. Parametric survey of longitudinal prominence oscillation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Chen, P. F.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Ji, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Longitudinal filament oscillations recently attracted increasing attention, while the restoring force and the damping mechanisms are still elusive. Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for coherent longitudinal oscillations of the entire filament body, including their triggering mechanism, dominant restoring force, and damping mechanisms. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we carried out radiative hydrodynamic numerical simulations of the longitudinal prominence oscillations. We modeled two types of perturbations of the prominence, impulsive heating at one leg of the loop and an impulsive momentum deposition, which cause the prominence to oscillate. We studied the resulting oscillations for a large parameter scan, including the chromospheric heating duration, initial velocity of the prominence, and field line geometry. Results: We found that both microflare-sized impulsive heating at one leg of the loop and a suddenly imposed velocity perturbation can propel the prominence to oscillate along the magnetic dip. Our extensive parameter survey resulted in a scaling law that shows that the period of the oscillation, which weakly depends on the length and height of the prominence and on the amplitude of the perturbations, scales with ?R/g?, where R represents the curvature radius of the dip, and g? is the gravitational acceleration of the Sun. This is consistent with the linear theory of a pendulum, which implies that the field-aligned component of gravity is the main restoring force for the prominence longitudinal oscillations, as confirmed by the force analysis. However, the gas pressure gradient becomes significant for short prominences. The oscillation damps with time in the presence of non-adiabatic processes. Radiative cooling is the dominant factor leading to damping. A scaling law for the damping timescale is derived, i.e., ?~ l1.63 D0.66w-1.21v0-0.30, showing strong dependence on the prominence length l, the geometry of the magnetic dip (characterized by the depth D and the width w), and the velocity perturbation amplitude v0. The larger the amplitude, the faster the oscillation damps. We also found that mass drainage significantly reduces the damping timescale when the perturbation is too strong.

  17. A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-06-01

    The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  18. A new formulation of longitudinal coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    The quadrature response of longitudinal impedance is shown to be the effective impedance for the beam instability. The results of the application of this formulation are compared with that obtained using the Robinson-Pedersen approach and the Sacherer integral equation. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.

  19. Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

  20. Longitudinally pumped pulsed Ti:S laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongfa; Yan, Baisheng; Lei, Hairong; Zhang, Guowei; Chen, Qinghan

    1996-09-01

    Our pulsed Ti:S laser is abaxial longitudinally pumped by a frequency double YAG laser with VRM unstable resonator, the Ti:S crystal is Bi-Brewster-cutting. The single output energy of the Ti:S laser is over 130 mJ at 1 Hz and over 110 mJ at 10 Hz, the efficiency is 39.6% and 36. 7% respectively, the tunable range is 0.723 approximately 0.996 micrometers with only a pair of flat mirrors, the output energy in the two ends is 1/10 of that in the center wavelength. We discuss the effect of choice of the crystal size, the angle (alpha) (between the pump beam and the cavity axis) on efficiency. We suggest that the high absorptivity, high FOM value of the crystal bring high output and high efficiency when longitudinally pumped by a flat-top laser beam. We also show the scheme of our Ti:S laser and our broad band transmitted curve of reflective mirror.

  1. Testing independent censoring for longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanqing; Lee, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    Summary A common problem associated with longitudinal studies is the dropouts of subjects or censoring before the end of follow-up. In most existing methods, it is assumed that censoring is noninformative about missed responses. This assumption is crucial to the validity of many statistical procedures. We develop some nonparametric hypothesis testing procedures to test for independent censoring in the absence/presence of covariates. The test statistics are constructed by contrasting two estimators of the conditional mean of cumulative responses for each stratum of covariate space from sample subsets with different patterns of censoring. Our method does not require the modelling of longitudinal response processes, therefore is robust to model misspecifications. A diagnostic plot procedure is also developed that can be used to identify dependent censoring to certain covariate strata. The finite sample performances of the tests are investigated through extensive simulation studies. The potential of our methods is demonstrated through the application of the tests to a chronic granulomatous disease study. PMID:23976836

  2. Singular Longitudinal Waves in Nonlinear Viscoelastic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaw, Predhiman; Tiwari, Sanat; Das, Amita; Sen, Abhijit

    2012-10-01

    Many fluid materials with strong correlations and memory possess properties which can be described by hydrodynamic equations with viscoelastic transport coefficients, namely, equations of generalized hydrodynamics (Frenkel). Examples of such materials are strongly coupled dusty plasmas, strongly dense astrophysical plasmas, complex fluids, colloidal suspensions, polymeric liquids, blood flowing in arteries etc. We examine the generalized hydrodynamic equations for longitudinal disturbances in the limit of large memory relaxation time. Here longitudinal disturbances propagate as shearless elastic waves and the nonlinear effects arise dominantly through inertial terms. For small amplitude waves, we carry out a reductive perturbation expansion and show that the nonlinear disturbances are described by the Hunter-Saxton equation, an equation with a dual Hamiltonian structure and an infinite number of conservation laws. Nonlinear propagating step like solutions leading to ``shock waves of zero strength'' are the novel solutions of this equation. For arbitrary amplitudes, exact equations are solved with a stationarity ansatz somewhat different from the standard moving frame ansatz. Exact cusp like solutions with an integrable singularity in the energy like integral, are found.

  3. Optimization of longitudinal corrections of helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dawei; Fang, Zongde

    1992-07-01

    FEM and mathematical programming are used to obtain optimal longitudinal corrections of helical gears. Consideration is given to: the simultaneous engagement of three pairs of teeth; the influence of deformation of rims and webs; and the influence of deformation of shafts and bearings. A gear surface complex flexibility matrix is established in order to reduce the computer time needed. In the optimization of longitudinal corrections, a large number of iteration computations must be performed. Many meshing positions and contact lines must be considered. There are a great number of points on which forces may act. Flexibilities of points on which forces act are needed in iteration computations. In the past, flexibilities of contact points are computed when needed; as a result, the computer time required is unnecessarily great. Flexibilities of all points on which forces may act and store gear surface complex flexibility matrix in a database are computed. The flexibilities are recalled from data base whenever needed; as a result, the computer time needed is greatly reduced. Aircraft gears in actual use are taken as examples. Calculated results show that optimization or very good load equalization can be attained in theory.

  4. Longitudinal Section AA; Lower Chord Plan Powerscourt Bridge, Spanning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal Section A-A; Lower Chord Plan - Powerscourt Bridge, Spanning Chateauguay River, First Concession Road, Elgin/Hichinbrooke, Huntingdon County, Quebec, Canada, Chateaugay, Franklin County, NY

  5. Longitudinal emittance in high-current ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Pabst, M.

    1989-01-01

    The control of longitudinal emittance in an ion linear accelerator is important for minimizing both chromatic aberrations and beam halo. The root-mean-square (rms) longitudinal emittance grouth can result from either the nonlinear rf focusing fields or the nonlinear space-charge fields. We will present conclusions based on numerical beam-dynamics studies for both the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and the drift-tube linac (DTL). We will discuss the scaling of longitudinal emittance produced during the adiabatic bunching in an RFQ and will show the benefits of ramped DTL accelerating field designs to maintain high longitudinal focusing strength with increasing particle energy. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with vertebral anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajniti; Srivastava, G N; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2013-01-01

    We report a two-and-half–year-old boy who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections. He had cortriatum of right atrium, spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra and dysplastic right thumb. On CT of chest, he had also unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis. The case is being reported because of common manifestations of rare disease and its associated cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:23784756

  7. The use of the computerized and revised vital record in conducting etiologic studies on neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A Canfield

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of computerized vital records in Texas for conducting etiologic studies on neural tube defects (NTDs), using the revised and expanded National Centers for Health Statistics vital record forms introduced in Texas in 1989.^ Cases of NTDs (anencephaly and spina bifida) among Harris County (Houston) residents were identified from the computerized

  8. Conductive education at the Petö Institute, Budapest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Robinson; G. T. McCarthy; T. M. Little

    1989-01-01

    Conductive education, which was developed at the Petö Institute in Budapest, has been publicised incorrectly as a method of treatment for children with cerebral palsy. From the results of information given and our own observations during a week's visit to the institute we conclude that a minority of carefully selected children with cerebral palsy and spina bifida, who have a

  9. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and ?-(para-nonylphenyl)-?-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  10. Nathan Watt: A True American Idol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diana

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story…

  11. Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alice; And Others

    The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

  12. D-chiro-inositol is more effective than myo-inositol in preventing folate-resistant mouse neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Cogram; Sheila Tesh; John Tesh; Angie Wade; Geoffrey Allan; Nicholas D. E. Greene; Andrew J. Copp

    BACKGROUND: Among mouse genetic mutants that develop neural tube defects (NTDs), some respond to folic acid administration during early pregnancy, whereas NTDs in other mutants are not prevented. This parallels human NTDs, in which up to 30% of cases may be resistant to folic acid. Most spina bifida cases in the folic acid- resistant 'curly tail' mouse can be prevented

  13. Neural tube defects in Mexican-Americans living on the US-Mexico border: The effects of folic acid and dietary folate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucina Suarez; Katherine A. Hendricks; Sharon P. Cooper; Anne M. Sweeney; Robert J. Hardy; Russell D. Larsen

    1998-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are malformations of the developing brain and spinal cord; the most common are anencephaly and spina bifida. Evidence from many populations suggests that 50% of NTDs can be prevented through daily consumption of folic acid. A recent study has reported that folic acid may not protect populations of Mexican descent. This finding has serious implications for

  14. Effects of Folic Acid Public Education on Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior Change in Women of Childbearing Age in Preventing Neural Tube Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. McFarland; C. B. Johnson; J. M. Moore; C. D. Pierce; K. T. Robinson; K. M. Smith; W. B. Boone; K. N. Broome

    1999-01-01

    One goal of Healthy People 2000 is to reduce incidence of spina bifida and other neural tube defects to 3\\/10,000 live births. The US Public Health Service confirms the role of folate hi preventing NTDs by recommending that all women of childbearing age consume at least 400 micrograms of folate per day. NTDs occur before most women realize they are

  15. Cost-effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Postma; J. Londeman; M. Veenstra; L. T. W. de Jong-van den Berg; H. E. K. de Walle

    2002-01-01

    Background: Supplementation of folic acid prior to and in the beginning of pregnancy may prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns – such as spina bifida – and possibly other congenital malformations.Objective: To estimate cost effectiveness of periconceptional supplementation of folic acid using pharmaco-economic model calculation.Method: Probabilities for NTDs, risk reductions through periconceptional supplementation of folic acid and lifetime costs

  16. Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2000-01-01

    A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

  17. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  18. Spirituality: A Coping Mechanism in the Lives of Adults with Congenital Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline A.; King, Gillian A.; Willoughby, Colleen; Brown, Elizabeth G.; Smith, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the perspective of individuals with congenital disabilities about spirituality as a coping mechanism during crucial times in their lives, Qualitative analysis of interviews assessing turning points in the lives of 15 adults (6 women and 9 men; M = 37 years) with spina bifida, cerebral palsy, or…

  19. Subjective Age in the Transition to Adulthood for Persons with and without Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined subjective age (how old one feels) and associated variables in 148 emerging adults, ages 20-30 years. Seventy-six participants had a motor disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida) and 72 had no motor disability. Participants completed questionnaires and were interviewed. There was no significant difference in subjective age…

  20. Mothering in Families with and without a Child with Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Anna M.; Hayes, Alan

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 14 Australian mothers of children with spina bifida, 17 mothers with children with Down syndrome, and 38 control mothers, found that the experiences of being a mother were characterized by similarities rather than differences among the three groups. Differences in experiences tended to be disability specific. (CR)

  1. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  2. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Elective Termination of Pregnancies Involving Fetuses with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christy D.; Stough, Laura M.; Parrish, Linda H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 69 women at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability found most would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability regardless of type of disability (either Down syndrome or spina bifida). The decision was not related to knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to knowledge of…

  3. Valproic acid in pregnancy: How much are we endangering the embryo and fetus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asher Ornoy

    2009-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a known human teratogen. Exposure in pregnancy is associated with approximately three-fold increase in the rate of major anomalies, mainly spina bifida and only rarely anencephaly (NTD), cardiac, craniofacial, skeletal and limb defects and a possible set of dysmorphic features, the “valproate syndrome” with decreased intrauterine growth. This was demonstrated by prospective and retrospective studies. There

  4. Major Diagnostic and Pathological Features of Iniencephaly Based on Twenty-Four Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    József Gábor Joó; Artúr Beke; Csaba Papp; Zsanett Szigeti; Ákos Csaba; Zoltán Papp

    2008-01-01

    Iniencephaly is quite a rare malformation the etiology of which is still not fully understood. In the majority of cases it is a grave and lethal condition. It is often complicated by other abnormalities affecting the central nervous system (spina bifida, anencephaly), but malformations involving other organs and systems may also be observed. Based on 24 cases the authors have

  5. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Padula, Amy M; English, Paul B; Shaw, Gary M

    2014-03-15

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and ?-(para-nonylphenyl)-?-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  6. Sonographic Evaluation of Fetal Anomalies Associated with Maternal Diabetes Mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia M. Ciccone; Glenn A. Rouse; Marie de Lange

    1992-01-01

    Women with preexisting diabetes mellitus are at higher risk than others to give birth to an infant with congenital anomalies. Sonographic examination aids in the detection of these anomalies during pregnancy. The fetal anomalies associated with preexisting diabetes, including anencephaly, holoprosencephaly, occipital encephalocele, spina bifida, cardiac defects, situs inversus, duodenal atresia, anal atresia, and femoral hypoplasia, are reviewed. The sonographic

  7. Commentaries Scientific Evidence Supporting Folic Acid Fortification of Flour in Australia and New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P. Oakley; Mary Beth Weber; Karen N. Bell; Paul Colditz

    BACKGROUND: Fortification of flour with folic acid is a safe, sustainable, and cost-effective approach for preventing spina bifida and anencephaly, and it is likely to confer multiple health benefits to the adult population. Scientists and advocates are bringing this intervention to the attention of policymakers in countries around the world, and consequently the demand for sound, science-backed policy rationale is

  8. A Molecular Basis for Retinoic Acid-Induced Axial Truncation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Iulianella; Barbara Beckett; Martin Petkovich; David Lohnes

    1999-01-01

    Dietary deprivation and gene disruption studies clearly demonstrate that biologically active retinoids, such as retinoic acid (RA), are essential for numerous developmental programs. Similar ontogenic processes are also affected by retinoic acid excess, suggesting that the effects of retinoid administration reflect normal retinoid-dependent events. In the mouse, exogenous retinoic acid can induce both anterior (anencephaly, exencephaly) and posterior (spina bifida)

  9. Should folic acid fortification be mandatory? Yes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J Wald; Godfrey P Oakley

    2007-01-01

    The UK's Food Standards Agency recently recommended mandatory folic acid fortification of some foods. Nicholas Wald and Godfrey Oakley argue that it's a safe effective way of preventing spina bifida and anencephaly—but Richard Hubner and colleagues say that more research into the harms is needed

  10. Weekly Administration of Folic Acid and Epidemiology of Neural Tube Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura E. Martínez de Villarreal; Patricia Arredondo; Ricardo Hernández; Jesús Z. Villarreal

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In 1999, a folic acid campaign for prevention of neural tube defects was started in Nuevo León, México, with the recommendation of taking a 5000 -mcg tablet of folic acid per week. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology of neural tube defects after four years of the campaign. Methods: Cases of anencephaly, spina bifida, and

  11. Multiple point action mechanism of valproic acid-teratogenicity alleviated by folic acid, vitamin C, And N-acetylcysteine in chicken embryo model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Lan Hsieh; Hui-Er Wang; Wan-Jane Tsai; Chiung-Chi Peng; Robert Y. Peng

    The teratogenicity of antiepilepsy drug valproic acid (VPA) mostly is found in genetic and somatic levels, causing teratogenesis involving neurotubular defects (NTDs), anencephaly, lumbosacral meningomyelocele, and leg dysfunction due to spina bifida aperta. A diversity of nutraceutics have been tried to alleviate the risk of VPA-teratogenicity. The effect was varying. In order to promote the preventive prescription, to find out

  12. Characteristics of Reduced Fat Milks As Influenced By the Incorporation of Folic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Achanta; C. A. Boeneke; K. J. Aryana

    2007-01-01

    Folic acid plays an importantrole in the prevention of neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida and anencephaly), heart defects, facial clefts, urinary abnormalities, and limb deficiencies. Milk and milk products serve as a potential source for folic acid fortification because of the presence of folate-binding proteins that seem to be involved in folate bioavailability. Although milk is not a good

  13. Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Fortification of Flour: A Global Basic Food Security Requirement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P. Oakley

    Folic acid is an essential water soluble B vitamin which has been used for decades in the prevention of folate deficiency anemia of pregnancy. In 1991, folic acid taken prior to the start of pregnancy was shown unequivocally to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly—two of the most serious and common birth (neural tube) defects. Soon governments recommended that women of

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a folic acid fortification program in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolfo Llanos; Eva Hertrampf; Fanny Cortes; Andrea Pardo; Scott D. Grosse; Ricardo Uauy

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivePericonceptional intake of folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), a frequent birth defect that can cause significant infant mortality and disability. In Chile, fortification of wheat flour with folic acid has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of anencephaly and spina bifida. We investigated the cost-effectiveness implications of this policy.

  15. Should folic acid fortification be mandatory? No

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A Hubner; Richard D Houlston; Kenneth R Muir

    2007-01-01

    The UK's Food Standards Agency recently recommended mandatory folic acid fortification of some foods. Nicholas Wald and Godfrey Oakley argue that it's a safe effective way of preventing spina bifida and anencephaly—but Richard Hubner and colleagues say that more research into the harms is needed

  16. Frecuencia de los defectos del tubo neural en Asturias: impacto del diagnostico prenatal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique GarciaL; Cristina Rodriguez Dehli; Fernando Ariza Hevia; Adela Rodriguez Fernandez; Joaquin Fernandez Toral; Isolina Riano Galan; Carmen Mosquera Tenreiro; Hospital V. Alvarez-Buylla

    Objective: To describe the frequency and prevalence trend for neural tube defects (NTD) (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele) in Asturias (Spain), as well as the impact of prenatal diagnosis programs. Methods: All cases of NTD in births and induced abortions were studied, using data from the Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias for 1990-2004. Total and birth prevalence rates were

  17. Folic Acid Consumption in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massumi SJ; Shenavar R. MSc

    Background: Spina bifida and anencephaly are among serious and fatal anomalies in infants that may lead to a 50-70% of reduction in incidence when folic acid is consumed before conception. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 2997 pregnant women were evaluated to determine the level of their knowledge and practice about using folic acid in Fars Province, southern Iran. Results:

  18. Efeito da fortificação com ácido fólico na redução dos defeitos do tubo neural

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos; Michelle Zanon Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Neural tube defects are congenital malforma- tions that occur during initial fetal develop- ment, leading to anencephaly and spina bifida; folic acid deficiency is the most important risk factor identified to date. Brazil has one of the world's highest neural tube defect rates. Food consumption surveys among pregnant Brazilian women showed a high rate of inadequate folic acid intake (<

  19. Doubling the number of women consuming vitamin supplement pills containing folic acid: An urgently needed birth defect prevention complement to the folic acid fortification of cereal grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P Oakley

    1997-01-01

    The major known environmental causes of birth defects are ancient agents that have been in the environment for centuries but have been only recently discovered—rubella, alcohol, and folic acid deficiency. In the United States, we have made great progress in preventing congenital rubella syndrome. We also have a great opportunity to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly (SBA) by increasing the

  20. Are Encephaloceles Neural Tube Defects?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtney A. Rowland; Adolfo Correa; Janet D. Cragan; Clinton J. Alverson

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.Encephalocele is classified as a neural tube defect, but questions have been raised regarding whether its epidemiological characteristics are similar to those of other neural tube defects. DESIGN.We compared characteristics of temporal trends in, and the impact of folic acid grain fortification on, the prevalence of encephalocele, spina bifida, and anencephaly using data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Pro-

  1. Levels of alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluids of mice (curly-tail) with neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Adinolfi; S Beck; S Embury; P E Polani; M J Seller

    1976-01-01

    Mutant curly-tail mice are genetically predisposed to produce offspring with neural tube defects. Estimation of alpha-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid of fetuses of these mutants has shown that the levels are raised in fetuses with exencephaly and open spina bifida. This suggests that these mice are a valid model for studies of the aetiology and genesis of neural tube defects

  2. The involvement of cell death and survival in neural tube defects: a distinct role for apoptosis and autophagy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Cecconi; M Piacentini; G M Fimia

    2008-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), such as spina bifida (SB) or exencephaly, are common congenital malformations leading to infant mortality or severe disability. The etiology of NTDs is multifactorial with a strong genetic component. More than 70 NTD mouse models have been reported, suggesting the involvement of distinct pathogenetic mechanisms, including faulty cell death regulation. In this review, we focus on

  3. Factors Associated with Self-Worth in Young People with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antle, Beverley J.

    2004-01-01

    Having a positive sense of self is associated with success for children and adults, with and without disabilities. This article reports on a cross-sectional study examining the correlates of global self-worth for 85 young people (ages eight to 23) with spina bifida (a condition present at birth) or spinal cord injury (an acquired condition).…

  4. Spirituality, Loss and Recovery in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David V.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on loss, recovery and spiritual dimensions of trauma in spinal cord injury (SCI) during adolescence. From a clinical perspective, while there are physical characteristics in common with congenital childhood disabilities such as spina bifida, life adjustment issues associated with acquired disabilities can be quite different,…

  5. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Genetic Counseling by Telephone Compared to a Clinic Visit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan K. Sangha; Anita Dircks; Sylvie Langlois

    2003-01-01

    Maternal serum screening, also known as the triple screen, is used during pregnancy to assess the risk of carrying a fetus with specific chromosome abnormalities or open spina bifida. All women in British Columbia who screen positive are eligible for genetic counseling and are offered amniocentesis. The purpose of this study is to determine what differences (if any) exist in

  6. Natural rubber latex allergy after 12 years: Recommendations and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lauren Charous; Carlos Blanco; Susan Tarlo; Robert G. Hamilton; Xaver Baur; Donald Beezhold; Gordon Sussman; John W. Yunginger

    2002-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is a “new” illness whose prevalence reached epidemic proportions in highly exposed populations during the last decade. In children with spina bifida and in patients exposed to NRL during radiologic procedures, institution of prophylactic safety measures has had demonstrable effects in preventing allergic reactions. The risk of NRL allergy appears to be largely linked to

  7. Incontinent Children Discover Hope at Camp Oakhurst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raps, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes summer-camp experiences of young people who are incontinent because of spina bifida. Focuses on residential camp program as encouragement for youth to learn independent incontinence management. Describes self-catheterization program and process as minor inconvenience and positive alternative to soiled clothing and accompanying…

  8. Neurology and the kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Burn; D Bates

    1998-01-01

    Renal failure is relatively common, but except in association with spina bifida or paraplegia it is unlikely to occur as a result of disease of the CNS. Renal failure, however, commonly affects the nervous system. The effects of kidney failure on the nervous system are more pronounced when failure is acute. In addition to the important problems related to renal

  9. Folic acid fortification and cancer risk: plea for objective evaluation of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The letter from Bayston and colleagues,1 representing the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus, dismisses concerns raised by two recent studies2, 3 of a possible increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk following a high intake of folic acid. In relation to the postulated link between forti...

  10. Neuropsychological Findings in Congenital and Acquired Childhood Hydrocephalus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Mataró; Carme Junqué; MariaAntonia Poca; Juan Sahuquillo

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is an increase in cerebrospinal fluid volume that can be caused by a variety of etiologies. The most common connatal and acquired causes of hydrocephalus are spina bifida, aqueduct stenosis, and preterm low birthweight infants with ventricular hemorrhage. In general, the literature suggests mild neuropsychological deficits associated with hydrocephalus, which are predominant in visuospatial and motor functions, and other

  11. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... received a doctor's recommendation. Â Top of Page Economic Cost The annual medical care and surgical costs for people with spina bifida exceed $200 million. [ Read article ] The total lifetime cost of care for a ... D, Dean JH, Stevenson RE. Economic evaluation of a neural tube defect recurrence prevention ...

  12. Giant Terminal Lipomyelocystocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Kumar Gupta; Shashank Ramdurg; A. K. Mahapatra

    2006-01-01

    Terminal myelocystocele is a rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in which the hydromyelic caudal spinal cord and the subarachnoid space are herniated through a posterior spina bifida. A 1-year-old female child presented with a large lumbosacral mass (30 × 20 × 10 cm), flaccid paraplegia and urinary incontinence since birth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a low-lying conus (with associated

  13. Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

  14. Neural Tube Defects: Review of Experimental Evidence on Stem Cell Therapy and Newer Treatment Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhara B. Dhaulakhandi; Seema Rohilla; Kamal Nain Rattan

    2010-01-01

    The failure of closure of the neural tube during development leads to malformations called neural tube defects (NTDs). The most common neural malformations in humans include anencephaly, encephalocele, exencephaly, craniorachischisis spina bifida with or without myelomeningocele, lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelocystocele. Current preventive strategies are mainly based on pharmacologic\\/folic acid supplementation. However, stem cell-based and other combination approaches may emerge

  15. 38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process...the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578) [68 FR 1010, Jan. 8, 2003, as...

  16. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will...need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  17. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will...need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  18. 38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will...need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision...requirements in this section under control number 2900-0578)...

  19. I Will Make It: Disabled and Different.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper reports a case study of Rajesh, a highly motivated and successful Asian Indian youth who has a severe form of spina bifida, a complex condition of the central nervous system. The paper also describes the demographics and discusses the child rearing practices of Asian Indian families, explains family structure and role relationships in…

  20. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Impact of Spinal Cord Dysfunction and Obesity on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Ted Abresch; Dawn A. McDonald; Lana M. Widman; Katrina McGinnis; Kathryn J. Hickey

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children and adolescents with mobility impairments due to spinal cord injury (SCI) and spina bifida (SB) to the HRQOL of children and adolescent controls without mobility impairments (CTRL); and (2) to examine the impact of of obesity on the HRQOL of these subjects.

  1. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

  2. 61 FR 49964 - Food Labeling: Health Claims and Label Statements; Folate and Neural Tube Defects; Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-09-24

    ...for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-175), Food and Drug...INFORMATION: I. Background The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act...reducing their risk of having a pregnancy affected with spina bifida...CFR Part 101 Food labeling, Nutrition, Reporting and...

  3. Cervical spine in patients with diastrophic dysplasia - radiographic findings in 122 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ville M. Remes; Eino J. Marttinen; Mikko S. Poussa; Ilkka J. Helenius; Jari I. Peltonen

    2002-01-01

    Background. In previous studies, typical radiological findings in the cervical spine of patients with diastrophic dysplasia (DD) have been kyphosis, displacement of the vertebrae, spina bifida occulta (SBO), anterior hypoplasia of vertebrae C3-5, and hyperplasia and dysmorphism of the odontoid process. Objectives. To make a radiological analysis of the cervical spine in patients with DD. Materials and methods. The study

  4. Transcobalamin and methionine synthase reductase mutated polymorphisms aggravate the risk of neural tube defects in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Guéant-Rodriguez; C. Rendeli; B. Namour; L. Venuti; A. Romano; G. Anello; P. Bosco; R. Debard; P. Gérard; M. Viola; E. Salvaggio; J. L. Guéant

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of neural tube defects may involve genetic polymorphisms and nutritional factors related to homocysteine metabolism. We evaluated the association of polymorphisms of three genes affecting vitamin B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine, transcobalamin (TC), methioninesynthase (MTR) and MTRreductase (MTRR), combined or not with methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR), with the risk of having neural tube defect in 40 children with spina bifida

  5. Role of ZIP14 (SLC39A14) gene histidine rich regions in neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didem Torun; Erkan Y?lmaz; Ece Akar; Nejat Akar

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) comprise a group of congenital malformations that includes spina bifida, anencephaly, meningomyelocele and encephalocele. Reports have implicated zinc deficiency as one of the causative factors of NTDs. Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the etiology of NTDs. Inadequate folate intake and nutritional deficiency are important environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was

  6. Major gene is responsible for anencephaly among Iranian Jews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joël Zlotogora

    1995-01-01

    Anencephaly is relatively frequent in Jews originating from Iran, in particular when its incidence is compared to that of open spina bifida in the same population (12 cases of anencephaly out of 14 cases of neural tube defects). The high incidence of this disorder in Iranian Jews, a relatively isolated community with a very high rate of consanguinity, suggests that

  7. Non-multifactorial neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Sally Ann

    2005-05-15

    Although most neural tube defects (anencephaly, spina bifida) occur as isolated malformations, a substantial proportion are attributable to chromosome anomalies, known teratogens, or component manifestations of multiple anomaly syndromes. This review describes known chromosome alterations and the candidate genes residing in the altered region, as well as syndromes associated with neural tube defects and causative genes, if known. PMID:15800854

  8. Prevention and Avoidance of Congenital Malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Nevin

    1988-01-01

    Many congenital abnormalities do not have either a Mendelian pattern of inheritance or an identifiable chromosome abnormality and are described as `multifactorial' as it is assumed they are determined by several genes, each with added effects and modified to a greater or lesser extent by environmental factors. They include spina bifida and anencephaly, cleft lip or cleft palate or both,

  9. Folic Acid: Nutritional Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Role in Disease Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Lucock

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the chemistry, metabolism, and molecular biology of folic acid, with a particular emphasis on how it is, or may be, involved in many disease processes. Folic acid prevents neural tube defects like spina bifida, while its ability to lower homocysteine suggests it might have a positive influence on cardiovascular disease. A role for this B vitamin in

  10. Relationship between altered axial curvature and neural tube closure in normal and mutant ( curly tail ) mouse embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian C. E. Peeters; Johan W. M. Hekking; Henny W. M. Straaten; Alisa S. W. Shum; Andrew J. Copp

    1996-01-01

    Neural tube defects, including spina bifida, develop in the curly tail mutant mouse as a result of delayed closure of the posterior neuropore at 10.5 days of gestation. Affected embryos are characterized by increased ventral curvature of the caudal region. To determine whether closure of the neuropore could be affected by this angle of curvature, we experimentally enhanced the curvature

  11. derived growth factor ? -receptor gene predispose to human neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. L. J. Joosten; Mascha Toepoel; Edwin C. M. Mariman; J. J. Van Zoelen

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including anencephaly and spina bifida, are multifactorial diseases that occur with an incidence of 1 in 300 births in the United Kingdom 1 . Mouse models have indicated that deregulated expression of the gene encoding the platelet-derived growth factor ? -receptor (Pdgfra) causes congenital NTDs (refs. 2-4), whereas mutant forms of Pax-1 that have been associated

  12. Inositol and folate-resistant neural tube defects in mice lacking the epithelial-specific factor Grhl-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B Ting; Tomasz Wilanowski; Alana Auden; Mark Hall; Anne K Voss; Tim Thomas; Vishwas Parekh; John M Cunningham; Stephen M Jane

    2003-01-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) spina bifida and anencephaly are widely prevalent severe birth defects. The mouse mutant curly tail (ct\\/ct) has served as a model of NTDs for 50 years, even though the responsible genetic defect remained unrecognized. Here we show by gene targeting, mapping and genetic complementation studies that a mouse homolog of the Drosophila grainyhead (grh) gene,

  13. Zic2 Controls Cerebellar Development in Cooperation with Zic1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Aruga; Takashi Inoue; Jun Hoshino; Katsuhiko Mikoshiba

    2002-01-01

    Mouse Zic genes encode zinc finger proteins and are ex- pressed in the developing and mature CNS. Reduced expres- sion of Zic2 in mice results in spina bifida and holoprosen- cephaly. However, the disruption of Zic1, a strong homolog of Zic2 that has an overlapping expression pattern, results in cerebellar malformation with no apparent abnormalities in the forebrain or in

  14. Health care of physically handicapped young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C O Bax; Diane P L Smyth; Andrew P Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Little is known about the health needs of physically handicapped young adults after they become too old for the paediatric service. To assess these needs 104 young people with physical handicaps were given a medical examination and interviewed. They had diverse physical handicaps, many of which were rare (41 subjects); 45 had cerebral palsy and 18 spina bifida. Mental handicap

  15. National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

  16. Utilizing Alternative Assessment Techniques with Physically Impaired Students To Increase Work Completion and Improve Work Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Traci L.

    This paper describes a practicum project that involved teaching 14 students (ages 8 through 13) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and muscular dystrophy) to plan, organize, and complete projects and assignments independently. The paper explains the low expectations for the students and the students' lack of experience in…

  17. Swimming for the Handicapped Child and Adult: Occasional Papers No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neishloss, Lou

    Outlined are physiological and psychological values of swimming for the handicapped, basic principles and teaching procedures for instructing physically handicapped persons, and specific suggestions for teaching swimming to persons with the following conditions; amputations, polio, paraplegia, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, Legg-Perthes Disease,…

  18. Longitudinal Properties of High Energy Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppman, A.; Marques, L.; Cleymans, J.

    2015-06-01

    The rapidity distribution and longitudinal energy distribution are analysed within the thermodynamical formalism with the non-extensive Tsallis statistics. Our approach is based on a model for fireball rapidity distribution recently proposed where the fireball moves longitudinaly according to a q-Gaussian function rapidity distribution. We show that the rapidity distribution of charged hadrons are correctly obtained as compared to the experimental data for rapidities up to ? 10.5. The energy density as a function of the rapidity is studied for the first time. We show that most of the energy carried by hadrons are in the high rapidity region. Our results show that the energy density is a good tool for studying the logitudinal aspects of high energy collisions.

  19. Simulation of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.A.

    1991-02-07

    The purpose of this note is to document some work done as part of the effort directed at designing and simulating a bunch-by-bunch feedback system to control longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in the B-factory. In particular, I discuss the ring model used in the simulation program developed to study this feedback system. Basically the simulation is a simple tracking program in which the rf drive voltage, the wakefields due to all the bunches, the synchrotron radiation losses, and the kicks applied to the bunches by the bunch-by-bunch feedback are all modelled as voltages applied at a single, discrete point in the ring. The computation of the bunch-by-bunch feedback voltages may of course be done by any desired algorithms. An example and discussion of the general behavior without bunch-by-bunch feedback is given at the end of this report.

  20. Progressive knowledge loss: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Mondini, Sara; Borgo, Francesca; Cotticelli, Biagio; Bisiacchi, Patrizia

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of the progressive loss of semantic knowledge of a patient, VZ, with lesions mainly affecting the infero-medial temporal lobes, was followed for two years. At the beginning of the study VZ's performance was mainly characterized by a category-specific deficit for living things and a modality-specific deficit for perceptual attribute knowledge. As time went on, VZ's disorder affected all categories by changing the relationship between category and attribute knowledge. Data show that dissociations may change in the course of progressive cognitive breakdown, depending on both degeneration stage and task demands. VZ's performance is discussed in the light of the most influential theoretical accounts. Methodological suggestions regarding longitudinal studies of degenerative patients are also put forward. PMID:16573861

  1. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of developmental neurotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    1996-01-01

    Methodological issues in the design of prospective, longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity in humans are reviewed. A comprehensive assessment of potential confounding influences is important in these studies because inadequate assessment of confounders can threaten the validity of causal inferences drawn from the data. Potential confounders typically include demographic background variables, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, the quality of parental stimulation, the child's age at test, and the examiner. Exposure to other substances is assessed where significant exposure is expected in the target population. In most studies, control variables even weakly related to outcome are included in all multivariate statistical analyses, and a toxic effect is inferred only if the effect of exposure is significant after controlling for the potential confounders. Once a neurotoxic effect has been identified, suspected mediating variables may be added to the analysis to examine underlying processes or mechanisms through which the exposure may impact on developmental outcome. Individual differences in vulnerability may be examined in terms of either an additive compensatory model or a synergistic "risk and resilience" approach. Failure to detect real effects (Type II error) is of particular concern in these studies because public policy considerations make it likely that negative findings will be interpreted to mean that the exposure is safe. Important sources of Type II error include inadequate representation of highly exposed individuals, overcontrol for confounders, and inappropriate correction for multiple comparisons. Given the high cost and complexity of prospective, longitudinal investigations, cross-sectional pilot studies focusing on highly exposed individuals can be valuable for the initial identification of salient domains of impairment. PMID:9182034

  2. Longitudinal structure of the proton and neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, M. Eric

    2011-10-01

    Lepton scattering has been utilized for more than four decades to study the substructure of protons and neutrons, both free and bound in nuclei. The F2 structure function extracted from such experiments has now been determined over many orders of magnitude in both Bjorken x and the 4-momentum transfer squared, Q2, and such data have been an invaluable tool for the testing and study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the perturbative regime. In addition, new precision data on F2 from Jefferson Lab in the region of the nucleon resonances has opened up many new studies of the transition from perturbative to non-perturbative QCD. This includes the nature of quark-hadron (Q-H) duality, in which the resonances seem to average to a smooth scaling curve, similar to the that of deep inelastic scattering. In contrast, the longitudinal structure function, FL, has been measured with much poorer precision and over a much more limited kinematic range. This is due to both the high precision required and the need for measurements at fixed x and Q2 with multiple beam energies for the separation of longitudinal and transverse structure. Such measurements are critical for a full picture of nucleon structure. For instance, in deep inelastic scattering FL is directly sensitive to the gluon content of the nucleon, unlike F2, which is only sensitive through pQCD evolution. We will present the current experimental status of FL for both free protons and from nucleons in nuclei and discuss some of the physics which can be addressed with such measurements. In particular, studies of Q-H duality and the determination of the structure function moments will be discussed. This work is supported in part by research grant 0653508 from the National Science Foundation.

  3. Multivariate Longitudinal Statistics for Neonatal-Pediatric Brain Tissue Development

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Multivariate Longitudinal Statistics for Neonatal-Pediatric Brain Tissue Development Shun Xua to statistically study scalar (univariate) and vector (multivariate) longitudinal data, and our exploratory results images of neonate-pediatric data from birth to 2 years of age. Traditionally, cross-sectional studies

  4. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  5. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal

  6. Longitudinal unbalanced loads on transmission line structures. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mozer

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented from EPRI Project RP-561 which pertains to the development of analytical procedures for calculating static and dynamic longitudinal loads on transmission line structures. Loadings due to broken wire and differential ice disturbances are considered. A computer program is described which solves the nonlinear equilibrium equations and calculates the residual static longitudinal loads and displacements due to these

  7. Robust individual template pipeline processing for longitudinal MR images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Robust individual template pipeline processing for longitudinal MR images N. Guizard1 , V.S. Fonov1 3 LaBRI, CNRS (UMR 5800), Bordeaux, France 4 Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus devel- oped a specific pipeline for longitudinal brain image analysis. To avoid any bias, an individual

  8. A Cautionary Note on Modeling Growth Trends in Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuljanin, Goran; Braun, Michael T.; DeShon, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Random coefficient and latent growth curve modeling are currently the dominant approaches to the analysis of longitudinal data in psychology. The application of these models to longitudinal data assumes that the data-generating mechanism behind the psychological process under investigation contains only a deterministic trend. However, if a…

  9. Methods to analyze longitudinal matched case-control data

    E-print Network

    Duchesne, Thierry

    First simulations 5 Example: Prince Albert bison Analysis of Spring 2005-2008 data 6 Discussion #12 Discussion Habitat selection studies Longitudinal followup of female bison 24 female bison followed up during Simulations Example Discussion Habitat selection studies Longitudinal followup of female bison 24 female bison

  10. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  11. The modified electromagnetism and the emergent longitudinal wave

    E-print Network

    Arbab I Arbab; Mudhahir Al-Ajmi

    2014-01-22

    The classical theory of electromagnetism has been revisited and the possibility of longitudinal photon wave is explored. It is shown that the emergence of longitudinal wave is a consequence of Lorenz gauge (condition) violation. Proca, Vlaenderen & Waser and Arbab theories are investigated.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  13. SYLLABUS : Spring, 2010 STATISTICS 689 : Missing Data in Longitudinal Studies

    E-print Network

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    ),Chapman &Hall/CRC Press. 2. (Recommended) Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel Data. Lang Wu (2009), Chapman & Hall /CRC Press. 4. (Recommended) Antedependence Models for Longitudinal Data. D. Zimmerman and V. Nunez-Anton, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press. 5. (Recommended) Longitudinal

  14. Longitudinal Predictors of Very Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Reitsma, Pieter; Rispens, Judith

    2011-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined both concurrent and longitudinal relations of a variety of reading-related cognitive tasks and Chinese word reading and word dictation among 187 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners aged 4-6. Homophone awareness, visual skills and syllable awareness were all uniquely associated with Chinese word reading across…

  15. Formulating mixed models for experiments, including longitudinal experiments

    E-print Network

    Brien, Chris

    Formulating mixed models for experiments, including longitudinal experiments C. J. Brien1 and C of experiments, particularly those that require more complicated models (e.g. those that involve longitudinal-phase experiment to investigate the effect of time of refinement on Eucalyptus pulp from four different sources

  16. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  17. Legacies and Lessons: Insights from Longitudinal Studies of Educated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Diane Tickton

    Postmodern, multicultural, and feminist critiques of psychology have changed how longitudinal researchers construct their inquiries and frame their data. Also the new scholarship brings to the longitudinal investigation perspectives from other disciplines including sociology, anthropology, and history, among others. The book used as a framework…

  18. Interviewer Effects on Wave Nonresponse in Longitudinal Surveys

    E-print Network

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    Interviewer Effects on Wave Nonresponse in Longitudinal Surveys Gabriele Durrant, Rebecca Vassallo sample members in face-to-face surveys. So far, however, much research on interviewer effects on nonresponse has been carried out for cross-sectional surveys. For longitudinal surveys, although some

  19. Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation of Longitudinal Waves in Rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Auberger; John S. Rinehart

    1961-01-01

    Hughes' pulse technique for measuring longitudinal velocities has been adapted and extended to measure attenuation of longitudinal waves in the frequency range from 250 to 1000 kc\\/s. Data for velocity and attenuation in eight different rocks (three granites, one porphyry, two sandstones, one limestone, and one marble) are given at eight different frequencies ranging from 250 to 1000 kc\\/s. The

  20. Delay of left ventricular longitudinal expansion with diastolic dysfunction: impact on load dependence of e? and longitudinal strain rate

    PubMed Central

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Pu, Min; Upadhya, Bharathi; Meyers, Brett; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of diastolic dysfunction (DD) on the timing of left ventricular (LV) diastolic longitudinal and circumferential expansion and their load dependence is not known. This study evaluated the timing of the peak early diastolic LV inflow velocity (E), mitral annular velocity (e?), and longitudinal and circumferential global strain rates (SRE) in 161 patients in sinus rhythm. The intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) from the left atrium to the LV apex was obtained using color M?mode Doppler data to integrate the Euler equation. The diastolic function was graded according to the guidelines. In normals (N = 57), E, e?, longitudinal SRE, and circumferential SRE occurred nearly simultaneously during the IVPD. With DD (N = 104), e? and longitudinal SRE were delayed occurring after the IVPD (e?: 18 ± 23 msec, longitudinal SRE: 13 ± 21 msec from the IVPD), whereas circumferential SRE (?8 ± 28 msec) and E (?2 ± 13 msec) were not delayed. The normal dependence of e? and longitudinal SRE on IVPD was reduced in DD; while the relation of circumferential SRE and E to IVPD were unchanged in DD. Thus, normally, the LV expands symmetrically during early diastole and both longitudinal and circumferential expansions are related to the IVPD. With DD, early diastolic longitudinal LV expansion is delayed, occurring after the IVPD and LV filling, resulting in their relative independence from the IVPD. In contrast, with DD, circumferential SRE and mitral inflow are not delayed and their normal relation to the IVPD is unchanged. PMID:25035279

  1. Longitudinal Section AA/South ElevationPreRehabilitation 2009; Longitudinal Section BB/PostRehabilitation 2010 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal Section A-A/South Elevation-Pre-Rehabilitation 2009; Longitudinal Section B-B/Post-Rehabilitation 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  2. Fetal surgery for myelomeningocele: history, research, clinical trials, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Keller, B A; Farmer, D L

    2015-08-01

    Myelomeningocele, more commonly known as spina bifida, is the most common neural tube defect worldwide. In the United States, it is the primary cause of lifelong childhood paralysis with approximately four children born daily with this devastating disease. To minimize damage to the exposed spinal cord and prevent ascending central nervous system infections, postnatal closure of the spinal defect has been the standard of care for decades. Research into the mechanism of spinal cord injury in those with spina bifida revealed that damage continues to accrue during the gestational period. Prenatal defect closure via in utero surgery was proposed to prevent this early deterioration of the spinal cord, and early animal research demonstrated that prenatal repair was feasible and promising. This paved the way for the first human prenatal repairs in the mid-to-late 1990s. Following the promising outcomes observed during the first human cases, a randomized controlled trial, the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS), was conducted comparing postnatal repair of spina bifida to prenatal repair. The MOMS trial demonstrated that to those undergoing prenatal repair of spina bifida had a decreased need for ventriculoperitoneal shunting and improved lower extremity motor function. With the success of the MOMS trial, in utero repair is now considered the standard of care in those who meet the criteria for prenatal repair. This review will provide an overview of spina bifida and its impact, highlight the historical changes in care, describe the early research and theory that made prenatal repair an option, discuss the clinical experiences with human fetal repair and briefly touch on future research directions for those with myelomeningocele. PMID:25698128

  3. Longitudinal determinants of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Finch, Stephen J; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W

    2013-12-01

    Substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have been linked with marital discord. Relatively little is known, however, about the antecedents of SUDs, the mediators of these factors over time, or their associations with the spousal/partner relationship among urban adults. A better understanding of the longitudinal pathways to marital conflict and to SUDs should help prevention and intervention programs target their precursors within the developmental period in which they occur. The present study, therefore, examined the longitudinal predictors of an unsupportive spousal/partner relationship and SUDs among a community sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican adults from East Harlem, NY. Participants (N?=?816) completed structured questionnaires at five time waves, from adolescence to adulthood (mean ages?=?14, 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). Structural equation modeling examined the effects of earlier environmental and social stressors and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors on later SUDs in adulthood. There was a good fit of the structural equation model (CFI?=?0.91; RMSEA?=?0.06; and SRMR?=?0.06), which revealed three main pathways from adolescence to the spousal/partner relationship and SUDs in adulthood. One pathway linked a weak parent-adolescent attachment relationship with the participant's psychological symptoms in emerging adulthood (p?

  4. Longitudinal static stability requirements for wing in ground effect vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhigang; Collu, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    The issue of the longitudinal stability of a WIG vehicle has been a very critical design factor since the first experimental WIG vehicle has been built. A series of studies had been performed and focused on the longitudinal stability analysis. However, most studies focused on the longitudinal stability of WIG vehicle in cruise phase, and less is available on the longitudinal static stability requirement of WIG vehicle when hydrodynamics are considered: WIG vehicle usually take off from water. The present work focuses on stability requirement for longitudinal motion from taking off to landing. The model of dynamics for a WIG vehicle was developed taking into account the aerodynamic, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces, and then was analyzed. Following with the longitudinal static stability analysis, effect of hydrofoil was discussed. Locations of CG, aerodynamic center in pitch, aerodynamic center in height and hydrodynamic center in heave were illustrated for a stabilized WIG vehicle. The present work will further improve the longitudinal static stability theory for WIG vehicle.

  5. Signal processing for longitudinal parameters of the Tevatron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, S.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Flora, R.; Para, A.; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We describe the system known as the Tevatron SBD [1] which is used to provide information on the longitudinal parameters of coalesced beam bunches in the Tevatron. The system has been upgraded over the past year with a new digitizer and improved software. The quantities provided for each proton and antiproton bunch include the intensity, the longitudinal bunch profile, the timing of the bunch with respect to the low-level RF, the momentum spread and the longitudinal emittance. The system is capable of 2 Hz operation and is run at 1 Hz.

  6. Laser Wakefield diagnostic using holographic longitudinal interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Volfbeyn, P.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    1999-03-26

    We propose a diagnostic technique for wakefield measurement in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor Heater scheme was proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen previously. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (sub 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used to heat the existing spark via in-verse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. Laser pulses injected into such plasma channels produce a plasma wake that has a phase velocity close to the speed of light. A discussion of plasma wake measurements, using a Longitudinal Interferometry Wakefield Diagnostic Based on Time Domain Rayleigh Refractometry with Holographic Inversion, will be presented.

  7. Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Groër, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time. PMID:1509113

  8. Longitudinal dental arch changes in adults.

    PubMed

    Carter, G A; McNamara, J A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined changes in the dental arches that occur in untreated persons between late adolescence and the fifth or sixth decade of life. Longitudinal dental casts from 82 subjects were obtained as part of a recall study of subjects from the University of Michigan Elementary and Secondary School Growth Study. From the parent sample, three groups were identified. The untreated sample comprised 53 subjects (27 males and 26 females). A midadult sample of 10 persons, who had an additional set of records taken on average during their fourth decade of life also was analyzed, as was a sample of 13 subjects who received orthodontic treatment as adolescents and were about 30 years posttreatment. Measures of dental arch width, arch depth, and arch perimeter were evaluated with the aid of digital-imaging hardware and software. Incisor irregularity, curve of Spee, overjet, and overbite were measured directly from the dental casts. Statistically significant decrements occurred in arch width, depth, and perimeter. The mean decrement in any one dimension was less than 3 mm. At all times, males displayed significantly more mandibular incisor irregularity than females. In addition, the increase in mandibular incisor irregularity that occurred in male and female subjects was the same. However, irregularity did not increase in all subjects; it decreased in 3% of the males and 7% of the females. In general, overbite, overjet, and curve of Spee were stable during adulthood. Statistically significant correlations between the changes in dental arch measures could not be established. PMID:9674686

  9. Longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools.

    PubMed

    Kline, Emily; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Bussell, Kristin; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-07-01

    The development of widely used interview tools has helped to standardize the criteria for a "clinical high risk" syndrome, thus enabling advances in efforts to develop interventions for this phase of illness. These assessments, however, are burdensome to administer and not likely to be adopted for widespread use. Scalable early intervention depends on the availability of brief, low-cost assessment tools that can serve to screen populations of interest or triage treatment-seekers toward specialized care. The current study examines the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive strength of three self-report measures (Prime Screen-Revised, Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, and Youth Psychosis at Risk Questionnaire-Brief) with regard to psychosis onset and symptom persistence over six months of follow-up within an indicated sample of 54 adolescents and young adults ages 12-22. Within this sample, all three measures demonstrated excellent sensitivity to emerging psychosis and strong agreement with clinician evaluations of attenuated psychosis symptoms. Additionally, all screeners obtained negative predictive values of 1.00 with regard to psychosis onset, indicating that an individual scoring below the recommended threshold score would be extremely unlikely to develop psychosis over the following six months. The longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools constitutes an important step toward establishing a standard of care for early identification and monitoring in this vulnerable population. PMID:25975827

  10. Longitudinal quantile regression in the presence of informative dropout through longitudinal-survival joint modeling.

    PubMed

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Viviani, Sara

    2015-03-30

    We propose a joint model for a time-to-event outcome and a quantile of a continuous response repeatedly measured over time. The quantile and survival processes are associated via shared latent and manifest variables. Our joint model provides a flexible approach to handle informative dropout in quantile regression. A Monte Carlo expectation maximization strategy based on importance sampling is proposed, which is directly applicable under any distributional assumption for the longitudinal outcome and random effects. We consider both parametric and nonparametric assumptions for the baseline hazard. We illustrate through a simulation study and an application to an original data set about dilated cardiomyopathies. PMID:25488110

  11. 29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE STRESS OF BARGES IN CANAL LOCKS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  12. Longitudinal view, looking east through inclinded end posts of eastern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal view, looking east through inclinded end posts of eastern portal. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  13. Determining longitudinal dispersion coefficients for submerged vegetated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shucksmith, J. D.; Boxall, J. B.; Guymer, I.

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of the physical transport and mixing of pollutants or other soluble material is crucial for effective river management. Although well established methods exist which describe mixing processes in open channel flow, the presence of vegetation has a significant impact on mixing and few existing techniques account for this. To date, existing models which predict longitudinal dispersion coefficients in vegetated open channel flow have been derived and verified based on experiments conducted in simulated vegetation. This paper presents observations of longitudinal dispersion coefficients in a channel featuring living vegetation and tests against both an existing and a newly proposed model for longitudinal dispersion coefficient in submerged vegetated open channel flow. A model based on a mathematical technique of predicting dispersion in plain shear flow is shown to be capable of predicting longitudinal dispersion coefficients to within 20%.

  14. Stress concentrations at longitudinal-transverse stiffener plate intersections

    E-print Network

    Horne, Gregory Alan

    1994-01-01

    Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (1992). Many existing details resemble those currently covered by specification, but closer inspection of these details reveals inherent differences. A coped longitudinal attachment intersecting a transverse...

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Longitudinal genetic analyses of Staphylococcus

    E-print Network

    Parkinson, Christopher L.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Longitudinal genetic analyses of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage Background: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) nasal colonization plays a critical role in the pathogenesis intermittent carriers. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacterial genetics, Multi locus sequence typing, Nasal

  16. Detecting Change in Longitudinal Social Networks Ian McCulloh

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Detecting Change in Longitudinal Social Networks Ian McCulloh Network Science Center, U.S. Military Acknowledgements This research is part of the ARO Change Detection project with the USMA Network Science Center

  17. Exploring longitudinal pathways from intelligence to morbidity and mortality risk 

    E-print Network

    Calvin, Catherine Mary

    2012-11-28

    Human population-based studies of longitudinal design observe that higher intelligence in youth confers protection from premature mortality in adulthood. This field of study (“cognitive epidemiology”; Deary & Batty, 2007) ...

  18. A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many stochastic human exposure models require the construction of longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the time sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, the pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activiti...

  19. Longitudinal Section AA; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal Section A-A; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  20. TWO-METHOD PLANNED MISSING DESIGNS FOR LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2013-12-31

    We examine longitudinal extensions of the two-method measurement design, which uses planned missingness to optimize cost-efficiency and validity of hard-to-measure constructs. These designs use a combination of two measures: ...

  1. 2. LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF INTERIOR, LOOKING NE FROM SOUTH PORTAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF INTERIOR, LOOKING NE FROM SOUTH PORTAL. - Western New York & Pennsylvania Railway, Bridge No. 30, Spanning Allegheny River, north of State Route 446 Bridge, Eldred, McKean County, PA

  2. Viability of longitudinal trenches for capturing contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2010-04-01

    Using a groundwater flow and mass transport model, this study compared the capability of trenches with permeable backfill for capturing hypothetical contaminant plumes in homogeneous and heterogeneous unconfined aquifers. Longitudinal (parallel to groundwater flow), as well as conventional transverse (perpendicular to groundwater flow) trench configurations were considered. Alternate trench configurations intercepted the leading tip of an initial contaminant plume and had identical length, equal to the cross-gradient width of the plume. A longitudinal trench required 31% less time than its transverse counterpart to remediate a homogeneous aquifer. By contrast, in simulated heterogeneous aquifers, longitudinal remediation timeframes ranged from 41% less to 33% more than transverse trenches. Results suggest that longitudinal trenches may be a viable alternative for narrow contaminant plumes under low-groundwater velocity conditions, but may be impractical for plumes with wide leading tips, or in complex heterogeneous aquifers with divergent flow. PMID:20237910

  3. 79. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME LONGITUDINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME - LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  4. Zimmermannella helvola gen. nov., sp. nov., Zimmermannella alba sp. nov., Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov., Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. and Leucobacter albus sp. nov., novel members of the family Microbacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chueh; Uemori, Kazunori; de Briel, Dominique A; Arunpairojana, Vallapa; Yokota, Akira

    2004-09-01

    Seven strains of actinobacteria, isolated from soil, wounds, urine, cow faeces, human blood and butter, were characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic position. On the basis of chemotaxonomy, 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA relatedness, strain IAM 14851T can be classified within the cluster of the genus Leucobacter and is proposed as a novel species, Leucobacter albus sp. nov., with strain IAM 14851T (=TISTR 1515T) as the type strain. The other six strains formed a phylogenetically separate branch in the family Microbacteriaceae, having the following characteristics: the major menaquinones are MK-8 to MK-10, the DNA G + C content ranges from 62 to 68 mol%, the diamino acid in the cell wall is diaminobutyric acid and the muramic acid in the peptidoglycan is of the acetyl type. The major fatty acids are 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (anteiso-C(15 : 0)), hexadecanoic acid (C(16 : 0)), 14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (iso-C(16 : 0)) and 14-methyl-hexadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(17 : 0)). On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, the novel genus Zimmermannella gen. nov. is proposed for these six strains. Four novel species are proposed: Zimmermannella helvola sp. nov. (type species; type strain IAM 14726T = NBRC 15775T = DSM 20419T = TISTR 1509T), Zimmermannella alba sp. nov. (type strain IAM 14724T = NBRC 15616T = TISTR 1510T), Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov. (type strain IAM 14848T = TISTR 1511T) and Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. (type strain IAM 15030T = NBRC 15706T = ATCC 13722T = TISTR 1514T). PMID:15388726

  5. Longitudinal and Circumferential Strain of the Proximal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Vanessa; Mitchell, William A.; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; Gotal, John D.; Torjesen, Alyssa A.; Aspelund, Thor; Launer, Lenore J.; de Roos, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Mitchell, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of mechanical properties of the proximal aorta is a requisite first step for elucidating the pathophysiology of isolated systolic hypertension. During systole, substantial proximal aortic axial displacement produces longitudinal strain, which we hypothesize causes variable underestimation of ascending aortic circumferential strain compared to values in the longitudinally constrained descending aorta. Methods and Results To assess effects of longitudinal strain, we performed magnetic resonance imaging in 375 participants (72 to 94 years old, 204 women) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility?Reykjavik Study and measured aortic circumferential and longitudinal strain. Circumferential ascending aortic area strain uncorrected for longitudinal strain was comparable in women and men (mean [95% CI], 8.3 [7.8, 8.9] versus 7.9 [7.4, 8.5]%, respectively, P=0.3). However, longitudinal strain was greater in women (8.5±2.5 versus 7.0±2.5%, P<0.001), resulting in greater longitudinally corrected circumferential ascending aortic strain (14.4 [13.6, 15.2] versus 13.0 [12.4, 13.7]%, P=0.010). Observed circumferential descending aortic strain, which did not require correction (women: 14.0 [13.2, 14.8], men: 12.4 [11.6, 13.2]%, P=0.005), was larger than uncorrected (P<0.001), but comparable to longitudinally corrected (P=0.12) circumferential ascending aortic strain. Carotid?femoral pulse wave velocity did not correlate with uncorrected ascending aortic strain (R=?0.04, P=0.5), but was inversely related to longitudinally corrected ascending and observed descending aortic strain (R=?0.15, P=0.004; R=?0.36, P<0.001, respectively). Longitudinal strain was also inversely related to carotid?femoral pulse wave velocity and other risk factors for higher aortic stiffness including treated hypertension. Conclusions Longitudinal strain creates substantial and variable errors in circumferential ascending aortic area strain measurements, particularly in women, and should be considered to avoid misclassification of ascending aortic stiffness. PMID:25523153

  6. Data on pubertal development in Greek boys. A longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyratsoula Pantsiotou

    2007-01-01

    ObJEctIVE: Longitudinal data on boys' puberty evolution are not available in Greece and very few such studies have been reported world-wide. We present data from a longitudinal study on height, weight, bMI and age at the different pubertal stages in Greek boys. DEsIGN: At the start of the study 204 prepubertal boys aged 8-10 years, were enrolled. Measurements were carried

  7. A longitudinal investigation of gestural communication in young chimpanzees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Tomasello; Deborah Gust; G. Thomas Frost

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal study of chimpanzee gestural communication is reported. Subjects were seven 5- to 8-year-old members of a semi-natural\\u000a group at the Yerkes Field Station. These were the same individuals observed byTomasello et al. (1985) four years previously. Nearly identical operational definitions and observational procedures were used in the\\u000a two studies. Longitudinal comparisons between the two observation periods revealed that

  8. Longitudinal Assessment of an ELISPOT Test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip C. Hill; Roger H. Brookes; Annette Fox; Dolly Jackson-Sillah; David J. Jeffries; Moses D. Lugos; Simon A. Donkor; Ifedayo M. Adetifa; Bouke C. de Jong; Alex M. Aiken; Richard A. Adegbola; Keith P. McAdam

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundVery little longitudinal information is available regarding the performance of T cell-based tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To address this deficiency, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (ELISPOT) test in comparison to the standard tuberculin skin test (TST).Methods and FindingsIn tuberculosis (TB) contacts we repeated ELISPOT tests 3 mo (n = 341) and 18 mo

  9. Extracting longitudinal shower developmentinformation from crystal calorimetry plus tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.N.; Ilic, J.; Mohanty, G.B.

    2007-11-16

    We propose a novel approach to derive longitudinal shower development information from a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter such as the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter by utilizing tracking information in conjunction with that of calorimetry. We show that using this information as part of an electron identification algorithm results in a significant reduction in the pion misidentification probability for low momentum particles. We also demonstrate how this information provides general charged particle separation at low momentum, particularly between pions and muons.

  10. A joint marginalized multilevel model for longitudinal outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Iddi; Geert Molenberghs

    2012-01-01

    The shared-parameter model and its so-called hierarchical or random-effects extension are widely used joint modeling approaches for a combination of longitudinal continuous, binary, count, missing, and survival outcomes that naturally occurs in many clinical and other studies. A random effect is introduced and shared or allowed to differ between two or more repeated measures or longitudinal outcomes, thereby acting as

  11. Longitudinal interfacial shearing of a unidirectional fiber composite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.; Kurth, R.E. [Science Application International Corporation, Dublin, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this work, longitudinal interfacial shearing of a unidirectional fiber composite which sustains slippage at the interface between fiber and matrix is analyzed. Based on the experimental work on the fiber pull-out, the interface between the fiber and the matrix can be divided as three regions, depending on the longitudinal shear stress. These three regions are the bonded region, frictional slip regions, and the free-friction slid region. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear system of singular integral equations and solved numerically. It has been shown that when the longitudinal shear stress is less than a critical value, the fiber and the matrix can be assumed to be bonded perfectly. When the longitudinal shear stress is greater than this critical value, the slippage at the interface between the fiber and the interface takes place. From the recent fiber pull-out test, the phenomena of fiber frictional slip followed by free slide has been observed and analyzed. Thus, there are three stages for the deformation of interfacial shearing of a unidirectional fiber composite under longitudinal shearing. The first stage occurs when the applied longitudinal shear stress is less than the critical value corresponding to the onset of slippage. In the second stage, the interface is divided into two regions, namely, the bonded region and the frictional slip region in which the shear stress is either assumed to be constant or governed by a friction law. The third stage occurs when the longitudinal shear stress is greater than the critical value corresponding to free sliding or when the friction limit is exceeded. In the third stage, the interface between the fiber and the matrix can be divided into three regions, depending on the longitudinal shear stress. These three regions are the bonded region, the frictional slip regions, and the free-friction slide region in which the shear stress is neglected.

  12. Longitudinal Increase in Anisometropia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Lott, Lori A.; Hewlett, Susan E.; Brabyn, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Anisometropia shows an exponential increase in prevalence with increasing age based on cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in anisometropia in all refractive components in older observers and to assess the influence of early cataract development. Methods Refractive error was assessed at two time points separated by ~12 years in 118 older observers (ages 67.1 and 79.3 years at the two test times). Anisometropia defined as ?1.00 D was calculated for all refractive components. The subjects had intact ocular lenses in both eyes throughout the study. Lens evaluations were performed at the second test using LOCS III. Results All refractive components approximately doubled in prevalence of anisometropia. Spherical equivalent anisometropia changed from 16.1% to 32.2%. Similar changes were found for spherical error (17% to 38.1%), primary astigmatism (7.6% to 17.8%) and oblique astigmatism (14.4% to 29.7%). Many who did not have anisometropia at the first visit subsequently developed anisometropia (for ex. 26.3% for spherical error and 22.9% for oblique cylinder). The onset of anisometropia occurred at all ages within the studied age range with no particular preference for any one age. A small number lost anisometropia over time. Individual comparisons of refractive error changes in the two eyes in combination with nuclear lens changes showed that early changes in nuclear sclerosis in the two eyes could account for a large proportion of anisometropia (~40%) but unequal hyperopic shift in the spherical component in the two eyes was the primary cause of the anisometropia. Conclusions Anisometropia is at least 10 times more common in the elderly than in children and anisometropia develops in all refractive components in the oldest observers. Clinicians need to be aware of this common condition that could lead to binocular vision problems and potentially cause falls in the elderly. PMID:24276578

  13. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-02-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  14. Longitudinal Course of Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William H.; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Boyken, Lara; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Context The phenomenology of bipolar I disorder affects treatment and prognosis. Objective To describe the duration of bipolar I mood episodes and factors associated with recovery from these episodes. Design Subjects with Research Diagnostic Criteria bipolar I disorder were prospectively followed up for as long as 25 years. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive mood episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including a mixed-effects grouped-time survival model. Setting Five US academic medical centers. Participants Two hundred nineteen subjects with bipolar I disorder. Main Outcome Measures Level of psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation every 6 months for the first 5 years of follow-up and annually thereafter. Results The median duration of bipolar I mood episodes was 13 weeks. More than 75% of the subjects recovered from their mood episodes within 1 year of onset. The probability of recovery was significantly less for an episode with severe onset (psychosis or severe psychosocial impairment in week 1 of the episode) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.746; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.578–0.963; P=.02) and for subjects with greater cumulative morbidity (total number of years spent ill with any mood episode) (HR=0.917; 95% CI, 0.886–0.948; P<.001). Compared with the probability of recovery from a major depressive episode, there was a significantly greater probability of recovery from an episode of mania (HR=1.713; 95% CI, 1.373–2.137; P<.001), hypomania (HR=4.502; 95% CI, 3.466–5.849; P<.001), or minor depression (HR = 2.027; 95% CI, 1.622–2.534; P<.001) and, conversely, a significantly reduced probability of recovery from a cycling episode (switching from one pole to the other without an intervening period of recovery) (HR=0.438; 95% CI, 0.351–0.548; P<.001). Conclusions The median duration of bipolar I mood episodes was 13 weeks, and the probability of recovery was significantly decreased for cycling episodes, mood episodes with severe onset, and subjects with greater cumulative morbidity. PMID:20368510

  15. Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Valdez, M; Balachandran, B

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated strain-rates introduced at the end of the structure where the load is applied. In addition, it is shown that when steep wave fronts are generated in the nonlinear viscoelastic material, energy dissipation is focused in those wave fronts implying deposition of energy in a highly localized region of the material. Novel mechanisms for brain tissue damage are proposed based on the results obtained. The first mechanism is related to the dissipation of energy at steep wave fronts, while the second one is related to the interaction of steep wave fronts with axons encountered on its way through the structure. PMID:23510921

  16. Multivariate longitudinal statistics for neonatal-pediatric brain tissue development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shun; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John; Gerig, Guido

    2008-03-01

    The topic of studying the growth of human brain development has become of increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. Cross-sectional studies may allow comparisons between means of different age groups, but they do not provide a growth model that integrates the continuum of time, nor do they present any information about how individuals/population change over time. Longitudinal data analysis method arises as a strong tool to address these questions. In this paper, we use longitudinal analysis methods to study tissue development in early brain growth. A novel approach of multivariate longitudinal analysis is applied to study the associations between the growth of different brain tissues. In this paper, we present the methodologies to statistically study scalar (univariate) and vector (multivariate) longitudinal data, and demonstrate exploratory results in a neuroimaging study of early brain tissue development. We obtained growth curves as a quadratic function of time for all three tissues. The quadratic terms were tested to be statistically significant, showing that there was indeed a quadratic growth of tissues in early brain development. Moreover, our result shows that there is a positive correlation between repeated measurements of any single tissue, and among those of different tissues. Our approach is generic in natural and thus can be applied to any longitudinal data with multiple outcomes, even brain structures. Also, our joint mixed model is flexible enough to allow incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e. subjects do not need to have the same number of measurements, or be measured at the exact time points.

  17. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  18. Longitudinal Bunch Position Control for the Super-B Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, Kirk; Rivetta, Claudio; Sullivam, Michael K.; /SLAC; Drago, Alessandro; /Frascati

    2009-05-15

    The use of normal conducting cavities and an ion-clearing gap will cause a significant RF accelerating voltage gap transient and longitudinal phase shift of the individual bunches along the bunch train in both rings of the SuperB accelerator. Small relative centroid position shifts between bunches of the colliding beams will have a large adverse impact on the luminosity due to the small {beta}*{sub y} at the interaction point (IP). We investigate the possibility of minimizing the relative longitudinal position shift between bunches by reducing the gap transient in each ring and matching the longitudinal bunch positions of the two rings at the IP using feedback/feedforward techniques in the LLRF. The analysis is conducted assuming maximum use of the klystron power installed in the system.

  19. Burnout and inequity among human service professionals: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Dierendonck, D; Schaufeli, W B; Buunk, B P

    2001-01-01

    In a composite sample of human service professionals (N = 245), longitudinal relations across 1 year were tested between equity in the professional-recipient relationship and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). The 1st research question was whether inequity influenced burnout across time. The 2nd research question was whether longitudinal relations between equity and burnout were curvilinear, as predicted by equity theory. The results confirmed that inequity affects the central component of burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion) and that this relation is curvilinear. Feeling more deprived and feeling more advantaged resulted in higher future emotional exhaustion levels. No indication was found for a longitudinal relation between inequity and depersonalization. A synchronous relation was found suggesting that personal accomplishment influences equity. PMID:11199256

  20. Jet transport and photon bremsstrahlung via longitudinal and transverse scattering

    E-print Network

    Guang-You Qin; Abhijit Majumder

    2015-04-27

    We study the effect of multiple scatterings on the propagation of hard partons and the production of jet-bremsstrahlung photons inside a dense medium in the framework of deep-inelastic scattering off a large nucleus. We include the momentum exchanges in both longitudinal and transverse directions between the hard partons and the constituents of the medium. Keeping up to the second order in a momentum gradient expansion, we derive the spectrum for the photon emission from a hard quark jet when traversing dense nuclear matter. Our calculation demonstrates that the photon bremsstrahlung process is influenced not only by the transverse momentum diffusion of the propagating hard parton, but also by the longitudinal drag and diffusion of the parton momentum. A notable outcome is that the longitudinal drag tends to reduce the amount of stimulated emission from the hard parton.