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1

Exercise induces metallothioneins in mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Regular exercise has displayed a beneficial effect on the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the mechanism is poorly understood. We here present that regular exercise on a treadmill induces metallothioneins (MTs: MT-1, MT-2, and MT-3) in spinal cords of mice. As MTs are strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species and have some neurotrophic activities, exercise may have some beneficial effects on spinal motor neurons in patients with ALS owing to the induction of MTs. The running exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day increased the mRNA expression levels of MT-1, MT-2, and MT-3 up to 193%, 298%, and 196%, respectively, of the control value 12 h after the start of exercise. After two weeks of daily exercise, Western blotting of the MTs proteins showed that the expression levels of MT-1/2 and MT-3 reached 173% and 146%, respectively, compared with those in sedentary mice. Running exercise on a treadmill for 2 weeks led to the gradual accumulation of MT proteins in the spinal cords of the mice. In addition, MT-1/2 and MT-3 immunoreactivities were enhanced in astrocytes particularly in the gray matter of the spinal cord. We revealed that regular exercise induced transient increases in the expression levels of MT mRNAs and resulted in accumulation of MT proteins in the spinal cords of the normal mice. PMID:19490933

Hashimoto, K; Hayashi, Y; Inuzuka, T; Hozumi, I

2009-09-29

2

Effects of Diet and/or Exercise in Enhancing Spinal Cord Sensorimotor Learning  

PubMed Central

Given that the spinal cord is capable of learning sensorimotor tasks and that dietary interventions can influence learning involving supraspinal centers, we asked whether the presence of omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the curry spice curcumin (Cur) by themselves or in combination with voluntary exercise could affect spinal cord learning in adult spinal mice. Using an instrumental learning paradigm to assess spinal learning we observed that mice fed a diet containing DHA/Cur performed better in the spinal learning paradigm than mice fed a diet deficient in DHA/Cur. The enhanced performance was accompanied by increases in the mRNA levels of molecular markers of learning, i.e., BDNF, CREB, CaMKII, and syntaxin 3. Concurrent exposure to exercise was complementary to the dietary treatment effects on spinal learning. The diet containing DHA/Cur resulted in higher levels of DHA and lower levels of omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) in the spinal cord than the diet deficient in DHA/Cur. The level of spinal learning was inversely related to the ratio of AA?DHA. These results emphasize the capacity of select dietary factors and exercise to foster spinal cord learning. Given the non-invasiveness and safety of the modulation of diet and exercise, these interventions should be considered in light of their potential to enhance relearning of sensorimotor tasks during rehabilitative training paradigms after a spinal cord injury. PMID:22911773

Joseph, M. Selvan; Ying, Zhe; Zhuang, Yumei; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Aiguo; Bhatia, Harsharan S.; Cruz, Rusvelda; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J. K.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2012-01-01

3

Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments.  

PubMed

Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as ?/? = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling. PMID:23135285

Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A; Sahgal, Arjun

2012-12-01

4

Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as ?/? = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling.

Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

2012-12-01

5

Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit deficits in volitional motor control and sensation that limit not only the performance of daily tasks but also the overall activity level of these persons. This population has been characterised as extremely sedentary with an increased incidence of secondary complications including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and atherogenic lipid profiles. As the daily lifestyle of the average person with SCI is without adequate stress for conditioning purposes, structured exercise activities must be added to the regular schedule if the individual is to reduce the likelihood of secondary complications and/or to enhance their physical capacity. The acute exercise responses and the capacity for exercise conditioning are directly related to the level and completeness of the spinal lesion. Appropriate exercise testing and training of persons with SCI should be based on the individual's exercise capacity as determined by accurate assessment of the spinal lesion. The standard means of classification of SCI is by application of the International Standards for Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, written by the Neurological Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association. Individuals with complete spinal injuries at or above the fourth thoracic level generally exhibit dramatically diminished cardiac acceleration with maximal heart rates less than 130 beats/min. The work capacity of these persons will be limited by reductions in cardiac output and circulation to the exercising musculature. Persons with complete spinal lesions below the T(10) level will generally display injuries to the lower motor neurons within the lower extremities and, therefore, will not retain the capacity for neuromuscular activation by means of electrical stimulation. Persons with paraplegia also exhibit reduced exercise capacity and increased heart rate responses (compared with the non-disabled), which have been associated with circulatory limitations within the paralysed tissues. The recommendations for endurance and strength training in persons with SCI do not vary dramatically from the advice offered to the general population. Systems of functional electrical stimulation activate muscular contractions within the paralysed muscles of some persons with SCI. Coordinated patterns of stimulation allows purposeful exercise movements including recumbent cycling, rowing and upright ambulation. Exercise activity in persons with SCI is not without risks, with increased risks related to systemic dysfunction following the spinal injury. These individuals may exhibit an autonomic dysreflexia, significantly reduced bone density below the spinal lesion, joint contractures and/or thermal dysregulation. Persons with SCI can benefit greatly by participation in exercise activities, but those benefits can be enhanced and the relative risks may be reduced with accurate classification of the spinal injury. PMID:15456347

Jacobs, Patrick L; Nash, Mark S

2004-01-01

6

Treatment of spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Tumors associated with the spinal cord can have devastating effects on patient function and quality of life. Most of these\\u000a tumors are from metastatic disease, usually to the epidural space. Less frequently, the tumors are intrinsic to the spinal\\u000a cord itself (ie, primary tumor). Regardless of the etiology, spinal cord tumors often present first with progressive local\\u000a or radicular

Brian Vaillant; Monica Loghin

2009-01-01

7

Substrate metabolism during exercise in the spinal cord injured.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the study was to examine substrate metabolism during combined passive and active exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Nine men and women with SCI (mean age 40.6 +/- 3.4 years) completed two trials of submaximal exercise 1 week apart. Two maintained a complete injury and seven had an incomplete injury. Level of injury ranged from thoracic (T4-T6 and T10) to cervical (four C5-C6 and three C6-C7 injuries). During two bouts separated by 1 week, subjects completed two 30 min sessions of active lower-body and passive upper-body exercise, during which heart rate (HR) and gas exchange data were continuously assessed. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine differences in all variables over time. Results demonstrated significant increases (P < 0.05) in HR and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) from rest to exercise. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) significantly increased (P < 0.05) during exercise from 0.85 +/- 0.02 at rest to 0.95 +/- 0.01 at the highest cadence, reflecting increasing reliance on carbohydrate from 50.0 to 83.0% of energy metabolism. Data demonstrate a large reliance on carbohydrate utilization during 30 min of exercise in persons with SCI, with reduced contribution of lipid as exercise intensity was increased. Strategies to reduce carbohydrate utilization and increase lipid oxidation in this population should be addressed. PMID:19224241

Astorino, Todd Anthony; Harness, Eric T

2009-05-01

8

The Efficacy of Spinal Stabilization Exercises as Intervention for Insidious Onset Lumbar and Sacroiliac Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall Clinical Bottom Line: After a thorough examination of ten articles, we conclude that the addition of spinal stabilization exercises (SSEs) to a conventional physical therapy program (modalities, traction, manual therapy, and general exercises to increase strength and range of motion) clinically improved pain and function in patients with clinical sacroiliac\\/lumbar spinal instability (CSI). SSEs did not provide additional, clinically

Sylvia R. Sisto; Jeff A. Soulia

2007-01-01

9

Rehabilitation and treatment of spinal cord tumors  

PubMed Central

Context Due to advances in acute oncological treatment, patients with spinal cord tumors exhibit improved survival. However, these patients have not received the full benefits of rehabilitation services to address their neurological deficits and rehabilitation goals. Objective To evaluate the epidemiology and pathophysiology of spinal cord tumors, address methods of acute oncological management, review treatment for neurological sequelae, and understand the implications as they relate to rehabilitation. Methods An extensive literature review was performed regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, acute oncological management, neurological sequelae, and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord tumors. Databases used included pubmed.gov and OVID, as well as individual journal and textbook articles. Results Access to treatment should be increased given improved survival and functional deficits for patients with spinal cord tumors. Individuals can benefit from inpatient rehabilitation programs, in spite of increased medical co-morbidity and neurological deficits. Specific areas of improvement include functionality, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adjustments to treatment plans must incorporate medical complications from cancer and its treatment, perceived quality of life, and prognosis. Conclusions Patients with spinal cord tumors who participate in rehabilitation programs show general improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adaptations to care plans should be made to accommodate medical co-morbidities from cancer and its treatment, patient perceptions, and prognosis. PMID:23433329

Raj, Vishwa S.; Lofton, LaTanya

2013-01-01

10

Endovascular treatment in spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

This study includes 20 patients with 21 spinal perimedullary fistulae. There were nine Type IVa (42.8%) lesions, ten Type IVb (47.6%) and two Type IVc (9.5%) lesions. The dominant arterial supply was from the anterior spinal artery (47.6%), posterior spinal artery (19%) and directly from the radiculomedullary artery (28.5%). Sixteen lesions in 15 patients were treated by endovascular route using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Endovascular treatment was not feasible in five patients. Of the ten patients with microfistulae, catheterization failed/was not attempted in 40%, complete obliteration of the lesion was seen in 60% but clinical improvement was seen in 40% of patients. Catheterization was feasible in all ten patients with macrofistulae (nine type IVb and two type IVc lesions). Complete obliteration of the lesions was seen in 60% and residue in 30%. Clinical improvement was seen in 80% and clinical deterioration in 10%. In conclusion, endovascular glue embolization is safe and efficacious in type IVb and IVc spinal perimedullary fistulae and should be considered the first option of treatment. It is also feasible in many of the type IVa lesions. PMID:24976100

Phadke, Rajendra V; Bhattacharyya, Avik; Handique, Akash; Jain, Krishan; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Vivek; Baruah, Deb; Kumar, Tushant; Patwari, Sriram; Mohan, B Madan

2014-01-01

11

What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012). Spinal cord injury: Hope through research . Retrieved May 22, 2012, from ...

12

Update on treatment options for spinal brucellosis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic regimens and optimal duration of therapy in complicated and uncomplicated forms of spinal brucellosis. This is a multicentre, retrospective and comparative study involving a total of 293 patients with spinal brucellosis from 19 health institutions. Comparison of complicated and uncomplicated spinal brucellosis was statistically analysed. Complicated spinal brucellosis was diagnosed in 78 (26.6%) of our patients. Clinical presentation was found to be significantly more acute, with fever and weight loss, in patients in the complicated group. They had significantly higher leukocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels, and lower haemoglobulin levels. The involvement of the thoracic spine was significantly more frequent in complicated cases. Spondylodiscitis was complicated, with paravertebral abscess in 38 (13.0%), prevertebral abscess in 13 (4.4%), epidural abscess in 30 (10.2%), psoas abscess in 10 (3.4%) and radiculitis in 8 (2.7%) patients. The five major combination regimens were: doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg; doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; and doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day. There were no significant therapeutic differences between these antibiotic groups; the results were similar regarding the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Patients were mostly treated with doxycycline and rifampicin with or without an aminoglycoside. In the former subgroup, complicated cases received antibiotics for a longer duration than uncomplicated cases. Early recognition of complicated cases is critical in preventing devastating complications. Antimicrobial treatment should be prolonged in complicated spinal brucellosis in particular. PMID:24118178

Ulu-Kilic, A; Karakas, A; Erdem, H; Turker, T; Inal, A S; Ak, O; Turan, H; Kazak, E; Inan, A; Duygu, F; Demiraslan, H; Kader, C; Sener, A; Dayan, S; Deveci, O; Tekin, R; Saltoglu, N; Ayd?n, M; Horasan, E S; Gul, H C; Ceylan, B; Kadanal?, A; Karabay, O; Karagoz, G; Kayabas, U; Turhan, V; Engin, D; Gulsun, S; Elald?, N; Alabay, S

2014-02-01

13

Physical exercise improves arterial stiffness after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Objective/background Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), the gold-standard assessment of central arterial stiffness, has prognostic value for cardiovascular disease risk in able-bodied individuals. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV in athletes and non-athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional comparison. Methods Aortic PWV was assessed in 20 individuals with motor-complete, chronic SCI (C2-T5; 18 ± 8 years post-injury) using applanation tonometry at the carotid and femoral arterial sites. Ten elite hand-cyclists were matched for sex to 10 non-athletes; age and time since injury were comparable between the groups. Heart rate and discrete brachial blood pressure measurements were collected throughout testing. Outcome measures Aortic PWV, blood pressure, heart rate. Results Aortic PWV was significantly lower in athletes vs. non-athletes (6.9 ± 1.0 vs. 8.7 ± 2.5 m/second, P = 0.044). There were no significant between-group differences in resting supine mean arterial blood pressure (91 ± 19 vs. 81 ± 10 mmHg) and heart rate (60 ± 10 vs. 58 ± 6 b.p.m.). Conclusion Athletes with SCI exhibited improved central arterial stiffness compared to non-athletes, which is in agreement with the previous able-bodied literature. This finding implies that chronic exercise training may improve arterial health and potentially lower cardiovascular disease risk in the SCI population. PMID:24976366

Hubli, Michèle; Currie, Katharine D; West, Christopher R; Gee, Cameron M; Krassioukov, Andrei V

2014-11-01

14

Axon regeneration and exercise-dependent plasticity after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Current dogma is that meaningful recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI) likely will require a combination of therapeutic interventions comprised of regenerative/neuroprotective transplants, addition of neurotrophic factors, elimination of inhibitory molecules, functional sensorimotor training, and/or stimulation of paralyzed muscles or spinal circuits. We routinely use: (1) peripheral nerve grafts to support and direct axonal regeneration across an incomplete cervical or a complete thoracic transection injury, (2) matrix modulation with chondroitinase (ChABC) to facilitate axonal extension beyond the distal graft-spinal cord interface and (3) exercise, such as forced wheel walking, bicycling or step training on a treadmill. We (and others) have demonstrated an increase in spinal cord levels of endogenous neurotrophic factors with exercise, which may be useful in facilitating elongation and/or synaptic activity of regenerating axons and plasticity of spinal neurons below the level of injury PMID:23531013

Houle, John D; Cote, Marie-Pascale

2013-01-01

15

Low-Grade Inflammation and Spinal Cord Injury: Exercise as Therapy?  

PubMed Central

An increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with spinal cord injury can contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and increase the risk of infection in this population. A decrease in sympathetic activity contributes to immunosuppression due to the lower activation of immune cells in the blood. The effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury have not been well described. We conducted a review of the literature published from 1974 to 2012. This review explored the relationships between low-grade inflammation, spinal cord injury, and exercise to discuss a novel mechanism that might explain the beneficial effects of exercise involving an increase in catecholamines and cytokines in people with spinal cord injury. PMID:23533315

da Silva Alves, Eduardo; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Ruiz da Silva, Francieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomathieli; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Caperuto, Erico; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

2013-01-01

16

Cardio Respiratory Adaptations with Long Term Personalized Exercise Program in a T12 Spinal Cord Injured Person  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations in cardio respiratory endurance with a personalized exercise program with arm-cranking exercise in a paraplegic person (incomplete T12 spinal cord injury). A 32 year-old man with spinal cord injury (T12) participated in the present study performing 30 minutes arm cranking…

Vasiliadis, Angelo; Christoulas, Kosmas; Evaggelinou, Christina; Vrabas, Ioannis

2009-01-01

17

Prognosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Astrocytoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005. Results: A total of 136 consecutive patients were identified. Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma. The median follow-up for living patients was 8.2 years (range, 0.08-37.6), and the median survival for deceased patients was 1.15 years (range, 0.01-39.9). The extent of surgery included incisional biopsy only (59%), subtotal resection (25%), and gross total resection (16%). Patients with pilocytic tumors survived significantly longer than those with infiltrative astrocytomas (median overall survival, 39.9 vs. 1.85 years; p < 0.001). Patients who underwent resection had a worse, although nonsignificant, median survival than those who underwent biopsy only (pilocytic, 18.1 vs. 39.9 years, p = 0.07; infiltrative, 19 vs. 30 months, p = 0.14). Postoperative radiotherapy, delivered in 75% of cases, gave no significant survival benefit for those with pilocytic tumors (39.9 vs. 18.1 years, p = 0.33) but did for those with infiltrative astrocytomas (24 vs. 3 months; Wilcoxon p = 0.006). On multivariate analysis, pilocytic histologic type, diagnosis after 1984, longer symptom duration, younger age, minimal surgical extent, and postoperative radiotherapy predicted better outcome. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas. Surgical resection was associated with shorter survival and thus remains an unproven treatment. Postoperative radiotherapy significantly improved survival for patients with infiltrative astrocytomas but not for those with pilocytic tumors.

Minehan, Kiernan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Section of Radiation Oncology, Franciscan Skemp Healthcare, Mayo Health System, La Crosse, WI (United States)], E-mail: minehan.kiernan@mayo.edu; Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Krauss, William E. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wright, Michael P. [Student, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

2009-03-01

18

Cardiovascular Control During Exercise Insights From Spinal Cord-Injured Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise. Methods and Results—Spinal cord-injured individuals (SCI) with (paraplegia, n4) or without (tetraplegia, n6) sympathetic innervation to the heart performed electrically induced exercise. Responses were

Flemming Dela; Thomas Mohr; Christina M. R. Jensen; Hanne L. Haahr; Niels H. Secher; Fin Biering-Sørensen; Michael Kjær

2010-01-01

19

Exercise pressor reflex function following acute hemi-section of the spinal cord in cats  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients post spinal cord injury (SCI). The prescription of exercise as a therapeutic modality for disease prevention in this population is promising. It is logical to suggest that the sooner an exercise program can begin the more benefit the patient will receive from the therapy. However, the time point after injury at which the requisite circulatory responses needed to support exercise are viable remains largely unknown. The skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR) significantly contributes to cardiovascular control during exercise in healthy individuals. Experiments in patients with a chronic lateral hemi-section of the spinal cord (Brown-Séquard syndrome) suggest that the EPR, although blunted, is operational when examined months to years post injury. However, whether this critically important reflex remains functional immediately after lateral SCI or, in contrast, experiences a period of reduced capacity due to spinal shock has not been established. This study was designed to assess EPR function after acute lateral transection of the spinal cord. The EPR was selectively activated in seven decerebrate cats via electrically stimulated static contraction of the triceps surae muscles of each hindlimb before and after lateral hemi-section of the T13–L2 region of the spinal cord. Compared to responses prior to injury, increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly decreased when contracting the hindlimb either ipsilateral to the lesion (MAP = 17 ± 3 mmHg before and 9 ± 2 mmHg after) or contralateral to the lesion (MAP = 22 ± 5 mmHg before and 12 ± 4 mmHg after). The heart rate (HR) response to stimulation of the EPR was largely unaffected by induction of acute SCI. The findings suggest that the EPR maintains the ability to importantly contribute to cardiovascular regulation during exercise immediately following a Brown-Séquard-like injury. PMID:23403764

Murphy, Megan N.; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M.; Iwamoto, Gary A.; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A.

2013-01-01

20

Exercise Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Upregulating Neuronal and Astroglial Heat Shock Protein 72  

PubMed Central

The heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression can be induced by physical exercise. Here we report that, in a localized model of spinal cord injury (SCI), exercised rats (given pre-SCI exercise) had significantly higher levels of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, a lower functional deficit, fewer spinal cord contusions, and fewer apoptotic cells than did non-exercised rats. pSUPER plasmid expressing HSP 72 small interfering RNA (SiRNA-HSP 72) was injected into the injured spinal cords. In addition to reducing neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, the (SiRNA-HSP 72) significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in reducing functional deficits as well as spinal cord contusion and apoptosis. Because exercise preconditioning induces increased neuronal and astroglial levels of HSP 72 in the gray matter of normal spinal cord tissue, exercise preconditioning promoted functional recovery in rats after SCI by upregulating neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in the gray matter of the injured spinal cord. We reveal an important function of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in protecting neuronal and astroglial apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. We conclude that HSP 72-mediated exercise preconditioning is a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from SCI. PMID:25334068

Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chou, Willy; Lin, Hung-Jung; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tang, Ling-Yu; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Chang, Ching-Ping

2014-01-01

21

Exercise Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Upregulating Neuronal and Astroglial Heat Shock Protein 72.  

PubMed

The heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression can be induced by physical exercise. Here we report that, in a localized model of spinal cord injury (SCI), exercised rats (given pre-SCI exercise) had significantly higher levels of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, a lower functional deficit, fewer spinal cord contusions, and fewer apoptotic cells than did non-exercised rats. pSUPER plasmid expressing HSP 72 small interfering RNA (SiRNA-HSP 72) was injected into the injured spinal cords. In addition to reducing neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, the (SiRNA-HSP 72) significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in reducing functional deficits as well as spinal cord contusion and apoptosis. Because exercise preconditioning induces increased neuronal and astroglial levels of HSP 72 in the gray matter of normal spinal cord tissue, exercise preconditioning promoted functional recovery in rats after SCI by upregulating neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in the gray matter of the injured spinal cord. We reveal an important function of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in protecting neuronal and astroglial apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. We conclude that HSP 72-mediated exercise preconditioning is a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from SCI. PMID:25334068

Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chou, Willy; Lin, Hung-Jung; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tang, Ling-Yu; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Chang, Ching-Ping

2014-01-01

22

THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR REGULATION IN INDIVIUALS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are prone to severe cardiovascular dysfunction and an increased risk of mortality from various cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk are not precisely understood, however, the reduced activity levels that accompany SCI certainly contribute. Unfortunately, muscular paralysis (partial or complete) limits the exercise options for individuals with SCI

DAVID DITOR

2003-01-01

23

Thoracolumbar spinal manipulation and the immediate impact on exercise performance  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if thoracolumbar chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) had an immediate impact on exercise performance by measuring blood lactate concentration, exercise heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion during a treadmill-based graded exercise test (GXT). Methods Ten healthy, asymptomatic male and 10 female college students (age = 27.5 ± 3.7 years, height = 1.68 ± 0.09 m, body mass = 71.3 ± 11.6 kg: mean ± SD) were equally randomized into an AB:BA crossover study design. Ten participants were in the AB group, and 10 were in the BA group. The study involved 1 week of rest in between each of the 2 conditions: A (prone Diversified T12-L1 CMT) vs B (no CMT). Participants engaged in a treadmill GXT 5 minutes after each week's condition (A or B). Outcome measures were blood lactate concentration, exercise heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion monitored at the conclusion of each 3-minute stage of the GXT. The exercise test continued until the participant achieved greater than 8 mmol/L blood lactate, which correlates with maximal to near-maximal exercise effort. A dependent-samples t test was used to make comparisons between A and B conditions related to exercise performance. Results No statistically significant difference was shown among any exercise response dependent variables in this study. Conclusions The results of this research preliminarily suggest that CMT to T12-L1 does not immediately impact exercise performance during a treadmill-based GXT using healthy college students. PMID:23843754

Ward, John S.; Coats, Jesse; Ramcharan, Michael; Humphries, Kelley; Tong, Tammy; Chu, Cheuk

2012-01-01

24

Treatment of severe pediatric spinal deformities.  

PubMed

The management of severe pediatric spinal deformities continues to evolve as advances in spinal instrumentation, surgical techniques, and neuromonitoring occur. The techniques of spinal osteotomies have been refined to allow surgeons to perform better corrections with less operative time, more safely, and through a posterior approach alone, making multiple patient positioning changes during surgery a less common occurrence. With these techniques comes a learning curve for the entire surgical team, wherein communication and planning can help minimize major complications and morbidity. This overview will review various techniques used in the correction of severe spinal deformities. Topics reviewed include the role of anterior release, traction, posterior releases, and osteotomies. Indications, techniques, and pitfalls will be reviewed. A clear understanding of the patient's deformity, normal sagittal parameters, spinal anatomy, and the principles of neuromonitoring will help improve surgical planning and patient outcome. PMID:25207730

Lewis, Stephen J; Zamorano, Juan Jose; Goldstein, Christina L

2014-01-01

25

Surgical Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis Complicated with Extensive ABSCESS  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tuberculosis can be responsible for extensive spinal lesions. Despite the efficacy of medical treatment, surgery is indicated to avoid or correct significant deformity, treat spinal instability, prevent neurological compromise, and to eradicate an extensive tuberculous abscess. In this paper we present our experience in the surgical management of spinal tuberculosis complicated with large abscess. Patients and Methods Fifteen patients with spinal tuberculosis complicated with extensive abscess were identified; and nine of those patients had extension of the infection into the epidural space. The average age at treatment was 34 years old. Seven patients had thoracic infection, seven patients had lumbar infection and one had thoracolumbar infection. Six patients had neurological deficit at presentation. All patients were surgically treated with abscess debridement, spinal stabilization and concurrent antituberculous chemotherapy. A single anterior surgical approach was used in three cases, a posterior approach was used in four others and a combined approach was performed in eight patients. Results Surgical management allowed for effective abscess debridement and sspinal stabilization in this cohort. In combination with antituberculous drugs, surgical treatment resulted in infection eradication and bone fusion in all patients at 24 month average follow-up. Satisfactory neurological outcomes with improved American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores were observed in 100% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis abscess can lead to satisfactory clinical outcomes.

Brito, Joaquim Soares Do; Tirado, Antonio; Fernandes, Pedro

2014-01-01

26

Physical therapy treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background/objective To describe the nature and distribution of activities during physical therapy (PT) delivered in inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and discuss predictors (patient and injury characteristics) of the amount of time spent in PT for specific treatment activities. Methods Six hundred patients from six inpatient SCI centers were enrolled in the SCIRehab study. Physical therapists documented details, including time spent, of treatment provided during 37 306 PT sessions that occurred during inpatient SCI rehabilitation. Ordinary least squares regression models associated patient and injury characteristics with time spent in specific PT activities. Results SCIRehab patients received a mean total of 55.3 hours of PT over the course of their rehabilitation stay. Significant differences among four neurologic groups were seen in the amount of time spent on most activities, including the most common PT activities of strengthening exercises, stretching, transfer training, wheelchair mobility training, and gait training. Most PT work (77%) was provided in individual therapy sessions; the remaining 23% was done in group settings. Patient and injury characteristics explained only some of the variations seen in time spent on wheelchair mobility, transfer and bed mobility training, and range of motion/stretching. Conclusion Analysis yielded both expected and unexpected trends in SCI rehabilitation. Significant variation was seen in time spent on PT activities within and among injury groups. Providing therapeutic strengthening treatments consumed the greatest proportion of PT time. About one-quarter of all PT services were provided in group settings. Details about services provided, including time spent, will serve as a starting point in detailing the optimal treatment delivery for maximal outcomes. PMID:21675354

Taylor-Schroeder, Sally; LaBarbera, Jacqueline; McDowell, Shari; Zanca, Jeanne M.; Natale, Audrey; Mumma, Sherry; Gassaway, Julie; Backus, Deborah

2011-01-01

27

Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on exercise performance and carbohydrate metabolism in persons with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise and as a pre-exercise bolus improves exercise performance in able-bodied athletes. Little is known about the potential for carbohydrate ingestion to improve exercise performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI), nor the potential physiological limitations of such a practice resulting from an SCI. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of carbohydrate ingestion on exercise performance in physically active and athletic persons with SCI. Six participants with complete SCI (neurological level of lesion ranging from C(6) to T(7)) and normal glucose tolerance were studied twice during 60 min of arm cranking at 65% of peak oxygen consumption followed by a 20-min time trial with the ingestion of either a carbohydrate drink (CHO trial: 0.5 g CHO kg(-1) body weight in 500 ml) or placebo (PLA trial) applied in a double-blind counter-balanced manner. The participants with tetraplegia had sufficient neurological function to permit voluntary arm-cranking exercise. There was no difference in time-trial performance between CHO and PLA trials (P > 0.05). The results suggest that carbohydrate ingestion in persons with SCI does not improve exercise performance. PMID:19760255

Temesi, John; Rooney, Kieron; Raymond, Jacqui; O'Connor, Helen

2010-01-01

28

Cardiovascular Health and Exercise Rehabilitation in Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There appears to be an increased prevalence and earlier onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons with SCI. Physical inactivity is thought to be a key factor in the increased risk for CVD. Physical inactivity is highly prevalent in persons with SCI and it appears that activities of daily living are not sufficient to maintain cardiovascular fitness and health. This systematic review examines the current literature regarding the risk for CVD and the effectiveness of varied exercise rehabilitation programs in attenuating the risk for CVD in SCI. PMID:22719205

Warburton, Darren E. R.; Eng, Janice J.; Krassioukov, Andrei; Sproule, Shannon

2012-01-01

29

Conservative and Surgical Treatment Improves Pain and Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven patients who received conservative treatment such as exercise and medication (n=56) or surgical treatment (n=51) were included. Low back pain and leg pain scores, walking distance, and ABI were measured before treatment and after 3 months of conservative treatment alone or surgical treatment followed by conservative treatment. Results Low back pain, leg pain, and walking distance significantly improved after both treatments (p<0.05). ABI significantly increased in each group (p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first investigation of changes in ABI after treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Improvement of the spinal nerve roots by medication and decompression surgery may improve the supply of blood flow to the lower leg in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23709437

Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

30

Spinous Process Distraction with Allograft in the Treatment of Spondylolisthesis with Spinal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the standard treatment for symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal canal stenosis has been lumbar decompression and spinal fusion to decompress the nerve roots and\\/or spinal cord and to stabilize the spine. In recent years, several different methods have been devised as alternative treatments for degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. One of these is known as spinous process

Christopher M. Weinman

2006-01-01

31

Surgical treatment of cervical spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore operative methods for cervical spinal cord tumors. Methods: According to their different sites and histopathological types, 71 cases (intramedullary: 23 cases; and extramedullary: 48 cases) were surgically treated with different approaches and methods. Results: Tumors were totally removed in 16 of 23 (69.6%) intramedullary cases and 44 of 48 (91.7%) extramedullary cases. Eighteen of twenty-three intramedullary cases

Shengde Bao; K Tan; Y. F Zhang; W. Y Huo; J. Y Zhang

2004-01-01

32

Effects of Exercise Training and Inspiratory Muscle Training in Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide a systematic review of the studies assessing exercise training and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in individuals for the improved respiratory function of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Thirteen studies (5 exercise training, 8 IMT) were identified. Articles were scored for their methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scores and Downs and Black tools for randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Conclusions were based on the most rigorously executed studies using Sackett's levels of evidence. Results: Study comparison was compromised by diverse research designs; small sample sizes; and heterogeneity of studied populations, protocols, and outcome measures. Based on current literature, there is level 2 evidence supporting exercise training as an intervention to improve respiratory strength and endurance and level 4 evidence to support exercise training as an intervention that might improve resting and exercising respiratory function in people with SCI. There is level 4 evidence to support IMT as an intervention that might decrease dyspnea and improve respiratory function in people with SCI. Conclusions: There are insufficient data to strongly support the use of exercise training or IMT for improved respiratory function in people with SCI. There is some evidence of efficacy of both regimens; however, the evidence is not of the best possible quality. PMID:19086707

Sheel, A. William; Reid, Wendy Darlene; Townson, Andrea F; Ayas, Najib T; Konnyu, Kristin J

2008-01-01

33

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Spinal Metastases Recurring in Close Proximity to Previously Irradiated Spinal Cord  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As the spinal cord tolerance often precludes reirradiation with conventional techniques, local recurrence within a previously irradiated field presents a treatment challenge. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 51 lesions in 42 patients treated from 2002 to 2008 whose spinal metastases recurred in a previous radiation field (median previous spinal cord dose of 40 Gy) and were subsequently treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Results: SRS was delivered to a median marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 10-30 Gy) in 1-5 fractions (median, 2), targeting a median tumor volume of 10.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-128.6 cm{sup 3}). Converting the SRS regimens with the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3), the median spinal cord maximum single-session equivalent dose (SSED) was 12.1 Gy{sub 3} (range, 4.7-19.3 Gy{sub 3}). With a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 2-47 months), the Kaplan-Meier local control and overall survival rates at 6/12 months were 87%/73% and 81%/68%, respectively. A time to retreatment of {<=}12 months and the combination of time to retreatment of {<=}12 months with an SSED of <15 Gy{sub 10} were significant predictors of local failure on univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients with a retreatment interval of <12 months, 6/12 month local control rates were 88%/58%, with a SSED of >15 Gy{sub 10}, compared to 45%/0% with <15 Gy{sub 10}, respectively. One patient (2%) experienced Grade 4 neurotoxicity. Conclusion: SRS is safe and effective in the treatment of spinal metastases recurring in previously irradiated fields. Tumor recurrence within 12 months may correlate with biologic aggressiveness and require higher SRS doses (SSED >15 Gy{sub 10}). Further research is needed to define the partial volume retreatment tolerance of the spinal cord and the optimal target dose.

Choi, Clara Y.H.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Jackson, Paul S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Minn, A. Yuriko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Lieberson, Robert E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

2010-10-01

34

Spinal Muscular Atrophy: The Development and Implementation of Potential Treatments Running Head: Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

In neurodegenerative disorders effective treatments are urgently needed, along with methods to detect that the treatment worked. In this review we discuss the rapid progress in the understanding of recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy and how this is leading to exciting potential treatments of the disease. Spinal muscular atrophy is a caused by loss of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and reduced levels of SMN protein. The critical downstream targets of SMN deficiency that result in motor neuron loss are not known. However, increasing SMN levels has a marked impact in mouse models, and these therapeutics are rapidly moving towards clinical trials. Promising preclinical therapies, the varying degree of impact on the mouse models, and potential measures of treatment effect are reviewed. One key issue discussed is the variable outcome of increasing SMN at different stages of disease progression. PMID:23939659

Arnold, W. David; Burghes, Arthur H.M.

2013-01-01

35

Perspectives on the treatment of the longitudinal spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The current technique for surgical treatment of the longitudinal spinal cord injury has proven to be successful for restoration of some motor function and alleviation of pain. This has been the first step in finding a cure for spinal cord injuries, but so far there are many obstacles still to be overcome. In this particular injury return of function from spinal cord surgery is only partial. Some of the main remaining problems are related to injury-induced neuronal death, direction and specificity of regeneration and muscle, and receptor disintegration from long time denervation. Currently this is a surgical procedure without any adjuvant treatments. In order to gain further functional improvement combinational therapies developed in basic science experiments are essential. PMID:21206763

Carlstedt, Thomas

2010-01-01

36

Spinal stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... help your pain during flare-ups. Treatments for back pain caused by spinal stenosis include: Medicines that may ...

37

Pressor response to passive walking-like exercise in spinal cord-injured humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine blood pressure responses during passive walking-like exercise in the standing posture (PWE) in spinal cord-injured\\u000a (SCI) humans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twelve motor-complete SCI individuals (cervical level 6 to thoracic level 12, ASIA grade: A or B) and twelve able-bodied controls\\u000a (CON) participated in this study. SCI individuals were divided into a group with injury level at or above thoracic (T) 6

Hisayoshi Ogata; Yukiharu Higuchi; Toru Ogata; Shinya Hoshikawa; Masami Akai; Kimitaka Nakazawa

2009-01-01

38

Identification and surgical treatment of primary thoracic spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

We report the surgical treatment results for 7 patients (4 men, 3 women; mean age, 49 years) who presented with myelopathy caused exclusively by primary thoracic spinal stenosis, predominantly in the lower thoracic spine. (Patients with concurrent ascending lumbosacral degenerative disease were excluded.) All patients received extensive nonoperative treatment before referral to our center. Surgical treatment consisted of wide posterior decompression and instrumented fusion (5 cases), anterior vertebrectomy and fusion (1), and anterior vertebrectomy with autograft strut followed by wide posterior decompression and instrumented fusion (1). Mean operative time was 313 minutes, mean blood loss was 944 mL, and there were no major postoperative complications. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Five patients had significant improvement in myelopathy and were ambulating normally, 1 had modest improvement in ambulation, and 1 remained wheelchair-bound. All patients achieved solid radiographic fusions. After presenting these case studies, we review the current literature on treatment effectiveness. Primary thoracic spinal stenosis should be considered in patients who present with isolated lower extremity myelopathy, particularly when no significant pathologic findings are identified in the cervical or lumbosacral spine. Expedient wide decompression with concurrent instrumented fusion is recommended to prevent late development of spinal instability and recurrent spinal stenosis. PMID:19104683

Dimar, John R; Bratcher, Kelly R; Glassman, Steven D; Howard, Jennifer M; Carreon, Leah Y

2008-11-01

39

Impact of exercise training on oxidative stress in individuals with a spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that (anti)oxidative imbalance is associated with the increased cardiovascular risk in SCI, while exercise can reverse this status. The aim of the study is to compare baseline levels of oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity between individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) subjects, and to assess acute and long-term effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity in SCI. Venous blood was taken from subjects with an SCI (n = 9) and age- and gender-matched AB subjects (n = 9) to examine oxidative stress through malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme levels represented anti-oxidative capacity. Subsequently, subjects with an SCI performed an 8-week FES exercise training period. Blood was taken before and after the first exercise bout and after the last FES session to examine the acute and chronic effect of FES exercise, respectively. Baseline levels of MDA, SOD and GPx were not different between individuals with SCI and AB subjects. SCI demonstrated a correlation between initial fitness level and MDA (R = ?0.83, P = 0.05). MDA, SOD and GPx levels were neither altered by a single FES exercise bout nor by 8 weeks FES training. In conclusion, although individuals with an SCI demonstrate a preserved (anti)oxidative status, the correlation between fitness level and (anti)oxidative balance suggests that higher fitness levels are related to improved (anti)oxidative status in SCI. Nonetheless, the FES exercise stimulus was insufficient to acutely or chronically change (anti)oxidative status in individuals with an SCI. PMID:20364349

van Duijnhoven, Noortje; Hesse, Evelyne; Janssen, Thomas; Wodzig, Will; Scheffer, Peter

2010-01-01

40

Nanotechnology for treatment of stroke and spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The use of nanotechnology in cell therapy and tissue engineering offers promising future perspectives for brain and spinal cord injury treatment. Stem cells have been shown to selectively target injured brain and spinal cord tissue and improve functional recovery. To allow cell detection, superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles can be used to label transplanted cells. MRI is then a suitable method for the in vivo tracking of grafted cells in the host organism. CNS, and particularly spinal cord, injury is accompanied by tissue damage and the formation of physical and biochemical barriers that prevent axons from regenerating. One aspect of nanomedicine is the development of biologically compatible nanofiber scaffolds that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix and can serve as a permissive bridge for axonal regeneration or as a drug-delivery system. The incorporation of biologically active epitopes and/or the utilization of these scaffolds as stem cell carriers may further enhance their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20025468

Kubinová, Sárka; Syková, Eva

2010-01-01

41

Development and Treatments of Inflammatory Cells and Cytokines in Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate spinal cord injury is related to acute ischemia. And the delayed spinal cord injury involves both ischemic cellular death and reperfusion injury. Inflammation is a subsequent event of spinal cord ischemia and possibly a major contributor to spinal cord IRI. However, the development of inflammatory mediators is incompletely demonstrated. And treatments available for inflammation in spinal cord IRI are insufficient. Improved understanding about spinal cord IRI and the development of inflammatory cells and cytokines in this process will provide novel therapeutic strategies for spinal cord IRI. Inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-? and IL-1) may play an important role in spinal cord IRI. For treatment of several intractable autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), where inflammatory cytokines are involved in disease progression, anti-inflammatory cytokine antagonist is now available. Hence, there is great potential of anti-inflammatory cytokine antagonist for therapeutic use of spinal cord IRI. We here review the mediators and several possibilities of treatment in spinal cord IRI. PMID:23956505

Zhu, Ping; Li, Jia-xin; Fujino, Masayuki; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Xiao-Kang

2013-01-01

42

Comparison of Treatment Methods in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis for Geriatric Patient: Nerve Block Versus Radiofrequency Neurotomy Versus Spinal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective The incidence of spinal treatment, including nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions, is increasing, and progressively involves patients of age 65 and older. Treatment of the geriatric patients is often a difficult challenge for the spine surgeon. General health, sociofamilial and mental condition of the patients as well as the treatment techniques and postoperative management are to be accurately evaluated and planned. We tried to compare three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patient in single institution. Methods The cases of treatment methods in spinal stenosis over than 65 years old were analyzed. The numbers of patients were 371 underwent nerve block, radiofrequency neurotomy, instrumented fusions from January 2009 to December 2012 (nerve block: 253, radiofrequency neurotomy: 56, instrumented fusions: 62). The authors reviewed medical records, operative findings and postoperative clinical results, retrospectively. Simple X-ray were evaluated and clinical outcome was measured by Odom's criteria at 1 month after procedures. Results We were observed excellent and good results in 162 (64%) patients with nerve block, 40 (71%) patient with radIofrequency neurotomy, 46 (74%) patient with spinal surgery. Poor results were 20 (8%) patients in nerve block, 2 (3%) patients in radiofrequency neurotomy, 3 (5%) patient in spinal surgery. Conclusion We reviewed literatures and analyzed three treatment methods of spinal stenosis for geriatric patients. Although the long term outcome of surgical treatment was most favorable, radiofrequency neurotomy and nerve block can be considered for the secondary management of elderly lumbar spinals stenosis patients.

Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Min Ki; Park, Bong Jin; Choi, Seok Geun; Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Tae Sung

2014-01-01

43

Spinal Deformity and Athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise and athletic competition for the young individual has become increasingly more important in society. Scoliosis and Scheurmann kyphosis are spinal deformities prevalent in up to 2% to 3% and 7% of the population respectively, requiring nonoperative and occasionally operative treatment. Curve progression and patient physiologic age dictate treatment regimens. Bracing and physical therapy is the mainstay for nonoperative treatment,

Jonathan R. Schiller; Craig P. Eberson

2008-01-01

44

Peripheral fatigue limits endurance exercise via a sensory feedback-mediated reduction in spinal motoneuronal output  

PubMed Central

This study sought to determine whether afferent feedback associated with peripheral muscle fatigue inhibits central motor drive (CMD) and thereby limits endurance exercise performance. On two separate days, eight men performed constant-load, single-leg knee extensor exercise to exhaustion (85% of peak power) with each leg (Leg1 and Leg2). On another day, the performance test was repeated with one leg (Leg1) and consecutively (within 10 s) with the other/contralateral leg (Leg2-post). Exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue was assessed by reductions in potentiated quadriceps twitch-force from pre- to postexercise (?Qtw,pot) in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation. The output from spinal motoneurons, estimated from quadriceps electromyography (iEMG), was used to reflect changes in CMD. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded during exercise. Time to exhaustion (?9.3 min) and exercise-induced ?Qtw,pot (?51%) were similar in Leg1 and Leg2 (P > 0.5). In the consecutive leg trial, endurance performance of the first leg was similar to that observed during the initial trial (?9.3 min; P = 0.8); however, time to exhaustion of the consecutively exercising contralateral leg (Leg2-post) was shorter than the initial Leg2 trial (4.7 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 0.4 min; P < 0.01). Additionally, ?Qtw,pot following Leg2-post was less than Leg2 (33 ± 3 vs 52 ± 3%; P < 0.01). Although the slope of iEMG was similar during Leg2 and Leg2-post, end-exercise iEMG following Leg2-post was 26% lower compared with Leg2 (P < 0.05). Despite a similar rate of rise, RPE was consistently ?28% higher throughout Leg2-post vs. Leg2 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that peripheral fatigue and associated afferent feedback limits the development of peripheral fatigue and compromises endurance exercise performance by inhibiting CMD. PMID:23722705

Venturelli, Massimo; Ives, Stephen J.; McDaniel, John; Layec, Gwenael; Rossman, Matthew J.; Richardson, Russell S.

2013-01-01

45

Outcomes in Treatment for Intradural Spinal Cord Ependymomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Spinal cord ependymomas are rare tumors, accounting for <2% of all primary central nervous system tumors. This study assessed the treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with spinal cord ependymomas within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente system. Methods and Materials: We studied 23 patients treated with surgery with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The local and distant control rates and overall survival rates were determined. Results: The overall local control, overall recurrence, and 9-year overall survival rate was 96%, 17.4%, and 63.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that en bloc gross total resection should be the initial treatment, with radiotherapy reserved primarily for postoperative cases with unfavorable characteristics such as residual tumor, anaplastic histologic features, or piecemeal resection. Excellent local control and overall survival rates can be achieved using modern microsurgical techniques, with or without local radiotherapy.

Volpp, P. Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: pvolpp@yahoo.com; Han, Khanh [Huntington Memorial Medical Center, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kagan, A. Robert; Tome, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2007-11-15

46

Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and

Matthew Kehn; Thilo Kroll

2009-01-01

47

Spectral and entropy changes for back muscle fatigability following spinal stabilization exercises.  

PubMed

The entropy of electromyography (EMG) signals suggests a possible tool for the clinical assessment of low back pain (LBP). However, a general physiological mechanism for entropy and pain and/or dysfunction following exercise intervention is still unknown. This comparative study investigated the differences between entropy levels of the EMG signals and the slope of median frequency (MF) based on power spectrum analysis in chronic LBP subjects after 4 weeks of spinal stabilization exercises (SSEs). In total, 46 subjects (24 female and 22 male) participated in the exercise program; the EMG signals of their thoracic and lumbar erector spinae muscles were measured. Following the SSEs, the level of pain as measured by the Million Visual Analog Scale decreased significantly from 3.80 to 2.81 (T = 3.42, p = 0.001). The Shannon entropy levels of the EMG signals were not different based on the back muscles (F = 2.86, p = 0.09) but demonstrated a significant interaction with pain level (F = 7.17, p = 0.01). The slope of MF differed among the muscles (F = 12.06, p = 0.01); however, no interaction with the level of pain was found (F = 0.19, p = 0.66). Therefore, the Shannon entropy of the EMG signals might be a useful and valuable clinical tool to measure pain following intervention. PMID:20593326

Lee, Tae-Ro; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Sung, Paul S

2010-01-01

48

Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced\\u000a conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to\\u000a antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection\\u000a remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body

Wei-Hua Chen; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2007-01-01

49

Lumbar spinal stenosis: treatment options for an aging population.  

PubMed

The fastest growing age group in the United States is the 45 and older population. Due to the nature of the aging lumbar spine, a significant majority of this population will experience low back pain (LBP) and symptoms associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is required if this particular aging group of our population is to maintain an active and productive life into their later years. PMID:23362650

Jackson, Roger P; McManus, Anne C; Moore, Jill

2012-01-01

50

Surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: prognosis and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective case series.Objective:To evaluate our recent treatment strategy for intramedullary spinal cord tumors.Setting:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University, Japan.Methods:We reviewed 68 cases of intramedullary tumors (ependymoma, 33; astrocytoma, 23; hemangioblastoma, 12), treated surgically between 1994 and 2003. There were 42 males and 26 females whose mean age at the time of surgery was 43 years. The mean follow-up period

M Nakamura; K Ishii; K Watanabe; T Tsuji; H Takaishi; M Matsumoto; Y Toyama; K Chiba

2008-01-01

51

Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

2014-09-22

52

Effects of peripheral and spinal ?-opioid receptor stimulation on the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats.  

PubMed

The exercise pressor reflex is greater in rats with ligated femoral arteries than it is in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. The exaggerated reflex in rats with ligated arteries is attenuated by stimulation of ?-opioid and ?-opioid receptors on the peripheral endings of thin-fiber muscle afferents. The effect of stimulation of ?-opioid receptors on the exercise pressor reflex is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that stimulation of ?-opioid receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated, but not freely perfused, femoral arteries. The pressor responses to static contraction were compared before and after femoral arterial or intrathecal injection of the ?-opioid receptor agonist U62066 (1, 10, and 100 ?g). Femoral arterial injection of U62066 did not attenuate the pressor responses to contraction in either group of rats. Likewise, intrathecal injection of U62066 did not attenuate the pressor response to contraction in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. In contrast, intrathecal injection of 10 and 100 ?g of U62066 attenuated the pressor response to contraction in rats with ligated femoral arteries, an effect that was blocked by prior intrathecal injection of the ?-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. In rats with ligated femoral arteries, the pressor response to stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by sodium cyanide was not changed by intrathecal U62066 injections, indicating that these injections had no direct effect on the sympathetic outflow. We conclude that stimulation of spinal, but not peripheral, ?-opioid receptors attenuates the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries. PMID:24920732

Copp, Steven W; Stone, Audrey J; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Kaufman, Marc P

2014-08-01

53

Effect of abdominal binding on respiratory mechanics during exercise in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

We asked whether elastic binding of the abdomen influences respiratory mechanics during wheelchair propulsion in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with motor-complete SCI (C5-C7) performed submaximal and maximal incremental exercise tests on a treadmill, both with and without abdominal binding. Measurements included pulmonary function, pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics, operating lung volumes, tidal flow-volume data, gas exchange, blood lactate, and symptoms. Residual volume and functional residual capacity were reduced with binding (77 ± 18 and 81 ± 11% of unbound, P < 0.05), vital capacity was increased (114 ± 9%, P < 0.05), whereas total lung capacity was relatively well preserved (99 ± 5%). During exercise, binding introduced a passive increase in transdiaphragmatic pressure, due primarily to an increase in gastric pressure. Active pressures during inspiration were similar across conditions. A sudden, sustained rise in operating lung volumes was evident in the unbound condition, and these volumes were shifted downward with binding. Expiratory flow limitation did not occur in any subject and there was substantial reserve to increase flow and volume in both conditions. V?o2 was elevated with binding during the final stages of exercise (8-12%, P < 0.05), whereas blood lactate concentration was reduced (16-19%, P < 0.05). V?o2/heart rate slopes were less steep with binding (62 ± 35 vs. 47 ± 24 ml/beat, P < 0.05). Ventilation, symptoms, and work rates were similar across conditions. The results suggest that abdominal binding shifts tidal breathing to lower lung volumes without influencing flow limitation, symptoms, or exercise tolerance. Changes in respiratory mechanics with binding may benefit O2 transport capacity by an improvement in central circulatory function. PMID:24855136

West, Christopher R; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Campbell, Ian G; Romer, Lee M

2014-07-01

54

Surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis responds well to conservative treatment at early stage, but more complicated and advanced conditions, including mechanical spinal instability, epidural abscess formation, neurologic deficits, and refractoriness to antibiotic therapy, usually require surgical intervention. The subject of using metallic implants in the setting of infection remains controversial, although more and more surgeons acknowledge that instrumentation can help the body to combat the infection rather than to interfere with it. The combination of radical debridement and instrumentation has lots of merits such as, restoration and maintenance of the sagittal alignment of the spine, stabilization of the spinal column and reduction of bed rest period. This issue must be viewed in the context of the overall and detailed health conditions of the subjecting patient. We think the culprit for the recurrence of infection is not the implants itself, but is the compromised general health condition of the patients. In this review, we focus on surgical treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with special attention to the role of spinal instrumentation in the presence of pyogenic infection. PMID:17106664

Chen, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

2006-01-01

55

[Lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical course, pathophysiology and treatment].  

PubMed

The lumbar spinal stenosis is a radiological description of a pathology that can present clinically by a neurogenic intermittent claudication; its diagnosis is mainly clinical. After listing the main criteria allowing the clinician to make a diagnosis, a review of available treatments is proposed. There are few quality studies and an empirical approach is often necessary. In severe cases, very disabling despite correct treatment, a surgical approach may be considered and discussed with the patient to avoid failure, sometimes linked to excessive expectations. PMID:22455152

Genevay, S; Chevallier-Ruggeri, P; Faundez, A

2012-03-14

56

Survival and Recurrence Rate after Treatment for Primary Spinal Sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Objective We have limited understanding on the presentation and survival of primary spinal sarcomas. The survival, recurrence rate, and related prognostic factors were investigated after treatment for primary sarcomas of the spine. Methods Retrospective analysis of medical records and radiological data was done for 29 patients in whom treatment was performed due to primary sarcoma of the spine from 2000 to 2010. As for treatment method, non-radical operation, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy were simultaneously or sequentially combined. Overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), ambulatory function, and pain status were analyzed. In addition, factors affecting survival and recurrence were analyzed : age (?42 or ?43), gender, tumor histologic type, lesion location (mobile spine or rigid spine), weakness at diagnosis, pain at diagnosis, ambulation at diagnosis, initial treatment, radiation therapy, kind of irradiation, surgery, chemotherapy and distant metastasis. Results Median OS was 60 months, the recurrence rate was 79.3% and median PFS was 26 months. Patients with distant metastasis showed significantly shorter survival than those without metastasis. No factors were found to be significant relating to recurrence. Prognostic factor associated with walking ability was the presence of weakness at diagnosis. Conclusion Primary spinal sarcomas are difficult to cure and show high recurrence rate. However, the development of new treatment methods is improving survival. PMID:23826479

Cho, Wonik

2013-01-01

57

Spinal cord stimulation: Current applications for treatment of chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is thought to relieve chronic intractable pain by stimulating nerve fibers in the spinal cord. The resulting impulses in the fibers may inhibit the conduction of pain signals to the brain, according to the pain gate theory proposed by Melzack and Wall in 1965 and the sensation of pain is thus blocked. Although SCS may reduce pain, it will not eliminate it. After a period of concern about safety and efficacy, SCS is now regaining popularity among pain specialists for the treatment of chronic pain. The sympatholytic effect of SCS is one of its most interesting therapeutic properties. This effect is considered responsible for the effectiveness of SCS in peripheral ischemia, and at least some cases of complex regional pain syndrome. The sympatholytic effect has also been considered part of the management of other chronic pain states such as failed back surgery syndrome, phantom pain, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia. In general, SCS is part of an overall treatment strategy and is used only after the more conservative treatments have failed. The concept of SCS has evolved rapidly following the technological advances that have produced leads with multiple contact electrodes and battery systems. The current prevalence of patients with chronic pain requiring treatment other than conventional medical management has significantly increased and so has been the need for SCS. With the cost benefit analysis showing significant support for SCS, it may be appropriate to offer this as an effective alternative treatment for these patients.

Vannemreddy, Prasad; Slavin, Konstantin V.

2011-01-01

58

Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.  

PubMed

Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on physiological and neuro-pharmacological mechanisms responsible for its rewarding and addictive properties. PMID:24001300

Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

2014-01-01

59

Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten able-bodied controls (AB) performed arm-cranking exercises at 40 % of the maximal power output for 45 min, once in 10 degrees C and once in 35 degrees C. Oxygen uptake, rectal temperature, and skin temperature (chest, upper arm, thigh, calf) were measured at rest and 15, 30, and 45 min after the onset of exercise. Metabolism, heat production, skin temperature, mean body temperature (a combination of rectal and skin temperature), and body heat content were calculated. Heart rate at 10 degrees C was 103 b/min in SCI-H, 120 in SCI-L and 112 in AB, while in 35 degrees C, heart rate was 112 b/min in SCI-H, 144 in SCI-L and 134 in AB. The increase in rectal temperature in 35 degrees C was larger in SCI-L (+ 0.07 degrees C) and SCI-H (+ 0.08 degrees C) than in AB (+ 0.06 degrees C). The decrease in mean body temperature at 10 degrees C was larger in SCI-H (33.0 +/- 0.68 degrees C) than in SCI-L (33.6 +/- 0.29 degrees C) and AB (34.5 +/- 0.31 degrees C). During exercise in 35 degrees C, mean body temperature increased in all three groups. The increase in body temperature in SCI-L was larger than in AB. During exercise in 10 degrees C, body heat content decreased in SCI-H (80.0 +/- 15.1 kJ) and SCI-L (89.2 +/- 9.1 kJ) but remained constant in AB (97.0 +/- 16.1 kJ). During exercise in 35 degrees C, body heat content increased in all three groups. The increase in body heat content after exercising in 35 degrees C was not significantly different between the three groups. In summary, mean body temperature and body heat content in the cold decreased in SCI, despite exercising. In the heat, mean body temperature and body heat content seems to increase more in SCI than in AB. We can conclude that SCI are at a greater risk for a disturbed heat balance during exercise in the cold and in the heat than AB. Both in the cold and in the heat, precautions should be taken even earlier and be more intensive for SCI than for AB. PMID:16874585

Boot, C R L; Binkhorst, R A; Hopman, M T E

2006-08-01

60

Role of exercise therapy in osteopathic education, treatment and management.  

E-print Network

??Exercise based interventions are common in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. These interventions have been investigated in other manual therapy disciplines, but little empirical data… (more)

Zamani, J.

2008-01-01

61

Intensive exercise program after spinal cord injury ("Full-On"): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) has traditionally involved teaching compensatory strategies for identified impairments and deficits in order to improve functional independence. There is some evidence that regular and intensive activity-based therapies, directed at activation of the paralyzed extremities, promotes neurological improvement. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of a 12-week intensive activity-based therapy program for the whole body with a program of upper body exercise. Methods/Design A multicenter, parallel group, assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. One hundred eighty-eight participants with spinal cord injury, who have completed their primary rehabilitation at least 6 months prior, will be recruited from five SCI units in Australia and New Zealand. Participants will be randomized to an experimental or control group. Experimental participants will receive a 12-week program of intensive exercise for the whole body, including locomotor training, trunk exercises and functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling. Control participants will receive a 12-week intensive upper body exercise program. The primary outcome is the American Spinal Injuries Association (ASIA) Motor Score. Secondary outcomes include measurements of sensation, function, pain, psychological measures, quality of life and cost effectiveness. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months by blinded assessors. Recruitment commenced in January 2011. Discussion The results of this trial will determine the effectiveness of a 12-week program of intensive exercise for the whole body in improving neurological recovery after spinal cord injury. Trial registration NCT01236976 (10 November 2010), ACTRN12610000498099 (17 June 2010). PMID:24025260

2013-01-01

62

Physical exercise reduces cardiac defects in type 2 spinal muscular atrophy-like mice  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of death in infants worldwide, is due to the misexpression of the survival of motor neuron protein, causing death of motor neurons. Several clinical symptoms suggested that, in addition to motor neurons, the autonomic nervous systems could be implicated in the cardiac function alterations observed in patienst with SMA. These alterations were also found in a severe SMA mouse model, including bradycardia and a reduction of sympathetic innervation, both associated with autonomic imbalance. In the present study, we investigate the extent of autonomic dysfunction and the effects of a running-based exercise on the altered cardiorespiratory function in type 2 SMA-like mice. We observed that the SMA induced: (1) a dramatic alteration of intrinsic cardiac conduction associated with bradycardia; (2) a severe cardiomyopathy associated with extensive ventricular fibrosis; and (3) a delay in cardiac muscle maturation associated with contractile protein expression defects. Furthermore, our data indicate that the sympathetic system is not only functioning, but also likely contributes to alleviate the bradycardia and the arrhythmia in SMA-like mice. Moreover, physical exercise provides many benefits, including the reduction of cardiac protein expression defect, the reduction of fibrosis, the increase in cardiac electrical conduction velocity, and the drastic reduction in bradycardia and arrhythmias resulting in the partial restoration of the cardiac function in these mice. Thus, modulating the cardiorespiratory function in SMA could represent a new target for improving supportive care and for developing new pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that would most certainly include physical exercise. PMID:22930275

Biondi, Olivier; Lopes, Philippe; Desseille, Céline; Branchu, Julien; Chali, Farah; Salah, Amina Ben; Pariset, Claude; Chanoine, Christophe; Charbonnier, Frédéric

2012-01-01

63

Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of vascular pathology.  

PubMed

Multiple studies have shown proved efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The exact mechanism by which SCS acts in the treatment of PVD is not completely understood, and may include stimulating the release of nitric oxide, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system, or modulation of prostaglandin production. Patient selection criteria have been well defined and SCS should be reserved for patients with end-stage lower limb PVD unresponsive to medical therapy and not amenable to surgical reconstruction but in whom disease has not caused inevitable limb loss. This article reviews the outcomes, techniques, patient selection criteria, and putative mechanisms of SCS for PVD. PMID:24262897

Deogaonkar, Milind; Zibly, Zion; Slavin, Konstantin V

2014-01-01

64

Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation  

PubMed Central

Background While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and arthritis, yet this population is rarely a target for health promotion efforts. This paper examines the self-reported exercise experiences of people with SCI using a qualitative-exploratory design. Methods We enrolled 26 individuals with SCI (15 self-described 'exercisers' and 11 'non-exercisers') from a non-random pool of survey responders. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted to record participants' experiences with exercise pre/post injury, barriers and facilitators to being active and perceived health impact. Results Regardless of exercise status, all participants reported physical activity prior to injury and expressed interest in becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Participants identified a range of both motivational and socio-environmental factors that were either facilitating or constraining of such a lifestyle. Non-exercisers identified barriers to exercise, including a perceived low return on physical investment, lack of accessible facilities, unaffordable equipment, no personal assistance and fear of injury. Exercisers identified facilitators, including personal motivation, independence, availability of accessible facilities and personal assistants, fear of health complications, and weight management. Exercisers associated a greater range of specific health benefits with being active than non-exercisers. Conclusion Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with SCI face many obstacles. Removal of barriers coupled with promotion of facilitating factors, is vital for enhancing opportunities for physical activity and reducing the risk of costly secondary conditions in this population. PMID:19486521

Kehn, Matthew; Kroll, Thilo

2009-01-01

65

Treadmill exercise reduces spinal cord injury-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis occurring secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) causes further neural damage and functional loss. In this study, a rat model was used to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on SCI-induced apoptosis and expression of neurotrophic factors. To produce SCI, a contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) was applied subsequent to laminectomy at the T9–T10 level. Following SCI, treadmill exercise was performed for six weeks. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated with a grid-walking test. The expression of neurotrophic factors and the level of apoptosis at the site of SCI were determined by western blotting. SCI reduced hindlimb motor function and suppressed expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the ratio of phosphorylated Akt to Akt (pAkt/Akt) and the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bax (Bcl-2/Bax) were decreased, and cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased by SCI. Treadmill exercise enhanced hindlimb motor function and increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise increased PI3K expression, the pAkt/Akt and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression in the injured spinal cord. This study demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes the recovery of motor function by suppressing apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. The beneficial effect of exercise may be attributed to the increase in expression of neurotrophic factors via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24520250

JUNG, SUN-YOUNG; KIM, DAE-YOUNG; YUNE, TAE YOUNG; SHIN, DONG-HOON; BAEK, SANG-BIN; KIM, CHANG-JU

2014-01-01

66

Acute and Prolonged Hindlimb Exercise Elicits Different Gene Expression in Motoneurons than Sensory Neurons after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

We examined gene expression in the lumbar spinal cord and the specific response of motoneurons, intermediate gray and proprioceptive sensory neurons after spinal cord injury and exercise of hindlimbs to identify potential molecular processes involved in activity dependent plasticity. Adult female rats received a low thoracic transection and passive cycling exercise for 1 or 4 weeks. Gene expression analysis focused on the neurotrophic factors; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and their receptors because of their potential roles in neural plasticity. We also examined expression of genes involved in the cellular response to injury; heat shock proteins (HSP) -27 and -70, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and caspases -3, -7, and -9. In lumbar cord samples, injury increased the expression of mRNA for TrkB, all three caspases and the HSPs. Acute and prolonged exercise increased expression of mRNA for the neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF, but not their receptors. It also increased HSP expression and decreased caspase-7 expression, with changes in protein levels complimentary to these changes in mRNA expression. Motoneurons and intermediate grey displayed little change in mRNA expression following injury, but acute and prolonged exercise increased levels of mRNA for BDNF, GDNF and NT-4. In large DRG neurons, mRNA for neurotrophic factors and their receptors were largely unaffected by either injury or exercise. However, caspase mRNA expression was increased by injury and decreased by exercise. Our results demonstrate that exercise affects expression of genes involved in plasticity and apoptosis in a cell specific manner and that these change with increased post-injury intervals and/or prolonged periods of exercise. PMID:22244304

Keeler, Benjamin E.; Liu, Gang; Siegfried, Rachel N.; Zhukareva, Victoria; Murray, Marion; Houlé, John D.

2011-01-01

67

Wind-up of stretch reflexes as a measure of spasticity in chronic spinalized rats: The effects of passive exercise and modafinil.  

PubMed

Spasticity is a common disorder following spinal cord injury that can impair function and quality of life. While a number of mechanisms are thought to play a role in spasticity, the role of motoneuron persistent inward currents (PICs) is emerging as pivotal. The presence of PICs can be evidenced by temporal summation or wind-up of reflex responses to brief afferent inputs. In this study, a combined neurophysiological and novel biomechanical approach was used to assess the effects of passive exercise and modafinil administration on hyper-reflexia and spasticity following complete T-10 transection in the rat. Animals were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and provided daily passive cycling exercise, oral modafinil, or no intervention. After 6weeks, animals were tested for wind-up of the stretch reflex (SR) during repeated dorsiflexion stretches of the ankle. H-reflexes were tested in a subset of animals. Both torque and gastrocnemius electromyography showed evidence of SR wind-up in the transection only group that was significantly different from both treatment groups (p<0.05). H-reflex frequency dependent depression was also restored to normal levels in both treatment groups. The results provide support for the use of passive cycling exercise and modafinil in the treatment of spasticity and provide insight into the possible contribution of PICs. PMID:20932828

Garrison, M Kevin; Yates, Charlotte C; Reese, Nancy B; Skinner, Robert D; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

2011-01-01

68

Exercise performance during captopril and atenolol treatment in hypertensive patients.  

PubMed Central

1. Maximal aerobic exercise capacity, submaximal endurance exercise performance, and exercise haemodynamics have been studied in sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension during treatment with captopril and atenolol. 2. Administration of atenolol (1 x 100 mg day-1) or captopril (1 x 100 mg day-1) for 6 weeks resulted in similar supine and erect systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heart rate was significantly lower during atenolol treatment. 3. Exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment, exercise diastolic blood pressure (at 100W) did not differ significantly. With atenolol exercise cardiac output was significantly lower and exercise stroke volume significantly higher than with captopril. 4. Maximal work rate, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal heart rate were significantly lower during atenolol than during captopril treatment (respectively 6%, 8% and 25%). Maximal respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentration did not differ. 5. No statistically significant difference in submaximal endurance time between atenolol and captopril was found. Endurance time was reduced by 19% during atenolol and by 13% during captopril as compared with placebo. No difference in rating of perceived exertion between atenolol and captopril was present. 6. The results indicate that atenolol will reduce blood pressure during exercise more effectively than captopril in patients with hypertension. The limitation of submaximal endurance exercise performance by both agents is of similar magnitude. This may be regarded as an unwanted side effect in certain physically active patients with hypertension. PMID:1768565

Van Baak, M A; Koene, F M; Verstappen, F T; Tan, E S

1991-01-01

69

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-03-01

70

Exercise as a treatment for osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of Review: This review highlights recent important research, future directions, and clinical applications for exercise and osteoarthritis. It focuses on knee osteoarthritis because of its prevalence and the dearth of research involving other joint osteoarthritis. The review covers exercise prescription for symptomatic relief, and its potential role in reducing development and slowing progression of osteoarthritis. Recent Findings: Meta-analyses support

Kim Bennell; Rana Hinman

2005-01-01

71

The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a burgeoning amount of evidence-based scientific data demonstrating the benefit of exercise during and following cancer treatment. This compelling evidence has resulted in major stakeholders in cancer management, including the American College of Sports Medicine, American Society of Clinical Oncology, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Cancer Society, Oncology Nursing Society, and the Commission on Cancer, advocating exercise as an integral component of cancer care. Despite the acknowledgment of exercise as an essential component, it remains virtually absent in routine cancer treatment. This article discusses the role of exercise in cancer treatment utilizing a community-based program. The rationale presented is that a scalable and replicable standard of care model is a plausible avenue to assimilate exercise into routine oncology practice. PMID:25014390

Kimmel, Gary T; Haas, Barbara K; Hermanns, Melinda

2014-01-01

72

Depression and Depression Treatment in Women With Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has documented high rates of depression in people with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, most SCI research is conducted with predominantly male study participants. Additional research is needed on depression and depression treatment among women with SCI. Objective: Study objectives were to examine depression, correlates of depression, and depression treatment in a sample of women with SCI. Methods: The sample included 51 ethnically and racially diverse women with SCI who participated in a larger study on secondary conditions of women with diverse physical disabilities. Recruited through health clinics and community organizations in a large metropolitan area, participants completed structured interviews that included demographic and disability characteristics and measures of health and health care utilization. Results: Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) indicated that 41% of the women had depressive symptomatology in the mild to severe range. BDI-II scores were significantly related to more severe secondary conditions, greater pain, and poorer health perceptions but not to demographic or disability variables. Nearly a third (n = 16) of the women had scores exceeding the standard cutoff for significant clinical depressive symptomatology, yet only 5 of those had received any treatment for depression in the past 3 months and only 1 had received counseling or psychotherapy. Lifelong depression treatment showed a similar pattern of predominantly pharmacologic treatment. Conclusion: Depression is a common problem for women with SCI, and many do not receive treatment, particularly psychological treatment. Disability-sensitive and affordable depression treatment must be made available to women with SCI. PMID:24574819

Robinson-Whelen, Susan

2014-01-01

73

Using Exercise to Enhance Subjective Well-Being Among People With Spinal Cord Injury: The Mediating Influences of Stress and Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess exercise as a strategy for reducing pain and improving subjective well-being (SWB) among people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Randomized controlled trial. Method and Participants: Thirty-four individuals with SCI. Exercisers performed aerobic and resistance training twice weekly, whereas wait-list controls maintained their usual level of activity. Results: Analyses of covariance indicated that after 3 months, exercisers

Kathleen A. Martin Ginis; Amy E. Latimer; Kyle McKechnie; David S. Ditor; Neil McCartney; Audrey L. Hicks; Joanne Bugaresti; B. Catharine Craven

2003-01-01

74

Exercise Training and Parkinson's Disease: Placebo or Essential Treatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exercise training is often recommended for people with Parkinson's disease, though there is debate about the pathophysiologic cause of impaired movement in Parkinsonism which makes it difficult to develop a specific exercise treatment for symptoms that include hypokinesia, tremor, and muscular rigidity. Most published studies show a benefit of…

Reuter, Iris; Engelhardt, Martin

2002-01-01

75

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... position with very little effort, while resting. By lying on your back with as thin a pillow ... Selecting Exercises... continued Supine retraction (Figure 3): While lying on your back with your head in neutral ...

76

Spinal segmental stabilisation exercises for chronic low back pain: programme adherence and its influence on clinical outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise rehabilitation is one of the few evidence-based treatments for chronic non-specific low back pain (cLBP), but individual\\u000a success is notoriously variable and may depend on the patient’s adherence to the prescribed exercise regime. This prospective\\u000a study examined factors associated with adherence and the relationship between adherence and outcome after a programme of physiotherapeutic\\u000a spine stabilisation exercises. A total of

Anne F. Mannion; Daniel Helbling; Natascha Pulkovski; Haiko Sprott

2009-01-01

77

Psychology treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Rehabilitation psychologists are integral members of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation teams. Objective To describe specific information regarding types and intensity of treatments delivered by rehabilitation psychologists to patients with various levels of SCI. Methods Utilizing a taxonomy of psychological interventions as a framework, rehabilitation psychologists documented time spent on specific psychology interventions for each interaction they had with 600 patients with traumatic SCI at 6 inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Associations of patient and injury characteristics with time spent on various psychological interventions were examined using ordinary least squares stepwise regression models. Results Psychologists focus the majority of the time they spend with patients with SCI on psychotherapeutic interventions of processing emotions, emotional adjustment, and family coping, while educational efforts focus mostly on coping and adjusting to the new injury. There was wide variation in the amount of time spent on psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational interventions; patient, injury, and clinician characteristics explained little of the variation in time spent. Conclusions Variations observed in psychological treatment delivery mirror real-world human complexity and clinical experience; they are not explained well by patient and injury characteristics and set the stage for future analyses to associate treatments with outcomes. PMID:21675358

Huston, Toby; Gassaway, Julie; Wilson, Catherine; Gordon, Samuel; Koval, Jill; Schwebel, Andrea

2011-01-01

78

The role of the psychologist in the treatment of spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the treatment of spinal cord injury have shifted the emphasis from problems of survival to problems of psychological integration into the community. However, the patient's expectations for a fairly normal life are often not realised because of discrimination against disabled persons by able-bodied persons. Therefore, rehabilitation should include psychosocial skills training to teach spinal cord injury persons to

Roberta B Trieschmann

1978-01-01

79

Antisense Oligonucleotides for the Treatment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting ?1 in 10,000 live births. The most striking component is the loss of ?-motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, resulting in progressive paralysis and eventually premature death. There is no current treatment paradigm other than supportive care, though the past 15 years has seen a striking advancement in understanding of both SMA genetics and molecular mechanisms. A variety of disease-modifying interventions are rapidly bridging the translational gap from the laboratory to clinical trials, including the application of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapy for the correction of aberrant RNA splicing characteristic of SMA. Survival motor neuron (SMN) is a ubiquitously expressed 38-kD protein. Humans have two genes that produce SMN, SMN1 and SMN2, the former of which is deleted or nonfunctional in the majority of patients with SMA. These two genes are nearly identical with one exception, a C to T transition (C6T) within exon 7 of SMN2. C6T disrupts a modulator of splicing, leading to the exclusion of exon 7 from ?90% of the mRNA transcript. The resultant truncated ?7SMN protein does not oligomerize efficiently and is rapidly degraded. SMA can therefore be considered a disease of too little SMN protein. A number of cis-acting splice modifiers have been identified in the region of exon 7, the steric block of which enhances the retention of the exon and a resultant full-length mRNA sequence. ASOs targeted to these splice motifs have shown impressive phenotype rescue in multiple SMA mouse models. PMID:23544870

Porensky, Paul N.

2013-01-01

80

Cycling Exercise Affects the Expression of Apoptosis-Associated microRNAs after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

There are two major aspects to a spinal cord injury (SCI): an acute, primary mechanical trauma and a progressive phase of secondary tissue damage provoked by inflammation, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and demyelination. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, ~22 nucleotide, non-protein-coding RNAs that function at the post-transcriptional level to regulate gene expression. They have important roles in homeostatic processes such as cell proliferation and programmed cell death. In the injured rat spinal cord we performed an expression analysis of miRs and their downstream targets involved in apoptotic pathways and used post-injury cycling exercise to test for activity dependent plasticity of miR expression. We show that SCI results in increased expression of miR Let-7a and miR16 while exercise leads to elevated levels of miR21 and decreased levels of miR15b. These changes in miR expression are correlated with changes in expression of their target genes: pro-apoptotic (decreased PTEN, PDCD4 and RAS mRNA) and anti-apoptotic (increased Bcl-2 mRNA) target genes. This is accompanied by a down regulation of mRNA for caspase-7 and caspase-9 and reduced levels of caspase-7 protein. These results indicates possible beneficial effects of exercise through action on multiple miRs and their targets that contribute to the functional regulation of apoptosis after SCI. PMID:20816819

Liu, Gang; Keeler, Benjamin E.; Zhukareva, Victoria; Houlé, John D.

2010-01-01

81

Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs) proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously shown that melatonin (MT) plus exercise (Ex) had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups. These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI. PMID:24487506

Lee, Youngjeon; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Park, Kanghui; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Minkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Jin, Yunho; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

2014-01-01

82

Effects of a Home Exercise Program on the Self-report Disability Index and Gait Parameters in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The present study was performed to identify the effect of a home exercise program on the self-reported disability index and gait parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). [Methods] Fifteen patients with LSS were enrolled in this study and were trained in a 4-week home exercise program (40?min/day). All patients were evaluated with three self-reported disability indices (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Spinal Stenosis Scale), and gait parameters were assessed using a GAITRite system before and after the home exercise program. [Results] Patients with LSS showed significant decreases in the self-reported questionnaire scores and pain intensity after the home exercise program. However, the gait parameters did not significantly change. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that home exercise programs can improve self-reported questionnaire scores and decrease pain in patients with LSS. PMID:24648654

Kim, Eui-Ryong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Yang-Gon; Oh, Jae-Seop

2014-01-01

83

Infertility in Men with Spinal Cord Injury: Research and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men. Following SCI, most men are infertile due to a combination of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Erectile dysfunction may be treated by the same therapies that are used in the general population. Similarly, the same treatments that are effective to assist conception in couples with non-SCI male factor patients are effective in assisting conception in SCI male-factor patients. The most apparent differences in male-factor symptoms between SCI and non-SCI patients are the high occurrences of anejaculation and atypical semen profiles in men with SCI. Methods available to assist ejaculation in men with SCI include penile vibratory stimulation and EEJ. Use of surgical sperm retrieval as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with SCI is controversial. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm concentration, but abnormally low sperm motility. Toxic substances in the semen contribute to this problem. Despite impaired sperm parameters, pregnancy outcomes using sperm from men with SCI are similar to pregnancy outcomes using sperm from non-SCI men. Future studies should focus on improving natural ejaculation and improving semen quality in these men. PMID:24278717

Brackett, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

84

Neurological Outcome after Surgical Treatment of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors  

PubMed Central

Objective Recently, surgical outcomes of patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) have been improved due to advances of medicine. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the recent neurological outcomes after surgical treatment of IMSCTs. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 69 patients who underwent surgical treatment for IMSCT in our hospital between 1998 and 2013. Patient's age, sex, histological origin and grade, tumor location, tumor extension, preoperative neurological state, initial presenting symptom, and extend of tumor resection were analyzed to evaluate predictive factors that affect postoperative functional outcome. Results The neurological states at last follow-up were improved in 16 patients (23.2%), unchanged in 47 (68.1%), aggravated in 6 (8.7%). In all patients, the functional outcomes were good in 52 patients (75.4%), fair in 10 (14.5%), poor in 7 (10.1%). Preoperative good neurological state was the strongest positive predictor of good functional outcome (p<0.05). In tumor location, functional outcomes of thoracic tumors were poor than those in cervical and conus medullaris region (p=0.011). High-grade tumor shows poor outcome compare to low-grade tumor (p=0.03). Conclusion The most reliable predicting factor of surgical outcome was the preoperative neurological state. In addition, IMSCTs in thoracic region and high-grade tumor showed relatively bad outcome and had a risk of postoperative morbidity.

Lee, Sang-Min; Cho, Yong-Eun

2014-01-01

85

Oxygen consumption during functional electrical stimulation-assisted exercise in persons with spinal cord injury: implications for fitness and health.  

PubMed

A lesion in the spinal cord leads in most cases to a significant reduction in active muscle mass, whereby the paralysed muscles cannot contribute to oxygen consumption (VO2) during exercise. Consequently, persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) can only achieve high VO2 values by excessively stressing the upper body musculature, which might increase the risk of musculoskeletal overuse injury. Alternatively, the muscle mass involved may be increased by using functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES-assisted cycling, FES-cycling combined with arm cranking (FES-hybrid exercise) and FES-rowing have all been suggested as candidates for cardiovascular training in SCI. In this article, we review the levels of VO2 (peak [VO2peak] and sub-peak [VO2sub-peak]) that have been reported for SCI subjects using these FES exercise modalities. A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SportDiscus and the authors' own files revealed 35 studies that reported on 499 observations of VO2 levels achieved during FES-exercise in SCI. The results show that VO2peak during FES-rowing (1.98 L/min, n = 17; 24.1 mL/kg/min, n = 11) and FES-hybrid exercise (1.78 L/min, n = 67; 26.5 mL/kg/min, n = 35) is considerably higher than during FES-cycling (1.05 L/min, n = 264; 14.3 mL/kg/min, n = 171). VO2sub-peak values during FES-hybrid exercise were higher than during FES-cycling. FES-exercise training can produce large increases in VO2peak; the included studies report average increases of +11% after FES-rowing training, +12% after FES-hybrid exercise training and +28% after FES-cycling training. This review shows that VO2 during FES-rowing or FES-hybrid exercise is considerably higher than during FES-cycling. These observations are confirmed by a limited number of direct comparisons; larger studies to test the differences in effectiveness of the various types of FES-exercise as cardiovascular exercise are needed. The results to date suggest that FES-rowing and FES-hybrid are more suited for high-intensity, high-volume exercise training than FES-cycling. In able-bodied people, such exercise programmes have shown to result in superior health and fitness benefits. Future research should examine whether similar high-intensity and high-volume exercise programmes also give persons with SCI superior fitness and health benefits. This kind of research is very timely given the high incidence of physical inactivity-related health conditions in the aging SCI population. PMID:18803435

Hettinga, Dries M; Andrews, Brian J

2008-01-01

86

Percutaneous vertebroplasty with methyl methacrylate bone cement in the treatment of spinal angiomas and neoplasms.  

PubMed

Background. The authors report their own experience with percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a technique which allows to inject acrylic surgical cement into the vertebral body. This is minimally invasive method indicated in treatment of certain spinal lesions affecting the vertebral bodies, as osteoporotic fractures, angiomas and focal neoplasms.
Material and methods. Since October 1999 the authors treated 7 patients with angiomas of the vertebral bodies and 11 patients with spinal neoplasms. Cement injections were realized under local anesthesia.
Results. In group of 7 cases with spinal metastases 3 patients declared important pain relief. All 7 patients with spinal angiomas declared no pain in follow-up.
Conclusions. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is well-tolerated by patients. Filling by cement is efficace in treatment of vertebral angiomas. Filling of spinal neoplasmatic lesions result in palliative pain relief. PMID:18034003

Zapa?owicz, Krzysztof; Radek, Andrzej; B?aszczyk, Bogdan; Kozi?ski, Tadeusz; Zelechowski, Jerzy

2003-04-30

87

Active exercises utilizing a facilitating device in the treatment of lymphedema resulting from breast cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in volume of arm lymphedema secondary to breast cancer therapy utilizing an exercise facilitating device. Twenty-one women with arm lymphedema resulting from the surgical and radiotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer were randomly selected. Evaluation was made by water-displacement volumetry before and after each session. The patients were submitted to a series of active exercises using a facilitating device for four 12-minute sessions with intervals of 3 minutes between sessions in the sitting position with alignment of the spinal column. The lymphedematous arm was maintained under compression using a cotton-polyester sleeve. The active exercising device used was a mobile flexion bar fixed on a metal base at a height of 30 cm from the tabletop and at a distance of 10 cm from the patient’s body. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (p-value ?0.05) being considered significant. The initial mean volume of the arms was 2,089.9 and the final volume was 2,023.0 mL with a mean loss of 66.9 mL (p-value <0.001). In conclusion, active exercises utilizing facilitating devices can contribute to a reduction in size of lymphedematous limbs. PMID:21139989

de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria; Oliani, Antonio Helio; Pereira de Godoy, Jose Maria

2010-01-01

88

The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension during physiotherapy treatment in patients with an acute spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Prospective, observational.Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH), its associated signs and symptoms, and the resulting limitation to treatment during initial physiotherapy treatments involving mobilisation for patients with an acute spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting: Spinal Injuries Units, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre, Adelaide, South Australia.Methods: Fourteen of 17 consecutive patients admitted with an acute

A Illman; K Stiller; M Williams

2000-01-01

89

Exercise as an Effective Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes and the associated comorbidity of obesity, there has been increased demand\\u000a to develop effective treatment programs. Exercise has been traditionally associated with a number of health benefits, including\\u000a increased insulin sensitivity, but remains an underused modality. Although certain contraindications exist for those individuals\\u000a with health complications, exercise can be a safe and

Leslie A. Consitt; Kristen E. Boyle; Joseph A. Houmard

90

A new classification and guide for surgical treatment of spinal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

So far, there is no widely accepted classification system based on objective findings that can serve as a guide in selecting the treatment method for spinal tuberculosis. This retrospective study evaluates patients with spinal tuberculosis (Pott’s disease) treated with different surgical procedures. Our aim was to outline a new classification of spinal tuberculosis. A retrospective review of 76 cases (55 male and 25 female patients) of spinal tuberculosis was conducted. Five of the patients were treated medically, and the others who were treated surgically were classified into three types (I, II and III) according to the new classification system for spinal tuberculosis. All 76 patients were classifiable by this new system. The most common complication observed was local kyphosis (maximum 8 degrees) in type-II patients, but none of the patients needed correction. No neurological deterioration was observed in any of the cases. This new classification system helps in differentiating the various manifestations of spinal tuberculosis and appears to correlate with the surgical treatment of spinal tuberculosis. We believe that this new classification system can be used as a practical guide in the treatment of Pott’s disease. PMID:17206497

Sehirlioglu, A.; Altinmakas, M.; Ozturk, C.; Komurcu, M.; Solakoglu, C.; Vaccaro, A. R.

2007-01-01

91

nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.3 | MARCH2012 | 297 understanding and treatment of spinal cord pathology  

E-print Network

tumors, syringeomyelia, myelitis and spinal cord ischemia. For example, time-lapse in vivo studiesArticles nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.3 | MARCH2012 | 297 understanding and treatment of spinal cord multiphoton microscopy of mouse spinal cord without the need for repeat surgical procedures. We routinely

Cai, Long

92

Different effect of locomotor exercise on the homogenate concentration of amino acids and monoamines in the rostral and caudal lumbar segments of the spinal cord in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: The effect of long-term (4 weeks) moderate locomotor exercise on segmental distribution of glutamate (Glu), aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine (Gly), serotonin and noradrenaline in the spinal cord of adult rats was investigated.Objectives: In light of the data showing modulation of some neurotransmitters in the low-lumbar segments of the rat due to physical exercise, our aim was to establish

M Skup; M Wiater; E Górnicka; M Walentynowicz; J Czarkowska-Bauch

2007-01-01

93

Effectiveness of an Upper Extremity Exercise Device Integrated With Computer Gaming for Aerobic Training in Adolescents With Spinal Cord Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: To determine whether a new upper extremity exercise device integrated with a video game (GameCycle) requires sufficient metabolic demand and effort to induce an aerobic training effect and to explore the feasibility of using this system as an exercise modality in an exercise intervention. Design: Pre-post intervention. Setting: University-based research facility. Subject Population: A referred sample of 8 adolescent subjects with spina bifida (4 girls, 15.5 ± 0.6 years; 4 boys, 17.5 ± 0.9 years) was recruited to participate in the project. All subjects had some level of mobility impairment that did not allow them to participate in mainstream sports available to their nondisabled peers. Five subjects used a wheelchair full time, one used a wheelchair occasionally, but walked with forearm crutches, and 2 were fully ambulatory, but had impaired gait. Main Outcome Measures: Peak oxygen uptake, maximum work output, aerobic endurance, peak heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and user satisfaction. Results: Six of the 8 subjects were able to reach a Vo2 of at least 50% of their Vo2 reserve while using the GameCycle. Seven of the 8 subjects reached a heart rate of at least 50% of their heart rate reserve. One subject did not reach either 50% of Vo2 reserve or 50% of heart rate reserve. Seven of the 8 subjects increased their maximum work capability after training with the GameCycle at least 3 times per week for 16 weeks. Conclusions: The data suggest that the GameCycle seems to be adequate as an exercise device to improve oxygen uptake and maximum work capability in adolescents with lower extremity disability caused by spinal cord dysfunction. The subjects in this study reported that the video game component was enjoyable and provided a motivation to exercise. PMID:17044386

Widman, Lana M; McDonald, Craig M; Abresch, R. Ted

2006-01-01

94

Predictive Ability of Pender's Health Promotion Model for Physical Activity and Exercise in People with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to validate Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) as a motivational model for exercise/physical activity self-management for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Quantitative descriptive research design using hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) was used. A total of 126 individuals with SCI were recruited…

Keegan, John P.; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Chiu, Chung-Yi

2012-01-01

95

Does Supervised Exercise Offer Adjuvant Benefit Over Exercise Advice Alone for the Treatment of Intermittent Claudication? A Randomised Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Exercise advice is the main treatment for symptom relief in the UK for patients with mild to moderate Intermittent Claudication (IC). Would a weekly exercise and motivation class for 6 months offer adjuvant benefit over written and verbal exercise advice alone?Patients and methods. Fifty-nine patients attending a regional vascular centre for whom IC was the main factor affecting mobility

D. R Cheetham; L Burgess; M Ellis; A Williams; R. M Greenhalgh; A. H Davies

2004-01-01

96

Nineteenth century exercise clinics for the treatment of scoliosis.  

PubMed

Scoliosis is the abnormal lateral curvature and rotation of the spine. In the past this deformity has been linked with moral depravity, as in the case of Richard III. Treatment for scoliosis began with Hippocrates's use of boards and axial distortion. Today, bracing and surgery are used either to correct the deformity or to prevent further progression. In the past, however, exercise regimens have been used in the belief that strengthening back muscles would reduce curvature progression. This approach was pioneered by Per Henrik Ling in the early nineteenth century and was continued by his followers Mathius Roth and Franz Berwald and, most notably, by Gustav Zander. Even today a few clinics, particularly in Eastern Europe, still use exercise in the treatment of scoliosis. Whether it is effective remains debatable, but even if progression is not prevented the patient's general health will benefit from an exercise regimen. PMID:25318403

Elsaesser, S; Butler, A R

2014-09-01

97

Spinal deformity in neurofibromatosis type-1: diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal deformity is the commonest orthopaedic manifestation in neurofibromatosis type-1 and is categorized into dystrophic and non-dystrophic types. Management should be based on a meticulous assessment of the spine with plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out the presence of dysplastic features that will determine prognosis and surgical planning. MRI of the whole spine should also be

Athanasios I. Tsirikos; Asif Saifuddin; M Hilali Noordeen

2005-01-01

98

Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Malignant Spinal Cord Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord compression is a complication of malignancy that affects the quality of life of 12,700 new patients each year and disrupts the lives of the families striving to care for them. Compression can be prevented by early diagnosis, which requires a high index of suspicion on the part of patients, their families, and their clinicians. Disability aris- ing from

Janet L. Abrahm

2004-01-01

99

Treating Back-Related Leg Pain with Spinal Manipulation and Home Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients assigned to HEA alone met with a chiropractor, exercise therapist, or personal trainer for four 1- ... received the HEA intervention and also visited a chiropractor up to 20 times for 10 to 20 ...

100

Tibial bone density loss in spinal cord injured patients : Effects of FES exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

cord injury. tomography scanner, the OsteoQuant ®. Fifteen of these patients had follow-up measurements while enrolled in a lower-limb exercise training program with functional electrical stimulation (FES) . The pre-exercise measure- ments revealed a strong correlation (0 .88

Thomas N. Hangartner; Mary M. Rodgers; Roger M. Glaser; Peter S. Barre

101

Exercise and the treatment of diabetes and obesity.  

PubMed

Lifestyle intervention programs encompassing exercise and healthy diets are an option for the treatment and management of obesity and type 2 diabetes and have long been known to exert beneficial effects on whole-body metabolism, in particular leading to enhanced insulin-sensitivity. Obesity is associated with increased risk of several illnesses and premature mortality. However, physical inactivity is itself associated with a number of similar risks, independent of body-mass index, and is an independent risk factor for more than 25 chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This article addresses the debate regarding the relative effects of physical exercise itself and the effect of exercise-induced weight loss. PMID:19026938

O'Gorman, Donal J; Krook, Anna

2008-12-01

102

Longitudinal relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in patients with spinal cord injury: A cohort study in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Objective To examine the relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury from the start of active inpatient rehabilitation up to 5 years after discharge. Design Prospective cohort study. Subjects Persons with spinal cord injury, aged 18-65 years, and wheelchair dependent at least for long distances. Method Measurements at the start of active rehabilitation, after 3 months, at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and 1 and 5 years after discharge. A peak wheelchair exercise test was performed to record peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak power output (POpeak). Life satisfaction was measured as current life satisfaction and change of life satisfaction in comparison with life after spinal cord injury. Relationships between (changes in) exercise capacity and (changes in) life satisfaction were analyzed random coefficient analysis, corrected for possible confounders (age, gender, level of lesion, functional status, secondary impairments, pain, and sports activity) if necessary. Results Of 225 persons included, 130 attended two or more peak exercise tests, who were include in the analyses. Mean age at start was 39 years, 75% were male, 73% had paraplegia, and 76% had a traumatic lesion. Mean POpeak increased during the study from 32.9 to 55.9 Watts, mean VO2peak from 1.02  to 1.38 l/minute, and mean life satisfaction from 5.7 to 7.8. An increase of POpeak with 10 W was associated with a 0.3-point increase of life satisfaction (P = 0.01). An increase of VO2peak with 0.1 l/minute was associated with a 0.1-point increase of life satisfaction (P = 0.049). Conclusion High(er) wheelchair exercise capacity is related to high(er) life satisfaction in spinal cord injury patients. PMID:24621019

van Koppenhagen, Casper Floris; Post, Marcel; de Groot, Sonja; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Asbeck, Floris; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke; van der Woude, Lucas; Lindeman, Eline

2014-05-01

103

Histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential treatment for spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Histone acetylation plays an important role in regulation of transcription in eukaryotic cells by promoting a more relaxed chromatin structure necessary for transcriptional activation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups and suppress gene expression. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) are a group of small molecules that promote gene transcription by chromatin remodeling and have been extensively studied as potential drugs for treating of spinal muscular atrophy. Various drugs in this class have been studied with regard to their efficacy in increasing the expression of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. In this review, we discuss the current literature on this topic and summarize the findings of the main studies in this field. PMID:24130434

Mohseni, Jafar; Zabidi-Hussin, Z.A.M.H.; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

2013-01-01

104

Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of Current Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event often resulting in permanent neurologic deficit. Research has revealed an\\u000a understanding of mechanisms that occur after the primary injury and contribute to functional loss. By targeting these secondary\\u000a mechanisms of injury, clinicians may be able to offer improved recovery after SCI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  In this review, we highlight advances in the field of SCI

David W. Cadotte; Michael G. Fehlings

2011-01-01

105

Spinal segmental stabilisation exercises for chronic low back pain: programme adherence and its influence on clinical outcome.  

PubMed

Exercise rehabilitation is one of the few evidence-based treatments for chronic non-specific low back pain (cLBP), but individual success is notoriously variable and may depend on the patient's adherence to the prescribed exercise regime. This prospective study examined factors associated with adherence and the relationship between adherence and outcome after a programme of physiotherapeutic spine stabilisation exercises. A total of 32/37 patients with cLBP completed the study (mean age, 44.0 (SD = 12.3) years; 11/32 (34%) male). Adherence to the 9-week programme was documented as: percent attendance at therapy, percent adherence to daily home exercises (patient diary) and percent commitment to rehabilitation (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS)). The average of these three measures formed a multidimensional adherence index (MAI). Psychological disturbance, fear-avoidance beliefs, catastrophising, exercise self-efficacy and health locus of control were measured by questionnaire; disability in everyday activities was scored with the Roland-Morris disability scale and back pain intensity with a 0-10 graphic rating scale. Overall, adherence to therapy was very good (average MAI score, 85%; median (IQR), 89 (15)%). The only psychological/beliefs variable showing a unique significant association with MAI was exercise self-efficacy (Rho = 0.36, P = 0.045). Pain intensity and self-rated disability decreased significantly after therapy (each P < 0.01). Adherence to home exercises showed a moderate, positive correlation with the reduction in average pain (Rho = 0.54, P = 0.003) and disability (Rho = 0.38, P = 0.036); higher MAI scores were associated with greater reductions in average pain (Rho = 0.48, P = 0.008) and a (n.s.) tendency for greater reductions in disability (Rho = 0.32, P = 0.07) Neither attendance at therapy nor SIRAS were significantly related to any of the outcomes. The benefits of rehabilitation depended to a large extent on the patient's exercise behaviour outside of the formal physiotherapy sessions. Hence, more effort should be invested in finding ways to improve patients' motivation to take responsibility for the success of their own therapy, perhaps by increasing exercise self-efficacy. Whether the "adherence-outcome" interaction was mediated by improvements in function related to the specific exercises, or by a more "global" effect of the programme, remains to be examined. PMID:19609785

Mannion, Anne F; Helbling, Daniel; Pulkovski, Natascha; Sprott, Haiko

2009-12-01

106

Exercise attitudes and behaviors among persons in treatment for alcohol use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated self-reported exercise behaviors and exercise-related attitudes in a sample (N = 105) of adults in treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD) (abuse or dependence). Slightly less than half (47%) of participants reported engaging in regular physical exercise (3 times per week or more). Level of alcohol dependence was not significantly associated with level of physical exercise

Jennifer P Read; Richard A Brown; Bess H Marcus; Christopher W Kahler; Susan E Ramsey; Mary Ella Dubreuil; John M Jakicic; Caren Francione

2001-01-01

107

Spinal cord tumours: advances in genetics and their implications for treatment  

PubMed Central

Tumours of the spinal cord, although rare, are associated with high morbidity. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for patients with this disease, and offers the best chance for cure. Such surgical procedures, however, carry substantial risks such as worsening of neurological deficit, paralysis and death. New therapeutic avenues for spinal cord tumours are needed, but genetic studies of the molecular mechanisms governing tumourigenesis in the spinal cord are limited by the scarcity of high-quality human tumour samples. Many spinal cord tumours have intracranial counterparts that have been extensively studied, but emerging data show that the tumours are genetically and biologically distinct. The differences between brain and spine tumours make extrapolation of data from one to the other difficult. In this Review, we describe the demographics, genetics and current treatment approaches for the most commonly encountered spinal cord tumours—namely, ependymomas, astrocytomas, haemangioblastomas and meningiomas. We highlight advances in understanding of the biological basis of these lesions, and explain how the latest progress in genetics and beyond are being translated to improve patient care. PMID:23528542

Zadnik, Patricia L.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Burger, Peter C.; Bettegowda, Chetan

2014-01-01

108

Limited effect of fly-wheel and spinal mobilization exercise countermeasures on lumbar spine deconditioning during 90 d bed-rest in the Toulouse LTBR study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the effect of high-load fly-wheel (targeting the lower-limb musculature and concurrent loading of the spine via shoulder restraints) and spinal movement countermeasures against lumbar spine muscle atrophy, disc and spinal morphology changes and trunk isokinetic torque loss during prolonged bed-rest. Twenty-four male subjects underwent 90 d head-down tilt bed-rest and performed either fly-wheel (FW) exercises every three days, spinal movement exercises in lying five times daily (SpMob), or no exercise (Ctrl). There was no significant impact of countermeasures on losses of isokinetic trunk flexion/extension ( p?0.65). Muscle volume change by day-89 of bed-rest in the psoas, iliacus, lumbar erector spinae, lumbar multifidus and quadratus lumborum, as measured via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was statistically similar in all three groups ( p?0.33). No significant effect on MRI-measures of lumbar intervertebral disc volume, spinal length and lordosis ( p?0.09) were seen either, but there was some impact ( p?0.048) on axial plane disc dimensions (greater reduction than in Ctrl) and disc height (greater increases than in Ctrl). MRI-data from subjects measured 13 and 90-days after bed-rest showed partial recovery of the spinal extensor musculature by day-13 after bed-rest with this process complete by day-90. Some changes in lumbar spine and disc morphology parameters were still persistent 90-days after bed-rest. The present results indicate that the countermeasures tested were not optimal to maintain integrity of the spine and trunk musculature during bed rest.

Belavý, Daniel L.; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter

2011-09-01

109

Spinal cord stimulation as adjuvant during chemotherapy and reirradiation treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Aims. Relapsed high-grade gliomas (HGGs) have poor prognoses and there is no standard treatment. HGGs have ischemia/hypoxia associated and, as such, drugs and oxygen have low access, with increased resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumor hypoxia modification can improve outcomes and overall survival in some patients with these tumors. In previous works, we have described that cervical spinal cord stimulation can modify tumor microenvironment in HGG by increasing tumor blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism. The aim of this current, preliminary, nonrandomized, study was to assess the clinical effect of spinal cord stimulation during brain reirradiation and chemotherapy deployed for the treatment of recurrent HGG; the hypothesis being that an improvement in oxygenated blood supply would facilitate enhanced delivery of the scheduled therapy. Materials and methods. Seven patients had spinal cord stimulation applied during the scheduled reirradiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent HGG (6 anaplastic gliomas and 1 glioblastoma). Median dose of previous irradiation was 60 Gy (range = 56-72 Gy) and median dose of reirradiation was 46 Gy (range = 40-46 Gy). Primary end point of the study was overall survival (OS) following confirmation of HGG relapse. Results. From the time of diagnosis of last tumor relapse before reirradiation, median OS was 39 months (95% CI = 0-93) for the overall study group: 39 months (95% CI = 9-69) for those with anaplastic gliomas and 16 months for the patient with glioblastoma. Posttreatment, doses of corticosteroids was significantly decreased (P = .026) and performance status significantly improved (P = .046). Conclusions. Spinal cord stimulation during reirradiation and chemotherapy is feasible and well tolerated. In our study, spinal cord stimulation was associated with clinical improvement and longer survival than previously reported in recurrent anaplastic gliomas. Spinal cord stimulation as adjuvant during chemotherapy and reirradiation in relapsed HGGs merits further research. PMID:25228535

Clavo, Bernardino; Robaina, Francisco; Jorge, Ignacio J; Cabrera, Raquel; Ruiz-Egea, Eugenio; Szolna, Adam; Otermin, Emilio; Llontop, Pedro; Carames, Miguel A; Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Sminia, Peter

2014-11-01

110

Patient-based outcomes for the operative treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: A retrospective surgical case series was conducted using a condition-specific, patient-based outcomes assessment. Objective: The goal of this study was to describe the outcome predictors of decompressive surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Summary of background data: Surgical decompression is the recommended treatment for patients with moderate to severe DLSS. Previous studies have reported that factors such

Samo K. Fokter; Scott A. Yerby

2006-01-01

111

Pain and quality of life in patients undergoing radiotherapy for spinal metastatic disease treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Radiotherapy is an important tool in the control of pain in patients with spinal metastatic disease. We aimed to evaluate pain and of quality of life of patients with spinal metastatic disease undergoing radiotherapy with supportive treatment. Methods The study enrolled 30 patients. From January 2008 to January 2010, patients selection included those treated with a 20 Gy tumour dose in five fractions. Patients completed the visual analogue scale for pain assessment and the SF-36 questionnaire for quality of life assessment. Results The most frequent primary sites were breast, multiple myeloma, prostate and lymphoma. It was found that 14 spinal metastatic disease patients (46.66%) had restricted involvement of three or fewer vertebrae, while 16 patients (53.33%) had cases involving more than three vertebrae. The data from the visual analogue scale evaluation of pain showed that the average initial score was 5.7 points, the value 30 days after the end of radiotherapy was 4.60 points and the average value 6 months after treatment was 4.25 points. Notably, this final value was 25.43% lower than the value from the initial analysis. With regard to the quality of life evaluation, only the values for the functional capability and social aspects categories of the questionnaire showed significant improvement. Conclusion Radiotherapy with supportive treatment appears to be an important tool for the treatment of pain in patients with spinal metastatic disease. PMID:23418821

2013-01-01

112

Treatment of pathologic spinal fractures with combined radiofrequency ablation and balloon kyphoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In oncologic patients with metastatic spinal disease, the ideal treatment should be well tolerated, relieve the pain, and preserve or restore the neurological function. The combination of fluoroscopic guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and kyphoplasty may fulfill these criteria. METHODS: We describe three pathological vertebral fractures treated with a combination of fluoroscopic guided RFA and kyphoplasty in one session: a

Pavlos Katonis; Dritan Pasku; Kalliopi Alpantaki; Artan Bano; George Tzanakakis; Apostolos Karantanas

2009-01-01

113

Sildenafil in the Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction in Spinal Cord–Injured Male Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in spinal cord–injury (SCI) patients. Moreover, we looked for neurological conditions permitting therapeutic success and for the ideal dose needed to achieve sufficient erections.Methods: 41 SCI patients were prospectively examined. Sexual dysfunction was assessed by means of anamnesis,

Daniel Max Schmid; Brigitte Schurch; Dieter Hauri

2000-01-01

114

Menstrual state and exercise as determinants of spinal trabecular bone density in female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the effects of amenorrhoea and intensive back exercise on the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in female athletes. DESIGN--Cross sectional study comparing amenorrhoeic with eumenorrhoeic athletes and rowers with non-rowers. SETTING--The British Olympic Medical Centre, Northwick Park Hospital. PATIENTS--46 Elite female athletes comprising 19 rowers, 18 runners, and nine dancers, of whom 25 were amenorrhoeic and

R L Wolman; P Clark; E McNally; M Harries; J Reeve

1990-01-01

115

Totally extradural spinal en plaque meningiomas - Diagnostic dilemmas and treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Background: Meningiomas are the second most common intraspinal tumors, constituting ~25% of all intraspinal tumors; however, in the context of extradural spinal lesions, the diagnosis of meningioma is an uncommon one. Purely extradural spinal meningiomas, especially of the en plaque variety, frequently mimic metastatic disease and may result in inadequate therapy. Case Description: We report two cases of totally extradural en-plaque meningiomas of the spine, one each in the cervical and dorsal spine. We present the significant diagnostic dilemmas posed by these cases and discuss the pathogenesis, treatment strategies, and long-term behavior of these uncommon lesions. Conclusion: Attention needs to be drawn to this dangerous preoperative and intraoperative misinterpretation. Intraoperative histopathology support for correct identification, gross total resection at surgery, inclusion of a durotomy to rule out intradural extension, and long-term follow-up are cornerstones for successful management of totally extradural en plaque spinal meningiomas.

Savardekar, Amey; Chatterjee, Debarshi; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Mohindra, Sandeep; Salunke, Pravin

2014-01-01

116

Rationale for Using Exercise in the Treatment of Stimulant Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence are needed. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse. In addition, exercise has been associated with improvements in many other health-related areas that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight, quality of life, and anhedonia. Neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes in stimulant abuse. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. If effective, exercise may provide an additional approach to the treatment of stimulant use disorders.

Greer, Tracy L.; Ring, Kolette M.; Warden, Diane; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Church, Timothy S.; Somoza, Eugene; Blair, Steven N.; Szapocznik, Jose; Stoutenberg, Mark; Rethorst, Chad; Walker, Robrina; Morris, David W.; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Kyle, Tiffany; Marcus, Bess; Crowell, Becca; Oden, Neal; Nunes, Edward; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

2013-01-01

117

Surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. A case series  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous distraction devices (IPDD) are indicated as stand-alone devices for the treatment of spinal stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis with a combination of unilateral microdecompression and interspinous distraction device insertion. Methods This is a prospective clinical and radiological study of minimum 2 years follow-up. Twenty-two patients (average age 64.5 years) with low-back pain and unilateral sciatica underwent decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry Disability Index and walking capacity plus radiologic measurements of posterior disc height of the involved level and lumbar lordosis Cobb angle were documented both preoperatively and postoperatively. One-sided posterior subarticular and foraminal decompression was conducted followed by dynamic stabilization of the diseased level with an IPDD (X-STOP). Results The average follow-up time was 27.4 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index improved statistically significantly (p < 0.001) in the last follow-up exam. Also, the walking distance increased in all patients but two. Posterior intervertebral disc height of the diseased level widened average 1.8 mm in the postoperative radiograph compared to the preoperative. No major complication, including implant failure or spinous process breakage, has been observed. Conclusions The described surgical technique using unilateral microdecompression and IPDD insertion is a clinically effective and radiologically viable treatment method for symptoms of spinal stenosis resistant to non-operative treatment. PMID:23107358

2012-01-01

118

Erythropoietin: Recent Developments in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin (EPO), originally identified for its critical function in regulating production and survival of erythrocytes, is a member of the type 1 cytokine superfamily. Recent studies have shown that EPO has cytoprotective effects in a wide variety of cells and tissues. Here is presented the analysis of EPO effects on spinal cord injury (SCI), considering both animal experiments concerning to mechanisms of neurodegeneration in SCI and EPO as a neuroprotective agent, and some evidences coming from ongoing clinical trials. The evidences underling that EPO could be a promising therapeutic agent in a variety of neurological insults, including trauma, are mounting. In particular, it is highlighted that administration of EPO or other recently generated EPO analogues such as asialo-EPO and carbamylated-EPO demonstrate interesting preclinical and clinical characteristics, rendering the evaluation of these tissue-protective agents imperative in human clinical trials. Moreover the demonstration of rhEPO and its analogues' broad neuroprotective effects in animal models of cord lesion and in human trial like stroke, should encourage scientists and clinicians to design clinical trials assessing the efficacy of these pharmacological compounds on SCI. PMID:21766022

Carelli, Stephana; Marfia, Giovanni; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Ghilardi, Giorgio; Gorio, Alfredo

2011-01-01

119

Recent Advances in Pathophysiology and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty years ago, patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their families were told "nothing can be done" to improve function. Since the SCI patient population is reaching normal life expectancy through better health care, it has become an obviously worthwhile enterprise to devote considerable research effort to SCI. Targets for intervention in SCI toward improved function have been identified using basic research approaches and can be simplified into a list: 1) reduction of edema and free-radical production, 2) rescue of neural tissue at risk of dying in secondary processes such as abnormally high extracellular glutamate concentrations, 3) control of inflammation, 4) rescue of neuronal/glial populations at risk of continued apoptosis, 5) repair of demyelination and conduction deficits, 6) promotion of neurite growth through improved extracellular environment, 7) cell replacement therapies, 8) efforts to bridge the gap with transplantation approaches, 9) efforts to retrain and relearn motor tasks, 10) restoration of lost function by electrical stimulation, and 11) relief of chronic pain syndromes. Currently, over 70 clinical trials are in progress worldwide. Consequently, in this millennium, unlike in the last, no SCI patient will have to hear "nothing can be done."

Claire E. Hulsebosch (University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences)

2002-12-01

120

Treatment of postoperative infection after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation in a patient with neuromuscular scoliosis.  

PubMed

According to the literature, patients with neuromuscular scoliosis have a higher rate of infection after spinal fusion. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to assess the optimal treatment and related outcomes for patients with infections after posterior spinal fusion. In this article, we examine the data and report a case in which a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device was used as definitive treatment for a deep wound infection after posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation in a patient with neuromuscular scoliosis. Our patient, a 17-year-old adolescent girl with progressive neuromuscular scoliosis, underwent posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation and bone graft from T2 to sacrum without complication. One month after surgery, she presented with a draining wound. She underwent repeat surgical irrigation and debridement with subsequent use of a wound VAC. The wound VAC was used for more than 2 months, until skin closure was complete. The deep polymicrobial wound infection was treated successfully and definitively with a wound VAC. This case report suggests that good long-term outcomes can be achieved with use of a wound VAC for definitive closure, with possible avoidance of other secondary surgeries requiring skin grafts or flaps for wound closure. PMID:24551867

Ghattas, Paul J; Mehlman, Charles T; Eichten, David

2014-02-01

121

Spinal cord contusion  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.

Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

2014-01-01

122

Ventilatory thresholds during wheelchair exercise in individuals with spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

The ventilatory thresholds of 30 male wheelchair athletes were determined from their respiratory and metabolic responses to a continuously progressive exercise protocol to peak oxygen uptake on a wheelchair ergometer. The peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), ventilatory threshold in 1 min-1 (VTL), and ventilatory threshold expressed as a percentage of peak VO2 (VT%) were measured for all subjects. Statistical analyses of selected subsamples were used to note sport and functional ability level differences in these variables. Analysis of peak VO2 by functional classification (old International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation system; classes 1A-5, plus an amputee class) indicated that paraplegic (classes 2-5) and the amputee class athletes (2.48 1 min-1) were higher than tetraplegic (classes 1A-1C) athletes (0.95 1 min-1). The paraplegic and amputee classes were combined for a comparison of peak VO2 by sport which showed that track athletes (2.80 1 min-1) were higher than basketball players (2.41 1 min-1) who were higher than athletes from other sports (1.88 1 min-1). The VTL analyses demonstrated differences similar to the peak VO2 analyses. The VT% analyses, however, showed no sport differences, but the tetraplegic athletes had higher VT% values (87%) than the paraplegic plus amputee group (69%). PMID:7478733

Coutts, K D; McKenzie, D C

1995-07-01

123

Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25-65?years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases. PMID:24764637

Kim, Seongho; Kim, Hyungguen; Chung, Jaeyeop

2014-04-01

124

A pilot study of aerobic exercise as an adjunctive treatment for drug dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intervention to increase exercise in drug dependent patients represents a potentially useful yet unexplored strategy for preventing relapse. However, there are currently no established exercise interventions for use with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment among drug dependent patients. Participants included 16 (31%

Richard A. Brown; Ana M. Abrantes; Jennifer P. Read; Bess H. Marcus; John Jakicic; David R. Strong; Julie R. Oakley; Susan E. Ramsey; Christopher W. Kahler; Gregory L. Stuart; Mary Ella Dubreuil; Alan A. Gordon

2010-01-01

125

Spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of chronic critical limb ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the clinical experience and proposed working mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment\\u000a of chronic critical limb ischemia (CCLI). SCS appears to provide a significant long-term relief of ischemic pain and to improve\\u000a healing of small ulcers, most likely due to effects on the nutritional skin blood flow. Despite these observations, randomized\\u000a trials were not

Luc G. Y. Claeys; W. Berg; S. Jonas

126

Functional outcome after surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: experience with 78 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To analyze factors with impact on the functional outcome for patients with surgically treated intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) and to point out characteristics of the different histological entities.Setting:Neurosurgical Department, University of Essen, Germany.Methods:Between 1990 and 2000, a consecutive series of 78 patients were referred to our institution and underwent surgical treatment. There were 46 (59%) male and 32 (41%)

I E Sandalcioglu; T Gasser; S Asgari; A Lazorisak; T Engelhorn; T Egelhof; D Stolke; H Wiedemayer

2005-01-01

127

Spinal Cystic Echinococcosis - A Systematic Analysis and Review of the Literature: Part 2. Treatment, Follow-up and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Bone involvement in human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is rare, but affects the spine in approximately 50% of cases. Despite significant advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, surgical treatment and introduction of pharmacological therapy, spinal echinococcosis remains associated with a high degree of morbidity, disability and mortality. We systematically reviewed the published literature of the last five decades to update and summarize the currently existing data on treatment, follow-up and outcome of spinal CE. PMID:24069501

Neumayr, Andreas; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Goblirsch, Sam; Blum, Johannes; Brunetti, Enrico

2013-01-01

128

Application of X STOP device in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

Low back pain is exceptionally ubiquitous, complex, and costly. Nevertheless, lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) is a frequent cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Although the phenomena and pathophisiology of lumbar spinal stenosis has been described for decades, therapeutic treatment options remain considerably limited. Current care consists of conservative measures including physical therapy, rest, medications, and epidural steroid injection therapy or invasive surgical treatment including laminectomy with or without fusion. Despite standard of care intervention, many patients are often left inadequately treated and suffer from debilitating low back and lower extremity pain as a result of lumbar spinal stenosis. Interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices were originally described in the 1950s, but technological advances, which have contributed to improved safety and efficacy, have rekindled an interest in IPD implantation. By mimicking lumbar flexion at affected levels of stenosis, it is thought these devices decompress neural structures within the neural foramina and therefore provide pain relief. X-STOP is one such device that is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of mild to moderate NIC resulting from LSS. This manuscript presents a focused review of NIC and LSS and comprehensively presents literature related to the use of the X-STOP IPD device. PMID:20859324

Yi, Xiaobin; McPherson, Bradley

2010-01-01

129

Strategy in the Surgical Treatment of Primary Spinal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Primary spine tumors are rare, accounting for only 4% of all tumors of the spine. A minority of the more common primary benign lesions will require surgical treatment, and most amenable malignant lesions will proceed to attempted resection. The rarity of malignant primary lesions has resulted in a paucity of historical data regarding optimal surgical and adjuvant treatment and, although we now derive benefit from standardized guidelines of overall care, management of each neoplasm often proceeds on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the individual characteristics of patient operability, tumor resectability, and biological potential. This article aims to provide an overview of diagnostic techniques, staging algorithms and the authors' experience of surgical treatment alternatives that have been employed in the care of selected benign and malignant lesions. Although broadly a review of contemporary management, it is hoped that the case illustrations given will serve as additional “arrows in the quiver” of the treating surgeon. PMID:24353976

Williams, Richard; Foote, Matthew; Deverall, Hamish

2012-01-01

130

TREAD: TReatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression: study rationale and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite recent advancements in the pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), over half of patients who receive treatment with antidepressant medication do not achieve full remission of symptoms. There is evidence that exercise can reduce depressive symptomatology when used as a treatment for MDD. However, no randomized controlled trials have evaluated exercise as an augmentation strategy for patients

Madhukar H Trivedi; Tracy L Greer; Bruce D Grannemann; Timothy S Church; Daniel I Galper; Prabha Sunderajan; Stephen R Wisniewski; Heather O Chambliss; Alexander N Jordan; Carrie Finley; Thomas J Carmody

2006-01-01

131

Burr Hole Drainage : Could Be Another Treatment Option for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Unidentified Dural Tear during Spinal Surgery?  

PubMed Central

Authors report a rare case of acute intracranial subdural and intraventricular hemorrhage that were caused by intracranial hypotension resulted from cerebrospinal fluid leakage through an unidentified dural tear site during spinal surgery. The initial brain computed tomography image showed acute hemorrhages combined with preexisting asymptomatic chronic subdural hemorrhage. One burr hole was made over the right parietal skull to drain intracranial hemorrhages and subsequent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid induced by closure of the durotomy site. Among various methods to treat cerebrospinal fluid leakage through unidentified dural injury site, primary repair and spinal subarachnoid drainage are well known treatment options. The brain imaging study to diagnose intracranial hemorrhage should be taken before selecting the treatment method, especially for spinal subarachnoid drainage. Similar mechanism to its spinal counterpart, cranial cerebrospinal fluid drainage has not been mentioned in previous article and could be another treatment option to seal off an unidentified dural tear in particular case of drainage of intracranial hemorrhage is needed. PMID:23439677

2013-01-01

132

Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Disease in Multiple Myeloma: Spotlight on Spinal Involvement  

PubMed Central

Bone disease is observed in almost 80% of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma patients, and spine is the bone site that is more frequently affected by myeloma-induced osteoporosis, osteolyses, or compression fractures. In almost 20% of the cases, spinal cord compression may occur; diagnosis and treatment must be carried out rapidly in order to avoid a permanent sensitive or motor defect. Although whole body skeletal X-ray is considered mandatory for multiple myeloma staging, magnetic resonance imaging is presently considered the most appropriate diagnostic technique for the evaluation of vertebral alterations, as it allows to detect not only the exact morphology of the lesions, but also the pattern of bone marrow infiltration by the disease. Multiple treatment modalities can be used to manage multiple myeloma-related vertebral lesions. Surgery or radiotherapy is mainly employed in case of spinal cord compression, impending fractures, or intractable pain. Percutaneous vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty can reduce local pain in a significant fraction of treated patients, without interfering with subsequent therapeutic programs. Systemic antimyeloma therapy with conventional chemotherapy or, more appropriately, with combinations of conventional chemotherapy and compounds acting on both neoplastic plasma cells and bone marrow microenvironment must be soon initiated in order to reduce bone resorption and, possibly, promote bone formation. Bisphosphonates should also be used in combination with antimyeloma therapy as they reduce bone resorption and prolong patients survival. A multidisciplinary approach is thus needed in order to properly manage spinal involvement in multiple myeloma. PMID:24381787

Tosi, Patrizia

2013-01-01

133

Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of spinal cord injuries: A review  

PubMed Central

With technological advances in basic research, the intricate mechanism of secondary delayed spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to unravel at a rapid pace. However, despite our deeper understanding of the molecular changes occurring after initial insult to the spinal cord, the cure for paralysis remains elusive. Current treatment of SCI is limited to early administration of high dose steroids to mitigate the harmful effect of cord edema that occurs after SCI and to reduce the cascade of secondary delayed SCI. Recent evident-based clinical studies have cast doubt on the clinical benefit of steroids in SCI and intense focus on stem cell-based therapy has yielded some encouraging results. An array of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various sources with novel and promising strategies are being developed to improve function after SCI. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of spinal cord injuries and characteristics and the potential sources of MSCs that can be used in the treatment of SCI. We will discuss the progress of MSCs application in research, focusing on the neuroprotective properties of MSCs. Finally, we will discuss the results from preclinical and clinical trials involving stem cell-based therapy in SCI. PMID:24772239

Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Veeravalli, Krishna Kumar; Dinh, Dzung H

2014-01-01

134

Treatment with resveratrol attenuates sublesional bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sublesional osteoporosis predisposes individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to an increased risk of low-trauma fracture. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of treatment with resveratrol (RES) on sublesional bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Complete SCI was generated by surgical transaction of the cord at the T10–12 level. Treatment with RES (400 mg·kg?1 body mass per day?1, intragastrically) was initiated 12 h after the surgery for 10 days. Then, blood was collected and femurs and tibiae were removed for evaluation of the effects of RES on bone tissue after SCI. KEY RESULTS Treatment of SCI rats with RES prevented the reduction of bone mass including bone mineral content and bone mineral density in tibiae, preserved bone structure including trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in tibiae, and preserved mechanical strength including ultimate load, stiffness, and energy in femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with RES enhanced femoral total sulfhydryl content, reduced femoral malondialdehyde and IL-6 mRNA levels. Treatment of SCI rats with RES suppressed the up-regulation of mRNA levels of PPAR?, adipose-specific fatty-acid-binding protein and lipoprotein lipase, and restored mRNA levels of Wnt1, low-density lipoprotein-related protein 5, Axin2, ctnnb1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and receptor for IGF-1 in femurs and tibiae. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Treatment with RES attenuated sublesional bone loss in spinal-cord-injured rats, associated with abating oxidative stress, attenuating inflammation, depressing PPAR? signalling, and restoring Wnt/?-catenin and IGF-1 signalling. PMID:23848300

Wang, Hua-Dong; Shi, Ya-Min; Li, Li; Guo, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Hou, Shu-Xun

2013-01-01

135

Exercise preferences of patients in substance abuse treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While emerging studies have demonstrated the benefit of exercise in early recovery from substance use disorders, recruitment and adherence to exercise interventions have been challenging. Tailoring interventions based on patient exercise preferences may address these concerns. Ninety-seven (N=97; age=41.6 years; 44% female) patients were recruited from an intensive substance abuse outpatient program and filled out questionnaires about their exercise preferences.

Ana M. Abrantes; Cynthia L. Battle; David R. Strong; Eileen Ing; Mary Ella Dubreuil; Alan Gordon; Richard A. Brown

2011-01-01

136

Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) are rare but potentially life-threatening\\u000a clinical syndromes in which association with exercise is crucial. The range of triggering physical activities is broad, including\\u000a as mild an effort as a stroll. EIA is not fully repeatable (ie, the same exercise may not always result in anaphylaxis in\\u000a a given patient). In FDEIA, the

Wojciech Barg; Wojciech Medrala; Anna Wolanczyk-Medrala

2011-01-01

137

Effects of group- versus home-based exercise in the treatment of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of 2 aerobic exercise regimens on exercise participation, fitness, eating patterns, treatment adherence, and weight change in 49 obese women undergoing a year-long behavioral weight loss program. Participants were assigned randomly to weight loss treatment plus either group- or home-based exercise. All participants were instructed to complete a moderate-intensity walking program (30 min\\/day, 5 days\\/week).

Michael G. Perri; A. Daniel Martin; Elizabeth A. Leermakers; Samuel F. Sears

1997-01-01

138

Statin treatment and exercise: Is there an additive anti-inflammatory effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. When administered separately, statin treatment and exercise training have anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of combined rosuvastatin treatment and exercise training on markers\\/mediators of inflammation and lipid profile. Methods. 33 hypercholesterolemic and physically inactive subjects were randomly assigned to rosuvastatin (R; 8F, 9M) and rosuvastatin\\/exercise (RE; 9F, 7M) groups. A third group

Paul Martin Coen

2008-01-01

139

Intraoperative clinical use of low-power laser irradiation following surgical treatment of the tethered spinal cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on previous experimental investigations which indicated that low-power laser irradiation has a significant therapeutic effect and treatment potential on the injured nerve tissue, the authors began using this method in clinical practice. This data represents the first clinical results in the treatment of four patients with tethered spinal cord resulting from fibrous adhesions at the site of previous myelomeningocele and lypomyelomeningocele repair, thickened filum terminale and spinal lipoma. After surgical release of the tethered spinal cord, stable evoked responses were recorded and the conus medullaris was subjected to direct laser irradiation (CW He-Ne laser, 632.8nm, 7Jcm2). The findings show intraoperative laser treatment increases evoked responses from 15-52% (mean 26.7%). In a previous work, it was shown that direct laser irradiation promotes restoration of the electrophysiological activity of the severely injured peripheral nerve, prevents degenerative changes in neurons of the spinal cord and induces proliferation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This suggested a higher metabolism in neurons and improved ability for myelin production under the influence of laser treatment. It is well known that tethering of the spinal cord causes mechanical damage to neuronal cell membranes leading to metabolic disturbances in the neurons. For this reason, the authors believe that using low-power laser irradiation may improve neuronal metabolism, prevent neuronal degeneration and promote improved spinal cord function and repair.

Rochkind, S.; Alon, M.; Ouaknine, G. E.; Weiss, S.; Avram, J.; Razon, Nisim; Lubart, Rachel; Friedmann, Harry

1991-05-01

140

Operative treatment for spinal deformities in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The higher the functional impairment, the more likely patients with cerebral palsy (cP) are to develop a scoliotic deformity. This is usually long-sweeping, C-shaped, and progressive in nature, since the causes of the deformity, such as muscular weakness, imbalance, and osteoporosis, persist through adulthood. In contrast to idiopathic scoliosis, not only is the spine deformed, the patient is also sick. This multimorbidity warrants a multidisciplinary approach with close involvement of the caregivers from the beginning. Brace treatment is usually ineffective or intolerable in light of the mostly stiff and severe deformities and the poor nutritional status. The pros and cons of surgical correction need to weighed up when pelvic obliquity, subsequent loss of sitting balance, pressure sores, and pain due to impingement of the rib cage on the ileum become issues. General risks of, for example, pulmonary or urogenital infections, pulmonary failure, the need for a tracheostoma, permanent home ventilation, and death add to the particular surgery-related hazards, such as excessive bleeding, surgical site infections, pseudarthrosis, implant failure, and dural tears with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. The overall complication rate averages around 25 %. From an orthopedic perspective, stiffness, marked deformities including sagittal profile disturbances and pelvic obliquity, as well as osteoporosis are the main challenges. In nonambulatory patients, long fusions from T2/T3 with forces distributed over all segments, low-profile anchors in areas of poor soft tissue coverage (sublaminar bands, wires), and strong lumbosacropelvic modern screw fixation in combination with meticulous fusion techniques (facetectomies, laminar decortication, use of local autologous bone) and hemostasis can be employed to keep the rate of surgical and implant-related complications at an acceptably low level. Excessive posterior release techniques, osteotomies, or even vertebrectomies in cases of very severe short-angled deformity mostly prevent anterior one- or two-stage releases. Despite improved operative techniques and implants with predictable and satisfactory deformity corrections, the comorbidities and quality-of-life related issues demand a thorough preoperative, multidisciplinary decision-making process that takes ethical and economic aspects into consideration. PMID:24432105

Hasler, Carol C

2013-11-01

141

CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intramedullary spinal cord metastases.  

PubMed

Spinal cord intramedullary metastases are uncommon and treatment options are limited. We reviewed our experience treating these lesions with radiosurgery to assess safety and efficacy, and to define preliminary treatment recommendations. With Institutional Review Board approval, we identified nine patients with 11 metastases treated with radiosurgery at Stanford University Hospital, between 2000 and 2010. We also reviewed all available published series discussing the treatment of spinal cord metastases. Our patients ranged in age from 33 years to 77 years (median 63 years) and included seven women and two men. Tumors ranged in size from 0.12 cm(3) to 6.4 cm(3) (median 0.48 cm(3)). Five were from breast cancer, two were non-small cell lung cancers, one was a cystic adenocarcinoma, and one was from an epithelioid hemangioepithelioma. All patients had neurologic deficits and multiple other metastases. We delivered 14 Gy to 27 Gy (median 21 Gy) in one to five (median 3) fractions. Complete follow-up was available for all nine patients. One patient remains alive 14 months after therapy. Of the eight deceased patients, survival ranged from one month and two days to nine months and six days (median four months and four days). There were no local recurrences or worsened neurological deficits. To our knowledge this is the largest reported series of spinal cord intramedullary metastases treated with radiosurgery. Survival was poor due to systemic disease, but radiosurgery appears to be safe and prevented local recurrences. With fewer sessions than conventional radiation and less morbidity than surgery, we feel radiosurgery is appropriate for the palliative treatment of these lesions. PMID:22766103

Veeravagu, Anand; Lieberson, Robert E; Mener, Amanda; Chen, Yi-Ren; Soltys, Scott G; Gibbs, Iris C; Adler, John R; Tian, Ashley G; Chang, Steven D

2012-09-01

142

Spinal deformity and athletics.  

PubMed

Exercise and athletic competition for the young individual has become increasingly more important in society. Scoliosis and Scheurmann kyphosis are spinal deformities prevalent in up to 2% to 3% and 7% of the population respectively, requiring nonoperative and occasionally operative treatment. Curve progression and patient physiologic age dictate treatment regimens. Bracing and physical therapy is the mainstay for nonoperative treatment, whereas soft tissue releases and fusion with instrumentation are used for operative correction. Athletic activity and sports participation is usually allowed for patients undergoing nonoperative treatment. Return to sport after surgical correction is variable, often decided by the treating surgeon, and based on the level of fusion and sporting activity. Although most treating surgeons promote some form of activity regardless of treatment modality chosen, caution should be taken when deciding on participation in collision activities such as football and wrestling. PMID:18277259

Schiller, Jonathan R; Eberson, Craig P

2008-03-01

143

Restoration of MPTP-induced deficits by exercise and Milmed® co-treatment  

PubMed Central

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces permanent neurochemical and functional deficits. Following the administration of either two or four injections of the dopamine neurotoxin, MPTP, at a dose of 40 mg/kg, C57/BL6 mice were given access to running-wheels (30-min sessions, four times/week, Monday–Thursday) and treatment with the treated yeast, Milmed® (four times/week, Monday–Thursday), or simply running-wheel exercise by itself, over ten weeks. It was observed that the combination of physical exercise and Milmed® treatment, the MPTP + Exercise + Yeast (MC) group [MPTP + Exercise + Milmed® (MC)], restored spontaneous motor activity markedly by test day 10, restored completely subthreshold L-Dopa-induced activity, and dopamine concentration to 76% of control values, in the condition wherein two administrations of MPTP (2 × 40 mg/kg) were given prior to initiation of exercise and/or Milmed® treatment. Physical exercise by itself, MPTP + Exercise (MC) group, attenuated these deficits only partially. Administration of MPTP four times (i.e., 40 mg/kg, s.c., once weekly over four weeks for a total of 160 mg/kg, MPTP + Exercise + Yeast (MC) group [MPTP + Exercise + Milmed® (SC)] and MPTP + Exercise (SC), induced a lesioning effect that was far too severe for either exercise alone or the exercise + Milmed® combination to ameliorate. Nevertheless, these findings indicate a powerful effect of physical exercise reinforced by Milmed® treatment in restoring MPTP-induced deficits of motor function and dopamine neurochemistry in mice.

Archer, Trevor; Fredriksson, Anders

2014-01-01

144

Physical Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise is known to be an effective therapy for overweight and obesity [1]; in fact, exercise, when combined with dietary advice, enhances weight loss [2] and prevents weight regain [3,4]. An increase of physical activity, which induces an increase of exercise-induced and resting energy expenditure, can effectively\\u000a counterbalance the reduction of energy consumption determined by decreased food intake [1],

Edoardo Mannucci

145

Exploring exercise as an avenue for the treatment of anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders constitute a significant public health problem. Current gold standard treatments are limited in their effectiveness, prompting the consideration of alternative approaches. In this review, we examine the evidence for exercise as an intervention for anxiety disorders. This evidence comes from population studies, studies of nonclinical anxiety reduction, as well as a limited number of studies of clinically anxious individuals. All of these studies provide converging evidence for consistent beneficial effects of exercise on anxiety, and are consistent with a variety of accounts of the mechanism of anxiety reduction with exercise. Further study of clinical populations is encouraged, as are studies of the mechanism of change of exercise interventions, which have the potential to help refine exercise intervention strategies. Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise. PMID:23002943

DeBoer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Utschig, Angela C; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper AJ

2012-01-01

146

Treatment of minor depression in older adults: A pilot study comparing sertraline and exercise  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot clinical trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise program and anti-depressant treatment compared with usual care in improving the emotional and physical functioning of older adults with minor depression. Participants were 37 older adults with minor depression who were randomized to exercise, sertraline, or usual care; 32 participants completed the 16 week study. Outcomes included measures of both emotional (clinician and self-report) and physical (observed and self-report) functioning. There were trends for the superiority of the exercise and sertraline conditions over usual care in improving SF-36 mental health scores and clinician-rated depression scores. Individuals in the exercise condition showed greater improvements in physical functioning than individuals in the usual care condition. Both sertraline and exercise show promise as treatments for late-life minor depression. However, exercise has the added benefit of improving physical functioning as well. PMID:17164159

Brenes, Gretchen A.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Messier, Stephen P.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Pahor, Marco; Ip, Edward; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

2010-01-01

147

Ogilvie's syndrome after pediatric spinal deformity surgery: successful treatment with neostigmine.  

PubMed

Ogilvie's syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal disease that can easily be mistaken for postoperative ileus. Also known as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, early recognition and diagnosis of the syndrome allows for treatment prior to bowel perforation and requisite abdominal surgery. The authors report a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following spinal deformity correction and tethered cord release in an adolescent who presented with acute abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting on postoperative Day 0. The patient was initially diagnosed with adynamic ileus and treated conservatively with bowel rest, reduction in narcotic dosage, and a regimen of stool softeners, laxatives, and enemas. Despite this treatment, her clinical course failed to improve, and she demonstrated significant colonic distension radiographically. Intravenous neostigmine was administered as a bolus with a rapid and dramatic response. This case is the first reported instance of neostigmine use for Ogilvie's syndrome treatment following a pediatric neurosurgical operation. PMID:25036854

Hooten, Kristopher G; Oliveria, Seth F; Larson, Shawn D; Pincus, David W

2014-09-01

148

Poor Responses to Interferon-Beta Treatment in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis with Long Spinal Cord Lesions  

PubMed Central

Interferon-beta (IFN-?) treatment may not be effective in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Whether the poor response to IFN-? is related to long spinal cord lesions (LSCL) or the NMO disease entity itself is unclear. We evaluated the spinal cord involvement of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO, as well as the response after receiving IFN-?. Forty-nine MS and 21 NMO patients treated with IFN-? for at least 2 years from 2002–2008 were enrolled in this study and the treatment response was analyzed 2 years post-treatment. In the study, spinal cord lesions were present in 57.1% (28/49) of the MS patients, of which 16.3% (8/49) presented spinal cord lesions longer than 3 vertebral segments (LSCL). Responses to IFN-? treatment were seen in 69.3% (34/49) of all the MS cases, of which the appropriate response rates were 76.1% (16/21) in MS patients without spinal cord lesions and 37.5% (3/8) in patients with LSCL. Only 14.2% (3/21) of NMO patients responded to IFN-? treatment. In conclusion, spinal cord lesion is common in MS patients in Taiwan. Both NMO and MS patients with LSCL had a poor response to IFN-? treatment. NMO patients had a worse response to IFN-? treatment than MS patients with LSCL, which shows that the crucial structural defect is something other than LSCL such as the elevated serum IL17 level in NMO compared to MS. PMID:24887452

Lee, Tzu-Chi; Lee, Chao-Lin; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chin, Li-Te; Tsai, Ching-Piao

2014-01-01

149

A systematic review into the effectiveness of hand exercise therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Hand exercises are often part of the treatment of hand rheumatoid arthritis; however, it is still unclear whether and what type of exercises is effective in the treatment of this condition. Therefore, a systematic review into the effectiveness of hand exercises in the treatment of hand rheumatoid arthritis has been performed. Studies were identified in the literature databases by predefined search criteria. The eight included studies are peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2014. Hand exercises differed between studies, but always included resistance and/or active range of motion exercises. Grip strength in various grip types (power grip, key pinch, precision pinch and tripod pinch) was found to improve by hand exercise therapy without having adverse effects on pain or disease activity. Adaptations in the range of motion in response to hand exercise therapy were less pronounced. There appears to be some transfer from the improvements on the body functioning level to the level of daily functioning, with the largest improvements found on grip ability. With regard to the intervention content, there was some evidence in favour of a longer therapy duration and a higher therapy intensity. No conclusions could be drawn on the effectiveness of the different types of exercises. Collectively, the studies indicate that hand exercises may have positive effects on strength and some aspects of daily functioning without aggravating disease activity or pain, although caution should be taken for subjects in the exacerbation period. PMID:24952308

Bergstra, S A; Murgia, A; Te Velde, A F; Caljouw, S R

2014-11-01

150

Exercise as an adjunct treatment for opiate agonist treatment: review of the current research and implementation strategies.  

PubMed

Opiate dependence is a significant public health concern linked to poor quality of life, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and high costs to society. Current opiate agonist treatments are an effective but limited intervention. Adjunctive interventions could improve and augment opiate agonist treatment outcomes, including drug abstinence, quality of life, and physical health. This article reviews exercise as an adjunctive intervention for opiate agonist treatment, especially in regards to improving mood and overall quality of life, while reducing other substance use. Poor adherence and dropout frequently prevent many individuals from garnering the many physical and mental health benefits of exercise. Strategies for implementing an exercise intervention, including safety considerations, are discussed. PMID:22989278

Weinstock, Jeremiah; Wadeson, Heather K; VanHeest, Jaci L

2012-01-01

151

Effect of Exercise on Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Adults With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Systematic Review of the Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders may affect adults with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) differently than able-bodied individuals because of reduced physical activity in the SCI population. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of exercise to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders in adults with chronic SCI. Methods: Studies were identified in MEDLINE (1996–2008), Cochrane Library, bibliographies of identified articles, and expert recommendations. English language articles were included if they evaluated adults with chronic SCI; evaluated exercise; and reported carbohydrate-, lipid-, and/or cardiovascular disease-related outcomes. Results: Twenty-two studies met inclusion criteria, including 15 intervention case-series and 7 cross-sectional surveys using self-reported physical activity measures. Intervention protocols involved active (n ?=? 7) or electrically stimulated (n ?=? 7) exercise or an educational program (n ?=? 1) from 8 to 52 weeks in duration. Frequency of exercise was typically 2 to 3 sessions/week, lasting 30 to 60 minutes/session. Totals of 150 and 369 subjects participated in studies with carbohydrate (n ?=? 12) or lipid and cardiovascular (n ?=? 16) outcomes, respectively; 78% were men. Level of SCI ranged from C4 to L5 and included both incomplete and complete lesions. Outcomes measures included fasting and postload blood glucose and insulin concentrations and serum cholesterol levels. Small sample sizes and variations in study design, intervention, SCI characteristics, and reported outcomes precluded quantitative pooling of results or reliable assessment of metabolic efficacy. No intervention studies assessed cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions: Evidence is insufficient to determine whether exercise improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders among adults with SCI. Expert consensus, based on the preliminary evidence, is needed to inform future studies. PMID:19777857

Carlson, Kathleen F; Wilt, Timothy J; Taylor, Brent C; Goldish, Gary D; Niewoehner, Catherine B; Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Kane, Robert L

2009-01-01

152

North American Clinical Trials Network for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: goals and progress.  

PubMed

The North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury is a consortium of 10 neurosurgery departments, a data management center, and a pharmacological center. The NACTN was established with the goal of bringing recent molecular and cell-based discoveries in neuroprotection and regeneration from the laboratory into clinical trials that optimize meaningful data outcomes and maximum safety to patients. The requirements of planning and executing clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the steps that the NACTN has taken to address these requirements are discussed and illustrated in articles in this issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. The progress that the NACTN has made in meeting these goals can be summarized as organizing a network of hospitals capable of enrolling a sufficient number of patients for conducting Phase I and II trials; creating a Data Management Center and a database of the natural history of recovery after SCI (at the time of this writing 485 patients were enrolled in the database); creating a database of the incidence and severity of complications that occur during acute and subacute treatment after SCI; developing a Pharmacological Center capable of performing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of therapeutic drugs; completing enrollment of 36 patients in NACTN's first clinical trial, a Phase I study of riluzole, a neuroprotective drug; and performing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of riluzole in acute SCI. PMID:22985365

Grossman, Robert G; Toups, Elizabeth G; Frankowski, Ralph F; Burau, Keith D; Howley, Susan

2012-09-01

153

The Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Noncontiguous Spinal Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study in 23 Cases  

PubMed Central

Study design A retrospective clinical study. Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the surgical treatment of noncontiguous spinal tuberculosis (NSTB), and to discuss its therapeutic strategies. Methods We performed a retrospective review of clinical and radiographic data that were prospectively collected on 550 consecutive spinal tubercular patients including 27 patients who were diagnosed and treated as NSTB in our institution from June 2005 to June 2011. Apart from 4 patients being treated conservatively, the remainder received surgery by posterior transforaminal debridement, interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior instrumentation and anterior debridement with fusion in a single or two-stage operation. The clinical outcomes were evaluated before and after treatment in terms of hematologic and radiographic examinations, bone fusion and neurologic status. The Oswestry Disability Index score was determined before treatment and at the last follow-up visit. Results 23 patients (15 M/8F), averaged 44.6±14.2 years old (range, 19 to 70 yd), who received surgical treatment, were followed up after surgery for a mean of 52.5±19.5 months (range, 24 to 72 months). The kyphotic angle was changed significantly between pre- and postoperation (P<0.05). The mean amount of correction was 12.6±7.2 degrees, with a small loss of correction at last follow-up. All patients achieved solid bone fusion. No patients with neurological deficit deteriorated postoperatively. Neither mortalities nor any major complications were found. There was a significant difference of Oswestry Disability Index scores between preoperation and the final follow-up. Conclusion The outcomes of follow-up showed that posterior and posterior-anterior surgical treatment methods were both viable surgical options for NSTB. Posterior transforaminal debridement, interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation, as a less invasive technique, was feasible and effective to treat specific tubercular foci. PMID:24699518

Huang, Jia; Zhang, Hongqi; Zeng, Kefeng; Gao, Qile

2014-01-01

154

Sildenafil treatment in COPD does not affect stroke volume or exercise capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, stroke volume response to exercise is impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 3 months of sildenafil treatment improves stroke volume and, if so, whether this improvement is related to the pulmonary artery pressure and translated into an improved exercise capacity. A total of 15 stable COPD patients (Global

H. Rietema; S. Holverda; H. J. Bogaard; J. T. Marcus; H. J. Smit; N. Westerhof; P. E. Postmus; A. Boonstra; A. Vonk-Noordegraaf

2008-01-01

155

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent  

E-print Network

there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically­70% HR reserve) over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF). Findings: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5

Palmeri, Thomas

156

Physical therapy after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of treatments focused on participation.  

PubMed

Context Over the last four decades, the focus of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation has shifted from medical management to issues that affect quality of life and community participation. Physical therapists (PTs) need to design and implement interventions that result in maximal participation to provide an individual with SCI an effective rehabilitation program. Objective The aim of this review is to assess the extent, content, and outcomes of physical therapy (PT) interventions focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI. Methods A search was conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PEDro, and PsycINFO. We included studies, of all designs, focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI using PT interventions.The primary author and a reviewer independently selected articles for inclusion, assessed articles quality, and extracted the data. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions applied were 9- and 12-month body weight-supported treadmill training in two studies, a supervised 9-month exercise program, a 12-week home exercise program, and a 10-week multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program for coping with chronic neuropathic pain. Four of five PT interventions positively impacted the individual's perceived participation and satisfaction with participation. Conclusion The body of research by PTs on interventions to improve participation is limited. PTs must document the effects of interventions with a valid outcome tool to enable more research that examines participation. Expanding participation research will allow PTs to meet the needs of individuals with SCI and identify what interventions best facilitate integration into the community. PMID:24621042

Gómara-Toldrà, Natàlia; Sliwinski, Martha; Dijkers, Marcel P

2014-07-01

157

Analysis of Risk Factors and Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Morbidity in the Treatment of Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

Objective Spinal dysraphism defects span wide spectrum. Wound dehiscence is a common postoperative complication, and is a challenge in the current management of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and wound healing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risks of CSF-related morbidity in the surgical treatment of spinal dysraphism. Methods Ten patients with spinal dysraphism were included in this retrospective study. The median age of the cohort was 4.8 months. To assess the risk of CSF morbidity, we measured the skin lesion area and the percentage of the skin lesion area relative to the back surface for each patient. We then analyzed the relationship between morbidity and the measured skin lesion area or related factors. Results The overall median skin lesion area was 36.2 cm2 (n=10). The percentage of the skin lesion area relative to the back surface ranged from 0.6% to 18.1%. During surgical reconstruction, 4 patients required subsequent operations to repair CSF morbidity. The comparison of the mean area of skin lesions between the CSF morbidity group and the non-CSF morbidity group was statistically significant (average volume skin lesion of 64.4±32.5 cm2 versus 27.7±27.8 cm2, p<0.05). CSF morbidity tended to occur either when the skin lesion area was up to 44.2 cm2 or there was preexisting fibrosis before revision with an accompanying broad-based dural defect. Conclusion Measuring the lesion area, including the skin, dura, and related surgical parameters, offers useful information for predicting wound challenges and selecting appropriate reconstructive surgery methods. PMID:24278652

Lee, Byung-Jou; Han, Seong-Rok; Choi, Chan-Young; Lee, Dong-Joon; Kang, Jae Heon

2013-01-01

158

X-STOP surgical implant for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical practice recommendations for neurosurgical nurse practitioners.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common condition that affects the aging population because of the natural degenerative changes the spine undergoes during the aging process. The symptoms cause decreased functionality and quality of life. Traditional surgical treatment has been a decompressive laminectomy with or without a fusion. However, a newer less-invasive surgical technique called X-STOP interspinous process device is available for the treatment of neurogenic intermittent claudication because of lumbar spinal stenosis. The main goal of this procedure is to allow the patient to restore functional ability and improve quality of life, which bears significant importance in the aging population. Knowledge of the X-STOP interspinous process device can assist neurosurgical advanced practice nurses in providing optimum care for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis when nonsurgical therapies have failed. PMID:23291871

Nielsen, Magan

2013-02-01

159

Dosimetry of a single ''hockey stick'' portal for treatment of tumors of the cranio-spinal axis  

SciTech Connect

Conventional treatment of tumors of the cranio-spinal axis portal usually involves multiple-field, moving junction treatments to avoid overlapping fields over the spinal cord. To avoid these problems, we irradiate the cranio-spinal axis using a single ''hockey stick'' portal and the 25-MV x-ray beam from a Varian Clinac-35/sup X/ linear accelerator. Patients are positioned prone on the floor 229 cm from the radiation source and the collimators are rotated 45/sup 0/ so the maximum diagonal dimension of the field 116 cm at 229 cm is coincident with the cranio-spinal axis. The head is alternately rotated to treat the right-hand side one day and the left-hand side the next day. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in an anatomical phantom reveals that, relative to the 100% dose delivered at 4-cm depth on the central axis of the blocked field, the midline posterior fossa dose is about 100%, with a maximum dose of about 105% to the extreme posterior portion of the skull. The midline neck dose is about 95% and the dose to the inferior portion of the spinal cord is about 105%. The doses to other critical organs are also presented.

Glasgow, G.P.; Marks, J.E.

1983-09-01

160

History of spinal osteotomy.  

PubMed

Spinal deformity is one of the oldest known diseases with descriptions documented many of the earliest civilizations. Historical treatments have had little efficacy, especially in adults. However, in the modern era, there has been a rapid expansion of new technologies and surgical techniques aided by advances in supportive care that now allow the spinal surgeon to have powerful tools to correct spinal deformity. In this manuscript, we review the origins of spinal deformity surgery and the development of spinal instrumentation. The focus of the manuscript is to review the relationship of these developments to the implementation of spinal osteotomies for deformity correction. PMID:24390043

Meredith, Dennis S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

2014-07-01

161

Red Ginseng Treatment for Two Weeks Promotes Fat Metabolism during Exercise in Mice  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Red ginseng (RG) has been reported to improve the blood and organ lipid profile when combined with exercise. However, the effect of RG on energy metabolism during exercise is poorly understood. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether RG treatment alters fat utilization during exercise; METHODS: We used seven-week-old ICR mice (n = 42). RG (1 g/kg) was administered orally daily during two weeks of endurance training. All mice were randomized into two groups: training only group (CON group) and training with RG group (RG group). Endurance training consisted of 20~25 m/min on a slope of 8° for one hour five times a week. After a two-week experimental period, we measured substrate utilization during exercise at the same intensity and duration of training using a respiratory calorimetry chamber. Mice were dissected for glycogen measurement of muscles and liver before, immediately after, and one hour after the exercise; RESULT: Fat oxidation during the initial 20 min of the one-hour exercise significantly increased in the RG group compared to the CON group. In addition, the liver glycogen stores significantly decreased immediately after the one-hour exercise compared to at rest in the RG group, but did not differ between immediately after the one-hour exercise and at rest in the RG group. The glycogen concentration in white and red gastrocnemius muscle did not differ between the groups immediately after the one-hour exercise; CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RG treatment for two weeks promotes fat oxidation and a glycogen-sparing effect during exercise. This might lead to a delay in peripheral fatigue during endurance exercise performance. PMID:24803098

Hwang, Hyejung; Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Yun, Heayeon; Cheon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Chi-Ho; Suh, Heajung; Lim, Kiwon

2014-01-01

162

Regulation of spinal neuroimmune responses by prolonged morphine treatment in a rat model of cancer induced bone pain.  

PubMed

Cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) is a major clinical problem. Although opioids remain the principal axis in drug therapies for CIBP, their sustained application is known to induce cellular and molecular adaptations including enhanced neuroimmune reactivity. This is generally characterized by glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine production which frequently results in pharmacological tolerance. This research was performed to investigate spinal neuroimmune responses after prolonged systemic morphine treatment in a rat model of CIBP. The model was established using a unilateral intra-tibia injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. Subcutaneous morphine was repeatedly administered from postoperative days 14 to 19. Mechanical allodynia to von Frey filaments and ambulatory pain scores were recorded to investigate changes of nociceptive behaviors. Spinal glial activation was detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR; the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) was examined through real-time PCR and ELISA. Results showed that chronic morphine use failed to elicit analgesic tolerance in the rat CIBP model. Moreover, the treatment had no significant influence on the activated spinal glia morphology, cell density and expression of special cytomembrane markers, whereas it significantly down-regulated the local proinflammatory cytokine production at the mRNA and protein level. Collectively, these data suggest that chronic morphine treatment in CIBP is not concomitant with pharmacological tolerance, at least partially because the treatment fails to amplify spinal neuroimmune responses. PMID:20176002

Cao, Fei; Gao, Feng; Xu, Ai-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Sha-Sha; Yang, Hui; Yu, Hong-Hui; Mei, Wei; Liu, Xi-Jiang; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Yang, Shao-Bing; Tian, Xue-Bi; Wang, Xue-Ren; Tian, Yu-Ke

2010-04-22

163

Minocycline Treatment Reduces Delayed Oligodendrocyte Death, Attenuates Axonal Dieback, and Improves Functional Outcome after Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minocycline has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the cellular consequences of minocy- cline treatment on the secondary injury response are poorly understood. We examined the ability of minocycline to reduce oligodendro- cyte apoptosis, microglial\\/macrophage activation, corticospinal tract (CST) dieback, and lesion size and to improve functional outcome after SCI. Adult rats were subjected to

D. P. Stirling; Kourosh Khodarahmi; Jie Liu; Lowell T. Mcphail; Christopher B. Mcbride; John D. Steeves; Matt S. Ramer; Wolfram Tetzlaff

2004-01-01

164

The efficacy of ice massage in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to, firstly, examine the effects of repeated applications of ice massage on the indirect markers associated with muscle damage using a within-subjects cross-over design and secondly, to examine how ice massage affects muscle function in both static and dynamic contractions following unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Twelve males performed damaging exercise on two separate occasions. The protocol consisted of three sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of the elbow flexors using isokinetic dynamometry. Subjects were randomly assigned to an ice massage group or placebo group and received treatments immediately post-exercise, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscle function (maximal isometric, slow and fast isokinetic contractions), creatine kinase, myoglobin, muscle soreness, limb girth and range of motion were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Significant time effects were observed for all dependent variables (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments. Ice massage is ineffective in reducing the indirect markers associated with exercise-induced muscle damage and enhancing recovery of muscle function in male exercisers unaccustomed to eccentric biased exercise. PMID:16293154

Howatson, G; Gaze, D; van Someren, K A

2005-12-01

165

The effectiveness of spinal manipulation for the treatment of headache disorders: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.  

PubMed

To carry out a systematic review of the literature examining the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for the treatment of headache disorders, computerized literature searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Amed and CISCOM. Studies were included only if they were randomized trials of (any type of) spinal manipulation for (any type of) headache in human patients in which spinal manipulation was compared either to no treatment, usual medical care, a 'sham' intervention, or to some other active treatment. Two investigators independently extracted data on study design, sample size and characteristics, type of intervention, type of control/comparison, direction and nature of the outcome(s). Methodological quality of the trials was also assessed using the Jadad scale. Eight trials were identified that met our inclusion criteria. Three examined tension-type headaches, three migraine, one 'cervicogenic' headache, and one 'spondylogenic' chronic headache. In two studies, patients receiving spinal manipulation showed comparable improvements in migraine and tension headaches compared to drug treatment. In the 4 studies employing some 'sham' interventions (e.g. laser light therapy), results were less conclusive with 2 studies showing a benefit for manipulation and 2 studies failing to find such an effect. Considerable methodological limitations were observed in most trials, the principal one being inadequate control for nonspecific (placebo) effects. Despite claims that spinal manipulation is an effective treatment for headache, the data available to date do not support such definitive conclusions. It is unclear to what extent the observed treatment effects can be explained by manipulation or by nonspecific factors (e.g. of personal attention, patient expectation). Whether manipulation produces any long-term changes in these conditions is also uncertain. Future studies should address these two crucial questions and overcome the methodological limitations of previous trials. PMID:12383058

Astin, J A; Ernst, E

2002-10-01

166

The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity in the USA has increased dramatically in the past decade. This foreshadows an increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality from obesity-related diseases and increases in the number of individuals undergoing weight-loss therapy. Although exercise has long been recommended for inclusion in such therapy, the present review has found that it has had little or

Susanne B Votruba; Micah A Horvitz; Dale A Schoeller

2000-01-01

167

Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Objective To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre | Reade, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Methods On separate days, nine individuals with a motor complete paraplegia or tetraplegia (eight men, age 40 ± 13 years, time since injury 12 ± 10 years) performed 5-minute bouts of hybrid cycling (day 1) and handcycling (day 2) at moderate (level 3 on a 10-point rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale) and vigorous (RPE level 6) subjective exercise intensity, while respiratory gas exchange was measured by open-circuit spirometry and heart rate was monitored using radiotelemetry. Outcome measures Metabolic rate (calculated with the Weir equation) and cardiorespiratory response (heart rate, oxygen pulse, and ventilation). Results Overall, the metabolic rate during hybrid cycling was 3.4 kJ (16%) higher (P = 0.006) than during handcycling. Furthermore, compared with handcycling, the overall heart rate and ventilation during hybrid cycling was 11 bpm (11%) and 5.3 l/minute (18%) higher (P = 0.004 and 0.024), respectively, while the oxygen pulse was the same (P = 0.26). Conclusion Hybrid cycling induces a higher metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response at equal RPE levels than handcycling, suggesting that hybrid cycling is more suitable for fighting obesity and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with SCI. PMID:24621028

Bakkum, Arjan J T; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W J

2014-11-01

168

EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL THERAPIST ADMINISTERED SPINAL MANIPULATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF LOW BACK PAIN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  

PubMed Central

Background Context: Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent disorder in society that has been associated with increased loss of work time and medical expenses. A common intervention for LBP is spinal manipulation, a technique that is not specific to one scope of practice or profession. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of physical therapy spinal manipulations for the treatment of patients with low back pain. Methods: A search of the current literature was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Pro Quest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Scopus, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Studies were included if each involved: 1) individuals with LBP; 2) spinal manipulations performed by physical therapists compared to any control group that did not receive manipulations; 3) measurable clinical outcomes or efficiency of treatment measures, and 4) randomized control trials. The quality of included articles was determined by two independent authors using the criteria developed and used by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Results: Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. The most commonly used outcomes in these studies were some variation of pain rating scales and disability indexes. Notable results included varying degrees of effect sizes favoring physical therapy spinal manipulations and minimal adverse events resulting from this intervention. Additionally, the manipulation group in one study reported statistically significantly less medication use, health care utilization, and lost work time. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this systematic review there is evidence to support the use of spinal manipulation by physical therapists in clinical practice. Physical therapy spinal manipulation appears to be a safe intervention that improves clinical outcomes for patients with low back pain. PMID:23316428

Kuczynski, John J.; Schwieterman, Braun; Columber, Kirby; Knupp, Darren; Shaub, Lauren

2012-01-01

169

Who Will Drop Out & Who Will Drop In, Exercise Adherence in a RCT among Patients Receiving Active Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence has significantly affected the efficacy of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to test exercise interventions. Objective To analyze exercise-related adherence patterns among patients receiving active cancer treatment and to identify factors related to exercise adherence and contamination in both the intervention and control groups. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a RCT of a home-based walking intervention for patients receiving active cancer treatment. Hierarchical Poisson regression analysis was used to identify factors related to exercise adherence and exercise contamination in the exercise intervention and control groups. Results A total of 126 patients finished the study. Exercise adherence rate in the intervention group was 32.35%, while exercise contamination rate in the control group was 12.07%. Independent predictors of adherence for the exercise group were baseline physical fitness, pre-treatment fatigue level, treatment-related mood disturbance, and marital status (p < 0.01); past exercise history significantly predicted exercise contamination (p < 0.00) in the control group. Conclusions Adherence remains an issue in an exercise RCT among patients on active cancer treatment. Adherence is related to symptom, physical function, and exercise history. Implications for Practice Exercise researchers should consider stratifying samples based on pre-treatment variables found to be significantly associated with outcome variables in this study to reduce confounding effects. Oncology clinicians can use the study findings to appropriately tailor strategies to encourage exercise adherence among patients receiving active cancer treatment so that these patients can receive the known benefits of exercise. PMID:22228393

Shang, Jingjing; Wenzel, Jennifer; Krumm, Sharon; Griffith, Kathleen; Stewart, Kerry

2011-01-01

170

Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy.  

PubMed

Recently, Christensen et al. reported the clinical effects of a low-cost rehabilitation program equally efficient to a relatively intensive program of individual, physiotherapist-guided exercise therapy. Yet, the low-cost approach is not fully supported as an optimal strategy until a full-scale economic evaluation, including extra-hospital effects such as service utilization in the primary health care sector and return-to-work, is conducted. The objective of this study was to conduct such evaluation i.e. investigate the cost-effectiveness of (1) a low-cost rehabilitation regimen with a behavioural element and (2) a regimen of individual exercise therapy, both in comparison with usual practice, from a health economic, societal perspective. Study design was a cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients having had posterolateral or circumferential fusion (indicated by chronic low back pain and localized pathology) were randomized 3 months after their spinal fusion. Validated pain- and disability index scales were applied at baseline and at 2 years postoperative. Costs were measured in a full-scale societal perspective. The probability of the behavioural approach being cost-effective was close to 1 given pain as the prioritized effect measure, and 0.8 to 0.6 (dependent on willingness to pay per effect unit) given disability as the prioritized effect measure. The probability of the exercise therapy approach being cost-effective was modest due to inferior effectiveness. Results proved robust to relevant sensitivity analysis although a differentiated cost-effectiveness ratio between males and females was suspected. In conclusion, a simple behavioural extension, of setting up group meetings for patients, to a regimen with a strict physiotherapeutic focus was found cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency and guidance of a traditional physiotherapeutic regimen was unlikely in present trial setting. PMID:17713794

Søgaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

2008-02-01

171

Surgical Treatment for Adult Spinal Deformity: Projected Cost Effectiveness at 5-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background In the United States, expenditures related to spine care are estimated to account for $86 billion annually. Policy makers have set a cost-effectiveness benchmark of less than $100,000/quality adjusted life year (QALY), forcing surgeons to defend their choices economically. This study projects the cost/QALY for surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity at 5-year follow-up based on 2-year cost- and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data. Methods In a review of 541 patients with adult spinal deformity, the patients who underwent revision or were likely to undergo revision were identified and cost of surgery was doubled to account for the second procedure; all other patients maintained the cost of the initial surgery. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was modeled by revision status based on literature findings. Total surgical cost was based on Medicare reimbursement. Chi square and student t tests were utilized to compare cost-effective and non–cost-effective patients. Results The average cost/QALY at 5-year follow-up was $120,311.73. A total of 40.7% of patients fell under the threshold of a cost/QALY <$100,000. Cost-effective patients had higher baseline ODI scores (45% vs 34% [P=0.001]), lower baseline total Scoliosis Research Society scores (2.89 vs 3.00 [P=0.04]), and shorter fusions (8.23 vs 9.87 [P=0.0001]). Conclusion We found 40.7% of patients to be below the threshold of cost effectiveness. Factors associated with reaching the threshold <$100,000/QALY were greater preoperative disability, diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis, poor preoperative HRQOL scores, and fewer fusion levels. PMID:24688328

Terran, Jamie; McHugh, Brian J.; Fischer, Charla R.; Lonner, Baron; Warren, Daniel; Glassman, Steven; Bridwell, Keith; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie

2014-01-01

172

Analysis of the embolization spinal dural arteriovenous fistula and surgical treatments on 52 cases of the patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) highly threatens people’s life and health. Effective methods for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease are badly needed in clinical application. Objective: The objective of the present study was to sum up the diagnosis and treatment method of SDAVF to improve the diagnosis and treatment effect of the disease. Methods: The epidemiological data, imaging data, therapeutic methods and postoperative follow-up data of 52 cases of patients with SDAVF received in our hospital in recent 6 years were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were 43 male patients and 9 female patients with ages of 39-77 years and average age of 59.6 years. The course of disease was 1 to 48 months with an average disease course of 14.4 months. All the patients had syndromes of lower limb numbness, pain, weakness and other sensory and movement disorders mostly accompanied with defecation dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results demonstrated that spinal cord abnormalities were found in spinal cord, which could be diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examination. There were 40 cases received surgical treatment and there was no recurrence in the follow-up. There were 12 patients received embolotherapy, of whom 3 patients were operated the second time and 2 patients had embolization again. After 0.5-6 years of follow-up, postoperative symptoms of the 40 patients were improved in different degrees. The modified Aminoff-Logue function scoring was significantly decreased after treatment. Conclusion: SDAVF is the easily diagnosed and delayed spinal cord vascular lesions in clinical applications. The diagnosis relies mainly on MRI and DSA examinations. The surgical treatment effect is good and is not easily relapsed. The trauma of the interventional embolization treatment is small, but the recurrence rate is high. PMID:25356182

Qi, Xiangqian; Lv, Liquan; Han, Kaiwei; Xu, Zheng; Mei, Qiyong; Chen, Huairui; Huang, Chengguang; Bai, Rulin; Hou, Lijun; Lu, Yicheng

2014-01-01

173

Path analysis of exercise treatment-induced changes in psychological factors leading to weight loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity may affect weight loss largely through psychological pathways associated with eating changes, especially in obese individuals whose caloric expenditure through exercise is typically small. Direct testing of this is, however, lacking. Previously sedentary adults (N?=?114; 77% female; Mage?=?43.3 years), with a minimum body mass index (BMI) of 35?kg\\/m (MBMI?=?42.0?kg\\/m), participated in a 24-week treatment of cognitive-behavioural exercise support

James J. Annesi; C. Nathan Marti

2011-01-01

174

Nedocromil sodium in the treatment of exercise-induced asthma: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nedocromil sodium in the treatment of exercise-induced asthma: a meta-analysis. C. Spooner, B.H. Rowe, L.D. Saunders. #ERS Journals Ltd 2000. ABSTRACT: Exercise-induced asthma (or bronchoconstriction) afflicts millions of people worldwide. While generally self-limiting, it can hinder performance and reduce activity levels, thus it is an important condition to diagnose and treat. The objective of this review was to assess the

C. Spooner; B. H. Rowe; L. D. Saunders

2000-01-01

175

Exercise as an Adjunct Treatment for Opiate Agonist Treatment: Review of the Current Research and Implementation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opiate dependence is a significant public health concern linked to poor quality of life, co-morbid psychiatric disorders, and high costs to society. Current opiate agonist treatments are an effective but limited intervention. Adjunctive interventions could improve and augment opiate agonist treatment outcomes, including drug abstinence, quality of life, and physical health. This article reviews exercise as an adjunctive intervention for

Jeremiah Weinstock; Heather K. Wadeson; Jaci L. VanHeest

2012-01-01

176

Evaluation of Role of Anterior Debridement and Decompression of Spinal Cord and Instrumentation in Treatment of Tubercular Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study with simple randomization. Purpose To evaluate the results of anterior spinal instrumentation, debridement and decompression of cord and compare it with results of a similar procedure done without the use of anterior instrumentation. Overview of Literature Use of anterior spinal instrumentation in treatment of tubercular spondylitis is still an infrequently followed modality of treatment and data regarding its usefulness are still emerging. Methods Thirty-two patients of tubercular paraplegia with involvement of dorsal and dorso-lumbar vertebrae were operated with anterior spinal cord decompression, autofibular strut grafting with anterior instrumentation in 18 patients and no implant in 14 patients. Results were compared on the basis of improvement in Frankel grade, correction of local kyphosis, decrease in canal compromise and further progression of kyphosis. Results The mean local kyphosis correction in the immediate postoperative period was 24.1° in the instrumented group and was 6.1° in the non instrumented group. The mean late loss of correction of local kyphosis at 3 years follow-up was 1.7° in the instrumented and 6.7° in the non instrumented group. The mean improvement in canal compression was 39.5% in the instrumented group and 34.8% in the non instrumented group. Conclusions In treatment of tubercular spondylitis by anterior debridement and decompression of the spinal cord and autofibular strut grafting, the use of instrumentation has no relation with the improvement in neurological status, however the correction of local kyphosis and prevention of further progression of local kyphosis was better with the use anterior spinal instrumentation. PMID:22977698

Singh, Saurabh; Kumaraswamy, Vinay; Saraf, Shyam Kumar; Khare, Ghanshyam Narayan

2012-01-01

177

Effect of vibration treatment on symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unaccustomed eccentric exercise results in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), loss of muscle strength, reduced range of motion (ROM) and swelling. Vibration treatment has been used in physiotherapy to reduce pain and oedema, and to facilitate the repair of injured tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that vibration treatment would reduce the symptoms of muscle damage such as DOMS

Wing Y. Lau

2008-01-01

178

Exercise, antidepressant treatment, and BDNF mRNA expression in the aging brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal mental disorders affecting the geriatric population include dementia and depression. A lack of trophic support is thought to contribute to the pathology of these disorders. Physical activity and antidepressant treatment increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the young rat hippocampus. Herein, we investigated the responsiveness of the aging rat hippocampus to antidepressant treatment and voluntary exercise.

Antonio A Garza; Tony G Ha; Celithelma Garcia; Michael J Chen; Amelia A Russo-Neustadt

2004-01-01

179

Phenylbutyrate increases SMN expression in vitro: relevance for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease, characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. SMA presents with a highly variable phenotype ranging from very severe to mild (type I–III). No cure for SMA is available at present. All forms of SMA are caused by homozygous loss of the functional survival motor neuron

Catia Andreassi; Carla Angelozzi; Francesco D Tiziano; Tiziana Vitali; Eleonora De Vincenzi; Alma Boninsegna; Marcello Villanova; Enrico Bertini; Antonella Pini; Giovanni Neri; Christina Brahe

2004-01-01

180

A meta-analysis of surgery versus conventional radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic spinal epidural disease  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy has been the primary therapy for managing metastatic spinal disease; however, surgery that decompresses the spinal cord circumferentially, followed by reconstruction and immediate stabilization, has also proven effective. We provide a quantitative comparison between the “new” surgery and radiotherapy, based on articles that report on ambulatory status before and after treatment, age, sex, primary neoplasm pathology, and spinal disease distribution. Ambulation was categorized as “success” or “rescue” (proportion of patients ambulatory after treatment and proportion regaining ambulatory function, respectively). Secondary outcomes were also analyzed. We calculated cumulative success and rescue rates for our ambulatory measurements and quantified heterogeneity using a mixed-effects model. We investigated the source of the heterogeneity in both a univariate and multivariate manner with a meta-regression model. Our analysis included data from 24 surgical articles (999 patients) and 4 radiation articles (543 patients), mostly uncontrolled cohort studies (Class III). Surgical patients were 1.3 times more likely to be ambulatory after treatment and twice as likely to regain ambulatory function. Overall ambulatory success rates for surgery and radiation were 85% and 64%, respectively. Primary pathology was the principal factor determining survival. We present the first known formal meta-analysis using data from nonrandomized clinical studies. Although we attempted to control for imbalances between the surgical and radiation groups, significant heterogeneity undoubtedly still exists. Nonetheless, we believe the differences in the outcomes indicate a true difference resulting from treatment. We conclude that surgery should usually be the primary treatment with radiation given as adjuvant therapy. Neurologic status, overall health, extent of disease (spinal and extraspinal), and primary pathology all impact proper treatment selection. PMID:15701283

Klimo, Paul; Thompson, Clinton J.; Kestle, John R.W.; Schmidt, Meic H.

2005-01-01

181

Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Infections through Anterolateral Approaches Using Expandable Titanium Mesh Cage for Spine Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) is still a rare pathology. However, its incidence is on the rise. This is due to an increasing population with predisposing factors. Also, the availability of more effective diagnostic tools has brought it increasingly to the surgeon's attention. In this study the patients were treated in the Neurosurgery Division of the Department of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry of the Sapienza University of Rome, between 2001 and 2009. They had thoracolumbar pyogenic spondylitis. This study was undertaken in order to identify the correct diagnostic and therapeutic treatment needed in such cases. From the cases studied here, it is evident that spinal infections can be extremely insidious and that diagnosis tends to be reached late. Surgery, along with the antibiotic treatment, allows for eradication of the causes of the pathology by the reclamation of the affected region. Surgery is also fundamental in helping to recover vital functions and in restoring as much as possible the correct curvature of the rachises. The use of an anterolateral approach is dictated by the necessity of obtaining 360° stability as well as by the need to clear away extensive infections, which are not always reachable using a posterior approach. PMID:23193382

Roberto, Tarantino; Daniele, Marruzzo; Martina, Cappelletti; Tiziano, De Giacomo; Roberto, Delfini

2012-01-01

182

Radioactive bone cement for the treatment of spinal metastases: a dosimetric analysis of simulated clinical scenarios.  

PubMed

Vertebral metastases are a common manifestation of many cancers, potentially leading to vertebral collapse and neurological complications. Conventional treatment often involves percutaneous vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty followed by external beam radiation therapy. As a more convenient alternative, we have introduced radioactive bone cement, i.e. bone cement incorporating a radionuclide. In this study, we used a previously developed Monte Carlo radiation transport modeling method to evaluate dose distributions from phosphorus-32 radioactive cement in simulated clinical scenarios. Isodose curves were generally concentric about the surface of bone cement injected into cadaveric vertebrae, indicating that dose distributions are relatively predictable, thus facilitating treatment planning (cement formulation and dosimetry method are patent pending). Model results indicated that a therapeutic dose could be delivered to tumor/bone within ?4 mm of the cement surface while maintaining a safe dose to radiosensitive tissue beyond this distance. This therapeutic range should be sufficient to treat target volumes within the vertebral body when tumor ablation or other techniques are used to create a cavity into which the radioactive cement can be injected. With further development, treating spinal metastases with radioactive bone cement may become a clinically useful and convenient alternative to the conventional two-step approach of percutaneous strength restoration followed by radiotherapy. PMID:22705967

Kaneko, T S; Sehgal, V; Skinner, H B; Al-Ghazi, M S A L; Ramsinghani, N S; Marquez Miranda, M; Keyak, J H

2012-07-01

183

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

Masala, Salvatore, E-mail: salva.masala@tiscali.it [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Tarantino, Umberto [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Nano, Giovanni, E-mail: gionano@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy); Iundusi, Riccardo [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (Italy); Fiori, Roberto, E-mail: fiori.r@libero.it; Da Ros, Valerio, E-mail: valeriodaros@hotmail.com; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging (Italy)

2013-06-15

184

The Use of Electro-Acupuncture in Conjunction with Exercise for the Treatment of Chronic Low-Back Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the effect of a series of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment in con- junction with exercise on the pain, disability, and functional improvement scores of patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Design: A blinded prospective randomized controlled study. Subjects and interventions: A total of 52 patients were randomly allocated to an exercise group (n 5 26) or an exercise

Cecilia K. N. Yeung; Mason C. P. Leung; Daniel H. K. Chow

2003-01-01

185

Minimally invasive treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with a novel interspinous spacer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel, minimally invasive interspinous spacer in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Methods A total of 53 patients (mean age, 70 ± 11 years; 45% female) with intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate LSS, confirmed on imaging studies, were treated with the Superion® Interspinous Spacer (VertiFlex, Inc, San Clemente, CA) and returned for follow-up visits at 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Study endpoints included axial and extremity pain severity with an 11-point numeric scale, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ), back function with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), health-related quality of life with the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores from the SF-12, and adverse events. Results Axial and extremity pain each decreased 54% (both P < 0.001) over the 2-year follow-up period. ZCQ symptom severity scores improved 43% (P < 0.001) and ZCQ physical function improved 44% (P < 0.001) from pre-treatment to 2 years post-treatment. A statistically significant 50% improvement (P < 0.001) also was noted in back function. PCS and MCS each improved 40% (both P < 0.001) from pre-treatment to 2 years. Clinical success rates at 2 years were 83%–89% for ZCQ subscores, 75% for ODI, 78% for PCS, and 80% for MCS. No device infection, implant breakage, migration, or pull-out was observed, although two (3.8%) patients underwent explant with subsequent laminectomy. Conclusion Moderate LSS can be effectively treated with a minimally invasive interspinous spacer. This device is appropriate for select patients who have failed nonoperative treatment measures for LSS and meet strict anatomical criteria. PMID:21966217

Shabat, Shay; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E; Gepstein, Reuven

2011-01-01

186

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion ... Spinal fusion is most often done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. It may be done: With ...

187

Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HUCB-MSC) transplantation on the functional restoration of spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 46 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Injury (n=15), control (n=15) and transplantation (n=16). A SCI model was established using the modified Allen’s method (vulnerating energy, 25 g/cm). The rats in the control and transplantation groups were injected at the site of the injury with physiological saline and HUCB-MSC suspension, respectively. At week one, two and four following treatment, the behavior of the rats was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan locomotor rating scale. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on samples from the rats that had been sacrificed four weeks subsequent to the treatment. Recovery of the spinal cord nerve function was identified to be significantly different at week two and four following treatment (P<0.05), and IHC identified that at week four following treatment novel nerve cells were being produced. Thus, transplantation of HUCB-MSCs promoted the recovery of the damaged function of spinal cord nerves in rats with SCI. PMID:24940417

CUI, BINGZHOU; LI, EN; YANG, BO; WANG, BO

2014-01-01

188

[Physical exercise and yoga in prevention and treatment of addictive diseases].  

PubMed

Prevention of addictive diseases should be complex and systematic and it should include training of social skills, decision-making skills, family intervention, etc. Similarly, effective treatment is usually long-term, systematic and complex. Physical exercise and yoga can be useful components of comprehensive prevention and treatment programmes. On the other hand, competitive professional sport rather increases the number of risk factors for substance-related problems. Practical experience with the use of yoga in substance dependent patients and pathological gambles are mentioned. One of the advantages of yoga is the integration of physical exercise and relaxation. PMID:15789782

Nespor, K

2005-01-01

189

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The three most common types of intramedullary spinal cord tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, ependymomas, and high-grade astrocytomas.\\u000a Surgical extirpation is the necessary and sufficient primary treatment for most intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Radiation\\u000a therapy may also have a role in the management of persistent, recurrent, or progressive low-grade astrocytomas and ependymomas.\\u000a The current treatment of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas,

Daniel C. Bowers; Bradley E. Weprin

2003-01-01

190

Spinal synovial cysts: pathogenesis, diagnosis and surgical treatment in a series of seven cases and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed based on the retrospective analysis of patients treated in the Neurosurgical Department of two major\\u000a hospitals and review of the literature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of surgery and address controversial\\u000a issues in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts. Spinal juxtafacet cysts (synovial and ganglion cysts)\\u000a are a rare

Efstathios J. Boviatsis; Lampis C. Staurinou; Andreas T. Kouyialis; Maria M. Gavra; Pantelis C. Stavrinou; Marios Themistokleous; Panayiotis Selviaridis; Damianos E. Sakas

2008-01-01

191

Splicing regulation of the Survival Motor Neuron genes and implications for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The reduced SMN levels are due to loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene. Humans carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene that generates a truncated protein, due to a C to T nucleotide alteration in exon 7 that leads to inefficient RNA splicing of exon 7. This exclusion of SMN exon 7 is central to the onset of the SMA disease, however, this offers a unique therapeutic intervention in which corrective splicing of the SMN2 gene would restore SMN function. Exon 7 splicing is regulated by a number of exonic and intronic splicing regulatory sequences and trans-factors that bind them. A better understanding of the way SMN pre-mRNA is spliced has lead to the development of targeted therapies aimed at correcting SMN2 splicing. As therapeutics targeted toward correction of SMN2 splicing continue to be developed available SMA mouse models can be utilized in validating their potential in disease treatment. PMID:20515750

Bebee, Thomas W.; Gladman, Jordan T.; Chandler, Dawn S.

2010-01-01

192

Cervical epidural steroid injections for the treatment of cervical spinal (neck) pain.  

PubMed

Cervical epidural steroid injections (CESI) are an accepted treatment for neck pain with a radicular component, and may be accomplished by using either transforaminal (CTFESI) or interlaminar (CILESI) approaches. CESIs are routinely performed using real-time fluoroscopic-guidance in conjunction with the injection of water soluble, iodine-based contrast media to enhance visualization of intravascular injections. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging is an adjuvant to fluoroscopic methods for visualizing blood vessels while performing spinal injections. However, as with any neuraxial procedure, various complications associated with CESIs have been reported. Complications are directly associated with the technical procedures of CESIs. Particulate steroids may have a prolonged duration of action but non-particulate steroids are safer for CESIs. Blunt-beveled needles are less likely than sharp-beveled needles to penetrate blood vessels to cause bleeding complications during CTFESI procedures. Small doses of local anesthetics appear to be safe and assist in identifying intravascular injections previously overlooked by conventional techniques. PMID:23315021

Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa 'nick'

2013-02-01

193

Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?  

PubMed Central

Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, who 16.5 (12–26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6?±?11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1?±?16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3?±?7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

P?aszewski, Maciej; Cie?li?ski, Igor; Kowalski, Pawe?; Truszczy?ska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman

2014-01-01

194

Clinical efficacy of posterior versus anterior instrumentation for the treatment of spinal tuberculosis in adults: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of posterior vs. anterior instrumentation for the treatment of spinal tuberculosis in adults. Methods The electronic databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, EMBASE, Google scholar, and Cochrane library were searched to select the potentially relevant reports that compared the efficacy of posterior instrumentation group (group A) with anterior instrumentation group (group B) in the treatment of spinal tuberculosis. Outcome assessments were correction of angle, loss of correction, fusion rate of the grafting bone, and complications after surgery. Results This meta-analysis included four trials published between 2006 and 2012, involving 291 adult patients (group A, 154; group B, 137) with spinal tuberculosis. The overall meta-analysis showed that there were no significant differences (P?>?0.01) between group A and group B in correction of angle and loss of correction at final follow-up after operation The pooled WMD (weighted mean difference) of group A and group B was 2.85 (95% CI (confidence interval)?=?-1.25?~?6.94) and 1.14 (95% CI?=?-3.07?~?5.34), respectively. Besides, no significant differences (P?>?0.01) were observed in fusion rate of the grafting bone and complications after operation between group A and group B, and the pooled ORs (odds ratio) were 0.65 (95% CI?=?-0.23?~?1.85) and (95% CI?=?-0.19?~?1.50), respectively. Conclusions Our results suggested that the posterior instrumentation appeared to have the same clinical outcome with the anterior instrumentation in the treatment of the adult patients with spinal tuberculosis. PMID:24555672

2014-01-01

195

Exercise Therapy for Depression in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Predictors of Early Dropout and Treatment Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosocial factors predicting treatment dropout or failure to benefit from treatment were identified in a randomized trial of exercise therapy and pharmacotherapy for major depression. One hundred fifty-six men and women over age 50 diagnosed with major depressive disorder were assigned to a 16-week program of aerobic exercise, medication (sertraline), or a combination of exercise and medication. Thirty-two patients (21%)

Steve Herman; James A. Blumenthal; Michael Babyak; Parinda Khatri; W. Edward Craighead; K. Ranga Krishnan; P. Murali Doraiswamy

2002-01-01

196

Exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction: a neurobiological and stage-dependent hypothesis.  

PubMed

Physical activity, and specifically exercise, has been suggested as a potential treatment for drug addiction. In this review, we discuss clinical and preclinical evidence for the efficacy of exercise at different phases of the addiction process. Potential neurobiological mechanisms are also discussed focusing on interactions with dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling and chromatin remodeling in the reward pathway. While exercise generally produces an efficacious response, certain exercise conditions may be either ineffective or lead to detrimental effects depending on the level/type/timing of exercise exposure, the stage of addiction, the drug involved, and the subject population. During drug use initiation and withdrawal, its efficacy may be related to its ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission, and once addiction develops, its efficacy may be related to its ability to normalize glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling and reverse drug-induced changes in chromatin via epigenetic interactions with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the reward pathway. We conclude with future directions, including the development of exercise-based interventions alone or as an adjunct to other strategies for treating drug addiction. PMID:23806439

Lynch, Wendy J; Peterson, Alexis B; Sanchez, Victoria; Abel, Jean; Smith, Mark A

2013-09-01

197

Exercise as a Novel Treatment for Drug Addiction: A Neurobiological and Stage-Dependent Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Physical activity, and specifically exercise, has been suggested as a potential treatment for drug addiction. In this review, we discuss clinical and preclinical evidence for the efficacy of exercise at different phases of the addiction process. Potential neurobiological mechanisms are also discussed focusing on interactions with dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling and chromatin remodeling in the reward pathway. While exercise generally produces an efficacious response, certain exercise conditions may be either ineffective or lead to detrimental effects depending on the level/type/timing of exercise exposure, the stage of addiction, the drug involved, and the subject population. During drug use initiation and withdrawal, its efficacy may be related to its ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission, and once addiction develops, its efficacy may be related to its ability to normalize glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling and reverse drug-induced changes in chromatin via epigenetic interactions with BDNF in the reward pathway. We conclude with future directions, including the development of exercise-based interventions alone or as an adjunct to other strategies for treating drug addiction. PMID:23806439

Lynch, Wendy J.; Peterson, Alexis B.; Sanchez, Victoria; Abel, Jean; Smith, Mark A.

2013-01-01

198

Effect of Erythropoietin Treatment on Physical Exercise Capacity and on Renal Function in Predialytic Uremic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is already present in patients with moderate renal failure and is a major cause of the decline in exercise capacity seen in these patients. We examined the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment in 12 predialytic uremic patients (EPO group: mean age 46 ± 12 years; 6 men, 6 women) with a mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 10 ±

Naomi Clyne; Tomas Jogestrand

1992-01-01

199

Nonpharmacologic treatment of resistant hypertensives by Device-Guided slow breathing exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated the antihypertensive effect of slow breathing exercises, guided interactively by a device, in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) without changing medication. This study examined the response to the same treatment protocol in resistant hypertensives.

Reuven Viskoper; Irena Shapira; Rita Priluck; Rina Mindlin; Larissa Chornia; Anny Laszt; Dror Dicker; Benjamin Gavish; Ariela Alter

2003-01-01

200

Spinal epidural abscess penetrating into retroperitoneal space in patient with diabetes mellitus type 2: early diagnosis and treatment requirement.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare condition with very serious prognosis. Predisposing factors for SEA include bacterial infections, immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus, intravenous drug abuse, alcoholism, AIDS, as well as spinal surgery and modern techniques of epidural anesthesia. The most common causative agent for SEA is Staphylococcus aureus. The typical clinical signs of SEA are back pain, fever and neurologic dysficit. Magnetic resonance (MR) of the spine and vertebral column is the best imaging diagnostic method in suspected cases. Emergency surgical decompression combined with intravenous antibiotics is the therapeutic method of choice. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in selected patients. Unless the typical presentation of SEA correct diagnosis of this illness is often overlooked and not considered initially. It delays suitable management and leads to poor outcome. We report a classic case of SEA in a woman with a history of diabetes mellitus. PMID:18405176

Grabysa, Rados?aw; Moczulska, Beata

2008-01-01

201

Exercise Use as Complementary Therapy Among Breast and Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Active Treatment: Examination of Exercise Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exercise is associated with an improved quality of life among cancer survivors. Previous research has highlighted the utility of the theory of planned behavior in understanding cancer survivors' intention to exercise. The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the theory of planned behavior in relation to exercise intention in breast cancer survivors and to provide

Tiffany T. Hunt-Shanks; Chris M. Blanchard; Frank Baker; Danette Hann; Cleora S. Roberts; Jamie McDonald; Mary Livingston; Cathy Witt; Jane Ruiterman; Rosemarie Ampela; Okrae C. K. Kaw

2006-01-01

202

Long-Term Outcomes of Pelvic Floor Exercise and Biofeedback Treatment for Patients With Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term clinical and quality of life outcomes for patients after referral to a four-month treatment program for fecal incontinence based on pelvic floor exercises and biofeedback. Secondary objectives were to document patients’ subsequent treatment activities and their perception of the biofeedback training; to establish the long-term outcomes and initial predictors

Chet K. Pager; Michael J. Solomon; Jenny Rex; Rachael A. Roberts

2002-01-01

203

[Current role of methylprednisolone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury].  

PubMed

High doses of methylprednisolone (MPSS) came into use as part of a therapeutic protocol for acute spinal cord injuries following the published results from the NASCIS II study in 1992; they soon became a standard of care around the world. However, the results of this study have been critically reviewed and questioned by many authors since the beginning. The major argument is based on the fact that its effectiveness in reducing post-injury neurological damage has not been conclusively proved; in addition, there has been increasing evidence of serious side effects of steroids administered at high doses. In the Czech Republic, as part of pre-hospital care, MPSS according to the NASCIS II (or NASCIS III) protocol is used in all regional centres of emergency medical service. In the Czech spinal surgery centres involved in treating acute spinal cord injuries, there are 19 of them, attitudes towards the use of MPSS vary. In 16% of the centres a certainty of its beneficial effect is still maintained, faith in its effect together with fear of a "non-lege artis" procedure is the reason for MSPP use in 21%, and the fear of sanctions only leads to its use in 63% of the centres. There is no standard practice in application of the NASCIS II and NASCIS III protocols and no standard exclusion criteria exist. The two protocols are used equally, and one institution has its own modification. The recommended MPSS dose is administered with no exception in 63% of the centres; dose adjustment is employed according to the form of spinal cord lesion in 11%, the level of spinal cord injury in 5%, associated diseases in 16% and patient age in 11% of the spinal surgery centres. After the results of studies on MPSS administration in acute spinal cord injury have been analysed, many medical societies have changed their recommendations. In view of later relevant publications it is no longer possible to regard MPSS administration as a standard of cure for acute spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that MPSS administration in a 24-hour regimen after an initial dose given within 8 hours of injury is the therapeutic procedure that needs individual consideration in each patient according to their state of health and potential complications. MPSS administration at an interval longer than 8 hours after injury and for more than 24 hours is not justified, nor is it justified to use a high MPSS dose at the place of injury by an emergency ambulance crew. Key words: corticosteroids, methylprednisolone, spinal cord trauma, neurological damage. PMID:21888840

Lukáš, R; Zýková, I; Barsa, P; Srám, J

2011-01-01

204

Repeated morphine treatment-mediated hyperalgesia, allodynia and spinal glial activation are blocked by co-administration of a selective cannabinoid receptor type-2 agonist  

PubMed Central

Spinal glial activation has been implicated in sustained morphine-mediated paradoxical pain sensitization. Since activation of glial CB2 cannabinoid receptors attenuates spinal glial activation in neuropathies, we hypothesized that CB2 agonists may also attenuate sustained morphine–mediated spinal glial activation and pain sensitization. Our data indicate that co-administration of a CB2-selective agonist (AM 1241) attenuates morphine (intraperitoneal; twice daily; 6 days)-mediated thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia in rats. A CB2 (AM 630) but not a CB1 (AM 251) antagonist mitigated this effect. AM 1241 co-treatment also attenuated spinal astrocyte and microglial marker and pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-1?, TNF?) immunoreactivities in morphine-treated rats, suggesting that CB2 agonists may be useful to prevent the neuroinflammatory consequences of sustained morphine treatment. PMID:22285397

Tumati, Suneeta; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Keresztes, Attila; Ren, Jiyang; Roeske, William R; Vanderah, Todd W.; Varga, Eva V

2012-01-01

205

Magnitude of spinal muscle damage is not statistically associated with exercise-induced low back pain intensity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Findings on imaging of noncontractile anatomic abnormalities and the intensity of low back pain have weak associations because of false-positive rates among asymptomatic individuals. This association might be stronger for contractile tissues. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between location and reports of pain intensity in the low back and exercise-induced muscle damage to the lumbar paraspinal muscles. STUDY DESIGN Nondiagnostic observational study in a laboratory setting. METHODS Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced in the low back of healthy pain-free volunteers. Measures of pain intensity (100-mm visual analog scale [VAS]) and location (area on the pain diagram) were taken before and 48 hours after exercise. Muscle damage was quantified using mechanical pain thresholds, motor performance deficits, and transverse relaxation time (T2)–weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Changes pre- to postexercise in signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging within the erector spinae, pain intensity, pain area, mechanical pain threshold, and isometric torque were assessed using paired t tests. Bivariate correlations were conducted to assess associations among muscle damage, pain intensity, and pain drawing area. RESULTS Twenty participants volunteered (11 women; average age, 22.3 years; average body mass index, 23.5) for study participation. Reports of pain intensity at 48 hours ranged from 0 to 59 mm on the VAS. Muscle damage was confirmed by reductions in mechanical threshold (p=.011) and motor performance (p<.001) and by changes in T2-weighted MRI (p=.007). This study was powered to find an association of at least r=0.5 to be statistically significant. Correlations of continuous variables revealed no significant correlations between pain intensity and measures of muscle damage (ranging between ?0.075 and 0.151). There was a significant association between the remaining torque deficit at 48 hours and pain area. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study indicate that there was no association between the magnitude of muscle damage in the lumbar erector spinae and reported pain intensity in the low back. In future studies, larger cohorts may report statistically significant associations, but our data suggest that there will be low magnitude potentially indicating limited clinical relevance. PMID:22208857

Bishop, Mark D.; Horn, Maggie E.; Lott, Donovan J.; Arpan, Ishu; George, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

206

[Exercise therapy in the treatment of chronic back pain. An integral part of interdisciplinary therapy].  

PubMed

Chronic low back pain requires interdisciplinary and biopsychosocial treatment. Apart from the medical, psychological, and physiotherapeutic aspects of therapy, exercise therapy is an important component. Together with"work hardening," it represents the elements for reconditioning. The isolated effect is scientifically difficult to specify with the available data, but in most analytical studies, exercise therapy is an important component in an interdisciplinary setting. A nonspecific, diversified training program is superior to exercise solely of the trunk muscles. The primary tasks are to recover load capacity and diminish pain-avoidance behaviors, with consideration of the principles of"functional restoration." Thorough information and cooperation with the patient, continuous motivation, ratio control, a systematic increase in load, and permanent feedback are necessary. Close communication within the team makes immediate accompanying interventions of other specialized groups possible. PMID:19784619

Maier, A; Weh, L; Klein, A; Hamel, M; Lucan, S; Marnitz, U

2009-10-01

207

Working ability and exercise tolerance during treatment of mild hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The treatments of mild hypertension with atenolol and prazosin in occupationally active men and women were compared in a double blind cross-over with placebo. The hypotensive effect of the beta-adreno-receptor blocking drug, atenolol, were striking and in accordance with current knowledge, using one daily dose of 100 mg. In contrast, the hypotensive effect of taking 2 mg prazosin twice

K. Lange Andersen; W. Ottmann; W. Piatkowski; K. A. Green

1985-01-01

208

A typology of alcohol use patterns among persons with recent traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury: Implications for treatment matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turner AP, Bombardier CH, Rimmele CT. A typology of alcohol use patterns among persons with recent traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury: implications for treatment matching. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:358-64. Objective: To describe empirically valid and clinically meaningful types of alcohol use among persons with recent traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. Design: Cross-sectional cohort survey. Setting: Acute

Aaron P. Turner; Charles H. Bombardier; Carl T. Rimmele

2003-01-01

209

Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.  

PubMed

Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs. PMID:23082524

Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

2012-09-01

210

Bone marrow stromal cell transplantation for treatment of sub-acute spinal cord injury in the rat.  

PubMed

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been studied as effective transplants for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Our previous study showed that BMSCs infused into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exhibited distinct effects on the recovery of acute SCI. The present study examined the effects of BMSCs in sub-acute SCI (2weeks post-injury) by transplanting them directly into the lesion. The spinal cord was crush-injured at the Th8-9 level in rats, and 2weeks later, cultured BMSCs (5x10(5)) derived from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were transplanted into the lesion. Tissue repair and nerve regeneration were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. GFP-labeled BMSCs survived as cell assemblies in the spinal cord for 1-2weeks after transplantation. The dorsal side of BMSC assemblies in the spinal cord usually showed an expanded GFAP-negative, astrocyte-devoid area, in which extracellular matrices including collagen fibrils were deposited. Numerous regenerating axons associated with Schwann cells grew out through such astrocyte-devoid extracellular matrices. Ascending (CGRP-containing) and descending (5HT- and TH-containing) axons were included in these regenerating axons. Regenerated axons were myelinated by Schwann cells beyond 2weeks post-transplantation. Cavity formation was reduced in the cell transplantation group. Locomotory behavior assessed by the BBB scale improved to 9.8 points in the cell transplantation group, while it was to 5.5-5.7 in the control. BMSC transplantation into lesions of advanced SCI has markedly beneficial effects on tissue repair and axonal outgrowth, leading to improved locomotion in rats. PMID:20307513

Ide, Chizuka; Nakai, Yoshiyasu; Nakano, Norihiko; Seo, Tae-Beom; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Endo, Katsuaki; Noda, Toru; Saito, Fukuki; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Fukushima, Masanori; Nakatani, Toshio

2010-05-21

211

Comparative efficacy of inhaled furosemide and disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of exercise-induced asthma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhaled furosemide has been shown, in patients with asthma, to have prophylactic properties similar to those of disodium cromoglycate. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of these drugs in the treatment of exercise-induced asthma. Methods: Fifteen children with exercise-induced asthma (mean age, 10.8 years) underwent exercise challenge after a single dose of nebulized

Raul E. Melo; Dirceu Solé; Charles K. Naspitz

1997-01-01

212

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.AimsTo examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.DesignParticipants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using

Maciej S. Buchowski; Natalie N. Meade; Evonne Charboneau; Sohee Park; Mary S. Dietrich; Ronald L. Cowan; Peter R. Martin; Antonio Verdejo García

2011-01-01

213

Exercise as a Time-conditioning Effector in Chronic Disease: a Complementary Treatment Strategy  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been widely believed to be a preventive and therapeutic aid in the treatment of various pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A common problem associated with such pathologies is cachexia, characterized by progressive weight loss and depletion of lean and fat body mass, and is linked to poor prognosis. As this syndrome comprises changes in many physiological systems, it is tempting to assume that the modulation of the psychoneuroimmunoendocrine axis could attenuate or even prevent cachexia progression in cancer patients. Cancer cachexia is characterized by a disruption in the rhythmic secretion of melatonin, an important time-conditioning effector. This hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, transmits circadian and seasonal information to all organs and cells of the body, synchronizing the organism with the photoperiod. Considering that exercise modulates the immune response through at least two different mechanisms—metabolic and neuroendocrine—we propose that the adoption of a regular exercise program as a complementary strategy in the treatment of cancer patients, with the exercise bouts regularly performed at the same time of the day, will ameliorate cachexia symptoms and increase survival and quality of life. PMID:15257327

2004-01-01

214

Unusual Spinal Dysraphic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Human tail and multiple spinal dysraphism are unusual congenital malformations. Human tail appeared as a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region, generally without connection between the tail and the neurospinal axis. Spinal dysraphisms are usually isolated, reaching 0.038% of incidence of multiple spinal dysraphisms in the same child. There were three cases described of unusual spinal dysraphic lesions: two cases of human tail and a case of a multiple thoracic myelomeningocele. The literature about diagnosis and treatment was reviewed. Microsurgical technique was performed to provide better exploration of the lesions, and resection could be done in those congenital malformations, without morbidity. PMID:24194997

Pacheco, Pollyana; Wanderley, Luiz Eduardo

2013-01-01

215

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

216

Treatment of exercise-induced asthma with beclomethasone dipropionate in children with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of exercise-induced asthma with beclomethasone dipropionate in children with asthma. R. Petersen, L. Agertoft, S. Pedersen. #ERS Journals Ltd 2004. ABSTRACT: A new hydrofluoroalkane-beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP) aerosol markedly increases drug delivery to the airways. Therefore, even low doses of HFA-BDP should be effective, and the present study assesses this. A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was used to compare the

R. Petersen; L. Agertoft; S. Pedersen

2004-01-01

217

Transplantation of Predifferentiated Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are an alternative source of stem cells for cell-based therapies of neurological disorders\\u000a such as spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we predifferentiated ASCs (pASCs) and compared their behavior with\\u000a naïve ASCs in vitro and after transplantation into rats with a balloon-induced compression lesion. ASCs were predifferentiated\\u000a into spheres before transplantation, then pASCs or

David Arboleda; Serhiy Forostyak; Pavla Jendelova; Dana Marekova; Takashi Amemori; Helena Pivonkova; Katarina Masinova; Eva Sykova

218

Use of Platelet Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Bicipital Tendinopathy in Spinal Cord Injury:  

PubMed Central

The purpose of study is to explore the efficacy and safety of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the nonoperative management of shoulder tendinopathy amongst individuals with spinal cord injury. This objective was met by completing a pilot study on the effectiveness and safety of a PRP injection into the biceps tendon demonstrating clinical and ultrasonagraphic pathology. Recent analysis of the preliminary pilot data has demonstrated remarkably convincing results demonstrating both the safety and efficacy of this novel intervention. PMID:23459023

Ibrahim, Victor M.; Groah, Suzanne L.; Libin, Alexander; Ljungberg, Inger H.

2012-01-01

219

Microsurgical treatment and functional outcomes of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to prospectively analyze correlations between clinical features and histological classification of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors (MSICTs), and the extent of microsurgical resection and functional outcomes. Fifty-six patients with MSICTs underwent microsurgery for tumor removal using a posterior approach. The tumor was exposed through a dorsal myelotomy. Pre-operative and post-operative nervous function was scored using the Improved Japanese

Jianjun Sun; Zhenyu Wang; Zhendong Li; Bin Liu

2009-01-01

220

Chiropractic treatment of postsurgical neck syndrome with mechanical force, manually assisted short-lever spinal adjustments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe a case of postsurgical neck pain, after multiple spinal surgeries, that was successfully treated by chiropractic intervention with instrumental adjustment of the cervical spine. Clinical Features: A 35-year-old woman had chronic neck pain for over 5 years after two separate surgeries of the cervical spine: a diskectomy at C3\\/4 and a fusion at C5\\/6. Surgeries were performed

Bradley S. Polkinghorn; Christopher J. Colloca

2001-01-01

221

Neuropathology of the brainstem and spinal cord in end stage rheumatoid arthritis: implications for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the detailed histopathological changes in the brainstem and spinal cord in nine patients with severe end stage rheumatoid arthritis, all with clinical myelopathy and craniocervical compression. METHODS--At necropsy the sites of bony pathology were related exactly to cord segments and histological changes, and correlated with clinical and radiological findings. RESULTS--Cranial nerve and brainstem pathology was rare. In addition

F C Henderson; J F Geddes; H A Crockard

1993-01-01

222

Central Decompressive Laminoplasty for Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis : Technique and Early Surgical Results  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common degenerative spine disease that requires surgical intervention. Currently, there is interest in minimally invasive surgery and various technical modifications of decompressive lumbar laminectomy without fusion. The purpose of this study was to present the author's surgical technique and results for decompression of spinal stenosis. Methods The author performed surgery in 57 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis between 2006 and 2010. Data were gathered retrospectively via outpatient interviews and telephone questionnaires. The operation used in this study was named central decompressive laminoplasty (CDL), which allows thorough decompression of the lumbar spinal canal and proximal two foraminal nerve roots by undercutting the lamina and facet joint. Kyphotic prone positioning on elevated curvature of the frame or occasional use of an interlaminar spreader enables sufficient interlaminar working space. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Surgical outcome was analyzed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Data were analyzed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Results The interlaminar window provided by this technique allowed for unhindered access to the central canal, lateral recess, and upper/lower foraminal zone, with near-total sparing of the facet joint. The VAS scores and ODI were significantly improved at six-month follow-up compared to preoperative levels (p<0.001, respectively). Excellent pain relief (>75% of initial VAS score) of back/buttock and leg was observed in 75.0% and 76.2% of patients, respectively. Conclusion CDL is easily applied, allows good field visualization and decompression, maintains stability by sparing ligament and bony structures, and shows excellent early surgical results. PMID:25368762

2014-01-01

223

Treadmill Exercise Training Prevents Myocardial Mechanical Dysfunction Induced by Androgenic-Anabolic Steroid Treatment in Rats  

PubMed Central

Elevated concentrations of testosterone and its synthetic analogs may induce changes in cardiovascular function. However, the effects of the combination of anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment and exercise training on systolic and diastolic cardiac function are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose steroid treatment (stanozolol) on cardiac contractile parameters when this steroid treatment was combined with exercise training in rats and the effects of chronic steroid treatment on the Frank-Starling (length-tension curves) relationship. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: U (untrained), US (untrained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week), T (trained, 16 m/min/1 h) and TS (trained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week). Continuous exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks. The speed of the treadmill was gradually increased to a final setting of 16 m/min/1 h. Experiments were divided into two independent series: 1) central hemodynamic analysis for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) measurements and 2) isolated papillary muscle preparation in Krebs solution. Stanozolol treatment significantly increased the MAP and the heart size in untrained and trained rats (U 113±2; T 106±2; US 138±8 and TS 130±7 mmHg). Furthermore, stanozolol significantly decreased developed tension and dT/dt (maximal and minimal) in U rats. However, the developed tension was completely restored by training. The Frank/Starling relationship was impaired in rats treated with stanozolol; however, again, training completely restored diastolic function. Taken together, the present data suggest that AAS treatment is able to decrease cardiac performance (systolic and diastolic functions). The combination of stanozolol and physical training improved cardiac performance, including diastolic and systolic functions, independent of changes in central hemodynamic parameters. Therefore, changes in ventricular myocyte calcium transients may play a cardioprotective role. PMID:24533053

Bocalini, Danilo S.; Beutel, Abram; Bergamaschi, Cassia T.; Tucci, Paulo J.; Campos, Ruy R.

2014-01-01

224

Likelihood of Reaching Minimal Clinically Important Difference in Adult Spinal Deformity: A Comparison of Operative and Nonoperative Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined threshold improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by measuring minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in treatment of adult spinal deformity. We hypothesized that patients undergoing operative treatment would be more likely to achieve MCID threshold improvement compared with those receiving nonoperative care, although a subset of nonoperative patients may still reach threshold. Methods We analyzed a multicenter, prospective, consecutive case series of 464 patients: 225 nonoperative and 239 operative. To be included in the study, patients had to have adult spinal deformity, be older than 18 years, and have both baseline and 1-year follow-up HRQOL measures (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Short Form-36 [SF-36] health survey, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 [SRS-22] questionnaire). We compared the percentages of patients achieving established MCID thresholds between operative and nonoperative groups using risk ratios (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Compared to nonoperative patients, surgical patients demonstrated significant mean improvement (P<0.01) and were more likely to achieve threshold MCID improvement across all HRQOL scores (ODI RR = 7.37 [CI 4.45, 12.21], SF-36 physical component score RR = 2.96 [CI 2.11, 4.15], SRS Activity RR = 3.16 [CI 2.32, 4.31]). Furthermore, operative patients were more likely to reach threshold MCID improvement in 2 or more HRQOL measures simultaneously and were less likely to deteriorate. Conclusion Patients in both the operative and nonoperative treatment groups demonstrated improvement in at least one HRQOL measure at 1 year. However, surgical treatment was more likely to result in threshold improvement and more likely to lead to simultaneous improvement across multiple measures of ODI, SF-36, and SRS-22. Although a subset of nonoperative patients achieved threshold improvement, nonoperative patients were significantly less likely to improve in multiple HRQOL measures and more likely to sustain MCID deterioration or no change. PMID:24688336

Liu, Shian; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S.; Klineberg, Eric; Ames, Christopher P.; Mundis, Gregory; Hostin, Richard; Kebaish, Khaled; Deviren, Vedat; Gupta, Munish; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Hart, Robert A.; Bess, Shay; Lafage, Virginie

2014-01-01

225

The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM® treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report.  

PubMed

High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT. PMID:23904753

McCormack, Joshua R

2012-08-01

226

Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Antidepressants are currently the treatment of choice for major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, a high percentage of patients do not respond to a first-line antidepressant drug, and combination treatments and augmentation strategies increase the risk of side effects. Moreover, a significant proportion of patients are treatment-resistant. In the last 30 years, a number of studies have sought to establish whether exercise could be regarded as an alternative to antidepressants, but so far no specific analysis has examined the efficacy of exercise as an adjunctive treatment in combination with antidepressants. We carried out a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants on depression. A search of relevant papers was carried out in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and Scopus with the following keywords: "exercise," "physical activity," "physical fitness," "depressive disorder," "depression," "depressive symptoms," "add-on," "augmentation," "adjunction," and "combined therapy." Twenty-two full-text articles were retrieved by the search. Among the 13 papers that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, we found methodological weaknesses in the majority. However, the included studies showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants. Further analyses and higher quality studies are needed; nevertheless, as we have focused on a particular intervention (exercise in adjunction to antidepressants) that better reflects clinical practice, we can hypothesize that this strategy could be appropriately and safely translated into real-world practice. PMID:24589012

Mura, Gioia; Moro, Maria Francesca; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro G

2014-12-01

227

[Therapeutic exercise as treatment for migraine and tension-type headaches: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials].  

PubMed

AIM. To analyse the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise on migraines and tension-type headaches (TTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Electronic databases were used to search the literature for relevant articles. Eligibility criteria were: controlled randomised clinical trials (RCT), conducted on patients with migraine or TTH, in which the therapeutic intervention was based on therapeutic exercise, and the papers had been published in English and Spanish. Two independent reviewers performed the analysis of the methodological quality using the Delphi scale. RESULTS. Ten RCT were selected, seven of which offered good methodological quality. According to all the studies analysed, the intensity and frequency of pain diminished in comparison to the situation prior to establishing therapeutic exercise, and in five studies the effect was higher than in the control group. The qualitative analysis showed strong evidence of the absence of adverse events following the application of therapeutic exercise. Furthermore, strong evidence was also found of the effect of physiotherapeutic treatment, including therapeutic exercise, in lowering the intensity, frequency and duration of pain in patients with TTH. Limited evidence was also found of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients with migraine, although it was not better than the effects derived from other forms of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Results show that therapeutic exercise is a safe treatment that provides beneficial effects on migraines or TTH. Further RCT are required in the future with appropriate methodological designs to confirm these results. PMID:24203665

Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Kindelan-Calvo, Paula; Agudo-Carmona, Diego; Muñoz-Plata, Rosa; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy

2013-11-16

228

The feasibility of utilizing pseudo CT-data for online MRI based treatment plan adaptation for a stereotactic radiotherapy treatment of spinal bone metastases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate what pseudo-CT (pCT) strategy is sufficient for online MRI based treatment plan adaptation of a stereotactic treatment for spinal bone metastases. For this purpose, the dosimetric accuracy of five increasingly complex pCT strategies was evaluated using the planning CT data of 20 patients suffering from spinal metastases. For each pCT, a treatment plan was developed and simulated on both the pCT and the original CT data of the patient. The two resulting dose distributions were compared using gamma analysis of 2%/2 mm. In this paper, a Gamma Pass Rate (GPR) of ?95% within the Target Volume (TV) was considered clinically acceptable. We additionally demonstrated in this paper the automatic generation of each investigated pCT strategy with the use of dedicated MRI data complemented with pre-treatment CT data of a patient in treatment position. The dosimetric accuracy of a pCT increases when additional bulk densities are utilized for a pCT. However, the dosimetric accuracy of even the most complex 'bulk density' pCT strategy used in this study had an average GPR of only 78% within the TV. However, if information on the heterogeneous electron density distribution within the affected vertebral body was available, a clinically acceptable 99% mean GPR was observed. All pCTs could successfully be generated using the MRI data in combination with the CT data of a patient in treatment position. The results presented in this study show that a simple 'bulk density' pseudo-CT strategy is not feasible for online MRI based treatment plan adaptation for spinal bone metastases. However, a clinically acceptable result is generated if the information on the heterogeneous electron density (ED) distribution within the affected vertebral bone is available. Therefore, any pCT strategy for this tumor site should include a method which can estimate the heterogeneous ED of the affected vertebral bone. PMID:25386792

Hoogcarspel, Stan J; Van der Velden, Joanne M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van Vulpen, Marco; Raaymakers, Bas W

2014-12-01

229

The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease.  

PubMed

Regular exercise reduces the risk of chronic metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, in part because exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are also likely to be responsible for the suppressed immunity that makes elite athletes more susceptible to infections. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise may be mediated via both a reduction in visceral fat mass (with a subsequent decreased release of adipokines) and the induction of an anti-inflammatory environment with each bout of exercise. In this Review, we focus on the known mechanisms by which exercise - both acute and chronic - exerts its anti-inflammatory effects, and we discuss the implications of these effects for the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:21818123

Gleeson, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C; Stensel, David J; Lindley, Martin R; Mastana, Sarabjit S; Nimmo, Myra A

2011-09-01

230

[Effectiveness of two aerobic exercise programs in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a preliminary Study].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of two aerobic exercise programs on the modification of the metabolic syndrome (MS) components and its influence in reducing cardiovascular risk was evaluated in 16 sedentary women (30-66 years old). Patients were randomly divided into two exercise groups: continuous training (CE: 45 minutes at 65-70% of heart rate reserve or HRR) or interval training (IE: 5 x 3 minute intervals at 80-85% HRR with two minutes of active recovery at 65-70% HRR), and each participant gave previous informed consent. The components of MS were assessed according to the criteria for women of the National Cholesterol Education/Third Treatment Adult Panel, and cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and 16 weeks later. Data analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon signed test and the Mann-Whitney U-test (SPSS v. 12.0 Windows: p < 0.05). Both exercise programs were effective in the modification of a number of MS components (triglycerides, systolic/diastolic blood pressure), however IE had a higher percentage of patients without MS diagnosis at the end of the study (62.5%). The CE improved the physical fitness by increasing the VO2peak and METs and decreasing heart rate recovery, which is reflected on the reduction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25375279

Salas-Romero, Rebeca; Sánchez-Muñoz, Verónica; Franco-Sánchez, José Gilberto; Del Villar-Morales, Ariadna; Pegueros-Pérez, Andrea

2014-01-01

231

Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise?  

PubMed

Few studies have examined whether factors predicting obligatory exercise differ by gender. 303 participants completed the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire and the Reason for Exercise Inventory. All variables correlated significantly. However, the correlation between exercising for fitness and obligatory exercise was significantly stronger in women than men. In women, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, fitness, and to enhance mood; in men, obligatory exercise was predicted by exercising to improve body tone, enjoyment, and perceived attractiveness. Implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:22365798

Pritchard, Mary E; Beaver, Jessica L

2012-04-01

232

Efficacy of multiwavelength light therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers in subjects with disorders of the spinal cord: A randomized double-blind controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taly AB, Sivaraman Nair KP, Murali T, John A. Efficacy of multiwavelength light therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers in subjects with disorders of the spinal cord: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1657–61.

Arun B. Taly; Krishan P. Sivaraman Nair; Thyloth Murali; Archana John

2004-01-01

233

Localized and sustained delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 from a nanoparticle-hydrogel composite for treatment of spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

After traumatic spinal cord injury, grossly injured blood vessels leak blood and fluid into the parenchyma, leading to a large cystic cavity. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) can reduce immediate vasoconstriction of vessels in the tissue surrounding the primary injury and promote angiogenesis. A localized delivery system would both achieve restricted delivery of FGF2 to the spinal cord and limit possible systemic effects such as mitogenesis. To enhance the endogenous angiogenic response after spinal cord injury, FGF2 was encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles which were embedded in a biopolymer blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC) and then injected into the intrathecal space. Treatment began immediately after a 26 g clip compression spinal cord injury in rats and consisted of intrathecal delivery of FGF2 from the HAMC/PLGA/FGF2 composite. Control animals received intrathecal HAMC loaded with blank nanoparticles, intrathecal HAMC alone or intrathecal artificial cerebrospinal fluid alone. Sustained and localized delivery of FGF2 from composite HAMC/PLGA/FGF2 achieved higher blood vessel density in the dorsal horns 28 days post-injury, due to either greater angiogenesis near the epicenter of the injury or vasoprotection acutely after spinal cord injury. Importantly, delivery of FGF2 from composite HAMC/PLGA/FGF2 did not produce proliferative lesions that had been previously reported for FGF2 delivered locally using a minipump/catheter. These results suggest that localized and sustained delivery with composite HAMC/PLGA/FGF2 is an excellent system to deliver biomolecules directly to the spinal cord, thereby circumventing the blood spinal cord barrier and avoiding systemic side effects. PMID:22796886

Kang, Catherine E; Baumann, M Douglas; Tator, Charles H; Shoichet, Molly S

2013-01-01

234

Holospinal epidural abscess of the spinal axis: two illustrative cases with review of treatment strategies and surgical techniques.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing prevalence of spinal infections, the subcategory of holospinal epidural abscesses (HEAs) is extremely infrequent and requires unique management. Panspinal imaging (preferably MRI), modern aggressive antibiotic therapy, and prompt surgical intervention remain the standard of care for all spinal axis infections including HEAs; however, the surgical decision making on timing and extent of the procedure still remain ill defined for HEAs. Decompression including skip laminectomies or laminoplasties is described, with varied clinical outcomes. In this review the authors present the illustrative cases of 2 patients with HEAs who were treated using skip laminectomies and epidural catheter irrigation techniques. The discussion highlights different management strategies including the role of conservative (nonsurgical) management in these lesions, especially with an already identified pathogen and the absence of mass effect on MRI or significant neurological defects. Among fewer than 25 case reports of HEA published in the past 25 years, the most important aspect in deciding a role for surgery is the neurological examination. Nearly 20% were treated successfully with medical therapy alone if neurologically intact. None of the reported cases had an associated cranial infection with HEA, because the dural adhesion around the foramen magnum prevented rostral spread of infection. Traditionally a posterior approach to the epidural space with irrigation is performed, unless an extensive focal ventral collection is causing cord compression. Surgical intervention for HEA should be an adjuvant treatment strategy for all acutely deteriorating patients, whereas aspiration of other infected sites like a psoas abscess can determine an infective pathogen, and appropriate antibiotic treatment may avoid surgical intervention in the neurologically intact patient. PMID:25081960

Smith, Gabriel A; Kochar, Arshneel S; Manjila, Sunil; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Geertman, Robert T; Anderson, James S; Steinmetz, Michael P

2014-08-01

235

Scoliosis treatment using spinal manipulation and the Pettibon Weighting System(TM): a summary of 3 atypical presentations  

PubMed Central

Background Given the relative lack of treatment options for mild to moderate scoliosis, when the Cobb angle measurements fall below the 25–30° range, conservative manual therapies for scoliosis treatment have been increasingly investigated in recent years. In this case series, we present 3 specific cases of scoliosis. Case presentation Patient presentation, examination, intervention and outcomes are detailed for each case. The types of scoliosis presented here are left thoracic, idiopathic scoliosis after Harrington rod instrumentation, and a left thoracic scoliosis secondary to Scheuermann's Kyphosis. Each case carries its own clinical significance, in relation to clinical presentation. The first patient presented for chiropractic treatment with a 35° thoracic dextroscoliosis 18 years following Harrington Rod instrumentation and fusion. The second patient presented with a 22° thoracic levoscoliosis and concomitant Scheuermann's Disease. Finally, the third case summarizes the treatment of a patient with a primary 37° idiopathic thoracic levoscoliosis. Each patient was treated with a novel active rehabilitation program for varying lengths of time, including spinal manipulation and a patented external head and body weighting system. Following a course of treatment, consisting of clinic and home care treatments, post-treatment radiographs and examinations were conducted. Improvement in symptoms and daily function was obtained in all 3 cases. Concerning Cobb angle measurements, there was an apparent reduction in Cobb angle of 13°, 8°, and 16° over a maximum of 12 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Although mild to moderate reductions in Cobb angle measurements were achieved in these cases, these improvements may not be related to the symptomatic and functional improvements. The lack of a control also includes the possibility of a placebo effect. However, this study adds to the growing body of literature investigating methods by which mild to moderate cases of scoliosis can be treated conservatively. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether curve reduction and/or manipulation and/or placebo was responsible for the symptomatic and functional improvements noted in these cases. PMID:16409627

Morningstar, Mark W; Joy, Timothy

2006-01-01

236

Effect of treatment on physiological responses to exercise in East African industrial workers with iron deficiency anaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Davies, C. T. M., and van Haaren, J. P. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 335-340. Effect of treatment on physiological responses to exercise in East African industrial workers with iron deficiency anaemia. The physiological responses to exercise on an upright bicycle ergometer have been investigated in groups of anaemic (mean Hb = 7·8 g\\/100 ml) and control (mean Hb

C. T. M. Davies; J. P. M. Van Haaren

1973-01-01

237

Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments. PMID:22439092

Jung, Chul-Hee

2012-01-01

238

Enhanced regeneration in spinal cord injury by concomitant treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and neuronal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) inhibits programmed cell death and stimulates neuronal progenitor differentiation. Neuronal stem cells transplanted into injured spinal cord can survive, differentiating into astroglia and oligodendroglia, and supporting axon growth and myelination. Herein, we evaluate the combined effects of G-CSF and neuronal stem cells on spinal cord injury. For 40 Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group) transverse spinal

Hung-Chuan Pan; Fu-Chou Cheng; Shu-Zhen Lai; Dar-Yu Yang; Yeou-Chih Wang; Maw-Sheng Lee

2008-01-01

239

Comparison of metaraminol, phenylephrine and ephedrine in prophylaxis and treatment of hypotension in cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.  

PubMed

Maternal hypotension is a common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, with deleterious effects on the fetus and mother. Among the strategies aimed at minimizing the effects of hypotension, vasopressor administration is the most efficient. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of phenylephrine, metaraminol, and ephedrine in the prevention and treatment of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety pregnant women, not in labor, undergoing cesarean section were randomized into three groups to receive a bolus followed by continuous infusion of vasopressor as follows: phenylephrine group (50 ?g+50 ?g/min); metaraminol group (0.25mg+0.25mg/min); ephedrine group (4 mg+4 mg/min). Infusion dose was doubled when systolic blood pressure decreased to 80% of baseline and a bolus was given when systolic blood pressure decreased below 80%. The infusion dose was divided in half when systolic blood pressure increased to 120% and was stopped when it became higher. The incidence of hypotension, nausea and vomiting, reactive hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, Apgar scores, and arterial cord blood gases were assessed at the 1st and 5th minutes. There was no difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, reactive hypertension, infusion discontinuation, atropine administration or Apgar scores. Rescue boluses were higher only in the ephedrine group compared to metaraminol group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and fetal acidosis were greater in the ephedrine group. The three drugs were effective in preventing hypotension; however, fetal effects were more frequent in the ephedrine group, although transient. PMID:25171977

Aragão, Fábio Farias de; Aragão, Pedro Wanderley de; Martins, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Salgado Filho, Natalino; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth de Souza Barcelos

2014-01-01

240

[Comparison of metaraminol, phenylephrine and ephedrine in prophylaxis and treatment of hypotension in cesarean section under spinal anesthesia].  

PubMed

Maternal hypotension is a common complication after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, with deleterious effects on the fetus and mother. Among the strategies aimed at minimizing the effects of hypotension, vasopressor administration is the most efficient. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of phenylephrine, metaraminol, and ephedrine in the prevention and treatment of hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety pregnant women, not in labor, undergoing cesarean section were randomized into three groups to receive a bolus followed by continuous infusion of vasopressor as follows: phenylephrine group (50?g+50?g/min); metaraminol group (0.25mg+0.25mg/min); ephedrine group (4mg+4mg/min). Infusion dose was doubled when systolic blood pressure decreased to 80% of baseline and a bolus was given when systolic blood pressure decreased below 80%. The infusion dose was divided in half when systolic blood pressure increased to 120% and was stopped when it became higher. The incidence of hypotension, nausea and vomiting, reactive hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, Apgar scores, and arterial cord blood gases were assessed at the 1st and 5th minutes. There was no difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, reactive hypertension, infusion discontinuation, atropine administration or Apgar scores. Rescue boluses were higher only in the ephedrine group compared to metaraminol group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and fetal acidosis were greater in the ephedrine group. The three drugs were effective in preventing hypotension; however, fetal effects were more frequent in the ephedrine group, although transient. PMID:25168433

Aragão, Fábio Farias de; Aragão, Pedro Wanderley de; Martins, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Salgado Filho, Natalino; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth de Souza Barcelos

2014-01-01

241

Biomechanical Evaluation of the X-Stop Device for Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Controlled experimental study. Objective To evaluate the kinematical effects of X-Stop device on the spinal process at the operated and the adjacent segments before and after X-Stop surgeries during various weight-bearing postures in elderly patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Summary of Background Data The mechanism of interspinous process (ISP) devices is to directly distract the ISP of the implanted level to indirectly decompress the intervertebra foramen and spinal canal. Few studies have investigated the changes of ISP gap caused by X-Stop implantation using magnetic resonance imaging or radiography, but the effect of X-Stop surgery on the kinematics of spinous processes during functional activities is still unclear. Methods Eight patients were tested before and, on average, 7 months after surgical implantation of the X-Stop devices using a combined computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging system during weight-bearing standing, flexion-extension, left-right bending, and left-right twisting positions of the torso. The shortest distances of the ISPs at the operated and the adjacent levels were measured using iterative closest point method and was dissected into vertical (gap) and horizontal (lateral translation) components. Results At the operated levels, the shortest vertical ISP distances (gap) significantly (P <0.05) increased by 1.5mm during standing, 1.2mm during left twist, 1.3mm during extension, and 1.1mm during flexion, whereas they also increased yet not significantly (P>0.05) in right twist, left bend, and right bend after the X-Stop implantation. The lateral translations were not significantly affected. At both cephalad and caudad adjacent levels, the ISP distances (vertical and horizontal) were not significantly affected during all postures after X-Stop implantation. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that implantation of the X-Stop devices can effectively distract the ISP space at the diseased level without causing apparent kinematic changes at the adjacent segments during the studied postures. PMID:22015626

Wan, Zongmiao; Wang, Shaobai; Kozanek, Michal; Passias, Peter G.; Mansfield, Frederick L.; Wood, Kirkham B.; Li, Guoan

2013-01-01

242

The relationship between self-monitoring, outcome expectancies, difficulties with eating and exercise, and physical activity and weight loss treatment outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: During a behavioral weight loss program (BWLP), weight loss and exercise can vary considerably from week to week. Weekly\\u000a fluctuations in outcome expectancies and perceived difficulties with eating and exercise may be associated with weekly variability\\u000a in weight loss and exercise. Also, inconsistent self-monitoring of exercise may be associated with poor weight loss and physical\\u000a activity treatment outcomes.Methods:Forty obese,

Robert A. Carels; Lynn A. Darby; Sofia Rydin; Olivia M. Douglass; Holly M. Cacciapaglia; William H. O’Brien

2005-01-01

243

Wind-up of stretch reflexes as a measure of spasticity in chronic spinalized rats: The effects of passive exercise and modafinil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spasticity is a common disorder following spinal cord injury that can impair function and quality of life. While a number of mechanisms are thought to play a role in spasticity, the role of motoneuron persistent inward currents (PICs) is emerging as pivotal. The presence of PICs can be evidenced by temporal summation or wind-up of reflex responses to brief afferent

M. Kevin Garrison; Charlotte C. Yates; Nancy B. Reese; Robert D. Skinner; Edgar Garcia-Rill

2011-01-01

244

[Treatment with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid of urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injuries].  

PubMed

Augmentin, a formulation of amoxycillin trihydrate 250 mg and sodium clavulanate 125 mg per tablet (A-CS) (Augmentin; Beecham), was used in treating 29 episodes of urinary tract infection occurring in 26 patients admitted to the Spinal Unit of the H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria. Patients who had a urinary bacterial cell count of more than 105 of the same amoxycillin-resistant organism before and after the oral administration of amoxycillin 500 mg 3 times a day for 48 hours, received 2 A-CS 375 mg tablets orally, 3 times a day at the start if a meal for 5 days. The 29 strains of amoxycillin-resistant organisms treated in this study were: Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11), Proteus mirabilis (4), Enterobacter cloacae (2), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1). The bacteriological success rate 24 hours after therapy was 100% and 8 days after therapy 69%, dependent on patient management. In patients on free drainage and managed with condoms a bacteriological success rate of 55,5% was recorded and in patients managed by intermittent catheterization a bacteriological success rate of 75% was recorded. Side-effects were minimal; 1 patient complained of dizziness and no instances of nausea or vomiting were reported. Haematological, renal and hepatic monitoring before and after A-CS-therapy revealed no drug-related toxicity. PMID:6979806

Du Plessis, D J; Celliers, D; Van Rensburg, A J; Lindeque, K P

1982-07-28

245

Repeated Baclofen treatment ameliorates motor dysfunction, suppresses reflex activity and decreases the expression of signaling proteins in reticular nuclei and lumbar motoneurons after spinal trauma in rats.  

PubMed

The interruption of supraspinal input to the spinal cord leads to motor dysfunction and the development of spasticity. Clinical studies have shown that Baclofen (a GABAB agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with side-effects and the development of tolerance. The aim of the present study was to assess if discontinued Baclofen treatment and its repeated application leads antispasticity effects, and whether such changes affect neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the brainstem, nNOS and parvalbumin (PV) in lumbar ?-motoneurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to Th9 spinal cord transection. Baclofen (30mg/b.w.) diluted in drinking water, was administered for 6 days, starting at week 1 after injury and then repeated till week 4 after injury. The behavior of the animals was tested (tail-flick test, BBB locomotor score) from 1 to 8 weeks. Our results clearly indicate the role of nitric oxide, produced by nNOS in the initiation and the maintenance of spasticity states 1, 6 and 8 weeks after spinal trauma. A considerable decrease of nNOS staining after Baclofen treatment correlates with improvement of motor dysfunction. The findings also show that parvalbumin and astrocytes participate in the regulation of ion concentrations in the sub-acute phase after the injury. PMID:24074748

Kucharíková, Andrea; Schreiberová, Andrea; Závodská, Monika; Gedrová, Štefánia; Hricová, ?udmila; Pavel, Jaroslav; Gálik, Ján; Maršala, Martin; Luká?ová, Nadežda

2014-03-01

246

Exercising with a Muscle Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) , there’s a theoretical concern that too much exercise ... have been lost. Studies in mice with an ALS -like disease have shown that mice that ran ...

247

Social work and case management treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of published evidence regarding the amount and type of social work and case management (SW/CM) services that an individual with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) receives during acute inpatient rehabilitation. Such information is needed to assist in resource planning, benchmarking, and research on interventions and outcomes. Methods As part of the SCIRehab study social workers and case managers at six inpatient rehabilitation facilities documented details (including time spent) about the interventions provided to 600 patients with traumatic SCI during acute inpatient rehabilitation. Associations between patient and injury characteristics and time spent on these activities were examined. Results Patients received a mean total of 10 hours of SW/CM services, with a mean of 72.8 total minutes per week. The majority of the patients received SW/CM time spent on interdisciplinary conferencing on the patient's behalf (96%), discharge planning and services (89%), financial planning (67%), community/in-house services (66%), supportive counseling (56%), and initial assessment (54%). A minority of the patients received peer advocacy (12%), classes (24%), and education topics (30%). Total hours per stay and minutes per week varied by level of injury group. The most time per week was dedicated to patients with high tetraplegia ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) A–C and the least to patients with C5–C8 AIS A–C. The patient and injury characteristics studied did not explain the variance seen in time spent on specific SW/CM services. Conclusions These descriptive data may be helpful in resource planning to anticipate and address individual patient needs and to plan for department-level training and hiring. These data also may pave the way to studying relationships of interventions with patient outcomes. PMID:21675360

Hammond, Flora M.; Gassaway, Julie; Abeyta, Nichola; Freeman, Erma S.; Primack, Donna

2011-01-01

248

The future of spine surgery: New horizons in the treatment of spinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background and Methods: As with any evolving surgical discipline, it is difficult to predict the future of the practice and science of spine surgery. In the last decade, there have been dramatic developments in both the techniques as well as the tools employed in the delivery of better outcomes to patients undergoing such surgery. In this article, we explore four specific areas in spine surgery: namely the role of minimally invasive spine surgery; motion preservation; robotic-aided surgery and neuro-navigation; and the use of biological substances to reduce the number of traditional and revision spine surgeries. Results: Minimally invasive spine surgery has flourished in the last decade with an increasing amount of surgeries being performed for a wide variety of degenerative, traumatic, and neoplastic processes. Particular progress in the development of a direct lateral approach as well as improvement of tubular retractors has been achieved. Improvements in motion preservation techniques have led to a significant number of patients achieving arthroplasty where fusion was the only option previously. Important caveats to the indications for arthroplasty are discussed. Both robotics and neuro-navigation have become further refined as tools to assist in spine surgery and have been demonstrated to increase accuracy in spinal instrumentation placement. There has much debate and refinement in the use of biologically active agents to aid and augment function in spine surgery. Biological agents targeted to the intervertebral disc space could increase function and halt degeneration in this anatomical region. Conclusions: Great improvements have been achieved in developing better techniques and tools in spine surgery. It is envisaged that progress in the four focus areas discussed will lead to better outcomes and reduced burdens on the future of both our patients and the health care system. PMID:23653885

Kazemi, Noojan; Crew, Laura K.; Tredway, Trent L.

2013-01-01

249

[Trends in the treatment of spinal osteoporic fractures: vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty].  

PubMed

Vertebral osteoporotic fracture (VOF) is a major problem of public health. Surgical treatments such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are interesting adjuvant treatments for the management of osteoporosis. A consensus proposed by the principal contributors of this management is important. Regarding the actual data, we propose a vertebroplasty or a kyphoplasty for all patients suffering of an acute VOF. If a previous kyphosis or an important local kyphosis exists, secondary to the acute VOF or others, we propose a kyphoplasty. If the VOF is older and the conservative treatment is inefficient, we propose a vertebroplasty. In all cases, a specific management and treatment of osteoporosis is proposed. PMID:22872943

Aubry-Rozier, Bérengère; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Lamy, Olivier; Tonetti, Jérôme; Duff, John; Schizas, Constantin; Theumann, Nicolas

2012-06-27

250

The Outcomes of Manipulation or Mobilization Therapy Compared with Physical Therapy or Exercise for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?Neck pain is a prevalent condition. Spinal manipulation and mobilization procedures are becoming an accepted treatment for neck pain. However, data on the effectiveness of these treatments have not been summarized. Objective?To compare manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine to physical therapy or exercise for symptom improvement in patients with neck pain. Methods?A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse Database, and bibliographies of key articles, which compared spinal manipulation or mobilization therapy with physical therapy or exercise in patients with neck pain. Articles were included based on predetermined criteria and were appraised using a predefined quality rating scheme. Results?From 197 citations, 7 articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were no differences in pain improvement when comparing spinal manipulation to exercise, and there were inconsistent reports of pain improvement in subjects who underwent mobilization therapy versus physical therapy. No disability improvement was reported between treatment groups in studies of acute or chronic neck pain patients. No functional improvement was found with manipulation therapy compared with exercise treatment or mobilization therapy compared with physical therapy groups in patients with acute pain. In chronic neck pain subjects who underwent spinal manipulation therapy compared to exercise treatment, results for short-term functional improvement were inconsistent. Conclusion?The data available suggest that there are minimal short- and long-term treatment differences in pain, disability, patient-rated treatment improvement, treatment satisfaction, health status, or functional improvement when comparing manipulation or mobilization therapy to physical therapy or exercise in patients with neck pain. This systematic review is limited by the variability of treatment interventions and lack of standardized outcomes to assess treatment benefit. PMID:24436697

Schroeder, Josh; Kaplan, Leon; Fischer, Dena J.; Skelly, Andrea C.

2013-01-01

251

Scoliosis treatment using spinal manipulation and the Pettibon Weighting System™: a summary of 3 atypical presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Given the relative lack of treatment options for mild to moderate scoliosis, when the Cobb angle measurements fall below the 25–30° range, conservative manual therapies for scoliosis treatment have been increasingly investigated in recent years. In this case series, we present 3 specific cases of scoliosis. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient presentation, examination, intervention and outcomes are detailed for each case.

Mark W Morningstar; Timothy Joy

2006-01-01

252

The Functional and Neuroprotective Actions of Neu2000, a Dual-Acting Pharmacological Agent, in the Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract The goal of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective and functional significance of targeting both N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor–mediated excitotoxicity and oxidative stress using a dual-acting compound, Neu2000, in rat model of moderate spinal cord injury (SCI). An initial set of experiments was conducted in uninjured rats to study the pharmacokinetic profile of Neu2000 following intraperitoneal and intravenous administration. A second experiment measured free radical production in mitochondria isolated from sham or injured spinal cords of animals receiving vehicle or Neu2000 treatment. A third set of animals was divided into three treatment groups consisting of vehicle treatment, a single dose of Neu2000 (50?mg/kg) administered at 10?min following injury, or a repeated treatment paradigm consisting of a single bolus of Neu2000 at 10?min following injury (50?mg/kg) plus a maintenance dose (25?mg/kg) administered every 24?h for an additional 6 days. Animals were tested once a week for a period of 6 weeks for evidence of locomotor recovery in an open field and kinematic analysis of fine motor control using the DigiGait Image Analysis System. At the end of the testing period, spinal cord reconstruction was performed to obtain nonbiased stereological measures of tissue sparing. The results of this study demonstrate that Neu2000 treatment significantly reduced the production of mitochondrial free radicals and improved locomotor outcomes that were associated with a significant increase in the volume of spared spinal cord tissue. PMID:19772458

Rao, Ravikumar Rangaswamy; Lim, Hyang Ran; Cho, Sung Ig; Moon, Gyoeng Joon; Lee, Hee Young; Park, Eui Jin; Gwag, Byoung Joo; Noh, Jai Sung

2010-01-01

253

A systematic review of electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in people with spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

Context Electrical stimulation (ES) can confer benefit to pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and treatment in spinal cord injuries (SCIs). However, clinical guidelines regarding the use of ES for PU management in SCI remain limited. Objectives To critically appraise and synthesize the research evidence on ES for PU prevention and treatment in SCI. Method Review was limited to peer-reviewed studies published in English from 1970 to July 2013. Studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, prospective cohort studies, case series, case control, and case report studies. Target population included adults with SCI. Interventions of any type of ES were accepted. Any outcome measuring effectiveness of PU prevention and treatment was included. Methodological quality was evaluated using established instruments. Results Twenty-seven studies were included, 9 of 27 studies were RCTs. Six RCTs were therapeutic trials. ES enhanced PU healing in all 11 therapeutic studies. Two types of ES modalities were identified in therapeutic studies (surface electrodes, anal probe), four types of modalities in preventive studies (surface electrodes, ES shorts, sacral anterior nerve root implant, neuromuscular ES implant). Conclusion The methodological quality of the studies was poor, in particular for prevention studies. A significant effect of ES on enhancement of PU healing is shown in limited Grade I evidence. The great variability in ES parameters, stimulating locations, and outcome measure leads to an inability to advocate any one standard approach for PU therapy or prevention. Future research is suggested to improve the design of ES devices, standardize ES parameters, and conduct more rigorous trials. PMID:24969965

Liu, Liang Qin; Moody, Julie; Traynor, Michael; Dyson, Sue; Gall, Angela

2014-11-01

254

Percutaneous surgical treatment in lumbar spinal stenosis with Aperius-PercLID: indications, surgical technique and results.  

PubMed

Interspinous spacers have recently been used in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. In vitro studies have demonstrated a reduction in facet joint forces by 68% and annulus pressures by 63%. MRI studies have demonstrated increased canal and neural foraminal area after implantation of these devices. Previous studies by Zucherman et al. (Spine 30:1351-1358, 2005) demonstrated patient satisfaction rates of 71-73%.We carried out a multicentric retrospective study to assess the clinical outcomes following percutaneous posterior decompression using an interspinous spacer device (Aperius™-PercLID™ System; Kyphon-Medtronic). A total of 70 patients were included in the study. All of them had evidence of radiologically and clinically proven lumbar stenosis. The average age was 63.5 years. Patients completed the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) and recorded pain levels on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Average stay in hospital was 2 days. The average improvement in ZCQ included both symptomatic pain disappearance and functional ambulatory recovery. The average VAS pain score improved from 8.2 to 3.6 (scale of 1 to 10). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 76%. No complications were detected at 6 months' follow-up. PMID:21107956

Menchetti, P P M; Postacchini, F; Bini, W; Canero, G

2011-01-01

255

Interspinous spacers in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal disease: our experience with DIAM and Aperius devices.  

PubMed

Insertion of an interspinous devices has became a common procedure for the treatment of different clinical picture of degenerative spinal disease. We present our experience in 1,575 patients with the use of two different interspinous spacers: Device for Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) and Aperius PercLID system. From 2000 through 2008, 1,315 consecutive patients underwent DIAM implantation and 260 had an Aperius PercLID procedure. The main surgical indications included: degenerative disc disease (478 patients), canal and/or foraminal stenosis (347 patients), disc herniation (283 patients), black disc and facet syndrome (143) and topping-off (64 patients). 1,100 patients underwent a single level implant and 475 had a multiple level implant. Mean operating time was 35 min for DIAM and 7 min for Aperius. Complications were detected in 20 patients (10 cases of infections, 10 fractures of the posterior spinous processes). 40 patients were subsequently treated with posterior arthrodesis (n = 30) or total disc replacement (n = 10). Patient's postoperative clinical status was rated according to the modified Macnab criteria: symptoms resolution or improvement was achieved in 1,505 patients; and unchanged or unsatisfactory results in 70. Both techniques are safe, simple and less technically demanding. These approaches appear to be an effective alternative in selected cases, although conventional posterior lumbar decompression and fusion still may be required. PMID:21409561

Fabrizi, Antonio P; Maina, Raffaella; Schiabello, Luigi

2011-05-01

256

Improved Antisense Oligonucleotide Design to Suppress Aberrant SMN2 Gene Transcript Processing: Towards a Treatment for Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in reduced SMN protein. Humans possess the additional SMN2 gene (or genes) that does produce low level of full length SMN, but cannot adequately compensate for loss of SMN1 due to aberrant splicing. The majority of SMN2 gene transcripts lack exon 7 and the resultant SMN?7 mRNA is translated into an unstable and non-functional protein. Splice intervention therapies to promote exon 7 retention and increase amounts of full-length SMN2 transcript offer great potential as a treatment for SMA patients. Several splice silencing motifs in SMN2 have been identified as potential targets for antisense oligonucleotide mediated splice modification. A strong splice silencer is located downstream of exon 7 in SMN2 intron 7. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting this motif promoted SMN2 exon 7 retention in the mature SMN2 transcripts, with increased SMN expression detected in SMA fibroblasts. We report here systematic optimisation of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMO) that promote exon 7 retention to levels that rescued the phenotype in a severe mouse model of SMA after intracerebroventricular delivery. Furthermore, the PMO gives the longest survival reported to date after a single dosing by ICV. PMID:23630626

Mitrpant, Chalermchai; Porensky, Paul; Zhou, Haiyan; Price, Loren; Muntoni, Francesco; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D.; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

2013-01-01

257

Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To systematically review the methodologic quality of, and summarize the evidence from trials examining the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving the level of physical functioning and psychological well-being of cancer patients during and after medical treatment. METHODS: Thirty-four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials were identified, reviewed for substantive results, and assessed for methodologic quality. RESULTS:

R. H. Knols; N. K. Aaronson; D. Uebelhart; J. Fransen; G. Aufdemkampe

2005-01-01

258

Aerobic exercise training effects on physical function, fatigue and mood, immune status, and oxidative stress in subjects undergoing radiation treatment for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic exercise is associated with improvements in health status however, little is known about its effect during radiation treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of moderate intensity aerobic exercise training on physical function, body composition, fatigue, mood, immune parameters, and oxidative stress in females undergoing radiation treatment for breast cancer. Following approval by the Human

Jacqueline Drouin

2002-01-01

259

Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease. PMID:22312523

Shah, Lubdha M.; Salzman, Karen L.

2011-01-01

260

The effect of an extended source-to-skin distance in the treatment of the spinal field in children receiving craniospinal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we compared a single extended source-to-skin difference (SSD) spinal field and the alternative 2-field gapped approach at 100 SSD on dose to surrounding normal tissues. Five female patients ranging in age from 3 to 20 years underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation for treatment planning of the craniospinal axis, which was treated in its entirety to 36 Gy. For each slice, the clinical target volume (thecal sac and contents), mandible, thyroid gland, esophagus, heart, lungs, liver, and ovaries were contoured. Technique A employed the use of a single posterior spinal field delivered at SSD = 140 cm (140 SSD), and Technique B employed the use of 2 gapped spinal fields using a traditional SSD of 100 cm (100 SSD). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained for each organ contoured and for each technique used. In all patients, the average mean dose to all surrounding structures was increased with the use of a single extended SSD (Technique A) when compared to the 2 spinal fields prescribed at 100 SSD (Technique B). The average mean doses to the mandible, thyroid gland, esophagus, and heart were 78%, 19%, 6%, and 16%, respectively, higher with Technique A as compared to Technique B. In addition, the average mean doses to the lungs, liver, and ovaries were 53%, 33% and 69%, respectively, higher as compared to Technique B. However, the clinical target volume at the spinal junction site received a less homogenous dose with Technique B as compared to Technique A. We conclude that although the use of a single-field extended SSD delivered a more homogenous dose to the spine, a higher dose to the ovaries, thyroid gland, mandible, lungs, liver, and heart was seen.

Koshy, Mary; Paulino, Arnold C.; Marcus, Robert B.; Ting, Joseph

2004-03-31

261

Effectiveness of additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarise the effectiveness of adding supervised exercises to conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cinahl, and reference screening. Study selection Included studies were randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, or clinical trials. Patients were adolescents or adults with an acute lateral ankle sprain. The treatment options were conventional treatment alone or conventional treatment combined with supervised exercises. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias, and one reviewer extracted data. Because of clinical heterogeneity we analysed the data using a best evidence synthesis. Follow-up was classified as short term (up to two weeks), intermediate (two weeks to three months), and long term (more than three months). Results 11 studies were included. There was limited to moderate evidence to suggest that the addition of supervised exercises to conventional treatment leads to faster and better recovery and a faster return to sport at short term follow-up than conventional treatment alone. In specific populations (athletes, soldiers, and patients with severe injuries) this evidence was restricted to a faster return to work and sport only. There was no strong evidence of effectiveness for any of the outcome measures. Most of the included studies had a high risk of bias, with few having adequate statistical power to detect clinically relevant differences. Conclusion Additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone have some benefit for recovery and return to sport in patients with ankle sprain, though the evidence is limited or moderate and many studies are subject to bias. PMID:20978065

2010-01-01

262

Comparative analysis on the diagnosis and treatments of multisegment intramedullary spinal cord tumors between the different age groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multisegment intramedullary spinal cord tumors (MSICT) are a special type of spinal cord tumor. Up to now, no comparative\\u000a clinical study of MSICT has been performed according to different age groups. Seventy-seven patients underwent microsurgery\\u000a for MSICT. As grouped with two different methods, the parametric and nonparametric data of MSICT and patients were comparatively\\u000a analyzed using statistically correlative methods. Forty-eight

Zhen-yu Wang; Jian-jun Sun; Jing-cheng Xie; Zhen-dong Li; Chang-cheng Ma; Bin Liu; Xiao-dong Chen; Hung-I Liao; Tao Yu; Jia Zhang

263

Are gender, marital status or parenthood risk factors for outcome of treatment for chronic disabling spinal disorders?  

PubMed

Recent clinical research has suggested that single working mothers may differ in their response to health treatment and outcomes, relative to their married female or male counterparts. The present study explored, on an a priori basis, the existence and extent of differences in chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes of pain report, return-to-work and future health utilization for single working mothers, relative to other patients. A cohort of 1,679 consecutive chronically disabled work related spinal disorder (CDWRSD) patients were placed into one of eight groups as a function of gender, marital status (single/married), and parenthood (with/without children). All patients completed an assessment battery measuring psychosocial variables at pre- and post-treatment, and a structured clinical interview evaluating socioeconomic outcomes at 1 year following completion of a 5-7 week functional restoration program. Results revealed that single females with children differed from all other groups in racial representation, with 57.1% of these individuals being African American, widely disparate from the prevailing local ethnicity. Single females and males with children were represented by a higher incidence of cervical injuries (25.0% and 26.7%, respectively) than all other groups (5.4-16.6%, p < .001). Contrary to expectation, the 8 groups did not differ significantly in program completion rate, work return, work retention, health utilization, recurrent injury or case settlement rates at one-year follow-up. The single females with children group did display greater levels of depression pre-treatment compared to the other groups. However, at post-treatment, these differences no longer existed. This investigation is one of the first to examine if the combination of gender and parenthood distinguishes significantly among CDWRSD patients. Overall, contrary to expectation, the single mothers did not show any significant differences in CDWRSD outcome at one-year post-rehab follow-up, and the single mothers and fathers showed no differences in depression or pain severity post-treatment. Thus, in spite of the societal belief to the contrary, it seems that single parent patients can show similar chronic pain rehabilitation outcomes, relative to other CDWRSD patients, after a prescribed course of tertiary functional restoration rehabilitation. PMID:15844676

Gatchel, Robert J; Mayer, Tom G; Kidner, Cindy L; McGeary, Donald D

2005-06-01

264

Effects of different cooling treatments on water diffusion, microcirculation, and water content within exercised muscles: Evaluation by magnetic resonance T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we determined the effects of different cooling treatments on exercised muscles. Seven adults underwent four post-exercise treatments (20-min ice-bag application, 60-min gel-pack application at 10°C and 17°C, and non-cooling treatment) with at least 1 week between treatments. Magnetic resonance diffusion- and T2-weighted images were obtained to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficients (apparent diffusion coefficient 1, which reflects

Osamu Yanagisawa; Hideyuki Takahashi; Toru Fukubayashi

2010-01-01

265

[Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Physical activity and exercise training for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia].  

PubMed

The general outline of an exercise prescription for older adults with sarcopenia is aimed at improving their muscle strength and walking ability and increasing their muscle mass. Various types of resistance training (RT) can effectively increase muscle mass and strength even when the older individual's body weight is the only load and no special instruments such as expensive machines or heavy dumbbells are used. To effectively increase muscle mass and strength, individuals must perform at least one to two RT exercises on both the upper and lower extremities and the trunk two to three times per week for more than three months. Gait training is essential for improving walking ability. Although aerobic exercises typically contain gait training, they require an exercise intensity of greater than 60% of maximum oxygen uptake to effectively improve walking ability. In addition, we should remember that the effect of exercise training is maintained only by continuing the exercise program regularly over the long-term. PMID:25266098

Okura, Tomohiro

2014-10-01

266

Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multiple spinal involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

To stress the clinical and radiologic presentation and treatment outcome of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with multiple\\u000a spinal involvements. A total of 42 cases with spinal LCH were reviewed in our hospital and 5 had multifocal spinal lesions.\\u000a Multiple spinal LCH has been reported in 50 cases in the literature. All cases including ours were analyzed concerning age,\\u000a sex, clinical

Liang Jiang; Xiao Guang Liu; Wo Quan Zhong; Qing Jun Ma; Feng Wei; Hui Shu Yuan; Geng Ting Dang; Zhong Jun Liu

267

Aerobic exercise as additive palliative treatment for a patient with advanced hepatocellular cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Aerobic exercise is known to improve biopsychosocial outcomes in cancer patients. Currently, exercise is not regarded as a\\u000a quality-of-life intervention for patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this case study was to determine the feasibility\\u000a and effects of an aerobic exercise programme for a patient with advanced hepatocellular cancer.\\u000a \\u000a After written informed consent, a 55-year-old male patient with advanced

Richard Crevenna; Manuela Schmidinger; Mohammad Keilani; Martin Nuhr; Hakan Nur; Carina Zöch; Christoph Zielinski; Veronika Fialka-Moser; Michael Quittan

2003-01-01

268

A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1) bone mineral density; 2) cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3) body composition (lean mass and fat mass); 4) blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5) lipids and glycemic control; and 6) quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm) undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1) resistance/impact loading exercise, (2) resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3) usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention). Discussion The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of exercise in this patient population specifically targeting bone density, cardiovascular function, lean and fat mass, physical function and falls risk as primary study endpoints. In terms of advancement of prostate cancer care, we expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce fracture risk, improve physical and functional ability, quality of life and ultimately survival rate in this population. Clinical Trial Registry A Phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer; ACTRN12609000200280 PMID:19563641

2009-01-01

269

Routine exercise ameliorates the metabolic side-effects of treatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine in rats.  

PubMed

Second generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs are effective treatments for psychosis. Common side-effects of SGAs include metabolic dysregulation and risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Metabolic side-effects, including glucose intolerance, can be accurately modelled in rodents. The benefits of interventions used for treating metabolic side-effects of SGAs are mostly unknown. In a 9 wk longitudinal study, female rats were given daily olanzapine (10 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle. Animals were either sedentary or allowed 1 or 3 h daily access to a running wheel, with total wheel revolutions electronically quantified to reflect exercise intensity. Glucose tolerance tests were performed once weekly to measure glycemic control. Drug levels were measured at week 4. At week 9, abdominal fat and skeletal muscle levels of Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4) were measured. Exercise intensity progressively increased over time in all groups given access to running wheels; however, rats treated with olanzapine consistently exercised less than those given the vehicle. Olanzapine caused acute and persistent glucose intolerance throughout the study, which was markedly, though incompletely, ameliorated by exercise. Exercise did not affect glycemic regulation in vehicle-treated rats. Olanzapine-treated rats showed greater central adiposity. Levels of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle were higher in both groups of exercising than in sedentary rats, and GLUT4 values were negatively correlated with glucose intolerance. Routine exercise reduced olanzapine-induced glucose intolerance and increased skeletal muscle levels of GLUT 4, the insulin-responsive transporter that mediates glucose uptake into cells. The current animal model is suitable for evaluating physiological pathways involved with glucose intolerance. PMID:23953063

Boyda, H N; Ramos-Miguel, A; Procyshyn, R M; Töpfer, E; Lant, N; Choy, H H T; Wong, R; Li, L; Pang, C C Y; Honer, W G; Barr, A M

2014-01-01

270

Lumbar spinal stenosis.  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

1993-01-01

271

Rest versus exercise as treatment for patients with low back pain and Modic changes. a randomized controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical experience suggests that many patients with Modic changes have relatively severe and persistent low back pain (LBP), which typically appears to be resistant to treatment. Exercise therapy is the recommended treatment for chronic LBP, however, due to their underlying pathology, Modic changes might be a diagnostic subgroup that does not benefit from exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the current state-of-the art treatment approach (exercise and staying active) with a new approach (load reduction and daily rest) for people with Modic changes using a randomized controlled trial design. Methods Participants were patients from an outpatient clinic with persistent LBP and Modic changes. They were allocated using minimization to either rest therapy for 10 weeks with a recommendation to rest for two hours daily and the option of using a flexible lumbar belt or exercise therapy once a week for 10 weeks. Follow-up was at 10 weeks after recruitment and 52 weeks after intervention and the clinical outcome measures were pain, disability, general health and global assessment, supplemented by weekly information on low back problems and sick leave measured by short text message (SMS) tracking. Results In total, 100 patients were included in the study. Data on 87 patients at 10 weeks and 96 patients at one-year follow-up were available and were used in the intention-to-treat analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the two intervention groups on any outcome. Conclusions No differences were found between the two treatment approaches, 'rest and reduced load' and 'exercise and staying active', in patients with persistent LBP and Modic changes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00454792 PMID:22376791

2012-01-01

272

The treatment outcome depending on the extent of resection in skull base and spinal chordomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The authors tried to assess the treatment outcomes depending on the extent of resection in axial chordomas and compare the\\u000a outcome of two adjunctive therapies (external beam radiation therapy vs. stereotactic radiosurgery) following incomplete tumour\\u000a resection in terms of local tumour control.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  We retrospectively reviewed 30 consecutive patients with chordoma involving skull base, sacrum and mobile spine between

Ahmed Shawky Eid; Ung-Kyu Chang; Soo-Yong Lee; Dae-Geun Jeon

2011-01-01

273

The Free Exercise Rights of Pregnant Women Who Refuse Medical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part II, I outline the values protected by the free exercise clause. I also analyze modern free exercise jurisprudence, ending with the status of religious exemptions from laws of general applicability since the Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, which severely limits the situations in which strict scrutiny will be applied to analyze government actions that compels

April L. Cherry

2002-01-01

274

Metabolic Consequences of Dieting and Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effects of dieting and exercise on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in overweight women (N=10). Results showed that dieting lowered RMR by nearly double that expected on the basis of resulting weight loss; and that exercise caused RMR to rise to a level appropriate to prevailing body weight. (LLL)

Donahoe, Clyde P.; And Others

1984-01-01

275

Aerobic Interval Training Versus Continuous Moderate Exercise as a Treatment for the Metabolic Syndrome  

E-print Network

--Individuals with the metabolic syndrome are 3 times more likely to die of heart disease than healthy counterparts. Exercise moderate exercise (CME; 70% of highest measured heart rate [Hfmax]) or aerobic interval training (AIT; 90 to die of coronary heart disease than healthy counterparts after adjust- ment for conventional

Brand, Paul H.

276

Endovascular treatment for acute paraplegia after epidural steroid injection in a patient with spinal dural arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) are the most common type of spinal arteriovenous malformations. Type 1 spinal arteriovenous malformations are defined by the presence of radiculomeningeal feeders that drain into intradural veins. Patients with these lesions frequently present with chronic myelopathy, which is most often caused by venous hypertension. The authors present the case of a 69-year-old man with acute paraparesis following a lumbar epidural injection, resulting from a previously undiagnosed SDAVF. The patient initially reported right lower-extremity weakness and paresthesias and was referred to an orthopedic practice. His pain and weakness were exacerbated with ambulation. Reevaluation at 4 months was remarkable for groin, mild low-back, and buttock pain. The patient received a right L5-S1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection and became acutely weak. He presented to the emergency department 3 hours after the injection. Once MRI of the lumbar and thoracic spine had been performed, the neurosurgery service was consulted, and it was decided to proceed with emergent spinal angiography with the intent to embolize the fistula. An emergent spinal angiogram was obtained, revealing 2 arterial pedicles emanating from the right T-5 and T-6 radicular arteries. Transarterial embolization was thought to be the most rapid way to potentially obliterate the fistula. The patient exhibited immediate improvement in neurological function, and by 6 hours postprocedure, his neurological function was near normal. He was ambulatory and released to home 3 days after the embolization procedure. PMID:22769730

Oliver, T Adam; Sorensen, Michael; Arthur, Adam S

2012-09-01

277

Physical exercise increases plasma concentrations of nicotine during treatment with a nicotine patch.  

PubMed Central

The effect of physical exercise on plasma nicotine concentrations was studied in eight healthy subjects treated with a nicotine patch releasing 14 mg 24 h-1. After 11 h of patch application, plasma nicotine concentrations were measured before and after 20 min of moderate bicycle exercise, or 20 min of rest. Mean plasma nicotine concentration increased from 9.8 to 11.0 ng ml-1 (P = 0.015) during physical exercise, and fell non-significantly from 10.5 to 10.2 ng ml-1 during rest. The increase in plasma nicotine concentration during exercise is similar to that observed for transdermal nitroglycerin, and may be related to an exercise-induced increase in blood flow in the patch area. PMID:7654487

Klemsdal, T O; Gjesdal, K; Zahlsen, K

1995-01-01

278

Device-guided breathing exercises for the treatment of hypertension: An overview.  

PubMed

The American Heart Association considers device-guided breathing as a reasonable treatment modality in their statement on non-pharmacological options for lowering blood pressure. This review discusses all randomized controlled trials that have investigated the effects of device-guided breathing on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Thirteen studies were included in this review. In total, 627 patients were included, of which 365 patients were allocated to device-guided breathing. Only 6 studies used acceptable control groups: listening to music, meditative relaxation exercises, or a sham-device. Two sponsored trials showed beneficial effects of device-guided breathing, both used listening to music as a control group. The remaining 4 studies, which had no employees of the manufacturer listed as co-author, observed no beneficial effects on blood pressure. There is only 1 study that used a sham device as a control group. All other studies were to some extend methodologically flawed. Based on the studies with an acceptable methodological quality, there is no clear evidence supporting a short-term beneficial effect on blood pressure by using device-guided breathing. PMID:24944757

van Hateren, Kornelis Jj; Landman, Gijs Wd; Logtenberg, Susan Jj; Bilo, Henk Jg; Kleefstra, Nanne

2014-05-26

279

The effect of ageing in spinal cord injured humans on the blood pressure and heart rate responses during fatiguing isometric exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Groups of 50 healthy male controls and 50 subjects suffering from paraplegia (aged 20–65 years) were examined as to the inter-relationships\\u000a between age, paraplegia and the strength, endurance, blood pressure and heart rate responses to fatiguing isometric exercise.\\u000a Contractions were maintained in both groups under voluntary effort and through a contraction induced by electrical stimulation\\u000a in the paraplegic group. All contractions were

Jerrold Scott Petrofsky; Michael Laymon

2002-01-01

280

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... stenosis most often results from a gradual, degenerative aging process. Either structural changes or inflammation can begin ... spinal cord or nerve roots at that place. Aging with secondary changes is the most common cause ...

281

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... legs (the hip adductors and abductors, quadriceps and hamstrings). This will improve your balance, ability to walk, ... the tissue around the spinal cord; infection; and injury to the nerve root. While surgery may bring ...

282

Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of combined treatment with methylprednisolone and amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells after spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the synergistic effects of methylprednisolone (MP) administration and transplantation of amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AM-MSCs) following T11 spinal cord clip compressive injury in rats. The combination treatment with MP (50 mg/kg) and delayed transplantation of AM-MSCs after rat spinal cord injury, significantly reduced (1) myeloperoxidase activity, (2) the proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-? and (3) the cell apoptosis [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 expressions]; increased: (1) the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-?1) and (2) the survival rate of AM-MSCs in the injury site. The combination therapy significantly ameliorated the recovery of limb function (evaluated by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score). Taken together, our results demonstrate that MP in combination with AM-MSCs transplantation is a potential strategy for reducing secondary damage and promoting functional recovery following spinal cord injury. PMID:24890008

Gao, Shan; Ding, Jie; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Xing-Sheng; Wang, Jing-E; Wu, Jiang; Shi, Wei-Ze

2014-08-01

283

Electro-acupuncture treatment improves neurological function associated with downregulation of PDGF and inhibition of astrogliosis in rats with spinal cord transection.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on the improvement of locomotor function in injured spinal cord and underlying mechanism. Forty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats (180~200 g) were randomly divided into three groups, sham operation control group (sham), spinal cord transection group (SCT) and EA group. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) Locomotor Rating Scale was used to evaluate functional recovery of rats in hindlimbs at 1, 3, 5 weeks after injury and EA therapy. The gene and protein expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively, and the number of GFAP-positive cells was counted, also. Compared with SCT group, the locomotor function in hindlimbs of rats was improved after 1, 3, 5 weeks following EA therapy. EA treatment not only decreased effectively the number of GFAP immunostaining and GFAP expression, but also downregulated the PDGF expression both gene and protein, in addition decreased the number of PDGF immunostaining in injured spinal cord of rats with transection. It therefore concluded that EA therapy can significantly promote the recovery of locomotor function, and this may be linked to the inhibition of astrogliosis, together with the downregulation of PDGF. PMID:23749676

Liu, Fen; Zou, Yu; Liu, Sujuan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Tinghua

2013-10-01

284

Bortezomib Treatment Produces Nocifensive Behavior and Changes in the Expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and Substance P in the Rat DRG, Spinal Cord, and Sciatic Nerve  

PubMed Central

To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established “chronic” schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN. PMID:24877063

Quartu, M.; Carozzi, V. A.; Dorsey, S. G.; Serra, M. P.; Poddighe, L.; Picci, C.; Boi, M.; Melis, T.; Del Fiacco, M.; Meregalli, C.; Chiorazzi, A.; Renn, C. L.; Cavaletti, G.; Marmiroli, P.

2014-01-01

285

Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy and Eccentric Exercises in the Treatment of Recreational Athletes With Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eccentric exercises (EEs) are recommended for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy, but the clinical effect from EE has a slow onset.Hypothesis: The addition of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to EE may cause more rapid clinical improvement.Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.Methods: A total of 52 recreational athletes with chronic Achilles tendinopathy symptoms were randomized to groups

Apostolos Stergioulas; Marianna Stergioula; Reidar Aarskog; Rodrigo A. B. Lopes-Martins; Jan M. Bjordal

2008-01-01

286

[Diagnostics and therapy of spinal disc herniation].  

PubMed

Degenerative processes in a movement segment of the vertebral column, which can potentially give rise to herniation of elements of the nucleus pulposus, are complex and of variable clinical and radiological dimensions; however the mere assumption that degenerative changes precede disc herniation remains a matter of debate. By definition, spinal disc herniation (SDH) refers to components of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus protruding beyond the dorsal level of the vertebral body margin through tears in the annulus fibrosus. Clinical presentation may include pain, paresis and sensory disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of SDH. In the majority of patients a conservative approach with physical therapy exercises and adequate analgesic and antiphlogistic medical treatment results in a substantial improvement of symptoms. PMID:25398570

Zimmer, A; Reith, W

2014-11-01

287

Hypnotically Assisted Diaphragmatic Exercises in the Treatment of Stuttering: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This preliminary study investigates the combined effect of intensive hypnotherapy and diaphragmatic exercises in the management of stuttering. Fifty-nine clients with stuttering were trained to practice abdominal weightlifting to strengthen their respiratory muscles and to improve their diaphragmatic movements. The weightlifting exercises involved lifting a dumbbell (2.0–4.0 kg) with the abdomen for 2 hours daily for 8 consecutive days. Hypnotherapy

Yalcin Kaya; Assen Alladin

2012-01-01

288

Longitudinal evaluation of supervised versus unsupervised exercise programs for the treatment of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of an exercise program was investigated in a study of 89 post-menopausal women with osteoporosis over a 5-year\\u000a follow-up period. The study attempted to examine and compare potential differences in bone mineral density (BMD), incidence\\u000a of fracture, and loss of height, between a group of patients (n=42) who attended the supervised exercise program in the hospital, and a

M. Walker; P. Klentrou; R. Chow; M. Plyley

2000-01-01

289

Follow-up of an Exercise-Based Treatment for Children with Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the results of a long-term follow-up of an exercise-based approach to dyslexia-related disorders (Reynolds, Nicolson, & Hambly, "Dyslexia," 2003; 9(1): 48-71). In the initial study, children at risk of dyslexia were identified in 3 years of a junior school. One half then undertook a 6 month, home-based exercise programme.…

Reynolds, David; Nicolson, Roderick I.

2007-01-01

290

Non-operative treatment of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas: a review of the literature and a comparison with operative cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objective. To identify factors that favour spontaneous recovery in patients who suffered a spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). Methods. The literature was reviewed reguarding non-operative cases of SSEH (SSEH cons). Sixty-two cases from the literature and 2 of our own cases were collected, focusing on sex, age, medical history, position of the hematoma, segmental distribution and length of the

R. J. M. Groen

2004-01-01

291

Epidural spinal cord stimulation for treatment of chronic pain—some predictors of success. A 15-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND We have used epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain control for the past 15 years. An analysis of our series of 235 patients has clarified the value of specific prognostic parameters in the prediction of successful SCS.METHODS Patients were followed up for periods ranging from 6 months to 15 years with a mean follow-up of 66 months. The

Krishna Kumar; Cory Toth; RahulK Nath; Patricia Laing

1998-01-01

292

Comparative cost effectiveness of Coflex(R) interlaminar stabilization versus instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Symptomatic chronic low back and leg pain resulting from lumbar spinal stenosis is expensive to treat and manage. A randomized, controlled, multicenter US Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption clinical trial assessed treatment-related patient outcomes comparing the Coflex® Interlaminar Stabilization Device, an interlaminar stabilization implant inserted following decompressive surgical laminotomy in the lumbar spine, to instrumented posterolateral fusion among patients with moderate to severe spinal stenosis. This study uses patient-reported outcomes and clinical events from the trial along with costs and expected resource utilization to determine cost effectiveness. Methods A decision-analytic model compared outcomes over 5 years. Clinical input parameters were derived from the trial. Oswestry Disability Index scores were converted to utilities. Treatment patterns over 5 years were estimated based on claims analyses and expert opinion. A third-party payer perspective was used; costs (in $US 2013) and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. Sensitivity analyses examined the influence of key parameters. Analyses were conducted using Medicare payment rates and typical commercial reimbursements. Results Five-year costs were lower for patients implanted with Coflex compared to those undergoing fusion. Average Medicare payments over 5 years were estimated at $15,182 for Coflex compared to $26,863 for the fusion control, a difference of $11,681. Mean quality-adjusted life years were higher for Coflex patients compared to controls (3.02 vs 2.97). Results indicate that patients implanted with the Coflex device derive more utility, on average, than those treated with fusion, but at substantially lower costs. The cost advantage was greater when evaluating commercial insurance payments. Subgroup analyses found that the cost advantage for Coflex relative to fusion was even larger for two-level procedures compared to one-level procedures. Conclusion The Coflex Interlaminar Stabilization Device was found to be cost effective compared to instrumented posterolateral fusion for treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. It provided higher utility at substantially lower cost. PMID:24672250

Schmier, Jordana Kate; Halevi, Marci; Maislin, Greg; Ong, Kevin

2014-01-01

293

Exercise as a Potential Treatment for Drug Abuse: Evidence from Preclinical Studies  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs. Until recently, very few studies had examined the causal influences that mediate this relationship, and it was not clear whether exercise was effective at reducing substance use and abuse. In the past few years, several preclinical studies have revealed that exercise reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. These studies have revealed that exercise produces protective effects in procedures designed to model different transitional phases that occur during the development of, and recover from, a substance use disorder (e.g., acquisition, maintenance, escalation, and relapse/reinstatement of drug use). Moreover, recent studies have revealed several behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exercise that may be responsible for its protective effects in these assays. Collectively, these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:22347866

Smith, Mark A.; Lynch, Wendy J.

2012-01-01

294

IT'S MINE: Initiating Treatment Success--My Individualized Nutrition and Exercise Plan.  

PubMed

The authors' class structure incorporates individual meal and exercise planning in the group setting. This study was conducted to (1) determine if class participants can create their own meal and exercise plans, (2) determine if class participants feel they will be able to adhere to their meal and exercise plans, and (3) assess adherence to the plans over time. Subjects were recruited from the classes offered at the Joslin Diabetes Center. Following completion of class, patients completed the evaluation questionnaire. Two and 6 months later, study participants received follow-up questionnaires by phone or mail. Among respondents, 63% were able to determine their own carbohydrate goals, with 95.9% indicating they could adhere to the plan, and 82.8% felt the plan would be easier than previous ones. At 2 and 6 months, respectively, 89% and 92% of the participants felt they were following the meal plan either some or most of the time. One hundred percent of the respondents were able to determine their own exercise plan, with 98% indicating they could adhere to the plan, and 85.7% felt the new plan would be easier than previous ones. At 2 and 6 months, respectively, 70% and 73% felt they were following their exercise plan either some or most of the time. Individualized meal and exercise plans can be successfully created in a group setting. PMID:15797849

Kearns, JoAnn W; Kemmis, Karen; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Weinstock, Ruth S

2005-01-01

295

Intradural spinal endoscopy in children.  

PubMed

Intracranial endoscopy in the treatment of hydrocephalus, arachnoid cysts, or brain tumors has gained wide acceptance, but the use of endoscopy for intradural navigation in the pediatric spine has received much less attention. The aim of the authors' present study was to analyze their experience in using spinal endoscopy to treat various pathologies of the spinal canal. The authors performed a retrospective review of intradural spinal endoscopic cases at their institution. They describe 4 representative cases, including an arachnoid cyst, intrinsic spinal cord tumor, holocord syrinx, and split cord malformation. Intradural spinal endoscopy was useful in treating the aforementioned lesions. It resulted in a more limited laminectomy and myelotomy, and it assisted in identifying a residual spinal cord tumor. It was also useful in the fenestration of a multilevel arachnoid cyst and in confirming communication of fluid spaces in the setting of a complex holocord syrinx. Endoscopy aided in the visualization of the spinal cord to ensure the absence of tethering in the case of a long-length Type II split spinal cord malformation. Conclusions Based on their experience, the authors found intradural endoscopy to be a useful surgical adjunct and one that helped to decrease morbidity through reduced laminectomy and myelotomy. With advances in technology, the authors believe that intradural endoscopy will begin to be used by more neurosurgeons for treating diseases of this anatomical region. PMID:21721897

Chern, Joshua J; Gordon, Amber S; Naftel, Robert P; Tubbs, R Shane; Oakes, W Jerry; Wellons, John C

2011-07-01

296

Efficacy of ?yurvedic treatment using Pañcakarma combined with balance exercises for disability and balance in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old female presented at Department of Pañcakarma with diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). For assessing disability, progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale (PSPRS) was used and balance was assessed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System (IBS) posturography. ?yurvedic treatment was given along with Pañcakarma and balance exercises for 3 months. As part of ?yurvedic treatment, first Virecana karma was done with classical method and then M?tr? basti, ?irobasti, and other palliative treatment was given for 3 months. Amanatidine was not continued during Virecana karma but started thereafter. On comparison with pre-intervention scores, there was a significant improvement in the patient post-treatment. The features which mainly showed improvement were: Eye movements, spontaneous episodes of laughing, dysphagia, dysarthria, double vision, and neck rigidity. Balance showed significant improvement and there was a remarkable decrease in the postural sway. This case study may present new possibilities for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by ?yurveda. PMID:23929996

Jindal, Nitin; Shamkuwar, Manoj K; Kaur, Jaskirat; Berry, Sadhan

2012-07-01

297

Efficacy of ?yurvedic treatment using Pañcakarma combined with balance exercises for disability and balance in progressive supranuclear palsy  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old female presented at Department of Pañcakarma with diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). For assessing disability, progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale (PSPRS) was used and balance was assessed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System (IBS) posturography. ?yurvedic treatment was given along with Pañcakarma and balance exercises for 3 months. As part of ?yurvedic treatment, first Virecana karma was done with classical method and then M?tr? basti, ?irobasti, and other palliative treatment was given for 3 months. Amanatidine was not continued during Virecana karma but started thereafter. On comparison with pre-intervention scores, there was a significant improvement in the patient post-treatment. The features which mainly showed improvement were: Eye movements, spontaneous episodes of laughing, dysphagia, dysarthria, double vision, and neck rigidity. Balance showed significant improvement and there was a remarkable decrease in the postural sway. This case study may present new possibilities for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by ?yurveda. PMID:23929996

Jindal, Nitin; Shamkuwar, Manoj K.; Kaur, Jaskirat; Berry, Sadhan

2012-01-01

298

Psychological Factors Discriminating Between Successful and Unsuccessful Weight Loss in a Behavioral Exercise and Nutrition Education Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Psychological and behavioral characteristics that predict success or failure with weight-loss treatments are poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The purpose of this study was to assess whether social cognitive theory-based factors discriminate between women who are successful\\u000a and unsuccessful at weight loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Obese women (BMI?=?30 to 45 kg\\/m2) who participated in a treatment of behavioral exercise support counseling and nutrition education were divided into

James J. Annesi; Ann C. Whitaker

2010-01-01

299

Combinatorial treatment of acute spinal cord injury with ghrelin, ibuprofen, C16, and ketogenic diet does not result in improved histologic or functional outcome.  

PubMed

Because of the complex, multifaceted nature of spinal cord injury (SCI), it is widely believed that a combination of approaches will be superior to individual treatments. Therefore, we employed a rat model of cervical SCI to evaluate the combination of four noninvasive treatments that individually have been reported to be effective for acute SCI during clinically relevant therapeutic time windows. These treatments included ghrelin, ibuprofen, C16, and ketogenic diet (KD). These were selected not only because of their previously reported efficacy in SCI models but also for their potentially different mechanisms of action. The administration of ghrelin, ibuprofen, C16, and KD several hours to days postinjury was based on previous observations by others that each treatment had profound effects on the pathophysiology and functional outcome following SCI. Here we showed that, with the exception of a modest improvement in performance on the Montoya staircase test at 8-10 weeks postinjury, the combinatorial treatment with ghrelin, ibuprofen, C16, and KD did not result in any significant improvements in the rearing test, grooming test, or horizontal ladder. Histologic analysis of the spinal cords did not reveal any significant differences in tissue sparing between treatment and control groups. Although single approaches of ghrelin, ibuprofen, C16, and KD have been reported to be beneficial after SCI, our results show that the combination of the four interventions did not confer significant functional or histological improvements in a cervical model of SCI. Possible interactions among the treatments may have negated their beneficial effects, emphasizing the challenges that have to be addressed when considering combinatorial drug therapies for SCI. PMID:24658967

Streijger, F; Lee, J H T; Duncan, G J; Ng, M T L; Assinck, P; Bhatnagar, T; Plunet, W T; Tetzlaff, W; Kwon, B K

2014-07-01

300

Amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone in the treatment of chronic migraine: a randomized comparative study.  

PubMed

To compare the preventive treatment benefits of amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone in patients with chronic migraine. Method Sixty patients, both genders, aged between 18 and 50 years, with a diagnosis of chronic migraine, were randomized in groups called amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone. The following parameters were evaluated: headache frequency, intensity and duration of headache, days of the analgesic medication use, body mass index (BMI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores. Results In the evaluated parameters, was observed decrease in headache frequency (p=0.001), moderate intensity (p=0.048), in headache duration (p=0.001), the body mass index (p=0.001), Beck Depression Inventory (p=0.001) and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (p=0.001), when groups were compared in the end of third month. Conclusion In this study, the amitriptyline was an effective treatment for chronic migraine, but its efficacy was increased when combined with aerobic exercise. PMID:25410451

Santiago, Michelle Dias Santos; Carvalho, Deusvenir de Souza; Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Pinto, Mariana Machado Pereira; Moutran, Andrea Regina Correa; Villa, Thais Rodrigues

2014-11-01

301

A treatment-refractory spinal dural arteriovenous fistula sharing arterial origin with the Artery of Adamkiewicz: Repeated endovascular treatment after failed microsurgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Effective management of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) can be accomplished with either microsurgery or endovascular embolization, but there is a consensus that in patients in whom a radiculomedullary artery supplying the anterior spinal artery (ASA) originates from the same feeding artery as the SDAVF, the endovascular approach is to be avoided. Case Description: The patient was a 46-year-old woman with progressive lower limb paraparesis, sensory deficit, and sphincter dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spinal angiography showed an SDAVF fed by a branch from the left second lumbar segmental artery, and the artery of Adamkiewicz (AA), a major ASA supplier, originating from the same segmental artery just proximal to the SDAVF. Microsurgical disconnection of the SDAVF was attempted, but failed. Embolization with cyanoacrylates was done in two occasions, the first time through a microcatheter placed just distal to the origin of the AA and the second time through another feeder coming from the same segmental artery that could not be visualized in the previous angiographies. All procedures were neurologically uncomplicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 month after the last embolization showed resolution of the spinal cord edema. MRI scan taken 68 months after embolization revealed a slightly atrophic spinal cord with visible central canal and no recurrence of medullary edema. The patient presented good, but incomplete neurological improvement. Conclusion: Microsurgery is the first choice for an SDAVF branching off the same radiculomedullary artery supplying the ASA, but uncomplicated embolization can be feasible after failed surgery. PMID:25071941

Eneling, Johanna; Karlsson, Per M.; Rossitti, Sandro

2014-01-01

302

Walking impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis: exercise training as a treatment option.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that culminates in the progression of physical and cognitive disability over time. Walking impairment is a ubiquitous feature of MS and a sentinel characteristic of the later or advanced stages of the disease. This paper presents a conceptual rationale along with empirical evidence for exercise training as a rehabilitation approach for managing walking impairment and improving walking function in persons with MS. Conceptually, MS is associated with a decrease in physical activity, which, in turn, can result in deconditioning across multiple domains of physiological functioning. The resulting deconditioning feeds back and further drives physical inactivity until a threshold is reached that likely initiates the progression of walking impairment in MS. Empirically, physical activity and exercise training have been associated with beneficial effects on walking function in persons with MS. This is based on cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research that included diversity in the breadth of measures of walking, persons with MS, and exercise/physical activity characteristics. Of particular importance, future researchers might consider examining the combinatory effects of exercise training plus pharmacological agents on walking mobility in MS. Collectively, exercise training and physical activity might hold significant potential for the management of progressive mobility disability in MS. PMID:21173883

Motl, Robert W; Goldman, Myla D; Benedict, Ralph H B

2010-01-01

303

A review article on the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and dural tears occurring during spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: In spinal surgery, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas attributed to deliberate dural opening (e.g., for tumors, shunts, marsupialization of cysts) or inadvertent/traumatic dural tears (DTs) need to be readily recognized, and appropriately treated. Methods: During spinal surgery, the dura may be deliberately opened to resect intradural lesions/tumors, to perform shunts, or to open/marsupialize cysts. DTs, however, may inadvertently occur during primary, but are seen more frequently during revision spinal surgery often attributed to epidural scarring. Other etiologies of CSF fistulas/DTs include; epidural steroid injections, and resection of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL). Whatever the etiology of CSF fistulas or DTs, they must be diagnosed utilizing radioisotope cisternography (RIC), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed axial tomography (CT) studies, and expeditiously repaired. Results: DTs should be repaired utilizing interrupted 7-0 Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates Inc., Elkton, MD, USA) sutures, as the suture itself is larger than the needle; the larger suture occludes the dural puncture site. Closure may also include muscle patch grafts, dural patches/substitutes (bovine pericardium), microfibrillar collagen (Duragen: Integra Life Sciences Holdings Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ), and fibrin glues or dural sealants (Tisseel: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA). Only rarely are lumbar drains and wound-peritoneal and/or lumboperitoneal shunts warranted. Conclusion: DTs or CSF fistulas attributed to primary/secondary spinal surgery, trauma, epidural injections, OPLL, OYL, and other factors, require timely diagnosis (MRI/CT/Cisternography), and appropriate reconstruction. PMID:24163783

Epstein, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

304

Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in cblC disorder despite treatment with B12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord is a characteristic complication of vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has never been neuropathologically demonstrated in a B12-inborn error of metabolism. In this report SCD is documented in a 15-year-old boy with early-onset cobalamin C (cblC) disorder. The neuropathologic findings included multifocal demyelination and vacuolation with predilection for the dorsal and lateral

Sharon E. Smith; Hannah C. Kinney; Kathryn J. Swoboda; Harvey L. Levy

2006-01-01

305

Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias

2012-01-01

306

Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow for the Treatment of Naturally Injured Spinal Cord in Dogs  

PubMed Central

The use of stem cells in injury repair has been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation in four dogs with natural traumatic spinal cord injuries. MSC were cultured in vitro, and proliferation rate and cell viability were evaluated. Cell suspensions were prepared and surgically administered into the spinal cord. The animals were clinically evaluated and examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Ten days after the surgical procedure and MSC transplantation, we observed a progressive recovery of the panniculus reflex and diminished superficial and deep pain response, although there were still low proprioceptive reflexes in addition to a hyperreflex in the ataxic hind limb movement responses. Each dog demonstrated an improvement in these gains over time. Conscious reflex recovery occurred simultaneously with moderate improvement in intestine and urinary bladder functions in two of the four dogs. By the 18th month of clinical monitoring, we observed a remarkable clinical amelioration accompanied by improved movement, in three of the four dogs. However, no clinical gain was associated with alterations in magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that MSC are potential candidates for the stem cell therapy following spinal cord injury. PMID:24723956

Penha, Euler Moraes; Meira, Cássio Santana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Mendonça, Marcus Vinícius Pinheiro; Gravely, Faye Alice; Pinheiro, Cláudia Maria Bahia; Pinheiro, Taiana Maria Bahia; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

2014-01-01

307

The management of bilateral high hamstring tendinopathy with ASTYM(R) treatment and eccentric exercise: a case report  

PubMed Central

High hamstring tendinopathy (HHT) is an overuse injury that occurs most commonly in runners. The management of HHT is often challenging and the research supporting many interventions is limited. Eccentric exercise has been proven effective in the treatment of various tendinopathies but has not been thoroughly studied with HHT. Soft tissue mobilization, including ASTYM, is often utilized in the treatment of tendinopathies, though there is limited evidence supporting this approach. The purpose of this paper is to present the case of a patient referred to physical therapy with bilateral HHT. The patient was a 41-year-old recreational runner that had an insidious onset of right buttock pain 12 months prior to initiating therapy and left buttock pain 9 months prior. Her primary complaints included an inability to run, pain with prolonged or brisk walking, and pain with sitting on hard surfaces. The patient was treated in physical therapy two times per week for 16 visits with treatment focused on eccentric hamstring strengthening and ASTYM. By her eighth visit, the patient was able to walk 2·5 miles without pain and by her 12 visit, she was able to jog 1 mile before the onset of pain. After 16 visits, the patient reported that she was approximately 95% improved, was able to run 2·5 miles without pain, and had no pain with sitting on hard surfaces. This case suggests that eccentric exercise combined with ASTYM may be an effective treatment for HHT. PMID:23904753

McCormack, Joshua R

2012-01-01

308

BOLD MRI of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of functional MRI of the spinal cord was investi- gated by carrying out blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging of the human cervical spinal cord at a field of 3 T. BOLD imaging of the cervical spinal cord showed an average intensity increase of 7.0% during repeated exercise with the dominant hand with a return to baseline during rest

P. W. Stroman; P. W. Nance; L. N. Ryner

1999-01-01

309

Response and compliance of hypertensives to treatment by device-guided breathing exercises: interim results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated a sustained reduction of high blood pressure (BP) with device guided breathing exercises. We are evaluating compliance & performance of patients using “treat & measure” devices at home and the possible occurrence of placebo effect. Methods: Patients, were uncontrolled hypertensives, age 30 to 65 either unmedicated or medicated with antihypertensive drugs. The design includes 4 visits

Cristina Giannattasio; Monica Failla; Ester Meles; Gaetano Gentile; Alessandra Grappiolo; Giuseppe Mancia

2001-01-01

310

Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial  

PubMed Central

Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age?=?43.0?±?9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n?=?145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n?=?149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight-loss behaviors (exercise and healthy eating) to the other. Findings on psychosocial correlates of these behavioral processes may also have practical applications. PMID:24308572

2013-01-01

311

Postoperative Spinal Wound Infections and Postprocedural Diskitis  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Postprocedural infections are a significant cause of morbidity after spinal interventions. Methods: Literature review. An extensive literature review was conducted on postprocedural spinal infections. Relevant articles were reviewed in detail and additional case images were included. Results: Clinical findings, laboratory markers, and imaging modalities play important roles in the detection of postprocedural spinal infections. Treatment may range from biopsy and antibiotics to multiple operations with complex strategies for soft tissue management. Conclusions: Early detection and aggressive treatment are paramount in managing postprocedural spinal infections and limiting their long-term sequelae. PMID:18092559

Chaudhary, Saad B; Vives, Michael J; Basra, Sushil K; Reiter, Mitchell F

2007-01-01

312

Prognostic value of predischarge low-level exercise thallium testing after thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Low-level exercise thallium testing is useful in identifying the high-risk patient after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To determine whether this use also applies to patients after thrombolytic treatment of AMI, 64 patients who underwent early thrombolytic therapy for AMI and 107 patients without acute intervention were evaluated. The ability of both the electrocardiogram and thallium tests to predict future events was compared in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 374 days, there were 25 and 32% of cardiac events in the 2 groups, respectively, with versus without acute intervention. These included death, another AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty with 75% of the events occurring in the 3 months after the first infarction. The only significant predictors of outcome were left ventricular cavity dilatation in the intervention group and ST-segment depression and increased lung uptake in the nonintervention group. The sensitivity of exercise thallium was 55% in the intervention group and 81% in the nonintervention group (p less than 0.05). Therefore, in patients having thrombolytic therapy for AMI, nearly half the events after discharge are not predicted by predischarge low-level exercise thallium testing. The relatively weak correlation of outcome with unmasking ischemia in the laboratory before discharge may be due to an unstable coronary lesion or rapid progression of disease after the test. Tests considered useful for prognostication after AMI may not necessarily have a similar value if there has been an acute intervention, such as thrombolytic therapy.

Tilkemeier, P.L.; Guiney, T.E.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

1990-11-15

313

Spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) remains a relatively infrequent diagnosis. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism identified, and the infectious source in SEA emanates from skin and soft tissue infections in about 20 % of instances. The thoracic spine is most often involved followed by the lumbar spine. The classic triad of fever, spinal pain, and neurological deficit is present in but a minority of patients. The appearance of neurological deficits with SEA has a significant impact on the prognosis; therefore, early diagnosis is imperative. Magnetic resonance imaging has permitted earlier diagnosis, although significant delays in diagnosis are common due to the nonspecific symptoms that frequently attend the disorder. Due to the rarity of this condition, there have been few randomized controlled trials to evaluate new treatment strategies, and most recommendations regarding treatment are based on case series studies often derived from the experiences at a single center. PMID:25230605

Krishnamohan, Prashanth; Berger, Joseph R

2014-11-01

314

Anti-hypotensive treatment and endothelin blockade synergistically antagonize exercise fatigue in rats under simulated high altitude.  

PubMed

Rapid ascent to high altitude causes illness and fatigue, and there is a demand for effective acute treatments to alleviate such effects. We hypothesized that increased oxygen delivery to the tissue using a combination of a hypertensive agent and an endothelin receptor A antagonist drugs would limit exercise-induced fatigue at simulated high altitude. Our data showed that the combination of 0.1 mg/kg ambrisentan with either 20 mg/kg ephedrine or 10 mg/kg methylphenidate significantly improved exercise duration in rats at simulated altitude of 4,267 m, whereas the individual compounds did not. In normoxic, anesthetized rats, ephedrine alone and in combination with ambrisentan increased heart rate, peripheral blood flow, carotid and pulmonary arterial pressures, breathing rate, and vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation, but under inspired hypoxia, only the combination treatment significantly enhanced muscle oxygenation. Our results suggest that sympathomimetic agents combined with endothelin-A receptor blockers offset altitude-induced fatigue in rats by synergistically increasing the delivery rate of oxygen to hypoxic muscle by concomitantly augmenting perfusion pressure and improving capillary conductance in the skeletal muscle. Our findings might therefore serve as a basis to develop an effective treatment to prevent high-altitude illness and fatigue in humans. PMID:24960187

Radiloff, Daniel; Zhao, Yulin; Boico, Alina; Blueschke, Gert; Palmer, Gregory; Fontanella, Andrew; Dewhirst, Mark; Piantadosi, Claude A; Noveck, Robert; Irwin, David; Hamilton, Karyn; Klitzman, Bruce; Schroeder, Thies

2014-01-01

315

Anti-Hypotensive Treatment and Endothelin Blockade Synergistically Antagonize Exercise Fatigue in Rats under Simulated High Altitude  

PubMed Central

Rapid ascent to high altitude causes illness and fatigue, and there is a demand for effective acute treatments to alleviate such effects. We hypothesized that increased oxygen delivery to the tissue using a combination of a hypertensive agent and an endothelin receptor A antagonist drugs would limit exercise-induced fatigue at simulated high altitude. Our data showed that the combination of 0.1 mg/kg ambrisentan with either 20 mg/kg ephedrine or 10 mg/kg methylphenidate significantly improved exercise duration in rats at simulated altitude of 4,267 m, whereas the individual compounds did not. In normoxic, anesthetized rats, ephedrine alone and in combination with ambrisentan increased heart rate, peripheral blood flow, carotid and pulmonary arterial pressures, breathing rate, and vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation, but under inspired hypoxia, only the combination treatment significantly enhanced muscle oxygenation. Our results suggest that sympathomimetic agents combined with endothelin-A receptor blockers offset altitude-induced fatigue in rats by synergistically increasing the delivery rate of oxygen to hypoxic muscle by concomitantly augmenting perfusion pressure and improving capillary conductance in the skeletal muscle. Our findings might therefore serve as a basis to develop an effective treatment to prevent high-altitude illness and fatigue in humans. PMID:24960187

Radiloff, Daniel; Zhao, Yulin; Boico, Alina; Blueschke, Gert; Palmer, Gregory; Fontanella, Andrew; Dewhirst, Mark; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Noveck, Robert; Irwin, David; Hamilton, Karyn; Klitzman, Bruce; Schroeder, Thies

2014-01-01

316

Randomized trial comparing exercise therapy, alternating cold and hot therapy, and low intensity laser therapy for chronic lumbar muscle strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise therapy, alternating cold and hot (ACH) therapy and low intensity laser (LIL) therapy in patients with chronic lumbar muscle strain (CLMS). Thirty-two patients were randomly allocated to four groups: exercise group, ACH group, LIL group, and combination group of exercise, ACH and LIL, eight in each group. Sixteen treatments were given over the course of 4 weeks. Lumbar muscle endurance, flexion and lateral flexion measures, visual analogue scale (VAS) and lumbar disability questionnaire (LDQ) were used in the clinical and functional evaluations before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after treatment. It was found that the values of endurance, VAS and LDQ in all groups were significantly improved from before to after treatment (P < 0.01). The combination group showed significantly larger reduction on pain level and functional disability than the other groups immediately and 4 weeks after treatment (P < 0.01). Pain level reduced significantly more in the ACH group than in the exercise group or the LIL group immediately and 4 weeks after treatment (P < 0.05). Lumbar muscle endurance and spinal ranges of motion in all groups were improved after treatment but there was no significant difference between any therapy groups. In conclusion, exercise therapy, ACH therapy and LIL therapy were effective in the treatment of CLMS. ACH therapy was more effective than exercise therapy or LIL therapy. The combination therapy of exercise, ACH and LIL had still better rehabilitative effects on CLMS.

Liu, Xiaoguang; Li, Jie; Liu, Timon Chengyi; Yuan, Jianqin; Luo, Qingming

2008-12-01

317

Operational Applications of Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise as a Treatment for Airsickness in the Military  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airsickness is experienced by about 50% of military aviators some time in their career. Aviators who suffer from recurrent episodes of airsickness are typically referred to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) at Pensacola where they undergo extensive evaluation and 8 weeks of training in the Self-Paced Airsickness Desensitization (SPAD) program. Researchers at NASA Ames have developed an alternative mitigation training program, Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) that has demonstrated an 80% success rate for improving motion sickness tolerance.

Gebreyesus, Fiyore; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

2012-01-01

318

Evaluation of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation is reported of an exercise-based approach to remediation of dyslexia-related disorders. Pupils in three years of a Warwickshire junior school were screened for risk of literacy difficulty using the Dyslexia Screening Test (DST). The 35 children scoring 0.4 or over on the DST were divided randomly into two groups matched for age and DST score. One quarter of

David Reynolds; Roderick I. Nicolson; Helen Hambly

2003-01-01

319

Effects of Microcurrent Treatment on Perceived Pain and Muscle Strength Following Eccentric Exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of low-volt, microamperage stimulation (LVMAS) on perceived pain and muscle strength following an intense bout of eccentric exercise. Design and Setting: An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used for the study. The experiment was conducted in the Lower Extremity Research Laboratory at Georgia State University. Subjects: Twelve females and six males (mean age 27 ± 5 yr). Measurements: Subjects, randomly assigned to experimental (EXP, n = 6), sham (SHAM, n = 6), and control (CON, n = 6) groups, were tested before, and at 24, 48, and 72 hours following, an intense bout of eccentric exercise. Results: Three two-way (group × time) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on the last factor were used to analyze the data. A significant time main effect was identified. Results indicated that perceived pain was not reduced in the EXP group as compared with the SHAM and CON groups. Muscle strength in the EXP group did not return to the initial baseline measure more rapidly than in the SHAM and CON groups. Conclusions: We conclude that the use of LVMAS alone is not effective in reducing pain and increasing muscle function following an exhaustive bout of eccentric exercise. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558440

Bonacci, Jeffrey A.; Higbie, Elizabeth J.

1997-01-01

320

Suppression of stretch reflex activity after spinal or systemic treatment with AMPA receptor antagonist NGX424 in rats with developed baclofen tolerance  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist) is the most commonly used anti-spasticity agent in clinical practice. While effective when administered spinally or systemically, the development of progressive tolerance represents a serious limitation for its long-term use. The goal of the present study was to characterize the treatment potency after intrathecal or systemic treatment with the selective AMPA receptor antagonist NGX424 on stretch reflex activity (SRA) and background muscle activity (BMA) in rats with developed baclofen tolerance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Animals were exposed to 10 min of spinal ischaemia to induce an increase in BMA and SRA. Selected animals were implanted with an intrathecal PE-5 catheter and infused intrathecally with baclofen (1 µg·h?1) for 14 days. Before and after baclofen infusion, changes in BMA and SRA were measured at 2 day intervals. After development of baclofen tolerance, the animals were injected intrathecally (1 µg) or subcutaneously (3, 6 or 12 mg·kg?1) with NGX424, and changes in BMA and SRA were measured. KEY RESULTS Intrathecal or systemic delivery of NGX424 significantly suppressed the BMA and SRA in baclofen-tolerant animals. This effect was dose dependent. The magnitude of BMA and SRA suppression seen after 1 µg (intrathecal) or 12 mg·kg?1 (s.c.) of NGX424 injection was similar to that seen during the first 5 days of baclofen infusion. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data demonstrate that the use of NGX424 can represent an effective therapy to modulate chronic spasticity in patients who are refractory or tolerant to baclofen treatment. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Gómez-Soriano et al., pp. 972–975 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00964.x PMID:20977450

Oshiro, Masakatsu; Hefferan, Michael P; Kakinohana, Osamu; Lukacova, Nadezda; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yaksh, Tony L; Marsala, Martin

2010-01-01

321

Effective Conservative Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that effective conservative treatment is available for chronic low back pain. The effectiveness of conservative treatment has recently received attention following publication of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported similar improvements in outcomes from cognitive intervention with exercise as from spinal fusion surgery. This paper will explore the conservative treatment arms of these RCTs with the goal of educating the reader about the principles of cognitive intervention with exercise. These principles can be incorporated into the care of chronic low back pain patients both as primary treatment and as a means of augmenting surgical outcomes. PMID:20161564

Rainville, James; Nguyen, Rosalyn; Suri, Pradeep

2009-01-01

322

Spinal Bracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.

1991-01-01

323

Spinal Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord metastases are a common complication of systemic malignancy, most commonly from lung, breast, and prostate cancer.\\u000a Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, most notably pain and weakness. The ultimate goals in managing these patients\\u000a include maximizing neurologic function, length of survival, and quality of life. These goals can best be reached via early,\\u000a accurate diagnosis followed

Jonathan H. Sherman; Dawit G. Aregawi; Mark E. Shaffrey; David Schiff

324

Exercise and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Hyperphagic OLETF Rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA) supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): (1) remained sedentary (SED), (2) access to running wheels; (EX) (3) a diet supplemented with 3% of energy from fish oil (n3PUFA-SED); and (4) n3PUFA supplementation plus EX (n3PUFA+EX). The 8 week treatments began at 13 weeks, when hepatic steatosis is present in OLETF-SED rats. Results. EX alone lowered hepatic triglyceride (TAG) while, in contrast, n3PUFAs failed to lower hepatic TAG and blunted the ability of EX to decrease hepatic TAG levels in n3PUFAs+EX. Insulin sensitivity was improved in EX animals, to a lesser extent in n3PUFA+EX rats, and did not differ between n3PUFA-SED and SED rats. Only the EX group displayed higher complete hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to CO2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. EX also lowered hepatic fatty acid synthase protein while both EX and n3PUFA+EX decreased stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 protein. Conclusions. Exercise lowers hepatic steatosis through increased complete hepatic FAO, insulin sensitivity, and reduced expression of de novo fatty acid synthesis proteins while n3PUFAs had no effect. PMID:21918718

Borengasser, Sarah J.; Rector, R. Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M.; Morris, E. Matthew; Perfield, James W.; Booth, Frank W.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.

2012-01-01

325

Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique® (GT), a soft tissue massage therapy using hand-held stainless steel instruments. The objective of this trial is to determine the efficacy of SMT and GT compared to a placebo for the treatment of non specific thoracic spine pain. Methods Eighty four eligible people with non specific thoracic pain mid back pain of six weeks or more will be randomised to one of three groups, either SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound). Each group will receive up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at the Murdoch University Chiropractic student clinic over a 4-week period. Treatment outcomes will be measured at baseline, one week after their first treatment, upon completion of the 4-week intervention period and at three, six and twelve months post randomisation. Outcome measures will include the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Intention to treat analysis will be utilised in the statistical analysis of any group treatment effects. Trial Registration This trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 7th February 2008. Trial number: ACTRN12608000070336 PMID:18959807

Crothers, Amy; Walker, Bruce; French, Simon D

2008-01-01

326

Intracellular ?2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse skeletal muscle in response to single-dose ?2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the intracellular ?2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, resulting from single-dose ?2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise. At 1, 4, and 24 h after single-dose treatment with clenbuterol or after acute running exercise, the soleus and TA muscles were isolated and subjected to analysis. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise in the soleus muscle but not in the TA muscle. Although there was no change in the phosphorylation of Akt after acute exercise in either muscle, phosphorylation of Akt in the soleus muscle increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment, whereas that in the TA muscle remained unchanged. These results suggest that p38 MAPK and Akt pathways play a functional role in the adaptation to clenbuterol treatment and exercise, particularly in slow-twitch muscles. PMID:23508836

Sato, Shogo; Shirato, Ken; Mitsuhashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

2013-05-01

327

Efficacy of lower limb compression and combined treatment of manual massage and lower limb compression on symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in women.  

PubMed

Strategies to manage the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are widespread, though are often based on anecdotal evidence. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a combination of manual massage and compressive clothing and compressive clothing individually as recovery strategies after muscle damage. Thirty-two female volunteers completed 100 plyometric drop jumps and were randomly assigned to a passive recovery (n = 17), combined treatment (n = 7), or compression treatment group (n = 8). Indices of muscle damage (perceived soreness, creatine kinase activity, isokinetic muscle strength, squat jump, and countermovement jump performance) were assessed immediately before and after 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of plyometric exercise. The compression treatment group wore compressive tights for 12 hours after damage and the combined treatment group received a 30-minute massage immediately after damaging exercise and wore compression stockings for the following 11.5 hours. Plyometric exercise had a significant effect on all indices of muscle damage (p < 0.05). The treatments significantly reduced decrements in isokinetic muscle strength, squat jump performance, and countermovement jump performance and reduced the level of perceived soreness in comparison with the passive recovery group (p < 0.05). The addition of sports massage to compression after muscle damage did not improve performance recovery, with recovery trends being similar in both treatment groups. The treatment combination of massage and compression significantly moderated perceived soreness at 48 and 72 hours after plyometric exercise (p < 0.05) in comparison with the passive recovery or compression alone treatment. The results indicate that the use of lower limb compression and a combined treatment of manual massage with lower limb compression are effective recovery strategies following EIMD. Minimal performance differences between treatments were observed, although the combination treatment may be beneficial in controlling perceived soreness. PMID:20940646

Jakeman, John R; Byrne, Chris; Eston, Roger G

2010-11-01

328

The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930 PMID:23374879

2013-01-01

329

Sequential use of aminophylline and theophylline for the treatment of atropine-resistant bradycardia after spinal cord injury: a case report.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old Japanese man was brought to our emergency department after he was accidentally compressed into a lateral groove. Physical examination revealed pinprick sensory level of T4 and motor level of C7. On the 4th hospital day, electrocardiography suddenly showed sinus bradycardia of 33 beats/min. Bolus injection of 0.5 mg of atropine sulphate was not effective. Bolus injection of aminophylline was administered followed by continuous infusion. His heart rate increased and remained stable at 60 to 70 beats/min. Therapy was switched from aminophylline to oral theophylline and continued for about 5 weeks, with no recurrence of bradycardia. Use of xanthine derivatives is thought to be an effective, safe and simple treatment for spinal cord injury-induced bradycardia. PMID:17354583

Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Sadanaga, Tsuneaki; Okazaki, Tomoki

2007-02-01

330

A dosimetric comparison of different treatment plans of palliative spinal bone irradiation: analysis of dose coverage with respect to ICRU 50 report  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to analyze three-dimensional (3D) dosimetric data of conventional two-dimensional (2D) palliative spinal bone irradiation using different reference points and treatment plans with respect to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 50. Methods Forty-five simulation CT scans of 39 patients previously treated for thoraco-lumbar spinal bone metastases were used. Three different treatment plans were created: (1) single posterior field plans using the ICRU reference points (ICRUrps); (2) single posterior field plans using the International Bone Metastasis Consensus Working Party reference points (IBMCrps); (3) two opposed anterior-posterior (AP-PA) field plans using the ICRUrps. The intended dose range for planning target volume (PTV) was 90% to 110% of the prescribed dose for AP-PA field plans. Cumulative dose-volume histograms were generated for each plan, and minimum, maximum and mean doses to the PTV, medulla spinalis, esophagus and intestines were analyzed. Results The mean percentages of minimum, maximum and mean PTV doses ± standard deviation were, respectively, 91 ± 1.3%, 108.8 ± 1.3% and 99.7 ± 1.3% in AP-PA field plans; 77.3 ± 2.6%, 122.2 ± 4.3% and 99.8 ± 2.6% in ICRUrp single field plans; and 83.7 ± 3.3%, 133.9 ± 7.1% and 108.8 ± 3.3% in IBMCrp single field plans. Minimum doses of both single field plans were significantly lower (p < 0.001) while maximum doses were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than AP-PA field plans. Minimum, maximum and mean doses were higher in IBMCrp single field plans than in ICRUrp single field plans (p < 0.001). The mean medulla spinalis doses were lower in AP-PA field plans than single posterior field plans (p < 0.001). Maximum doses for medulla spinalis were higher than 120% of the prescribed dose in 22 of 45 (49%) IBMCrp single field plans. Mean esophagus and intestinal doses were higher (p < 0.001) in AP-PA field plans than single field plans, however, less than 95% of the prescribed dose. Conclusion In palliative spinal bone irradiation, 2D conventional single posterior field radiotherapy did not accomplish the ICRU Report 50 recommendations for PTV dose distribution, while the AP-PA field plans did achieve the intended dose ranges with a homogenous distribution and reasonable doses to the medulla spinalis, esophagus and intestines. PMID:19128500

Andic, Fundagul; Baz Cifci, Sule; Ors, Yasemin; Niang, Umar; Dirier, Ahmet; Adli, Mustafa

2009-01-01

331

Spinal trauma in children.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. PMID:11685436

Roche, C; Carty, H

2001-10-01

332

Pain Management Following Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... SCI Care Center Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal Cord Injury coming from somewhere other ... abdomen (stomach area) either above or below the level of injury. The pain is described as burning, ... Pain management usually includes treatment with medications, modified ...

333

BDNF Facilitates Instrumental Learning and Spinal Plasticity In Vivo.  

E-print Network

of drug treatment was assessed by testing its effect on mechanical reactivity and spinal learning. Spinally transected rats had the BDNF-containing hydrogel applied over the lumbosacral spinal cord. Subjects were tested 3-24 hrs later. Prior work has shown...

Niemerski, Ashley

2014-01-27

334

Action Mechanism of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Intervened by Exercise Therapy in Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an imbalance between androgen/estrogen, overexpression of stromal, and epithelial growth factors associated with chronic inflammation, has become an atypical direct cause of mortality of aged male diseases. Ginkgo possesses anti-inflammatory, blood flow-enhancing, and free radical scavenging effects. Considering strenuous exercise can reduce BPH risks, we hypothesize Ginkgo + exercise (Ginkgo + Ex) could be beneficial to BPH. To verify this, rat BPH model was induced by s.c. 3.5?mg testosterone (T) and 0.1?mg estradiol (E2) per head per day successively for 8 weeks, using mineral oil as placebo. Cerenin® 8.33??L/100?g was applied s.c. from the 10th to the 13th week, and simultaneously, Ex was applied (30?m/min, 3 times/week). In BPH, Ginkgo alone had no effect on T, 5?-reductase, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but suppressed androgen receptor (AR), aromatase, E2 and estrogen receptor (ER), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); Ex alone significantly reduced T, aromatase, E2, ER, AR, and PCNA, but highly raised DHT. While Ginkgo + Ex androgenically downregulated T, aromatase, E2, and ER, but upregulated DHT, AR, and PCNA, implying Ginkgo + Ex tended to worsen BPH. Conclusively, Ginkgo or Ex alone may be more beneficial than Ginkgo + Ex for treatment of BPH. PMID:23690843

Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liu, Jia-Hong; Chang, Chi-Huang; Chung, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Chou

2013-01-01

335

Spinal cord regeneration.  

PubMed

Three theories of regeneration dominate neuroscience today, all purporting to explain why the adult central nervous system (CNS) cannot regenerate. One theory proposes that Nogo, a molecule expressed by myelin, prevents axonal growth. The second theory emphasizes the role of glial scars. The third theory proposes that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) prevent axon growth. Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptors indeed can stop axon growth in vitro and improve functional recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. These therapies also increase sprouting of surviving axons and plasticity. However, many investigators have reported regenerating spinal tracts without eliminating Nogo, glial scar, or CSPG. For example, many motor and sensory axons grow spontaneously in contused spinal cords, crossing gliotic tissue and white matter surrounding the injury site. Sensory axons grow long distances in injured dorsal columns after peripheral nerve lesions. Cell transplants and treatments that increase cAMP and neurotrophins stimulate motor and sensory axons to cross glial scars and to grow long distances in white matter. Genetic studies deleting all members of the Nogo family and even the Nogo receptor do not always improve regeneration in mice. A recent study reported that suppressing the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene promotes prolific corticospinal tract regeneration. These findings cannot be explained by the current theories proposing that Nogo and glial scars prevent regeneration. Spinal axons clearly can and will grow through glial scars and Nogo-expressing tissue under some circumstances. The observation that deleting PTEN allows corticospinal tract regeneration indicates that the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates axonal growth. Finally, many other factors stimulate spinal axonal growth, including conditioning lesions, cAMP, glycogen synthetase kinase inhibition, and neurotrophins. To explain these disparate regenerative phenomena, I propose that the spinal cord has evolved regenerative mechanisms that are normally suppressed by multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors but can be activated by injury, mediated by the PTEN/AKT/mTOR, cAMP, and GSK3b pathways, to stimulate neural growth and proliferation. PMID:24816452

Young, Wise

2014-01-01

336

Spreading depression features and Iba1 immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of developing rats submitted to treadmill exercise after treatment with monosodium glutamate.  

PubMed

Physical exercise and excessive consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) can affect the morphological and electrophysiological organization of the brain during development. However, the interaction of both factors remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of this interaction on the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD) and the microglial reaction expressed as Iba1-immunolabeled cells in the rat motor cortex. MSG (2g/kg or 4g/kg) was administered every other day during the first 14 postnatal days. Treadmill exercise started at 21-23 days of life and lasted 3 weeks, 5 days/week, for 30min/day. At 45-60 days, CSD was recorded for 4h at two cortical points and the CSD parameters (velocity, amplitude, and duration of the negative potential change) calculated. Confirming previous observations, exercised rats presented with lower CSD velocities (3.29±0.18mm/min) than the sedentary group (3.80±0.18mm/min; P<0.05). MSG increased CSD velocities in the exercised rats compared to saline-treated and exercised animals in a dose-dependent manner (3.49±0.19, 4.05±0.18, and 3.27±0.26 for 2g/kg MSG, 4g/kg MSG, and saline, respectively; P<0.05). The amplitude (ranging from 14.3±5.9 to 18.7±6.2mV) and duration (46.7±11.1 to 60.5±11.6s) of the negative slow potential shift of the CSD were similar in all groups. Both exercise and MSG treatment increased Iba1 immunolabeling. The results confirm that physical exercise decelerates CSD propagation. However, it does not impede the CSD-accelerating action of MSG. These effects were accompanied by a cortical microglia reaction. Therefore, the data suggest that treadmill exercise early in life can influence the development of cortical electrical activity. PMID:24374255

Lima, Cássia Borges; Soares, Georgia de Sousa Ferreira; Vitor, Suênia Marcele; Andrade-da-Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira; Castellano, Bernardo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araujo

2014-04-01

337

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on exercise parameters in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: what works?  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is research evidence which supports the effectiveness of exercise in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, what is unclear are the parameters underpinning this intervention. This has led to uncertainty when operationalizing exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to evaluate the parameters of exercise programs reported in primary research, to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription for patellofemoral pain. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. Only trials that identified exercise to be effective in treating patellofemoral pain were included. Appropriate databases and reference lists were searched using established keywords. Data relating to common exercise parameters such as the type of exercise, length, and frequency of intervention, intensity, repetitions, sets, and specific technique were extracted, along with details of co-interventions that may have been used. Results A total of ten randomized controlled trials were included in this review and from these trials 14 interventions arms were evaluated. All 14 interventions focused on active exercises, all but two of which also included a passive stretching component. The current body of evidence demonstrates positive results with exercise interventions such as knee extension, squats, stationary cycling, static quadriceps, active straight leg raise, leg press, and step-up and down exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A progressive regime of daily exercises of two to four sets of ten or more repetitions over an intervention period of 6 weeks or more, combined with exercises to address flexibility of the lower limb musculature was commonly used. Conclusion Currently, the primary research on this topic supports the use of closed kinetic chain, strengthening exercises for musculature of the lower limb, combined with flexibility options. The current evidence base supports a prescription of daily exercises of two–four sets of ten or more repetitions over a period of 6 weeks or more. PMID:22135495

Harvie, Daniel; O'Leary, Timothy; Kumar, Saravana

2011-01-01

338

Spontaneous spinal extradural hematomas.  

PubMed

We review three patients who presented with acute spontaneous spinal extradural hematomas (SSEH). We discuss the presentation, imaging and management strategies. All three patients were adult women with thoracic SSEH. All had motor weakness prior to surgery. One patient recovered completely, one partially recovered and one did not recover. SSEH, although rare, should be considered in cases of acute onset paraparesis. The diagnostic modality of choice is magnetic resonance imaging. Favourable outcome is related to aetiology, interval between the ictus and presentation, and the severity of the neurological deficits. Emergent surgical drainage is the treatment of choice. PMID:16503490

Ravi, D; Dwarakanath, S; Satish, R; Gopal, S; Venkataramana, N K

2006-02-01

339

Protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment against spinal cord injury in rats via toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-?B signaling  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical problem with high mortality and disability rates. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is beneficial for neurological recovery after SCI, but the underlying mechanisms await characterization. This study examined whether HBO treatment following SCI in rats exerts a neuroprotective effect through activation of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway. The SC of rats was injured via T10 laminectomy. Experimental animals (n = 144) were divided into four groups: sham-operated (SH), SH + HBO, SCI, and SCI + HBO. Each group was subdivided into six subgroups (n = 6 per group) that were examined at 12 h, and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days post-injury. Functional recovery in the hind limb was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The expression of TLR2 and NF-?B was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, while interleukin-1 (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR2 and NF-?B levels and histological scores were higher in the SCI than in the SH and SH + HBO groups at various time points. HBO treatment decreased TLR2 and NF-?B expression and histological scores as well as IL-1? and TNF-? levels compared to the SCI group at early post-injury stages. In addition, BBB scores were improved in the SCI + HBO relative to the SCI group at 7 and 14 days. HBO treatment may mitigate secondary injury to the SC by inhibiting inflammatory responses induced by TLR2/NF-?B signaling, thereby promoting functional recovery and improving neurological outcome. PMID:24966901

Tan, Jiewen; Zhang, Fang; Liang, Fang; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Jing; Liu, Xuehua

2014-01-01

340

Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds. PMID:23945984

Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2013-10-01

341

Meditation over medication for irritable bowel syndrome? On exercise and alternative treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Complimentary alternative treatment regimens are widely used in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the evidence supporting their use varies. For psychological treatment options, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, gut-directed hypnotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy, the evidence supporting their use in IBS patients is strong, but the availability limits their use in clinical practice. Dietary interventions are commonly included in the management of IBS patients, but these are primarily based on studies assessing physiological function in relation to dietary components, and to a lesser degree upon research examining the role of dietary components in the therapeutic management of IBS. Several probiotic products improve a range of symptoms in IBS patients. Physical activity is of benefit for health in general and recent data implicates its usefulness also for IBS patients. Acupuncture does not seem to have an effect beyond placebo in IBS. A beneficial effect of some herbal treatments has been reported. PMID:22661301

Asare, Fredrick; Störsrud, Stine; Simrén, Magnus

2012-08-01

342

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

343

Validation of a Score Predicting Post-Treatment Ambulatory Status After Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A score predicting post-radiotherapy (RT) ambulatory status was developed based on 2,096 retrospectively evaluated metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients. This study aimed to validate the score in a prospective series. Methods and Materials: The score included five factors associated with post-RT ambulatory status: tumor type, interval tumor diagnosis to MSCC, visceral metastases, pre-RT motor function, time developing motor deficits. Patients were divided into five groups: 21-28, 29-31, 32-34, 35-37, 38-44 points. In this study, 653 prospectively followed patients were divided into the same groups. Furthermore, the number of prognostic groups was reduced from five to three (21-28, 29-37, 38-44 points). Post-RT ambulatory rates from this series were compared with the retrospective series. Additionally, this series was compared with 104 patients receiving decompressive surgery plus RT (41 laminectomy, 63 laminectomy plus stabilization of vertebrae). Results: In this study, post-RT ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 43.5% (29-31 points), 71.0% (32-34 points), 89.5% (35-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points). Ambulatory rates from the retrospective study were 6.2%, 43.5%, 70.0%, 86.1%, and 98.7%. After regrouping, ambulatory rates were 10.6% (21-28 points), 70.9% (29-37 points), and 98.5% (38-44 points) in this series, and 6.2%, 68.4%, and 98.7% in the retrospective series. Ambulatory rates were 0%, 62.5%, and 90.9% in the laminectomy plus RT group, and 14.3%, 83.9%, and 100% in the laminectomy + stabilization plus RT group. Conclusions: Ambulatory rates in the different groups in this study were similar to those in the retrospective study demonstrating the validity of the score. Using only three groups is simplier for clinical routine.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Douglas, Sarah; Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Basic, Hiba [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Hoskin, Peter J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Mount Vernon Cancer Center, Northwood (United Kingdom); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

2011-04-01

344

Spinal sarcoidosis presenting with epiconus syndrome.  

PubMed

A spinal cord lesion is a rare manifestation of neurosarcoidosis. We herein report a case with dysuria and gradually worsening numbness in both lower extremities. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a long spinal cord lesion with gadolinium enhancement in the lower part of the lesion. Chest computed tomography demonstrated enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and a biopsy revealed sarcoidosis. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was started, but a follow-up MRI showed aggravation of the spinal lesion. After the addition of methotrexate to the therapy, the patient's aggravation of the spinal lesion and clinical symptoms ceased. Early diagnosis and treatment using combined methylprednisolone and methotrexate therapy may improve this devastating spinal cord disease. PMID:25366016

Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Akiyama, Hisanao; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

345

OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)): A Review of its Use in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis or Subcervical Spinal Cord Injury.  

PubMed

OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX(®)) is a type A neurotoxin derived from Clostridium botulinum bacteria that is approved as treatment for urinary incontinence (UI) in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity resulting from multiple sclerosis (MS) or subcervical spinal cord injury (SCI) who are not adequately treated by antimuscarinics. This article reviews the pharmacology of intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA in this indication. The presumed mode of action of onabotulinumtoxinA in bladder disorders is by interfering with efferent innervation of the detrusor muscle and afferent pathways involved in the micturition reflex. In phase III trials in adult patients with MS or SCI with UI who were not adequately treated with antimuscarinics, intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA 200 U produced significantly greater mean changes (reductions) from baseline in UI episodes/week at week 6 than placebo (primary endpoint). Similar significant benefits of intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA 200 U over placebo were observed on other UI, urodynamic, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction endpoints. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA 200 U was generally well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse events being urinary tract infections and urinary retention. Few patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Based on interim analyses of an extension study of the phase III trials, repeat injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 200 U were similarly efficacious and well tolerated. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA represents a clinically important advance in the therapy of UI in patients with MS or SCI who have not responded to antimuscarinics or who are unable to tolerate antimuscarinics. PMID:25060982

Sanford, Mark

2014-09-01

346

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

WU, HAN; YU, WEI-DONG; JIANG, RUI; GAO, ZHONG-LI

2013-01-01

347

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

Wu, Han; Yu, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Rui; Gao, Zhong-Li

2013-02-01

348

The cost-effectiveness of a treatment-based classification system for low back pain: design of a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy and spinal manipulation are both more effective for low back pain (LBP) than no treatment at all. However, the effects are at best modest. To enhance the clinical outcomes, recommendations are to improve the patient selection process, and to identify relevant subgroups to guide clinical decision-making. One of the systems that has

Adri T Apeldoorn; Raymond W Ostelo; Hans van Helvoirt; Julie M Fritz; Henrika CW de Vet; Maurits W van Tulder

2010-01-01

349

The role of histamine and noradrenaline in allergic and exercise induced asthma of childhood, and the effect of theophylline treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To investigate whether endogenous transmitters play a role in different forms of bronchial asthma we determined histamine and noradrenaline plasma levels as well as airway resistance (Rt) before and after exercise and allergen challenge in children. The study demonstrates that in exercise induced asthma (EIA) broncho-constriction was paralleled by increases of noradrenaline, but not of histamine plasma levels. This

D. Reinhardt; B. Becker; M. Nagel-Hiemke; M. Matern; F. Wegner; F. Fuchs

1982-01-01

350

Two-year clinical outcomes of a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing two interspinous spacers for treatment of moderate lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Interspinous spacers are a minimally invasive surgical alternative for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) unresponsive to conservative care. The purpose of this prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was to compare 2-year clinical outcomes in patients with moderate LSS treated with the Superion® (Experimental) or the X-Stop®, a FDA-approved interspinous spacer (Control). Methods A total of 250 patients with moderate LSS unresponsive to conservative care were randomly allocated to treatment with the Experimental (n?=?123) or Control (n?=?127) interspinous spacer and followed through 2 years post-treatment. Complication data were available for all patients and patient-reported outcomes were available for 192 patients (101 Experimental, 91 Control) at 2 years. Results Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) Symptom Severity and Physical Function scores improved 34% to 36% in both groups through 2 years (all p?

2014-01-01

351

Clinical Assessment Of Stereotactic IGRT: Spinal Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited because of the availability of effective target immobilization devices. Recent advances in stereotactic IGRT have allowed for spinal applications. Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical outcomes has previously been limited. At our institution, we have developed a successful multidisciplinary spinal radiosurgery program in which 542 spinal lesions (486 malignant and 56 benign lesions) were treated with a single-fraction radiosurgery technique. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 85 years (mean 56 years). Lesion location included 92 cervical, 234 thoracic, 130 lumbar, and 86 sacral. The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell (89 cases), breast (74 cases), and lung (71 cases). The most common benign tumors were neurofibroma (24 cases), schwannoma (13 cases), and meningioma (7 cases). Eighty-nine cervical lesions were treated using skull tracking. Thoracic, lumbar, and sacral tumors were tracked relative to either gold or stainless steel fiducial markers. The maximum intratumoral dose ranged from 12.5 to 30 Gy (mean 20 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 0.16 to 298 mL (mean 47 mL). Three hundred thirty-seven lesions had received prior external beam irradiation with spinal cord doses precluding further conventional irradiation. The primary indication for radiosurgery was pain in 326 cases, as a primary treatment modality in 70 cases, for tumor radiographic tumor progression in 65 cases, for post-surgical treatment in 38 cases, for progressive neurological deficit in 35 cases, and as a radiation boost in 8 cases. Follow-up period was at least 3 to 49 months. Axial and/or radicular pain improved in 300 of 326 cases (92%). Long-term tumor control was demonstrated in 90% of lesions treated with radiosurgery as a primary treatment modality and in 88% of lesions treated for radiographic tumor progression. Thirty of 35 patients (85%) with progressive neurological deficits experienced at least some improvement after treatment. Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery is now a feasible, safe, and clinically effective technique for the treatment of a variety of spinal lesions. The potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions are short treatment time in an outpatient setting with essentially no recovery time and excellent symptomatic response. This technique offers a new therapeutic modality for the primary treatment of a variety of spinal lesions, including the treatment of neoplasms in medically inoperable patients, previously irradiated sites, for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques, and as an adjunct to surgery.

Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: gersztenpc@upmc.edu; Burton, Steven A. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

352

Best practices for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population: The Alberta context  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review of clinical guidelines and best practices literature is to suggest prevention options and a treatment approach for intermittent catheter users that will minimize urinary tract infections (UTI). Recommendations are based both on evidence in the literature and an understanding of what is currently attainable within the Alberta context. This is done through collaboration between both major tertiary care centres (Edmonton and Calgary) and between various professionals who regularly encounter these patients, including nurses, physiatrists and urologists. PMID:23671527

Hill, Timothy C.; Baverstock, Richard; Carlson, Kevin V.; Estey, Eric P.; Gray, Gary J.; Hill, Denise C.; Ho, Chester; McGinnis, Rosemary H.; Moore, Katherine; Parmar, Raj

2013-01-01

353

Suicide gene therapy using reducible poly (oligo- d-arginine) for the treatment of spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide gene therapy based on a combination of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and ganciclovir (GCV) has obstacles to achieving a success in clinical use for the treatment of cancer due to inadequate thymidine kinase (TK) expression. The primary concern for improving anticancer efficacy of the suicide gene therapy is to develop an appropriate carrier that highly expresses TK in vivo.

Young-Wook Won; Kyung-Min Kim; Sung Su An; Minhyung Lee; Yoon Ha; Yong-Hee Kim

2011-01-01

354

Advances in spinal instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches to the spinal column and the use of spinal fixation have vastly improved our ability to treat spinal pathology. Over the last several decades there has been a rapid expansion in the availability of implants for use in the spine. The empetus behind these advancements is a combination of the ingenuity of surgeons in the drive for better

Warren D. Yu

2003-01-01

355

Recovery of pulmonary structure and exercise capacity by treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a mouse model of emphysema.  

PubMed

Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized abnormal dilatation of alveolar spaces, which impairs alveolar gas exchange, compromising the physical capacity of a patient due to airflow limitations. Here we tested the effects of G-CSF administration in pulmonary tissue and exercise capacity in emphysematous mice. C57Bl/6 female mice were treated with elastase intratracheally to induce emphysema. Their exercise capacities were evaluated in a treadmill. Lung histological sections were prepared to evaluate mean linear intercept measurement. Emphysematous mice were treated with G-CSF (3 cycles of 200 ?g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, with 7-day intervals) or saline and submitted to a third evaluation 8 weeks after treatment. Values of run distance and linear intercept measurement were expressed as mean ± SD and compared applying a paired t-test. Effects of treatment on these parameters were analyzed applying a Repeated Measures ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Twenty eight days later, animals ran significantly less in a treadmill compared to normal mice (549.7 ± 181.2 m and 821.7 ± 131.3 m, respectively; p < 0.01). Treatment with G-CSF significantly increased the exercise capacity of emphysematous mice (719.6 ± 200.5 m), whereas saline treatment had no effect on distance run (595.8 ± 178.5 m). The PCR cytokines genes analysis did not detect difference between experimental groups. Morphometric analyses in the lung showed that saline-treated mice had a mean linear intercept significantly higher (p < 0.01) when compared to mice treated with G-CSF, which did not significantly differ from that of normal mice. Treatment with G-CSF promoted the recovery of exercise capacity and regeneration of alveolar structural alterations in emphysematous mice. PMID:23603459

Fortunato, Gustavo; Vidal, Daniel T A; Klein, Wilfried; Neto, Alberto; Angrizani, André; Vasconcelos, Juliana F; Kaneto, Carla; Souza, Bruno Solano de Freitas; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena B P; Macambira, Simone G

2014-04-01

356

Spinal cord injury: inductive lability can enhance and hasten recovery.  

PubMed

In spinal cord injury, recovery of function, if any, confirms the presence of survived neural tissue at the injury site. However, recovery several years after the injury remains unexplained. Body weight bearing locomotor exercises seem to bring these new outcomes. Developing locomotor system and computer simulation studies show that motor learning requires the presence of redundant sets of competing synapses within the spinal cord interneurons. The new exercise regimens have not addressed this essential prerequisite; this could perhaps explain the long delays in recovery. We recommend that inclusion of inductive lability procedure (Krishnan, 1983, 1991, 2003) will help hasten and enhance the recovery. PMID:12775341

Krishnan, R V

2003-06-01

357

Disuse bone loss in hindquarter suspended rats: partial weightbearing, exercise and ibandronate treatment as countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space missions in the hindquarter suspended rat, including partial weight bearing (surrogate for artificial gravity) episodic full weight bearing (2 hour/day full weight bearing) and treatment with the third generation bisphosphonate ibandronate (Roche). Graded mechanical loading was studied by housing the animals on a novel servo controlled force plate system which permitted the titration of mechanical force at varying frequency and amplitude and different levels of weight bearing. The force plate, which forms the cage floor, is a glass platform supported by an 18" diameter speaker cone filled with expanding polyurethane foam. An infrared optical sensor attached to the speaker cone yields a voltage linearly related to vertical displacement of the glass platform. The dynamic force on the paw was computed as a product of the apparent mass of the animal on the platform at rest and the acceleration of the platform determined from the second derivative of the optical sensor output. The mass of the animal on the platform was varied by adjusting tension on the tether suspending the animal. Mechanical impact loading was titrated with the force plate resonating at different frequencies, including 3 Hz and 16 Hz.

Schultheis, L.; Ruff, C. B.; Rastogi, S.; Bloomfield, S.; Hogan, H. A.; Fedarko, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.; Ruiz, J.; Bauss, F.; Shapiro, J. R.

2000-01-01

358

Better exercise adherence after treatment for cancer (BEAT Cancer) study: Rationale, design, and methods  

PubMed Central

Most breast cancer survivors do not engage in regular physical activity. Our physical activity behavior change intervention for breast cancer survivors significantly improved physical activity and health outcomes post-intervention during a pilot, feasibility study. Testing in additional sites with a larger sample and longer follow-up is warranted to confirm program effectiveness short and longer term. Importantly, the pilot intervention resulted in changes in physical activity and social cognitive theory constructs, enhancing our potential for testing mechanisms mediating physical activity behavior change. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methods for a two-site, randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of the BEAT Cancer physical activity behavior change intervention to usual care on short and longer term physical activity adherence among breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims include examining social cognitive theory mechanisms of physical activity behavior change and health benefits of the intervention. Study recruitment goal is 256 breast cancer survivors with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I, II, or IIIA disease who have completed primary cancer treatment. Outcome measures are obtained at baseline, 3 months (i.e., immediately post-intervention), 6 months, and 12 months and include physical activity, psychosocial factors, fatigue, sleep quality, lower extremity joint dysfunction, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and waist-to-hip ratio. Confirming behavior change effectiveness, health effects, and underlying mechanisms of physical activity behavior change interventions will facilitate translation to community settings for improving the health and well-being of breast cancer survivors. PMID:21983625

Rogers, Laura Q.; McAuley, Edward; Anton, Philip M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Vicari, Sandra; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Mocharnuk, Robert; Hoelzer, Karen

2011-01-01

359

Spinal Cord Stroke: Acute Imaging and Intervention  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord infarction is an uncommon disease and as such is often a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. It can vary in its onset, severity, outcome, and recovery from patient to patient. Treatment options for this relatively rare condition also remain elusive. Current consensus recommendations are antiplatelet therapy and the symptomatic management of associated complications such as paraplegia and thromboembolic disease. There are multiple studies in surgical literature of a variety of interventions and adjuncts used for reducing the risk of ischemic spinal cord neurological injury, seen most often in the setting of thoracoabdominal aortic repair operations. We report two cases of acute non-surgical-related spinal cord infarcts, where early diagnosis was made and aggressive, early treatments instituted. With often devastating outcomes, we highlight the need for early detection and that interventions, commonly used in preventing neurological injury after high-risk aneurysm repairs, may be beneficial in treating and reducing the severity of disability in acute spinal cord stroke. PMID:22937358

Lynch, Karen; Oster, Joel; Apetauerova, Diana; Hreib, Kinan

2012-01-01

360

Which Treatment is More Effective for Functional Ankle Instability: Strengthening or Combined Muscle Strengthening and Proprioceptive Exercises?  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to implement combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises to examine the effects of combined exercises on functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Experiments were conducted with 30 adult males and females. The study subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group (Group A), a muscle strengthening exercise group (Group B), or a combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise group (Group C) consisting of 10 subjects each. In Group A, measurements were only conducted before and after the experiment without any intervention, whereas the exercise programs for Group B and Group C were implemented three days per week for four weeks. [Results] Muscle strength showed significant increases in Groups B and C compared with the control group during plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion. The Cumberland ankle instability tool showed significant increases in Group B and Group C compared with Group A and significant increases in Group C compared with Group B. [Conclusion] Applying combined muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercises to those who have functional ankle instability is more effective than applying only muscle strengthening exercises. PMID:24707089

Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Young-Eok; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Jin-Su; Ji, Sung-Ha; Ji, Sang-Goo; Seo, Tae-Hwa; Kim, Young-Ok

2014-01-01

361

ediatric brain and spinal cord tumors pose a dilemma for  

E-print Network

the tumor, reducing long- term side effects for children receiving treatment. Preliminary studies have also of this approach are particularly pronounced for children with curable brain and spinal cord tumors. Today, most Offers Safer Treatment for Pediatric Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors · Conventional radiation therapy can

Mootha, Vamsi K.

362

Exercise Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

Ribisl, Paul M.

363

Chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a case study of treatment incorporating active and passive tissue warm-up, Graston Technique®, ART®, eccentric exercise, and cryotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the subjective pain and functional improvements of a patient with chronic Achilles tendinopathy following a treatment plan incorporating active and passive tissue warm-up, followed respectively by soft tissue mobilization utilizing both Graston Technique® and Active Release Techniques®, eccentric exercise, and static stretching in combination with cryotherapy. Background The primary characterization of chronic Achilles tendinopathy is gradual onset of pain and dysfunction focused in one or both Achilles tendons arising secondary to a history of repetitive use or excessive overload. Intervention and Outcome Conservative treatment is commonly the initial strategy for patient management. Tissue heating, soft tissue mobilization, eccentric training, and static stretching with cryotherapy were implemented to reduce pain and improve function. Summary A specific protocol of heat, soft tissue mobilization, eccentric exercise, stretching, and cryotherapy appeared to facilitate a rapid and complete recovery from chronic Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:22131563

Miners, Andrew L.; Bougie, Tracy L.

2011-01-01

364

Spinal fusion in situ in osteogenesis imperfecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   \\u000a Osteogenesis imperfecta in its most severe forms has a devastating effect on the peripheral and central skeleton, and patients\\u000a are unable to walk. Spinal deformity is common and causes difficulty in sitting, pain and potentially life-threatening complications.\\u000a Instrumented spinal fusion might be considered the treatment of choice, but the bone may be too weak to sustain the implants

P. J. Livesley; P. J. Webb

1996-01-01

365

Effect of aquatic exercise on ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that affects mainly the axial skeleton and causes significant pain and disability. Aquatic (water-based) exercise may have a beneficial effect in various musculoskeletal conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of aquatic exercise interventions with land-based exercises (home-based exercise) in the treatment of AS. Patients with AS were randomly assigned to receive either home-based exercise or aquatic exercise treatment protocol. Home-based exercise program was demonstrated by a physiotherapist on one occasion and then, exercise manual booklet was given to all patients in this group. Aquatic exercise program consisted of 20 sessions, 5× per week for 4 weeks in a swimming pool at 32-33 °C. All the patients in both groups were assessed for pain, spinal mobility, disease activity, disability, and quality of life. Evaluations were performed before treatment (week 0) and after treatment (week 4 and week 12). The baseline and mean values of the percentage changes calculated for both groups were compared using independent sample t test. Paired t test was used for comparison of pre- and posttreatment values within groups. A total of 69 patients with AS were included in this study. We observed significant improvements for all parameters [pain score (VAS) visual analog scale, lumbar flexion/extension, modified Schober test, chest expansion, bath AS functional index, bath AS metrology index, bath AS disease activity index, and short form-36 (SF-36)] in both groups after treatment at week 4 and week 12 (p < 0.05). Comparison of the percentage changes of parameters both at week 4 and week 12 relative to pretreatment values showed that improvement in VAS (p < 0.001) and bodily pain (p < 0.001), general health (p < 0.001), vitality (p < 0.001), social functioning (p < 0.001), role limitations due to emotional problems (p < 0.001), and general mental health (p < 0.001) subparts of SF-36 were better in aquatic exercise group. It is concluded that a water-based exercises produced better improvement in pain score and quality of life of the patients with AS compared with home-based exercise. PMID:24626605

Dundar, U; Solak, O; Toktas, H; Demirdal, U S; Subasi, V; Kavuncu, V; Evcik, D

2014-11-01

366

Comparison of effects of Cyriax physiotherapy, a supervised exercise programme and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light) for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of Cyriax physiotherapy, a supervised exercise programme, and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.Design: Controlled clinical trial.Setting: Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre.Subjects: This study was carried out with 75 patients who had lateral epicondylitis. They were allocated to three groups by sequential allocation.Interventions: Group A (n=25) was treated with Cyriax

Dimitrios Stasinopoulos; Ioannis Stasinopoulos

2006-01-01

367

Management of unstable thoracolumbar spinal injuries by posterior short segment spinal fixation: reply to comments by Singh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dear Editor, We thank the correspondent for his comments and for providing us a chance to clarify a few important points. Our main objective was to review the outcome of the treatment of unstable thoracolumbar spinal fractures by short-segment spinal fixation. Instrumentation failure is a known complication of this type of treatment. We mentioned this as an adverse outcome in

Mohammad F. Butt; Munir Farooq; Bashir Mir; Ahmad Shabir Dhar; Anwar Hussain; Mohammad Mumtaz

2008-01-01

368

Evaluation of an alternating-calorie diet with and without exercise in the treatment of obesity13  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects ofcalorie alternation and exercise on weight loss. Moderately obese women (130-160% of ideal body weight) were randomly assigned to an alternating- or constant-calorie diet with or without aerobic exercise. Both diets provided an average of 1200 kcal\\/d over a l2-wk period; daily intake of subjects in the alternating-diet condition varied in a prescribed pattern from

David G Schlundt; Tracy Sbrocco; Jamie Pope-Cordle; Barbara Stetson; Mary Kaler; Craig Heim

369

Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment of a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Melanoma, Adenocarcinoma, and Hepatic and Osteolytic Metastases: Need to Implement Strategies for Prevention and Early Detection of Cancer in Spinal Cord Injury Patients  

PubMed Central

A male tetraplegic patient with, who had been taking warfarin, developed haematuria. Ultrasound scan revealed no masses, stones, or hydronephrosis. Urinary bladder had normal configuration with no evidence of masses or organised haematoma. Urine cytology revealed no malignant cells. Four months later, CT urography revealed an irregular mass at the base of urinary bladder. Cystoscopic biopsy revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, which contained goblet cells and pools of mucin showing strongly positive immunostaining for prostatic acid hosphatase and patchy staining for prostate specific antigen. Computed Tomography revealed multiple hypodense hepatic lesions and several osteolytic areas in femoral heads and iliac bone. With a presumptive diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma, leuprorelin acetate 3.75?mg was prescribed. This patient expired a month later. Conclusion. (i) Spinal cord injury patient, who passed blood in urine while taking warfarin, requires repeated investigations to look for urinary tract neoplasm. (ii) Anti-androgen therapy should be prescribed for 2 weeks prior to administration of gonadorelin analogue to prevent tumour flare causing bone pain, bladder outlet obstruction, uraemia, and cardiovascular risk due to hypercoagulability associated with a rapid increase in tumour burden. (iii) Spinal cord physicians should adopt a caring and compassionate approach while managing tetraplegic patients with several co-morbidities, as aggressive diagnostic tests and therapeutic procedures may lead to deterioration in the quality of life. PMID:23227385

Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Mansour, Paul; Hughes, Peter L.; Selmi, Fahed; Singh, Gurpreet; Pulya, Kamesh; Soni, Bakul M.

2012-01-01

370

The short -term effects of an exercise programme as an adjunct to an orthosis in neuromuscular scoliosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4 week physiotherapy programme on patients who were given a spinal orthosis for neuromuscular scoliosis. This study was planned as a single group pre- and post-intervention repeated measures design. All patients were given a polyethylene spinal orthosis with an anterior opening. Fifteen (15) patients with neuromuscular diseases and a mean age of 12.46 years were evaluated. An exercises programme consisting of postural training, muscle strengthening and stretching exercises with special emphasis on respiratory exercises was given as an adjunct to orthotic treatment. The degree of impairment in forced vital capacity was 17.56% upon wearing an orthosis, it decreased to 9.28% following therapy (p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant increase in muscle strength, balance duration and a significant decrease in limitation of range of motion. The results of the study imply that the conservative treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis should include an exercise programme as an adjunct to an orthosis, both to reduce the compromising effect of an orthosis on respiratory function and to support the patient's physical capacities. PMID:15658640

Bayar, B; Uygur, F; Bayar, K; Bek, N; Yakut, Y

2004-12-01

371

Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part 2  

PubMed Central

Context Therapeutic exercises are frequently prescribed to patients with low back pain. Numerous exercise programs for patients with low back pain have been described. Many of these treatment programs are based on 1 of 2 popular rehabilitation strategies: a motor control exercise approach or a general exercise approach. Data Sources PubMed clinical queries from 1966 to March 2013 for keyword combinations including motor control exercise, core stability exercise, therapeutic exercise, general exercise, global exercise, local exercise, transversus abdominis, segmental stabilization, and low back pain. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of a motor control exercise approach, a general exercise approach, or both for patients with low back pain that were published in scientific peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction Included studies underwent appraisal for exercise intervention and outcomes. Results Fifteen studies were identified (8, motor control exercise approach without general exercise comparison; 7, general exercise approach with or without motor control exercise approach comparison). Current evidence suggests that exercise interventions may be effective at reducing pain or disability in patients with low back pain. Conclusion: Stabilization exercises for patients with low back pain may help to decrease pain and disability. It may not be necessary to prescribe exercises purported to restore motor control of specific muscles. PMID:24427425

Brumitt, Jason; Matheson, J. W.; Meira, Erik P.

2013-01-01

372

Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?  

PubMed Central

Background There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. Methods/design We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed) on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over). Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Discussion This project is unique as it explores a fundamental question of when exercise implementation will be of most benefit and addresses both physical and psychological consequences of androgen deprivation initiation. The final outcome may be adjunct treatment which will reduce if not prevent the toxicities of androgen deprivation, ultimately resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality for men with prostate cancer. Trial registration ACTRN12612000097842 PMID:23013489

2012-01-01

373

Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?  

PubMed

As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function. PMID:24617099

Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

2014-01-01

374

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

Donnelly, Eleanor M; Lamanna, Jason; Boulis, Nicholas M

2012-01-01

375

Stem cell therapy for the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Injury and disease of the spinal cord are generally met with a poor prognosis. This poor prognosis is due not only to the characteristics of the diseases but also to our poor ability to deliver therapeutics to the spinal cord. The spinal cord is extremely sensitive to direct manipulation, and delivery of therapeutics has proven a challenge for both scientists and physicians. Recent advances in stem cell technologies have opened up a new avenue for the treatment of spinal cord disease and injury. Stem cells have proven beneficial in rodent models of spinal cord disease and injury. In these animal models, stem cells have been shown to produce their effect by the dual action of cell replacement and the trophic support of the factors secreted by these cells. In this review we look at the main clinical trials involving stem cell transplant into the spinal cord, focusing on motor neuron diseases and spinal cord injury. We will also discuss the major hurdles in optimizing stem cell delivery methods into the spinal cord. We shall examine current techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging guidance and cell labeling and will look at the current research striving to improve these techniques. With all caveats and future research taken into account, this is a very exciting time for stem cell transplant into the spinal cord. We are only beginning to realize the huge potential of stem cells in a central nervous system setting to provide cell replacement and trophic support. Many more trials will need to be undertaken before we can fully exploit the attributes of stem cells. PMID:22776143

2012-01-01

376

Treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor-incorporated gelatin hydrogel does not exacerbate mechanical allodynia after spinal cord contusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Besides stimulating angiogenesis or cell survival, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has the potential for protecting neurons in the injured spinal cord. Objective To investigate the effects of a sustained-release system of bFGF from gelatin hydrogel (GH) in a rat spinal cord contusion model. Methods Adult female Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to a spinal cord contusion injury at the T10 vertebral level using an IH impactor (200 kdyn). One week after contusion, GH containing bFGF (20 µg) was injected into the lesion epicenter (bFGF – GH group). The GH-only group was designated as the control. Locomotor recovery was assessed over 9 weeks by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan rating scale, along with inclined plane and Rota-rod testing. Sensory abnormalities in the hind paws of all the rats were evaluated at 5, 7, and 9 weeks. Results There were no significant differences in any of the motor assessments at any time point between the bFGF – GH group and the control GH group. The control GH group showed significantly more mechanical allodynia than did the group prior to injury. In contrast, the bFGF – GH group showed no statistically significant changes of mechanical withdrawal thresholds compared with pre-injury. Conclusion Our findings suggest that bFGF-incorporated GH could have therapeutic potential for alleviating mechanical allodynia following spinal cord injury. PMID:23809528

Furuya, Takeo; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Koda, Masao; Murata, Atsushi; Okawa, Akihiko; Dezawa, Mari; Matsuse, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi

2013-01-01

377

A prospective randomized multi-center study for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with the X STOP interspinous implant: 1-year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients suffering from neurogenic intermittent claudication secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis have historically been limited to a choice between a decompressive laminectomy with or without fusion or a regimen of non-operative therapies. The X STOP Interspinous Process Distraction System (St. Francis Medical Technologies, Concord, Calif.), a new interspinous implant for patients whose symptoms are exacerbated in extension and relieved in

J. F. Zucherman; K. Y. Hsu; C. A. Hartjen; T. F. Mehalic; D. A. Implicito; M. J. Martin; D. R. Johnson II; G. A. Skidmore; P. P. Vessa; J. W. Dwyer; S. Puccio; J. C. Cauthen; R. M. Ozuna

2004-01-01

378

Exercise intensity during wheelchair rugby training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of individuals with a cervical spinal cord injury to achieve and sustain a cardiorespiratory training intensity during wheelchair rugby. Nine wheelchair rugby players completed a continuous peak exercise test on a SciFit Pro I arm ergometer with stage increases each minute to determine peak heart rate and power output. Approximately

J. P. Barfield; Laurie A. Malone; Crystal Arbo; Alan P. Jung

2010-01-01

379

Compulsive Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

380

Relative changes in blood flow with functional electrical stimulation during exercise of the paralyzed lower limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight spinal cord injured (SCI) patients performed three sets of exercise with two conditions, 60% and 80% of VO2peak, with an arm crank ergometer. Functional neuromus-cular stimulation was used to induce static leg contractions in two of the above sets of exercise. The three exercise sets were performed with no functional neuromuscular stimulation (NOS); with functional neuromuscular stimulation at 40

W Phillips; L N Burkett; R Munro; M Davis; K Pomeroy

1995-01-01

381

Exercise therapy for patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of exercise therapy on back pain, spinal range of motion (ROM), and disability in persons with diffuse\\u000a idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Persons with symptomatic DISH received a daily exercise program for 24 weeks consisting\\u000a of mobility, stretching, and strengthening exercises for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. It included 14 supervised\\u000a sessions over 8 weeks. Outcomes included visual

Adeeba Al-Herz; Jan Paul Snip; Bruce Clark; John M. Esdaile

2008-01-01

382

Is physical therapy more beneficial than unsupervised home exercise in treatment of post surgical knee disorders? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical therapy is common following a knee surgery. With rising healthcare costs there is debate as to the appropriateness of outpatient physical therapy following such interventions. Many of the existing controlled trials have concluded that there is no benefit to subjects that receive supervised physical therapy when compared to subjects that perform their exercises at home. The purpose of this

Steven M. Coppola; Sean M. Collins

2009-01-01

383

Neurosurgical Management of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children are low-grade glial tumors. They become symptomatic with pain, neurologic deficits or spinal deformity. The diagnosis is most readily obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. The natural history is significant for slow progression of symptoms. Surgery is the best treatment and is also indicated to confirm the histological diagnosis. In case of

Karl F. Kothbauer

2007-01-01

384

Radiation Therapy and the Management of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radiation therapy in the management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors remains controversial. Several studies indicate that the use of postoperative radiation therapy modestly improves both local control and survival in spinal cord ependymomas and astrocytomas. Modern treatment planning and imaging allow more accurate target definition and respect for related normal tissue tolerances.

Steven R. Isaacson

2000-01-01

385

Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy for experimental spinal cord tumors: tumoricidal efficacy and functional outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the efficacy of adenoviral-mediated gene therapy of experimental spinal cord tumors and the functional outcome after this treatment. Spinal cord tumors were generated in the thoracic region of the spinal cord in Fischer 344 rats by stereotaxic intramedullary injection of 1 × 104 9L gliosarcoma cells. Seven days after tumor cell injection, a replication-defective adenoviral vector carrying the

Ahmet Çolak; J. Clay Goodman; Shu-Hsia Chen; Savio L. C. Woo; Robert G. Grossman; H. David Shine

1995-01-01

386

Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors in the rat: distribution in the brain, regional differences in the spinal cord, axonal transport to the periphery, and depletion by systemic vanilloid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors were visualized by [3H]resiniferatoxin (RTX) autoradiography in the brain of newborn as well as adult (both control and colchicine-treated) rats. Specific labelling was seen in the brain stem only, in the nucleus of the solitary tract extending into the area postrema and the spinal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Also, a strong signal was seen in

Arpad Szallasi; Siv Nilsson; Tunde Farkas-Szallasi; Peter M. Blumberg; Tomas Hökfelt; Jan M. Lundberg

1995-01-01

387

Efficacy of treatment with verbascoside, biotechnologically produced by Syringa vulgaris plant cell cultures in an experimental mice model of spinal cord trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we evaluated the effect of glycosylated phenylpropanoid verbascoside (VB), isolated from cultured cells of the\\u000a medicinal plant Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae) in experimental animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced by the application of vascular clips\\u000a to the dura via a four-level T5–T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, tissue

Tiziana Genovese; Irene Paterniti; Emanuela Mazzon; Emanuela Esposito; Rosanna Di Paola; Maria Galuppo; Placido Bramanti; Salvatore Cuzzocrea

2010-01-01

388

Extracranial radiosurgery—applications in the management of benign intradural spinal neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic radiosurgery has enabled the delivery of higher doses of radiation and decreased fractionation due to improved\\u000a accuracy. Spinal radiosurgery has been increasingly utilized for the management of metastatic extradural spinal disease. However,\\u000a surgical resection remains the primary treatment strategy for intradural spinal tumors. Preliminary evidence suggests that\\u000a radiosurgical ablation with stereotactic radiation for intradural spinal lesions may be efficacious

Christine Saraceni; Jonathan B. Ashman; James S. Harrop

2009-01-01

389

Influence of aerobic exercise on depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

43 depressed undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment condition in which they participated in strenuous exercise, a placebo treatment condition in which they practiced relaxation exercises, or a no-treatment condition. Aerobic capacity was assessed before and after a 10-wk treatment period. Self-reported depression was assessed before, during, and after the treatment period. Results show that

I. Lisa McCann; David S. Holmes

1984-01-01

390

Percutaneous arterial interventional treatment of exercise-induced neurogenic intermittent claudication due to ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological interventional therapy is described in seven patients with a distinct clinical syndrome of exercise-induced\\u000a neurogenic intermittent claudication due to a reversible ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus during walking accompanied by\\u000a transient neurologic deficits. This condition was presumably caused by a reversible vascular steal phenomenon during exertion.\\u000a The underlying vascular conditions were stenoses of the internal and\\/or common iliac arteries.

Walter A. Wohlgemuth; Manfred Stoehr

2002-01-01

391

Optical Monitoring and Detection of Spinal Cord Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord ischemia can lead to paralysis or paraparesis, but if detected early it may be amenable to treatment. Current methods use evoked potentials for detection of spinal cord ischemia, a decades old technology whose warning signs are indirect and significantly delayed from the onset of ischemia. Here we introduce and demonstrate a prototype fiber optic device that directly measures spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. This technical advance in neurological monitoring promises a new standard of care for detection of spinal cord ischemia and the opportunity for early intervention. We demonstrate the probe in an adult Dorset sheep model. Both open and percutaneous approaches were evaluated during pharmacologic, physiological, and mechanical interventions designed to induce variations in spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. The induced variations were rapidly and reproducibly detected, demonstrating direct measurement of spinal cord ischemia in real-time. In the future, this form of hemodynamic spinal cord diagnosis could significantly improve monitoring and management in a broad range of patients, including those undergoing thoracic and abdominal aortic revascularization, spine stabilization procedures for scoliosis and trauma, spinal cord tumor resection, and those requiring management of spinal cord injury in intensive care settings. PMID:24358279

Mesquita, Rickson C.; D'Souza, Angela; Bilfinger, Thomas V.; Galler, Robert M.; Emanuel, Asher; Schenkel, Steven S.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Floyd, Thomas F.

2013-01-01