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Sample records for spirit urgence planete

  1. Democracy is a historical urgency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Survival of human society on this planet depends heavily on coping with advanced nuclear technological development. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of intercontinental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a miscalculating, suicidal and very powerful dictator, producing a global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy should help humanity to approach the contemporary situation.

  2. Sagan Lecture: Spirit, Opportunity, and the Exploration of the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2004, twin robotic explorers named Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars. Expected to last for 90 days, the two rovers have now been exploring the martian surface for more than a year and a half. Their objective is to search for evidence of past water on Mars, and to determine if Mars ever had conditions that would have been suitable for life. Spirit landed in Gusev Crater, a large impact crater in the southern highlands of Mars. Finding only basaltic lava on the crater floor, Spirit drove almost three kilometers to the base of the Columbia Hills, a small mountain range to the east of the landing site. There Spirit has ascended Husband Hill, the highest summit in the range, and has found strong evidence that the rocks there were modified long ago by water. Opportunity landed on Meridiani Planum, a smooth plateau near the martian equator, coming to rest in a small impact feature named Eagle Crater. Within Eagle Crater, Opportunity found compelling evidence for long-ago water on Mars. This evidence included 'blueberries': small concretions rich in hematite that precipitated from liquid water. It also included rocks that are made largely of sulfate salts, deposited when water evaporated away, and rocks that preserve ancient ripples that formed billions of years ago as water flowed over sand on Mars. The conditions long ago at Eagle Crater may have been suitable for some simple forms of life. Whether life could have developed there, however, is a much more difficult question. After leaving Eagle Crater, Opportunity drove eastward to Endurance Crater, a much larger crater that allowed access to deeper and older rocks which also proved to be blueberry-laden sulfate-rich sediments. Since leaving Endurance Crater, Opportunity has explored southward, driving more than five kilometers across the martian surface. The talk will provide an up-to-date summary of the mission of Spirit and Opportunity, from their initial conception through their launch, landing, and

  3. Spirit's Travels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview map made from Mars Orbiter camera images illustrates the path that the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has taken from its first sol on the red planet through its 107th sol. As of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), Spirit has passed 'Missoula' crater and sits approximately 1,900 meters (1.18 miles) away from its destination at the western base of the 'Columbia Hills.' While most of Spirit's journey has been over the very angular rocks that make up the ejecta fields surrounding 'Bonneville' crater, the rover's next 50 or so sols will be spent traversing over martian plains that are dominated by rounder, vesicle-filled rocks.

  4. Democracy is a historical urgency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  5. Valproate Induced Hypertensive Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Sivananthan, Mauran

    2016-01-01

    Valproate is a medication used in the treatment of seizures, bipolar disorder, migraines, and behavioral problems. Here we present a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with hypertensive urgency after initiation of valproate. Primary treatment of his hypertension was ineffective. Blood pressure stabilization was achieved following discontinuation of valproate. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of developing hypertensive urgency with administration of valproate. PMID:27403366

  6. [Hypertensive emergencies and urgencies].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common medical problems affecting approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Severe hypertension that is a potentially life-threatening condition refers to a hypertensive crisis. Severe hypertension is further classified into hypertensive emergencies or hypertensive urgencies. Hypertensive emergency refers to a severe hypertension that is associated with new or progressive end-organ damage. In these clinical situations, blood pressure should be reduced immediately to prevent or minimize organ dysfunction. Hypertensive urgency refers to severe hypertension without evidence of new or worsening end-organ injury. Blood pressure can be lowered less rapidly in this condition. In this review article it is discussed about clinical assessment of patients under these conditions, evaluating neurological, cardiovascular, renal end-organ damage; how much blood pressure should be lowered, which medication should be used to lower blood pressure, treating hypertensive emergencies and urgencies; and management of specific conditions (acute intracranial events, acute left ventricular dysfunction etc). PMID:15998994

  7. [Hypertensive emergency and urgence].

    PubMed

    Gegenhuber, Alfons; Lenz, Kurt

    2003-12-01

    DEFINITION, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, THERAPY: The hypertensive crisis is characterized by a massive, acute rise in blood pressure. Patients with underlying hypertensive disease usually have an increase in systolic blood pressure values > 220 mmHg and diastolic values > 120 mmHg. The severity of the condition, however, is not determined by the absolute blood pressure level but by the magnitude of the acute increase in blood pressure. Thus, in the presence of primarily normotensive baseline values (such as those in eclampsia), even a systolic blood pressure > 170 mmHg may lead to a life-threatening condition. The most important causes are non-compliance (reduction or interruption of therapy), inadequate therapy, endocrine disease, renal (vessel) disease, pregnancy and intoxication (drugs). The management of this condition greatly depends on whether the patient has a hypertensive crisis with organ manifestation (hypertensive emergency) or a crisis without organ manifestation (hypertensive urgency). By documenting the medical history, the medical status and by simple diagnostic procedures, the differential diagnosis can be established at the emergency site within a very short period of time. In the absence of organ manifestations (hypertensive urgency) the patient may have non-specific symptoms such as palpitations, headache, malaise and a general feeling of illness in addition to the increase in blood pressure. In a hypertensive urgency the patient's blood pressure should not be reduced within a few minutes but within a period of 24 to 48 hours. Such adjustment can be achieved on an out-patient basis, however, only if the patient can be followed up adequately for early detection of a renewed attack. In the absence of follow-up facilities, the patient's blood pressure should be reduced over a period of 4 to 6 hours, if necessary in an out-patient emergency service. While intravenous medication is given preference when a rapid effect is desired, oral medication may be used for

  8. Spirit Spies Wavy Bedforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Spirit took this front hazard-avoidance camera image on sol 37 (Feb. 9, 2004) after completing the longest drive ever made by a rover on another planet - 21.2 meters (69.6 feet). The wavy feature called a bedform is created when material is transported and deposited by some process - in this case wind. The team is interested in the fact that the crests of this and most other bedforms they've observed through orbital data and rover images are all parallel to each other, indicating uniform wind direction.

  9. Spirit's Destination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, cropped from a larger panoramic image mosaic taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit panoramic camera, shows the rover's destination toward the hills nicknamed the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover is currently positioned outside the view of this image, on the right. This image was taken on sols 68 and 69 of Spirit's mission (March 12 and 13, 2004) from the location the rover first reached on the western rim of the crater. The image is in approximate true color, based on a scaling of data from the red, green and blue (750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers) filters.

  10. Why 'spiritism'?

    PubMed

    Gyimesi, Júlia

    2016-04-01

    Some of the early representatives of psychoanalysis had a lifelong interest in certain 'occult' phenomena. Although several theories were born for the purpose of understanding the interest of Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung or Sándor Ferenczi in spiritualism and related phenomena, interpreters usually ignore the changing cultural meaning and significance of modern occult practices like spiritualism. The aim of the present essay is to outline the cultural and historical aspects of spiritualism and spiritism in Hungary, and thus to shed new light on the involvement of Ferenczi - and other Hungarian psychoanalysts like Géza Róheim, István Hollós, and Mihály Bálint - in spiritualism and spiritism. The connections between spiritualism and the Budapest School of Psychoanalysis will be discussed, highlighting the cultural and scientific significance of Hungarian spiritualism and spiritism in the evolution of psychoanalysis. Taking into account the relative lack of the scientific research in the field of spiritism in Hungary, it can be pointed out that Ferenczi undertook a pioneering role in Hungarian psychical research. PMID:26032636

  11. An update on hypertensive emergencies and urgencies.

    PubMed

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Amadoro, Valentina; di Somma, Salvatore; Perlini, Stefano; Semplicini, Andrea; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo; Saba, Pier Sergio; Cameli, Matteo; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Maiello, Maria; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Novo, Salvatore; Palmiero, Pasquale; Scicchitano, Pietro; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Severe acute arterial hypertension is usually defined as 'hypertensive crisis', although 'hypertensive emergencies' or 'hypertensive urgencies', as suggested by the Joint National Committee and the European Society of Hypertension, have completely different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.The prevalence and demographics of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies have changed over the last four decades, but hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are still associated with significant morbidity and mortality.Different scientific societies have repeatedly produced up-to-date guidelines; however, the treatment of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies is still inappropriate, with potential clinical implications.This review focuses on hypertensive emergencies and urgencies management and treatment, as suggested by recent data. PMID:25575271

  12. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer / Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  13. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer/Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  14. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  15. Comprehensive management of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, George A; Frishman, William H

    2002-01-01

    Despite advances in chronic hypertension management, hypertensive emergencies and urgencies remain as serious complications. Much of this relates to poor compliance with effective antihypertensive management. Hypertensive emergencies and urgencies can also be seen as the initial manifestations of hypertension in pregnancy and in the perioperative period. Multiple classes of intravenous antihypertensive drugs are available to treat hypertensive emergencies, and specific agents may have an advantage in a given clinical situation. Orally active agents are used to treat hypertensive urgencies, and include clonidine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and labetalol. Most patients respond to drug therapy, but problems may arise related to a rapid normalization of blood pressure. PMID:12441013

  16. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Spirit's Descent to Mars-1706

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the descent image motion estimation system camera located on the bottom of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's lander, shows a view of Gusev Crater as the lander descends to Mars. The picture is taken at an altitude of 1706 meters. Numerous small impact craters can be seen on the surface of the planet. These images help the onboard software to minimize the lander's horizontal velocity before its bridle is cut, and it falls freely to the surface of Mars.

  18. Spirit's Descent to Mars-1433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the descent image motion estimation system camera located on the bottom of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's lander, shows a view of Gusev Crater as the lander descends to Mars. The picture is taken at an altitude of 1433 meters. Numerous small impact craters can be seen on the surface of the planet. These images help the onboard software to minimize the lander's horizontal velocity before its bridal is cut, and it falls freely to the surface of Mars.

  19. Spirit's Descent to Mars-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the descent image motion estimation system camera located on the bottom of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's lander, shows a view of Gusev Crater as the lander descends to Mars. The picture is taken at an altitude of 1983 meters. Numerous small impact craters can be seen on the surface of the planet. These images help the onboard software to minimize the lander's horizontal velocity before its bridal is cut, and it falls freely to the surface of Mars.

  20. A comparison of two models of Urgency: Urgency predicts both rash action and depression in youth

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory T.; Guller, Leila; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test two competing theories concerning the trait of urgency: (1) urgency reflects the tendency to act rashly/impulsively when emotional; or (2) urgency reflects a general reflexive responsivity to emotions that can lead either to rash action or ill-advised inaction, and thus to either impulsive behavior or depression. Following prior findings that 5th grade urgency predicted 6th grade impulsive behavior, we tested whether urgency also predicted 6th grade depression (n = 1,906). After controlling for sex, early pubertal onset, 5th grade depression, 5th grade engagement in addictive behaviors, negative affect, positive affect, and other impulsivity-related traits, 5th grade urgency level did predict higher levels of depression at the end of 6th grade. This finding is consistent with the view that urgency can lead either to rash action or ill-advised inaction. Urgency may be of transdiagnostic importance, contributing both to internalizing and externalizing dysfunction. PMID:25419495

  1. Evaluating Warning Sound Urgency with Reaction Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suied, Clara; Susini, Patrick; McAdams, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    It is well-established that subjective judgments of perceived urgency of alarm sounds can be affected by acoustic parameters. In this study, the authors investigated an objective measurement, the reaction time (RT), to test the effectiveness of temporal parameters of sounds in the context of warning sounds. Three experiments were performed using a…

  2. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  3. Spirit Spies Its Shadow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit highlights the bumpy terrain surrounding the rover. Spirit's shadow can be seen in a small hollow lying between the rover and its intended target, the eastern-lying 'Columbia Hills.' Spirit's longest drive so far covered about 88.5 meters (about 290 feet) and took place on sol 113. This image was taken on sol 112 (April 26, 2004).

  4. Relational Aggression, Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency: Predicting Alcohol Use and Consequences among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g. acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions. PMID:25134025

  5. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... person responsible for the mobile station. (b) In radiotelegraphy, the urgency signal consists of three... call. (d) The urgency signal has priority over all other communications except distress. All mobile and... available frequency on which attention might be attracted. (f) Mobile stations which hear the urgency...

  6. 47 CFR 80.327 - Urgency signals and messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... person responsible for the mobile station. (b) In radiotelegraphy, the urgency signal consists of three... call. (d) The urgency signal has priority over all other communications except distress. All mobile and... available frequency on which attention might be attracted. (f) Mobile stations which hear the urgency...

  7. [Hypertensive emergency and urgency: clinical update].

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Giovanni; Fabbri, Ambra; Rabbia, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco

    2010-11-01

    Hypertensive crises (i.e., blood pressure > 180/120 mmHg) are common issues in the emergency department. This term is used to indicate both emergencies and urgencies, characterized by presence and absence of target organ damage, respectively. A wide range of therapeutic options are available. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge and treatment trends in the literature to provide clinicians with diagnostic and therapeutic tools. PMID:21348321

  8. Spirit Stretches Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation flips back and forth between images taken before and after deployment of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's bogie, a part of the rover's suspension system that extends the wheel base. These images were taken by Spirit's hazard avoidance camera.

  9. Spirit Spies 'Bonneville'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the area in front of the rover after its record 27.5 meters (90.2 feet) drive on Sol 43, which ended February 16, 2004. Spirit is looking toward one of its future targets, the rim of a crater nicknamed 'Bonneville.'

  10. Location of Spirit's Home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows where Earth would set on the martian horizon from the perspective of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit if it were facing northwest atop its lander at Gusev Crater. Earth cannot be seen in this image, but engineers have mapped its location. This image mosaic was taken by the hazard-identification camera onboard Spirit.

  11. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and ... for recovery. Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. The ultimate ...

  12. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. The First Field Geologic Maps on Another Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumpler, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Field geologic maps have been prepared from in situ ("field") observations during the traverse of Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity. These maps are the first tests of field geologic mapping methods at the human scale on another planet.

  15. Spirit's Destination (panorama)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spirit's Destination (panorama) (QTVR)

    This panoramic image mosaic from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit panoramic camera, shows the rover's destination toward the hills nicknamed the 'Columbia Hills,' on the right. The rover's heatshield can be seen on the left as a tiny bright dot in the distance, just under the horizon. Dark drift material can be seen in the image center. The rover is currently positioned outside the view of this image, on the right. This image was taken on sols 68 and 69 of Spirit's mission (March 12 and 13, 2004) from the location the rover first reached on the western rim of the crater. The image is in approximate true color, based on a scaling of data from the red, green and blue (750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers) filters.

  16. Spirit Takes the Helm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows Spirit driving itself through the rocky terrain of Gusev Crater on sol 118 (May 8, 2004) using its auto-navigation software. Halfway through the drive, the rover spotted a rock bigger than its wheels (25 centimeters or 9.8 inches) and drove around to the left. At the end of its traverse, Spirit encountered several more large rocks, but since they were less than half its wheel height (12 centimeters or 4.7 inches tall), it drove right over them. The total distance traveled was 92.7 meters (304 feet) -- Spirit's longest drive yet. Over half the drive (55 meters or 180 feet) was executed using the auto-navigation software.

  17. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this approximately true-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006), using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  18. 47 CFR 80.1109 - Distress, urgency, and safety communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, and safety communications. 80.1109 Section 80.1109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1109 Distress, urgency, and...

  19. Create a Sense of Urgency to Spark Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While recent state and federal education policies convey a sense of urgency in regard to the need for education reforms, there are teachers for whom this sense of urgency has long been woven into the fabric of their practice. Fortified by their high expectations for their students, these teachers utilize strategies that convey the message that the…

  20. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of urgency... receiving the message has been transmitted, the station responsible for its transmission must cancel it...

  3. Associations between nicotine dependence, anhedonia, urgency and smoking motives.

    PubMed

    Roys, Melanie; Weed, Keri; Carrigan, Maureen; MacKillop, James

    2016-11-01

    Models of nicotine dependence have suggested that the association between urgency, a subconstruct of impulsivity, and smoking behaviors may be mediated by motivations. Motives that are driven by expectations that smoking will relieve negative affect or increase positive affect may be especially salient in persons who have depression symptoms such as anhedonia. Support for associations between symptoms of depression, urgency, and addiction has been found for alcohol dependence, but empirical analysis is lacking for an interactive effect of urgency and depression symptoms on nicotine dependence. The current study investigated relationships among the urgency facet of impulsivity, anhedonia, smoking motives, and nicotine dependence with secondary analyses of a sample of 1084 daily smokers using simultaneous moderation and multiple mediation analyses. The moderation analysis revealed that although urgency was significantly associated with smoking at average or higher levels of anhedonia, it was unrelated to smoking when few anhedonia symptoms were endorsed. Further, multiple mediation analyses revealed that the smoking motives of craving, cue exposure, positive reinforcement, and tolerance significantly mediated the relationship between urgency and nicotine dependence. Results suggest that models of alcohol addiction that include an interactive effect of urgency and certain symptoms of depression may be applied to nicotine dependence. Examination of the multiple mediational pathways between urgency and nicotine dependence suggests directions for intervention efforts. PMID:27376882

  4. Spirit Keeps on Trekking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cylindrical-projection mosaic was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired on sol 121 (May 6, 2004). Continuing its trek toward the 'Columbia Hills,' Spirit drove 96.8 meters (318 feet) -- half of which was performed in auto-navigation mode -- and broke its record for the longest distance traveled in one sol. That drive brought the mission total to 1,669 meters (1.04 miles), flipping the rover's odometer over the one-mile mark.

  5. Spirit Self-motivates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove itself 1 meter (3 feet) out of 6.4 meters (21 feet) at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Feb. 8, 2004, the 36th sol of its mission. This image shows the tracks it created in the martian soil as it drove straight ahead, then to the left. The rover also drove over Adirondack (seen in image bottom center), the bright rock that was targeted by Spirit's rock abrasion tool, on its way to a rock target called White Boat. This was the first test of the rover's autonomous system, which will be used many times in the days to come.

  6. Spirit Lightens the Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The history of Spirit's descent and landing on the surface of Mars is recorded in this image taken more than two weeks later on Jan. 19, 2004, by the camera on the orbiting Mars Global Surveyor. Spirit landed on Jan. 3, 2004. The two dots in the upper left are the spacecraft's backshell and parachute, which were shed as Spirit's bridle was cut, allowing the lander to bounce to a rest while safely encased in airbags. To the far right of the image, a dark streak above a large crater is believed to be the location where the heat shield impacted. The heat shield had protected the spacecraft during its descent through the martian atmosphere and was jettisoned several kilometers above the surface. A trail of bounce marks made by the airbags as Spirit bounced to a stop can be seen in the middle of the image. To the left of the second bounce mark is a square showing the location where engineers had calculated Spirit's airbags first hit the martian surface, based on data from the descent image motion estimation system located on the bottom of the rover's lander. The white dot near the bottom of the image is the lander, also known as the Columbia Memorial Station, at the Gusev Crater landing site. Beside it is a dot marked 'surface feature location,' showing the location of the lander estimated by the Spirit team using sight lines to landmarks in the lander's panoramic images. This image was taken in the early martian afternoon.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Wind Gusts: No Longer a Rover's Achilles Heel This image shows the path (blue line) taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during its descent to Gusev Crater, Mars. Just seconds before landing, the rover fired its lateral rocket, called the Tranverse Impulse Rocket System, to protect against a horizontal gust of wind. The turquoise and yellow arrows show the actual speed and direction of Spirit; the purple arrow indicates what the rover

  7. Perceived urgency mapping across modalities within a driving context.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Lewis, Bridget A

    2014-09-01

    Hazard mapping is essential to effective driver-vehicle interface (DVI) design. Determining which modality to use for situations of different criticality requires an understanding of the relative impact of signal parameters within each modality on perceptions of urgency and annoyance. Towards this goal we obtained psychometric functions for visual, auditory and tactile interpulse interval (IPI), visual color, signal word, and auditory fundamental frequency on perceptions of urgency, annoyance, and acceptability. Results indicate that manipulation of IPI in the tactile modality, relative to visual and auditory, has greater utility (greater impact on urgency than annoyance). Manipulations of color were generally rated as less annoying and more acceptable than auditory and tactile stimuli; but they were also rated as lower in urgency relative to other modality manipulations. Manipulation of auditory fundamental frequency resulted in high ratings of both urgency and annoyance. Results of the current investigation can be used to guide DVI design and evaluation. PMID:23910716

  8. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  9. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  10. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  11. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  12. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  13. The Wounded Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretti, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into the life of Frank Peretti, who as a child suffered abuse because of his physical disfigurement. He was bullied and physically assaulted by peers and sometimes adults. Now well known for his novels, Peretti suggests that people who cause others to suffer also suffer from a wounded spirit. (Author)

  14. Spirit Digs In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this navigation camera image on the 72nd martian day, or sol, of its mission (March 15, 2004), after digging its wheel into the drift dubbed 'Serpent.' Creating the commands that would generate this 'scar' was not an easy task for rover controllers. Essentially, they had to choreograph an intricate dance for Spirit, maneuvering it up the side of the dune, shimmying its left front wheel a number of times to create the scuff, and then reversing to attain proper positioning for miniature thermal emission spectrometer observations. Before the task was finished, Spirit moved forward to put the scuff within proper reach of the rover's arm.

    This scar allows the rover's instruments to see below the drift surface, to determine the composition of the materials. Initial results indicate that the drift material is similar to the basaltic sands that have been seen throughout Spirit's journey to the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The material does not seem to be the same as that inside the crater.

    Scientists are now looking to answer two questions: Why is the dark sand in the crater not the same as the dark sand in the drift? And why are there two different dark soil-type deposits in such a small place?

  15. Spirit's Prime-Mission Traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A traverse map for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit traces the path Spirit drove during its prime mission of 90 sols. The base image for this map was taken seconds before landing by Spirit's downward-looking descent image motion estimation system camera.

  16. Nemachtilli: The Spirit of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Luis J.

    2005-01-01

    Luis J. Rodriguez believes that the spirit of learning is not nurtured or encouraged in schools because the spirit of teaching is absent. Learning is not just about books but it happens in all kind of ways that should be nurtured with spirit.

  17. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  18. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  19. Hypertensive Urgency Associated With Xenadrine EFX Use.

    PubMed

    Moaddeb, Jivan; Tofade, Toyin S; Bevins, Micheal B

    2011-06-01

    Several supplements and herbal products have been shown to increase catecholamines and subsequently mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance. Since ephedra-containing products have been removed from the market, manufacturers of weight loss herbal supplements must produce ephedra-free formulations. Xenadrine EFX is an ephedra-free weight loss product containing a mixture of caffeine, guarana, and bitter orange (standardized to synephrine). Synephrine has been shown in animals and humans to increase systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure. We present a case of a patient who took Xendarine EFX for 2 weeks prior to her presentation to an emergency department with headaches and hypertensive urgency (blood pressure [BP] 234/130 mm Hg). Her BP was controlled after discontinuation of Xenadrine and initiation a nitroprusside drip and oral clonidine. A Naranjo probability score of 6 indicates the adverse drug reaction was probable. Clinicians should be aware of potential cardiovascular changes in patients on Xenadrine EFX or other synephrine-containing products. PMID:21676849

  20. A Planet for Goldilocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, N.

    2014-07-01

    The search for life beyond Earth has inspired Solar System exploration and SETI surveys. Today, the search for life also leads to exoplanet discovery and characterization. Launched in March 2009, NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of exoplanets with diverse properties. Though each new world is interesting in its own right, Kepler aims to understand the population as a whole. Its primary objective is to determine the frequency of exoplanets of different sizes and orbital periods. Of special interest are the Earth-size planets in the “Goldilocks” (or habitable) Zone where the flux of incoming starlight is conducive to the existence of surface liquid water. Once Kepler establishes the prevalence of such planets in the Solar neighborhood, future missions can be designed to find not just a planet in the Goldilocks Zone but a planet for Goldilocks—a truly habitable environment for life as we know it. Kepler discoveries and progress will be described as well as the resources available to bring Kepler science to the public and into the classroom. The possibility of finding evidence of life beyond Earth is working its way into the public consciousness and has the potential to inspire generations. Scientific literacy is a natural consequence of awakening the spirit of exploration and discovery that led Goldilocks into the forest and leads humans into space.

  1. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  2. Spirit Looks Back

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rear hazard identification camera shows the rover's hind view of the lander platform, its nest for the past 12 sols, or martian days. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the airbag-cushioned lander, facing northwest. Note the tracks left in the martian soil by the rovers' wheels, all six of which have rolled off the lander. This is the first time the rover has touched martian soil.

  3. Spirit's Path to Bonneville

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists created this overlay map by laying navigation and panoramic camera images taken from the surface of Mars on top of one of Spirit's descent images taken as the spacecraft descended to the martian surface. The map was created to help track the path that Spirit has traveled through sol 44 and to put into perspective the distance left to travel before reaching the edge of the large crater nicknamed 'Bonneville.'

    The area boxed in yellow contains the ground images that have been matched to and layered on top of the descent image. The yellow line shows the path that Spirit has traveled and the red dashed line shows the intended path for future sols. The blue circles highlight hollowed areas on the surface, such as Sleepy Hollow, near the lander, and Laguna Hollow, the sol 45 drive destination. Scientists use these hollowed areas - which can be seen in both the ground images and the descent image - to correctly match up the overlay.

    Field geologists on Earth create maps like this to assist them in tracking their observations.

  4. System Engineering the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristram T.; Leisawitz, David T.; Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was designed to accomplish three scientific objectives: (1) learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks and how they acquire their inhomogeneous chemical composition; (2) characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. SPIRIT will accomplish these objectives through infrared observations with a two aperture interferometric instrument. This paper gives an overview of SPIRIT design and operation, and how the three design cycle concept study was completed. The error budget for several key performance values allocates tolerances to all contributing factors, and a performance model of the spacecraft plus instrument system demonstrates meeting those allocations with margin.

  5. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  6. Spirit Keeps Rolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree mosaic panorama image, taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, includes a view of the lander. The lander is located to the south-southwest of the rover, which is moving toward a crater nicknamed 'Bonneville.' Sleepy Hollow can be seen to the right of the lander. As of Sol 44, which ended on February 17, 2004, the rover had moved a total of 106.6 meters (350 feet) since leaving the lander on January 15, 2004. This image was taken on Sol 39 (February 11, 2004).

  7. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits...

  8. Spirit Sees Salty Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph compares amounts of magnesium and sulfur in the soil lining the trenches dug by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sols 114 and 140 (April 28 and May 25, 2004) at Gusev Crater. Measurements were taken of the soil at the surface, floor and walls of the trench dug on sol 140 (squares), and at the surface and floor of the trench dug on sol 114 (diamonds). Non-trenched soil samples from Gusev Crater are represented as dots. The more recently made trench is located near the base of the 'Columbia Hills.'

    Because concentrations of magnesium and sulfur occur in the same ratio throughout the trench dug on sol 140, scientists believe the soil there contains the salt magnesium sulfate. The walls of this trench appear to contain the highest concentrations of the salt. The trench from sol 114 may also possess magnesium sulfate, but the data is less clear. These data were taken by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    One possible explanation for these findings is that water percolated through underground material and dissolved out minerals, then as the water evaporated near the surface, it left concentrated salts behind.

  9. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  10. Anticholinergic Therapy vs. OnabotulinumtoxinA for Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Visco, Anthony G.; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R.; Menefee, Shawn A.; Schaffer, Joseph; Lowder, Jerry; Khandwala, Salil; Sirls, Larry; Spino, Cathie; Nolen, Tracy L.; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anticholinergic medications and onabotulinumtoxinA are used to treat urgency urinary incontinence, but data directly comparing the two types of therapy are needed. METHODS We performed a double-blind, double-placebo–controlled, randomized trial involving women with idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence who had five or more episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per 3-day period, as recorded in a diary. For a 6-month period, participants were randomly assigned to daily oral anticholinergic medication (solifenacin, 5 mg initially, with possible escalation to 10 mg and, if necessary, subsequent switch to trospium XR, 60 mg) plus one intradetrusor injection of saline or one intradetrusor injection of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA plus daily oral placebo. The primary outcome was the reduction from baseline in mean episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per day over the 6-month period, as recorded in 3-day diaries submitted monthly. Secondary outcomes included complete resolution of urgency urinary incontinence, quality of life, use of catheters, and adverse events. RESULTS Of 249 women who underwent randomization, 247 were treated, and 241 had data available for the primary outcome analyses. The mean reduction in episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per day over the course of 6 months, from a baseline average of 5.0 per day, was 3.4 in the anticholinergic group and 3.3 in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (P = 0.81). Complete resolution of urgency urinary incontinence was reported by 13% and 27% of the women, respectively (P = 0.003). Quality of life improved in both groups, without significant between-group differences. The anticholinergic group had a higher rate of dry mouth (46% vs. 31%, P = 0.02) but lower rates of catheter use at 2 months (0% vs. 5%, P = 0.01) and urinary tract infections (13% vs. 33%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Oral anticholinergic therapy and onabotulinumtoxinA by injection were associated with similar reductions in the frequency of

  11. Extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, J J; Marcy, G W; Ida, S

    2000-11-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  12. Extrasolar planets

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  13. Spirit Movie of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Spirit Phobos Eclipse Animation

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit observed the Martian moon Phobos entering the shadow of Mars during the night of the rover's 675th sol (Nov. 27, 2005). The panoramic camera captured 16 images, spaced 10 seconds apart, covering the period from when Phobos was in full sunlight to when it was entirely in shadow. As with our own Moon during lunar eclipses on Earth, even when in the planet's shadow, Phobos was not entirely dark. The small amount of light still visible from Phobos is a kind of 'Mars-shine' -- sunlight reflected through Mars' atmosphere and into the shadowed region.

    This clip is a sequence of the 16 images showing the eclipse at about 10 times normal speed. It shows the movement of Phobos from left to right as the moon enters the shadow. Scientists are using information about the precise timing of Martian moon eclipses gained from observations such as these to refine calculations about the orbital path of Phobos. The precise position of Phobos will be important to any future spacecraft taking detailed pictures of the moon or landing on its surface.

  14. Spirit View of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Spirit View of Phobos Eclipse, Sol 675

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit observed the Martian moon Phobos entering the shadow of Mars during the night of the rover's 675th sol (Nov. 27, 2005). The panoramic camera captured 16 images, spaced 10 seconds apart, covering the period from when Phobos was in full sunlight to when it was entirely in shadow. As with our own Moon during lunar eclipses on Earth, even when in the planet's shadow, Phobos was not entirely dark. The small amount of light still visible from Phobos is a kind of 'Mars-shine' -- sunlight reflected through Mars' atmosphere and into the shadowed region.

    This view is a time-lapse composite of images taken 20 seconds apart, showing the movement of Phobos from left to right. (At 10 seconds apart, the images of the moon overlap each other.) Scientists are using information about the precise timing of Martian moon eclipses gained from observations such as these to refine calculations about the orbital path of Phobos. The precise position of Phobos will be important to any future spacecraft taking detailed pictures of the moon or landing on its surface.

  15. Spirit Traverse Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The red dot labeled 'Sol 134-141' in this map illustrates when and where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired the 'Santa Anita Panorama.' Scientists consider this area, located roughly three-fourths of the way between 'Bonneville Crater' and the base of the 'Columbia Hills,' a treasure trove that may be studied for decades to come. The panorama is one of four 360-degree full panoramas the rover has acquired during its mission.

    The color thermal inertia data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a high thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (regions that take longer to warm up and cool down); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (areas that warm up and cool off quickly). The map comprises background images from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and data from the thermal emission spectrometer on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  16. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  17. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  18. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  19. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are...

  20. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  1. Testing Spirit on Five Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture shows a model of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit being tested for performance on five wheels at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Spirit's right front wheel, now operating at six times its design life, has been showing signs of age, so rover planners devised a creative approach to keep the rover moving. They will drive Spirit backwards on five wheels, engaging the sixth wheel only sparingly to ensure its availability for tougher terrain. Tests performed at JPL allowed the rover planners to come up with this roundabout solution, and to develop commands that will help the five-wheeled rover steer.

  2. Circadian Activity Rhythms, Time Urgency, and Achievement Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Barbara L.

    Many physiological and psychological processes fluctuate throughout the day in fairly stable, rhythmic patterns. The relationship between individual differences in circadian activity rhythms and a sense of time urgency were explored as well as a number of achievement-related variables. Undergraduates (N=308), whose circadian activity rhythms were…

  3. The behavioral urgency of objects approaching your avatar.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N L

    2015-11-01

    The behavioral-urgency hypothesis (Franconeri & Simons, Psychological Science, 19, 686-692, 2003) states that dynamic visual properties capture human visual attention if they signal the need for immediate action. The seminal example is the potential collision of a looming object with one's body. However, humans are also capable of identifying with entities outside one's own body. Here we report evidence that behavioral urgency transfers to an avatar in a simple 2-D computer game. By controlling the avatar, the participant responded to shape changes of the target in a visual search task. Simultaneously, and completely irrelevant to the task, one of the objects on screen could move. Responses were overall fastest when the target happened to be the moving object and was on a collision course with the avatar, as compared to when the moving target just passed by the avatar or moved away from it. The effects on search efficiency were less consistent, except that search was more efficient overall whenever a target moved. Moreover, response speeding was frequently accompanied by an increase in errors, consistent with recent evidence that the urgency of looming is at least to a large extent expressed in response processes rather than in perceptual selection of the looming object. Thus, a general version of the behavioral-urgency hypothesis also holds for external entities with which the observer can identify. PMID:26231510

  4. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1131 - Transmissions of urgency communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this standard can be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmissions of urgency communications. 80...) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1131 Transmissions of...

  6. 27 CFR 19.518 - Imported spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported spirits. 19.518... Determination and Payment of Tax § 19.518 Imported spirits. When spirits which have been imported for... equal to the duty which would have been paid had the spirits been imported for beverage purposes,...

  7. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  8. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  9. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  10. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a) The... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  11. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  12. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  13. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  14. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  15. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  16. Spirit Has Flower Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image with its hazard-avoidance camera on sol 86 (March 31, 2004), after the rover's rock abrasion tool had brushed for three minutes on each of six locations on the rock named 'Mazatzal' to create a flower-shaped mosaic.

    The goal for this operation was to create a brushed area big enough for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to capture within one of its pixels, which are 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) in diameter at the distance between the rock and the instrument. Because the rock abrasion tool creates individual brushed areas only about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, the team designed this six-location series of tool placements in order to brush 92 percent to 95 percent of the spectrometer's pixel size.

    This operation was only the second time the rock abrasion tool has created a brushing mosaic. The first time was a three-spot brushing on the rock called 'Humphrey.' The brush was originally designed to be used as an aide during full grinding operations, however it has been very effective in brushing the top layer off of dusty martian rocks to allow scientists a multi-depth look into the rocks on Mars.

  17. Outer Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Did you know that through NASA’s various satellite missions we have learned more about these planetary bodies in recent years than we knew collectively since we started to study our planets? Throu...

  18. 47 CFR 80.369 - Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply..., urgency, safety, call and reply frequencies. This section describes the general uses and frequencies assignable to maritime stations for distress, urgency, safety, call and reply radiotelephony...

  19. 47 CFR 80.355 - Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse code frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse... Distress, urgency, safety, call and reply Morse code frequencies. This section describes the distress, urgency, safety, call and reply carrier frequencies assignable to stations for Morse code...

  20. Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahr, Hubert; Brandner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    1. Historical notes on planet formation Bodenheimer; 2. The formation and evolution of planetary systems Bouwman et al.; 3. Destruction of protoplanetary disks by photoevaporation Richling, Hollenbach and Yorke; 4. Turbulence in protoplanetary accretion disks Klahr, Rozyczka, Dziourkevitch, Wunsch and Johansen; 5. The origin of solids in the early solar system Trieloff and Palme; 6. Experiments on planetesimal formation Wurm and Blum; 7. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks Henning, Dullemond, Wolf and Dominik; 8. The accretion of giant planet cores Thommes and Duncan; 9. Planetary transits: direct vision of extrasolar planets Lecavelier des Etangs and Vidal-Madjar; 10. The core accretion - gas capture model Hubickyj; 11. Properties of exoplanets Marcy, Fischer, Butler and Vogt; 12. Giant planet formation: theories meet observations Boss; 13. From hot Jupiters to hot Neptures … and below Lovis, Mayor and Udry; 14. Disk-planet interaction and migration Masset and Kley; 15. The Brown Dwarf - planet relation Bate; 16. From astronomy to astrobiology Brandner; 17. Overview and prospective Lin.

  1. Spontaneous iliopsoas haematoma: a complication of hypertensive urgency.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Meera; Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Jaffe, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Iliopsoas haematoma is a rare clinical entity which can be life threatening in extreme cases. We are reporting a case of iliopsoas haematoma as a complication of hypertensive urgency. A 67-year old woman presented to emergency room with hypertensive urgency and hip pain. During hospitalisation, her haemoglobin was decreasing and on further evaluation, she did not have any signs of external bleeding and laboratory results were not suggestive of haemolysis. CT scan of abdomen and pelvis revealed a spontaneous iliopsoas haematoma. A likely explanation for this presentation in the absence of coagulopathy and trauma is very high blood pressure. Patient was on low-dose aspirin at home which could have further aggravated her bleeding due to platelet dysfunction. She was managed conservatively with blood transfusions and blood pressure was reduced to target after which she recovered. PMID:25721829

  2. Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-06-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n=407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  3. Spirit Hits a Home Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This week, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit arrived at 'Home Plate,' a feature that, when seen from orbit, looks like the home plate of a baseball diamond. Home Plate is a roughly circular feature about 80 meters (260 feet) in diameter that might be an old impact crater or volcanic feature. The Spirit team has been eager to get to Home Plate and has been enjoying distant views of the feature and a curious 'bathtub ring' of light-colored materials along its edges. The team has pushed the rover hard to get here before the deep Martian winter sets in.

    After scientists had identified Home Plate from orbit, they had many theories about what it could be and what they might see. But when Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took this and other images, the science team was stunned. This Pancam image is of an outcrop nicknamed 'Barnhill' and surrounding rocks on the north side of Home Plate, showing the most spectacular layering that Spirit has seen.

    Pancam and microscopic imager views of the layers in the rocks reveal a range of grain sizes and textures that change from the lower to the upper part of the outcrop. This may help scientists figure out how the material was emplaced. Spirit is also conducting work with its arm instruments to figure out the chemistry and mineralogy of the rocks. Scientists have several hypotheses about what Home Plate could be, including features made by volcanoes and impact craters, and ways that water could have played a role. They are busy trying to figure out what the data from Spirit is really telling us.

    As Spirit works at Home Plate during February, the science team is choosing informal names for rocks from the great players and managers of the Negro Leagues of baseball. This outcrop, 'Barnhill,' is informally named for David Barnhill, the ace of the New York Cubans' pitching staff during the early 1940s. He compiled an 18-3 record in 1941 and defeated Satchel Paige in the 1942 East-West all-star game. Other rocks in

  4. Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate' (QTVR)

    On Feb. 19, 2006, the 758th Martian day of exploration of the red planet by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, the rover acquired this panoramic view of the interior of 'Home Plate,' a circular topographic feature amid the 'Columbia Hills.' This view, called the 'Paige' panorama, is from the top of Home Plate. It shows layered rocks exposed at the edge as well as dark rocks exhibiting both smooth and sponge-like 'scoriaceous' textures. To the east from this vantage point, 'McCool Hill' looms on the horizon. At the base of McCool Hill is a reddish outcrop called 'Oberth,' which Spirit may explore during the rapidly approaching Martian winter. 'Von Braun' and 'Goddard' hills are partially visible beyond the opposite rim of Home Plate.

    The limited spatial coverage of this panorama is the result of steadily decreasing power available to the rover for science activities as the Martian winter arrives and the sun traces a lower path across the sky. The rover team anticipates that the north-facing slopes of McCool Hill should sufficiently tilt the rover's solar panels toward the sun to allow Spirit to survive the winter.

    The view covers about 230 degrees of terrain around the rover. Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took 72 separate images of this scene with four different Pancam filters. This is an approximately true-color rendering using the Pancam's 75-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  5. Spirit's View from 'Engineering Flats'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This 360-degree view from a site dubbed 'Engineering Flats' combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 182nd martian day, or sol (July 7, 2004). Spirit had driven to this spot in the 'Columbia Hills' for four sols of engineering work on its right front wheel and a recalibration of positioning accuracy for tools on its robotic arm. The wheel tracks just beyond the rover's shadow indicate where Spirit had spent the preceding three weeks examining rocks in and near 'Hank's Hollow.' The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  6. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  7. Spirit's Extended-Mission Destination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The drive route planned for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during its extended mission is represented by the green line in this traverse map. The gold line traces the path Spirit drove during its prime mission of 90 sols.

    One objective for the rover's extended mission is to continue eastward to reach the high ground named 'Columbia Hills,' still about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) away at the beginning of the extended mission.

    The base image for this map was taken from orbit by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The entire area is within Gusev Crater.

  8. Pluto: Planet or "Dwarf Planet"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; de Araújo, M. S. T.

    2010-09-01

    In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a "dwarf planet". This reclassification of Pluto by the academic community clearly illustrates how dynamic science is and how knowledge of different areas can be changed and evolves through the time, allowing to perceive Science as a human construction in a constant transformation, subject to political, social and historical contexts. These epistemological characteristics of Science and, in this case, of Astronomy, constitute important elements to be discussed in the lessons, so that this work contributes to enable Science and Physics teachers who perform a basic education to be always up to date on this important astronomical fact and, thereby, carry useful information to their teaching.

  9. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  10. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  11. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  12. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  13. Spirit Begins Third Martian Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As it finished its second Martian year on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was beginning to examine a group of angular rocks given informal names corresponding to peaks in the Colorado Rockies. A Martian year the amount of time it takes Mars to complete one orbit around the sun lasts for 687 Earth days. Spirit completed its second Martian year on the rover's 1,338th Martian day, or sol, corresponding to Oct. 8, 2007.

    Two days later, on sol 1,340 (Oct. 10, 2007), Spirit used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock informally named 'Humboldt Peak.' For the rocks at this site on the southern edge of the 'Home Plate' platform in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills inside Gusev Crater, the rover team decided to use names of Colorado peaks higher than 14,000 feet. The Colorado Rockies team of the National League is the connection to the baseball-theme nomenclature being used for features around Home Plate.

    The tool facing Spirit on the turret at the end of the robotic arm is the Moessbauer spectrometer.

  14. The Spirit of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Olynda

    2013-01-01

    "The real preparation for education is a study of one's self. The training of the teacher who is to help life is something far more than a learning of ideas. It includes the training of character, it is a preparation of the spirit."--Maria Montessori". It is common knowledge among Montessorians that spiritual preparation was…

  15. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  16. 27 CFR 19.257 - Imported spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imported spirits. 19.257... § 19.257 Imported spirits. The proprietor will incur a tax liability greater than the internal revenue tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5001(a)(1), if spirits originally imported for nonbeverage purposes...

  17. Evaluation of the dentists' knowledge on medical urgency and emergency.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, Tássia Carina; Carrara, Cleide Felício Carvalho; Oliveira, Fernanda Veronese; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating how well dentists understand medical emergency/urgency procedures and issues during dental treatment at a hospital specialized in cleft lip and palate. It comprised a hundred dentists from the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC/USP), Brazil, from different dental specialties. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate their knowledge of medical emergencies/urgencies from June through September 2011. The questionnaire was anonymous, confidential and constructed with closed questions and either yes-no or multiple-choice responses. Results showed that most professionals (87%) were trained in basic life support (BLS), but only 43% considered themselves capable of providing first aid and performing the necessary maneuvers. Most participants (94%) claimed that they knew the difference between medical urgencies and emergencies, and 69% had BLS training in their undergraduate courses, as opposed to 37%, during their specialization. Some participants (23%) mentioned that they had received knowledge of the subject during extracurricular courses and/or graduate courses (12%). Only 9% had not been educated on the subject; however, all participants showed interest in attending a course in BLS. In regard to assessing training that dentists who attended BLS courses received, 49% were satisfied and 42% were dissatisfied. Results of the present study emphasize that dentists from HRAC/USP have little knowledge about BLS procedures to perform them. Dentists must gain adequate education and training to minimize possible technical, ethical and legal problems associated with dental practice. It is necessary to improve both knowledge and practice in order to become well-qualified practitioners. PMID:25141014

  18. Longitudinal validation of the urgency traits over the first year of college.

    PubMed

    Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified 2 emotion-based dispositions to rash action, referred to as positive urgency and negative urgency. They are thought to reflect tendencies to engage in rash acts when in extremely positive and extremely negative moods, respectively. In this article, we describe the first direct test of this hypothesis. We measured the urgency traits and risky behavior involvement while in extremely positive and negative moods over the course of the first year of college for 292 students. After controlling for sex, typical mood state, and prior mood-based rash behavior, positive urgency predicted increases in positive mood-based rash action, and negative urgency predicted increases in negative mood-based rash action during the first year of college. These results provide further evidence for the validity of the theory of emotion-based rash action and for the measures of positive and negative urgency. PMID:20013457

  19. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars.

    The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel.

    The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  20. Dust Devils Whip by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1120 (February 26, 2007), the navigation camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured one of the best dust devils it's seen in its three-plus year mission. The series of navigation camera images were put together to make a dust devil movie.

    The dust devil column is clearly defined and is clearly bent in the down wind direction. Near the end of the movie, the base of the dust devil becomes much wider. The atmospheric science team thinks that this is because the dust devil encountered some sand and therefore produced a 'saltation skirt,' an apron of material that is thrown out of the dust devil because it is too large to be carried up into suspension.

    Also near the end of the movie the dust devil seems to move faster across the surface. This is because Spirit began taking pictures less frequently, and not because the dust devil sped up.

  1. Dust Devils Seen by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Annotated

    At the Gusev site recently, skies have been very dusty, and on its 421st sol (March 10, 2005) NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit spied two dust devils in action. This pair of images is from the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Views of the Gusev landing region from orbit show many dark streaks across the landscape -- tracks where dust devils have removed surface dust to show relatively darker soil below -- but this is the first time Spirit has photographed an active dust devil.

    Scientists are considering several causes of these small phenomena. Dust devils often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars. Warmed soil and rocks heat the layer of atmosphere closest to the surface, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. Another possibility is that a flow structure might develop over craters as wind speeds increase. As winds pick up, turbulence eddies and rotating columns of air form. As these columns grow in diameter they become taller and gain rotational speed. Eventually they become self-sustaining and the wind blows them down range.

    One sol before this image was taken, power output from Spirit's solar panels went up by about 50 percent when the amount of dust on the panels decreased. Was this a coincidence, or did a helpful dust devil pass over Spirit and lift off some of the dust?

    By comparing the separate images from the rover's different cameras, team members estimate that the dust devils moved about 500 meters (1,640 feet) in the 155 seconds between the navigation camera and hazard-avoidance camera frames; that equates to about 3 meters per second (7 miles per hour). The dust devils appear to be about 1,100 meters (almost three-quarters of a mile) from the rover.

  2. Spirit's Tracks around 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. The rover is visible. So is the 'Low Ridge' feature where Spirit was parked with an 11-degree northerly tilt to maximize sunlight on the solar panels during the southern winter season. Tracks made by Spirit on the way to 'Home Plate' and to and from 'Tyrone,' an area of light-toned soils exposed by rover wheel motions, are also evident. The original image is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  3. Extrasolar Planets and Prospects for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2004-06-01

    Examination of ˜2000 sun--like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ˜200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05--5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News &summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth--mass planets remain undetectable, but space--based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade. The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter--mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth--mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun--like stars commonly harbor earth--sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non--circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter--like planets may reside at 5--10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sun--like star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4--10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward. To date, 10 multiple--planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are ``hierarchical'', consisting

  4. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): The Mission Design Solution Space and the Art of the Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Hyde, T. Tupper; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Weiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in water while leaving others dry? Where do planets form, and why are some ice giants while others are rocky? How did high-redshift galaxies form and merge to form the present-day population of galaxies? This paper takes a pragmatic look at the mission design solution space for SPIRIT, presents Probe-class and facility-class mission scenarios, and describes optional design changes. The costs and benefits of various mission design alternatives are roughly evaluated, giving a basis for further study and to serve as guidance to policy makers.

  5. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  6. Rumpel-Leede phenomenon presenting as a hypertensive urgency.

    PubMed

    Varela, Daniel; Tran, Dat; Ngamdu, Kyari Sumayin; Trullender, Brett; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-04-01

    Rumpel-Leede (R-L) phenomenon is the rare event in which the small dermal capillaries of an extremity rupture in response to application of a compressive device to that extremity, such as when inflating a cuff during noninvasive blood pressure monitoring or when applying a tourniquet to draw blood. This capillary rupture results in formation of a petechial rash distal to the compressive device. R-L phenomenon is believed to occur most often in patients with underlying vascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus or thrombocytopenia. R-L phenomenon is most often benign, though it may rarely be associated with pain and discomfort. There is no treatment for this condition apart from treatment of the underlying vascular disease or thrombocytopenia. We report a 57-year-old woman who presented with hypertensive urgency and experienced R-L phenomenon during blood pressure cuff inflation. PMID:27034570

  7. Rumpel-Leede phenomenon presenting as a hypertensive urgency

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Dat; Ngamdu, Kyari Sumayin; Trullender, Brett; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Rumpel-Leede (R-L) phenomenon is the rare event in which the small dermal capillaries of an extremity rupture in response to application of a compressive device to that extremity, such as when inflating a cuff during noninvasive blood pressure monitoring or when applying a tourniquet to draw blood. This capillary rupture results in formation of a petechial rash distal to the compressive device. R-L phenomenon is believed to occur most often in patients with underlying vascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus or thrombocytopenia. R-L phenomenon is most often benign, though it may rarely be associated with pain and discomfort. There is no treatment for this condition apart from treatment of the underlying vascular disease or thrombocytopenia. We report a 57-year-old woman who presented with hypertensive urgency and experienced R-L phenomenon during blood pressure cuff inflation. PMID:27034570

  8. Stress and Performance: Effects of Subjective Work Load and Time Urgency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Kenneth E.

    1982-01-01

    Measured subjective work load, time urgency, and other stress/motivation variables for management personnel taking a demanding problem-solving exam. Data suggest increases in psychological stresses like subjectively high work load and time urgency uniformly impair performance across the whole range of these variables. (Author)

  9. Gender-Moderated Links between Urgency, Binge Drinking, and Excessive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin E.; Dmochowski, Sasha; Schaumberg, Katherine; Earleywine, Mitch; Anderson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exercise correlates with alcohol use, but the nature of this relation and the extent to which it is maladaptive remains unclear. Urgency and motives for engaging in drinking and exercise might indicate when these behaviors are problematic. The current study examined whether urgency moderated the association between exercise motivated by…

  10. A psychophysiological evaluation of the perceived urgency of auditory warning signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, J. L.; Bartolome, D. S.; Burdette, D. W.; Comstock, J. R. Jr

    1995-01-01

    One significant concern that pilots have about cockpit auditory warnings is that the signals presently used lack a sense of priority. The relationship between auditory warning sound parameters and perceived urgency is, therefore, an important topic of enquiry in aviation psychology. The present investigation examined the relationship among subjective assessments of urgency, reaction time, and brainwave activity with three auditory warning signals. Subjects performed a tracking task involving automated and manual conditions, and were presented with auditory warnings having various levels of perceived and situational urgency. Subjective assessments revealed that subjects were able to rank warnings on an urgency scale, but rankings were altered after warnings were mapped to a situational urgency scale. Reaction times differed between automated and manual tracking task conditions, and physiological data showed attentional differences in response to perceived and situational warning urgency levels. This study shows that the use of physiological measures sensitive to attention and arousal, in conjunction with behavioural and subjective measures, may lead to the design of auditory warnings that produce a sense of urgency in an operator that matches the urgency of the situation.

  11. Spirit Ascent Movie, Rover's-Eye View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A movie assembled from frames taken by the rear hazard-identification camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the last few days of the rover's ascent to the crest of 'Husband Hill' inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover was going in reverse. Rover planners often drive Spirit backwards to keep wheel lubrication well distributed. The images in this clip span a timeframe from Spirit's 573rd martian day, or sol (Aug, 13, 2005) to sol 582 (Aug. 22, 2005), the day after the rover reached the crest. During that period, Spirit drove 136 meters (446 feet),

  12. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  13. Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    The panoramic cameras on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are about as sensitive as the human eye at night. The cameras can see the same bright stars that we can see from Earth, and the same patterns of constellations dot the night sky. Scientists on the rover team have been taking images of some of these bright stars as part of several different projects. One project is designed to try to capture 'shooting stars,' or meteors, in the martian night sky. 'Meteoroids' are small pieces of comets and asteroids that travel through space and eventually run into a planet. On Earth, we can sometimes see meteoroids become brilliant, long 'meteors' streaking across the night sky as they burn up from the friction in our atmosphere. Some of these meteors survive their fiery flight and land on the surface (or in the ocean) where, if found, they are called 'meteorites.' The same thing happens in the martian atmosphere, and Spirit even accidentally discovered a meteor while attempting to obtain images of Earth in the pre-dawn sky back in March, 2004 (see http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/spirit/20040311a.html, and Selsis et al. (2005) Nature, vol 435, p. 581). On Earth, some meteors come in 'storms' or 'showers' at predictable times of the year, like the famous Perseid meteor shower in August or the Leonid meteor shower in November. These 'storms' happen when Earth passes through the same parts of space where comets sometimes pass. The meteors we see at these times are from leftover debris that was shed off of these comets.

    The same kind of thing is predicted for Mars, as well. Inspired by calculations about Martian meteor storms by meteor scientists from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique de Lyon in France, and also aided by other meteor research colleagues from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, scientists on

  14. Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    The panoramic cameras on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are about as sensitive as the human eye at night. The cameras can see the same bright stars that we can see from Earth, and the same patterns of constellations dot the night sky. Scientists on the rover team have been taking images of some of these bright stars as part of several different projects. One project is designed to try to capture 'shooting stars,' or meteors, in the martian night sky. 'Meteoroids' are small pieces of comets and asteroids that travel through space and eventually run into a planet. On Earth, we can sometimes see meteoroids become brilliant, long 'meteors' streaking across the night sky as they burn up from the friction in our atmosphere. Some of these meteors survive their fiery flight and land on the surface (or in the ocean) where, if found, they are called 'meteorites.' The same thing happens in the martian atmosphere, and Spirit even accidentally discovered a meteor while attempting to obtain images of Earth in the pre-dawn sky back in March, 2004 (see http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/spirit/20040311a.html, and Selsis et al. (2005) Nature, vol 435, p. 581). On Earth, some meteors come in 'storms' or 'showers' at predictable times of the year, like the famous Perseid meteor shower in August or the Leonid meteor shower in November. These 'storms' happen when Earth passes through the same parts of space where comets sometimes pass. The meteors we see at these times are from leftover debris that was shed off of these comets.

    The same kind of thing is predicted for Mars, as well. Inspired by calculations about Martian meteor storms by meteor scientists from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique de Lyon in France, and also aided by other meteor research colleagues from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, scientists on

  15. 27 CFR 19.60 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody... Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.60 Spirits in customs custody. A proprietor may move distilled spirits that are in customs custody across distilled spirits plant premises if...

  16. 27 CFR 19.60 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody... Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.60 Spirits in customs custody. A proprietor may move distilled spirits that are in customs custody across distilled spirits plant premises if...

  17. 27 CFR 19.60 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody... Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.60 Spirits in customs custody. A proprietor may move distilled spirits that are in customs custody across distilled spirits plant premises if...

  18. 27 CFR 19.60 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody... Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.60 Spirits in customs custody. A proprietor may move distilled spirits that are in customs custody across distilled spirits plant premises if...

  19. 27 CFR 19.710 - Inventory of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Accounting for Spirits § 19.710 Inventory of spirits. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must take a physical inventory of all spirits and fuel alcohol on the bonded premises at the end of each calendar year....

  20. 27 CFR 19.710 - Inventory of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Accounting for Spirits § 19.710 Inventory of spirits. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must take a physical inventory of all spirits and fuel alcohol on the bonded premises at the end of each calendar year....

  1. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  2. 27 CFR 1.91 - Bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled distilled spirits..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.91 Bottled distilled spirits. The provisions of...

  3. Negative urgency: a personality predictor of externalizing behavior characterized by neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and disagreeableness.

    PubMed

    Settles, Regan E; Fischer, Sarah; Cyders, Melissa A; Combs, Jessica L; Gunn, Rachel L; Smith, Gregory T

    2012-02-01

    Negative urgency, the tendency to act rashly when distressed, is characterized by high Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and low Agreeableness. Because of this set of characteristics, the authors hypothesized that (1) negative urgency (NU) is a particularly important predictor of externalizing dysfunction; (2) traits that reflect primarily high Neuroticism predict internalizing dysfunction; and (3) traits that reflect primarily low Conscientiousness predict those types of externalizing dysfunction that include intense affect less strongly than does NU. In three studies, the authors showed that negative urgency concurrently predicted alcohol dependence symptoms in disordered women, drinking problems and smoker status in preadolescents, and aggression, risky sex, illegal drug use, drinking problems, and conduct disordered behavior in college students. High Neuroticism traits predicted internalizing dysfunction but predicted none of these externalizing criteria beyond negative urgency. Low Conscientiousness did not add to prediction from negative urgency, except in a few cases. The tendency toward affect-driven rash action may underlie many externalizing behaviors. PMID:21859164

  4. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  5. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. The view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

  6. Exploring Planet Sizes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to compare models of the size of Earth to other planets and the distances to other planets. Activities highlight space missions to other planets in our s...

  7. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  8. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  9. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  10. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  11. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  12. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant. If spirits are received in a tank car or tank truck, and the result of the... the distilled spirits plant that paid or determined the tax, the manufacturer shall retain the...

  13. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  14. Project SPIRIT Evaluation Report: 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette P.; Crawford, Vanella A.

    The 1987-1988 Project SPIRIT programs were evaluated for effectiveness from the points of view of the participants, both parents and children. An initiative of the Congress of National Black Churches that was begun in the summer of 1986, Project SPIRIT aims to nurture children's strength, perseverance, imagination, responsibility, integrity, and…

  15. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  16. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  17. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  18. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  19. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... specific gravity at the temperature of the spirits is not more than 1.0) and reference to Table 4 for the wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25, to determine the specific gravity of the spirits (if the specific gravity at...

  20. Investigating the moderating role of emotional awareness in the association between urgency and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Manjrekar, Eishita; Berenbaum, Howard; Bhayani, Natasha

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating has been found to be associated with urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect) and emotional awareness (i.e., attention to emotions, clarity of emotions). The present study tested the hypothesis that the relation between binge eating and urgency would be moderated by emotional awareness, over and above negative affect. Participants were 249 female college students. Items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), the Urgency subscale of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Bulimia (B) subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3) were administered. As predicted, emotional awareness moderated the link between urgency and binge eating. Both Urgency×Attention to emotions and Urgency×Clarity of emotions significantly predicted binge eating scores, even after taking into account negative affect. Consistent with past research, higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of binge eating, even after taking negative affect into account. However, the associations were particularly strong among individuals with low levels of attention to emotions and low levels of clarity of emotions. The findings from this study have implications for future research examining binge eating. PMID:25679369

  1. The spirit of oncology nursing care.

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Cancer awakens the need to honour our spirit. The resiliency of the human spirit helps patients and families find strength and hope and move forward on their journey. As oncology nurses, we empower families by connecting with and sharing our own spirit, honouring and being present to their journey, and guiding them forward as they anticipate challenges ahead. Caring isn't about doing for, but being there and being the wind behind the sails. When we connect with our spirit, we stay open to the unfolding mystery of life. Allow mystery and discovery in your life to drive your spirit of caring and to remind you to look for the rainbows. PMID:12793155

  2. Exploring divergent trajectories: Disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and dysregulated eating.

    PubMed

    Racine, Sarah E; Martin, Shelby J

    2016-08-01

    Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a well-established risk factor for dysregulated eating (e.g., binge eating, loss of control eating, emotional eating). However, negative urgency is transdiagnostic, in that it is associated with multiple forms of psychopathology. It is currently unclear why some individuals with high negative urgency develop dysregulated eating while others experience depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Investigating disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and psychopathology may help elucidate these divergent trajectories. The current study examined interactions among negative urgency and eating disorder-specific risk factors specified in the well-established dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint). We hypothesized that these interactions would predict dysregulated eating, but not depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to test this hypothesis in a large (N = 313) sample of female college students. Negative urgency was significantly associated with dysregulated eating, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. However, interactions among negative urgency and dual-pathway model variables were specific to dysregulated eating and accounted for an additional 3-5% of the variance beyond main effects. Findings suggest that eating disorder-specific risk factors may shape negative urgency into manifesting as dysregulated eating versus another form of psychopathology. Future research should use longitudinal designs to further test the impact of interactions among disorder-specific risk factors and negative urgency on divergent psychopathology trajectories. PMID:27025795

  3. Hypertensive urgency: an important aetiology of rebound hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malaty, John; Malaty, Irene A

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old African-American man with a history of hypertension, end-stage kidney disease (on haemodialysis) and previous cocaine misuse presented to the emergency room with a sudden onset of severe headache and diaphoresis without other neurological or cardiovascular signs/symptoms. He checked his blood pressure at home and found it to be 230/130. It did not improve despite taking two serial doses of oral clonidine 0.3 mg. Evaluation with head CT and lumbar puncture demonstrated no acute intracranial process, such as subarachnoid haemorrhage. These symptoms started after he took Libido-Max, an over-the-counter supplement for erectile dysfunction. This supplement includes yohimbine, an α-2 antagonist, which counteracts the effects of oral clonidine, one of his routine antihypertensive medications. This led to rebound hypertension and made his hypertensive urgency resistant to oral clonidine. He was successfully treated with intravenous labetalol and his symptoms quickly resolved after lowering of his blood pressure. PMID:25336552

  4. [Urgency and acuity judgment systems before medical care (emergency telephone consultation center #7119, JTAS etc.)].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Yoshida, Masashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Currently growing the demand of the emergency medical care in Japan, sharing the concept about medical urgency is needed in the whole society in order to maintain the emergency medical systems as social resources. The present conditions and challenges are outlined: Emergency Telephone Consultation Center in Tokyo Fire Department (established in June 2007) and on-site triage as representatives of "pre-hospital urgency determination systems", and JTAS (Japan Triage and Acuity System, introduced in April 2012) as a representative of "in-hospital, pre-examination urgency determination systems". PMID:26915257

  5. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  6. Negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use: Associations with displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jillian Panuzio; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E

    2015-09-01

    The numerous public health consequences of interpersonal aggression highlight the necessity of a comprehensive understanding of factors influencing its perpetration. This study examined direct and interactive associations between negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use in predicting displaced aggression under conditions of negative mood. Participants were 197 male and female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to employ either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression in response to a negative mood induction. Immediately afterwards, participants engaged in an analog displaced aggression task. Results revealed direct, positive associations between negative urgency and aggression. In addition, the use of suppression was associated with greater aggression than was the use of reappraisal alone. Counter to the hypothesis, there were no interactive effects between negative urgency and emotion regulation strategy use in predicting aggression. Findings suggest reducing negative urgency and use of suppression as potential intervention targets for individuals who engage in aggressive behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:502-512, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25753818

  7. Is urgency emotionality? Separating urgent behaviors from effects of emotional experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Coskunpinar, Ayca

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has supported the role of positive and negative maladaptive behaviors, but has not addressed the strong conceptual overlap of these traits with frequency/intensity of emotions and lack of premeditation. The current study empirically examined the differential effects of urgency, emotions, and lack of premeditation on risk-taking behavior in a sample of 520 U.S. undergraduate students. The results of the study indicate that (1) urgency is a significant predictor of risky behavior, independent of frequency/intensity of emotions, (2) urgency predicts above and beyond the additive and interactive effects of lack of premeditation and frequency/intensity of emotions, and (3) those who are high in both urgency and drinking motives are at greatest risk for drinking/drunkenness. PMID:20514352

  8. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Recovering Spirit Sends a New Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took and returned this image on January 28, 2004, the first picture from Spirit since problems with communications began a week earlier. The image from the rover's front hazard identification camera shows the robotic arm extended to the rock called Adirondack. As it had been instructed a week earlier, the Moessbauer spectrometer, an instrument for identifying the minerals in rocks and soils, is still placed against the rock. Engineers are working to restore Spirit to working order so that the rover can resume the scientific exploration of its landing area.

  10. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009).

    Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

    2004-06-22

    When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft. PMID:15204277

  12. How do negative emotions impair self-control? A neural model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Powell, David K; Andersen, Anders H; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-05-15

    Self-control often fails when people experience negative emotions. Negative urgency represents the dispositional tendency to experience such self-control failure in response to negative affect. Neither the neural underpinnings of negative urgency nor the more general phenomenon of self-control failure in response to negative emotions are fully understood. Previous theorizing suggests that an insufficient, inhibitory response from the prefrontal cortex may be the culprit behind such self-control failure. However, we entertained an alternative hypothesis: negative emotions lead to self-control failure because they excessively tax inhibitory regions of the prefrontal cortex. Using fMRI, we compared the neural activity of people high in negative urgency with controls on an emotional, inhibitory Go/No-Go task. While experiencing negative (but not positive or neutral) emotions, participants high in negative urgency showed greater recruitment of inhibitory brain regions than controls. Suggesting a compensatory function, inhibitory accuracy among participants high in negative urgency was associated with greater prefrontal recruitment. Greater activity in the anterior insula on negatively-valenced, inhibitory trials predicted greater substance abuse one month and one year after the MRI scan among individuals high in negative urgency. These results suggest that, among people whose negative emotions often lead to self-control failure, excessive reactivity of the brain's regulatory resources may be the culprit. PMID:26892861

  13. 27 CFR 19.475 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use... § 19.475 Spirits for industrial use. (a) Containers. A proprietor may fill denatured spirits or other spirits for industrial use into suitable containers. The proprietor must ensure that all containers...

  14. 27 CFR 19.475 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use... § 19.475 Spirits for industrial use. (a) Containers. A proprietor may fill denatured spirits or other spirits for industrial use into suitable containers. The proprietor must ensure that all containers...

  15. 27 CFR 19.475 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use... § 19.475 Spirits for industrial use. (a) Containers. A proprietor may fill denatured spirits or other spirits for industrial use into suitable containers. The proprietor must ensure that all containers...

  16. 27 CFR 19.475 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use... § 19.475 Spirits for industrial use. (a) Containers. A proprietor may fill denatured spirits or other spirits for industrial use into suitable containers. The proprietor must ensure that all containers...

  17. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in...

  18. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  19. 27 CFR 19.320 - Identification of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subsequent packaging in wooden packages, he may identify such spirits with the specific designation to which..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.320 Identification of spirits. At the time of production gauge, containers of spirits shall be identified by the proprietor...

  20. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits...

  1. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits...

  2. 27 CFR 19.710 - Inventory of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Spirits § 19.710 Inventory of spirits. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must take a physical inventory of all spirits and fuel alcohol on the bonded premises at the end of each calendar year. The... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory of spirits....

  3. 27 CFR 19.710 - Inventory of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Spirits § 19.710 Inventory of spirits. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant must take a physical inventory of all spirits and fuel alcohol on the bonded premises at the end of each calendar year. The... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory of spirits....

  4. 27 CFR 19.726 - Authorized abbreviations to identify spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... records: Kinds of spirits Abbreviations Alcohol A Brandy BR Bourbon Whisky BW Canadian Whisky CNW Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Corn Whisky CW Grain Spirits GS Irish Whisky IW Light Whisky LW Malt Whisky MW Neutral Spirits NS Neutral Spirits Grain NSG Rye Whisky RW Scotch Whisky SW Specially...

  5. 27 CFR 17.151 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.151 Use of distilled spirits....

  6. 27 CFR 31.141 - Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 31.141 Section 31.141 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Purchases of Distilled Spirits § 31.141 Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits. (a) General. It is unlawful for any dealer to purchase distilled spirits for resale from any person other than: (1) A...

  7. Spirit Hibernating, May Not Call Home

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA mission controllers have not heard from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since March 22, and the rover is facing its toughest challenge yet -- trying to survive the harsh Martian winter. Duri...

  8. Reinvigorating the Entrepreneurial Spirit of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This talk gives a rundown of a career in servicing and looks to the future of servicing and scientific missions working together. The talk attempts to reinvigorate the old NASA entrepreneurial spirit.

  9. September 11: Atrocity and the Human Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Student teacher and former investment banker working in the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, describes his experience and reflects on the strength of human spirit and collective action. (PKP)

  10. The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

  11. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. PMID:26005123

  12. Peeking at the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about each of the planets in our solar system. Focuses on information related to the space missions that have visited or flown near each planet, and includes a summary of what is known about some of the features of each planet. (DDR)

  13. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  14. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  15. Calendars in the Gregorian Spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Heiner; Richter, Peter H.

    The Gregorian Calendar is an adaptable cyclic, lunisolar time-reckoning system [1]. It assumes the following equations: atrop &=& 1461/4 - s/(100 × P1) quad days msyn &=& atrop / (235/19 + e/(3000 × P2))quad day s for the average tropical year atrop and the average synodical month msyn, respectively [2]. s is the number of leap years reverting to common years at the secular boundaries of the period P1, measured in centuries. e is the number of (net) adjustments of the epact at the secular boundaries of the period P2, measured in centuries. The particular form of this rational approximation characterizes the Gregorian spirit; the standard integers s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -43, P2 = 100 are open for adjustment. Truncated continued fraction expansions should be used to successively improve the accuracy. For atrop = 365.2422 d and msyn = 29.530588 d, we find that s = 3, P1 = 4, e = -19, P2 = 44 is slightly better than the standard values. Its fundamental equation 2,508,000 atrop = 31,019,639 msyn = 916,028,190 d defines a period about half as long as for the usual Gregorian calendar, 5,700,000 atrop = 70,499,183 msyn = 2,081,882,250 d [3]. [1] Clavius, Chr., Rom. Cal. Explic., Rome 1603, (= Op. math., tom. V, Mainz 1612). [2] Lichtenberg, H., The Gregorian Calendar: An Adaptable Cyclic Lunisolar Time-reckoning System for the Millennia, Hum. Welf. Stud., vol. 2 (1999), pp. 137 - 148. [3] Explan. Suppl. Astron. Almanac, ed. P. K. Seidelmann, Mill Valley, Ca.,

  16. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  17. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  19. The effects of urgency to reach agreement on the process and outcome of multi-party natural resource negotiations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.; Burkardt, N.; Gillette, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied seven hydropower license consultations to examine the role of a sense of urgency to reach agreement. Hydropower licensing consultations were studied because the statutory requirement for consultation encourages negotiation, all such consultations are similar, and a negotiated settlement is not a foregone result. Cases selected for analysis met screening criteria. Structured interviews were conducted with participants after the negotiations had been concluded. Respondent recollections were checked against the documentary record. A sense of urgency to reach agreement was a significant factor in the completion of these negotiations; where there was no shared sense of urgency, purposeful delay adversely affected the negotiations. Although a sense of urgency was experienced by at least one party in each case, only a shared sense of urgency at the end of the process proved significant. Delay did not prevent ultimate agreement but a shared sense of urgency brought speedier agreement and greater satisfaction with the negotiation.

  20. 27 CFR 19.685 - Return of recovered tax-free spirits, and spirits and denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) General. Specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax under the applicable provisions of 27 CFR part 28 for exportation or for deposit in a foreign-trade zone, and spirits or denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax under the applicable provisions of 27 CFR part 20 or 22, may be returned: (1) To...

  1. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  2. Kepler's missing planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the distributions of the orbital period ratios of adjacent planets in high-multiplicity Kepler systems (four or more planets) and low-multiplicity systems (two planets). Modelling the low-multiplicity sample as essentially equivalent to the high-multiplicity sample, but with unobserved intermediate planets, we find some evidence for an excess of planet pairs between the 2:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances in the low-multiplicity sample. This possible excess may be the result of strong dynamical interactions near these or other resonances or it may be a byproduct of other evolutionary events or processes such as planetary collisions. Three-planet systems show a significant excess of planets near the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that is not as prominent in either of the other samples. This observation may imply a correlation between strong dynamical interactions and observed planet number - perhaps a relationship between resonance pairs and the inclinations or orbital periods of additional planets. The period ratio distributions can also be used to identify targets to search for missing planets in the each of the samples, the presence or absence of which would have strong implications for planet formation and dynamical evolution models.

  3. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could

  4. Nuclear Technology Requires Control by the People, anywhere on Our Planet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2000-03-01

    ------- Human society on our planet, in its historical development, utilizing the knowledge of physics, has reached a powerful technology of nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles, conceivably controllable through a computerized "push-button". Whenever this technology falls under the control of an irresponsible , miscalculating, or, insane, DICTATOR, with powerful means of a mass-produced nuclear built-up, anywhere on our planet, the very survival of all humanity on our planet could be threatened. --- Therefore, it is a historical urgency that this technology is under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently secure system of FREE ELECTIONS, in any country on our planet, wherever and whenever such a threatening possibility exists.

  5. The SARG Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Endl, M.; Fiorenzano, A. F. Martinez; Barbieri, M.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Scuderi, S.; Bonavita, M.

    The search for planets in multiple systems allows to improve our knowledge of planet formation and evolution. On one hand, the frequency of planets in binary systems has a strong effect on the global frequency of planets, as more than half of solar-type stars are in binary or multiple systems (Duquennoy and Mayor 1991). On the other hand, the properties of planets in binaries, and their differences with the properties of the planets orbiting single stars, would shed light on the effects caused by the presence of the companion stars. Indeed, the first analysis of the properties of planets in binaries showed the occurrence of some differences with respect to those orbiting single stars (Zucker and Mazeh 2002; Eggenberger et al. 2004).

  6. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009).

    On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image.

    In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  7. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

    This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

    The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

    Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

    In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

    On the horizon, the

  8. Spirit Takes a Turn for Adirondack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This rear hazard-identification camera image looks back at the circular tracks made in the martian soil when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove about 3 meters (10 feet) toward the mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack, Spirit's first rock target. Spirit made a series of arcing turns totaling approximately 1 meter (3 feet). It then turned in place and made a series of short, straightforward movements totaling approximately 2 meters (6.5 feet). The drive took about 30 minutes to complete, including time stopped to take images. The two rocks in the upper left corner of the image are called 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi.' In the upper right corner is a portion of the lander, now known as the Columbia Memorial Station.

  9. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  10. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  11. Identification and Management of Deep Brain Stimulation Intra- and Postoperative Urgencies and Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Takashi; Foote, Kelly D.; Burdick, Adam P.; Katayama, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Frucht, Steven J.; Okun, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been increasingly utilized for the therapeutic treatment of movement disorders, and with the advent of this therapy more postoperative urgencies and emergencies have emerged. In this paper, we will review, identify, and suggest management strategies for both intra- and postoperative urgencies and emergencies. We have separated the scenarios into 1- surgery/procedure related, 2- hardware related, 3- stimulation induced difficulties, and 4- others. We have included ten illustrative (and actual) case vignettes to augment the discussion of each issue. PMID:19896407

  12. Psychotherapeutic management of a potential spirit medium.

    PubMed

    Woon, T H; Teoh, C L

    1976-03-01

    Psychotherapeutic management of a potential spirit medium (shaman) in a modern University Hospital setting in Malaysia is described. Magical thinking, projection and spirit possession (trance state) occur during management. Discussion of management was based on what Heinz Wolff described as the psychotherapist's functions of (1) psychodynamic understanding; (2) the therapeutic function; and (3) the developmental function. This patient did not conform to the general criteria of a suitable patient for psychotherapy. But her willingness to engage in therapy contributed to a satisfactory outcome. The therapist's growth in cross-cultural therapeutic encounter seems to be prominent. PMID:1065324

  13. Spirit Keeps on Trekking (polar eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This polar-projection mosaic was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired on sol 121 (May 6, 2004). Continuing its trek toward the 'Columbia Hills,' Spirit drove 96.8 meters (318 feet) -- half of which was performed in auto-navigation mode -- and broke its record for the longest distance traveled in one sol. That drive brought the mission total to 1,669 meters (1.04 miles), flipping the rover's odometer over the one-mile mark.

  14. Spirit Keeps on Trekking (vertical eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This vertical-projection mosaic was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired on sol 121 (May 6, 2004). Continuing its trek toward the 'Columbia Hills,' Spirit drove 96.8 meters (318 feet) -- half of which was performed in auto-navigation mode -- and broke its record for the longest distance traveled in one sol. That drive brought the mission total to 1,669 meters (1.04 miles), flipping the rover's odometer over the one-mile mark.

  15. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This stereo, 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

    The view combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

    Spirit took the first of the images that are combined into this view during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

    The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

    Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

    In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

    On the

  16. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  17. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  18. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  19. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  20. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  1. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits or wines are to be laden, the country for which the aircraft is to be cleared, the date of departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where...

  2. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines...

  3. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines...

  4. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines...

  5. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  6. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  7. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of spirits to wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be...

  8. The Teacher as an Archetype of Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Many images of the teacher in the current literature on teaching and teacher reflectivity can be seen as aspects of the Jungian image of the teacher as an archetype of spirit. These images--the teacher as philosopher, prophet, Zen master, and priest--correspond to what I call dialogical, civic, ontological and incarnational spirituality,…

  9. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to 15-foot-high stilts wearing…

  10. George Peabody and the Spirit of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1994-01-01

    One of a collection of articles on philanthropist George Peabody tells the story of two bronze doors made by sculptor Louis Amateis for the U.S. Capitol. The doors include a panel entitled Apotheosis of America that captures Amateis' vision of the spirit of America and includes the figures of George Peabody and other historic personages. (SM)

  11. Measuring School Spirit: A National Teaching Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching of Psychology, 2004

    2004-01-01

    We developed a novel variation on classroom data collection by having students conduct a national research project. Students at 20 different colleges and universities measured "school spirit" at their institutions according to several operational criteria (school apparel wearing, car stickers, alumni donation rate, ratings by a major sports…

  12. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a higher thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (cooler in the day, warmer at night); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (warmer at night, cooler in the day). During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these thermal variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  13. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates warmth; blue indicates coolness. Areas with higher temperatures are more likely to be rocky, as rocks absorb heat. Lower temperatures denote small particles and fewer rocks. During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these temperature variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  14. Loftin Collection (Spirit of St. Louis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Ryan NYP 'Spirit of St. Louis' equipped with 220 HP Wright Whirlwind engine. Charles A. Lindbergh flew this aircraft non-stop from New York to Paris in the period May 20-21 1927. Photographed in San Diego, California. This photo was used in a report, NACA TN, written by Donald Hall who designed the aircraft.

  15. Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville' (QTVR)

    This view captured by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit nearly a year ago is called Spirit's 'Legacy' panorama. It combines many frames acquired during Spirit's 59th through 61st martian days, or sols (March 3 to 5, 2004) from a position about halfway between the landing site and the rim of 'Bonneville Crater.' The location is within the transition from the relatively smooth plains to the more rocky and rugged blanket of material ejected from Bonneville by the force of the impact that dug the crater.

    The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of images obtained in 78 individual pointings. The camera took images though 5 different filter at each pointing. This mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters centered at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    The Columbia Memorial Station lander can be seen about 200 meters (about 650 feet) in the distance by following the rover tracks back toward right of center in the mosaic and zooming in.

  16. The "Spirit of Education" in Indonesian "Pesantren"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilan, Pam

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs Foucauldian theory to consider Islamic boarding school experiences in Indonesia. For some pupils "the spirit of education"--a dimension of pleasure--comes to be highly valued, creating a lifelong passion for the pursuit of knowledge. Two school principals (both "pesantren" [Islamic boarding school] graduates themselves)…

  17. Integration of Impulsivity and Positive Mood to Predict Risky Behavior: Development and Validation of a Measure of Positive Urgency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Fischer, Sarah; Annus, Agnes M.; Peterson, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In 3 studies, the authors developed and began to validate a measure of the propensity to act rashly in response to positive affective states (positive urgency). In Study 1, they developed a content-valid 14-item scale, showed that the measure was unidimensional, and showed that positive urgency was distinct from impulsivity-like constructs…

  18. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11781

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this stereo, full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. South is at the center; north is at both ends.

    This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from

  19. 27 CFR 19.582 - Spirits for nonindustrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... If not inconsistent with the provisions in 27 CFR part 5, spirits for nonindustrial use may be filled... use. 19.582 Section 19.582 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....582 Spirits for nonindustrial use. (a) Determination of use. Containers of spirits of a capacity of...

  20. 27 CFR 19.463 - Loss of spirits from packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of spirits from packages. 19.463 Section 19.463 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Losses and Shortages § 19.463 Loss of spirits from packages. (a) Tampering...

  1. 27 CFR 19.463 - Loss of spirits from packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of spirits from packages. 19.463 Section 19.463 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Losses and Shortages § 19.463 Loss of spirits from packages. (a) Tampering...

  2. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  3. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  4. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  5. 27 CFR 19.308 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.308 Section 19.308 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Spirits Rules for Chemical Byproducts § 19.308 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals and chemical byproducts produced must be substantially free of spirits before being removed from...

  6. 27 CFR 24.235 - Taxpayment or destruction of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.235 Taxpayment or destruction of... of tax procedures of 27 CFR 19.522(c). (b) Destruction of spirits. The proprietor who wants to..., the proposed date and method of destruction, and the reason for destruction. Spirits may not...

  7. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  8. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  9. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  10. 27 CFR 19.286 - Gauging of spirits in bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gauging of spirits in bottles. 19.286 Section 19.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Rules for Gauging § 19.286 Gauging of spirits in bottles. When...

  11. 27 CFR 19.474 - Spirits for nonindustrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spirits for nonindustrial use. 19.474 Section 19.474 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Requirements for Containers § 19.474 Spirits...

  12. 27 CFR 19.286 - Gauging of spirits in bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gauging of spirits in bottles. 19.286 Section 19.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Rules for Gauging § 19.286 Gauging of spirits in bottles. When...

  13. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products...

  14. 27 CFR 19.286 - Gauging of spirits in bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gauging of spirits in bottles. 19.286 Section 19.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Rules for Gauging § 19.286 Gauging of spirits in bottles. When...

  15. 27 CFR 19.474 - Spirits for nonindustrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirits for nonindustrial use. 19.474 Section 19.474 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Requirements for Containers § 19.474 Spirits...

  16. 27 CFR 19.474 - Spirits for nonindustrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spirits for nonindustrial use. 19.474 Section 19.474 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Requirements for Containers § 19.474 Spirits...

  17. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products...

  18. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products...

  19. 27 CFR 19.364 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.364 Section 19.364 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products...

  20. 27 CFR 19.728 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use... premises of an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must render the spirits unfit for beverage use as... alcohol fuel plant premises if they will be used exclusively for fuel. (26 U.S.C. 5181, 5214)...

  1. 27 CFR 19.998 - Transfer in bond of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Withdrawals and Transfers § 19.998 Transfer in bond of spirits. (a) Transfer between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel plant (including the premises of a small plant) for transfer in bond to another alcohol fuel plant. Bulk conveyances in which spirits...

  2. 27 CFR 19.728 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use... premises of an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must render the spirits unfit for beverage use as... alcohol fuel plant premises if they will be used exclusively for fuel. (26 U.S.C. 5181, 5214)...

  3. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits received in...

  4. 27 CFR 19.565 - Shortages of bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 19.565 Section 19.565 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Losses and Shortages Shortages § 19.565 Shortages of bottled distilled spirits. (a) Determination of shortage. Unexplained...

  5. The evolution of urgency-based and functionally referential alarm calls in ground-dwelling species.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Roman D; Manser, Marta B

    2009-03-01

    A major evolutionary force driving functionally referential alarm calls is the need for different strategies to escape various predator types in complex structured habitats. In contrast, a single escape strategy appears to be sufficient in less-structured open habitats, and under such conditions urgency-dependent alarm calls may be favored. Nevertheless, some species, such as meerkats (Suricata suricatta), have evolved functionally referential alarm calls despite living in open areas, using only bolt-holes for retreat. To understand the evolution of different alarm call systems, we investigated the calls of sympatric Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) and compared their antipredator and foraging behavior with that of meerkats. Cape ground squirrels emitted urgency-dependent alarm calls and responded to playbacks depending on urgency, not predator type. Vigilance behavior and habitat use differed between the two species. Meerkats roam widely to find prey and for efficient foraging depend on coordinated predator vigilance and escape behavior. As herbivores with smaller territories, Cape ground squirrels depend less on coordinated antipredator behavior, and urgency-dependent alarm calls encode all essential information. We conclude that habitat complexity does not explain the evolution of functionally referential alarm calls in all species, and other constraints, such as the need to coordinate group movements to maintain foraging efficiency, could be more relevant. PMID:19199527

  6. Emotion-Based Dispositions to Rash Action: Positive and Negative Urgency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    Under heightened emotional states, individuals are more inclined to engage in ill-considered or rash actions than at other times. The authors present evidence for the existence of 2 related traits called positive and negative urgency. The traits refer to individual differences in the disposition to engage in rash action when experiencing extreme…

  7. 27 CFR 19.322 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.322 Section 19.322 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Distilled Spirits Receipt and Storage of Spirits and Wines § 19.322 Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit of spirits into storage account. A proprietor may receive bulk spirits into...

  8. The Spirit of Lyot Conference: Motivations and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, P.

    2007-06-01

    When Bernard Lyot presented the first movie of solar prominences to the IAU in 1938, the audience of astronomers must have appreciated the following: through a feasible technical innovation, scientists could routinely study a known phenomenon through direct imaging. Yet, beyond their imagination was the fact that a small modification to the Lyot coronagraph would reveal new faint moons and rings of the Jovian planets, and the debris disk of Beta Pic. During a 1994 conference in Paris, Brad Smith noted how he verified the disk-like nebulosity at the 2.5-m Las Campanas telescope without the help of a CCD: I decided to look for it [the Beta Pic disk] visually in the eyepiece using transfer optics and a hastily rigged coronagraphic mask. I could see it very clearly! The disk was certainly real. Why were these latter discoveries made in the 1980's instead of the 1930's? It seems that even though Lyot had made a breakthrough with respect to solar observations, the community did not make a sufficient connection with the great French astronomer to realize the full scientific potential of his coronagraph. So what are we missing today? By bringing together instrumentalists and research astronomers, the goal of the Spirit of Lyot Conference is to maximize the scientific gains that are possible with today's state-of-the-art technologies.

  9. Patient automedication and professional prescription pattern in an urgency service in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De-Paula, Karen Barea; Silveira, Leonardo Spohr da; Fagundes, Gabriela Xavier; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Montagner, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated an increased resistance of microorganisms resulting from the widespread use of antimicrobial agents. However, few data are available in the dental literature. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on the patterns of patient usage of antimicrobial prescriptions agents by dentists. A retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the medical records of 223 patients who sought treatment at the Urgency Service, from a Dental School in the South of Brazil, from March 2009 to March 2011. A specific data sheet was used, with questions regarding: patient age and gender; the main complaint; medications used prior to the service; final diagnosis; proposed dental treatment (including prescription medications); and characteristics of the final prescription. Descriptive and inferential statistics were obtained. There was a high frequency of antibiotic use prior to attendance by young patients (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.05). Toothache of endodontic origin was the most frequent patient complaint (72.6%). Endodontic procedures were the measures most frequently adopted to treat the pain (31.2%). The frequency of patient use of antimicrobials prior to the appointment was 14.3%. According to patient records, 83.9% had no systemic drug prescription after receiving urgency treatment. There were few antimicrobial prescriptions after the urgency treatment. The most frequently prescribed agents were amoxicillin, chlorhexidine, and metronidazole. Local measures were more frequently used than systemic approaches to treat urgencies of dental origin. Antimicrobial agents were not frequently prescribed as adjunctives to local administered at the urgency service. PMID:25166763

  10. A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Solifenacin Succinate in Patients with Urinary Frequency with or without Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Park, Won Hee; Park, Choal Hee; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Kim, Duk Yoon; Na, Yong Gil; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency. Materials and Methods This multicenter, 12-week, open-label, comparative, non-inferiority clinical trial assessed whether the solifenacin efficacy for frequency without urgency is non-inferior to its efficacy for frequency with urgency. All patients had micturition frequency ≥8 voids/day with or without urgency. Primary efficacy variable: daily frequency change at 12 weeks relative to baseline. Secondary efficacy variables: change at 12 weeks relative to baseline in Patients' Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), OAB Symptom Score (OABSS), and Benefit, Satisfaction, Willingness to continue (BSW) questionnaire. Results Of the 286 enrolled patients, 240 (83.9%) completed the study (without urgency n = 115; with urgency n = 125). Full dataset analysis revealed that the groups without and with urgency exhibited significant reductions in daily micturition frequency of −2.49±0.35 (mean ± standard error) and −2.63±0.37, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% two-sided CI of the comparison of the two group means was −1.14, which is smaller than the −0.8 margin of clinical equivalence. The two groups did not differ in improvement in PPBC, OABSS, or BSW scores. Both tolerated the treatment well. Conclusions It was not possible to verify that the solifenacin efficacy for frequency alone was non-inferior to its efficacy for OAB. Nevertheless, solifenacin tended to be effective for frequency regardless of urgency. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00979472 PMID:25401784

  11. 27 CFR 19.625 - Shipping records for spirits and specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipping records for spirits and specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax. 19.625 Section 19.625 Alcohol, Tobacco... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Required Records § 19.625 Shipping records for...

  12. 27 CFR 19.625 - Shipping records for spirits and specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipping records for spirits and specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax. 19.625 Section 19.625 Alcohol, Tobacco... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Required Records § 19.625 Shipping records for...

  13. 27 CFR 19.625 - Shipping records for spirits and specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipping records for spirits and specially denatured spirits withdrawn free of tax. 19.625 Section 19.625 Alcohol, Tobacco... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Required Records § 19.625 Shipping records for...

  14. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  15. March of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

  16. Name That Planet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy; Rust, Cindy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in groups explore one planet in the solar system and present their findings to the whole class. Focuses on the planet's location in the solar system, geological features, rate of revolutions, and calendar year. (YDS)

  17. Formation of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, G.; Coradini, A.

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we address the problem of the formation of giant planets and their regular satellites. We study in particular the problem of formation of the Jupiter System comparing the results of the model with the present characteristics of the system, in order to identify what are those better represented by our approach. In fact here, using a 3-D hydro-dynamical code, we study the modalities of gas accretion onto a solid core, believed to be the seed from which Jupiter started. To do that we have modelled three main regions: the central planet, a turbulent accretion disk surrounding it and an extended region from which the gas is collected. In the extended region we treat the gas as a frictionless fluid. Our main goal is to identify what are the characteristics of the planet during its growth and the physical parameters affecting its growth at the expenses of the nebular gas present in the feeding zone. Moreover we want to understand what are the thermodynamical parameters characterizing the gas captured by the planet and swirling around it. Finally, we check if a disk can be formed in prograde rotation around the planet and if this disk can survive the final phases of the planet formation. Due to the interaction between the accreting planet and the disk it has been necessary to develop a complete model of the Jupiter’s structure. In fact the radiation emitted by the growing planet heats up the surrounding gas. In turn the planet’s thermodynamic structure depend on the mass accretion rate onto it. When the accretion is rapid, shock waves in the gas are formed close to the planet. This region cannot be safely treated by a numerical code; for this reason we have developed a semi-analytically model of a a turbulent accretion disk to be considered as transition between the planet and the surrounding disk.

  18. Urgency treatment profile of 0 to 15 year-old children assisted at urgency dental service from Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio da; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2005-12-01

    Dental recordings of 0 to 15-year-old patients assisted at Urgency Dental Service (UDS) from Bauru Dental School, University of São Paulo, in 2001 and 2002, were assessed in order to quantify the number of patients that used the service, to determine attendance patterns, and to record the frequency of different types of dental emergencies and their performed treatment. Data were plotted and submitted to a descriptive statistical analysis. Among the total of patients attended at UDS (6020), 1166 (19.37%) were children, with mean age of 9.24 years. Trauma was the cause for 199 (17.06%) of the recorded urgency visits. It occurred more frequently in children between 0 and 3 years of age (34.42%), and between 7 and 12 years of age (18.12%). The main treatments performed were temporary restoration (33.33%) for coronal fracture, and orientation (24.44%) for luxation. Nontraumatic events were the etiology for 967 (82.92%) of the total urgency diagnosis. The most commonly found nontraumatic diagnosis was dental caries lesions (61.75%), followed by problems of eruption or root resorption (14.27%) and bone or soft tissue lesions (6.51%), among others (17.47%). The most frequent treatments performed for caries lesions were: excavation and temporary restoration (39.39%) when there was no abscess, and coronal opening and dressing (40.95%) for caries lesions with abscess. There was an increasing trend in caries lesions prevalence according to the rising of the age, in contrast to trauma prevalence. Treatment for both situations was done according to the indicated protocol for each case. PMID:20865216

  19. Spirit's 'Paige' Panorama of the Interior of 'Home Plate' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On Feb. 19, 2006, the 758th Martian day of exploration of the red planet by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, the rover acquired this panoramic view of the interior of 'Home Plate,' a circular topographic feature amid the 'Columbia Hills.' This view, called the 'Paige' panorama, is from the top of Home Plate. It shows layered rocks exposed at the edge as well as dark rocks exhibiting both smooth and sponge-like 'scoriaceous' textures. To the east from this vantage point, 'McCool Hill' looms on the horizon. At the base of McCool Hill is a reddish outcrop called 'Oberth,' which Spirit may explore during the rapidly approaching Martian winter. 'Von Braun' and 'Goddard' hills are partially visible beyond the opposite rim of Home Plate.

    The limited spatial coverage of this panorama is the result of steadily decreasing power available to the rover for science activities as the Martian winter arrives and the sun traces a lower path across the sky. The rover team anticipates that the north-facing slopes of McCool Hill should sufficiently tilt the rover's solar panels toward the sun to allow Spirit to survive the winter.

    The view covers about 230 degrees of terrain around the rover. Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) took 72 separate images of this scene with four different Pancam filters. This is a false-color rendering using the Pancam's 75-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters, enhanced to show many subtle color differences in rocks, soils, and hills in the scene. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  20. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. PMID:24767070

  1. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  2. Hazards to Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Orion Nebula provides a remarkable window on the first few million years in the lives of typical young stars and planetary systems. HST has demonstrated that most young stars in the Nebula are surrounded by circumstellar disks (the so-called `proplyds'). While these observations show that planet forming environments may be common, they also demonstrate that Orion's disks are being destroyed by intense UV radiation fields. `Gravel' sufficiently large to resist photo-erosion (meter scale solids or ices) may lock-up sufficient material to eventually build rocky planets. Indeed, there is evidence for large solids in some proplyds. But, the hydrogen and helium needed for the formation of giant planets will be removed. To form in Orion-like environments, giant planets must be assembled promptly prior to UV exposure. Even rocky planets may not form if the photoionized disk corona causes surviving large particles in the disk to spiral into the central star. Thus, nearby massive stars pose severe hazards to planet formation. Star counts indicate that most stars form in Orion-like environments. Only about 10% of young stars are born in shielded environments such as the Taurus or L1641 clouds where disks may escape photo-erosion. In dark clouds, the majority of stars (> 80%) form in non-hierarchal multiple star systems where close encounters with sibling stars can destroy disks and eject young planets. Thus, most stars may never develop planetary systems. These considerations indicate that extra-Solar planets may be rare, contrary to the popular view. These conclusions are consistent with the recent discoveries of extra-Solar planets around a few percent of single stars.

  3. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James; Palmer, David; Doyon, Rene; Gavel, Don; Larkin, James; Oppenheimer, Ben; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Wallace, J. Kent; Bauman, Brian; Evans, Julia; Erikson, Darren; Morzinski, Katie; Phillion, Donald; Poyneer, Lisa; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thibault, Simon; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10 -7 to 10 -8, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  5. Planet formation and searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Ryan Michael

    2009-08-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities for discovery of terrestrial-mass planets in the habitable zones of their host stars. Towards this aim, we present the results of three projects and discuss another two preliminary studies of further explorations. In so doing, we explore a fairly comprehensive range of possibilities regarding the formation and detection of terrestrial- mass planets in the habitable zone. We first study the potential for terrestrial planets to form in situ in and around the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We proceed to explore the feasibility of searches for these planets using the transit method via Monte- Carlo simulations. We find that M-dwarfs pose an interesting challenge for study: being inherently dim, widely spread on the sky, and photometrically variable. We present results of simulated ground-based transit search campaigns as well as simulated searches from a modest satellite mission. Our second project is a straightforward extension of the previous study: a collaborative effort to search for transit signals around the nearest M-dwarf: Proxima Centauri. We describe our observations as well as the Monte-Carlo analysis used to place constraints on the possible planetary radii and periods. Our third project is a search for transiting extra-solar Jovian planets using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We search through the private Keck radial- velocity datasets for undiscovered Rossiter-McLaughlin signals. We present our results in the form of both strong null-result datasets as well as potential transiting systems. We then briefly analyze these larger Jovian planets for potential to harbor potentially habitable terrestrial satellites. Our final preliminary analysis looks into the potential for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope to detect transiting Neptune-mass planets orbiting M-dwarfs which could then lead to terrestrial-mass planet detections. The sum of these efforts is a comprehensive investigation into the likelihood and

  6. Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering. PMID:22746214

  7. Spirit Says Goodbye to 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For the past several weeks, Spirit has been examining spectacular layered rocks exposed at 'Home Plate.' The rover has been driving around the northern and eastern edges of Home Plate, on the way to 'McCool Hill.' Before departing, Spirit took this image showing some of the most complex layering patterns seen so far at this location.

    The layered nature of these rocks presents new questions for the rover team. In addition to their chemical properties, which scientists can study using Spirit's spectrometers, these rocks record a detailed history of the physical properties that formed them. In the center of this image, one group of layers slopes downward to the right. The layers above and below this group are more nearly horizontal. Where layers of different orientations intersect, other layers are truncated. This indicates that there were complex patterns of alternating erosion and deposition occurring when these layers were being deposited. Similar patterns can be found in some sedimentary rocks on Earth. Physical relationships among the various layers exposed at Home Plate are crucial evidence in understanding how these Martian rocks formed. Scientists suspect that the rocks at Home Plate were formed in the aftermath of a volcanic explosion or impact event, and they are investigating the possibility that wind may also have played a role in redistributing materials after such an event.

    Images like this one from panoramic camera (Pancam), which shows larger-scale layering, as well as those from the microscopic imager, which reveal the individual sand-sized grains that make up these rocks, are essential to understanding the geologic history of Home Plate.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters during Spirit's 774th Martian day (March 8, 2006).

  8. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  9. Recovering Spirit Sets Sight on Cake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These are the first images sent back from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since the rover experienced communications problems on the 18th sol, or martian day, of its mission. They were acquired at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 26 (Jan. 29, 2004), showing that the camera's health remained excellent during Spirit's recovery. Two of Spirit's potential target rocks, which are near the rock called Adirondack, can be seen on the lower left and right. The rock on the left has been named 'Cake,' and the white rock on the right has been named 'Blanco.'

    In the upper left is a color image of the panoramic camera calibration target, also known as the martian sundial. The color panel of the calibration target looks almost exactly like it did on Earth, indicating that the color shown of Mars, though approximated, is close to true color.

    The monochrome image in the upper right shows the sun, magnified five times. This image was acquired by the panoramic camera as part of a routine sequence of images designed to monitor the dust abundance in the martian atmosphere. The dust abundance appears to be decreasing slowly with time, consistent with the atmosphere continuing to clear after the large dust storm of last December.

  10. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009).

    The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right.

    The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate.

    In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Spirit Beside 'Home Plate,' Sol 1809 (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11803

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images assembled into this stereo, 120-degree view southward after a short drive during the 1,809th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (February 3, 2009).

    By combining images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera, the view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left.

    Spirit had driven about 2.6 meters (8.5 feet) that sol, continuing a clockwise route around a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' In this image, the rocks visible above the rovers' solar panels are on the slope at the northern edge of Home Plate.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. 'Gibson' Panorama by Spirit at 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Gibson' Panorama by Spirit at 'Home Plate' (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this high-resolution view of intricately layered exposures of rock while parked on the northwest edge of the bright, semi-circular feature known as 'Home Plate.' The rover was perched at a 27-degree upward tilt while creating the panorama, resulting in the 'U' shape of the mosaic. In reality, the features along the 1-meter to 2-meter (1-foot to 6.5-foot) vertical exposure of the rim of Home Plate in this vicinity are relatively level. Rocks near the rover in this view, known as the 'Gibson' panorama, include 'Barnhill,' 'Rogan,' and 'Mackey.'

    Spirit acquired 246 separate images of this scene using 6 different filters on the panoramic camera (Pancam) during the rover's Martian days, or sols, 748 through 751 (Feb. 9 through Feb. 12, 2006). The field of view covers 160 degrees of terrain around the rover. This image is an approximately true-color rendering using Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  13. Abuse, mastery, and health among lesbian, bisexual, and two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M

    2009-07-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or "two-spirit" appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women. PMID:19594256

  14. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  15. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This presentation highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines around "mystery planets" using orbiting "spacecraft" (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle/high school age audiences. However, we also show a scaled-down version that has been used with elementary school age audiences.

  16. Managing Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  17. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  18. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  19. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  20. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  1. Atmospheres of Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy

    The giant planets of the solar system have been studied for centuries using a wide range of remote sensing and in situ techniques. An understanding of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune has dramatically improved since the dawn of spacecraft exploration of the outer solar system in the 1970s. Cloud decks that were predicted to exist from thermochemical equilibrium arguments have been observationally confirmed, although the exact vertical distribution of condensible species in these atmospheres remains an active area of study. All four of the giant planets have fast zonal (east-west) winds with prograde and retrograde jets, which dominate their atmospheric circulations. Each planet also contains long-lived cyclonic features or convective cloud features that appear and disappear on short timescales. These features suggest a link between the energy transport in the deep atmosphere and the visible cloud tops; the exact nature of this connection remains an outstanding question in giant planet atmosphere studies. The chemistry of the giant planet atmospheres is driven by both the convective processes that loft disequilibrium species from the deep atmosphere into the stratosphere and the interaction between stratospheric materials and ultraviolet sunlight. A unique opportunity to study these interactions was presented to planetary scientists in 1994, when the 22 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted Jupiter. The future of giant planet atmospheric studies is promising. Several mission concepts that will answer fundamental questions regarding giant planet atmospheres are in various stages of development, and the James Webb Space Telescope will also contribute especially to our understanding of Uranus and Neptune. As an understanding of giant planet formation and evolution expands and deepens, these knowledge gains must be examined against the backdrop of the numerous exoplanet systems recently discovered, very few of which resemble our own.

  2. The planet Mercury (1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  3. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, J. R.; Palmer, D.; Doyon, R.; Larkin, J.; Oppenheimer, B.; Saddlemyer, L.; Veran, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2007-12-01

    Direct detection of extrasolar planets would be a major step in the study of other solar systems, sensitive to planets beyond the period cutoff of Doppler surveys. Furthermore, such planets can be spectrally characterized to measure temperature, gravity, and perhaps composition, shedding light on planet formation and evolution. Surveys of 50-100 young stars with current generation AO systems have excluded the presence of massive (2-10 MJ), young (? Myr) planets in wide (? AU) orbits, but to probe 5-20 AU scales around a large sample of target stars will require dedicated next-generation instruments. One such facility will be the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). It combines a 2000-actuator adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 9. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets - opening up a new field in the characterization of the environments of nearby stars. I will present an overview of the instrument design and its scientific capabilities. GPI is currently in the design phase, scheduled for deployment as a facility instrument on the Gemini South telescope in early 2011. Portions of this work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership.

  4. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  5. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  6. Communicating the Urgency and Challenge of Global Climate Change: Lessons Learned and New Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Moser, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Climate change can sometimes be characterized as a "creeping environmental problem"--it is complex and long-term, involves long system lags, lacks the immediacy of everyday experience and thus is hard to perceive, and feels overwhelming to most individuals. Climate change thus does not typically attain the status of an urgent concern, taking priority over other matters for individuals, organizations or in the policy arena. We review the major reasons behind this lack of urgency, and document the observed consequences of previous communication strategies, including lack of public understanding, indifference, confusion, fear and uncertainty. We find that certain emotional motivators such as fear and guilt, while oft-employed, do not actually result in improved recognition of the urgency of the issue, nor do they typically result in action. Rather, positive and engaging approaches may be more likely to achieve this goal. We propose seven strategies to improve the communication of climate change and its urgency: 1) Abide by basic communication rules and heed the warnings of communication experts; 2) Address the emotional and the temporal components of "urgency"; 3) Increase the persuasiveness of the message; 4) Use trusted messengers-broaden the circle; 5) Use opportunities well; 6) Tap into individual and cultural strengths and values; and 7) Unite and Conquer. The multi-faceted nature of the proposed strategies reflects the unique challenges of the climate change issue as well as the need to engage all levels and sectors of societies in the solution, from individuals, to businesses, to governments. These strategies and results emerged from a multi-disciplinary, academic/practitioner workshop on the topic held at NCAR in summer 2004.

  7. Building a virtual planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.

    2002-01-01

    The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

  8. Editorial: Should We Develop a Sense of Urgency in Science and Technology Development?

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-07-01

    In his book A Sense of Urgency, John P. Kotter describes how organizations must develop the right sense of urgency as an enabler for organizational changes necessary to compete in today’s global economy. A surfeit of complacency promotes institutional inertia that solely relies on past accomplishments, people *hoping* that the tomorrow will be an extrapolation of the today. However, the reality is that the marketplace around us changes drastically at an ever-increasing rate of change. Only x number of Fortune 500 companies are still on the list who were there five years ago . Transferring the sense of urgency from a business setting to the nation’s energy and energy security area is critical, Peter Ogden et al. wrote in a 2008 article in the journal Issues Online in Science and Technology. In the article, Ending the Inertia on Energy Policy. A new Strategy to Spur Energy Innovation, he writes, the United States must undergo an innovation revolution. The rate at which the United States is able to develop and deploy new energy technologies will, to a great extent, determine the ultimate speed and cost of the economic transformation

  9. Emotion-based Dispositions to Rash Action: Positive and Negative Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    Under heightened emotional states, individuals are more inclined to engage in ill-considered or rash actions than at other times. The authors present evidence for the existence of two related traits called positive and negative urgency. The traits refer to individual differences in the disposition to engage in rash action when experiencing extreme positive and negative affect, respectively. The authors provide evidence that these traits are distinct from other dispositions toward rash action, and that they play distinct roles in predicting problem levels of involvement in behaviors such as alcohol consumption, binge eating, drug use, and risky sexual behavior. The authors identify facilitative conditions for the emergence of the urgency traits from neuroscience. Certain gene polymorphisms are associated with low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine; that pattern of neurotransmitter activity in a brain system linking the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala appears to facilitate development of positive and negative urgency. The authors discuss the implications of this theory. PMID:18954158

  10. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  11. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.; Ida, S.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  12. Spirit Self-Portrait, Sols 329-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take the images combined into this mosaic view of the rover. The downward-looking view omits the mast on which the camera is mounted. It shows dust accumulation on Spirit's solar panels. The images were taken through the camera's 600-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters during Spirit's 329th and 330th martian days, or sols (Dec. 7 and 8, 2004).

  13. Dynamical Simulations of Terrestrial Planet Formation During Giant Planet Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, A. M.; Raymond, S. N.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of dynamical simulations of young planetary systems undergoing migration of a Jovian-type planet through the terrestrial region. We find that a significant fraction (10-40%) of the initial planetary embryos remain after giant planet migration, and subsequent evolution of the system results in the formation of terrestrial planets in various configurations, often including a planet in the Habitable Zone. In simulations with gas drag, 3-6 Earth mass planets are formed interior to the migrating Jovian planet, swept inward through moving resonances, and eccentricities are damped for all planets. Systematic variations are seen between simulations with and without gas drag. The presence of a second, non-migrating giant planet reduces the water content and mass of the planets formed throughout the system. This research was supported in part by the Penn State Astrobiology Research Center and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  14. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    The Protostars and Planets book and conference series has been a long-standing tradition that commenced with the first meeting led by Tom Gehrels and held in Tucson, Arizona, in 1978. The goal then, as it still is today, was to bridge the gap between the fields of star and planet formation as well as the investigation of planetary systems and planets. As Tom Gehrels stated in the preface to the first Protostars and Planets book, "Cross-fertilization of information and understanding is bound to occur when investigators who are familiar with the stellar and interstellar phases meet with those who study the early phases of solar system formation." The central goal remained the same for the subsequent editions of the books and conferences Protostars and Planets II in 1984, Protostars and Planets III in 1990, Protostars and Planets IV in 1998, and Protostars and Planets V in 2005, but has now been greatly expanded by the flood of new discoveries in the field of exoplanet science. The original concept of the Protostars and Planets series also formed the basis for the sixth conference in the series, which took place on July 15-20, 2013. It was held for the first time outside of the United States in the bustling university town of Heidelberg, Germany. The meeting attracted 852 participants from 32 countries, and was centered around 38 review talks and more than 600 posters. The review talks were expanded to form the 38 chapters of this book, written by a total of 250 contributing authors. This Protostars and Planets volume reflects the current state-of-the-art in star and planet formation, and tightly connects the fields with each other. It is structured into four sections covering key aspects of molecular cloud and star formation, disk formation and evolution, planetary systems, and astrophysical conditions for life. All poster presentations from the conference can be found at www.ppvi.org. In the eight years that have passed since the fifth conference and book in the

  15. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  16. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  17. Spirit's 'Lookout Panorama' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This is a stereoscopic version of the Spirit panoramic camera's 'Lookout' panorama, acquired on the rover's 410th to 413th martian days, or sols (Feb. 27 to Mar. 2, 2005). The view is from a position known informally as 'Larry's Lookout' along the drive up 'Husband Hill.' The summit of Husband Hill is the far peak near the center of this panorama and is about 200 meters (656 feet) away from the rover and about 45 meters (148 feet) higher in elevation. The bright rocky outcrop near the center of the panorama is part of the 'Cumberland Ridge,' and beyond that and to the left is the 'Tennessee Valley.' Spirit's tracks leading back from the 'West Spur' region can be seen on the right side of the panorama. The region just beyond the area where the tracks made their last zig-zag is the area known as 'Paso Robles,' where Spirit discovered rock and soil deposits with very high sulfur abundances.

    This stereo anaglyph is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with special 'untilt' processing. The tilt of the rover (roll -14 degrees, pitch +13 degrees) has been removed by special processing of the images, resulting in a flat horizon (thus a more 'natural' view) with very little vertical disparity. (Vertical disparity is one of the main things that give you a headache when looking at stereo images.) Geometric and brightness corrections have been applied.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  18. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... may not be withdrawn, used, sold, or disposed of for other than fuel use; (d) An alcohol fuel plant... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits...

  19. 27 CFR 19.329 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.329 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When wines or spirits of less than 190° of proof are mingled in a tank, the proprietor must gauge the spirits or...

  20. 27 CFR 28.116 - Notice of return of spirits withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a distilled spirits plant desires to return spirits to his plant as provided in § 28.115, he shall... perjury and shall show: (a) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant to which the spirits are to be returned. (b) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant...

  1. 27 CFR 28.116 - Notice of return of spirits withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a distilled spirits plant desires to return spirits to his plant as provided in § 28.115, he shall... perjury and shall show: (a) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant to which the spirits are to be returned. (b) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant...

  2. 27 CFR 28.116 - Notice of return of spirits withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a distilled spirits plant desires to return spirits to his plant as provided in § 28.115, he shall... perjury and shall show: (a) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant to which the spirits are to be returned. (b) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant...

  3. 27 CFR 28.116 - Notice of return of spirits withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a distilled spirits plant desires to return spirits to his plant as provided in § 28.115, he shall... perjury and shall show: (a) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant to which the spirits are to be returned. (b) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant...

  4. 27 CFR 28.116 - Notice of return of spirits withdrawn without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a distilled spirits plant desires to return spirits to his plant as provided in § 28.115, he shall... perjury and shall show: (a) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant to which the spirits are to be returned. (b) Name, address, and plant number of the distilled spirits plant...

  5. 27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification, warehousing, or warehousing and..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.82 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits...

  6. 27 CFR 28.58 - Operations or unit bond-distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-distilled spirits. 28.58 Section 28.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... § 28.58 Operations or unit bond—distilled spirits. (a) Spirits. Where spirits are withdrawn without payment of tax, as authorized in § 28.91, from the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant...

  7. Spirit Rises to the Occasion (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation strings together images from the rover's front hazard avoidance camera taken during the stand-up process of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The first frame shows the rover's wheels tucked under in pre-stand-up position. The following frames show the stages of the stand-up process. The rover first elevates itself and unfolds the wheels. It then lowers, lifts and lowers again into its final position. Note the changing camera perspectives of the martian landscape, indicating the rover's heightened and lowered positions.

  8. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the spirit and mind in health and well-being among Chumash people. Prayer was the first step in healing since prayer invites the participation of God. Initiation practices are discussed that encouraged young people to develop the maturity and spiritual strength to become productive members of society. Pictographs were used in healing usually not only as a relaxation therapy, but also as a mode of education. A supportive environment was an important factor in Chumash health care, since the support of friends helps, comforts and relieves anxiety that is detrimental to healing. PMID:16322802

  9. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. Clusters of cool rocks can be seen to the left and center. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  10. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. A warm and dusty depression similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow stands out to the upper right. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  11. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle

  12. The Science from Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation shows views from the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Included are views of the takeoff, and descent on to Mars. The science objective of these missions are to determine the water, climate, and geologic history of two sites on Mars where evidence has been preserved for past and persistent liquid water activity that may have supported biotic or pre-biotic processes. There are also shots of the Athena Science Payload with views of the instrumentation. Also presented are graphs showing Mossbauer Spectra of varions martian rocks.

  13. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  14. Finding the Spirit Within: A Critical Analysis of Film Techniques in "Spirited Away"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Damon

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the New South Wales Board of Studies included Hayao Miyazaki's film "Spirited Away" as the prescribed text for the Higher School Certificate Japanese Extension course. A study of the film in this context requires students to engage with the text in three distinct ways: through language, cultural symbolism and relevance, and detailed…

  15. The Spirit that Strengthens Me: Merging the "Life of the Mind" with "Life in the Spirit"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Katherine Grace

    2009-01-01

    Wholeness brings to mind the soul/spirit and, quite naturally, a discussion of what constitutes spirituality. In general, the definition of spirituality is associated with an attitude or way of life that may or may not be connected to Christian, Buddhist, Hindi, Jewish, or Muslim religions. Whether the approach to the topic is religious or…

  16. Magnetic Mystery Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M.; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and they can even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This paper highlights a classroom presentation and accompanying activity that focuses on the differences between the magnetic fields of Venus, Earth, and Mars, what these differences mean, and how we measure these differences. During the activity, students make magnetic field measurements and draw magnetic field lines of “mystery planets” using orbiting “spacecraft” (small compasses). Based on their observations, the students then determine whether they are orbiting Venus-like, Earth-like, or Mars-like planets. This activity is targeted to middle and high school audiences. However, we have also used a scaled-down version with elementary school audiences.

  17. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  18. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn and Europa/Jupiter Missions. We provide the background, organization and schedule that are presently envisaged for these two mission studies.

  19. Outer Planets Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  20. Recipes for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  1. Characterizing extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    Transiting extrasolar planets provide the best current opportunities for characterizing the physical properties of extrasolar planets. In this review, I first describe the geometry of planetary transits, and methods for detecting and refining the observations of such transits. I derive the methods by which transit light curves and radial velocity data can be analyzed to yield estimates of the planetary radius, mass, and orbital parameters. I also show how visible-light and infrared spectroscopy can be valuable tools for understanding the composition, temperature, and dynamics of the atmospheres of transiting planets. Finally, I relate the outcome of a participatory lecture-hall exercise relating to one term in the Drake equation, namely the lifetime of technical civilizations.

  2. Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Bodenheimer, Peter; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Mardling, Rosemary; Minniti, Dante; Queloz, Didier

    2012-04-01

    Commission 53 was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly (GA) of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP), which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding President of Commission 53 was Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The current President is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WGESP. The current members of the Commission 53 (C53) Organizing Committee (OC) began their service in August 2009 at the conclusion of the Rio de Janeiro IAU GA.

  3. Spirit Studies Rock Outcrop at 'Home Plate'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this false-color image at 11:48 local true solar time on Mars on the rover's 746th Martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2006), after using the rock abrasion tool to brush the surfaces of rock targets informally named 'Stars' (left) and 'Crawfords' (right). Small streaks of dust extend for several centimeters behind the small rock chips and pebbles in the dusty, red soils. Because the rover was looking southwest when this image was taken, the wind streaks indicate that the dominant wind direction was from the southeast.

    The targets Stars and Crawfords are on a rock outcrop located on top of 'Home Plate.' The outcrop is informally named 'James 'Cool Papa' Bell,' after a Negro Leagues Hall of Famer who played for both the Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Kansas City Stars. To some science team members, the two brushed spots resemble the eyes of a face, with rocks below and between the eyes as a nose and layered rocks at the bottom of the image as a mouth.

    The image combines frames taken by Spirit's panoramic camera through the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-namometer, and 432-nanometer filters. It is enhanced to emphasize color differences among the rocks, soils and brushed areas. The blue circular area on the left, Stars, was brushed on 761 (Feb. 22, 2006). The one on the right, Crawfords, was brushed on sol 763 (Feb. 25, 2006).

  4. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  5. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  6. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  7. Location of Planet X

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  8. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    During the past two-and-a-half years of traversing the central part of Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has analyzed the brushed and ground-into surfaces of multiple rocks using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which measures the abundance of major chemical elements. In the process, Spirit has documented the first example of a particular kind of volcanic region on Mars known as an alkaline igneous province. The word alkaline refers to the abundance of sodium and potassium, two major rock-forming elements from the alkali metals on the left-hand side of the periodic table.

    All of the relatively unaltered rocks -- those least changed by wind, water, freezing, or other weathering agents -- examined by Spirit have been igneous, meaning that they crystallized from molten magmas. One way geologists classify igneous rocks is by looking at the amount of potassium and sodium relative to the amount of silica, the most abundant rock-forming mineral on Earth. In the case of volcanic rocks, the amount of silica present gives scientists clues to the kind of volcanism that occurred, while the amounts of potassium and sodium provide clues about the history of the rock. Rocks with more silica tend to erupt explosively. Higher contents of potassium and sodium, as seen in alkaline rocks like those at Gusev, may indicate partial melting of magma at higher pressure, that is, deeper in the Martian mantle. The abundance of potassium and sodium determines the kinds of minerals that make up igneous rocks. If igneous rocks have enough silica, potassium and sodium always bond with the silica to form certain minerals.

    The Gusev rocks define a new chemical category not previously seen on Mars, as shown in this diagram plotting alkalis versus silica, compiled by University of Tennessee geologist Harry McSween. The abbreviations 'Na2O' and 'K2O' refer to oxides of sodium and potassium. The abbreviation 'SiO2' refers to silica. The abbreviation 'wt

  9. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 CFR part 70, subpart F. A claim filed under this paragraph with respect to spirits, wine, or..., registry number, and location of the distilled spirits plant which produced the spirits; (2) The...

  10. 27 CFR 19.583 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be packaged and labeled in accordance with the provisions of 27 CFR part 20. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use... for industrial use. (a) Containers. (1) Denatured spirits may be filled into glass or metal...

  11. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  12. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  13. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  14. 27 CFR 19.36 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.36 Section 19.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... industrial processes. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, any person who produces distilled spirits in an industrial process, including spirits produced as a byproduct...

  15. 27 CFR 19.474 - Spirits for nonindustrial use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use. 19.474 Section 19.474 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Containers § 19.474 Spirits for nonindustrial use. (a) Containers. A proprietor may fill spirits for nonindustrial use into packages or into other containers that are filled during processing operations,...

  16. 27 CFR 19.286 - Gauging of spirits in bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 19.286 Section 19.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Gauging of spirits in bottles. When gauging spirits in bottles, the proprietor may determine the proof and quantity from case markings and label information if the bottles are full and there is no evidence...

  17. 27 CFR 19.459 - Mixing of denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing of denatured spirits. 19.459 Section 19.459 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of Articles Denaturation § 19.459 Mixing...

  18. 27 CFR 19.394 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.394 Section 19.394 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles...

  19. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits. 19.391 Section 19.391 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... same formula, the proprietor may mix them on bonded premises. (b) Spirits of different formulas....

  20. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits. 19.391 Section 19.391 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of...

  1. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits. 19.391 Section 19.391 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Denaturing Operations and Manufacture of...

  2. 27 CFR 19.391 - Mixing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixing denatured spirits. 19.391 Section 19.391 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... same formula, the proprietor may mix them on bonded premises. (b) Spirits of different formulas....

  3. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  4. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  5. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  6. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  7. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this chapter shall remain on containers of taxpaid distilled spirits...

  8. Mars Exploration Rover surface operations: driving spirit at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Chris; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Wright, John; Maxwell, Scott; Bonitz, Bob; Biesiadecki, Jeff; Hartman, Frank; Cooper, Brian; Baumgartner, Eric; Maimone, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Spirit is one of two rovers, that landed on Mars in January 2004 as part of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers mission. Since then, Spirit has traveled over 4 kilometers accross the Martian surface while investigating rocks and soils, digging trenches to examine the subsurface environment, and climbing hills to reach outcrops of bedrock.

  9. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  10. 27 CFR 19.326 - Spirits content of chemicals produced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals produced. 19.326 Section 19.326 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.326 Spirits content of chemicals produced. All chemicals produced, including chemical...

  11. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  12. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  13. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  14. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  15. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller..., the contents in liters and the proof of the spirits; and (d) In the case of barrels or casks,...

  16. 27 CFR 19.395 - Labels for export spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 5.22, only to the extent that the label need not bear the word “diluted” on distilled spirits... bottles containing spirits bottled for export shall have securely affixed thereto a label showing the... bottler. The bottler may place on the label any additional information that he may desire if it is...

  17. 27 CFR 19.519 - Labels for export spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... spirits for export, the bottles must have a securely affixed label showing: (1) The kind (class and type.... (b) Additional information. The bottler may place additional information on the export label if it...

  18. 27 CFR 19.519 - Labels for export spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... spirits for export, the bottles must have a securely affixed label showing: (1) The kind (class and type.... (b) Additional information. The bottler may place additional information on the export label if it...

  19. 27 CFR 19.519 - Labels for export spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... spirits for export, the bottles must have a securely affixed label showing: (1) The kind (class and type.... (b) Additional information. The bottler may place additional information on the export label if it...

  20. 27 CFR 19.519 - Labels for export spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements... spirits for export, the bottles must have a securely affixed label showing: (1) The kind (class and type.... (b) Additional information. The bottler may place additional information on the export label if it...

  1. 27 CFR 19.597 - Kind of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with the classes and types of spirits set out in 27 CFR part 5, except that: (1) Spirits distilled at... nonindustrial use which designations do not comply with provisions of 27 CFR part 5. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859... than 51 percent rye, corn, wheat, malted barley, or malted rye grain, packaged in reused cooperage,...

  2. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Alcohol, Specially Denatured Rum, or Articles § 20.213 Reuse of recovered spirits. (a) If the...

  3. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Alcohol, Specially Denatured Rum, or Articles § 20.213 Reuse of recovered spirits. (a) If the...

  4. Nourishing the Learning Spirit: Living Our Way to New Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Learning, as Aboriginal people have come to know it, is holistic, lifelong, purposeful, experiential, communal, spiritual, and learned within a language and a culture. What guides their learning (beyond family, community, and Elders) is spirit, their own learning spirits who travel with them and guide them along their earth walk, offering them…

  5. Spirit and Its Now-Empty Mother Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead polar image was captured after the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took a few baby rolls away from the spacecraft that bore it millions of miles to Mars. The empty lander, now named the Columbia Memorial Station, can be seen to the right of the rover. This image was taken by Spirit's navigation camera.

  6. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled spirits. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Mingling Or Blending...

  7. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  8. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  9. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  10. 27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...

  11. New Social Learning from Two Spirit Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…

  12. 27 CFR 19.728 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... premises of an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must render the spirits unfit for beverage use as... alcohol fuel plant premises if they will be used exclusively for fuel. (26 U.S.C. 5181, 5214) ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits....

  13. 27 CFR 19.728 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... premises of an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must render the spirits unfit for beverage use as... alcohol fuel plant premises if they will be used exclusively for fuel. (26 U.S.C. 5181, 5214) ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits....

  14. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  15. 27 CFR 19.996 - Withdrawal of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol fuel plant, they must be rendered unfit for beverage use as provided in this subpart. Spirits rendered unfit for beverage use (fuel alcohol) may be withdrawn free of tax from plant premises exclusively... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of spirits....

  16. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  17. 27 CFR 19.464 - Denatured spirits inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inventories. 19.464 Section 19.464 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Inventories § 19.464 Denatured spirits inventories. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all denatured spirits in the processing account at the close of each calendar quarter and...

  18. 27 CFR 19.457 - Neutralizing denatured spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neutralizing denatured spirits. 19.457 Section 19.457 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... spirits, if the intended effect of the denaturants is not reduced. Proprietors who neutralize...

  19. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled spirits. Containers of distilled spirits brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

  20. 27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of distilled... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Administrative and Miscellaneous § 19.830 Application of distilled spirits tax....

  1. 27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 1.60 Section 1.60 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS...

  2. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  3. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  4. 27 CFR 31.47 - Warehouse receipts covering spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.47 Warehouse receipts covering spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  5. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  6. Obstetric Sphincter Injury Interacts with Diarrhea and Urgency to Increase the Risk of Fecal Incontinence in Women with IBS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Barbara L.; Matthews, Catherine A.; Palsson, Olafur S; Geller, Elizabeth; Turner, Marsha; Parnell, Brent; Crane, Andrea; Jannelli, Mary; Wells, Ellen; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Lin, Feng-Chang; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To confirm that fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for fecal incontinence (FI), to identify obstetrical risk factors associated with FI in women with IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), and to determine whether obstetric anal sphincter injuries interact with diarrhea or urgency to explain the occurrence of FI. Methods The study is a supplement to a diary study of bowel symptoms in 164 female patients with IBS. Subjects completed daily bowel symptom diaries for 90 consecutive days and rated each bowel movement (BM) for stool consistency and presence of urgency, pain, and FI. All female participants from the parent study were invited to complete a telephone-administered 33-item bowel symptom and obstetric history questionnaire which included the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Results Out of 164 women in the parent study, 115 (70.1%) completed the interview. Seventy-four (45.1%) reported FI on their diary including 34 (29.6%) who reported at least one episode per month, 112 (97.4%) reported episodes of urgency, and 106 (92.2%) reported episodes of diarrhea. The mean FISI score was 13.9±9.7. Upon multivariable analysis, FI was significantly associated with parity (p=0.007), operative vaginal delivery (p=0.049), obstetrical sphincter lacerations (p=0.007), fecal urgency (p=0.005), diarrhea (p=0.008), and hysterectomy (p=0.004), but was not associated with episiotomy, pelvic organ prolapse, or urinary incontinence. The synergistic interactions of obstetric anal sphincter laceration with urgency (p=0.002) and diarrhea (p=0.004) were significant risk factors for FI. Conclusion Fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for FI, and they interact with obstetric anal sphincter laceration to amplify the risk of FI. PMID:23321658

  7. Planet Formation and the Characteristics of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary growth, emphasizing the formation of extrasolar planets, is presented. Models of planet formation are based upon observations of the Solar System, extrasolar planets, and young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but if they become massive enough before the protoplanetary disk dissipates, then they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  8. Economic Functions Proposal of Urgency Prioritization of Investment Projects of Operated Railway Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitoňák, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the article is to describe the proposals of economic functions within the prioritization of urgency investments of operated railway bridges within a comprehensive evaluation of existing bridges. The purpose of the paper is a comprehensive assessment of existing bridges and to define determinants and determinants of decision-making and designing a mechanism of decision-making procedures of prioritized infrastructure measures in the form of repairs and reconstructions of bridges resulting from the records of supervising activities based not only on technical but also economic aspects to the railway infrastructure manager.

  9. The Planet Formation Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  10. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  11. Planets and Pucks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brueningsen, Christopher; Krawiec, Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Presents a simple activity designed to allow students to experimentally verify Kepler's second law, sometimes called the law of equal areas. It states that areas swept out by a planet as it orbits the Sun are equal for equal time intervals. (PR)

  12. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  13. Twist planet drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A planetary gear system includes a sun gear coupled to an annular ring gear through a plurality of twist-planet gears, a speeder gear, and a ground structure having an internal ring gear. Each planet gear includes a solid gear having a first half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes vertical gear teeth and a second half portion in the form of a spur gear which includes helical gear teeth that are offset from the vertical gear teeth and which contact helical gear teeth on the speeder gear and helical gear teeth on the outer ring gear. One half of the twist planet gears are preloaded downward, while the other half are preloaded upwards, each one alternating with the other so that each one twists in a motion opposite to its neighbor when rotated until each planet gear seats against the sun gear, the outer ring gear, the speeder gear, and the inner ring gear. The resulting configuration is an improved stiff anti-backlash gear system.

  14. Take a Planet Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2008-01-01

    Physical models in the classroom "cannot be expected to represent the full-scale phenomenon with complete accuracy, not even in the limited set of characteristics being studied" (AAAS 1990). Therefore, by modifying a popular classroom activity called a "planet walk," teachers can explore upper elementary students' current understandings; create an…

  15. Accumulation of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    In modeling the accumulation of planetesimals into planets, it is appropriate to distinguish between two stages: an early stage, during which approximately 10 km diameter planetesimals accumulate locally to form bodies approximate 10 to the 25th g in mass; and a later stage in which the approximately 10 to the 25th g planetesimals accumulate into the final planets. In the terrestrial planet region, an initial planetesimal swarm corresponding to the critical mass of dust layer gravitational instabilities is considered. In order to better understand the accumulation history of Mercury-sized bodies, 19 Monte-Carlo simulations of terrestrial planet growth were calculated. A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the orbital evolution of asteroidal collision debris produced interior to 2.6 AU. It was found that there are two regions primarily responsible for production of Earth-crossing meteoritic material and Apollo objects. The same techniques were extended to include the origin of Earth-approaching asteroidal bodies. It is found that these same two resonant mechanisms predict a steady-state number of Apollo-Amor about 1/2 that estimated based on astronomical observations.

  16. Making and Differentiating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    The rocky planets formed by progressive aggregation of dust to make planetesimals which joined to make large objects called planetary embryos that finally accumulated into planets, one of which we live on. This chaotic process is complicated further by chemical changes with distance from the Sun, including differences in oxidation conditions and water concentration. Once the inner planets began to form, metallic iron sank to form cores, reacting with the rocky portions in the process. David C. Rubie (University of Bayreuth, Germany) and colleagues in Germany, France, and the United States put all this planetary action into an impressively thorough computer model of planet formation and differentiation. They show that the observed compositions of the Earth can be matched by simulations that include the Grand Tack (Jupiter and Saturn migrate inwards towards the Sun and then back out), and chemical gradients in the Solar System, with more reducing conditions near the Sun, more oxidizing farther from the Sun, and oxidizing and hydrated conditions even farther from the Sun. The study identifies other important variables, such as the extent to which metallic iron chemically equilibrated with the silicate making up the Earth's mantle, the pressure at which it happened, and the likelihood that Earth accreted heterogeneously.

  17. Finding Planets around other stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    Just as the Earth revolves around the sun, our closest star, other planets might orbit the stars you see in the night sky. Think of all the planets in the universe that may be just the right distan...

  18. NASA Reveals Most Unusual Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    In exploring the universe, NASA has uncovered one planet more unusual than all others. This 30 second video shows you which planet that is, and explains that NASA science helps us better understand...

  19. Identification of carbonate-rich outcrops on Mars by the Spirit rover.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard V; Ruff, Steven W; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas W; Arvidson, Raymond E; Clark, Benton C; Golden, D C; Siebach, Kirsten; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Schröder, Christian; Fleischer, Iris; Yen, Albert S; Squyres, Steven W

    2010-07-23

    Decades of speculation about a warmer, wetter Mars climate in the planet's first billion years postulate a denser CO2-rich atmosphere than at present. Such an atmosphere should have led to the formation of outcrops rich in carbonate minerals, for which evidence has been sparse. Using the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, we have now identified outcrops rich in magnesium-iron carbonate (16 to 34 weight percent) in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Its composition approximates the average composition of the carbonate globules in martian meteorite ALH 84001. The Gusev carbonate probably precipitated from carbonate-bearing solutions under hydrothermal conditions at near-neutral pH in association with volcanic activity during the Noachian era. PMID:20522738

  20. Classifying Planets: Nature vs. Nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles A.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of a planet was so simple when we learned about the solar system in elementary school. Now students and professional s alike are faced with confusing array of definitions --- from "Brown Dwarfs” to "Super Jupiters", from "Super Earths” to "Terrestrial Planets", and from "Planets” to "Small, Sort-of Round Things That Aren't Really Planets". I will discuss how planets might be defined by how they formed, where they are found, or by the life they might support.

  1. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of containers... of claim. The total amount of tax for which the claim is filed; (4) Identity of distilled spirits... research, development, or testing; (8) Theft. If lost by theft, the facts establishing that the loss...

  2. 27 CFR 19.263 - Claims on spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines lost or destroyed in bond-specific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, articles, or wines in bond must include the following information: (1) Identity of containers... of claim. The total amount of tax for which the claim is filed; (4) Identity of distilled spirits... research, development, or testing; (8) Theft. If lost by theft, the facts establishing that the loss...

  3. Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Background: Condition and Target Population Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is

  4. Extrasolar Planets in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    The field of extrasolar planets is still, in comparison with other astrophysical topics, in its infancy. There have been about 300 or so extrasolar planets detected and their detection has been accomplished by various different techniques. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment to show how planets are detected using the transit technique.…

  5. [Jean Fernel and the humanist spirit].

    PubMed

    Cordier, Jean-François

    2011-06-01

    Jean Fernel (1497-1558) embodied the humanist spirit of the Renaissance. He studied philosophy (especially Aristotle), astrology, arithmetic, mathematics and Latin literature before devoting his life to medicine. He conducted a comprehensive synthesis of the medical system of Galen, and invented the terms "physiology" and "pathology". His taste for teaching, his extensive clinical practice, his benevolent attitude to the sick, and his consideration for individuals and for human nature all contribute to Jean Fernel's image as a humanist. He was the most famous physician of his time, although his work relying on philosophy and galenic dogmatism eventually became obsolete. Forgotten for half a millennium, this distant precursor of holistic medicine is worthy of renewed interest. PMID:22530525

  6. Mars Through Infrared Eyes of Spirit-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the martian terrain through the eyes of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, an instrument that detects the infrared light, or heat, emitted by objects. The different colored circles show a spectrum of soil and rock temperatures, with red representing warmer regions and blue, cooler. Clusters of cool rocks stand out to the left, and a warm, dusty depression similar to the one dubbed Sleepy Hollow can be seen to the upper right. Scientists and engineers will use this data to pinpoint features of interest, and to plot a safe course for the rover free of loose dust. The mini-thermal emission spectrometer data are superimposed on an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  7. Mt. St. Helens and Spirit Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    high resolution 1000 pixel-wide image Snow still covered the peaks of the Cascade Ranges in mid-June when the STS-111 crew photographed Mt. St. Helens from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. From their vantage point, the crew observed blast zone from the 1980 eruption of the volcano, the mud-choked North Fork of the Toutle River, and fallen timber that still floats in rafts of logs on Spirit Lake. Continued imagery of the region will document the slow regrowth of the forests. Today, the volcano and surrounding region comprise the Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument which is dedicated to research, education and recreation. For more information visit: Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Astronaut photograph STS111-371-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Pharmacologic treatment for urgency-predominant urinary incontinence in women diagnosed using a simplified algorithm: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alison J.; Hess, Rachel; Arya, Lily A.; Richter, Holly E.; Subak, Leslee L.; Bradley, Catherine S.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Myers, Deborah L.; Johnson, Karen C.; Gregory, W. Thomas; Kraus, Stephen R.; Schembri, Michael; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with the initiation of treatment for urgency-predominant incontinence in women diagnosed by a simple 3-item questionnaire. Study Design We conducted a multicenter, double-blinded, 12-week randomized trial of pharmacologic therapy for urgency-predominant incontinence in ambulatory women diagnosed by the simple 3-item questionnaire. Participants (N = 645) were assigned randomly to fesoterodine therapy (4-8 mg daily) or placebo. Urinary incontinence was assessed with the use of voiding diaries; postvoid residual volume was measured after treatment. Results After 12 weeks, women who had been assigned randomly to fesoterodine therapy reported 0.9 fewer urgency and 1.0 fewer total incontinence episodes/day, compared with placebo (P ≤ .001). Four serious adverse events occurred in each group, none of which was related to treatment. No participant had postvoid residual volume of ≥250 mL after treatment. Conclusion Among ambulatory women with urgency-predominant incontinence diagnosed with a simple 3-item questionnaire, pharmacologic therapy resulted in a moderate decrease in incontinence frequency without increasing significant urinary retention or serious adverse events, which provides support for a streamlined algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of female urgency-predominant incontinence. PMID:22542122

  9. ALMOST ALL OF KEPLER'S MULTIPLE-PLANET CANDIDATES ARE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Adams, Elisabeth; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; and others

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

  10. How Giant Planets Shape the Characteristics of Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2016-01-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a defining role in shaping the properties of the Earth and other terrestrial planets during their formation. Observations from the Kepler spacecraft indicate that terrestrial planets are highly abundant. However, there are hints that giant planets a few AU from their stars are not ubiquitous. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that many terrestrial planets lack a Jupiter-like companion. We use a recently developed, state-of-the-art N-body model that allows for collisional fragmentation to perform hundreds of numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around a Sun-like star -- with and without giant outer planets. We quantify the effects that outer giant planet companions have on collisions and the planet accretion process. We focus on Earth-analogs that form in each system and explore how giant planets influence the relative frequency of giant impacts occurring at late times and the delivery of volitiles. This work has important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets.

  11. Terraforming planet Dune: Climate-vegetation interactions on a sandy planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, F.; Baudena, M.; D'Andrea, F.; Provenzale, A.

    2012-04-01

    The climate and the biosphere of planet Earth interact in multiple, complicated ways and on many spatial and temporal scales. Some of these processes can be studied with the help of simple mathematical models, as done for the effects of vegetation on albedo in desert areas and for the mechanisms by which terrestrial vegetation affects water fluxes in arid environments. Conceptual models of this kind do not attempt at providing quantitative descriptions of the climate-biosphere interaction, but rather to explore avenues and mechanisms which can play a role in the real system, providing inspiration for further research. In this work, we develop a simple conceptual box model in the spirit illustrated above, to explore whether and how vegetation affects the planetary hydrologic cycle. We imagine a planet with no oceans and whose surface is entirely covered with sand, quite similar to planet Dune of the science-fiction series by Frank Herbert (1965). We suppose that water is entirely in the sand, below the surface. Without vegetation, only evaporation takes place, affecting the upper sand layer for a maximum depth of a few cm. The amount of water that is evaporated in the atmosphere is relatively small, and not sufficient to trigger a full hydrologic cycle. The question is what happens to this planet when vegetation is introduced: the root depth can reach a meter or more, and plant transpiration can then transfer a much larger amount of water to the atmosphere. One may wonder whether the presence of vegetation is sufficient to trigger a hydrologic cycle with enough precipitation to sustain the vegetation itself and, if the answer is positive, what is the minimum vegetation cover that is required to maintain the cycle active. In more precise terms, we want to know whether the introduction of vegetation and of the evapotranspiration feedback allows for the existence of multiple equilibria (or solutions) in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Although the box model

  12. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  13. Dark compact planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We investigate compact objects formed by dark matter admixed with ordinary matter made of neutron-star matter and white-dwarf material. We consider non-self annihilating dark matter with an equation of state given by an interacting Fermi gas. We find new stable solutions, dark compact planets, with Earth-like masses and radii from a few Km to few hundred Km for weakly interacting dark matter which are stabilized by the mutual presence of dark matter and compact star matter. For the strongly interacting dark matter case, we obtain dark compact planets with Jupiter-like masses and radii of few hundred Km. These objects could be detected by observing exoplanets with unusually small radii. Moreover, we find that the recently observed 2 M⊙ pulsars set limits on the amount of dark matter inside neutron stars which is, at most, 1 0-6 M⊙ .

  14. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-01

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance. PMID:23641110

  15. Dynamical Detection of Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark Fabrycky, Daniel; Orosz, Jerome; Welsh, William

    2015-12-01

    The Kepler data revealed a population of transiting gas-giant planets orbiting around close binary stars, beginning with Kepler-16, a highlight of the Extreme Solar Systems II meeting. Due to the restrictive geometry requirements of transit detections, this population is highly observationally biased towards coplanarity. However, a third of those planets detectably perturb their host binary's eclipse times, such that they could have been recognized even without transits. Here we announce the detection of three non-transiting planets based on this dynamical technique. Apsidal precession due to the planet makes the primary and secondary eclipse periods differ, and in addition a short-term modulation of the binary's eclipse times reveals the planet's orbital period. Several planetary periods are observed for each system, buttressing the interpretation. Though the method is nearly equally sensitive to all orbital orientations, each planet orbits near its host binary's plane, suggesting this class of planets formed in the circumbinary nebula.

  16. Planet Forming Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubow, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The project achieved many of its objectives. The main area of investigation was the interaction of young binary stars with surrounding protostellar disks. A secondary objective was the interaction of young planets with their central stars and surrounding disks. The grant funds were used to support visits by coinvestigators and visitors: Pawel Artymowicz, James Pringle, and Gordon Ogilvie. Funds were also used to support travel to meetings by Lubow and to provide partial salary support.

  17. Pluto: Dwarf planet 134340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, investigations of Pluto with up-to-date astronomical instruments yielded results that have been generally confirmed by the New Horizons mission. In 2006, in Prague, the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) reclassified Pluto as a member of the dwarf planet category according to the criteria defined by the IAU for the term "planet". At the same time, interest in studies of Pluto was increasing, while the space investigations of Pluto were delayed. In 2006, the New Horizons Pluto spacecraft started its journey to Pluto. On July 14, 2015, the spacecraft, being in fly-by mode, made its closest approach to Pluto. The heterogeneities and properties of the surface and rarified atmosphere were investigated thoroughly. Due to the extreme remoteness of the spacecraft and the energy limitations, it will take 18 months to transmit the whole data volume. Along with the preliminary results of the New Horizons Pluto mission, this paper reviews the basics on Pluto and its moons acquired from the ground-based observations and with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). There are only a few meteorite craters on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, which distinctly marks them apart from such satellites of the giant planets as Ganymede and Callisto. The explanation is that the surface of Pluto is young: its age is estimated at less than 100 Myr. Ice glaciers of apparently a nitrogen nature were found. Nitrogen is also the main component of the atmosphere of Pluto. The planet demonstrates the signs of strong geologic activity, though the energy sources of these processes are unknown.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  19. The genesis of planets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Douglas N C

    2008-05-01

    Barely a decade ago scientists who study how planets form had to base their theory on a single example-our solar system. Now they have dozens of mature systems and dozens more in birth throes. No two are alike. The basic idea behind the leading theory of planetary formation--tiny grains stick together and swoop up gas--conceals many levels of intricacy. A chaotic interplay among competing mechanisms leads to a huge diversity of outcomes. PMID:18444325

  20. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  1. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of β Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of β Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with β Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  2. Complex patterns in the distribution of planets show planet migration and planet and star properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    We present dramatic patterns in the distribution of exoplanet periods and eccentricities that vary as functions of iron abundance of the host star, planet mass, stellar properties, and presence of a stellar companion. These patterns include surprising peaks and gaps. They raise the question of whether planets themselves contribute to increasing stellar metallicity by causing other planets or material to “pollute” the star.We also show that the falloff in planets at the shortest periods can be used to determine the rate of planets migrating into the star as a function of the strength of tidal dissipation in the star. A small rate of planets migrating into the star can produce the observed population of the shortest period planets without having to invoke extremely weak tidal dissipation. Tidal dissipation strengths stronger than the tidal quality factor Q being equal to 107 are possible if there is a moderate flow of giant planets into the star. It is likely that within a decade it will be possible to measure the time shift of transits of the shortest period orbits due to orbital period decreases caused by tidal migration.The distribution of the shortest period planets indicates that the strength of tidal dissipation in stars is a function of stellar mass, making it worthwhile to monitor the shortest period systems for time shifts across a range of stellar masses. This time shift is inversely proportional to the lifetime of a planet.It is essential to know the rate of planets migrating into stars in order to understand whether inflated planets are only briefly inflated during a faster migration into the star, or if planets maintain anomalously large radii for longer periods of time.The paucity of Neptune-mass planets at the shortest periods could be due either to a lower rate of inward migration or to evaporation. Knowing how evaporation contributes to this paucity could help determine the fractions of planets that are rock, liquid water, or gas.

  3. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  4. The Effect of Giant Planets on Terrestrial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa

    2015-12-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a defining role in shaping the properties of the Earth and other terrestrial planets during their formation. Observations from the Kepler spacecraft indicate that terrestrial planets are highly abundant. However, there are hints that giant planets a few AU from their stars are relatively uncommon based on long baseline radial velocity searches. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that many terrestrial planets lack a Jupiter-like companion. We use a recently developed, state-of-the-art N-body model that allows for collisional fragmentation to perform hundreds of numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around a Sun-like star -- with and without giant outer planets. We quantify the effects that outer giant planet companions have on collisions and the planet accretion process. We focus on Earth-analogs that form in each system and explore how giant planets influence the relative frequency of giant impacts occurring at late times.

  5. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  8. The Rocky Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra

    In direct support of the NASA Origins program, we propose the Rocky Planet Survey, a high cadence exoplanet search of sixty late G and K dwarf stars using the CHIRON spectrometer, which we built and commissioned at CTIO. CHIRON operates in two high- resolution modes (R=90,000 and R=120,000) and has a demonstrated precision of better than 1 m s-1. We are contributing 200 nights of telescope time for the next three years, for the excellent phase coverage needed to carry out this work. We have developed simulation software to optimize scheduling of observations to suppress aliases and quickly extract dynamical signals. Our science objectives are to (1) provide a statistical assessment of planet occurrence as a function of decreasing mass in the range of parameter space 3 < Msini < 30 MEARTH for orbital periods up to 50 days, (2) to determine the fraction of low mass planets in multi-planet architectures, and (3) detect planets with Msini < 3 MEARTH in orbital periods shorter than ~20 days. In addition to the science objectives, we intend to push the frontiers of extreme precision Doppler measurements to keep the U.S. competitive with the next generation of European Doppler spectroscopy (ESPRESSO on the VLT). Our team has significant expertise in optical design, fiber coupling, raw extraction, barycentric velocity corrections, and Doppler analysis. The proposed work includes a new optimal extraction algorithm, with the optical designers and software engineers working together on the 2-D PSF description needed for a proper row-by-row extraction and calibration. We will also develop and test upgrades to the barycentric correction code and improvements in the Doppler code that take advantage of stability in the dispersion solution, afforded by a new vacuum-enclosed grating upgrade (scheduled for November 2011). We will test use of emission wavelength calibrations to extend the iodine (absorption) wavelength calibration that we currently use to prepare for eventual use of

  9. Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

    2007-01-01

    SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

  10. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  11. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  12. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  13. 27 CFR 19.269 - Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Islands spirits. 19.269 Section 19.269 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and Virgin Islands Spirits § 19.269 Puerto Rican and Virgin Islands spirits. (a) The provisions of 26... Islands with respect to the following: (1) Spirits lost while in TTB bond; (2) Voluntary destruction...

  14. 27 CFR 19.97 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.97 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. Spirits or wines on which the tax has been paid or determined may be conveyed within...

  15. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded...

  16. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  17. 27 CFR 19.343 - Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of spirits, wines, and... Distilled Spirits Rules for Receipt and Use of Spirits, Wines, and Alcoholic Flavoring Materials § 19.343 Use of spirits, wines, and alcoholic flavoring materials. A proprietor must prepare a...

  18. 27 CFR 19.326 - Mingling or blending of spirits for further storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mingling or blending of... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.326 Mingling or blending of spirits...

  19. 27 CFR 19.326 - Mingling or blending of spirits for further storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mingling or blending of... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.326 Mingling or blending of spirits...

  20. 27 CFR 19.326 - Mingling or blending of spirits for further storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mingling or blending of... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.326 Mingling or blending of spirits...

  1. 27 CFR 19.326 - Mingling or blending of spirits for further storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mingling or blending of... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage of Distilled Spirits Rules for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.326 Mingling or blending of spirits...

  2. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  3. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  4. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  5. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  6. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  7. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  8. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  9. 27 CFR 19.719 - Spirits made unfit for beverage use in the production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... process. If an alcohol fuel plant makes spirits unfit for beverage use before the spirits are removed from... render the spirits unfit for beverage use from the quantity of fuel alcohol (in gallons) produced and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spirits made unfit...

  10. 27 CFR 19.719 - Spirits made unfit for beverage use in the production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... process. If an alcohol fuel plant makes spirits unfit for beverage use before the spirits are removed from... render the spirits unfit for beverage use from the quantity of fuel alcohol (in gallons) produced and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirits made unfit...

  11. 27 CFR 19.719 - Spirits made unfit for beverage use in the production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... process. If an alcohol fuel plant makes spirits unfit for beverage use before the spirits are removed from... render the spirits unfit for beverage use from the quantity of fuel alcohol (in gallons) produced and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spirits made unfit...

  12. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  13. 27 CFR 19.313 - Use of materials in production of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production of spirits. 19.313 Section 19.313 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.313 Use of materials in production of spirits. The proprietor may produce spirits from any suitable...

  14. 27 CFR 19.134 - Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant qualified for production of spirits, or contiguous to a distillery operated by the... premises qualified for production of spirits. 19.134 Section 19.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Location and Use § 19.134 Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits....

  15. 27 CFR 19.349 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. 19.349 Section 19.349 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Mingling Or Blending of Spirits § 19.349 Mingled spirits or...

  16. 27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits... ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.80 Sales of distilled...

  17. Planning and Execution: The Spirit of Opportunity for Robust Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    One of the most exciting endeavors pursued by human kind is the search for life in the Solar System and the Universe at large. NASA is leading this effort by designing, deploying and operating robotic systems that will reach planets, planet moons, asteroids and comets searching for water, organic building blocks and signs of past or present microbial life. None of these missions will be achievable without substantial advances in.the design, implementation and validation of autonomous control agents. These agents must be capable of robustly controlling a robotic explorer in a hostile environment with very limited or no communication with Earth. The talk focuses on work pursued at the NASA Ames Research center ranging from basic research on algorithm to deployed mission support systems. We will start by discussing how planning and scheduling technology derived from the Remote Agent experiment is being used daily in the operations of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Planning and scheduling is also used as the fundamental paradigm at the core of our research in real-time autonomous agents. In particular, we will describe our efforts in the Intelligent Distributed Execution Architecture (IDEA), a multi-agent real-time architecture that exploits artificial intelligence planning as the core reasoning engine of an autonomous agent. We will also describe how the issue of plan robustness at execution can be addressed by novel constraint propagation algorithms capable of giving the tightest exact bounds on resource consumption or all possible executions of a flexible plan.

  18. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1. PMID:22506608

  19. SPIRITS Discoveries of New Infrared Transients and Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Tinyanont, S.; Cao, Y.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Khan, R.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Levesque, E.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Fox, O.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report several recently discovered mid-infrared transients/strong variables found in the course of the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS), using Spitzer Early Release Data (ATel #6644, #7929, #8688).

  20. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  1. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  2. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  3. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  4. 27 CFR 21.5 - Denatured spirits for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to the appropriate TTB officer and shall contain the following information: (a) A complete list of ingredients for the spirits to be denatured. (b) The exact amount of each ingredient to be used in...

  5. 27 CFR 21.5 - Denatured spirits for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to the appropriate TTB officer and shall contain the following information: (a) A complete list of ingredients for the spirits to be denatured. (b) The exact amount of each ingredient to be used in...

  6. 27 CFR 21.5 - Denatured spirits for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to the appropriate TTB officer and shall contain the following information: (a) A complete list of ingredients for the spirits to be denatured. (b) The exact amount of each ingredient to be used in...

  7. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  8. Spirit 360-Degree View on Sol 409 (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 409th martian day, or sol (Feb. 26, 2005). Spirit had driven 2 meters (7 feet) on this sol to get in position on 'Cumberland Ridge' for looking into 'Tennessee Valley' to the east. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 108. Rover-wheel tracks from climbing the ridge are visible on the right. The summit of 'Husband Hill' is at the center, to the south. This view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  9. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  10. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  11. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  12. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  13. SPIRIT LAKE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spirit Lake is a high quality recreational lake located in northwestern Kootenai County, Idaho (17010214). A 1984 water quality assessment indicated nutrient enrichment from nonpoint sources, such as timber harvest and domestic wastewater, were causing increased aquatic plant gr...

  14. Healing words: becoming a spirit-host in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Mack, John

    2011-08-01

    In discussion of healing processes in sub-Saharan Africa, emphasis is characteristically placed on the role of performance. Yet in spirit mediumship, speech is also an important element in therapeutic practices. In Madagascar, the spirits (tromba) are often of exotic origins (frequently in time as well as space) and the language used is likewise exotic. A complex of techniques of enchantment is employed: amongst them, music, changes of dress, the burning of perfumes and incense, rum, putting matches in the mouth, or the use of herbal medicines. Sometimes artefacts, such as - in the case discussed - a large model ship, are employed. Although the setting is shrine-like, the techniques are at once both dynamic and eclectic, collapsing time and space into a single embodied moment when the spirit speaks through the vehicle of the medium. Such 'spirit-speech' is itself empowered and empowering, cathartic and curative. PMID:21810039

  15. Spirit's Travels During its First 238 Martian Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map shows the complete traverse of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit through the rover's 238th martian day, or sol (Sept. 3, 2004). This was shortly before the rover stopped driving for about two weeks while Mars was nearly behind the Sun from Earth's perspective. The background image consists of frames from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Inset images along the route are from Spirit's navigation camera. From its landing site, Spirit drove up to the rim of 'Bonneville' crater on the far left and to the north rim of 'Missoula' crater. Then it commenced a long drive across the plains, deviating to avoid large hollows. Upon arrival at the base of the 'Columbia Hills,' Spirit drove north for a short distance before beginning its ascent onto the 'West Spur,' where it is currently located. The scale bar at lower left is 500 meters (1,640 feet). North is up.

  16. Inhibitory spillover: increased urination urgency facilitates impulse control in unrelated domains.

    PubMed

    Tuk, Mirjam A; Trampe, Debra; Warlop, Luk

    2011-05-01

    Visceral states are known to reduce the ability to exert self-control. In the current research, we investigated how self-control is affected by a visceral factor associated with inhibition rather than with approach: bladder control. We designed four studies to test the hypothesis that inhibitory signals are not domain-specific but can spill over to unrelated domains, resulting in increased impulse control in the behavioral domain. In Study 1, participants' urination urgency correlated with performance on color-naming but not word-meaning trials of a Stroop task. In Studies 2 and 3, we found that higher levels of bladder pressure resulted in an increased ability to resist impulsive choices in monetary decision making. We found that inhibitory spillover effects are moderated by sensitivity of the Behavioral Inhibition System (Study 3) and can be induced by exogenous cues (Study 4). Implications for inhibition and impulse-control theories are discussed. PMID:21467548

  17. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow. PMID:27543863

  18. ['A new emperor, a new spirit'].

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, P W

    2008-01-01

    The editor in chief, J. van Gijn, has retired. His main emphasis on the generalist capacities of the physician and on meticulous anamnesis and thorough physical examination is as relevant as ever. However a new challenge is unfolding: how to serve the modern physician who was brought up with digital information and the Internet revolution, with relevant, independent, and objective medical information. The web presence of this journal (www.ntvg.nl) will be brought up to the level of the demanding modern physician. This will include the possibilities of e-learning, podcasts and web videos. The British mathematician and physicist Sir Roger Penrose argues in his book The emperor's new mind: concerning computers, minds, and the laws of physics that the human spirit will never be equalled or replaced by a computer. If he is right--which he probably is--the plans of the new editors should not be seen as a foreseeable algorithmic reaction to the digitalising world, but as a genuinely new perspective. PMID:18240751

  19. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    PubMed

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548

  20. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species’ flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548