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1

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Spina Bifida Information Page Condensed from Spina Bifida Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Spina Bifida? Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect ( ...

2

Spina bifida - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - spina bifida ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spina bifida : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih. ...

3

Living with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents Families About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Espańol (Spanish) ... living with spina bifida . Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Espańol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

4

Heterogeneity of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Splitting birth defects into dysmorphologically homogeneous groups might improve the ability to detect a genetic risk factor or teratogenic exposure. With regard to spina bifida, recent studies suggest that etiologic heterogeneity exists within the group of spina bifida, although exogenous risk factors have been sparsely evaluated for subgroups. In the present study, 210 spina bifida patients were classified into relatively homogeneous groups, based on retrospective information on appearance and functional aspects of the lesion abstracted from medical records of the patients. We compared high with low spina bifida, and open with closed spina bifida, and investigated whether risk factors for spina bifida such as maternal age, antiepileptic drug use, parental occupation, and genetic factors were specifically associated with these homogeneous subclasses. For these comparisons, a referent group of 671 children was used. Although classifying spina bifida into homogeneous subclasses presented some difficulties and numbers were small, this study provides some evidence for different risk profiles for subclasses of spina bifida. The sex ratio, the proportion of miscarriages of siblings, and maternal age did not differ among the different subclasses of spina bifida. However, children with a positive family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) had a higher risk of high spina bifida [odds ratio (OR) = 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-19.2] than of low spina bifida (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.2). Siblings with NTDs were more common in cases with high spina bifida and cases with open spina bifida. A strongly increased risk of high spina bifida was found for male welders (OR = 12.1, 95% CI: 1.5-64.2), whereas the risk of low spina bifida was much lower (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.2-7.9). For mothers with agricultural occupations, a strongly increased risk was observed for open spina bifida (OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 2.9-77.7), whereas none of 107 cases with closed spina bifida had a mother with an occupation in agriculture. Due to small numbers, the results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:9216039

Blatter, B M; Lafeber, A B; Peters, P W; Roeleveld, N; Verbeek, A L; Gabreėls, F J

1997-04-01

5

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... pronounced SPAHY-nuh BIF-i-duh ) is a neural tube defect that frequently occurs in families. Spina ... meninges) alone, called a meningocele, or with some neural elements, called a meningomyelocele. Or the defect may ...

6

Genetics and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... that some babies will have it even when women take the right amount every day. Who is at risk for having a baby with Spina Bifida? Any woman who is capable of becoming pregnant ... 65 million women of childbearing age in the United States. Although ...

7

Osteoporosis and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

Osteoporosis People with Spina Bifida are at higher risk for getting Osteoporosis. What is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become ... If Osteopenia is untreated, it can lead to Osteoporosis. What causes Osteoporosis? The normal bone cycle is ...

8

Spina Bifida (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... it. Causes Low levels of the vitamin folic acid during pregnancy are linked to spina bifida. Folic acid plays a large role in cell growth and ... well as tissue formation. Not having enough folic acid in the diet before and during early pregnancy ...

9

A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing, Parent-Child Conflict, and Cohesion in Families of Young Adolescents With Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study longitudinal associations between perceived pubertal timing and family conflict and co- hesion during the transition to adolescence in 68 families of children with spina bifida and 68 matched fami- lies with able-bodied children. Children were 8 or 9 years old at Time 1 and 10 or 11 years old at Time 2. Methods: Family conflict and cohesion

Rachael Millstein Coakley; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Deborah Friedman; Rachel Neff Greenley; Azure Welborn Thill

2002-01-01

10

Women's Health and Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... if there is bowel or bladder leakage during sex? In Spina Bifida, bladder function is inseparable from sexual function. Some of the same nerves that control urinary and bowel function are also important in ...

11

Spina Bifida Association of America  

MedlinePLUS

... SB Professionals LisServ Get Social SB Latino Camps Scholarships Chapters Journey Clinics Support Groups & Play Dates Ribbon ... Directory FAQs About Spina Bifida Online Communities Camps Scholarships Chapters Clinics Support Groups & Play Dates Ribbon Make ...

12

Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ... spina bifida homepage Living with spina bifida Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

13

Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

14

Orthopedic Management of Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management of orthopedic problems in spina bifida has seen a dramatic change over the past 10 years. The negative effects of spasticity, poor balance, and the tethered cord syndrome on ambulatory function are better appreciated. There is less emphasis on the hip radiograph and more emphasis on the function of the knee and the prevention of…

Thomson, Jeffrey D.; Segal, Lee S.

2010-01-01

15

Urologic Management of Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The urologist plays an important role in the multidisciplinary team of physicians who provide care for patients with spina bifida. We review common strategies for managing the urinary tract in these patients. The primary objective in all phases of life is protecting kidney function by minimizing bladder hostility and establishing a good capacity,…

Clayton, Douglass B.; Brock, John W., III; Joseph, David B.

2010-01-01

16

Mathematical Development in Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the…

English, Lianne H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.

2009-01-01

17

Mathematical development in spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the deficits in visual-spatial processing that are also

Lianne H. English; Marcia A. Barnes; Heather B. Taylor; Susan H. Landry

2009-01-01

18

Spina Bifida and Folic Acid Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect in the United States. It is a birth defect that involves incomplete formation of the spine during the first month of pregnancy--often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Everyday, an average of eight babies are born with spina bifida or a similar birth defect of the brain…

Exceptional Parent, 2007

2007-01-01

19

Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

2010-01-01

20

Spina Bifida Experience: Managing Your Own Medical Care  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... The Spina Bifida Experience: Managing Your Own Medical Care Your browser does not support iFrames. Source: National ... about how the child participates in his medical care. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Developing Independence The ...

21

In utero repair of spina bifida.  

PubMed

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed. PMID:24819146

Moldenhauer, Julie S

2014-08-01

22

Obesity among Persons with Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... eating patterns and genetic factors have led to obesity being commonplace. When a child has Spina Bifida and family members are somewhat ... for success? The most helpful strategy for preventing obesity is to help the child view food as a necessity for growth and ...

23

Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in Greater London  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make comparisons with the findings in a high frequency area, South Wales, with those in a low frequency area, south-east England, a birth frequency and family study was made of all births with neural tube malformations (spina bifida cystica, encephalocele, anencephaly, and iniencephaly) in 32 of the 33 London Boroughs over a 3-year period from 1 April

C. O. Carter; Kathleen Evans

1973-01-01

24

The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

2010-01-01

25

Neurosurgical Management of Spina Bifida: Research Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neurosurgical goal when treating children with spina bifida (predominantly myelomeningocele) is to maintain stable neurological functioning throughout the patient's life time. Unfortunately, few long-term outcome studies are available to help direct the neurosurgical care of a child born with myelomeningocele and often treatment relies more…

Bowman, Robin M.; McLone, David G.

2010-01-01

26

Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

2010-01-01

27

Optimizing Health Care for Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The health care needs of children with spina bifida are complex. They need specialists, generalists, and an integrated system to deliver this complex care and to align and inform all the providers. Most research in spina bifida has been focused on narrow medical outcomes; it has been noncollaborative, based on small samples of convenience, with no…

Liptak, Gregory S.; El Samra, Ahmad

2010-01-01

28

Plasma Antidiuretic Hormone Levels in Children with Spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Urological management of spina bifida patients is controversial. The goals of therapy of neurogenic bladder are continence, prevention of infections and preservation of urinary tract. Desmopressin has been recently used in a spina bifida population that is dry during the day (daytime continence was achieved with clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergics) but wet at night. The aim of this

Pietro Ferrara; Carmen D’Aleo; Antonio Ruggiero; Fabrizia Paolini Paoletti; Maria Laura Chiozza; Mario Plebani; Paolo Caione; Roberto Del Gado; Elio Salvaggio

2002-01-01

29

Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

Webb, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

30

Symposium on Spina Bifida (Denver, Colorado, November, 1969).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of the symposium were to define the problems of the child with spina bifida and to present practical means of management, using a multi-disciplinary team approach. Eight papers defining the problem cover the epidemiology of spina bifida, pathophysiology, musculoskeletal defects, incontinence of bladder and bowel, problems of…

Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.

31

Identification of Novel CELSR1 Mutations in Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida is one of the most common neural tube defects (NTDs) with a complex etiology. Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have been associated with NTDs including spina bifida in both animal models and human cohorts. In this study, we sequenced all exons of CELSR1 in 192 spina bifida patients from a California population to determine the contribution of CELSR1 mutations in the studied population. Novel and rare variants identified in these patients were subsequently genotyped in 190 ethnically matched control individuals. Six missense mutations not found in controls were predicted to be deleterious by both SIFT and PolyPhen. Two TG dinucleotide repeat variants were individually detected in 2 spina bifida patients but not detected in controls. In vitro functional analysis showed that the two TG dinucleotide repeat variants not only changed subcellular localization of the CELSR1 protein, but also impaired the physical association between CELSR1 and VANGL2, and thus diminished the ability to recruit VANGL2 for cell-cell contact. In total, 3% of our spina bifida patients carry deleterious or predicted to be deleterious CELSR1 mutations. Our findings suggest that CELSR1 mutations contribute to the risk of spina bifida in a cohort of spina bifida patients from California. PMID:24632739

Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.

2014-01-01

32

How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Spina Bifida?  

MedlinePLUS

... examines blood in several ways to look for neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, and other ... 30/2012 Related A-Z Topics Birth Defects Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) NICHD News and Spotlights NIH ...

33

Mother–Adolescent Agreement Regarding Decision-Making Autonomy: A Longitudinal Comparison of Families of Adolescents with and without Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Objective?Longitudinal comparison of mother and adolescent agreement regarding decision-making autonomy for adolescents with and without spina bifida (SB).?Methods?Forty-two mother–adolescent dyads of adolescents with SB and 55 comparison dyads reported on who was responsible for decision-making across five waves of data collection, beginning at age 8 or 9 years through age 16 or 17 years.?Results?The proportion of tasks that dyads agreed were decided by adolescents increased over time for both samples beginning at age 12 or 13 years, but appeared to be delayed by roughly two years for youth with SB and was lower for youth with SB from lower socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. Mothers and adolescents with low SES demonstrated higher proportions of tasks that dyads agreed were decided by mothers.?Conclusions?SB and low SES are risk factors for lower levels of agreed-upon decision-making autonomy. Future studies should examine how parent–adolescent agreement regarding autonomy relates to psychosocial outcomes. PMID:20943730

Devine, Katie A.; Wasserman, Rachel M.; Gershenson, Lily S.; Essner, Bonnie S.

2011-01-01

34

Neural Tube Defects, Such as Spina Bifida, on The Decline: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Neural Tube Defects, Such as Spina Bifida, on the Decline: CDC Experts cite ... are born annually with neural tube defects such as spina bifida, the most common neural tube defect ...

35

Cerebellar Motor Function in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, involves dysmorphology of the cerebellum, and its most obvious manifestations are motor deficits. This paper reviews cerebellar neuropathology and motor function across several motor systems well studied in SBM in relation to current models of cerebellar motor and timing function. Children and adults with SBM have widespread motor deficits in trunk, upper limbs, eyes, and speech articulators that are broadly congruent with those observed in adults with cerebellar lesions. The structure and function of the cerebellum are correlated with a range of motor functions. While motor learning is generally preserved in SBM, those motor functions requiring predictive signals and precise calibration of the temporal features of movement are impaired, resulting in deficits in smooth movement coordination as well as in the classical cerebellar triad of dysmetria, ataxia, and dysarthria. That motor function in individuals with SBM is disordered in a manner phenotypically similar to that in adult cerebellar lesions, and appears to involve similar deficits in predictive cerebellar motor control, suggests that age-based cerebellar motor plasticity is limited in individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:20652468

Dennis, Maureen; Salman, Michael S.; Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M.

2010-01-01

36

Reaching for Independence: Counseling Implications for Youth with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida, a congenital physical disability, is indirectly associated with difficulties in scholastic achievement, social development, and self-determination. Environment can have an impact on psychosocial development and impede functioning academically, socially, and vocationally. Counselors must be aware of the societal atmosphere to identify…

Brislin, Dawn C.

2008-01-01

37

Observations of a Father: My Son Has Spina Bifida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews his experiences as the father of a child with spina bifida, a congenital problem in which the spine is not completely enclosed. He recounts his feelings upon first finding out about the condition and his son's subsequent surgeries and crises. (CL)

Remmel, Carl L.

1982-01-01

38

The management of tibial torsion in patients with spina bifida.  

PubMed

We reviewed 20 patients with spina bifida who had had surgical management of tibial torsion. Eight had had bilateral procedures and 12 a unilateral procedure, giving a total of 28 limbs for analysis. We performed closed osteoclasis on seven limbs and tibial osteotomy on 21. In the closed osteoclasis group six limbs (85%) had a good result after an average follow-up of nine years (2 to 22). All limbs developed postoperative anteromedial bowing of the tibia which later remodelled. In the tibial osteotomy group 19 (90%) had a good result. The average follow-up was nine years (2 to 28). Complications occurred in seven limbs (33%). We recommend closed osteoclasis of the tibia for the young patient with spina bifida in whom walking is impeded by excessive internal tibial torsion, and supramalleolar tibial osteotomy in the older patient with excessive external tibial torsion and a planovalgus foot. PMID:8496230

Fraser, R K; Menelaus, M B

1993-05-01

39

Mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase as a risk factor for spina bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural-tube defects. We studied the frequency of the 677C?T mutation in the 5,10–methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in 55 patients with spina bifida and parents of such patients (70 mothers, 60 fathers), 5% of 207 controls were homozygous for the 677C?T mutation compared with 16% of mothers, 10% of fathers, and 13% of patients.

N. M. J. van der Put; F. J. M. Trijbels; L. P. van den Heuvel; H. J. Blom; R. P. M. Steegers-Theunissen; T. K. A. B. Eskes; E. C. M. Mariman; M. den Heyer; P. Frosst; R. Rozen

1995-01-01

40

Trajectories of Autonomy Development Across the Adolescent Transition in Children With Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study investigated individual growth in autonomy development across the adolescent transition, comparing the trajectories of children with and without spina bifida. Method: Individual growth curve modeling procedures were utilized to describe the developmental course of autonomy across four waves of data collection, from ages 9 to 15, and to test whether illness status [spina bifida vs. matched

Deborah Friedman; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Christian DeLucia; Barbara Jandasek; Kathy Zebracki

2009-01-01

41

Delayed Intrauterine Repair of an Experimental Spina Bifida with a Collagen Biomatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a collagen biomatrix is useful for delayed intrauterine coverage of a surgically created spina bifida in a fetal lamb. Methods: In 20 fetal lambs, surgery was performed at 72 or 79 days’ gestation. In 15 lambs a spina bifida was created surgically. In 8 lambs it was covered with a

A. J. Eggink; L. A. J. Roelofs; W. F. J. Feitz; R. M. H. Wijnen; M. M. Y. Lammens; R. A. Mullaart; H. T. B. van Moerkerk; T. H. van Kuppevelt; A. J. Crevels; K. Verrijp; F. K. Lotgering; P. P. van den Berg

2008-01-01

42

Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

2009-01-01

43

Transcriptional Analyses of Two Mouse Models of Spina Bifida  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida is one of the most common of all human structural birth defects. Despite considerable effort over several decades, the causes and mechanisms underlying this malformation remain poorly characterized. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of this abnormality, we conducted a microarray study using Mouse Whole Genome Bioarrays which have ~36,000 gene targets, to compare gene expression profiles between two mouse models; CXL-Splotch and Fkbp8Gt(neo)which express a similar spina bifida phenotype. We anticipated that there would be a collection of overlapping genes or shared genetic pathways at the molecular level indicative of a common mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of spina bifida during embryonic development. A total of 54 genes were determined to be differentially expressed (25 down regulated, 29 upregulated) in the Fkbp8Gt(neo) mouse embryos; while 73 genes were differentially expressed (56 down regulated, 17 upregulated) in the CXL-Splotch mouse relative to their wildtype controls. Remarkably, the only two genes that showed decreased expression in both mutants were v-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Ski), and Zic1, a transcription factor member of the zinc finger family. Confirmation analysis using real time qRT-PCR indicated that only Zic1 was significantly decreased in both mutants. Gene Ontology analysis revealed striking enrichment of genes associated with mesoderm and central nervous system development in the CXL-Splotch mutant embryos, whereas in the Fkbp8Gt(neo) mutants, the genes involved in dorsal/ventral pattern formation, cell fate specification, and positive regulation of cell differentiation were most likely to be enriched. These results indicate that there are multiple pathways and gene networks perturbed in mouse embryos with shared phenotypes. PMID:23024056

Cabrera, Robert M.; Finnell, Richard H.; Zhu, Huiping; Shaw, Gary M.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.

2012-01-01

44

Early Results of Selective Treatment of Spina Bifida Cyctica  

PubMed Central

The results of a policy of “selection” in treating infants with spina bifida cystica over 21 months are presented. Of 37 newborn infants referred on the first day of life 25 were not treated because of the severity of their condition, as defined by exact criteria. All died under 9 months of age. In contrast, only one treated infant died and the rest are either normal or moderately handicapped. Selection for treatment is offered as the best but not a good solution to an insoluble problem. PMID:4586035

Lorber, J.

1973-01-01

45

Heterogeneity of muscle fat infiltration in children with spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Children with spina bifida have well recognized functional deficits of muscle, but little is known about the associated changes in muscle anatomy and composition. This study used water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure fat infiltration in the lower extremity muscles of 11 children with myelomeningocele, the most severe form of spina bifida. MRI measurements of muscle fat fraction (FF) were compared against manual muscle test (MMT) scores for muscle strength. The FF measurements were objective and reliable with mean inter-rater differences of <2% and intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.98. There was a significant inverse relationship between muscle FF and MMT scores (P ? 0.001). Surprisingly, however, muscles with negligible strength (MMT 0–1) exhibited a bimodal distribution of FF with one group having FF > 70% and another group having FF < 20%. The MRI also revealed striking heterogeneity amongst individual muscles in the same muscle group (e.g., 4% fat in one participant’s lateral gastrocnemius vs. 88% in her medial gastrocnemius), as well as significant asymmetry in FF in one participant with asymmetric strength and sensation. These results suggest that quantitative water-fat MRI may serve as a biomarker for muscle degeneration which may reveal subclinical changes useful for predicting functional potential and prognosis. PMID:24169376

Wren, Tishya A.L.; Ponrartana, Skorn; Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Ryan, Deirdre D.; Chia, Jonathan M.; Hu, Houchun H.

2013-01-01

46

Heterogeneity of muscle fat infiltration in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

Children with spina bifida have well recognized functional deficits of muscle, but little is known about the associated changes in muscle anatomy and composition. This study used water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure fat infiltration in the lower extremity muscles of 11 children with myelomeningocele, the most severe form of spina bifida. MRI measurements of muscle fat fraction (FF) were compared against manual muscle test (MMT) scores for muscle strength. The FF measurements were objective and reliable with mean inter-rater differences of <2% and intraclass correlation coefficients>0.98. There was a significant inverse relationship between muscle FF and MMT scores (P ? 0.001). Surprisingly, however, muscles with negligible strength (MMT 0-1) exhibited a bimodal distribution of FF with one group having FF>70% and another group having FF<20%. The MRI also revealed striking heterogeneity amongst individual muscles in the same muscle group (e.g., 4% fat in one participant's lateral gastrocnemius vs. 88% in her medial gastrocnemius), as well as significant asymmetry in FF in one participant with asymmetric strength and sensation. These results suggest that quantitative water-fat MRI may serve as a biomarker for muscle degeneration which may reveal subclinical changes useful for predicting functional potential and prognosis. PMID:24169376

Wren, Tishya A L; Ponrartana, Skorn; Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Ryan, Deirdre D; Chia, Jonathan M; Hu, Houchun H

2014-01-01

47

The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

Shaer, Catherine M.

1997-01-01

48

Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006  

MedlinePLUS

... Trends in Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in the United States, 1991-2006 by T.J. Mathews, M.S., Division ... latest NHANES results ). Birth certificate data in the United States have been available for selected birth defects since ...

49

Global Prevention of All Folic Acid-Preventable Spina bifida and Anencephaly by 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly are pandemic, affecting 225,000 children a year. These birth defects are as preventable as polio. As we near the eradication of polio, it is time to make the commitment to global prevention of all folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FA-P SBA) by 2010. Folic acid fortification of centrally processed foods, such as wheat

2002-01-01

50

The National Spina Bifida Program transition initiative: the people, the plan, and the process.  

PubMed

This article outlines and summarizes the rationale and the working process that was undertaken by the National Spina Bifida Program to address the issues of transitioning throughout the life course for persons growing up with spina bifida. Their challenges include achieving independent living, vocational independence, community mobility, and participation in social activities, and health management. The creation, the underlying concepts, and the dissemination of the Life Course Model are described. PMID:20883880

Thibadeau, Judy K; Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I; Zabel, T Andrew

2010-08-01

51

Interhemispheric effective and functional cortical connectivity signatures of spina bifida are consistent with callosal anomaly.  

PubMed

The impact of the posterior callosal anomalies associated with spina bifida on interhemispheric cortical connectivity is studied using a method for estimating cortical multivariable autoregressive models from scalp magnetoencephalography data. Interhemispheric effective and functional connectivity, measured using conditional Granger causality and coherence, respectively, is determined for the anterior and posterior cortical regions in a population of five spina bifida and five control subjects during a resting eyes-closed state. The estimated connectivity is shown to be consistent over the randomly selected subsets of the data for each subject. The posterior interhemispheric effective and functional connectivity and cortical power are significantly lower in the spina bifida group, a result that is consistent with posterior callosal anomalies. The anterior interhemispheric effective and functional connectivity are elevated in the spina bifida group, a result that may reflect compensatory mechanisms. In contrast, the intrahemispheric effective connectivity is comparable in the two groups. The differences between the spina bifida and control groups are most significant in the ? and ? bands. PMID:22571349

Malekpour, Sheida; Li, Zhimin; Cheung, Bing Leung Patrick; Castillo, Eduardo M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Kramer, Larry A; Fletcher, Jack M; Van Veen, Barry D

2012-01-01

52

Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.  

PubMed

Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB. PMID:23298791

Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

2013-02-01

53

Rare LRP6 Variants Identified in Spina Bifida Patients.  

PubMed

Several single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6) cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice. We therefore examined LRP6 in 192 unrelated infants from California with the NTD, spina bifida, and found four heterozygous missense SNVs, three of which were predicted to be deleterious, among NTD cases and not in 190 ethnically matched nonmalformed controls. Parents and siblings could not be tested because of the study design. Like Crooked tail and Ringleschwanz mouse variants, the p.Tyr544Cys Lrp6 protein failed to bind the chaperone protein mesoderm development and impaired Lrp6 subcellular localization to the plasma membrane of MDCK II cells. Only the p.Tyr544Cys Lrp6 variant downregulated canonical Wnt signaling in a TopFlash luciferase reporter in vitro assay. In contrast, three Lrp6 mutants (p.Ala3Val, p.Tyr544Cys, and p.Arg1574Leu) increased noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in an Ap1-luciferase assay. Thus, LRP6 variants outside of YWTD repeats could potentially predispose embryos to NTDs, whereas Lrp6 modulation of Wnt/PCP signaling would be more essential than its canonical pathway role in neural tube closure. PMID:25546815

Lei, Yunping; Fathe, Kristin; McCartney, Danielle; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Ross, M Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M; Finnell, Richard H

2015-03-01

54

[Embryonic mechanisms in development of spina bifida in humans].  

PubMed

The study of 86 human embryos and fetuses beginning from 23rdday of development up to 18th week after fecundation has detected 23 cases of pathologic development which correspond to the modern definition of spina bifida (SB). It is shown that the cause of various forms of the anomaly is the disturbance or temporary delay of a movement of caudal neurulation wave forming the spinal cord. The anomaly size and type are determined by the time and duration of a pathogenic action on neurulation. Postnatal or the 1st type of SB develops in neurulation wave disturbance not longer than 4-6 hours. Anomaly consequence may be compensated surgically. The 2nd or fetal type of SB arises when neurulation delay is from 6 to 20 hours. If the delay occurs on the 22-24th day of development, embryos die by the neurulation end. If the delay takes place on the 26-28th day embryos may survive till the late fetal period. In embryonal or type III of SB embryos die by the end of the 8th week and do not enter the medical statistics. Their death is associated with delayed movement of the caudal neurulation wave for 24 hours and longer. This results in a spontaneous abortion. PMID:15154378

Vostrikov, O V; Zotov, V A; Nikitenko, E V

2004-01-01

55

Continence in patients with spina bifida: long term results.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty four questionnaires relating to bladder and bowel control were sent to a random selection of patients with spina bifida throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and seventeen questionnaires were returned, of which 109 were usable. Twenty eight out of 109 responders had undergone some form of urinary diversion, of whom 20 (71%) were reliably dry. The remaining 81 responders emptied their bladders by a variety of techniques including normal voiding, straining, expression, clean intermittent catheterisation, indwelling catheters, or they dribbled urine continuously. Only 31 (38%) of this group were reliably dry. Ninety four of 109 (86%) responders regularly sat on the toilet to evacuate their bowels and most used some aid such as manual evacuation, laxatives, suppositories, or enemas. Fifty five of 104 (53%) responders soiled regularly, 31 (56%) of whom were also wet. Forty seven per cent of dry patients (24/51) were faecally incontinent. Only 25 of 104 (24%) patients responding to all questions were reliably clean and dry. PMID:8129429

Malone, P S; Wheeler, R A; Williams, J E

1994-01-01

56

Complications following breast cancer therapy in the adult spina bifida population: A case report.  

PubMed

Survival to adulthood in spina bifida has greatly increased with the advent of modern therapies. With this prolonging of life expectancy, patients are exposed to the risk of adult onset malignancies and the complications of subsequent treatment. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman born with a terminal lipomyelomeningocele, presenting with new fecal incontinence and a desire to undivert her ileal conduit. The deterioration was attributed to chemotherapy for breast cancer. We highlight the urologic challenges of breast cancer management in the neurogenic bowel population, as well as the utility of an adult spina bifida clinic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a spina bifida patient presenting with fecal and urinary complications from breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:24282472

Hoy, Nathan Y; Metcalfe, Peter

2013-01-01

57

[Maternal-fetal surgery for spina bifida: future perspectives].  

PubMed

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is a frequent congenital abnormality (450 cases per year in France) associated with high morbidity. Immediate postnatal surgery is aimed at covering the exposed spinal cord, preventing infection, treating hydrocephalus with a ventricular shunt. MMC surgical techniques haven't achieved any major progress in the past decades. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the MMC "two-hit" hypothetic pathogenesis: a primary embryonic congenital abnormality of the nervous system due to a failure in the closure of the developing neural tube, followed by secondary damages of spinal cord and nerves caused by long-term exposure to amniotic fluid. This malformation frequently develops cranial consequences, i.e. hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation, due to leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. After 30 years of research, a randomized trial published in February 2011 proved open maternal-fetal surgery (OMFS) for MMC to be a real therapeutic option. Comparing prenatal to postnatal surgery, it confirmed better outcomes of MMC children after a follow up of 2.5 years: enhancement of lower limb motor function, decrease of the degree of hindbrain herniation associated with the Chiari II malformation and the need for shunting. At 5 years of age, MMC children operated prenatally seems to have better neurocognitive, motor and bladder-sphincter outcomes than those operated postnatally. However, risks of OMFS exist: prematurity for the fetus and a double hysterotomy at approximately 3-month interval for the mother. Nowadays, it seems crucial to inform parents of MMC patients about OMFS and to offer it in France. Future research will improve our understanding of MMC pathophysiology and evaluate long-term outcomes of OMFS. Tomorrow's prenatal surgery will be less invasive and more premature using endoscopic, robotic or percutaneous techniques. Beforehand, Achilles' heel of maternal-fetal surgery, i.e. preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor and preterm birth, must be solved. PMID:24582882

Joyeux, L; Chalouhi, G E; Ville, Y; Sapin, E

2014-06-01

58

Acute abdominal symptoms and signs in children and young adults with spina bifida: Ten years' experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Diagnosis and management of the acute abdomen in patients with spina bifida (SB) can be problematic. There are at least 4 clinical factors that can predispose to the development of acute abdominal symptoms and signs, and patients with a thoracic level lesion can have a partially insensate abdomen. The authors analyzed their accumulated experience to determine the annual incidence

Gordon Worley; John S Wiener; Timothy M George; Herbert E Fuchs; Joanne F Mackey; Robert D Fitch; Keith T Oldham

2001-01-01

59

Anomalous Development of Brain Structure and Function in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II…

Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

2010-01-01

60

Spatial Knowledge of Children with Spina Bifida in a Virtual Large-Scale Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spatial knowledge of 18 children with spina bifida and 18 healthy control children (matched according to sex, age, and verbal IQ) was investigated in a computer-simulated environment. All children had to learn a route through a virtual floor system containing 18 landmarks. Controlling for cognitive abilities, the results revealed that children…

Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

2006-01-01

61

Transition to Adult Health Care for Adolescents with Spina Bifida: Research Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing survival of children and young people with congenital disabilities such as spina bifida (SB) provides a challenge to health care systems globally about how best to respond to the multitude of health, developmental, and psychosocial needs of those affected by this complex disorder across the lifespan, not just in childhood and…

Sawyer, Susan M.; Macnee, Sarah

2010-01-01

62

The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Adolescents with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…

Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie

2011-01-01

63

Radiographic method to assess the prevalence of sacral spina bifida occulta.  

PubMed

Spina bifida occulta of the sacrum is the most common type of spinal deformity. Many authors have published data on the frequency of spina bifida occulta, with varying results. Some possible reasons for this variability could include the differing methods used to gather data and differing ways of classifying the condition. This study attempts to develop an X-ray method to study sacral spina bifida occulta in a standardized fashion, using an angulated antero-posterior technique. This technique is then used to estimate the frequency of sacral spina bifida occulta in an Australian sample. The sacra of 53 cadavers were X-rayed and the level of closure of the sacral spinal canal recorded. The X-ray technique was validated by open dissection of six of the cadavers studied and was shown to be accurate to half a sacral segment. No sacra with a completely open sacral canal were found, two sacra (4%) were open from S2 down to S5 and ten sacra (19%) were open from S3 down to S5. The most common condition (43%) recorded was where S4 and S5 only were open. Eighteen cadavers (34%) showed only S5 open, and interestingly, no sacra were recorded as having the dorsal sacral arch completely closed. A study of a larger sample will follow using the validated X-ray technique. PMID:16941459

Albrecht, T L; Scutter, S D; Henneberg, M

2007-03-01

64

Arithmetic Processing in Children with Spina Bifida: Calculation Accuracy, Strategy Use, and Fact Retrieval Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies compared 98 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM)--a disorder associated with high rates of math disability and spatial deficits--to 94 typically developing children on multidigit subtraction and cognitive addition tasks. Children with SBM were classified into those with reading decoding and math disability, only math…

Barnes, Marcia A.; Wilkinson, Margaret; Khemani, Ekta; Boudesquie, Amy; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2006-01-01

65

Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum in spina bifida meningomyelocele and potential compensatory mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of Arthur Benton's conceptual and methodological contributions to the understanding of normal and pathological development, we discuss agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC), criteria for potential neuroanatomical compensatory mechanisms in CC agenesis, and the results of an examination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the CC in 193 children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM). There were

H. Julia Hannay; Maureen Dennis; Larry Kramer; Susan Blaser; Jack M. Fletcher

2009-01-01

66

The results of Grice Green subtalar arthrodesis of valgus foot in spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Background: Valgus foot is a common foot deformity in spina bifida. The most popular operation for the valgus deformity has been the Grice talocalcaneal blocking. It has not been studied primarily in children with spina bifida. We report a prospective series, we present the results of hind foot valgus deformity of children with spina bifida, using Grice talocalcaneal arthrodesis with a tricortical iliac bone graft. Materials and Methods: Between May 2000 and December 2003, 21 patients with bilateral (42 feet) valgus deformity of feet underwent surgery. There were 7 males and 14 females. The mean age of patients was 67.7 months (range 50–108 months). Results: The total number of feet that had nonunion was 11, in 7 of them the grafts were completely reabsorbed and the outcome of all these feet was unsatisfactory. Four feet had partial union of which three had unsatisfactory and one had satisfactory outcome. Sixteen feet had residual valgus deformity at the last followup visit, 10 patients had nonunion, and 6 had inadequate correction. Mean preoperative talocalcaneal and calcaneal pitch angles were 48.5° and 31.9°, respectively, which decreased to 38.5° and 29.1°, respectively, postoperatively. The decrease in talocalcaneal angle and calcaneal pitch was significant between preoperative and postoperative measurements (P<0.05). Conclusion: Grice subtalar arthrodesis technique is still a valuable option for valgus foot in patients with spina bifida. In this study, we found more encouraging results in older patients. PMID:22719122

Küēükdurmaz, Fatih; A??r, ?smail; Sayg?, Baransel; Bezer, Murat

2012-01-01

67

Quality of Life in Individuals with Spina Bifida: A Research Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality of life (QOL) is an important concept for individuals with chronic health conditions. Measuring and supporting QOL in children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida (SB) may be especially unique given the broad range of complex health and rehabilitative challenges they encounter. This article provides a research update on (a)…

Sawin, Kathleen J.; Bellin, Melissa H.

2010-01-01

68

Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

2007-01-01

69

Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

2010-01-01

70

Risk and Protective Influences in the Lives of Siblings of Youths with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of childhood chronic health conditions like spina bifida (SB) is a shared family experience. However, the lived experience of siblings is not well known. One hundred and fifty-five brothers and sisters of a child with SB responded to an open-ended question included in an anonymous self-administered mail questionnaire designed to enhance…

Bellin, Melissa H.; Kovacs, Pamela J.; Sawin, Kathleen J.

2008-01-01

71

Bladder dysfunction and neurological disability at presentation in closed spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Congenital closed spinal anomalies are associated with distortion of the spinal cord, the spinal nerve roots or both, and can result in neurological abnormalities of the lower limbs and neuropathic bladder dysfunction. This study reports clinical and videourodynamic findings in a group of 51 patients with closed spina bifida. The mean age at presentation to a specialist neurourological clinic was 3.3 years. Twenty five patients presented with urinary tract disturbance and 12 presented with neurological problems. Thirty three had normal neurological examination or only minor objective signs, 21 had normal renal tract ultrasonography but only two patients had normal videourodynamics, with 31 having two or more abnormalities during this assessment. Neither clinical neurological assessment nor the history of voiding behaviour are reliable indicators of bladder dysfunction and subsequent risk of renal damage. Therefore, all patients with a known or suspected diagnosis of closed spina bifida should have videourodynamic assessment.?? PMID:9771249

Johnston, L; Borzyskowski, M

1998-01-01

72

Bladder dysfunction and neurological disability at presentation in closed spina bifida.  

PubMed

Congenital closed spinal anomalies are associated with distortion of the spinal cord, the spinal nerve roots or both, and can result in neurological abnormalities of the lower limbs and neuropathic bladder dysfunction. This study reports clinical and videourodynamic findings in a group of 51 patients with closed spina bifida. The mean age at presentation to a specialist neurological clinic was 3.3 years. Twenty five patients presented with urinary tract disturbance and 12 presented with neurological problems. Thirty three had normal neurological examination or only minor objective signs, 21 had normal renal tract ultrasonography but only two patients had normal videourodynamics, with 31 having two or more abnormalities during this assessment. Neither clinical neurological assessment nor the history of voiding behaviour are reliable indicators of bladder dysfunction and subsequent risk of renal damage. Therefore, all patients with a known or suspected diagnosis of closed spina bifida should have videourodynamic assessment. PMID:9771249

Johnston, L B; Borzyskowski, M

1998-07-01

73

Observed and Perceived Dyadic and Systemic Functioning in Families of Preadolescents With Spina Bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine dyadic and systemic family functioning across several domains (conflict, cohesion, and stress) in families of preadolescents with spina bifida in comparison to families of able-bodied preado- lescents (8- and 9-year olds; n 68 in each sample). Methods: Mother-, father-, and child-reported questionnaire data and observational ratings of family behav- ior were employed. Results: Findings revealed significant group

Grayson N. Holmbeck; Rachael Millstein Coakley; Jennifer S. Hommeyer; Wendy E. Shapera; Venette C. Westhoven

2002-01-01

74

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. METHODS: The cases were children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were children born healthy in the same period as the cases, from hospitals and from the general population. Data collection was carried out in two steps. Firstly, postal questionnaires were sent to all the parents of cases and controls to gather information on occupations and potential confounders. In the second phase of the study, information on specific exposures was collected by means of job and task specific personal interviews. Interviews were performed with 55 case mothers and 66 control mothers who had occupations with a potential for chemical or physical exposure. Those exposures were assumed to be negligible for--for example, teachers and secretaries, so personal interviews were not indicated for these women. Information was collected on specific tasks in the period just after conception, and on the associated use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. RESULTS: The analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4, CI:1.3-9.0), and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7, CI:0.9-3.4). Only a few women seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures of the mother during pregnancy were infrequent and did not seem to play an important part in the aetiology of spina bifida in this study. The association found between spina bifida and maternal agricultural occupations could not be explained by the use of pesticides by the mother or by any other occupational exposure. PMID:8777455

Blatter, B M; Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreėls, F J; Verbeek, A L

1996-01-01

75

Applying a knowledge-to-action framework for primary prevention of spina bifida in tropical Africa.  

PubMed

Maternal periconceptual folate supplementation reduces the incidence of neural tube defects; however, in settings where population-level food fortification is not available, it is not clear how best to promote this prevention strategy. Guided by a knowledge-to-action methodology, we used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to define the local disease burden, then designed, implemented and evaluated a culturally tailored educational intervention in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where resource limitations and threats to human security contribute to restricted capacity for the prevention and management of congenital malformations. A descriptive case series of 27 patients undergoing surgery for spina bifida demonstrated a short-term mortality of 15% and long-term disability in survivors. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices demonstrated a low level of folate awareness (53%) among women of reproductive age. Focus group discussions revealed exotic aetiologic views, significant gender issues and several barriers to folate use. A culturally tailored radio broadcast and an educational video were designed and produced locally based on qualitative and quantitative findings. Evaluation of the video documented high levels of viewer satisfaction and unequivocal knowledge gain (P ? 0.001). We conclude that spina bifida poses a significant burden on affected patients and their families in the African context, but folate is underutilized as a prevention strategy. Patient education through video media results in increased awareness and understanding of spina bifida and folate, a first step in empowering women to reduce the risk of spina bifida in their children in the absence of population-wide food fortification. PMID:21062419

Claude, Kasereka M; Juvenal, Kwibuka L; Hawkes, Michael

2012-04-01

76

Spina bifida at the sacral level: more than minor gait disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate functional outcome in two groups of children with sacral level paralysis: myelomeningocele (MMC) versus lipomyelomeningocele (LMMC). Additionally both groups were compared with each other and when possible with reference values.Design: Cross-sectional study by means of (1) clinical assessment, and (2) disability measurement.Setting: Spina bifida outpatient clinic at a university hospital in the Netherlands.Subjects: Sample of 30 children

M AGC Schoenmakers; V AM Gulmans; R HJM Gooskens; P JM Helders

2004-01-01

77

Laparoscopic Hysteropexy in a Patient with Spina Bifida and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic repair of pelvic organ prolapse in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts has not been previously described. The optimum management of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts undergoing laparoscopy is uncertain. We describe the case of a 21-year-old female patient with spina bifida and ventriculoperitoneal shunt who underwent laparoscopic hysteropexy for severe pelvic organ prolapse. The implications of performing laparoscopy on patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts are reviewed along with strategies to reduce potential intraoperative complications. PMID:21902988

Askari, Reza; Kasturi, Seshadri; Ravangard, Samadh F.

2011-01-01

78

Predisposition to spina bifida: Search for a relation to maternal gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed Central

The peak acid output of the stomach in a group of 71 mothers of spina bifida children and in 71 matched controls was estimated indirectly by the serum level of group I pepsinogens. The mean levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that the conjectured teratogen is not specially acid-labile. The variance was significantly higher in index subjects than in controls, but the interpretation of this finding is not clear. PMID:563466

Stanway, P A; Samloff, I M; Brace, C J; Renwick, J H

1977-01-01

79

Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

2013-11-01

80

Marjolin's ulcers: theories, prognostic factors and their peculiarities in spina bifida patients  

PubMed Central

Background Due to improved care, more and more children born with spina bifida in rural Kenya are surviving into adulthood. This improved survival has led to significant challenges in their lifestyles, especially the need to ensure pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. Malignant degeneration of pressure ulcers in spina bifida patients is very rare. The author describes the clinical presentation of two pressure ulcer carcinomas that are at variance from classical descriptions. Materials and methods An internet/Medline/PubMed search of English literature for theories on Marjolin's ulcer evolution and prognostic features of Marjolin's ulcers was performed. A chart review of two young adults with spina bifida who had presented to the author's hospital between 2004 and August 2010 with chronic pressure ulcers found to be Marjolin's ulcers on histo-pathological examination was performed, and the clinical features are reported. Results The two ulcers appeared clinically benign: one was a deep ulcer, while the other was shallow; both had normal, benign-appearing edges, and a foul smelling discharge. The two ulcers were surrounded by induration and multiple communicating sinuses, with no evidence of chronic osteomyelitis. The internet search revealed a total of nine theories on Marjolin's ulcer development, as well as seven clinical and four histological prognostic features. Discussion The multifactorial theory, a coalescence of a number of proposed theories, best explains the evolution of Marjolin's ulcers. Poor prognostic features include pressure ulcer carcinomas, lesions and location in the lower limbs/trunks, all present in the two patients making their prognosis dim: this is despite the surgical margins being clear of tumor. Benign appearance, induration and presence of multiple communicating sinuses are features that have not been previously described as presenting features of pressure ulcers carcinomas. Conclusion There is need for spina bifida patients and their guardians/caretakers to receive a close follow-up throughout life; health education focused on pressure ulcer prevention as well as early treatment of pressure ulcers when they occur, will avert the development of Marjolin's ulcers, and save lives. PMID:21129225

2010-01-01

81

Confirmation of microevolutionary increase in spina bifida occulta among Swiss birth cohorts.  

PubMed

Previous studies on the prevalence of spina bifida occulta have indicated a microevolutionary increase in its frequency and possible population differences in the prevalence of the condition. We studied the frequencies of closed and open sacral canals at each sacral level among two birth cohorts in Switzerland. Transverse CT scans and multiplanar reconstruction images of sacra of 95 males and 96 females born in 1940-1950 and 99 males and 94 females born in 1970-1980 in Switzerland were reviewed. We found that individuals born later have significantly more open sacral arches at all sacral levels compared to those born 30-40 years earlier. When results were related to previously published data on Australian cohorts, the trend was the same, but Swiss in both cohorts were less likely to have an open section than Australians at all locations apart from S2. This study confirmed a microevolutionary trend in the opening of sacral canal among two different generations in Switzerland and demonstrated a population difference in the prevalence of spina bifida occulta. PMID:20632043

Lee, Yu Chao; Solomon, Lucian Bogdan; Rühli, Frank Jakobus; Schiess, Regula; Öhrström, Lena; Sullivan, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Henneberg, Maciej

2011-05-01

82

A Review of the Potential for Cardiometabolic Dysfunction in Youth with Spina Bifida and the Role for Physical Activity and Structured Exercise  

PubMed Central

Children and adolescents who have decreased mobility due to spina bifida may be at increased risk for the components of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia due to low physical activity. Like their nondisabled peers, adolescents with spina bifida that develop metabolic risk factors early in life have set the stage for adult disease. Exercise interventions can improve metabolic dysfunction in nondisabled youth, but the types of exercise programs that are most effective and the mechanisms involved are not known. This is especially true in adolescents with spina bifida, who have impaired mobility and physical function and with whom there have been few well-controlled studies. This paper highlights the current lack of knowledge about the role of physical activity and the need to develop exercise strategies targeting the reduction of cardiometabolic risk and improving quality of life in youth with spina bifida. PMID:22778758

Short, Kevin R.; Frimberger, Dominic

2012-01-01

83

IgE Reactivity to 14-kD and 27-kD Natural Rubber Proteins in Latex-Allergic Children with Spina bifida and Other Congenital Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined by immunoblotting sera from 39 latex-allergic patients, 19 from USA and 20 from Finland, including 15 children with spina bifida and 5 children with other congenital anomalies, for IgE antibodies to natural rubber latex (latex) antigens. IgE antibodies in 10 of the 12 (83%) US spina bifida patients and in 2 of the 3 Finnish spina bifida patients

Harri Alenius; Timo Palosuo; Kevin Kelly; Viswanath Kurup; Timo Reunala; Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Jordan Fink

1993-01-01

84

Lack of significant association between spina bifida and the fragile X syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Folic acid is involved in two common disorders associated with developmental disabilities. Spina bifida is a malformation that may be associated with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and epilepsy. Its incidence can be reduced by the ingestion of folic acid before, and at the time of, conception. The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder which is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. This disorder can be diagnosed by the induction of fragile sites on the X chromosome which is cultured in a medium deficient in folic acid. In several studies, folic acid was reported to alleviate some of the developmental and behavioral manifestations associated in the fragile X syndrome, while in others, it has no effect. 9 refs.

Schiano, C.M. [United Cerebral Palsy of Nassau County, Roosevelt, NY (United States); Demb, H.B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Brown, W.T. [Inst. for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY (United States)

1995-12-04

85

Altered Expression of 14-3-3? Protein in Spinal Cords of Rat Fetuses with Spina Bifida Aperta  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs). A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3? expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E) 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3? plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3? in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3? and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. Methodology/Principal Findings We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 14-3-3? and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3? and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3? was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3? were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7), microRNA-375 (miR-375) and microRNA-451 (miR-451), which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3? in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3? and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3? expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3? plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida. PMID:23936434

Wu, Li-na; Wei, Xiao-wei; Fan, Yang; Miao, Jia-ning; Wang, Li-li; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Di; Yuan, Zheng-wei

2013-01-01

86

A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

2011-03-01

87

Fetal Surgery: The Ochsner Experience with In Utero Spina Bifida Repair  

PubMed Central

Background Myelomeningocele is the most common form of congenital central nervous system defect that is compatible with life. Most patients with myelomeningocele have significant functional impairment of ambulation and bowel and bladder function, require permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion with shunting, and have significant morbidity and mortality from hindbrain herniation (Chiari II malformation). The advent of intrauterine surgery has provided new opportunities to better address this lifelong debilitating disease. Case Report The patient was a 19-year-old gravida 2 para 1 at 22-6/7 weeks whose fetus was diagnosed with an open neural tube defect and further demonstrated to have ventriculomegaly and hindbrain herniation. Amniocentesis confirmed normal karyotype and the presence of acetylcholinesterase. After an intrauterine procedure, the patient underwent cesarean section at 35-5/7 weeks and delivered a male infant. His spinal incision was well healed at birth without any evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and his extremities were normal in appearance, range of motion, and movement. The infant also has maintained relatively normal, age-appropriate bowel and bladder function and has no obvious neurologic deficit. Conclusion As the benefit of fetal surgery becomes more widely accepted, quality of care and patient safety must be at the forefront of any institution's effort to offer fetal surgery. Given the current prevalence of spina bifida and the amount of resources required to treat this disease effectively either in utero or postnatally, it is our opinion that the treatment of spina bifida should be regionalized to tertiary referral centers with the interdisciplinary expertise to offer comprehensive treatment for all aspects of the disease and all phases of care for the patients. PMID:24688343

Kahn, Lora; Mbabuike, Nnenna; Valle-Giler, Edison P.; Garces, Juanita; Moore, R. Clifton; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Bui, Cuong J.

2014-01-01

88

Assessing health-related quality of life in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

OBJECT The purpose of this study is to explore various aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with spinal dysraphism. METHODS The authors enrolled a prospective cohort of 159 patients from the multidisciplinary spina bifida clinic. Surveys were distributed to caregivers of patients with spina bifida who were 5 years old and older. Data were collected using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 focusing on vision, speech, hearing, dexterity, ambulation, cognition, emotions, and pain. Each participant received an overall HRQOL utility score and individual domain subscores. These were correlated with demographic and treatment variables. Analysis was done using SPSS statistics (version 21). RESULTS There were 125 patients with myelomeningocele, 25 with lipomyelomeningocele, and 9 with other dysraphisms. Among patients with myelomeningocele, 107 (86%) had CSF shunts in place, 14 (11%) had undergone Chiari malformation Type II decompression, 59 (47%) were community ambulators, and 45 (36%) were nonambulatory. Patients with myelomeningocele had significantly lower overall HRQOL scores than patients with closed spinal dysraphism. Among patients with myelomeningocele, younger patients had higher HRQOL scores. Patients with impaired bowel continence had lower overall HRQOL scores. History of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was associated with worse HRQOL (overall score, ambulation, and cognition subscores). History of Chiari malformation Type II decompression was associated with worse overall, speech, and cognition scores. Patients who could ambulate in the community had higher overall and ambulation scores. A history of tethered cord release was correlated with lower pain subscore. No association was found between sex, race, insurance type, or bladder continence and HRQOL. CONCLUSIONS Patients with myelomeningocele have significantly lower HRQOL scores than those with other spinal dysraphisms. History of shunt treatment and Chiari decompression correlate with lower HRQOL scores. PMID:25415252

Rocque, Brandon G; Bishop, E Ralee'; Scogin, Mallory A; Hopson, Betsy D; Arynchyna, Anastasia A; Boddiford, Christina J; Shannon, Chevis N; Blount, Jeffrey P

2015-02-01

89

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... condition happens when the lower part of the brain sits in the upper part of the neck. Some babies with this condition have hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain), weakness in the upper body (like in the ...

90

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... Myelomeningocele (sounds like: my-low-ma-nin-jo-seal; hear how ā??myelomeningoceleā?¯ sounds ) When people talk ... the legs. Meningocele (sounds like: ma-nin-jo-seal; hear how ā??meningoceleā?¯ sounds ) Another type of ...

91

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... medical centers continue to perform fetal surgery for treatment of myelomeningocele through a National Institutes of Health experimental protocol (Management of Myelomeningocele Study, or MOMS). ...

92

Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... them get around, kids might use crutches, leg braces, or wheelchairs. Andrea, our dancer, was born with ... knees. When Andrea was younger she walked with braces and crutches, but now she uses a wheelchair. ...

93

Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB\\/SH) are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB\\/SH. METHODS: Twenty six children with SB\\/SH

Behroze Vachha; Richard C Adams

2005-01-01

94

A cost-of-illness study of spina bifida in Italy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord, nerves, and adjacent covering structures, with different levels of severity and functional disability. The economic cost of spina bifida and its prevention using folic acid have never been estimated in Italy. This study was conducted to define the cost of illness of SB in Italy. Methods A retrospective multicenter observational study on the social cost of patients with SB was carried out in three SB centers in Italy. Cost data were collected relating to the 12 months preceding the enrollment time (T0), and subsequently 3 months after the T0 time (±20 days) through a case report form designed to collect the relevant information on the costs incurred during the period considered. The data for all patients were analyzed through multivariate analysis on the main parameters. Results We enrolled 128 patients equally divided between males and females, with a mean age of 13 years (minimum, 0; maximum, 29). Diagnosis was mostly postnatal, with 64 cases diagnosed at birth and 33 cases diagnosed subsequently. The lesion severity levels, as defined in the inclusion criteria, were walking (52 patients); walking with simple orthoses (33 patients); walking with complex orthoses (16 patients); and nonwalking, (25 patients). The anatomic type identified is open SB in most cases (84 patients), followed by closed SB (37 patients) and SB occulta (3 patients). The most significant cost per year was for assistive devices, for a total of 4307.00 €, followed by hospitalization (907.00 €), examinations (592.00 €), and drug therapy (328.00 €). Cost breakdown by age range shows that the highest costs are incurred in the 0–4 age range. The highest cost was for cases of open SB (12,103.00 €). The cost/degree of severity ratio showed that the highest cost was for nonwalking patients (14,323.00 €), followed by patients walking with complex orthoses (13,799.00 €). Conclusion The data from this study show that the mean total cost for a patient with SB was 11,351.00 € per year. Based on data provided by the Italian Institute of Health, we can estimate a total annual social cost of about 60 million Euros per year for SB in Italy. Cost of illness was correlated with age and degree of severity of SB. PMID:23861590

Colombo, Giorgio L; Di Matteo, Sergio; Vinci, Marta; Gatti, Claudia; Pascali, Maria Paola; De Gennaro, Mario; Macrellino, Elena; Mosiello, Giovanni; Redaelli, Tiziana; Schioppa, Francesca; Dieci, Cristina

2013-01-01

95

Lifestyle in adults aged 35 years who were born with open spina bifida: prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: From 1963 to 1971, 117 babies with open spina bifida were treated non-selectively from birth. In 2002 we reviewed all the survivors by postal questionnaire and telephone call. The aims were to find out how many were living independently in the community or were in open employment or drove a car. In addition to these achievements we recorded health, medication and admissions to hospital and asked how much daily help they needed. RESULTS: Ascertainment was 100%. There had been 63 deaths, mainly of the most severely affected. The mean age of the 54 survivors was 35 years. The outcome in terms of disability ranged from apparent normality to total dependency. It reflected both the neurological deficit, which had been recorded in infancy in terms of sensory level, and events in the CSF shunt history. Overall about 2 in 5 of the survivors lived independently in the community, 2 in 5 drove a car, 1 in 5 was in competitive employment and 1 in 5 could walk 50 metres. CONCLUSION: Although those who survived to age 35 years tended to be less disabled, 2 in 5 continued to need daily care. PMID:15679938

Hunt, Gillian M; Oakeshott, Pippa

2004-12-10

96

Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73) with SBM and typically developing (TD) controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus), with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density. PMID:25057465

Ware, Ashley L.; Juranek, Jenifer; Williams, Victoria J.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2014-01-01

97

Examination of Frontal and Parietal Tectocortical Attention Pathways in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele Using Probabilistic Diffusion Tractography  

PubMed Central

Abstract Abnormalities of the midbrain tectum are common but variable malformations in spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and have been linked to neuropsychological deficits in attention orienting. The degree to which variations in tectum structure influence white matter (WM) connectivity to cortical regions is unknown. To assess the relationship of tectal structure and connectivity to frontal and parietal cortical regions, probabilistic diffusion tractography was performed on 106 individuals (80 SBM, 26 typically developing [TD]) to isolate anterior versus posterior tectocortical WM pathways. Results showed that those with SBM exhibited significantly reduced tectal volume, along with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in posterior but not anterior tectocortical WM pathways when compared with TD individuals. The group with SBM also showed greater within-subject discrepancies between frontal and parietal WM integrity compared with the TD group. Of those with SBM, qualitative classification of tectal beaking based on radiological review was associated with increased axial diffusivity across both anterior and posterior tectocortical pathways, relative to individuals with SBM and a normal appearing tectum. These results support previous volumetric findings of greater impairment to posterior versus anterior brain regions in SBM, and quantifiably relate tectal volume, tectocortical WM integrity, and tectal malformations in this population. PMID:23937233

Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2013-01-01

98

Associations of Ethnicity and SES with IQ and Achievement in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

PubMed Central

Objectives?We evaluated whether the phenotypic pattern of higher verbal than nonverbal IQ in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is consistent across subgroups differing in ethnicity and SES. We also explored the relation of cognitive and academic performance.?Methods?Non-Hispanic White (n = 153) and Hispanic (n = 80) children with SBM received the Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence-IV and achievement subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the family environment [socioeconomic status (SES), resources, and educational opportunities].?Results?Multivariate analysis revealed that Hispanic children with lower SES had lower verbal than nonverbal scores. Hispanic children with higher SES and non-Hispanic White children demonstrated the reverse pattern. Verbal and nonverbal IQ interacted to predict reading and math performance.?Conclusions?Lower SES is associated with lower verbal IQ in economically disadvantaged Hispanic children with SBM. Academic achievement is largely correlated with verbal IQ, but children with lower verbal IQ may partially compensate with higher nonverbal ability. PMID:20150339

Garnaat, Sarah L.; Myszka, Katherine A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Dennis, Maureen

2010-01-01

99

Bilateral dislocation of the hip in spina bifida: a long-term follow-up study.  

PubMed

Nineteen patients with spina bifida and bilateral dislocation of the hips were studied with a minimal follow-up of 10 years. The average age at review was 21 years (range, 10-31). Ten patients had an upper neurologic level (thoracic to L3), and nine had a low lesion (L4 to sacrum). Three patients had no hip surgery. A closed or open reduction was performed in 12 hips, supplemented by one or more surgical procedures. Of these, 10 remained enlocated, and two had redislocated. In all other hips, several surgical procedures were performed, aimed at improvement of hip-flexion deformity or stability. At follow-up, one patient had occasional pain in one hip, which was dysplastic. Of the 10 patients with a high lesion, only two were walkers, but both had bilateral dislocation of the hips at follow-up. In contrast, all nine patients were walkers, but four of these had bilateral dislocation at follow-up. We found that a level pelvis and good range of motion of the hips are more important for ambulation than is reduction of bilateral hip dislocation. PMID:9661846

Heeg, M; Broughton, N S; Menelaus, M B

1998-01-01

100

Anomalous development of brain structure and function in spina bifida myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a specific type of neural tube defect whereby the open neural tube at the level of the spinal cord alters brain development during early stages of gestation. Some structural anomalies are virtually unique to individuals with SBM, including a complex pattern of cerebellar dysplasia known as the Chiari II malformation. Other structural anomalies are not necessarily unique to SBM, including altered development of the corpus callosum and posterior fossa. Within SBM, tremendous heterogeneity is reflected in the degree to which brain structures are atypical in qualitative appearance and quantitative measures of morphometry. Hallmark structural features of SBM include overall reductions in posterior fossa and cerebellum appearance, size, and volume. Studies of the corpus callosum have shown complex patterns of agenesis or hypoplasia along its rostral-caudal axis, with rostrum and splenium regions particularly susceptible to agenesis. Studies of cortical regions have demonstrated complex patterns of thickening, thinning, and gyrification. Diffusion tensor imaging studies have reported compromised integrity of some specific white matter pathways. Given equally complex ocular motor, motor, and cognitive phenotypes consisting of relative strengths and weaknesses that seem to align with altered structural development, studies of SBM provide new insights to our current understanding of brain structure-function associations. PMID:20419768

Juranek, Jenifer; Salman, Michael S.

2010-01-01

101

Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age. PMID:24332229

Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

2013-12-01

102

A description of spina bifida cases and co-occurring malformations, 1976-2011.  

PubMed

Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400?µg/day) or high intake (?400?µg/day). SB cases (n?=?1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Mitchell, Allen A; Demmer, Laurie A; Werler, Martha M

2014-02-01

103

A Description of Spina Bifida Cases and Co-Occurring Malformations, 1976–2011  

PubMed Central

Mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States corresponded with a decline in the prevalence of spina bifida (SB). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of isolated versus non-isolated SB cases in both pre- and post-fortification periods. SB cases in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study from 1976 to 2011 without chromosomal anomalies and syndromes were included. A maternal interview, conducted within 6 months of delivery, collected information on demographics, reproductive history, diet, and supplement use. Daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was calculated using both dietary and supplement information and categorized as low intake (<400 ?g/day) or high intake (?400 ?g/day). SB cases (n=1170) were classified as isolated (80.4%) or non-isolated (19.1%). Non-isolated cases were further divided into subgroups based on accompanying major malformations (midline, renal, genital, heart, laterality). Compared to non-isolated cases, isolated cases were more likely to be white, non-Hispanic and have more than 12 years of education. Cases in the renal, genital, and heart subgroups had the lowest proportions of mothers with a high folic acid intake. The change from pre- to post-fortification was associated with a decrease in the proportion of isolated cases from 83% to 72%, though in both periods isolated cases were more likely to be female and their mothers were more likely to have high folic acid intake. These findings highlight the importance of separating isolated and non-isolated cases in etiologic research of SB. PMID:24357196

Parker, Samantha E.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Werler, Martha M.

2015-01-01

104

Parents' psychological adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Spina Bifida (SB) is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interventions to fostering the quality of life for these children and their families. Little is known, however, about the impact of SB on family adjustment. Reviewers have struggled to synthesize the few contradictory studies available. In this systematic review a new attempt was made to summarize the findings by using meta-analysis and by delimiting the scope of review to one concept of family adjustment: Parents' psychological adjustment. The questions addressed were: (a) do parents of children with SB have more psychological distress than controls? (b) do mothers and fathers differ? and (c) which factors correlate with variations in psychological adjustment? Methods PsycInfo, Medline, and reference lists were scanned. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. Results SB had a negative medium-large effect on parents' psychological adjustment. The effect was more heterogeneous for mothers than for fathers. In the reviewed studies child factors (age, conduct problems, emotional problems, and mental retardation), parent factors (SES, hope, appraised stress, coping, and parenting competence), family factors (family income, partner relationship, and family climate), and environmental factors (social support) were found to be associated with variations in parents' psychological adjustment. Conclusion Meta-analysis proved to be helpful in organizing studies. Clinical implications indicate a need to be especially alert to psychological suffering in mothers of children with SB. Future research should increase sample sizes through multi-center collaborations. PMID:16120229

Vermaes, Ignace PR; Janssens, Jan MAM; Bosman, Anna MT; Gerris, Jan RM

2005-01-01

105

GDNF plasma levels in spina bifida: correlation with severity of spinal damage and motor function.  

PubMed

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is one of several powerful survival factors for spinal motoneurons that play a key role in sprouting, synaptic plasticity, and reorganization after spinal cord damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GDNF in plasma of children with spina bifida (SB) and to determine its correlation with both the severity of spinal cord damage and the motor function of these patients. To measure the GDNF expression, we collected plasma samples from 152 children with SB and in 149 matched controls. Endogenous GDNF levels were quantified using a two-site immuno-enzymatic assay. The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney two-tailed two-sample test. In children with SB the mean levels of GDNF (131.2 +/- 69.6 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) with respect to the mean levels of the control group (102.7 +/- 6.8 pg/mL). Moreover, in open SB, the GDNF levels (139.2 +/- 81.1 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) with respect to closed SB (117.2 +/- 41.3 pg/mL). In terms of the motor function of patients, we found that in children with poorer motor function, the GDNF levels (134.5 +/- 67.4 pg/mL) were higher, but not statistically significant (p < 0.1), than in patients with better motor outcome (122.3 +/- 72.2 pg/mL). Our study demonstrates GDNF over-expression in children with SB. This upregulation is significantly associated with the severity of spinal cord damage in SB patients and appears to correlate with poor motor function of children, representing an important biochemical marker of the severity of spine injury. PMID:19125682

Chiaretti, Antonio; Rendeli, Claudia; Antonelli, Alessia; Barone, Giuseppe; Focarelli, Benedetta; Tabacco, Fabrizia; Massimi, Luca; Ausili, Emanuele

2008-12-01

106

Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

2009-01-01

107

Pyonephrosis and urosepsis in a 41-year old patient with spina bifida: Case report of a preventable death  

PubMed Central

Background Urological complications are the major cause of ill health in patients with spina bifida. Urinary sepsis accounted for the majority of admissions in patients with spina bifida. As the patient grows older, changes occur in the adult bladder, leading to increases in storage pressure and consequent risk of deterioration of renal function, which may occur insidiously. Case presentation A 34-year-old male spinal bifida patient had been managing neuropathic bladder by penile sheath. Intravenous urography revealed normal kidneys. This patient was advised intermittent catheterisations. But self-catheterisation was not possible because of long, overhanging prepuce and marked spinal curvature. This patient developed repeated urine infections. Five years later, ultrasound examination of urinary tract revealed hydronephrotic right kidney with echogenic debris within the collecting system. There was no evidence of dilatation of the ureter near the vesicoureteric junction. The left kidney appeared normal. There was no evidence of calculus disease seen in either kidney. Indwelling urethral catheter drainage was established. Two years later, MAG-3 renogram revealed normal uptake and excretion by left kidney. The right kidney showed little functioning tissue. Following a routine change of urethral catheter this patient became unwell. Ultrasound examination revealed hydronephrotic right kidney containing thick hyper-echoic internal septations and debris in the right renal pelvis suspicious of pyonephrosis. Under both ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance, an 8 French pig tail catheter was inserted into the right renal collecting system. 150?ml of turbid urine was aspirated immediately. This patient developed large left pleural effusion, collapse/consolidation of the left lower lobe, a large fluid collection in the abdomen extending into the pelvis and expired twenty days later because of sepsis and respiratory failure. Conclusion Although penile sheath drainage may be convenient for a spina bifida patient and the carers, hydronephrosis can occur insidiously. With recurrent urine infections, hydronephrotic kidney can become pyonephrosis, which is life-threatening. Therefore, every effort should be made to carry out intermittent catheterisations along with antimuscarinic drug therapy. PMID:22613462

2012-01-01

108

Postural sway at ground and bevel levels in subjects with spina bifida occulta  

PubMed Central

To assess whether the postural function is impaired by comparing the performances in upright standing at ground and bevel levels in adult subjects with spina bifida occulta (SBO). Eighty subjects with SBO (38 with minor type and 42 with major type) and 35 healthy control subjects participated in the study. All participants performed ten tests while standing upright on a platform at ground level (0°, baseline) and on a beveled surface (with their feet in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion at 10° and 20°). Tests were done with their eyes open and closed. The postural sway was examined using a force platform (CATSYS, Danish) that records sway intensity and velocity. Sway intensity and sway velocity were universally associated with group, degree of bevel, open- or closed-eyes condition, and dorsiflexion or plantarflexion after adjusting for age and gender. With respect to sway intensity, the differences of minor or major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with control groups, whereas the differences between minor and major SBO were significant differences at 10° and 20°. With respect to sway velocity, the differences of major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with minor SBO and control groups, whereas the difference in minor SBO was only significant at 0° when compared with control. Group differences (minor SBO vs. control, major SBO vs. control) showed a significant decrease in sway velocity when comparing at 10° than at 0° and at 20° than at 0°. In all subjects with SBO, the sway intensity/velocity values obtained with open eyes and with plantarflexion had lower values, when compared with values obtained with closed eyes and with dorsiflexion. This study supports the hypothesis that SBO impairs control of postural sway in both the resting upright and stressful postures. Our results imply that the larger the bone defect at the lumbosacral midline, the more the group differences in different stressful conditions. Both velocity and intensity were able to reflect the function of the postural sway from our results. This is the first report to add the bevel degree and foot position, as well as visual input as being the part of the study in investigating the postural sway. PMID:16835732

Ku, Chih-Hung

2006-01-01

109

Postural sway at ground and bevel levels in subjects with spina bifida occulta.  

PubMed

To assess whether the postural function is impaired by comparing the performances in upright standing at ground and bevel levels in adult subjects with spina bifida occulta (SBO). Eighty subjects with SBO (38 with minor type and 42 with major type) and 35 healthy control subjects participated in the study. All participants performed ten tests while standing upright on a platform at ground level (0 degrees, baseline) and on a beveled surface (with their feet in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion at 10 degrees and 20 degrees). Tests were done with their eyes open and closed. The postural sway was examined using a force platform (CATSYS, Danish) that records sway intensity and velocity. Sway intensity and sway velocity were universally associated with group, degree of bevel, open- or closed-eyes condition, and dorsiflexion or plantarflexion after adjusting for age and gender. With respect to sway intensity, the differences of minor or major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with control groups, whereas the differences between minor and major SBO were significant differences at 10 degrees and 20 degrees. With respect to sway velocity, the differences of major SBO group were significantly decreased at different bevel degrees when compared with minor SBO and control groups, whereas the difference in minor SBO was only significant at 0 degrees when compared with control. Group differences (minor SBO vs. control, major SBO vs. control) showed a significant decrease in sway velocity when comparing at 10 degrees than at 0 degrees and at 20 degrees than at 0 degrees. In all subjects with SBO, the sway intensity/velocity values obtained with open eyes and with plantarflexion had lower values, when compared with values obtained with closed eyes and with dorsiflexion. This study supports the hypothesis that SBO impairs control of postural sway in both the resting upright and stressful postures. Our results imply that the larger the bone defect at the lumbosacral midline, the more the group differences in different stressful conditions. Both velocity and intensity were able to reflect the function of the postural sway from our results. This is the first report to add the bevel degree and foot position, as well as visual input as being the part of the study in investigating the postural sway. PMID:16835732

Chang, Shin-Tsu; Ku, Chih-Hung

2007-06-01

110

Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ?10/day), alcohol intake (average ?4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ?2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 ?g/day). PMID:23917813

Benedum, Corey M.; Yazdy, Mahsa M.; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

2013-01-01

111

The long-term outcome of patients treated operatively and non-operatively for scoliosis deformity secondary to spina bifida.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adults with spina bifida cystica (SBC) who had been treated either operatively or non-operatively for scoliosis during childhood. We reviewed 45 patients with a SBC scoliosis (Cobb angle ? 50ŗ) who had been treated at one of two children's hospitals between 1991 and 2007. Of these, 34 (75.6%) had been treated operatively and 11 (24.4%) non-operatively. After a mean follow-up of 14.1 years (standard deviation (sd) 4.3) clinical, radiological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes were evaluated using the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire (SBSQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Although patients in the two groups were demographically similar, those who had undergone surgery had a larger mean Cobb angle (88.0ŗ (sd 20.5; 50.0 to 122.0) ; : versus 65.7ŗ (sd 22.0; 51.0 to 115.0); p < 0.01) and a larger mean clavicle-rib intersection difference (12.3 mm; (sd 8.5; 1 to 37); versus 4.1 mm, (sd 5.9; 0 to 16); p = 0.01) than those treated non-operatively. Both groups were statistically similar at follow-up with respect to walking capacity, neurological motor level, sitting balance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes. Spinal fusion in SBC scoliosis corrects coronal deformity and stops progression of the curve but has no clear effect on HRQOL. PMID:25183598

Khoshbin, A; Vivas, L; Law, P W; Stephens, D; Davis, A M; Howard, A; Jarvis, J G; Wright, J G

2014-09-01

112

Effect of preschool working memory, language, and narrative abilities on inferential comprehension at school-age in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and typically developing children.  

PubMed

Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature. PMID:23388065

Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A

2013-04-01

113

Effect of Preschool Working Memory, Language, and Narrative Abilities on Inferential Comprehension at School-Age in Children with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele and Typically Developing Children  

PubMed Central

Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature. PMID:23388065

Pike, Meredith; Swank, Paul; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Barnes, Marcia A.

2014-01-01

114

PAX genes and human neural tube defects: an amino acid substitution in PAX1 in a patient with spina bifida.  

PubMed Central

From studies in the mouse and from the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with type 1 Waardenburg syndrome, particular members of the PAX gene family are suspected factors in the aetiology of human neural tube defects (NTD). To investigate the role of PAX1, PAX3, PAX7, and PAX9, allelic association studies were performed in 79 sporadic and 38 familial NTD patients from the Dutch population. Sequence variation was studied by SSC analysis of the paired domain regions of the PAX1, PAX7, and PAX9 genes and of the complete PAX3 gene. In one patient with spina bifida, a mutation in the PAX1 gene was detected changing the conserved amino acid Gln to His at position 42 in the paired domain of the protein. The mutation was inherited through the maternal line from the unaffected grandmother and was not detected in 300 controls. In the PAX3 gene, variation was detected at several sites including a Thr/Lys amino acid substitution in exon 6. All alleles were present among patients and controls in about the same frequencies. However, an increased frequency of the rare allele of a silent polymorphism in exon 2 was found in NTD patients, but no significant association was observed (p = 0.06). No sequence variation was observed in the paired domain of the PAX7 and PAX9 genes. Our findings so far do not support a major role of the PAX genes examined in the aetiology of NTD. However, the detection of a mutation in PAX1 suggests that, in principle, this gene can act as a risk factor for human NTD. Images PMID:8863157

Hol, F A; Geurds, M P; Chatkupt, S; Shugart, Y Y; Balling, R; Schrander-Stumpel, C T; Johnson, W G; Hamel, B C; Mariman, E C

1996-01-01

115

Cotransplantation with specific populations of spina bifida bone marrow stem/progenitor cells enhances urinary bladder regeneration.  

PubMed

Spina bifida (SB) patients afflicted with myelomeningocele typically possess a neurogenic urinary bladder and exhibit varying degrees of bladder dysfunction. Although surgical intervention in the form of enterocystoplasty is the current standard of care in which to remedy the neurogenic bladder, it is still a stop-gap measure and is associated with many complications due to the use of bowel as a source of replacement tissue. Contemporary bladder tissue engineering strategies lack the ability to reform bladder smooth muscle, vasculature, and promote peripheral nerve tissue growth when using autologous populations of cells. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the role of two specific populations of bone marrow (BM) stem/progenitor cells used in combination with a synthetic elastomeric scaffold that provides a unique and alternative means to current bladder regeneration approaches. In vitro differentiation, gene expression, and proliferation are similar among donor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whereas poly(1,8-octanediol-cocitrate) scaffolds seeded with SB BM MSCs perform analogously to control counterparts with regard to bladder smooth muscle wall formation in vivo. SB CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells cotransplanted with donor-matched MSCs cause a dramatic increase in tissue vascularization as well as an induction of peripheral nerve growth in grafted areas compared with samples not seeded with hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Finally, MSC/CD34(+) grafts provided the impetus for rapid urothelium regeneration. Data suggest that autologous BM stem/progenitor cells may be used as alternate, nonpathogenic cell sources for SB patient-specific bladder tissue regeneration in lieu of current enterocystoplasty procedures and have implications for other bladder regenerative therapies. PMID:23431178

Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Marks, Andrew J; Kollhoff, David M; Rao, Manoj V; Hota, Partha V; Matoka, Derek J; Edassery, Seby L; Thaker, Hatim; Sarwark, John F; Janicki, Joseph A; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y

2013-03-01

116

US Pilot Study of Lumbar to Sacral Nerve Rerouting to Restore Voiding and Bowel Function in Spina Bifida: 3-Year Experience.  

PubMed

Objective. To report our experience with creating a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex arc with intradural lumbar to sacral motor root microanastomosis to restore bladder/bowel function in spina bifida patients. Methods. Urinary/bowel changes from baseline to three years were evaluated with questionnaires, voiding diaries, urodynamics (UDS), and renal function studies. Treatment response was defined as CIC ? once/day with stable renal function, voiding efficiency > 50%, and no worsening of motor function. Results. Of 13 subjects (9 female, median age 8 years), 3 voided small amounts at baseline, one voided 200?cc (voiding efficiency 32%), 4/13 reported normal bowels, and 2/13 were continent of stool. Postoperatively, all had transient lower extremity weakness; one developed permanent foot drop. Over three years, renal function remained stable and mean maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) increased (P = 0.0135). In the 10 that returned at 3 years, 7 were treatment responders and 9 had discontinued antimuscarinics, but most still leaked urine. Only 2/8 with baseline neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) still had NDO, all 3 with compliance <10?mL/cm H2O had normalized, 7/10 considered their bowels normal, 5/10 were continent of stool, and 8/10 would undergo the procedure again. Conclusion. Lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting can improve elimination in spina bifida patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378664. PMID:24987412

Peters, Kenneth M; Gilmer, Holly; Feber, Kevin; Girdler, Benjamin J; Nantau, William; Trock, Gary; Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A

2014-01-01

117

US Pilot Study of Lumbar to Sacral Nerve Rerouting to Restore Voiding and Bowel Function in Spina Bifida: 3-Year Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective. To report our experience with creating a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex arc with intradural lumbar to sacral motor root microanastomosis to restore bladder/bowel function in spina bifida patients. Methods. Urinary/bowel changes from baseline to three years were evaluated with questionnaires, voiding diaries, urodynamics (UDS), and renal function studies. Treatment response was defined as CIC ? once/day with stable renal function, voiding efficiency > 50%, and no worsening of motor function. Results. Of 13 subjects (9 female, median age 8 years), 3 voided small amounts at baseline, one voided 200?cc (voiding efficiency 32%), 4/13 reported normal bowels, and 2/13 were continent of stool. Postoperatively, all had transient lower extremity weakness; one developed permanent foot drop. Over three years, renal function remained stable and mean maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) increased (P = 0.0135). In the 10 that returned at 3 years, 7 were treatment responders and 9 had discontinued antimuscarinics, but most still leaked urine. Only 2/8 with baseline neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) still had NDO, all 3 with compliance <10?mL/cm H2O had normalized, 7/10 considered their bowels normal, 5/10 were continent of stool, and 8/10 would undergo the procedure again. Conclusion. Lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting can improve elimination in spina bifida patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378664. PMID:24987412

Peters, Kenneth M.; Gilmer, Holly; Feber, Kevin; Girdler, Benjamin J.; Nantau, William; Trock, Gary; Killinger, Kim A.; Boura, Judith A.

2014-01-01

118

The assessment of weight status in children and young people attending a spina bifida outpatient clinic: a retrospective medical record review  

PubMed Central

Purpose Children with disabilities are two to three times more likely to become overweight or obese than typically developing children. Children with spina bifida (SB) are at particular risk, yet obesity prevalence and weight management with this population are under-researched. This retrospective chart review explored how weight is assessed and discussed in a children’s SB outpatient clinic. Method Height/weight data were extracted from records of children aged 2–18 with a diagnosis of SB attending an outpatient clinic at least once between June 2009–2011. Body mass index was calculated and classified using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-offs. Notes around weight, diet and physical/sedentary activities were transcribed verbatim and analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Results Of 180 eligible patients identified, only 63 records had sufficient data to calculate BMI; 15 patients were overweight (23.81%) and 11 obese (17.46%). Weight and physical activity discussions were typically related to function (e.g. mobility, pain). Diet discussions focused on bowel and bladder function and dietary challenges. Conclusions Anthropometrics were infrequently recorded, leaving an incomplete picture of weight status in children with SB and suggesting that weight is not prioritised. Bowel/bladder function was highlighted over other benefits of a healthy body weight, indicating that health promotion opportunities are being missed. Implications for Rehabilitation It is important to assess, categorise and record anthropometric data for children and youth with spina bifida as they may be at particular risk of excess weight. Information around weight categorisation should be discussed openly and non-judgmentally with children and their families. Health promotion opportunities may be missed by focusing solely on symptom management or function. Healthcare professionals should emphasise the broad benefits of healthy eating and physical activity, offering strategies to enable the child to incorporate healthy lifestyle behaviours appropriate to their level of ability. PMID:23510013

Swift, Judy Anne; Yung, Emily; Lyons, Julia; Church, Paige

2013-01-01

119

Spina Bifida Experience  

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120

Spina Bifida Clinic Directory  

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... SB Professionals LisServ Get Social SB Latino Camps Scholarships Chapters Journey Clinics Support Groups & Play Dates Ribbon ... top National Resource Center SB Clinics SB Camps Scholarships SBA Chapters Resource Directory Stay Connected Learn about ...

121

Can Naturoptics fund Naturopathic Universities to Develop Interlocked Mentoring Relationships with Proposed Universities to Check Sensitivities of Individuals with Spina Bifida, to Environmentally Generated EMF Information about 'Quakes, Hurricanes, etc.?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals harboring the herpes zoster virus following chicken pox, are susceptible to attacks of shingles. They may indicate peculiar awareness of pricking `pin and needle' sensations and co-symptoms of tinnitus and/or Meuniere's syndrome. RDM used similar symptoms in FL to predict the earthquake ninety miles north of Guantanamo bay in 1998. An astounding burial site in Florida from over six thousand years ago had a teenaged boy with severe spina bifida, with non-Asian genes, who could not have survived without very capable health support. Two youthful individuals likewise afflicted with spina bifida were unearthed from one site at Pompeii, entombed by the eruption of Vesuvius, August 24 and 25, CE 79. We know how to locate sites, active with EMF, which have tornado, hurricane and earthquake associations, and would like to foster joint research also involving Hawaiian and other volcanoes.

McLeod, David M.; Ataide, Italani; McLeod, Roger D.

2006-03-01

122

EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity, deconditioning, cognitive impairment, and poor exercise tolerance are health issues concerning adults with spina bifida (SB). Our aim is to describe exercise participation and identify motivating tactics and exercise devices that increase participation. Design In a quasi-experimental randomized crossover design, the GameCycle was compared to a Saratoga Silver I arm ergometer. Personalized free or low cost text/voice message reminders to exercise were sent. Methods Nineteen young adults with SB were assigned to either the GameCycle or Saratoga exercise group. Within each group, participants were randomized to receive reminders to exercise, or no reminders, then crossed over to the opposite message group after eight weeks. Before and after a 16 week exercise program we collected anthropometric, metabolic, exercise testing and questionnaire data, and recorded participation. Results Miles traveled by the GameCycle group were significantly higher than the Saratoga exercise groups. No significant differences were found in participation between the message reminder groups. Low participation rates were seen overall. Conclusions Those using the GameCycle traveled more miles. Barriers to exercise participation may have superseded ability to motivate adults with SB to exercise even with electronic reminders. Support from therapists to combat deconditioning and develop coping skills may be needed. PMID:24620701

Crytzer, Theresa M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Fairman, Andrea D.

2013-01-01

123

Functional significance of atypical cortical organization in spina bifida myelomeningocele: relations of cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity.  

PubMed

The cortex in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is atypically organized, but it is not known how specific features of atypical cortical organization promote or disrupt cognitive and motor function. Relations of deviant cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity were investigated in 64 individuals with SBM and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals, aged 8-28 years. Cortical thickness and 3D local gyrification index (LGI) were quantified from 33 cortical regions per hemisphere using FreeSurfer. Results replicated previous findings, showing regions of higher and lower cortical thickness and LGI in SBM relative to the TD comparison individuals. Cortical thickness and LGI were negatively associated in most cortical regions, though less consistently in the TD group. Whereas cortical thickness and LGI tended to be negatively associated with IQ and fine motor outcomes in regions that were thicker or more gyrified in SBM, associations tended to be positive in regions that were thinner or less gyrified in SBM. The more deviant the levels of cortical thickness and LGI-whether higher or lower relative to the TD group-the more impaired the IQ and fine motor outcomes, suggesting that these cortical atypicalities in SBM are functionally maladaptive, rather than adaptive. PMID:22875857

Treble, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M

2013-10-01

124

Functional Significance of Atypical Cortical Organization in Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele: Relations of Cortical Thickness and Gyrification with IQ and Fine Motor Dexterity  

PubMed Central

The cortex in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is atypically organized, but it is not known how specific features of atypical cortical organization promote or disrupt cognitive and motor function. Relations of deviant cortical thickness and gyrification with IQ and fine motor dexterity were investigated in 64 individuals with SBM and 26 typically developing (TD) individuals, aged 8–28 years. Cortical thickness and 3D local gyrification index (LGI) were quantified from 33 cortical regions per hemisphere using FreeSurfer. Results replicated previous findings, showing regions of higher and lower cortical thickness and LGI in SBM relative to the TD comparison individuals. Cortical thickness and LGI were negatively associated in most cortical regions, though less consistently in the TD group. Whereas cortical thickness and LGI tended to be negatively associated with IQ and fine motor outcomes in regions that were thicker or more gyrified in SBM, associations tended to be positive in regions that were thinner or less gyrified in SBM. The more deviant the levels of cortical thickness and LGI—whether higher or lower relative to the TD group—the more impaired the IQ and fine motor outcomes, suggesting that these cortical atypicalities in SBM are functionally maladaptive, rather than adaptive. PMID:22875857

Treble, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

2013-01-01

125

Goal Management Training improves everyday executive functioning for persons with spina bifida: self-and informant reports six months post-training.  

PubMed

Executive dysfunction accounts for significant disability for many patients with spina bifida (SB), thus indicating the need for effective interventions aimed at improving executive functioning in this population. Goal Management Training™ (GMT) is a cognitive rehabilitation approach that targets disorganised behaviour resulting from executive dysfunction, and has received empirical support in studies of other patient groups. The purpose of this study was to determine if GMT would lead to perceived improved executive functioning in the daily lives of patients with SB, as evidenced by reduced report of dysexecutive problems in daily life on self- and informant questionnaires. Thirty-eight adults with SB were included in this randomised controlled trial (RCT). Inclusion was based upon the presence of executive functioning complaints. Experimental subjects (n = 24) received 21 hours of GMT, with efficacy of GMT being compared to results of subjects in a wait-list condition (n = 14). All subjects were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up. Self-report measures indicated that the GMT group's everyday executive functioning improved significantly after training, lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. There were no significant effects on informant-report questionnaires. Overall, these findings indicate that executive difficulties in everyday life can be ameliorated for individuals with congenital brain dysfunction. PMID:24168074

Stubberud, Jan; Langenbahn, Donna; Levine, Brian; Stanghelle, Johan; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

2014-01-01

126

Predicting end-point locomotion from neuromuscular activities of people with spina bifida: a self-organizing and adaptive technique for future implantable and non-invasive neural prostheses.  

PubMed

Neural prosthesis is a promising technique to enable paralyzed patients with conditions, such as spinal cord injury or spina bifida (SB), to control their limbs independently. However, it remains unknown whether muscle activity detected from paralyzed patients can be used to predict and reproduce their altered gait patterns that can be employed to provide closed-loop feedback for neural prostheses. In this study, we recorded muscle activity of people with SB during overground walking and developed a Self-Organizing Adaptive Prediction (SOAP) technique for neural prostheses. This technique can provide 80% more accurate prediction of end-point impaired locomotion for people with SB compared to traditional robust regression. Our results suggest that control of complex neural prostheses during locomotion can be achieved by engaging muscle activity as intrinsic feedback to generate end-point leg movement. PMID:19163639

Chang, Chia-Lin; Jin, Zhanpeng; Cheng, Allen C

2008-01-01

127

Spina Bifida Data and Statistics  

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... each year since fortification began. [ Read article ] D Quality of Life [ Read summary ] Many adolescents and young adults with ... high level of satisfaction with their health-related quality of life, are entering and succeeding at college life, and ...

128

Spina Bifida Experience: Developing Independence  

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129

Genetics Home Reference: Spina bifida  

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... folate ; hydrocephalus ; inheritance ; maternal ; meningocele ; neural tube defects ; pattern of inheritance ; population ; prevalence ; protein ; risk factors ; seizure ; sporadic ; surgery You may find definitions for ...

130

Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida  

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131

Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida  

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132

Natural Rubber Latex Allergy in Spina Bifida  

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... fruits and vegetables. Some of them include: banana, avocado, chestnut, kiwi, apple, carrot, celery, papaya, potato, tomato, melon, and avocado. Due to nutritional risks, people should not avoid ...

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76 FR 19995 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...announced below concerns ``National Spina Bifida Registry Longitudinal Data Collection...m.-5 p.m., May 17, 2011 (Closed). Place: Teleconference. Status...received in response to ``National Spina Bifida Registry Longitudinal Data...

2011-04-11

134

Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida  

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135

Hydrocephalus and Shunts in the Person with Spina Bifida  

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... when there is too much liquid. In some cases, it isn’t as easy to see. There are cases where there may be a little more fluid ... no signs of a problem. In these rare cases, neurosurgeons might treat the problem where other types ...

136

Depression and Anxiety in Individuals with Spina Bifida  

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... chronic pain sufferers, women, especially those with hormonal imbalances. In addition, people with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ... school failures, low self-esteem or a chemical imbalance in the brain. Research suggests that depression is ...

137

Spina Bifida / Children of Korean and Vietnam Veterans  

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138

Spina Bifida Experience: The Importance of Physical Activity  

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139

Ultrasound evaluation of prenatal and neonatal spina bifida.  

PubMed

Interest in studying the role of sonography in the evaluation of newborns and infants with spinal dysraphism waned with the advent of MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation of the neonatal spine, however, can be performed portably, is relatively inexpensive when compared with MR imaging, and does not require sedation. Its recognized utility in evaluating the neonatal spine in both open and occult spinal dysraphisms makes sonography an ideal diagnostic modality for this patient population. Its most valuable contribution probably lies in screening for closed dysraphisms, but comparative studies with MR imaging are necessary to clarify sonography's role. PMID:7620348

Babcook, C J

1995-04-01

140

The Diagnostic Features of Spina Bifida: The Role of Ultrasound.  

PubMed

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is one of the most devastating, nonlethal congenital anomalies worldwide. The live birth prevalence of MMC changed dramatically in the 1980s with the introduction of maternal serum screening and the widespread use of prenatal ultrasound imaging. The high-resolution ultrasound affordable today with state-of-the-art equipment allows us to make a very accurate diagnosis of MMC, including details related to the entire fetal central nervous system. Ultrasound can accurately localize the site of the osseous and soft tissue defects. Congenital spinal defects can be characterized definitively as open or closed, which are treated very differently with in utero repair, which is done in some cases, compared to only conservative follow-up with postnatal therapy for occult defects. Additional findings of kyphosis, scoliosis and anomalous vertebrate and associated conditions such as cervical syrinx can be identified. The state of the intracranial structures, including the presence or absence of ventriculomegaly and hindbrain herniation, as well as unexpected complications such as intracranial hemorrhage can be diagnosed. The severity of neurological compromise in some fetuses can be estimated by detailed examination of the lower extremities. As well as searching for talipes, we also now routinely characterize flexion and extension motions at the hip, knee and ankle joints. The information provided by ultrasound plays a crucial role, now more than ever, in patient counseling and pregnancy management. This article emphasizes how we utilize ultrasound in the evaluation of patients with suspected MMC at the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341807

Coleman, Beverly G; Langer, Jill E; Horii, Steven C

2014-10-21

141

Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Spina Bifida?  

MedlinePLUS

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142

What Are the Treatments for Spina Bifida and Related Conditions?  

MedlinePLUS

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143

Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed Central

Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

Biglan, A W

1990-01-01

144

Ethnic differences in the prevalence of anencephaly and sina bifida in Boston, Massachusetts.  

PubMed

because of the large Irish population, a group with high prevalence rates of anencephaly and spina bifida, and the small Jewish population, a group with very low prevalences of these anomalies, cases of anencephaly and spina bifida born in 1 of 4 Boston maternity hospitals were compared with a systematic 1 in 300 sample of all births in the same facilities. Estimates of prevalence were made according to ethnic group, socioeconomic status, and parity. As expected, Irish offspring showed high rates (3.1 per 1000 births) of prevalence for these congenital defects, and these rates did not change in degree if the investigation was restricted to mother only, father only, or both parents Irish heritage. If mothers were born in Ireland, however, the prevalence rate was 4.9/1000. Offspring of Jewish mothers had the lowest rates of any ethnic group examined (Protestant, Irish Catholic, Roman Catholic, and other religions), .77/1000. However, in the highest economic classes, differences between the 3 major religions were not significant. Other ancestories showed the following prevalences: Italian, 1.09; Canadian, 3.18; English, 1.49; and other U.S., 2.58. Overall in Massachusetts the rate was 3.11. Prevalence rates increased dramatically with increasing socioeconomic status. Association with parity was also noticed; parity and ehtnic group were independent associations, as were ethnic and socioeconomic class. PMID:4861562

Naggan, L; MacMahon, B

1967-11-23

145

The current management of the neurogenic bladder in children with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The urological care of the neurogenic bladder consists of 2 components: medical management with preservation of renal function and quality-oflife issues with achieving dryness and independence of bladder and bowel management. Both components are equally important for patients to live a healthy and fulfilled life. This report explores the diagnosis of the neurogenic bladder; quality-of-life issues that caregivers and patients should expect; the importance of primary care knowledge of the neurogenic bladder and treatment; surgical options; the transition of pediatric patients to adult care; and the importance of caregiver and patient understanding of their disease, treatment options, and responsibilities. PMID:22857827

Frimberger, Dominic; Cheng, Earl; Kropp, Bradley P

2012-08-01

146

INTRAVESICAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION IMPROVES NEUROGENIC BOWEL DYSFUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH SPINA BIFIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:We observed concomitant improvement in fecal incontinence in children with myelomeningocele undergoing intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) to decrease uninhibited bladder contractions and increase bladder capacity and\\/or bladder sensation. We retrospectively reviewed the effect of intravesical electrical stimulation on neurogenic bowel dysfunction in these children.

SANG WON HAN; MYOUNG JIN KIM; JANG HWAN KIM; CHANG HEE HONG; JAE WOOK KIM; J. I. YEUN NOH

2004-01-01

147

IS SONIC HEDGEHOG (SHH) A CANDIDATE GENE FOR SPINA BIFIDA? (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

148

Fetal Spina Bifida Repair – Current Trends and Prospects of Intrauterine Neurosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele is a common dysraphic defect leading to severe impairment throughout the patient’s lifetime. Although surgical closure of this anomaly is usually performed in the early postnatal period, an estimated 330 cases of intrauterine repair have been performed in a few specialized centers worldwide. It was hoped prenatal intervention would improve the prognosis of affected patients, and preliminary findings suggest

M. A. Fichter; U. Dornseifer; J. Henke; K. T. M. Schneider; L. Kovacs; E. Biemer; J. Bruner; N. S. Adzick; M. R. Harrison; N. A. Papadopulos

2008-01-01

149

The chances of a spina bifida patient becoming continent\\/socially dry by conservative therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and one patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to myelomeningocele or sacral dysplasia, all older than 10 years of age, with a mean age of 15 years, and under regular urological control for many years were evaluated to discover if they had achieved urinary continence (dry day and night) or the status of socially dry (with

M Knoll; H Madersbacher

1993-01-01

150

118 SNPs of folate-related genes and risks of spina bifida and conotruncal heart defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Folic acid taken in early pregnancy reduces risks for delivering offspring with several congenital anomalies. The mechanism by which folic acid reduces risk is unknown. Investigations into genetic variation that influences transport and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused on 118 SNPs involved in folate transport and metabolism. METHODS: Using data from a California

Gary M Shaw; Wei Lu; Huiping Zhu; Wei Yang; Farren BS Briggs; Suzan L Carmichael; Lisa F Barcellos; Edward J Lammer; Richard H Finnell

2009-01-01

151

Arithmetic Achievement in Children with Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to establish whether children with a physical disability resulting from central nervous system disorders (CNSd) show a level of arithmetic achievement lower than that of non-CNSd children and whether this is related to poor automaticity of number facts or reduced arithmetic instruction time. Twenty-two children with CNSd…

Jenks, Kathleen M.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; de Moor, Jan

2009-01-01

152

Arnold Chiari Malformation with Spina Bifida: A Lost Opportunity of Folic Acid Supplementation  

PubMed Central

In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

2014-01-01

153

Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.  

PubMed

In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis. PMID:25653995

Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

2014-12-01

154

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYMORPHISMS WITHIN THE THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE GENE AND SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

155

Chromosomal microarray analysis in a girl with mental retardation and spina bifida.  

PubMed

Chromosomal imbalances comprise a major cause of mental retardation, particularly in association with congenital malformations and dysmorphic features. Chromosomal analysis using banded karyotyping is limited by the low resolution of this technique, and cryptic chromosomal rearrangements cannot be detected. We describe a 6-year-old girl with mental retardation, mild growth, congenital malformation, and facial anomalies. Chromosomal analysis with karyotyping produced normal results. Because the phenotype suggested chromosomal abnormality, microarray comparative genomic hybridization was used to search for a possible cryptic anomaly. A subtelomeric chromosomal imbalance, consisting of partial trisomy 2q35 and partial monosomy 3p26, was detected and confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This rearrangement was inherited from an equilibrated maternal t(2;3) reciprocal translocation. Comparative genomic hybridization array in similar situations is useful in detecting cryptic chromosomal rearrangements, identifying genes contained in deleted or duplicated regions, establishing a precise phenotype-genotype correlation, and offering unambiguous genetic counseling. PMID:21147391

Ben Abdallah, Inesse; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Saad, Ali; Elghezal, Hatem

2011-01-01

156

Is the Vertebral Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib a Surgical Alternative in Patients with Spina Bifida?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nonambulatory children with myelodysplasia are most likely to develop spinal deformity. As the deformity progresses, the overall\\u000a health of the patient deteriorates. Traditional management of the deformity with fusion results in a short trunk, crankshaft\\u000a deformity, and spine and lung growth inhibition. One alternative that potentially minimizes these problems is the vertebral\\u000a expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We therefore asked

John M. Flynn; Norman Ramirez; John B. Emans; John T. Smith; Mary Jane Mulcahey; Randal R. Betz

2011-01-01

157

77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Council of La Raza; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Correction AGENCY...a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide...read ``Director, Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food...

2012-07-18

158

77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Council of La Raza; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug...a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide...notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2A4796) has...

2012-06-13

159

Characteristics of a spina bifida population including North American Caucasian and Hispanic individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meningomyelocele (MM) is a common human birth defect. MM is a disorder of neural development caused by contributions from genes and environmental factors that result in the NTD and lead to a spectrum of physical and neurocognitive phenotypes.\\u000aMETHODS: A multidisciplinary approach has been taken to develop a comprehensive understanding of MM through collaborative efforts from investigators specializing in

Kit Sing Au; Phong X. Tran; Chester C. Tsai; Michelle R OByrne; Jone-Ing Lin; Alanna C. Morrison; Amy W. Hampson; Paul Cirino; Jack M. Fletcher; Kathryn K. Ostermaier; Gayle H. Tyerman; Sabine Doebel; Hope Northrup

2008-01-01

160

Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

2014-03-01

161

Longitudinal Mediators of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in Typical and Atypical Development  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and which are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n = 30) and typically developing children (n = 35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60 months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5 years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36 months and phonological awareness at 60 months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations; phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency; and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading. PMID:24269579

Barnes, Marcia A.; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; English, Lianne; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

2014-01-01

162

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Muscular Dystrophy Parkinson's Disease Huntington's Disease Myasthenia Gravis Spina Bifida Bell's Palsy Oral Effects Bell's palsy is a ... together to coordinate your medical and dental needs. Spina Bifida Oral Effects People with spina bifida have no ...

163

Chemical composition of essential oils from Galeopsis bifida and Phlomoides tuberosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galeopsis bifida (Lamiaceae) and Phlomoides tuberosa (Lamiaceae) are broadly distributed over steppe and foreststeppe regions of the Selenga River basin [1]. Lamas in Buryatiya used G. bifida and P. tuberosa to treat diseases of the eyes and lungs and as sedative and antidiarrhea agents [2]. Chemical investigations found in G. bifida herb flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, iridoids, triterpenes, and lipids [3–5]; in

D. N. Olennikov; L. V. Dudareva; L. M. Tankhaeva

2010-01-01

164

RISK FACTORS FOR NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS: ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN UNCOUPLING PROTEIN 2 POLYMORPHISMS AND SPINA BIFIDA. (R828292)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

165

Idiom Comprehension Deficits in Relation to Corpus Callosum Agenesis and Hypoplasia in Children with Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Idioms are phrases with figurative meanings that are not directly derived from the literal meanings of the words in the phrase. Idiom comprehension varies with: literality, whether the idiom is literally plausible; compositionality, whether individual words contribute to a figurative meaning; and contextual bias. We studied idiom comprehension in…

Huber-Okrainec, J.; Blaser, S.E.; Dennis, M.

2005-01-01

166

Therapeutic potential of in utero mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplantation in rat foetuses with spina bifida aperta  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neural tube defects (NTDs) are complex congenital malformations resulting from incomplete neurulation in embryo. Despite surgical repair of the defect, most of the patients who survive with NTDs have a multiple system handicap due to neuron deficiency of the defective spinal cord. In this study, we successfully devised a prenatal surgical approach and transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to foetal rat spinal column to treat retinoic acid induced NTDs in rat. Transplanted MSCs survived, grew and expressed markers of neurons, glia and myoblasts in the defective spinal cord. MSCs expressed and perhaps induced the surrounding spinal tissue to express neurotrophic factors. In addition, MSC reduced spinal tissue apoptosis in NTD. Our results suggested that prenatal MSC transplantation could treat spinal neuron deficiency in NTDs by the regeneration of neurons and reduced spinal neuron death in the defective spinal cord. PMID:22004004

Li, Hui; Gao, Fei; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Junhong; Miao, Jianing; Jiang, Mingyu; Fan, Yang; Wang, Lili; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Wang, Weilin; Lui, Vincent Chi Hang; Yuan, Zhengwei

2012-01-01

167

The Many Layers of Social Support: Capturing the Voices of Young People with Spina Bifida and Their Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young people with physical disabilities experience greater difficulty than their able-bodied peers in many psychosocial domains as they transition toward adulthood. However, firsthand knowledge of the dimensions of social support that young people with physical disabilities find useful during this stage is lacking. This qualitative study involved…

Antle, Beverley J.; Montgomery, Gert; Stapleford, Christine

2009-01-01

168

Prenatal Diagnosis and Genetic Counseling in a Case of Spina Bifida in a Family with Waardenburg Syndrome Type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS I) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with an incidence of 1:45,000 in Europe. Mutations within the PAX3 gene are responsible for the clinical phenotype ranging from mild facial features to severe malformations detectable in prenatal diagnosis. Methods: Here, we report a four-generation family with several affected members showing various symptoms of WS I.

Annegret Kujat; Veit-Peter Veith; Renaldo Faber; Ursula G. Froster

2007-01-01

169

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans-spina bifida and covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Vocational training program for certain children...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain... General § 21.8012 Vocational training program for certain...

2010-07-01

170

Low temperature mitigates cardia bifida in zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

The coordinated migration of bilateral cardiomyocytes and the formation of the cardiac cone are essential for heart tube formation. We investigated gene regulatory mechanisms involved in myocardial migration, and regulation of the timing of cardiac cone formation in zebrafish embryos. Through screening of zebrafish treated with ethylnitrosourea, we isolated a mutant with a hypomorphic allele of mil (s1pr2)/edg5, called s1pr2(as10) (as10). Mutant embryos with this allele expressed less mil/edg5 mRNA and exhibited cardia bifida prior to 28 hours post-fertilization. Although the bilateral hearts of the mutants gradually fused together, the resulting formation of two atria and one tightly-packed ventricle failed to support normal blood circulation. Interestingly, cardia bifida of s1pr2(as10) embryos could be rescued and normal circulation could be restored by incubating the embryos at low temperature (22.5°C). Rescue was also observed in gata5 and bon cardia bifida morphants raised at 22.5 °C. The use of DNA microarrays, digital gene expression analyses, loss-of-function, as well as mRNA and protein rescue experiments, revealed that low temperature mitigates cardia bifida by regulating the expression of genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix (fibronectin 1, tenascin-c, tenascin-w). Furthermore, the addition of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased the effect of low temperature on mitigating cardia bifida in s1pr2(as10) embryos. Our study reveals that temperature coordinates the development of the heart tube and somitogenesis, and that extracellular matrix genes (fibronectin 1, tenascin-c and tenascin-w) are involved. PMID:23922799

Lin, Che-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Chen; Wang, Wen-Der; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Wu, Yi-Ting; Lu, Yu-Fen; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L

2013-01-01

171

Hydroxy acids of the reserve lipids of Galeopsis bifida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of fatty monohydroxy acids of the lipids of the seeds ofGaleopsis bifida Boenn. have been studied by the methods of chromatographic, spectral, and chemical analysis. (31) Acids with chain lengths\\u000a of from 14 to 20 carbon atoms, with from 0 to 3 double bonds, and with the hydrolyls in positions characteristic for the products\\u000a of the direct hydroxylation

S. D. Gusakova; D. T. Asilbekova

1991-01-01

172

Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.: a multipurpose fruit tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neglected and underutilized species often play a vital role in securing food and livestock feed, income generation and energy\\u000a needs of rural populations. In spite of their great potential little attention has been given to these species. This increases\\u000a the possibility of genetic erosion which would further restrict the survival strategies of people in rural areas. Ziziphus spina-christi is a

Amina Sirag Saied; Jens Gebauer; Karl Hammer; Andreas Buerkert

2008-01-01

173

Mechanically corrected EMG for the continuous estimation of erector spinae muscle loading during repetitive lifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have been carried out on the changes in biomechanical loading on low-back tissues during prolonged lifting. The purpose of this paper was to develop a model for continuously estimating erector spinae muscle loads during repetitive lifting and lowering tasks. The model was based on spine kinematics and bilateral lumbar and thoracic erector spinae electromyogram (EMG) signals and was

J. R. Potvin; R. W. Norman; S. M. McGill

1996-01-01

174

Structural properties of the tubular appendage spinae from marine bacterium Roseobacter sp. strain YSCB.  

PubMed

Spinae are tubular surface appendages broadly found in Gram-negative bacteria. Little is known about their architecture, function or origin. Here, we report structural characterization of the spinae from marine bacteria Roseobacter sp. YSCB. Electron cryo-tomography revealed that a single filament winds into a hollow flared base with progressive change to a cylinder. Proteinase K unwound the spinae into proteolysis-resistant filaments. Thermal treatment ripped the spinae into ribbons that were melted with prolonged heating. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a dominant beta-structure of the spinae. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed three endothermic transformations at 50-85°C, 98°C and 123°C, respectively. The heating almost completely disintegrated the spinae, abolished the 98°C transition and destroyed the beta-structure. Infrared spectroscopy identified the amide I spectrum maximum at a position similar to that of amyloid fibrils. Therefore, the spinae distinguish from other bacterial appendages, e.g. flagella and stalks, in both the structure and mechanism of assembly. PMID:23230515

Bernadac, A; Wu, L-F; Santini, C-L; Vidaud, C; Sturgis, J N; Menguy, N; Bergam, P; Nicoletti, C; Xiao, T

2012-01-01

175

Applications of Individual Growth Curve Modeling for Pediatric Psychology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To provide a brief, nontechnical introduction to individual growth curve modeling for the analysis of longitudinal data. Several applications of individual growth curve modeling for pediatric psychology research are discussed. Methods To illustrate these applications, we analyze data from an ongoing pediatric psychology study of the possible impact of spina bifida on child and family development (N = 135).

Christian DeLucia; Steven C. Pitts

2006-01-01

176

Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.  

PubMed

Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:25403653

Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

2015-03-01

177

A frameshift mutation in the gene for PAX3 in a girl with spina bifida and mild signs of Waardenburg syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most prevalent congenital malformations in man. Based on the molecular defect of Splotch, an established mouse model for NTD, and on the clinical association between NTD and Waardenburg syndrome (WS), mutations in the PAX3 gene can be expected to act as factors predisposing to human NTD. To test this hypothesis, 39 patients with familial NTD were screened by SSC analysis for mutations in exons 2 to 6 of the human PAX3 gene. One patient with lumbosacral meningomyelocele was identified with a 5 bp deletion in exon 5 approximately 55 bp upstream of the conserved homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift with a stop codon almost immediately after the mutated site. Clinical investigation of the index patient indicated mild signs of WS type I. Varying signs of this syndrome were found to cosegregate with the mutation in the family. Our results support the hypothesis that mutations in the gene for PAX3 can predispose to NTD, but also show that, in general, mutations within or near the conserved domains of the PAX3 protein are only very infrequently involved in familial NTD. Images PMID:7897628

Hol, F A; Hamel, B C; Geurds, M P; Mullaart, R A; Barr, F G; Macina, R A; Mariman, E C

1995-01-01

178

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. (a) Monthly monetary allowance...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. Receipt of this allowance will...

2013-07-01

179

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. (a) Monthly monetary allowance...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. Receipt of this allowance will...

2014-07-01

180

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. (a) Monthly monetary allowance...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. Receipt of this allowance will...

2011-07-01

181

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. 3.814 Section 3.814 Pensions...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. (a) Monthly monetary allowance...veteran or a veteran with covered service in Korea. Receipt of this allowance will...

2012-07-01

182

38 CFR 3.814 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual suffering from spina bifida whose...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...medication or other means to control incontinence. (ii) Level II. Provided...during waking hours; or, requires bowel management techniques or other treatment to control...during waking hours; or, despite bowel management techniques or other treatment...

2010-07-01

183

Transitions into Adolescence  

MedlinePLUS

... concerns regarding personal and physical barriers play greater roles for these special teens. Just as parents assist children without Spina Bifida with this transition, parents of children with Spina Bifida and the professionals who ...

184

75 FR 9276 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for CHAMPVA Benefits); Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vietnam veterans born with spina bifida and certain other covered birth defects. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the...reimbursement of expenses related to spina bifida and certain covered birth defects. Affected Public: Individuals or households....

2010-03-01

185

38 CFR 21.8140 - Evaluation and improvement of vocational potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation and Improvement of Vocational Potential...through 17.905 of this title for the spina bifida, covered birth defects, or related conditions; (4) Vocationally...

2014-07-01

186

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization. (a) Preauthorization...demonstrated medical need related to the spina bifida or covered birth defects. Requests for provision of health care...

2010-07-01

187

38 CFR 21.8140 - Evaluation and improvement of vocational potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation and Improvement of Vocational Potential...through 17.905 of this title for the spina bifida, covered birth defects, or related conditions; (4) Vocationally...

2012-07-01

188

38 CFR 21.8140 - Evaluation and improvement of vocational potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation and Improvement of Vocational Potential...through 17.905 of this title for the spina bifida, covered birth defects, or related conditions; (4) Vocationally...

2013-07-01

189

76 FR 9578 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emphasis Panel (SEP): National Spina Bifida Patient Registry--Clinic Demonstration...4 p.m., March 31, 2011 (Closed). Place: Teleconference. Status...and evaluation of the ``National Spina Bifida Patient Registry--Clinic...

2011-02-18

190

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... baby has spina bifida or other birth defects? Prenatal testing for neural tube defects (such as spina bifida) ... AFP level is found to be high, further prenatal testing, such as a specialized ultrasound exam, and/or ...

191

38 CFR 3.403 - Children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...38 U.S.C. 1805 for an individual suffering from spina bifida who is a child of a...S.C. 1805 to or for an individual suffering from spina bifida who is a child...38 U.S.C. 1821 for an individual suffering from spina bifida who is a child of...

2014-07-01

192

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...service in Korea-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational...service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an...

2013-07-01

193

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...service in Korea-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational...service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an...

2014-07-01

194

38 CFR 21.8012 - Vocational training program for certain children of Vietnam veterans and veterans with covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...service in Korea-spina bifida and covered birth defects. 21.8012 Section 21.8012...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8012 Vocational...service in Korea—spina bifida and covered birth defects. VA will provide an...

2012-07-01

195

Isolated Spontaneous Primary Tubercular Erector Spinae Abscess: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Isolated spontaneous primary tubercular erector spinae abscess in an immunocompetent patient is very rare. Here, we report such a case of 21-year-old female, which was successfully managed with timely diagnosis and intervention. Isolated primary tubercular abscess of erector spinae is a rare differential diagnosis of low back pain; however, it must be suspected in an endemic region for tuberculosis, especially when raised erythrocytic sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are present. Excision along with anti tubercular therapy proved to be a successful strategy in our patient.

Garg, Bhavuk; Poudel, Rishi Ram; Morey, Vivek

2015-01-01

196

Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

197

The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel  

PubMed Central

This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze. PMID:16270941

Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

2005-01-01

198

The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel.  

PubMed

This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze. PMID:16270941

Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

2005-01-01

199

The influence of torque and velocity on erector spinae muscle fatigue and its relationship to changes of electromyogram spectrum density  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of contraction force and velocity during isokinetic contractions on the development of fatigue in the erector spinae muscle was studied. Seven male subjects performed a series of 250 contractions at 25% and 50% of their isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 40 and 80°·s–1. Fatigue defined as a decrease of the contractile capacity of the muscles was studied

Jaap H. van Dieėn; Barbara Böke; Willy Oosterhuis; Huub M. Toussaint

1996-01-01

200

78 FR 35272 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs); neural tube defects (spina bifida, anencephaly); muscular dystrophy; fragile X; deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE); sickle cell disease (SCD);...

2013-06-12

201

38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Imperforate anus; (xii) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland syndrome; (xiv) Pyloric stenosis; (xv) Syndactyly (fused digits); (xvi) Tracheoesophageal fistula;...

2010-07-01

202

38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Imperforate anus; (xii) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland syndrome; (xiv) Pyloric stenosis; (xv) Syndactyly (fused digits); (xvi) Tracheoesophageal fistula;...

2013-07-01

203

38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Imperforate anus; (xii) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland syndrome; (xiv) Pyloric stenosis; (xv) Syndactyly (fused digits); (xvi) Tracheoesophageal fistula;...

2014-07-01

204

38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Imperforate anus; (xii) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland syndrome; (xiv) Pyloric stenosis; (xv) Syndactyly (fused digits); (xvi) Tracheoesophageal fistula;...

2012-07-01

205

38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Imperforate anus; (xii) Neural tube defects (including spina bifida, encephalocele, and anencephaly); (xiii) Poland syndrome; (xiv) Pyloric stenosis; (xv) Syndactyly (fused digits); (xvi) Tracheoesophageal fistula;...

2011-07-01

206

Comparison of the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors and erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study compared the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors, erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region, and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises. [Subjects] Twelve males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed various back extension exercises. The activities of the T7 erector spinae muscles, L3 erector spinae muscles, and the gluteus maximus were measured, and the isolation contraction ratios were calculated. [Results] The isolated contraction ratio of the T7 erector spinae muscles significantly increased during exercise 2. The isolated contraction ratio of the gluteus maximus increased by a significant degree during exercise 1 compared with the other exercises. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the back extension exercises 1 and 2 can be applied to selectively exercise the hip extensors, thoracic muscles, and muscles of the lumbar region. PMID:25729158

Yoo, Won-Gyu

2015-02-01

207

Comparison of the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors and erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study compared the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors, erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region, and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises. [Subjects] Twelve males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed various back extension exercises. The activities of the T7 erector spinae muscles, L3 erector spinae muscles, and the gluteus maximus were measured, and the isolation contraction ratios were calculated. [Results] The isolated contraction ratio of the T7 erector spinae muscles significantly increased during exercise 2. The isolated contraction ratio of the gluteus maximus increased by a significant degree during exercise 1 compared with the other exercises. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the back extension exercises 1 and 2 can be applied to selectively exercise the hip extensors, thoracic muscles, and muscles of the lumbar region. PMID:25729158

Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

208

Effects of abdominal belts on intra-abdominal pressure, intramuscular pressure in the erector spinae muscles and myoelectrical activities of trunk muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the effects of abdominal belts on lifting performance, muscle activation, intra-abdominal pressure and intra-muscular pressure of the erector spinae muscles.Design. Simultaneous measurement of intra-abdominal pressure, intra-muscular pressure of the erector spinae muscles was performed during the Valsalva maneuver and some isometric lift exertions.Background. While several hypotheses have been suggested regarding the biomechanics of belts and performance has

Kei Miyamoto; Nobuki Iinuma; Masato Maeda; Eiji Wada; Katsuji Shimizu

1999-01-01

209

The electro-mechanical delay of the erector spinae muscle: influence of rate of force development, fatigue and electrode location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Electro-mechanical delay (EMD) values of the erector spinae muscle were obtained using a technique based on the cross-correlation between the force and the electromyogram (EMG). Seven subjects performed a series of 20 submaximal dynamic isometric contractions in a seated position at two frequencies (0.5 Hz and 1 Hz) to study the influence of the rate of force development on EMD.

J. H. van Dieėn; C. E. A. M. Thissen; A. J. G. M. van de Ven; H. M. Toussaint

1991-01-01

210

Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket.  

PubMed

Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket or bracket epiphysis is an uncommon disorder of growth. Alternatively known as a delta phalanx, it is due to an anomalous secondary ossification center that extends longitudinally along the diaphysis. Although rare, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket most commonly manifests in the hands as clinodactyly and in the feet as hallux varus. Previously, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket has been treated with angular osteotomy, but we recommend early surgical physiolysis. We describe this uncommon disorder, our current recommendation for treatment, and present three illustrative cases. PMID:24432108

Choo, Alexander D; Mubarak, Scott J

2013-12-01

211

Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

2014-01-01

212

Morbus de Anquin or spinous engagement syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a rare disease called to Anquin's disease or spinous engagement or impingement syndrome. Low-back pain in this specific syndrome probably combined with sciatica is caused by a hypertrophic spinous process along with a spina bifida occulta of the underlying vertebra. Mostly, the enlarged spinous process is seen at L5 and the spina bifida occulta at S I.

J. Bruns; U. Rehder; G. P. Dahmen; P. Behrens; L. Meiss

1994-01-01

213

Hormonal Pregnancy Tests and Neural Tube Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1967 Gal, Kirman and Stern1 reported a possible relationship between pregnancy tests using pills containing synthetic oestrogenic and progesterogenic hormones and the birth of a child with spina bifida. Of the 100 mothers of children with spina bifida, nineteen gave a history of pregnancy diagnosis by this means; only four of the 100 matched control mothers gave such a

Michael Laurence; Mary Miller; MARY VOWLES; KATHLEEN EVANS; CEDRIC CARTER

1971-01-01

214

Subsequent Births in Families of Children with Disabilities: Using Demographic Data to Examine Parents' Reproductive Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors determined family reproductive patterns after the birth of a child with (vs. without) a disability. Using Tennessee birth records, the authors examined families of children with Down syndrome (N = 1,123), spina bifida (N = 368), and population group (N = 734,189). Families of children with Down syndrome and with spina bifida were more…

Burke, Meghan M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

2011-01-01

215

38 CFR 3.403 - Children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. 1805 for an individual suffering from spina bifida who is a child of a Vietnam veteran. ...allowance under 38 U.S.C. 1805 to or for an individual suffering from spina bifida who is a child of a Vietnam veteran...

2010-07-01

216

Pathophysiology of Hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three major clinical manifestations of spina bifida (hydrocephalus, paraplegia and urinary and bowel incontinence) are\\u000a easily observable and have been described since ancient times, though they were not described in relationship to spina bifida\\u000a until the seventeenth century [1].

Giuseppe Cinalli; Pietro Spennato; Maria Consiglio Buonocore; Emilio Cianciulli; Matthieu Vinchon; Spyros Sgouros

217

38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8020 Entitlement...effects of the individual's spina bifida and/or other covered birth defect(s) which are so severe as to necessitate...

2012-07-01

218

38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8020 Entitlement...effects of the individual's spina bifida and/or other covered birth defect(s) which are so severe as to necessitate...

2014-07-01

219

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.901 Provision of health...not-for-profit charitable entities. (b) Covered birth defects. VA will provide a woman Vietnam...suffer from spina bifida or other covered birth defects with such health care as the...

2010-07-01

220

38 CFR 21.8020 - Entitlement to vocational training and employment assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8020 Entitlement...effects of the individual's spina bifida and/or other covered birth defect(s) which are so severe as to necessitate...

2013-07-01

221

75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Progression in Young Children With Spina Bifida,and RFA DP 10-006 Epidemiologic...4 p.m., April 15, 2010 (Closed) Place: Teleconference. Status...10-002 Public Health Research on Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health...

2010-03-22

222

Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

2011-01-01

223

Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation on cumulative fatigue and muscle tone of the erector spinae  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect. PMID:25642049

Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee

2015-01-01

224

Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation on cumulative fatigue and muscle tone of the erector spinae.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation on fatigue recovery of the erector spinae with cumulative fatigue induced by repeated lifting and lowering work. [Subjects] Thirty-two healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and they were randomly divided into three groups: a MC group of 12 persons who underwent microcurrent, a TENS group of 10 persons who underwent Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and a control group of 10 persons who only rested. [Methods] Cumulative fatigue was induced and then, EMG, muscle tone, CK and LDH serum levels of the erector spinae were measured. Each group then underwent the assigned intervention and was re-measured. To analyze the differences in fatigue between before and after the intervention, the paired t-test was conducted, while groups were compared using analysis of covariance with a control group. [Results] The MC groups showed a significant reduction in muscle fatigue and decreased muscle tone when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the TENS and control groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that microcurrent stimulation was effective for recovery from cumulative muscle fatigue while TENS had no effect. PMID:25642049

Kang, Da-Haeng; Jeon, Jae-Keun; Lee, Joon-Hee

2015-01-01

225

Electrothermal Effects in Bipolar Differential Pairs L. La Spina, V. d'Alessandro, F. Santagata, N. Rinaldi, and L. K. Nanver  

E-print Network

Electrothermal Effects in Bipolar Differential Pairs L. La Spina, V. d'Alessandro, F. Santagata, N -- The electrothermal behavior of bipolar differential pairs fabricated in silicon-on-glass technology is investigated the electrothermal feedback. Index Terms -- Analog circuits, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), differential pair

Technische Universiteit Delft

226

Longitudinal data model selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In longitudinal data with correlated errors, we apply the likelihood and residual likelihood approaches to obtain the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc) and the residual information criterion (RIC), respectively. Simulation studies show that AICc outperforms the Akaike information criterion (AIC) when the numbers of subjects and repeated observations are small, and RIC is superior to the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)

Rahman Azari; Lexin Li; Chih-ling Tsai

2006-01-01

227

Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined longitudinal effects of kindergarten attendance on academic achievement through high school with students who attended public or nonpublic kindergarten, or neither one. Found that students with either kind of kindergarten experience had higher ACT scores and grade point averages. Found no significant differences in number of students…

Prince, Debra Lindsey; Hare, R. Dwight; Howard, Esther M.

2001-01-01

228

Bellows With Longitudinal Beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bellows assembled using two longitudinal side seams allow seam joints to be placed in axial directions of bellows. Design of particular importance in difficult situations where frequent assembly or repair required or in limited-access areas not desirable to disassemble total unit to replace one-piece bellows.

Garvin, W.

1984-01-01

229

WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

230

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOEpatents

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

1994-06-07

231

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOEpatents

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01

232

Longitudinal discharge laser baffles  

DOEpatents

The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1994-01-01

233

Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes  

DOEpatents

The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

1994-08-23

234

Logistic Regression Longitudinal Data Analysis  

E-print Network

Logistic Regression Longitudinal Data Analysis Stat 491: Biostatistics Chapter 13: Methods for Epidemiological Studies Stat 491: Biostatistics #12;Logistic Regression Longitudinal Data Analysis Simple Logistic. Chapter 13: Methods for Epidemiological Studies Stat 491: Biostatistics #12;Logistic Regression

Bardsley, John

235

Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

236

Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin voltage as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials [1-7]. Here, a spin voltage is a potential for electron spins to drive a nonequilibrium spin current; when a conductor is attached to a magnet with a finite spin voltage, it induces a spin injection into the conductor. The SSE is of crucial importance in spintronics and spin caloritronics, since it enables simple and versatile generation of a spin current from heat. The simplest and most straightforward setup of the SSE is the longitudinal configuration [4], in which a spin current flowing parallel to a temperature gradient is measured via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The longitudinal SSE device consists of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic insulator (FI, e.g. YIG) covered with a paramagnetic metal (PM, e.g. Pt) film. When a temperature gradient is applied perpendicular to the FI/PM interface, an ISHE-induced voltage is generated in the PM layer. In this talk, we report the observation of the longitudinal SSE in various FI/PM systems and provide evidence that the longitudinal SSE is free from thermoelectric artefact [7], i.e., the anomalous Nernst effect caused by extrinsic magnetic proximity [8]. Then, we discuss the longitudinal SSE from an application point of view [6]. We thank E. Saitoh, S. Maekawa, G. E. W. Bauer, X.-F. Jin, H. Adachi, D. Hou, D. Tian, T. Kikkawa, A. Kirihara, and M. Ishida for their support and valuable discussions. [4pt] [1] K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008).[0pt] [2] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010).[0pt] [3] C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010).[0pt] [4] K. Uchida et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 172505 (2010).[0pt] [5] K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 10, 737 (2011).[0pt] [6] A. Kirihara et al., Nature Mater. 11, 686 (2012).[0pt] [7] T. Kikkawa et al., arXiv:1211.0139 (2012). [0pt] [8] S. Y. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107204 (2012).

Uchida, Ken-Ichi

2013-03-01

237

A meningomyelocele with normal intracranial signs on ultrasound and false-negative amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase  

PubMed Central

Neural tube defects are the major targets of prenatal diagnoses, along with Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida is possible at second trimester of gestation through ?-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase biochemistry assays and ultrasound. In particular, the discovery of characteristic intracranial signs on ultrasound leads to a very high diagnosis rate. However, it is rare for spina bifida to present without intracranial signs while also showing normal values of maternal serum ?-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid ?-fetoprotein, and acetylcholinesterase. In our hospital, a fetus with spina bifida was delivered at 37+5 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, and was continually followed up over 2 years to date. PMID:24883294

Yoon, Chong Hyeok; Kang, Sang Kyu; Jin, Chan Hee; Park, Moon Sun

2014-01-01

238

A meningomyelocele with normal intracranial signs on ultrasound and false-negative amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase.  

PubMed

Neural tube defects are the major targets of prenatal diagnoses, along with Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida is possible at second trimester of gestation through ?-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase biochemistry assays and ultrasound. In particular, the discovery of characteristic intracranial signs on ultrasound leads to a very high diagnosis rate. However, it is rare for spina bifida to present without intracranial signs while also showing normal values of maternal serum ?-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid ?-fetoprotein, and acetylcholinesterase. In our hospital, a fetus with spina bifida was delivered at 37+5 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, and was continually followed up over 2 years to date. PMID:24883294

Yoon, Chong Hyeok; Kang, Sang Kyu; Jin, Chan Hee; Park, Moon Sun; Rho, Jeong Hoon

2014-05-01

239

Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital images had less spatial and contrast resolution. With the equipment improvements discussed in the thesis, digital tomography may have an important role in radiology.

Rimkus, Daniel Steven

1985-12-01

240

Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis. PMID:25008019

Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

2014-10-01

241

Hydrocephalus  

MedlinePLUS

... or developmental disorders (such as those associated with neural tube defects including spina bifida and encephalocele). Other ... and abnormal brain development. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN, www.hcrn.org ) is a multi-center ...

242

77 FR 60746 - Proposed Information Collection (Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Award Attachment for Certain Children With Disabilities Born of...determine a spina bifida child of Vietnam veterans' eligibility...other forms of information technology. Title: Award Attachment for Certain Children with Disabilities Born...

2012-10-04

243

Neural Tube Defects  

MedlinePLUS

Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

244

Iniencephaly  

MedlinePLUS

... birth defect caused by improper closure of the neural tube (the part of a human embryo that ... development. Iniencephaly is in the same family of neural tube defects as spina bifida, but it is ...

245

Phentermine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect. Neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, occur when ... serum alpha fetoprotein test), which can detect many neural tube defects. Now that I know I’m ...

246

Folic acid and birth defect prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Prevention of birth defects with folic acid (folate) ... There is good evidence that taking folic acid before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of certain birth defects ( spina bifida , anencephaly , and some heart defects). Experts recommend taking 400 ...

247

Scoliosis  

MedlinePLUS

... problem that affects the muscles. Problems can include cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy , spina bifida, and polio . ... They may have another serious disorder such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, so their goals are much ...

248

When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect  

MedlinePLUS

... as heart defects, cleft lip and palate, or cerebral palsy, you may find yourself having to serve as ... Your Baby Is Born With a Health Problem Cerebral Palsy Down Syndrome Spina Bifida Birth Defects Down Syndrome ...

249

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... or Condition of Interest ADHD AIDS - Neurological Complications Absence of the Septum Pellucidum Acquired Epileptiform Aphasia Acute ... Shy-Drager Syndrome Sjogren's Syndrome Sleep Apnea Sleeping Sickness Soto's Syndrome Spasticity Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Infarction ...

250

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

2013-07-01

251

38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

2012-07-01

252

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

2014-07-01

253

38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

2012-07-01

254

38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

2011-07-01

255

38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and assistance....

2013-07-01

256

38 CFR 21.8080 - Requirement for an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation § 21.8080 Requirement for an individualized...

2012-07-01

257

38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and assistance....

2012-07-01

258

38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry. (a) Date of program entry. VA may...

2012-07-01

259

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2013-07-01

260

38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

2013-07-01

261

38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an...

2013-07-01

262

38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

2011-07-01

263

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2010-07-01

264

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

2013-07-01

265

38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

2014-07-01

266

38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

2014-07-01

267

38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

2012-07-01

268

38 CFR 21.8070 - Basic duration of a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8070 Basic duration of a vocational training program. (a) Basic...

2013-07-01

269

38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

2014-07-01

270

38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

2010-07-01

271

38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

2012-07-01

272

38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8286 Training resources. (a)...

2014-07-01

273

38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8286 Training resources. (a)...

2012-07-01

274

38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

2010-07-01

275

38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

2011-07-01

276

38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

2010-07-01

277

38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry. (a) Date of program entry. VA may...

2013-07-01

278

38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

2013-07-01

279

38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

2010-07-01

280

38 CFR 21.8082 - Inability of child to complete individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation § 21.8082 Inability of child to complete...

2013-07-01

281

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

2012-07-01

282

38 CFR 21.8080 - Requirement for an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation § 21.8080 Requirement for an individualized...

2014-07-01

283

38 CFR 21.8410 - Delegation of authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Delegation of Authority § 21.8410 Delegation of authority. The Secretary delegates authority for...

2012-07-01

284

38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment. ...814 of this title. (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after December 1, 2001...name, (B) Address, (C) Date of birth, and (D) Social Security...

2014-07-01

285

38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an...

2012-07-01

286

38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

2012-07-01

287

38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction...

2012-07-01

288

38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

2012-07-01

289

38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment. ...814 of this title. (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after December 1, 2001...name, (B) Address, (C) Date of birth, and (D) Social Security...

2012-07-01

290

38 CFR 21.8072 - Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8072 Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the...

2013-07-01

291

38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational...

2013-07-01

292

38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

2013-07-01

293

38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

2014-07-01

294

38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

2010-07-01

295

38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization of transportation services. (a) General. VA...

2012-07-01

296

38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

2011-07-01

297

38 CFR 21.8310 - Rate of pursuit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Rate of Pursuit § 21.8310 Rate of pursuit. (a) General requirements. VA will approve an...

2014-07-01

298

38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

2014-07-01

299

38 CFR 21.8082 - Inability of child to complete individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation § 21.8082 Inability of child to complete...

2012-07-01

300

38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing supplies. VA will provide the child...

2012-07-01

301

38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction...

2013-07-01

302

38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

2013-07-01

303

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

2012-07-01

304

38 CFR 21.8360 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Satisfactory Conduct and Cooperation § 21.8360 Satisfactory conduct and cooperation. The...

2010-07-01

305

38 CFR 17.905 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.905 Medical records. Copies of medical records generated outside VA that relate to activities for...

2011-07-01

306

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2011-07-01

307

38 CFR 21.8032 - Evaluations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8032 Evaluations. (a) Scope and nature of evaluation. The scope and nature of...

2014-07-01

308

38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational...

2014-07-01

309

38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

2012-07-01

310

38 CFR 21.8070 - Basic duration of a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8070 Basic duration of a vocational training program. (a) Basic...

2012-07-01

311

38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The...

2013-07-01

312

38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

2014-07-01

313

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For purposes of §§ 17.900 through 17.905, if a...

2010-07-01

314

38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The...

2012-07-01

315

38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

2013-07-01

316

38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

2011-07-01

317

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

2011-07-01

318

38 CFR 21.8070 - Basic duration of a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8070 Basic duration of a vocational training program. (a) Basic...

2014-07-01

319

38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing supplies. VA will provide the child...

2013-07-01

320

38 CFR 21.8320 - Authorization of services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Authorization of Services § 21.8320 Authorization of services. The provisions of § 21.326,...

2013-07-01

321

38 CFR 21.8082 - Inability of child to complete individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation § 21.8082 Inability of child to complete...

2014-07-01

322

38 CFR 21.8050 - Scope of training, services, and assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Services and Assistance to Program Participants § 21.8050 Scope of training, services, and assistance....

2014-07-01

323

38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application. (a) Filing...1997. For a child claiming eligibility based on a covered birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed...

2014-07-01

324

38 CFR 21.8015 - Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time for claimant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8015 Notification by VA of necessary information or evidence when a claim is filed; time...

2013-07-01

325

38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization of transportation services. (a) General. VA...

2014-07-01

326

38 CFR 21.8072 - Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8072 Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the...

2014-07-01

327

38 CFR 21.8032 - Evaluations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8032 Evaluations. (a) Scope and nature of evaluation. The scope and nature of...

2012-07-01

328

38 CFR 21.8074 - Computing the period for vocational training program participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8074 Computing the period for vocational training program...

2014-07-01

329

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

2010-07-01

330

38 CFR 21.8032 - Evaluations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8032 Evaluations. (a) Scope and nature of evaluation. The scope and nature of...

2013-07-01

331

38 CFR 21.8016 - Nonduplication of benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8016 Nonduplication of benefits. (a) Election of benefits—chapter 35. An...

2011-07-01

332

38 CFR 17.903 - Payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.903 Payment. ...814 of this title. (ii) For covered birth defects, on or after December 1, 2001...name, (B) Address, (C) Date of birth, and (D) Social Security...

2013-07-01

333

38 CFR 21.8022 - Entry and reentry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Basic Entitlement Requirements § 21.8022 Entry and reentry. (a) Date of program entry. VA may...

2014-07-01

334

38 CFR 21.8100 - Counseling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Counseling § 21.8100 Counseling. An eligible child requesting or receiving services and assistance...

2013-07-01

335

38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application. (a) Filing...1997. For a child claiming eligibility based on a covered birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed...

2012-07-01

336

38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction...

2014-07-01

337

38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The...

2014-07-01

338

38 CFR 21.8260 - Training, services, and assistance costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Program Costs § 21.8260 Training, services, and assistance costs. The provisions of § 21.262...

2014-07-01

339

38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational...

2012-07-01

340

38 CFR 21.8072 - Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Duration of Vocational Training § 21.8072 Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the...

2012-07-01

341

38 CFR 21.8014 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8014 Application. (a) Filing...1997. For a child claiming eligibility based on a covered birth defect, an application under this subpart may be filed...

2013-07-01

342

38 CFR 21.8210 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Supplies § 21.8210 Supplies. (a) Purpose of furnishing supplies. VA will provide the child...

2014-07-01

343

38 CFR 21.8380 - Additional applicable regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Additional Applicable Regulations § 21.8380 Additional applicable regulations. The following...

2014-07-01

344

38 CFR 21.8080 - Requirement for an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Individualized Written Plan of Vocational Rehabilitation § 21.8080 Requirement for an individualized...

2013-07-01

345

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2014-07-01

346

38 CFR 21.8286 - Training resources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8286 Training resources. (a)...

2013-07-01

347

38 CFR 21.8370 - Authorization of transportation services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Transportation Services § 21.8370 Authorization of transportation services. (a) General. VA...

2013-07-01

348

38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

2012-07-01

349

20 CFR 416.1236 - Exclusions from resources; provided by other statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...value of assistance to children under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966...and an allowance for books, supplies, transportation...Assistance for Needy Families matching funds, and...certain Vietnam veterans' children with spina bifida,...

2010-04-01

350

20 CFR 416.1236 - Exclusions from resources; provided by other statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...value of assistance to children under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966...and an allowance for books, supplies, transportation...Assistance for Needy Families matching funds, and...certain Vietnam veterans' children with spina bifida,...

2014-04-01

351

20 CFR 416.1236 - Exclusions from resources; provided by other statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...value of assistance to children under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966...and an allowance for books, supplies, transportation...Assistance for Needy Families matching funds, and...certain Vietnam veterans' children with spina bifida,...

2012-04-01

352

20 CFR 416.1236 - Exclusions from resources; provided by other statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...value of assistance to children under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966...and an allowance for books, supplies, transportation...Assistance for Needy Families matching funds, and...certain Vietnam veterans' children with spina bifida,...

2013-04-01

353

20 CFR 416.1236 - Exclusions from resources; provided by other statutes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...value of assistance to children under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966...and an allowance for books, supplies, transportation...Assistance for Needy Families matching funds, and...certain Vietnam veterans' children with spina bifida,...

2011-04-01

354

UNIVERSITY OF GLOBAL HEALTH  

E-print Network

prematurely 3 Women's fertility linked to detox element in diet 3 African Union launches ground breaking data of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, and it is recommended for women to start folic acid

MacMillan, Andrew

355

The role of genetic counseling in the elective termination of pregnancies involving fetuses with disabilities  

E-print Network

in the mother’s bloodstream. These tests identify pregnancies at risk for dis- abilities such as spina bifida and Down syndrome. Diagnos- tic tests, such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, are considered invasive procedures but provide more detailed... of disability of the fetus, either Down syndrome or spina bifida, made no dif- ference in the decision that women believed they would make. The women’s intention to terminate a pregnancy appeared to be unrelated to their overall knowledge about disabilities...

Stough, Laura

2002-01-01

356

Child with a Tail  

PubMed Central

Spina Bifida occulta usually presents with some cutaneous stigmata e.g. hair patch, sinus, lipoma, hyperpigmented skin and very rarely a congenital tail. A congenital tail may and may not be associated with spina bifida occulta and tethered cord. A four month old male child presented with congenital tail which was associated with spinal dysraphism and caused tethering of the cord itself. The tail and tethering lesion were excised successfully. PMID:24381838

Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Khan, Feeroz Alam; Ehmed, Ejaz; Dar, Sajid Hameed

2013-01-01

357

Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects' lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

2015-02-01

358

Effects of abdominal drawing-in during prone hip extension on the muscle activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and lumbar erector spinae in subjects with lumbar hyperlordosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), measured using a pressure bio-feedback unit, on the activities of the hamstring, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae muscles during prone hip extension. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult subjects (14 male, 16 female), were recruited. Subjects’ lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt angles were measured, and based on the results, the subjects were divided into two groups: a hyperlordotic lumbar angle (HLLA) group (n=15) and a normal lordotic lumbar angle (NLLA) group (n=15). The muscle activities of the hamstring and gluteus maximus, and of the erector spinae on the right side of the body, were recorded using surface electromyography. [Results] When performing ADIM with prone hip extension, the muscle activity of the gluteus maximus of the HLLA group significantly improved compared with that the NLLA group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that ADIM with prone hip extension was more effective at eliciting gluteus maximus activity in the HLLA group than in the NLLA group. Therefore, ADIM with prone hip extension may be useful for increasing the gluteus maximus activity of individuals with lumbar hyperlordosis. PMID:25729173

Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook

2015-01-01

359

Longitudinally extensive myelopathy in children.  

PubMed

When children present with acute myelopathy manifested by sensory, motor, or bowel and bladder symptoms, MRI of the neuraxis with contrast agent is the most important imaging study to obtain. Although occasionally normal, MRI often demonstrates signal abnormality within the spinal cord. Classically, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (?3 vertebral bodies in length) has been described with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), but alternative diagnoses should be considered. This pictorial essay reviews the differential diagnoses that may present with longitudinally extensive spinal cord signal abnormalities. Multiple inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative etiologies can present with a myelopathy. Thus, radiologists can assist in the diagnosis by familiarizing themselves with the spectrum of diseases in childhood that result in longitudinally extensive signal abnormalities in the absence of trauma. PMID:25636706

Sorte, Danielle Eckart; Poretti, Andrea; Newsome, Scott D; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Izbudak, Izlem

2015-02-01

360

Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

Ellis, Nick

361

Longitudinally-vibrating surgical microelectrode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microelectrode attached to cone of loudspeaker imparting longitudinal vibrations, penetrates relatively tough tissue of arterial walls easier and with more precise depth control because dimpling is eliminated. Vibrating microelectrode has been successfully used to make accurate oxygen-content measurements in arterial walls.

Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D.; Kawabus, E. W.

1977-01-01

362

Statewide Longitudinal Study: Initial Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 1987, a five-year longitudinal study was initiated by the Wyoming Community College Commission, in cooperation with the community colleges, to determine the variables that affect student progress toward their personal, academic, and career objectives. The sample for the study consisted of 181 randomly selected first-time, first-year…

Kitchens, Helen M.

363

LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

364

Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show students the nature of particle motion in longitudinal and transverse waves, and how they combine to form the more complex motions seen in water waves and Rayleigh surface waves, a type seen in earthquakes. The animations are accompanied by written explanations.

Dan Russell

365

Longitudinal Qualitative Research: Analyzing Change through Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book outlines the basic elements of longitudinal qualitative data, focusing on micro-levels of change observed within individual cases and groups of participants, and presents 16 questions through which researchers can approach the analysis of longitudinal qualitative data. The chapters are: (1) "Longitudinal Qualitative Studies, Time, and…

Saldana, Johnny

366

Nabag (Zizyphus spina-christi) extract prevents aberrant crypt foci development in colons of azoxymethane-treated rats by abrogating oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed

Zizyphus spina-christi (ZSC) fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds but any medicinal properties in chemoprevention of colon cancer have hitherto not been studied. The aim of the present study was to examine in vivo protective effects of ZSC water extract on colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Our results showed that ZSC significantly reduced AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci development and AOM-induced oxidative stress as indicated by restoration of endogenous glutathione depletion and abrogating the impairment of total antioxidant capacity. Caspase-3 cleavage, which has been considered as an apoptotic index, was almost undetectable in AOM-treated rats and ZSC exhibited pro-apoptotic effects evidenced by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3. In the studied model, our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that ZSC extract could inhibit the early stage of colon carcinogenesis by preventing oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24175771

Guizani, Nejib; Waly, Mostafa Ibrahim; Singh, Vandita; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

2013-01-01

367

The Importance of Longitudinal Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

Knezek, Patricia

2014-01-01

368

Longitudinal Rescaling of Quantum Electrodynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate quantum longitudinal rescaling of electrodynamics, transforming coordinates as $x^{0,3}\\to\\lambda x^{0,3}$ and $x^{1,2}\\to x^{1,2}$, to one loop. We do this by an aspherical Wilsonian renormalization, which was applied earlier to pure Yang-Mills theory. We find the anomalous powers of $\\lambda$ in the renormalized couplings. Our result is only valid for $\\lambda \\lesssim 1$, because perturbation theory breaks down for $\\lambda \\ll 1$.

Axel Cortes Cubero; Peter Orland

2011-09-28

369

Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

2010-01-01

370

Cylindrical refueling mast with longitudinal guide groves  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a refueling mast for refueling a nuclear reactor. It comprises longitudinally extending cylindrical tubes including an outermost tube and at least a first inner tube, the first tube having a first outer surface and being relatively dimensioned so that the inner tube can be slid within and relative to the outermost tube; the first inner tube having a first set of longitudinally extending tracks formed at the first outer surface, each of the tracks of the first set having longitudinally extending grooves; telescoping means for causing the first inner tube to slide within and relative to the outermost tube; and first guide means for guiding longitudinal movement of the first inner tube relative to the outermost tube, the first guide means including grooved rollers which mate with the first set of longitudinally extending tracks, the first guide means being mechanically coupled to the outermost tube so as to maintain a fixed longitudinal position relative thereto.

Dixon, R.C.; Punches, J.R.; Rousar, D.L.; Faulstich, D.L.

1992-01-28

371

Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator  

DOEpatents

A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marcus L. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN)

2003-03-11

372

Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

2010-01-01

373

Longitudinal Field Modes Probed by Single Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that a strong longitudinal, nonpropagating field is generated at the focus of a radially polarized beam mode. This field is localized in space and its energy density exceeds the energy density of the transverse field by more than a factor of 2. Single molecules with fixed absorption dipole moments are used to probe the longitudinal field. Vice versa,

L. Novotny; M. R. Beversluis; K. S. Youngworth; T. G. Brown

2001-01-01

374

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal

Ivy Jansen; Caroline Beunckens; Geert Molenberghs; Geert Verbeke; Craig Mallinckrodt

2006-01-01

375

Adiabatic excitation of longitudinal bunch shape oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

By modulating the RF voltage at near twice the synchrotron frequency we are able to modulate the longitudinal bunch shape. We show experimentally that this can be done while preserving the longitudinal emittance when the RF voltage modulation is turned on adiabatically. Experimental measurements are presented along with theoretical predictions

M. Bai; K. Browny; W. Fischer; T. Roser; K. Smith; N. Tsoupas; J. van Zeijts

1999-01-01

376

LSTGEE: longitudinal analysis of neuroimaging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal imaging studies are essential to understanding the neural development of neuropsychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and normal brain. Using appropriate image processing and statistical tools to analyze the imaging, behavioral, and clinical data is critical for optimally exploring and interpreting the findings from those imaging studies. However, the existing imaging processing and statistical methods for analyzing imaging longitudinal measures are primarily developed for cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. The simple use of these cross-sectional tools to longitudinal imaging studies will significantly decrease the statistical power of longitudinal studies in detecting subtle changes of imaging measures and the causal role of time-dependent covariate in disease process. The main objective of this paper is to develop longitudinal statistics toolbox, called LSTGEE, for the analysis of neuroimaging data from longitudinal studies. We develop generalized estimating equations for jointly modeling imaging measures with behavioral and clinical variables from longitudinal studies. We develop a test procedure based on a score test statistic and a resampling method to test linear hypotheses of unknown parameters, such as associations between brain structure and function and covariates of interest, such as IQ, age, gene, diagnostic groups, and severity of disease. We demonstrate the application of our statistical methods to the detection of the changes of the fractional anisotropy across time in a longitudinal neonate study. Particularly, our results demonstrate that the use of longitudinal statistics can dramatically increase the statistical power in detecting the changes of neuroimaging measures. The proposed approach can be applied to longitudinal data with multiple outcomes and accommodate incomplete and unbalanced data, i.e., subjects with different number of measurements.

Li, Yimei; Zhu, Hongtu; Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Gilmore, John; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

2009-02-01

377

Association of SMO polymorphisms and neural tube defects in the Chinese population from Shanxi Province  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SMO and neural tube defects (NTDs) in Chinese population. Method: A total of 113 NTDs cases and 138 healthy controls were used in this study. 10 selected single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the SMO gene were analyzed with MassArray high-throughput DNA analyzer with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A series of statistical methods were carried out to investigate the correlation between the SNPs and the patient susceptibility to NTDs. Results: The C allele of rs3824 increased the risk of spina bifida (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.18, 5.38; p=0.026) but not the risk of anencephaly or encephalocele. Significant differences were found between spina bifida and controls when we compared the GG group with the CC+CG group (OR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 5.61; p=0.011). CC+CG genotype was a risk factor for spina bifida. Conclusions: The gene polymorphism loci rs3824 of SMO was closely related to spina bifida in Chinese population from Shanxi. The haplotype GA in rs3824 and rs9706 increased the risk of NTDs particularly spina bifida in women. PMID:24260604

Wang, Zhen; Shangguan, Shaofang; Lu, Xiaolin; Chang, Shaoyan; Li, Rui; Wu, Lihua; Bao, Yihua; Niu, Bo; Wang, Li; Zhang, Ting

2013-01-01

378

Quality of life and functional disability in skeletally mature patients with myelomeningocele-related spinal deformity.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life, physical function, self-motivation, and self-perception of skeletally mature patients with spina bifida and scoliosis. This is a prospective study on 19 skeletally mature patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Several questionnaires were used for the study: Activities Scale for Kids, Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire, The Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, and the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire. This study found no association between spinal deformity or other features related to spina bifida and self-perception, motivation, and overall physical function. More severe scoliosis affects quality of life and is related to the degree of pelvic obliquity and the age of the patients. Individuals with motor-level dysfunction below L3 had significantly better overall physical function compared with those with a higher level of lesions. This was the only factor found to affect physical function. Our findings suggest that most limitations in patients with spina bifida are not related to the degree of scoliosis but to other associated disabilities. PMID:23197183

Sibinski, Marcin; Synder, Marek; Higgs, Zoe C J; Kujawa, Jolanta; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej

2013-03-01

379

Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

2010-01-01

380

Psychiatric resilience: longitudinal twin study  

PubMed Central

Objective There is great variability in response to stressful life events (SLEs), with some individuals demonstrating substantial psychiatric symptoms while others remain largely asymptomatic. The source of this variability is poorly understood. The present study aimed to examine the genetic and environmental underpinning of resilience, defined as the difference between the twins’ total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to SLEs. Method SLE exposure and internalizing symptoms were assessed at two time points in 7,500 adult twins. Using the residual between actual and predicted internalizing symptom total score, twin modeling was conducted for each wave separately, as well as longitudinally. Quantitative and qualitative sex effects were also tested. Results Resilience was found to have a mild to moderate genetic heritability at each individual wave (~31%). Additionally, qualitative sex effects were found. Incorporating error of measurement into the model increased the estimated heritability for the latent construct of resilience (~50%). Unconfounded by measurement error and occasion specific effects, environmental influences contributed roughly equally to determining the individual level of resilience. Conclusions Genetic factors influence the level of psychiatric resilience, and are largely stable over time. The genes that impact on resilience are not entirely the same in males and females, although the degree of heritability is equal across the sexes. Environmental influences can also have an enduring effect on resilience. The present findings of the genetic and environmental influences on adaptation to SLEs clarify the sources of individual variation to environmental stressors. PMID:24723629

Amstadter, Ananda B.; Myers, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2014-01-01

381

Breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin waves.  

PubMed

The breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin (AP) waves is demonstrated using a one-dimensional simulation based on the Dawson sheet model. It is found that the AP longitudinal waves break through the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below the breaking amplitude for AP waves, when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. Results from the simulation show a good agreement with the Dawson phase mixing formula modified to include relativistic mass variation effects. This result may be of direct relevance to the laser- or particle-beam plasma wakefield experiments. PMID:22540592

Verma, Prabal Singh; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman

2012-03-23

382

LONGITUDINAL TUNING OF THE SNS SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC  

SciTech Connect

The SNS superconducting linac delivers about 1 GeV of energy driven by self-consistent RF cavities. Here, we present an experience of the longitudinal tune-up of the SNS linac where a new application for quick RF phase setup and cavity fault adaptation was created. The routine of superconducting linac tune-up, longitudinal beam manipulation, and radio frequency cavity phase scaling for beam state recovery is presented. The application has direct value for beam optics study and will serve as the basis for longitudinal beam-size manipulation for the laser stripping project.

Gorlov, Timofey V [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

383

Longitudinal Dynamics and Tomography in the Tevatron  

DOE PAGESBeta

Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

Stogin, J [Princeton U.; Sen, T [Fermilab; Moore, R S [Fermilab

2012-01-10

384

ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

385

Longitudinal forces in pinched electric currents  

E-print Network

It is shown that the theory of Mbelek and Lachi\\`eze-Rey predicts longitudinal forces of gravitational origin in pinched current distributions, with magnitudes large enough to have noticeable effects.

F. O. Minotti

2014-02-13

386

The Lighthouse Program: A Longitudinal Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal data are presented from the Lighthouse Program for gifted students which features cluster grouping and a quota identification systems to ensure proportionate inclusion of minority students. (Author/CL)

LaRose, Barbara

1986-01-01

387

On the identification of vehicle longitudinal dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional model of vehicle-propulsion system\\/roadway-interface dynamics is specified, and a model-matching procedure, wherein closed-loop vehicle longitudinal controllers are employed, is detailed for identifying the parameters of this model. This procedure was employed to determine the longitudinal dynamics of a dual-mode test vehicle. The derived dynamics, which are highly velocity dependent, were validated in a series of full-scale tests in

G. Takasaki; R. Fenton

1977-01-01

388

Longitudinal space charge effects near transition  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

2009-05-04

389

Longitudinal association analysis of quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Longitudinal genetic studies provide a valuable resource for exploring key genetic and environmental factors that affect complex traits over time. Genetic analysis of longitudinal data that incorporate temporal variations is important for understanding genetic architecture and biological variations of common complex diseases. Although they are important, there is a paucity of statistical methods to analyze longitudinal human genetic data. In this article, longitudinal methods are developed for temporal association mapping to analyze population longitudinal data. Both parametric and nonparametric models are proposed. The models can be applied to multiple diallelic genetic markers such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and multiallelic markers such as microsatellites. By analytical formulae, we show that the models take both the linkage disequilibrium and temporal trends into account simultaneously. Variance-covariance structure is constructed to model the single measurement variation and multiple measurement correlations of an individual based on the theory of stochastic processes. Novel penalized spline models are used to estimate the time-dependent mean functions and regression coefficients. The methods were applied to analyze Framingham Heart Study data of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 13 and GAW 16. The temporal trends and genetic effects of the systolic blood pressure are successfully detected by the proposed approaches. Simulation studies were performed to find out that the nonparametric penalized linear model is the best choice in fitting real data. The research sheds light on the important area of longitudinal genetic analysis, and it provides a basis for future methodological investigations and practical applications. PMID:22965819

Fan, Ruzong; Zhang, Yiwei; Albert, Paul S; Liu, Aiyi; Wang, Yuanjia; Xiong, Momiao

2012-12-01

390

Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal surface structures ("flowstripes") are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems; the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, the Taylor and Ferrar Glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, Crane and Jorum Glaciers (ice-shelf tributary glaciers) on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

2012-03-01

391

Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes) on Antarctic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'') are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area). Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1) as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2) as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

Glasser, N. F.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

2011-11-01

392

LONGITUDINAL SPACE CHARGE EFFECT FOR SNS  

SciTech Connect

One of performance requirements of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to keep the uncontrolled beam loss in the storage ring to less than 2 x 10{sup {minus}4} per pulse. For 2 MW SNS, the maximum beam intensity is N = 2 x 10{sup 14} protons per ring. Since the bunch lengthening has impact on both the extraction beam loss and the lowering of e-p instability threshold, the longitudinal space charge effect requires attentions. Such a space charge effect has been studied both analytically and using computer simulations. The longitudinal space charge effect, which is a defocusing force below transition, is a plausible source of the bunch leakage. In this article, the total RF potential, which takes into account the space charge effect together with the RF power, is used to provide analytical predictions for the bunch lengthening. The prediction is confirmed by the computer simulation. It is found that for 2 MW SNS storage ring, the longitudinal space charge induced bunch leakage into the interbunch gap is not significant. Therefore, corrections to the longitudinal space charge impedance, such as the proposed ferrite insertion in the PSR ring, are probably not necessary. Applying an RF voltage ramping from 20 KV to 40 KV during the multiturn injection can further cut the bunch leakage to a negligible degree. The same approach applied to the PSR shows that the longitudinal space charge effect does cause sizable bunch leakage at the intensity limit encountered there.

ZHANG,S.Y.; WENG,W.T.

1998-06-22

393

Surgical correction of a sacral meningomyelocele in a dog.  

PubMed

A 15 wk old male unilateral cryptorchid German shepherd dog weighing 18 kg was referred for a nonhealing cutaneous lesion dorsally at the level of the sacrum, urinary incontinence, and a deviated tail. MRI revealed spina bifida and meningomyelocele continuous with the skin surface. Surgical correction of the meningomyelocele involved closure of the open meningeal defect, transection of the abnormal spinal nerves to the skin surface, and closure of the skin defect with a good outcome. Histopathology confirmed a meningomyelocele. This case report describes the MRI findings, surgical procedure, and proposed pathogenesis of spina bifida and meningomyelocele in a dog. PMID:25251428

Song, Rachel B; Glass, Eric N; Kent, Marc; Sįnchez, Melissa D; Smith, Diana M; de Lahunta, Alexander

2014-01-01

394

Longitudinal control of intense charged particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the accelerator frontier shifts from high energy to high intensity, accelerator facilities are demanding beams with higher quality. Applications such as Free Electron Lasers and Inertial Fusion Energy production require the minimization of both transverse emittance and longitudinal energy spread throughout the accelerator. Fluctuations in beam energy or density at the low-energy side of the accelerator, where space-charge forces dominate, may lead to larger modulations downstream and the eventual degradation of the overall beam quality. Thus it is important to understand the phenomenon that causes these modulations in space-charge dominated beams and be able to control them. This dissertation presents an experimental study on the longitudinal control of a space-charge dominated beam in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER). UMER is a scaled model of a high-intensity beam system, which uses low-energy high-current electron beams to study the physics of space-charge. Using this facility, I have successfully applied longitudinal focusing to the beam edges, significantly lengthening the propagation distance of the beam to 1000 turns (>11.52 km). This is a factor of 10 greater than the original design conceived for the accelerator. At this injected current, the space-charge intensity is several times larger than the standard limit for storage rings, an encouraging result that raises the possibility of operating these machines with far more space-charge than previously assumed possible. I have also explored the transverse/longitudinal correlations that result when a beam is left to expand longitudinally under its own space-charge forces. In this situation, the beam ends develop a large correlated energy spread. Through indirect measurements, I have inferred the correlated energy profile along the bunch length. When the bunch is contained using longitudinal focusing, I have shown that errors in the applied focusing fields induce space-charge waves at the bunch edges that propagate into the middle region of the beam. In some cases, these waves sustain multiple reflections before damping away. I conclude that space-charge in an intense beam without longitudinal focusing can cause the bunch to develop a large correlated energy spread, increasing the risk that the beam is lost to the pipe walls as it requires a larger aperture. When longitudinal focusing is applied however, we are able to transport the beam over a much longer path length and reduce the correlated energy spread.

Beaudoin, Brian Louis

2011-12-01

395

Symmetric Diffeomorphic Modeling of Longitudinal Structural MRI  

PubMed Central

This technology report describes the longitudinal registration approach that we intend to incorporate into SPM12. It essentially describes a group-wise intra-subject modeling framework, which combines diffeomorphic and rigid-body registration, incorporating a correction for the intensity inhomogeneity artifact usually seen in MRI data. Emphasis is placed on achieving internal consistency and accounting for many of the mathematical subtleties that most implementations overlook. The implementation was evaluated using examples from the OASIS Longitudinal MRI Data in Non-demented and Demented Older Adults. PMID:23386806

Ashburner, John; Ridgway, Gerard R.

2013-01-01

396

Longitudinal neuroimaging biomarkers in Huntington's Disease.  

PubMed

Identifying markers able to characterise the progression of Huntington's Disease (HD) is of great importance to the HD research community, as such markers may provide valuable outcome measures in future clinical trials. Neuroimaging measures are obvious candidates because of their clear relevance to the neuropathology of the disease. Many also show improved precision and sensitivity compared with standard functional scales. This review summarizes findings from the wealth of longitudinal imaging studies in the literature, focusing on the most widely available imaging modalities: structural MRI (volumetric and diffusion imaging), functional MRI and PET. We discuss the longitudinal sensitivity, reproducibility and feasibility of each imaging modality for use in clinical trials. PMID:25063427

Rees, Elin M; Scahill, Rachael I; Hobbs, Nicola Z

2013-01-01

397

Boundary layers on longitudinally grooved walls (riblets)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary layer of riblets has been investigated in a hydrodynamic wind tunnel. For the case of triangularly grooved riblets, laser velocimetry visualizations show flow stabilization to occur for a turbulent boundary layer, and a decreased longitudinal velocity profile slope and a rapid relaxation downstream to occur for a laminar boundary layer. U-shaped grooves are found to have no effect. Visualizations of triangularly gooved riblets of several dimensions indicate that no counterrotating vortices exist in the grooves. This result is confirmed by profiles of the longitudinal velocity component, which show an increase in the velocity gradient near the crest and a significant decrease in the groove.

Fulachier, L.; Djenidi, L.; Anselmet, F.

1987-10-01

398

Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.…

Matthews, Lynley

2010-01-01

399

Sales forecasting using longitudinal data models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to forecast using a class of linear mixed longitudinal, or panel, data models. Forecasts are derived as special cases of best linear unbiased predictors, also known as BLUPs, and hence are optimal predictors of future realizations of the response. We show that the BLUP forecast arises from three components: (1) a predictor based on the conditional

Edward W. Frees; Thomas W. Miller

2004-01-01

400

Attrition in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the relation between attrition and characteristics of the study protocol, specifically contact frequency, and respondent burden. The study is based on data from a longitudinal study with side studies on various topics, so that respondents have differential exposure to these study characteristics. Attrition outcomes are refusal and ineligibility through frailty. The effect of side study contact frequency

Dorly J. H. Deeg; Theo van Tilburg; Johannes H. Smit; Edith D. de Leeuw

2002-01-01

401

Longitudinal wave propagation in piezoelectric coupled rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of longitudinal wave propagation in piezoelectric coupled rod structures. The deduction of non-dispersive or dispersive characteristics of the structures is based on a classical rod model and the Mindlin-Herrmann rod model. In the classical model, correction factors for piezoelectric effects are introduced to provide remedy for the discontinuity of the normal stress at the interface

Q. Wang; V. K. Varadan

2002-01-01

402

Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

2008-01-01

403

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This effectiveness study examined the course of treatment longitudinally and outcomes associated with psychodynamic psychotherapy for a sample of 1,050 people undertaking this treatment in a community setting, over the course of 4 years, at 3-month intervals, using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ)-45.2. The authors used multilevel modeling to look…

Roseborough, David J.; McLeod, Jeffrey T.; Bradshaw, William H.

2012-01-01

404

Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

Morrow, Paula C.

2011-01-01

405

Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

2012-01-01

406

Nonlinear Longitudinal Combustion Instability in Rocket Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical technique for the solution of nonlinear longitudinal combustion instability problems in rocket combustors is developed. Using relatively little computation time, this technique is capable of predicting the transient and limit cycle behavior of the combustion instability oscillations as well as the disturbance amplitude required to trigger an instability in a linearly stable motor. The limit cycle waveforms

MANUEL E. LORES; BEN T. ZINN

1973-01-01

407

Determination of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Net  

E-print Network

Determination of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Net Advection in the Tidal Hudson River dispersion coefficient to be 70.1 ( 4.3 m2 s-1. Temporal evolution of the SF6 inventory indicates an average climatically forced variables (e.g., changes in freshwater runoff) as well as spills of contaminants related

Ho, David

408

Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging in Huntington's Disease.  

PubMed

Serial diffusion tensor imaging scans were collected at baseline and 1 year follow-up to investigate the neurodegenerative profile of white matter (WM) in seven individuals with the Huntington's Disease (HD) gene mutation and seven control subjects matched on age and gender. In the HD subjects, but not controls, a significant reduction of fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM integrity, between baseline and followup was evident throughout the brain. In addition, a DTI scalar associated with the stability of axons, axial diffusivity, showed significant longitudinal decreases from year 1 to year 2 in HD subjects, declines that overlapped to greater degree with FA discrepancies than longitudinal increases in radial diffusivity, a DTI variable sensitive to demylinization. These preliminary results provide the first longitudinal DTI evidence of WM degeneration in HD and support the notion that FA abnormalities in HD may be a result of axonal injury or withdrawal. These results suggest that longitudinal FA changes may serve as a neuropathological biomarker in HD. PMID:19320010

Weaver, Kurt E; Richards, Todd L; Liang, Olivia; Laurino, Mercy Y; Samii, Ali; Aylward, Elizabeth H

2009-04-01

409

An Early Intervention Project: A Longitudinal Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the longitudinal research conducted in an early intervention program since 1966. The program is characterized by the use of paraprofessionals serving as home visitors and parent educators. Data collection has included measures of children's behavior and development, parent-child interactions, and parent variables such as…

Gordon, Ira J.

410

Theory of Longitudinal Photons in Quantum Electrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation field is quantized by introducing four types of photons - two transverse, one longitudinal, and one scalar. The scalar photons are treated by using an indefinite metric, and it is found necessary to modify the usual supplementary condition slightly. The present theory offers a justification for the symmetrical treatment of the four components of the electromagnetic potential, recently

Suraj N Gupta

1950-01-01

411

Longitudinal light clock vs special relativity  

E-print Network

In order to respect the Principle of Relativity, the analysis of the behavior of the longitudinal light clock reveals the necessity to extend the Doppler effect also to space and time. As a consequence, the bodies in inertial motion must dilate along the direction of their movement.

Giovanni Zanella

2012-12-10

412

Longitudinal emittance measurements at REX-ISOLDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measurements of the longitudinal emittance at the Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) at ISOLDE, CERN. The rms longitudinal emittance was measured as 0.34±0.08 ? ns keV/u at the output of the RFQ and as 0.36±0.04 ? ns keV/ u in front of the third 7-gap split-ring resonator (7G3) using the three-gradient technique; systematic errors are not included but are estimated at approximately 10%. The 86% emittance was measured a factor of approximately 4.4 times larger than the rms emittance at 1.48±0.2 and 1.55±0.12 ? ns keV/ u at the RFQ and 7G3, respectively. The REX switchyard magnet was used as a spectrometer to analyse the energy spread of the beam as it was manipulated by varying the voltage of the rebuncher (ReB) and 7G3 cavities operating at non-accelerating phases. The transfer matrix for a multi-gap bunching cavity is derived and suitably truncated to allow for the accurate reconstruction of the beam parameters from measurement. The technique for measuring the energy spread was rigorously simulated and validated. A silicon detector, in its development phase, was also exploited to measure the longitudinal beam properties. The measured longitudinal emittance is compatible with the acceptance of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting linac upgrade.

Fraser, M. A.; Zocca, F.; Jones, R. M.; Pasini, M.; Posocco, P. A.; Voulot, D.; Wenander, F.

2012-01-01

413

Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper proposes an extension of generalized linear models to the analysis of longitudinal data. We introduce a class of estimating equations that give consistent estimates of the regression parameters and of their variance under mild assumptions about the time dependence. The estimating equations are derived without specifying the joint distribution of a subject's observations yet they reduce to

KUNG-YEE LIANG; SCOTT L. ZEGER

1986-01-01

414

Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

Demchik, Michael J.

1999-01-01

415

LINEAR MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LONGITUDINAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Longitudinal investigations play an increasingly prominent role in epidemiologic research. espite the importance of the longitudinal study, satisfactory methods for the analysis of serial measurements are not readily available. ongitudinal studies typically have unbalanced design...

416

EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

417

STAR results on longitudinal spin dynamics  

E-print Network

We present preliminary results on the double longitudinal spin asymmetries A_LL in inclusive jet production and the longitudinal spin transfer asymmetries D_LL in inclusive Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon production. The data amount to about 0.5 pb-1 collected at RHIC in 2003 and 2004 with beam polarizations up to 45 %. The jet A_LL asymmetries, measured over 5 < pT < 17 GeV/c, are consistent with evaluations based on deep-inelastic scattering parametrizations for the gluon polarization in the nucleon, and disfavor large positive values of gluon polarization in the nucleon. The Lambda and anti-Lambda D_LL, measured at midrapidity and at low average transverse momentum of 1.5 GeV/c, are consistent with zero within their dominant statistical uncertainties.

Joanna Kiryluk; for the STAR Collaboration

2006-08-08

418

Longitudinal Structure Function Measurements from HERA  

E-print Network

Measurements of the longitudinal structure function FL at the ep collider HERA are presented. They are derived from inclusive deep inelastic neutral current e+p scattering cross section measurements based on data collected in 2007 with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at a positron beam energy of 27.5 GeV and proton beam energies of 920, 575 and 460 GeV. Employing the energy dependence of the cross sections, FL(x,Q2) is measured in the range of negative four-momentum transfer squared from 12 to 800 GeV2 and low Bjorken-x from 0.00028 to 0.0353. The measured longitudinal structure function is compared with higher order QCD predictions.

Vladimir Chekelian

2008-10-28

419

Longitudinal variations of the equatorial electojet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have utilized a three dimensional electrostatic potential model to explain the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet. The model runs were constrained by net H component magnetic field measurements from three equatorial stations, namely, Huancayo (Peru) 12.05 S, 284.67 E; Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) 9.8 N, 38.8 E; Tirunelveli (India) 8.42 N, 77.48 E. The model runs were done in an iterative fashion until the computed and measured H component magnetic field values come into a close agreement. The physical mechanisms for the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet were inferred by comparing and contrasting the resulting computed vertical polarization electric field (which drives the equatorial electrojet), and zonal current density profiles for the three stations mentioned above.

Shume, Esayas

420

Longitudinal Study of Immigrants to Australia Project.  

PubMed

The authors report on the Prototype Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (PLSIA), which was begun in 1991. "Topics covered...include demographic and geographic characteristics, plus employment, education and housing, both in Australia and prior to migration. Other sections cover immigrants' experiences of government programs and services, health, welfare, income and internal migration. A special feature is the attention given to immigrants' expectations of life in Australia." PMID:12289767

Lukomskyj, O; Struik, A; Khoo, S

1993-01-01

421

Longitudinal dynamics of an intense electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of charged particle beams are governed by the particles' thermal velocities, external focusing forces, and Coulomb forces. Beams in which Coulomb forces play the dominant role are known as space charge dominated, or intense. Intense beams are of great interest for heavy ion fusion, spallation neutron sources, free-electron lasers, and other applications. In addition, all beams of interest are dominated by space charge forces when they are first created, so an understanding of space charge effects is critical to explain the later evolution of any beam. Historically, more attention has been paid to the transverse dynamics of beams. However, many interesting and important effects in beams occur along their length. These longitudinal effects can be limiting factors in many systems. For example, modulation or structure applied to the beam at low energy will evolve under space charge forces. Depending on the intended use of the beam and the nature of the modulation, this may result in improved or degraded performance. To study longitudinal dynamics in intense beams, experiments were conducted using the University of Maryland Electron Ring, a 10 keV, 100 mA electron transport system. These experiments concentrated on space charge driven changes in beam length in parabolic and rectangular beams, beam density and velocity modulation, and space charge wave propagation. Coupling between the transverse and longitudinal dynamics was also investigated. These experiments involved operating the UMER gun in space charge limited, temperature limited, triode amplification, photon limited, and hybrid modes. Results of these experiments are presented here, along with a theoretical framework for understanding the longitudinal dynamics of intense beams.

Harris, John Richardson

2005-11-01

422

Nonlinear longitudinal control of a supermaneuverable aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described which can be used for design of feedback controllers for high-performance aircraft operating in flight conditions in which nonlinearities significantly affect performance. Designs are performed on a mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a hypothetical aircraft similar to proposed supermaneuverable flight test vehicles. Nonlinear controller designs are performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Preliminary results show that the method yields promising results.

Garrard, William L.; Snell, Anthony; Enns, Dale F.

1989-01-01

423

Longitudinal plasma oscillations in an electric field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of longitudinal plasma oscillations in an external electric field are investigated. In a completely linear approximation, it is found that the direct-current electric field introduces essentially no new effects. A quasi-linear approximation is also considered, in which couplings between different plasma modes are neglected while the space-averaged distribution functions are assumed to be approximately independent of time. In

B. D. Fried; M. Gell-mann; J. D. Jackson; H. W. Wyld

1960-01-01

424

EAS Longitudinal Development and the Knee  

E-print Network

It is shown that Extensive Air Shower (EAS) longitudinal development has a critical point where an equilibrium between the main hadronic component and the secondary electromagnetic one exhibits a brake. This results in a change of slope in quasi-power law function $N_{e}(Eo)$. The latter leads to a knee in the EAS size spectrum at primary energy of about 100 TeV/nucleon. Many ``strange'' experimental results can be successfully explained in the frames of current approach.

Yuri V. Stenkin

2007-07-15

425

A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction and Profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, significant attention has been focused on customer satisfaction. However, few studies link satisfaction with performance, and even fewer studies examine this link through the use of time-series data. In this study, a longitudinal analysis of satisfaction and performance for a national chain of fast-food restaurants is conducted. A total of 342,308 consumer responses, 3,009 employee responses, and 12 months

Kenneth L. Bernhardt; Naveen Donthu; Pamela A. Kennett

2000-01-01

426

Random-effects models for longitudinal data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for the analysis of longitudinal data must recognize the relationship between serial observations on the same unit. Multivariate models with general covariance structure are often difficult to apply to highly unbalanced data, whereas two-stage random-effects models can be used easily. In two-stage models, the probability distributions for the response vectors of different individuals belong to a single family, but

N. M. Laird; J. H. Ware

1982-01-01

427

Energy weighted sums of longitudinal response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy weighted sums WL( k) of longitudinal response of three- and four-body nuclei and nuclear matter are calculated with realistic nuclear forces and variational wave functions. Results with Faddeev wave functions are also reported for three-body nuclei. The isospin exchange interactions give large contributions to WL( k) and enhance it by 10-80% in the region of interest. We analyze the longitudinal scattering data on 3He, 12C, 40Ca, 48Ca and 56Fe. The WL( k) of 12C, 40Ca, 48Ca and 56Fe are estimated from that of nuclear matter by taking into account its dependence on neutron excess ( N- Z)/ A. The experimental data provide SL( k, ?) at ? < Emax, and in the best cases, 3He ( 12C) at k = 350 MeV/ c, it gives only 86% (68%) of the predicted sum. The response at ? > Emax is assumed to be given by an exponential or square tail that joins the data at ? < Emax, and gives the remainder of WL( k). The contribution of the tail to the longitudinal structure function SL( k) is not too sensitive to its assumed (exponential or square) shape, and greatly improves the agreement between experiment and theory of SL( k).

Schiavilla, R.; Fabrocini, A.; Pandharipande, V. R.

1987-10-01

428

A Longitudinal Density Monitor for the LHC  

E-print Network

At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator, ion bunches circulate in two counter-rotating beams and are brought into collision. Each bunch is confined within a bucket by the longitudinal focusing effect of the radio frequency (RF) cavities. The RF period is 2.5 ns, while the minimum bunch spacing is 25 ns. Thus, 9 out of every 10 buckets should be empty, as well as additional gaps to allow for the rise-time of injection and dump kickers. In practice, however, small numbers of particles can occupy these supposedly empty buckets, causing problems for machine protection and for the absolute calibration of the LHC’s luminosity. The Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) is a new monitor, designed to measure the longitudinal distribution of particles in the LHC with a sufficiently high dynamic range to quantify the relative particle population in the supposedly empty buckets. A non-interceptive measurement is made possible by the use of synchrotron radiation (SR...

Jeff, Adam; Boccardi, Andrea

429

Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse  

SciTech Connect

Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.

Jian-Ping Chen

2011-02-01

430

Preprocessing Magnetic Fields with Chromospheric Longitudinal Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.

2012-06-01

431

Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves.  

PubMed

Understanding individual attitudes and how these predict overt opposition to predator conservation or direct, covert action against predators will help to recover and maintain them. Studies of attitudes toward wild animals rely primarily on samples of individuals at a single time point. We examined longitudinal change in individuals' attitudes toward gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the contiguous United States, amidst persistent controversy and opposition, abundances of gray wolves are at their highest in 60 years. We used mailed surveys to sample 1892 residents of Wisconsin in 2001 or 2004 and then resampled 656 of these individuals who resided in wolf range in 2009. Our study spanned a period of policy shifts and increasing wolf abundance. Over time, the 656 respondents increased agreement with statements reflecting fear of wolves, the belief that wolves compete with hunters for deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and inclination to poach a wolf. Endorsement of lethal control of wolves by the state and public hunting of wolves also increased. Neither the time span over which respondents reported exposure to wolves locally nor self-reported losses of domestic animals to wolves correlated with changes in attitude. We predict future increases in legal and illegal killing of wolves that may reduce their abundance in Wisconsin unless interventions are implemented to improve attitudes and behavior toward wolves. To assess whether interventions change attitudes, longitudinal studies like ours are needed. Anįlisis Longitudinal de las Actitudes Hacia Lobos. PMID:23293913

Treves, Adrian; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Shelley, Victoria

2013-04-01

432

Longitudinal evolution of Suez rift structure, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional study of the structure of the Suez Rift has been carried out using field and subsurface data in an attempt to determine the role of transverse faults and the longitudinal evolution of the rift. As in most intracontinental rifts, the structure of the Gulf of Suez area is governed by normal faults and tilted blocks, whose crests constitute the main target of exploratory wells. The fault pattern consists of two major sets of trends: (1) longitudinal faults parallel with the rift axis and created in an extensional regime, trending east-northeast-west-southwest, and (2) transverse faults with north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest dominant trend. The transverse faults are inherited passive discontinuities, whereas most of the longitudinal faults were created during the Neogene in a purely extensional regime. Both sets were simultaneously active, producing a zigzag pattern and rhombic-shaped blocks. The transverse faults can show horizontal strike-slip components and act as relays between major normal faults.

Colletta, B.; Le Quellec, P.; Letouzey, J.; Moretti, I.

1988-01-01

433

PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.

Yamamoto, Tetsuya T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, K., E-mail: tyamamot@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

2012-06-20

434

Cohort Profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS)  

PubMed Central

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

2014-01-01

435

Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches  

SciTech Connect

Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

Loos, H.; /SLAC; ,

2010-06-11

436

Alternative description of particle shower longitudinal profile  

E-print Network

Alternative parameterization of particle shower longitudinal profile is presented. The accuracy of obtained shower profile description is about 2-3% for the 0-1500 g/cm^2 atmosphere slant depths and primary H, He,... Fe nuclei in 1 PeV-10 EeV energy range. It is shown that the shape of shower profile depends only on the nucleon energy, whereas the maximum shower size also depends on the energy of parental nucleus. Results are based on the CORSIKA simulated shower profiles and are presented in comparison with Gaisser-Hillas parameterization.

Ter-Antonyan, Samvel

2015-01-01

437

Parametric survey of longitudinal prominence oscillation simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Longitudinal filament oscillations recently attracted increasing attention, while the restoring force and the damping mechanisms are still elusive. Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for coherent longitudinal oscillations of the entire filament body, including their triggering mechanism, dominant restoring force, and damping mechanisms. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we carried out radiative hydrodynamic numerical simulations of the longitudinal prominence oscillations. We modeled two types of perturbations of the prominence, impulsive heating at one leg of the loop and an impulsive momentum deposition, which cause the prominence to oscillate. We studied the resulting oscillations for a large parameter scan, including the chromospheric heating duration, initial velocity of the prominence, and field line geometry. Results: We found that both microflare-sized impulsive heating at one leg of the loop and a suddenly imposed velocity perturbation can propel the prominence to oscillate along the magnetic dip. Our extensive parameter survey resulted in a scaling law that shows that the period of the oscillation, which weakly depends on the length and height of the prominence and on the amplitude of the perturbations, scales with ?R/g?, where R represents the curvature radius of the dip, and g? is the gravitational acceleration of the Sun. This is consistent with the linear theory of a pendulum, which implies that the field-aligned component of gravity is the main restoring force for the prominence longitudinal oscillations, as confirmed by the force analysis. However, the gas pressure gradient becomes significant for short prominences. The oscillation damps with time in the presence of non-adiabatic processes. Radiative cooling is the dominant factor leading to damping. A scaling law for the damping timescale is derived, i.e., ?~ l1.63 D0.66w-1.21v0-0.30, showing strong dependence on the prominence length l, the geometry of the magnetic dip (characterized by the depth D and the width w), and the velocity perturbation amplitude v0. The larger the amplitude, the faster the oscillation damps. We also found that mass drainage significantly reduces the damping timescale when the perturbation is too strong.

Zhang, Q. M.; Chen, P. F.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Ji, H. S.

2013-06-01

438

Electroproduction of longitudinally polarized vector mesons  

E-print Network

It is reported on an analysis of electroproduction of light vector mesons at small Bjorken-x within the handbag approach. The partonic subprocesses, meson electroproduction off quarks or gluons, are calculated within the modified perturbative approach in which quark transverse momenta are retained. The soft hadronic matrix elements, generalized parton distributions, are constructed from the CTEQ6 parton distribution functions by means of double distributions. The cross sections for longitudinal polarized virtual photons evaluated from this approach, are in very good agreement with experiment in a wide range of kinematics. Talk presented at the DIS2007 conference, Munich (2007)

P. Kroll

2007-06-18

439

Resonant longitudinal Zitterbewegung in zigzag graphene nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zitterbewegung of a wave packet in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated. The coupling between edge states and bulk states results in intriguing properties. Apart from the oscillation in position perpendicular to the direction of motion, we also observe an oscillation along the direction of propagation which is not present in semiconductor nanowires or infinite graphene sheets. We also observe a resonance of its amplitude with respect to the central momentum of the wave packet. We show here that this longitudinal Zitterbewegung is caused by the interplay between bulk and edge states, which is a unique property of a zigzag nanoribbon.

Ghosh, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Manchon, A.

2015-01-01

440

Geophysics. Longitudinal variation in springtime ozone trends.  

PubMed

Satellite measurements indicate that mid-latitude ozone depletion in the Northern Hemisphere spring during 1979-97 was worst over Europe and Russia. Here we show that these longitudinal differences in ozone trends are due to a combination of decadal variations in the circulation and transport of ozone-depleted air from the polar vortex. Any increase in ozone depletion in the polar vortex as a result of future cooling of the stratosphere would therefore be particularly bad over Europe and Russia. PMID:11607021

Knudsen, B M; Andersen, S B

2001-10-18

441

Best Practices in Nutrition for Children With Myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children born with myelomeningocele (MMC), the most severe form of spina bifida, face multiple challenges throughout their life span. Neurogenic bowel, neurogenic bladder, Arnold-Chiari II malformation, and hydrocephalus are common complications that have implications for elimination, feeding, and learning. Nutrition education and intervention that use the concepts of family-centered care beginning in infancy and continuing throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

Wendy Wittenbrook

2010-01-01

442

Review of the efficacy and safety of transanal irrigation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a common occurrence after spinal cord injury (SCI) and in patients with spina bifida or multiple sclerosis. The impact of NBD on well-being is considerable, affecting both physical and psychological aspects of quality of life. Transanal irrigation (TAI) of the colon promotes the evacuation of faeces by introducing water into the colon and rectum

A Emmanuel

2010-01-01

443

Initial use of LESS for the ACE Malone procedure in children.  

PubMed

The Malone antegrade continence enema is effective in improving fecal continence in neurogenic bowel. We were able to perform this procedure laparoscopically via a single incision in a patient with spina bifida and fecal incontinence who did not require bladder reconstruction. PMID:22465086

Chiang, George; Fairbanks, Timothy

2012-09-01

444

Home Care for Children with Chronic Illnesses and Severe Disabilities: A Bibliography and Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography and resource guide summarizes relevant research and information on home care for children with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including those with such diagnoses as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, autism, or failure-to-thrive…

Wells, Alice; And Others

445

A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake's Pouch Cyst  

PubMed Central

The intracranial translucency (IT) is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB). In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake's pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening. PMID:24523974

Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Ibba, Rosa Maria; Monni, Giovanni

2014-01-01

446

Chronic Lung Disease Cerebral Palsy  

E-print Network

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Chronic Lung Disease Diabetes Cerebral Palsy Sickle Cell Disease Hem ophilia Solid organ transplant Inflam m atory Bowel Disease Epilepsy Cystic Fibrosis Com plex Congential HeartDisease Acute Lym phoblastic Leukem ia Spina Bifida Medianencountersperyear Outpatient

Kay, Mark A.

447

Roughing It Smoothly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mother of a 17-year-old son with spina bifida recounts the family's experiences camping in the Adirondack Mountains. Her son has enjoyed swimming, modified waterskiing, riding to the top of a mountain during the summer on a ski chair lift, and blueberry picking from a toboggan rather than his wheelchair. (VW)

Turner, Donna

1988-01-01

448

Multiple point action mechanism of valproic acid-teratogenicity alleviated by folic acid, vitamin C, And N-acetylcysteine in chicken embryo model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teratogenicity of antiepilepsy drug valproic acid (VPA) mostly is found in genetic and somatic levels, causing teratogenesis involving neurotubular defects (NTDs), anencephaly, lumbosacral meningomyelocele, and leg dysfunction due to spina bifida aperta. A diversity of nutraceutics have been tried to alleviate the risk of VPA-teratogenicity. The effect was varying. In order to promote the preventive prescription, to find out

Chiu-Lan Hsieh; Hui-Er Wang; Wan-Jane Tsai; Chiung-Chi Peng; Robert Y. Peng

449

Reading Fluency Instruction with Students Who Have Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although fluency instruction is an essential part of teaching reading, there is limited information on providing this type of instruction with students who have physical disabilities. This article examines three case studies across two students, one with cerebral palsy and the other with both arthrogryposis and spina bifida. In the first study,…

Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Rupert, Jenny Hayes; Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Mezei, Peter J.; Calhoon, Mary Beth

2007-01-01

450

Folic acid fortification and cancer risk: plea for objective evaluation of the evidence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The letter from Bayston and colleagues,1 representing the Association for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus, dismisses concerns raised by two recent studies2, 3 of a possible increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk following a high intake of folic acid. In relation to the postulated link between forti...

451

Neural Tube Defects: Review of Experimental Evidence on Stem Cell Therapy and Newer Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of closure of the neural tube during development leads to malformations called neural tube defects (NTDs). The most common neural malformations in humans include anencephaly, encephalocele, exencephaly, craniorachischisis spina bifida with or without myelomeningocele, lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele and myelocystocele. Current preventive strategies are mainly based on pharmacologic\\/folic acid supplementation. However, stem cell-based and other combination approaches may emerge

Dhara B. Dhaulakhandi; Seema Rohilla; Kamal Nain Rattan

2010-01-01

452

Reactions to Prenatal Testing: Reflection of Religiosity and Attitudes toward Abortion and People with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study asked 166 undergraduates what they would do if through prenatal testing they discovered that they (or their partner) were carrying a fetus with disabilities. Respondents were more uncertain about whether to continue the pregnancy when the fetus was diagnosed with Down syndrome than with spina bifida or hemophilia. (Contains references.)…

Bell, Martie; Stoneman, Zolinda

2000-01-01

453

Instructions for use POPPersistent Organic Pollutants)  

E-print Network

Occurrence in10,000Births Down's Syndrome Cystic Kidney Hypospadias 0 5 10 15 1974-79 1980-84 1985-89 1990-94 1995-99 2000-04 FrequencyofOccurrence in10,000Births Down's Syndrome Hydrocephaly Spina Bifida Abnormalities, such as Hypospadias and Down's Syndrome Birth defect cases have doubled over a 25-year period

Tsunogai, Urumu

454

Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

Del Bigio, Marc R.

2010-01-01

455

Local Protease Signaling Contributes to Neural Tube Closure in the Mouse Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We report an unexpected role for protease signaling inneural tube closureand the formation of thecentral nervous system. Mouse embryos lacking protease- activated receptors 1 and 2 showed defective hind- brain and posterior neuropore closure and devel- oped exencephaly and spina bifida, important human congenital anomalies. Par1 and Par2 were expressed in surface ectoderm, and Par2 was ex- pressed selectively

Eric Camerer; Adrian Barker; Daniel N. Duong; Rajkumar Ganesan; Hiroshi Kataoka; Ivo Cornelissen; Molly R. Darragh; Arif Hussain; Yao-Wu Zheng; Yoga Srinivasan; Christopher Brown; Shan-Mei Xu; Jean B. Regard; Chen-Yong Lin; Charles S. Craik; Daniel Kirchhofer; Shaun R. Coughlin

2010-01-01

456

A rare case of thoracic myelocystocele associated with type 1 split cord malformation with low lying tethered cord, dorsal syrinx and sacral agenesis: Pentad finding  

PubMed Central

Myelocystocele is a rare form of spinal dysraphism. Thoracic myelocystocele is still rarer. The occurrence of thoracic myelocystocele associated with type-1 split cord malformation, low lying tethered cord, dorsal syrinx and spina bifida is extremely rare. Clinical presentation of such a rare case and an early surgical management is discussed briefly. PMID:25552859

Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2015-01-01

457

Clinical Applications of Intraspinal Microstimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspinal microstimulation is a neuroprosthetic approach for activating specific spinal reflexes using penetrating electrodes chronically implanted into spinal cord. Artificial control of spinally mediated functions, such as arm and leg movement or bladder voiding, may be necessary in spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spina bifida, when the brain becomes disconnected from spinal cord and

Victor Pikov

2008-01-01

458

varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure  

E-print Network

diabetes insomnia e cancer stroke embolism smoking obesity swine flu high blood pres parkinson's stress insomnia e cancer stroke embolism smoking obesity swine flu high blood pres parkinson's stress depression m stiffness heart attack paralysis lo blood pressure asthma bowel can spina bifida diabetes insomnia e cancer

Diggle, Peter J.

459

Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

2009-01-01

460

Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California  

PubMed Central

We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and ?-(para-nonylphenyl)-?-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

2014-01-01

461

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...medical need. In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will only be given...demonstrated medical need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision of...

2014-07-01

462

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...medical need. In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will only be given...demonstrated medical need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision of...

2013-07-01

463

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...medical need. In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will only be given...demonstrated medical need related to the covered birth defects. Requests for provision of...

2012-07-01

464

38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance...that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom...finds the child no longer has a covered birth defect. The effective date of...

2013-07-01

465

38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance...that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom...finds the child no longer has a covered birth defect. The effective date of...

2012-07-01

466

38 CFR 21.8282 - Termination of a vocational training program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance...that the child no longer has a covered birth defect. An eligible child for whom...finds the child no longer has a covered birth defect. The effective date of...

2014-07-01

467

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900 Definitions. ...this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual ...815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect means the same as defined...

2011-07-01

468

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900 Definitions. ...this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual ...815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect means the same as defined...

2010-07-01

469

38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8010 Definitions...the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at...2) of this title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect...

2013-07-01

470

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For purposes of §§ 17.900 through 17.905, if a...

2013-07-01

471

38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8010 Definitions...the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at...2) of this title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect...

2014-07-01

472

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900 Definitions. ...this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual ...815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect means the same as defined...

2013-07-01

473

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For purposes of §§ 17.900 through 17.905, if a...

2012-07-01

474

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For purposes of §§ 17.900 through 17.905, if a...

2011-07-01

475

38 CFR 17.904 - Review and appeal process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Health Care Benefits for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.904 Review and appeal process. For purposes of §§ 17.900 through 17.905, if a...

2014-07-01

476

38 CFR 17.902 - Preauthorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.902 Preauthorization...medical need. In cases of other covered birth defects, authorization will only be given...demonstrated medical need related to the covered birth defects.Requests for provision of...

2011-07-01

477

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900 Definitions. ...this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual ...815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect means the same as defined...

2012-07-01

478

38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects General § 21.8010 Definitions...the purposes of this subpart: Covered birth defect means the same as defined at...2) of this title who has a covered birth defect other than a birth defect...

2012-07-01

479

38 CFR 17.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects § 17.900 Definitions. ...this title and for purposes of covered birth defects means the same as individual ...815(c)(2) of this title. Covered birth defect means the same as defined...

2014-07-01

480

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects...veteran or veteran with covered service in Korea's child who has been determined under...Administration Center is 3773 Cherry Creek Drive North, Denver, CO 80246; and (4)...

2011-07-01

481

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects...veteran or veteran with covered service in Korea's child who has been determined under...Administration Center is 3773 Cherry Creek Drive North, Denver, CO 80246; and (4)...

2013-07-01

482

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects...veteran or veteran with covered service in Korea's child who has been determined under...Administration Center is 3773 Cherry Creek Drive North, Denver, CO 80246; and (4)...

2012-07-01

483

38 CFR 17.901 - Provision of health care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects...veteran or veteran with covered service in Korea's child who has been determined under...Administration Center is 3773 Cherry Creek Drive North, Denver, CO 80246; and (4)...

2014-07-01

484

Nathan Watt: A True American Idol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story…

Watt, Diana

2006-01-01

485

Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, or inborn errors of metabolism frequently have associated gastrointestinal problems. These include oral motor dysfunction leading to feeding difficulties, risk of aspiration, prolonged feeding times, and malnutrition with its attendant physical compromise.…

Sullivan, Peter B.

2008-01-01

486

Factors Associated with Self-Worth in Young People with Physical Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having a positive sense of self is associated with success for children and adults, with and without disabilities. This article reports on a cross-sectional study examining the correlates of global self-worth for 85 young people (ages eight to 23) with spina bifida (a condition present at birth) or spinal cord injury (an acquired condition).…

Antle, Beverley J.

2004-01-01

487

Spirituality, Loss and Recovery in Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on loss, recovery and spiritual dimensions of trauma in spinal cord injury (SCI) during adolescence. From a clinical perspective, while there are physical characteristics in common with congenital childhood disabilities such as spina bifida, life adjustment issues associated with acquired disabilities can be quite different,…

Erickson, David V.

2008-01-01

488

Neural tube defects in Mexican-Americans living on the US-Mexico border: The effects of folic acid and dietary folate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are malformations of the developing brain and spinal cord; the most common are anencephaly and spina bifida. Evidence from many populations suggests that 50% of NTDs can be prevented through daily consumption of folic acid. A recent study has reported that folic acid may not protect populations of Mexican descent. This finding has serious implications for

Lucina Suarez; Katherine A. Hendricks; Sharon P. Cooper; Anne M. Sweeney; Robert J. Hardy; Russell D. Larsen

1998-01-01

489

Incontinent Children Discover Hope at Camp Oakhurst.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes summer-camp experiences of young people who are incontinent because of spina bifida. Focuses on residential camp program as encouragement for youth to learn independent incontinence management. Describes self-catheterization program and process as minor inconvenience and positive alternative to soiled clothing and accompanying…

Raps, Marvin A.

1991-01-01

490

Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

2008-01-01

491

Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risk of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.  

PubMed

We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997-2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and ?-(para-nonylphenyl)-?-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Padula, Amy M; English, Paul B; Shaw, Gary M

2014-03-15

492

Ethical Problems of Screening for Neural Tube Defects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the ethical problems in screening for severe spina bifida in a fetus are deciding who should be screened; whether the procedure, which has medical risks, is justified; and how to deal with the only known solution--abortion. Journal availability: see EC 114 865. (PHR)

Habgood, J. S.

1978-01-01

493

Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

Arc, Arlington, TX.

494

Intra-uterine tissue engineering of full-thickness skin defects in a fetal sheep model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spina bifida the neural tube fails to close during the embryonic period and it is thought that prolonged exposure of the unprotected spinal cord to the amniotic fluid during pregnancy causes additional neural damage. Intra-uterine repair might protect the neural tissue from exposure to amniotic fluid and might reduce additional neural damage. Biodegradable collagen scaffolds may be useful in

Nynke A. Hosper; Alex J. Eggink; Luc A. J. Roelofs; Rene M. H. Wijnen; Marja J. A. van Luyn; Ruud A. Bank; Martin C. Harmsen; Paul J. Geutjes; Willeke F. Daamen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; Dorien M. Tiemessen; Egbert Oosterwijk; Jane J. Crevels; Willeke A. M. Blokx; Fred K. Lotgering; Paul P. van den Berg; Wout F. J. Feitz

2010-01-01

495

Congruence between Mother and Handicapped Child's View of the Child's Sense of Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only diagnosis of handicap was significantly related to the tendency for children to be either less or more positive in response to the items than their mothers, with cerebral palsy children more positive and spina bifida children consistently less positive in direction. (Author)

Harvey, David; Greenway, Philip

1982-01-01

496

Swimming for the Handicapped Child and Adult: Occasional Papers No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlined are physiological and psychological values of swimming for the handicapped, basic principles and teaching procedures for instructing physically handicapped persons, and specific suggestions for teaching swimming to persons with the following conditions; amputations, polio, paraplegia, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, Legg-Perthes Disease,…

Neishloss, Lou

497

Utilizing Alternative Assessment Techniques with Physically Impaired Students To Increase Work Completion and Improve Work Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a practicum project that involved teaching 14 students (ages 8 through 13) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and muscular dystrophy) to plan, organize, and complete projects and assignments independently. The paper explains the low expectations for the students and the students' lack of experience in…

Thomas, Traci L.

498

National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

Exceptional Parent, 1980

1980-01-01

499

Publications by Gene Therapy Center Members January 2012 -December 2012  

E-print Network

, Welsh MJ, McCray PB, Jr. and Uc A. Pancreatic damage in fetal and newborn cystic fibrosis pigs involvesPublications by Gene Therapy Center Members January 2012 - December 2012 Center Members are in BOLD polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene. Hum Mol Genet. 2012. 9. Bazazzadegan N

500

Longitudinal electric-field variations in the daytime equatorial ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal variations of vertical drift velocity and electric field above the magnetic equator are determined on the basis of Intercosmos-19 data on longitudinal f0F2 variations for near-midnight hours during the winter and summer high-activity periods. The longitudinal electric-field variations are explained by a mechanism involving the heating of the atmosphere and the conservation of the magnitude of the total current of the equatorial electrojet. The results obtained agree well with POGO satellite data.

Deminov, M. G.; Kochenova, N. A.; Sitnov, Iu. S.

1988-02-01