The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
Zappone, Katherine E.
Argues that spirituality is often poorly handled in religious education because traditional descriptions of it fail to touch all people. Examines the nature of Christian spirituality found among feminists and Latin Americas' poor. Discusses how these views of spirituality can be used to encourage the integration of critical reflection,…
We defined a spiritual pain as feelings of failure and regret at end-of-life, followed by hopelessness and worthlessness in patient's own life. In Japanese, spiritual pain should be assessed in patient's dignity, psycho-social factor, and prognostic stage, not only in religious context. And patient's spirituality should be supported with providing pain and symptom relief based on human relationships. "Sterbebegleitung" is a German proverb, introduced by Alfons Deeken, and seemed to be a suggestive word for such hope-recovering relationships. PMID:21950035
This article explores the concept of embodied spirituality from early Celtic traditions through the British medieval mystic Julian of Norwich to the present day. A "high theology" of the body in early Christianity and early Christian understandings of the relation among body, soul and spirit gave way to the influences of Greek thought with its…
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Results: Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. Conclusions: The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year
Wakefield, Dara V.
Spiritual living demands growth, and spiritual development has many parallels with human development. Ministers who are knowledgeable of the various stages are best prepared to assist and optimize spiritual growth. The primary benefit of nurturing believers through developmental stages is assured spiritual health and maturity in the context of a…
Hogan, Michael J.
It is a mistake to ignore the scientific study of spirituality. Research examining the structure and function of concepts such as "spirit" and "spirituality" is likely to reveal new insights into the relationship between a functional spirituality and other thinking skills, including creativity. The study of spirituality should not stand alone as a…
True holistic care requires attention to spiritual as well as physical needs, but many health care providers do not feel comfortable discussing spiritual matters with clients. Although recognized by national nursing groups as a standard of care, nurses are not well prepared or rewarded for spiritual care efforts. There are several spiritual assessment tools available and many suggestions for interventions, but little research-based evidence on the effectiveness of spiritual care assessments or interventions. Nurses are well positioned by their continued intimate contact with clients and the importance of caring to nursing to lead the health care profession in developing spiritual care theory and practices. PMID:17544683
Ponds, Kenneth T.
Research on positive psychology indicates that spiritual strengths can be important in helping individuals overcome crisis and loss. Encounters with difficult challenges of life inspire people to think more deeply about their spiritual and religious beliefs and the meaning of life. Spirituality, faith, and religious roots have been shown to be…
Dangwal, Kiran Lata; Singh, Shireesh Pal
Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in…
Ross, L A
In this paper the author relates how she initially became interested in spiritual care. A synopsis of a literature review is given in which the spiritual dimension is defined and evidence presented for its influence on health, well-being and quality of life. Spiritual care is also presented as part of the nurse's role. However, it is acknowledged that there is a lack of guidelines for the practice of spiritual care. A conceptual framework for the latter is, therefore, proposed by the author. As little is currently known about how nurses perceive the spiritual dimension and their role in spiritual care, the findings from a doctoral study, which examined these issues, are reported and discussed. The descriptive study was part of the author's PhD thesis (Waugh 1992). PMID:8014303
... cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Religious and spiritual values are important to patients coping with cancer. Studies have shown that religious and spiritual values are important to Americans. Most American adults say that they ...
Puchalski, Christina M
This article presents an overview of spirituality as an essential domain of geriatrics palliative care, and provides guidelines for clinicians to diagnose spiritual distress and to integrate spirituality into their clinical practice. PMID:25920059
Shaw, Jon A
The phenomenology of mystical experiences has been described throughout all the ages and in all religions. All mystical traditions identify some sense of union with the absolute as the ultimate spiritual goal. I assume that the pathway to both theistic and secular spirituality and our readiness to seek a solution in a psychological merger with something beyond the self evolves out of our human experience. Spirituality is one of man's strategies for dealing with the limitations of the life cycle, separation and loss, biological fragility, transience, and non-existence. Spirituality may serve as the affective component to a belief system or myth that is not rooted in scientific evidence but is lived as if it is true. Spirituality may take many forms, but I will suggest that in some instances it may serve as a reparative process in which one creates in the external world, through symbolic form, a nuance or facet of an internalized mental representation which has become lost or is no longer available to the self; or it may represent the continuity of the self-representation after death through a self-object merger. Lastly I will illustrate from the writings of two of our greatest poets, Dante Alighieri and William Wordsworth, how their poetry became interwoven with a profound spirituality. In Dante we will see the elaboration of a religious spirituality, while in the writings of Wordsworth a secular spirituality emerges interwoven with nature and belatedly his identification with "tragic man" as his mythos. PMID:16599401
Few concerned with educational theory and policy could have failed to notice the recent upsurge of interest in the notion of spiritual development as a possible aim or goal of public or common schooling. A more presently pressing question, however, is that of the pedagogical means by which theorists of spiritual education might cultivate any…
National and international professional health and nursing guidelines recommend that attention should be given to the spiritual and religious needs of patients. This suggests that spiritual care is an important aspect of holistic patient care that needs to be considered and supported, if relevant, in a healthcare context. PMID:27615352
Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.
This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…
Those matters that are judged to be spiritual are seen as especially valuable and important. For this reason it is claimed that nurses need to be able to offer spiritual care when appropriate and, to aid them in this, nurse theorists have discussed the nature of spirituality. In a recent debate John Paley has argued that nurses should adopt a naturalistic stance which would enable them to employ the insights of modern science. Barbara Pesut has criticized this thesis, especially as it is applied to palliative care. This paper re-examines this debate with particular attention to the meaning of 'spirituality' and the justification for accepting spiritual and religious theories. It is argued that when we take into consideration the great diversity among religious and spiritual ideas, the lack of rational means of deciding between them when they conflict, and the practicalities of nursing, we find that a spiritual viewpoint is less useful than a naturalistic one, when offering palliative care. PMID:19291195
The inclusion of spirituality in addictions recovery began with the 12-steps program of Alcoholics Anonymous. Cofounded by Bill Wilson, the 12-steps' spiritual orientation is based on Wilson's own recovery from alcoholism that was associated with a spiritual experience. His correspondence with Carl Jung, who verified the importance of Wilson's experience, empowered Wilson to make spirituality central to the 12 steps. Spirituality remains a source of misunderstanding between the scientific, empirically informed mental health community, and the 12-step recovery movement. This article offers an outline of spiritual development, based on neuroscience, which the professional can utilize in the spiritual aspect of a patient's recovery. PMID:24041179
The natural science base of modern medicine influences the way in which medicine is delivered and may ignore the spiritual factors associated with illness. The history of spirituality in healing presented here reflects the growth of scientific knowledge, demands for religious renewal, and the shift in the understanding of the concept of health within a broader cultural context. General practitioners have been willing to entertain the idea of spiritual healing and include it in their daily practice, or referral network. Recognizing patients' beliefs in the face of suffering is an important factor in health care practice. PMID:1777299
Schaller, M D; Martinuz, M; Kraehenbuehl, N; Odier, C
Taking care of a critically-ill patient is of high complexity level, as it includes bio-pschosocial and cultural aspects. Until recently, physicians have paid little attention to spirituality, although it constitutes the essential of human being. Spiritual need may reveal to be of utmost importance and has influence on bio-psycho-social aspects for a patient experiencing severe disease with threatening outcome and near death. A physician may transfer the problem to a specialist, a chaplain, or may personally be able to assess this need. To put a bio-psycho-social-spiritual model of care into practice, health care givers including chaplains should set up a team work. Their educational programs should include spirituality care training. Swiss intensivists should acquire the competency to take care of their patients in a holistic manner. PMID:17236327
Palmer, Parker J.
Describes three spiritual practices: study of sacred texts, prayer and contemplation, and community life. Shows how each practice has a counterpart in secular education. Provides a critique of modern objective knowing and the validity of types of knowledge. (SK)
Barron, Earle P
This article considers the relationships of allergic reactions to substances and emotions. It deals with spiritual sensitivity as well. Resistance is a key to allergic reactions: Allergic reactions involve the body's resistance to substances, emotions, and their energies. A major problem in spiritual formation is resistance to giving up the prideful and self-centered position and moving into loving relationships. It is sometimes possible from an alternative approach to promote spirituality by treating allergy. In spiritual formation, one may sometimes decrease allergic tendencies by giving up pride and other negative emotions. I propose that the alternative method I advocate not only reduces symptoms but deals with causes on an energetic level. It works with physical, emotional and spiritual factors. It provides new ways for counselors and spiritual directors to quickly get to basic issues and clear negative emotions and beliefs. This may be accomplished within or in connection with the therapists' or directors' particular religions, practices and/or therapeutic approaches. PMID:21404759
Miller, Lisa; Athan, Aurelie
Our theoretical orientation as educators is to teach with a spiritual foundation. Central to our perspective is that the classroom as an academic space is poised to facilitate profound spiritual evolution for students. A graduate course in psychotherapy using a Spiritual Awareness Pedagogy (SAP) offers students an opportunity to understand…
This article aims to provide an account of "spiritual prosperity," whereby various related mental capacities may be developed through an expanded range of learning processes. This account will be secular and humanistic, thereby circumnavigating the theology of spirituality in favour of psychological models. As spirituality remains "a slippery…
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree
The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…
Ross, Linda A.
Spiritual care that enhances patient well-being should be taught to nurses, but it is unclear how or if it is being taught, according to a survey of 685 Scottish nurses. Nurses should be aware of the spiritual dimension of their own lives, have experience and learning from crises, and collaborate with clergy in meeting patients' spiritual needs.…
Webster, R. Scott
A holistic approach to spirituality indicates a spiritual development that is relevant for all students and not just for those who have a religious background. However, debates in England surrounding spirituality in education often generally locate it within the religious domain (Blake, 1996; Carr, 1995, 1999; Isherwood, 1999). Conceptualizing…
Discusses the need to address spiritual beliefs in teacher education, arguing that: because spiritual impulses are so primary for many people, they must be addressed in teacher education; educators must recognize and cultivate students' spiritual motivations to teach and foster reflectivity; and student teachers must learn what they can legally…
This paper shows how palliative care developed as a reaction to the compartimentalized technical approach of modern medicine. But what does it mean if we say palliative care wants to treat patients as whole persons? A few pitfalls need to avoided. All disciplines involved in palliative care should act within the limits of their own specific professional role. Physicians and nurses should certainly not force patients into spiritual or religious discussions or practices. They should understand that religion and spirituality also influence the ethical (and thus medical) choices people make, respect their own conscience and worldview too and cultivate conscious compassion. PMID:21811369
Azarsa, Tagie; Davoodi, Arefeh; Khorami Markani, Abdolah; Gahramanian, Akram; Vargaeei, Afkham
Introduction: Nurses’ spiritual wellbeing and their attitude toward spirituality and competence of nurses in providing of spiritual care can affect the quality of care in nursing. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual wellbeing, attitude toward spiritual care and its relationship with the spiritual care competence among nurses. Methods: This was a correlational descriptive study conducted on 109 nurses working in the Intensive Care Units of Imam Reza and Madani hospitals in 2015, Tabriz, Iran. Data collection tools were a demographic data form and three standard questionnaires including Spiritual Wellbeing Scale, Spirituality and Spiritual Results: The mean score of the spiritual wellbeing was 94.45 (14.84), the spiritual care perspective was 58.77 (8.67), and the spiritual care competence was 98.51 (15.44). The linear regression model showed 0.42 variance between the spiritual care competence scores which were explained by the two aspects of spiritual wellbeing (religious health, existential health) and three aspects of spiritual care perspective (spirituality, spiritual care, personalized care). The spiritual care competence had a positive relationship with spiritual wellbeing and spiritual care perspective. Conclusion: Because of the nature of nursing and importance of close interaction of nurses with patients in ICUs, the higher nurses’ SW and the more their positive attitude toward spiritual care, the more they can provide spiritual care to their patients. PMID:26744730
Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I
Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians. PMID:26832335
School leaders do work that is both demanding and draining. Amid the day-to-day pressures of managing their school districts, many are seeking inspiration and deeper meaning. As a result, some are increasingly looking to integrate their spirituality and their work. In this article, the author describes three individuals interviewed as part of the…
Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie
Drawing on the "new" [c. 2000], upgraded science of the human brain with its three different kinds of neural structures--mental, emotional and spiritual--Zohar  offers a model for structure, leadership and learning within an organization that allows them to thrive on uncertainty, deal creatively with rapid change, and realize the full…
Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others
Ten thematic articles explore the spiritual implications for the creation of a world of greater justice and peace. Examples of topics discussed in the articles follow. Some rather startling implications of recent findings in psychological and psychic research which suggest that we are at the threshold of new and deeper public understanding of the…
Kaiser, L R
The "s" word can now be spoken without flinching in health care organizations. Spirituality is becoming a common topic in management conferences around the world. Many U.S. corporations are recognizing the role of spirituality in creating a new humanistic capitalism that manages beyond the bottom line. Spirituality refers to a broad set of principles that transcend all religions. It is the relationship between yourself and something larger, such as the good of your patient or the welfare of the community. Spirituality means being in right relationship to all that is and understanding the mutual interdependence of all living beings. Physician executives should be primary proponents of spirituality in their organizations by: Modeling the power of spirituality in their own lives; integrating spiritual methodologies into clinical practice; fostering an integrative approach to patient care; encouraging the organization to tithe its profits for unmet community health needs; supporting collaborative efforts to improve the health of the community; and creating healing environments. PMID:10847945
Peteet, John R; Balboni, Michael J
Despite the difficulty in clearly defining and measuring spirituality, a growing literature describes its importance in oncology and survivorship. Religious/spiritual beliefs influence patients' decision-making with respect to both complementary therapies and aggressive care at the end of life. Measures of spirituality and spiritual well-being correlate with quality of life in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and caregivers. Spiritual needs, reflective of existential concerns in several domains, are a source of significant distress, and care for these needs has been correlated with better psychological and spiritual adjustment as well as with less aggressive care at the end of life. Studies show that while clinicians such as nurses and physicians regard some spiritual care as an appropriate aspect of their role, patients report that they provide it infrequently. Many clinicians report that their religious/spiritual beliefs influence their practice, and practices such as mindfulness have been shown to enhance clinician self-care and equanimity. Challenges remain in the areas of conceptualizing and measuring spirituality, developing and implementing training for spiritual care, and coordinating and partnering with chaplains and religious communities. PMID:23625473
The Spiritual Experience Index was developed to measure spiritual maturity in persons of diverse religious and spiritual beliefs. The scale was constructed from a developmental rather than a multidimensional conceptualization of faith. Initial findings from a religiously heterogeneous college sample indicated good reliability for the SEI and supported its use as a unidimensional measure. Higher scores on the SEI were significantly related to lower dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The SEI was also moderately related to higher religious participation and positively correlated with intrinsicness and quest. However, compared with the intrinsic and quest scales, the SEI emerged as the strongest indicator of adaptive spiritual functioning. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:24272766
Means, Darris R.; Jaeger, Audrey J.
This case study explored the spiritual journey and spaces of one Black gay male college student. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, field observations, and photovoice. Findings indicate that the student experienced tension during his spiritual journey because of his racial and sexual orientation identities but was able to…
Walker, Monica Windley; McPhail, Christine Johnson
The purpose of this study was to explore community college president and chancellor perceptions of the phenomenon of spirituality and the role of spirituality in their leadership style. A hermeneutic phenomenological research design guided this study. A total of 14 community college presidents and chancellors were purposely selected and…
Witherspoon, Noelle; Taylor, Dianne L.
The historic connection of religion and spirituality to women, education, advocacy, and leadership is prevalent in Black American histories in general and the role of the religion and spirit in promoting education and socialisation. Important in this history is the intersection of spirituality and leadership for Black American women. This research…
Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.
"Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the teachings…
Examines workplace spirituality in an historical context and compares it to religious beliefs and to established ethical theories and moral principles. Suggests how managers and administrators in both the public and private sectors can use workplace spirituality to increase performance and develop ethical organizations. (Contains 54 references.)…
This article begins with two nonfiction narratives that are used throughout the article to defend and nuance the rationale for educational leaders to create dialogical spaces in schools for students to explore their spiritualities. The reasons for the inclusion of spirituality in schools are clustered into four categories for the sake of…
Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.
This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…
Wilson, Ruth A.
A misconception about spirituality is that it is tied to religion (i.e., belief in and reverence for a supernatural power). Yet, the term "spirituality" is derived from the word "spirit"--often defined as the vital principle or animating force within living things. This definition may reflect some overlap with what is generally covered in…
Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Bhugra, Dinesh
Sikhism has millions of followers in India and among the Indian diaspora. As a religion it is relatively young but carries with it unique perspectives which are often not well known. The holy book of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib, is not only the last Guru, but also remained a key text for this religion. Using descriptions of the religion and its followers we attempt to understand the context of spirituality within this religion and attempt to apply it to clinical settings. We explored various texts to understand the notions of spirituality and ethics and directions for living one's life. We studied both the Gurumukhi version as well as the English translation of the Sikh holy text. In the context of history of the Sikhs, various descriptions related to mental well being were identified. In this paper we describe the history, development and the core values of the religion and we also review their role on psychiatric and mental health settings for managing Sikh patients. Guru Granth Sahib offers a very useful insight into what is understood by the term equivalent to depression and its phenomenology. The notions of dukh (loosely translated as pain, but can also mean sadness or suffering) and maya (illusion) and their role in daily living are also discussed. In this paper these descriptions are explored further and their importance explained. PMID:23174442
Curry, Jennifer R.
The imperative to integrate spirituality in counseling has been well documented in the counseling literature. Developing spiritual timelines is one creative technique that may help clients with spiritual concerns. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review spirituality in counseling, describe the use of spiritual timelines as a creative…
Puchalski, Christina M.; Larson, David B.
Discusses one approach to achieving compassionate medical caregiving, the study of spirituality and medicine. Examines the relationship between spirituality and healing and describes studies indicating that patients want to have spiritual issues addressed by their physicians, and noting potential health benefits of spiritual beliefs. Outlines…
Jankowski, Peter J.; Vaughn, Marsha
This study explored the relationships between an individual's interpersonal functioning, perceived spirituality, and selected spiritual practices. Using Bowen's family systems theory, the authors proposed that an individual's level of spiritual development and level of differentiation are correlated and that certain spiritual practices are…
Stoyles, Gerard John; Stanford, Bonnie; Caputi, Peter; Keating, Alysha-Leigh; Hyde, Brendan
Spirituality is an essential influence in a child's development. However, an age-appropriate measure of child's spiritual sensitivity is not currently available in the literature. This paper describes the development of a measure of children's spiritual sensitivity, the Spiritual Sensitivity Scale for Children (SSSC). Statistical analyses…
Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…
Spiritual practices have been proposed to have many beneficial effects as far as mental health is concerned. The exact neural basis of these effects is slowly coming to light and different imaging techniques have elucidated the neural basis of meditative practices. The evidence though preliminary and based on studies replete with methodological constraints, points toward the involvement of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. The available data on meditation focus on activated frontal attentional network. Neuroimaging studies have shown that meditation results in an activation of the prefrontal cortex, activation of the thalamus and the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus and a resultant functional deafferentation of the parietal lobe. The neurochemical change as a result of meditative practices involves all the major neurotransmitter systems. The neurotransmitter changes contribute to the amelioration of anxiety and depressive symptomatology and in part explain the psychotogenic property of meditation. This overview highlights the involvement of multiple neural structures, the neurophysiological and neurochemical alterations observed in meditative practices. PMID:22013351
Hellman, Ann N; Williams, Wesley E; Hurley, Shelia
Healthcare literature suggests that many nurses fail to address patients' spiritual needs and/or identify signs of spiritual distress. A study was conducted to explore whether nurses in a medical center possessed the knowledge to assess patients' spirituality and design and implement a plan of spiritual care. The Spiritual Care Competence Scale was used to assess competence in spiritual care assessment and implementation; professionalization and improving quality; personal support and patient counseling; referral; attitude toward patient spirituality; and communication of spiritual needs. PMID:26548177
Chism, Lisa Astalos; Magnan, Morris A
Guided by Chism's Middle-Range Theory of Spiritual Empathy, the overarching purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which nursing students' spiritual care perspectives account for their expressions of spiritual empathy. In this descriptive correlational study, spiritual care perspectives accounted for 8.6% of the variance in nursing students' (N = 223) expressions of spiritual empathy after controlling for relevant demographic and spirituality variables. Findings of the study suggest that the provision of spiritual care in nursing practice depends, in part, on nurses clarifying their own spiritual care perspectives. PMID:19650610
Williams, Margaret G; Voss, Autumn; Vahle, Barb; Capp, Sheila
Nursing students often find it difficult to address spirituality in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of students' use of the FICA Spiritual History Tool during clinical practice on their own spirituality and comfort with the provision of spiritual care. The students (N = 31) completed the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester, which revealed changes, although not statistically significant, in students' spirituality, religiosity, and their provision of spiritual care. PMID:27166591
The practice of spiritual direction concerns the human experience of God. As praxis, spiritual direction has a long tradition in Western Christianity. It is a process rooted in spirituality with theology as its foundation. This paper explores the convergences between aspects of philosophy (contemplative awareness), psychology (Rogerian client-centered approach) and phenomenology. There are significant points of convergence between phenomenology and spiritual direction: first, in Ignatius of Loyola's phenomenological approach to his religious experience; second, in the appropriation by spiritual directors of concepts of epochē and empathy; third, in the process of "unpacking" religious experience within a spiritual direction interview. PMID:24469918
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Carr, Drew; Boitor, Ciprian
Issues of spirituality and thriving are pertinent to the period of adolescence given the marked changes in body, mind, and relationships. In order to provide an overview of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and positive youth development, this chapter offers a developmental systems perspective and proposes a relational spirituality as a framework for understanding adolescent religious and spiritual development. In addition, the chapter examines various psychological mechanisms through which religion and spirituality may promote positive youth development. Existing empirical research on the relationships between adolescent religion, spirituality, thriving, and specific indicators of positive youth development is reviewed. Finally, future directions for continuing to build the field of study are discussed. PMID:23259192
Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Moreira, Marcial Moreno; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula
To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS]) was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people’s welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers have been increasingly attentive to this dimension of care. However, it is necessary to improve their knowledge regarding the subject. The search highlighted that spirituality is considered a source of comfort and hope, contributing to a better acceptance of his/her chronic condition by the child with cancer, as well as by the family. Further up-to-date studies facing the subject are, thus, needed. It is also necessary to better train health care practitioners, so as to provide humanized care to the child with cancer. PMID:24133371
Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Moreira, Marcial Moreno; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula
To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS]) was conducted using the search terms "spirituality," "child psychology," "child," and "cancer," as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers have been increasingly attentive to this dimension of care. However, it is necessary to improve their knowledge regarding the subject. The search highlighted that spirituality is considered a source of comfort and hope, contributing to a better acceptance of his/her chronic condition by the child with cancer, as well as by the family. Further up-to-date studies facing the subject are, thus, needed. It is also necessary to better train health care practitioners, so as to provide humanized care to the child with cancer. PMID:24133371
Haasz, Christine A.
This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…
This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…
A model for improving nurses' preparation in spiritual care includes development of spiritual self-awareness, knowledge of varied traditions of spirituality, and ability to implement a spiritual dimension in nursing practice using the skills of communication, trust building, and giving hope. (SK)
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston
This article explores how clinicians can promote patient and family caregiver spiritual health. After a review of pertinent theory and research, clinical implications are identified, including appropriate goals for clinicians with regard to spiritual health promotion. PMID:18562823
Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul
Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model. PMID:25822881
Greenstreet, Wendy M.
This literature review addresses the following questions: "What is spirituality?"; How is it defined in a nursing context?"; and "What should be taught in nursing and how?" It emphasizes spirituality as a broad concept, not equated with any religion. (SK)
In this article autobiography is defined as a dialogue of the self with itself in the present about the past for the sake of self-understanding. Spirituality involves connectedness to oneself, others, nature and to a larger meaning. It is associated with creativity, play, wisdom, faith, and a sense of oneness. Writing and reflecting on one's autobiography enhances spiritual growth and can be therapeutic freeing people from outlived roles and self-imposed images. After discussing the history of spiritual autobiography as a genre, the author compares and contrasts four approaches to autobiography: the structured life review, the guided autobiography, the intensive journal workbook, and autobiographical work in twelve step programs. For those who work with older persons these techniques should prove very useful. PMID:16172074
Prezioso, Frederick Alan
This document attempts to give some shape and definition to the term spirituality as it relates to the addiction and recovery of chemically dependent persons and co-dependents. Positive and negative spirituality are discussed and addiction and "hitting bottom" are described. A variety of spiritual issues that are a part of the recovery process are…
Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explicate spiritual leadership lessons of beneficence, courage, hope and ubuntu/humanness that are derived from the experiences of women leaders in Kenya. The paper seeks to connect African data with existing literature on spiritual leadership, to demonstrate where African spiritual leadership is similar…
Purdy, Melanie; Dupey, Peggy
The Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness is a conceptualization of spiritual health and well-being that has implications for clinical practice and research. The model is unique in its placement of the spirit at the center of Life and in its fluid vision of the spirit. The authors present the model after a discussion of spirituality and the…
Hage, Sally M.; Hopson, Amy; Siegel, Matthew; Payton, Gregory; DeFanti, Elizabeth
Is spiritual diversity a neglected dimension in preparation for multicultural competency? The authors present an interdisciplinary overview of research related to multicultural training in spirituality and religion to address this issue. Findings indicate that counseling program leaders have minimal preparation in spiritual and religious diversity…
Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.; Lindholm, Jennifer A.
This paper describes a comprehensive set of 12 new measures for studying undergraduate students' spiritual and religious development. The three measures of spirituality, four measures of "spiritually related" qualities, and five measures of religiousness demonstrate satisfactory reliability, robustness, and both concurrent and predictive validity.…
Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra
Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…
Grimm, Donald W.
Examines nature of therapist spiritual and religious values and impact of these values on psychotherapy practice. Suggests that integration of therapist spiritual and religious values with therapist epistemic values to accommodate spiritual and religious needs of both client and counselor should be goal of effective treatment. Includes 28…
Yob, Iris M.
The basic thesis explored in this paper is that rather than seeing spirituality as a byproduct of music, the other arts, and religion, music, the other arts, and religion might be seen as a byproduct of spirituality--hence, the proposition that music is a language of spirituality. If that is the case, there are twin dangers: talk of "wholism" can…
Beauvais, Audrey; Stewart, Julie G; DeNisco, Susan
Understanding factors that influence spiritual well-being may improve nurses' spiritual caregiving. This study examined relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual well-being (SWB) in undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) relationships were found between managing emotion and spiritual well-being, and managing emotion and existential well-being. Implications for education and practice are discussed. PMID:25004728
Kyllo, D O
The person who experiences a stroke realizes a change in every area of life. The spiritual life of each individual is affected by stroke and goes through a period of adjustment. It is also the area of life that gives support and strength to cope and hope through the changes, allowing feelings and frustrations to be expressed without recourse. The perceived presence of the Divine gives a sense of love, purpose, power, and belongingness. The spiritual is an integral part in recovery from and rehabilitation following a stroke. PMID:27620151
Niño, Andrés G
Confessions, the narrative of Augustine's spiritual journey, has been a source of inspiration to readers through many centuries. It addresses the universal striving of the individual towards a 'way of living' characterized by internal coherence and an experience of the transcendent. Augustine, using a method of inquiry and engagement, guides the reader through some fundamental exercises: remembering one's story; facing inner restlessness; entering into dialogue with God; ordering of human love; centering in Christ; participating in a community of faith; living as a pilgrim. Together, they constitute a didactic instrument for the spiritual development of his readers. This paper reconstructs that central purpose in a coherent and practical model. PMID:19105004
Bellous, Joyce E.; Csinos, David M.
Children need to sense that their way of being spiritual is honoured within learning environments that nurture the human spirit. This assertion rests on two assumptions: that children have different ways to express a desire to make the world a better place and that there are patterns to these ways that can be identified, understood and involved in…
Mueller, Carolyn R
Children are born with "spiritual competence," an inner quality or power for faith development. Traditions from early nursing practice address the care of those who are in distress, suffering, questioning the reason for illness or pain, or seeking meaning and purpose in their lives. Increased demands on time and rapidly changing complex medical cases allow less time and energy directed toward spiritual issues for the nurse, while at the same time increasing the possibility of spiritual needs of the child and family. The following discussion is a synthesis of faith development theory, effects of spirituality in children, spiritual assessment techniques, and intervention strategies for children. PMID:20860259
Musgrave, Catherine F.; Allen, Carol Easley; Allen, Gregory J.
Spirituality among African American and Hispanic women has been associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. The purposes of this commentary are (1) to define spirituality, comparing it with religiosity, and briefly examine the historical, cultural, and contextual roots of spirituality among women of color; (2) to explore research data that support a relationship between spirituality and health, particularly among women of color; and (3) to present several examples of how spirituality may enhance public health interventions designed to promote health and prevention. PMID:11919051
Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter
This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…
This paper considers the often overlooked religious and educational works of the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). After outlining Tolstoy's life, religious and educational views, it is argued that Tolstoy has much to offer spiritual educators today. In particular, it suggests Tolstoy's insistence on the absolute and eternal nature of…
Linking the concepts of intellectual disability and spiritual development creates a challenging mixture of sociological and theological issues. Formal definitions of the concepts can be less than conclusive but it remains a fundamental issue to consider if there may be some minimal level of intellectual competence below which it is not feasible to…
Rhodes, Jean E.; Chan, Christian S.
Religious organizations offer a potentially rich pool of caring adults who are driven by their own spiritual commitments and a strong ethic to serve others. Indeed, more Americans volunteer through religious organizations than through any other venue. Religious organizations account for half of all volunteering, with an estimated 60 percent of the…
A patient has to cope with an illness on a physical, mental and spiritual level. There exists a difference between religiousness and spirituality even though the approach has a common foundation. Nonreligious spirituality relates to an inner experience, transcendent states of consciousness, meaningfulness, responsibility, sympathy, ethics, humanisation, faith. We encounter the spiritual point of view in humanistic psychotherapy, pastoral medicine, work of hospital chaplains, New Age, psychotherapies with religious and alternative aspects, transpersonal psychotherapy, psycho-spiritual crises, unusual states of consciousness, in meditation, Yoga, relaxation, kinesiology, ethicotherapy, reincarnation therapy, positive motivation, holotropic breathing, etc. There is description of different degrees of spiritual development, rational and irrational feeling of spirituality, Quantum Physics, spiritual intelligence, neuro-theology, physiological change, effects on improving adaptation during stress, drugs addiction, etc. Spirituality in relation with ethics is discussed in terms of socio-biology, evolution, emotions, aggressivity, genetics and social influence. The work analyses the effect of stressful situations on the deterioration of moral attitudes: during lack of time, obedience to authority and order. It is described how temperament and personality disorders can affect perception of spirituality, guilt feeling and conscience. Stressful situations, lack of time, relying only on the auxiliary objective methods leads to alienation of physician with a patient. Spirituality can partially improve the doctor-patient relationship, communication and sense of responsibility. PMID:26311026
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed. PMID:22654611
Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James
Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141
Bailey, Maria E; Moran, Sue; Graham, Margaret M
This study aims to describe nurses' experiences of delivering spiritual support in a palliative care setting in the Republic of Ireland. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 nurses working in the area of specialist palliative care. A content analysis of the transcriptions revealed five sub-themes: understanding spirituality; the art of nursing in spiritual care; education and learning; the challenge of spiritual caring; and the dimensions of time. The resulting creation of a spiritual tapestry provided an overall theme. Nurses in this study were spiritually self-aware and placed a high value on the spiritual element of their caring role. Nurses described their individual understanding of spirituality and discussed how they recognized and addressed a patient's spiritual needs. Time was described as essential to the provision of spiritual support and appeared to be a significant resource challenge to the provision of spiritual care. The challenges of assessing spiritual needs and measuring outcomes of care were also reported. Participants in this study described the creation of a spiritual tapestry that 'weaves' together care and compassion with skills and knowledge in their nursing practice. PMID:19234430
Willow, Rebecca A.; Tobin, David J.; Toner, Susan
Spiritual genograms collect and organize family information of a religious or spiritual nature. The authors explored the use of the spiritual genogram in counselor education. Graduate counseling students were assigned to construct and present a spiritual genogram within a course titled "Counseling and Spirituality." An assessment of the quality of…
Garen, David C.
I would like to continue the discussion ofpoints raised in William Carter's response toRobert Frodeman's Eos Forum article Carter,2006; Frodeman, 2005. I have appreciatedFrodeman's work and feel that perspectiveson science deriving from humanities, philosophy,and religion can add depth, insight,and meaning to our endeavors. I would liketo broaden the discussion beyond just spacepolicy to include the relationship betweenscience in general and these, what I wouldcall, spiritual issues.
Manning, Lydia K.
Against the backdrop of a dramatic increase in the number of individuals living longer, particularly older women, it is vital that researchers explore the intersection of spirituality, gender, and aging. In this qualitative study of six women aged 80 and older, I explore, using, multiple, in-depth interviews, the experiences of spirituality over the life course. A hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of the interviews was performed and provided insights into the nature of their “lived experience” allowing for the understanding of the essence of their spirituality. The results are presented as an interpretation of the participants’ perceptions of their spirituality and spiritual experiences. For the women in this study, the essence of their spirituality lies in: being profoundly grateful; engaging in complete acceptance; and having a strong sense of assuredness, while stressing the linkages and importance of spirituality. Implications for understanding spirituality for older adults are considered. PMID:23185856
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Shorkey, Clay
The current study used data from reliability testing of the Christian Inventory of Spirituality (CIS) to: 1) assess the utility of CIS in detecting differences in level of spirituality in residents of residential Christian faith-based substance abuse programs (RCFBSAPs); 2) test the hypothesis that residents that have been in the program for longer periods of time will have significantly higher levels of spirituality after controlling for relevant demographic characteristics; and 3) test the hypothesis that residents of programs that only use unlicensed staff and place higher importance on spirituality will have significantly higher levels of spirituality. A purposive sample of the cross-sectional data from the reliability testing of the CIS was used (n=253). Analysis supported the hypothesis. Demographic characteristics were not associated with level of spirituality. The CIS proved to be useful in discriminating levels of spirituality. Further research is needed to examine spiritual change using randomized pre-post test designs. PMID:20687002
Walton, Martin Neal
A previous article focused on an analysis of prominent conceptualizations of spirituality in health care. The encompassing character of those approaches was viewed as problematic because too little attention is paid to the distinctiveness and particularities of spiritual experience. This article argues that the criteria gleaned from the prior analysis provide an impetus for a constructive discernment proposal of lived spirituality. The experience of otherness is provides a central clue to an understanding of spirituality particularly by two key terms, receptivity and transformation, as central characterizations of lived spirituality. These terms are investigated as they embrace operational potential for chaplaincy care. The article concludes with a reflection on chaplaincy care as it relates to spiritual practice. PMID:24040742
Nurse educators are challenged to find meaningful methods to teach spirituality throughout the curriculum. Simulation is one teaching strategy that offers real-life situations in a less threatening environment. This article offers a simulation of a client in spiritual distress and describes student responses using the Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) tool. Simulation can be used to help students develop critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills for spiritual care. PMID:26548176
This article discusses the development of spiritual literacy in relation to a new consciousness of the Earth and what Thomas Berry calls "Earth literacy". It draws on the metaphor of "earthing" to argue for a close link between spiritual literacy and Earth literacy, considered of great importance for both personal spiritual development and the…
Bay, Paul S; Ivy, Steven S; Terry, Colin L
This study tested whether two 1-day retreats focused on spiritual self-care would positively change nurse participants' spirituality. A total of 199 critical care nurses were accepted into this study; 87 were randomized to receive the retreat intervention. All 199 nurses were tested preretreat, 1 month and 6 months postretreat. Retreat participants demonstrated increased spirituality. PMID:20421752
Australian teachers in Church related schools have begun to use the term "spiritual intelligence" in their educational discourse. Is it accurate to describe spirituality as a form of intelligence? This paper explores whether the notion of spiritual intelligence is plausible. It addresses this firstly by discussing the notion of spiritual…
In a survey of 35 first-year and 18 fourth-year nursing students, most expressed strong awareness of personal spirituality and spiritual health and were able to identify behaviors that facilitated spiritual nursing care. Fourth-year students were more patient centered, focusing on supporting patients' beliefs. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)
This article begins by asking whether religion and spirituality are useful terms for cross-cultural comparisons. After discussing the increasing distinction between religion and spirituality in Western cultures, it points out how the terms religion and spirituality are used in divergent ways in the literature and the need for conceptual clarification in this area. Broadly, spirituality relates to interconnectedness, ultimate meaning or life force itself. The current use of the term spirituality in Western cultures derives both from Christian spirituality and 'New Age' thinking, which often appropriates ideas from Eastern religious traditions. The sociocultural roots of this division are complex, involving both growth of individualism, the pursuit of meaning and discontent with materialism and scientific rationalism. This situation is contrasted with other monotheistic religions where there is no distinction between religion and spirituality. This turn to spirituality has influenced health care professionals' conceptualizations of health and healing. The implications for psychiatry are discussed. I conclude that spirituality is a way of 'being in the world' and shares affinities with Tambiah's notion of a participatory mode of thinking. PMID:16570516
Research indicates that nurses do not consistently provide spiritual care, feel ill equipped to do so, and there is a lack of information as to the type of spiritual care practices nurses use. This exploratory descriptive study surveyed nurses (N = 123) about their spiritual care practices and perceptions of effectiveness, followed by qualitative interviews with volunteers (n = 5) from the surveyed group. The nurses favored spiritual interventions that are not overtly religious, but conveyed concern and support, such as listening and providing comforting touch. PMID:25898449
Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J
Indigenous spirituality is a more complex phenomenon than the term spirituality alone, as generally understood, implies. Spirituality is closely bound up with culture and ways of living in Indigenous communities and requires a more holistic or comprehensive research approach. Two conceptual frameworks could help to orient Indigenous resilience research. One is the enculturation framework. Enculturation refers to the degree of integration within a culture, which can be protective in social behaviour, academic achievement, alcohol abuse and cessation, substance abuse, externalizing behaviours, and depressive symptoms. Instruments for measuring enculturation generally have three components: traditional activities, cultural identification, and traditional spirituality. A second conceptual framework is cultural spiritual orientation which distinguishes between cultural spiritual orientations and tribal spiritual beliefs. Enculturation and cultural orientations are protective against alcohol abuse, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. New tools are emerging for measuring the multidimensional nature of culturally rooted spirituality in Indigenous communities, tools that are context-specific and often the product of collaborative design processes. As the ability of researchers to measure these complex processes advances and Indigenous communities take increasing charge of their own research, it should become easier to design interventions that take advantage of the cultural/spiritual dimension of Indigenous traditions to promote individual, family, and community resilience. PMID:20963185
Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha
The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086
Perdue, Bobbie; Johnson, Deanna; Singley, Doretha; Jackson, Cheylon
The case scenario illustrates the advantage of using spirituality as a tool for recovery when working with mentally ill African American clients. Often spiritual and clinical perspectives are seen as contradictory. But for African Americans, these perspectives can be mutually reinforcing. Spirituality can serve as a resource of strength. It can provide emotional consolation, inspiration, guidance, and security. It can foster personal responsibility, identity, respect for ethical codes and community building. Mental Health professionals who use spirituality as a tool for recovery can expect to have better client outcomes when working with African Americans than those who do not. PMID:18402348
Cole, Brenda S; Hopkins, Clare M; Tisak, John; Steel, Jennifer L; Carr, Brian I
This study assessed the factor structure, reliability, and validity of an instrument designed to assess spiritual transformations following a diagnosis of cancer-the Spiritual Transformation Scale (STS). The instrument was administering to 253 people diagnosed with cancer within the previous 2 years. Two underlying factors emerged (spiritual growth (SG) and spiritual decline (SD)) with adequate internal reliability (alpha = 0.98 and 0.86, respectively) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.85 and 0.73, respectively). Validity was supported by correlations between SG and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) Positive Affect Subscale (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). SD was associated with higher scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and PANAS-Negative Affect Subscale (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and lower scores on the PANAS-Positive Affect Subscale (r = -0.23, p < 0.001), and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (r = -0.30, p < 0.001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the subscales uniquely predicted adjustment beyond related constructs (intrinsic religiousness, spiritual coping, and general post-traumatic growth). The results indicate that the STS is psychometrically sound, with SG predicting better, and SD predicting poorer, mental and spiritual well-being following a diagnosis of cancer. PMID:17458862
Gallo, Laura L.
Spirituality is an area that has not received a great deal of attention in supervision, yet it can have substantial effects on the counseling process. A definition of spirituality that allows for a variety of worldviews can be useful to both counselor and client as it helps strengthen the counseling relationship and lessen differences between…
Burke, Mary Thomas, Ed.; Miranti, Judith G., Ed.
This book presents a compilation of articles previously published in the journal "Counseling and Values." The follwing articles are included: (1) "Ethics and Spirituality: The Prevailing Forces Influencing the Counseling Profession" (Judith Miranti, Mary Thomas Burke); (2) "Three Contributions of a Spiritual Perspective to Counseling,…
Johnson, Peggy; Mutschelknaus, Mike
Noting that at Saint Mary's University (where the authors teach) the issue of spirituality is in the forefront of education and is seamlessly woven into required courses throughout four years of college in an attempt to "enhance students' spiritual and personal lives," this paper positions writing centers as a place for student inquiries about…
Ibrahim, Farah A.; Dykeman, Cass
In this article, the authors identify the cultural and spiritual assessments needed to conduct counseling with Muslim Americans and Muslim immigrants to the United States. Assessment processes are outlined that include cultural identity (which subsumes several variables); worldview; spiritual assessment along with acculturation level and migration…
Japar, Muhammad; Purwati
Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…
The Brahma Kumaris (BK) Spiritual University, headquartered in London, works toward helping others understand the role of spirituality in daily life and in creating a better world. In the early 1990s, a BK research project in 128 countries found that people's ideal vision of the future emphasized a return of the importance of values. In response,…
Steen, Rheta LeAnne; Engels, Dennis; Thweatt, W. Tom, III
The authors review the professional literature related to spirituality and ethics in counseling. The American Counseling Association's (1995, 2005) code of ethics was used as a basis for exploring the possibilities and limits/ boundaries appropriate for discussion of spirituality in counseling. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Lodewyk, Ken; Lu, Chunlei; Kentel, Jeanne
Spirituality is a fundamental, everyday life process involving a joy of living, sacrifice and love for others, and a connection to self, others, nature, and to a larger meaning or purpose. Distinct from moral or religious beliefs, spirituality engages interactively with the psyche, body, and sociocultural setting to influence human functioning,…
A study examined significant deliberate learning activities (as demonstrated in learning projects) which were related to spiritual growth. (Spiritual growth was defined in broad terms within which each interviewee interpreted his or her own concept.) Fifty persons between the ages of thirty-five and fifty-five and representing five groups (three…
Animal- and bird-becoming is an aspect of play as metamorphosis connected to spirituality in early childhood settings. The reconceptualisation of play presented here is supported by research that explored the spiritual experiences of young children in different early childhood contexts. Qualitative case study research carried out in Aotearoa New…
Yang, Chun-Tien; Yen, Shiaw-Yu; Chen, Jui-O
In the context of holistic care, the definition of "unitary human being" incorporates the physical, psychological, social and spiritual. However, patient spiritual well-being is often neglected by nurses. Part of the reason for this is that a majority of clinical nurses have not had adequate training or practical guidance on spiritual caring methods. This paper applied the methodology outlined by Walker and Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of spiritual well-being. Analytical procedures used included a literature review of conceptual definitions of spiritual well-being and identification of defining attributes. We then developed a concept of spiritual well-being by referencing borderline and contrary cases identified in the constructed model and identified antecedents and consequences. Empirical referents were also outlined. Results show the defining attributes of spiritual well-being to be: (1) having a subjective feeling of happiness; (2) Affirming the self worth; (3) managing interpersonal relationships with an open, accepting attitude; and (4) possessing an internal "energy". This analysis is hoped to enhance nurse understanding of spiritual well-being in order to utilize the concept in their professional practice. PMID:20535684
Einolf, Christopher J.
This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of being", my…
Proposes three understandings of spirituality and examines how they challenge religious educators. Stating that spirituality can be understood as a common human yearning and experience, as a developmental reality, and as a discipline involving the whole person, the author concludes that people cannot ignore their relationship to nature and to the…
Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit
Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…
Pridmore, Pat; Pridmore, John
This paper considers whether there are aspects of spiritual pedagogy specific to the education of children who are sick and asks how these concerns are to be addressed. The context of the enquiry is England and Wales where the promotion of the spiritual development of children is a legislative requirement. The focus of the study is on sick…
Souldrama[R] is a therapeutic, psychospiritual group action model that leads participants through seven sequential stages of spiritual development with the goal of accessing their spiritual intelligence. It can help group members move past resistance and recognize and move on to their higher purpose. Psychodramatically based, it is intended to be…
Spirituals are religious folk songs that were created and sung by enslaved African Americans to express the emotions and thoughts of a people in bondage. The spiritual conveyed deep religious convictions and the desire for freedom brought on by two centuries' worth of oppression, as slavery was legal in the United States from approximately 1650…
Payne Gold, Shaunna
Spiritual development and nonheterosexual identity development are both slippery topics that are individually complex and multifaceted. Scholars from various disciplines have called for a deeper understanding of the intersection of spirituality and nonheterosexual identity (Buchanan, Dzelme, Harris & Hecker, 2001; Love, Bock Jannarone, &…
Markle, D. Thomas
Currently, little is known about the influence classroom learning has on the spiritual beliefs of students. Despite this fact, decisions on educational policy, parental home schooling, and even whether to bring legal actions against school districts, often rest on the assumption that education can induce spiritual belief change. To begin the…
Attempts a redefinition of spirituality and an incorporation of this into art education. Argues that symbolic and spiritual consciousness plays a crucial role in the works of artists as disparate as William Blake and Frida Kahlo. Criticizes the preeminence of scientific theory as a modern belief system. (MJP)
Nursing guidelines recommend that attention should be given to the spiritual and religious needs of patients. This suggests that meeting the spiritual needs of patients is an important aspect of holistic care, and that it should be considered and supported wherever relevant. PMID:27615589
Hicks, Mona; Tran-Parsons, Uyen
The skill development of equanimity and empathy gained through spiritual growth equips students to examine solutions to complex problems in a diverse, global society. This chapter explores intentional multicultural initiatives designed to foster spiritual development and interfaith engagement as means to navigate difference and social good.
Elkonin, Diane; Brown, Ottilia; Naicker, Samantha
Religion and spirituality are recognized coping resources but are neglected in psychological training and practice. However, religion and spirituality can be successfully used to cope with psychological disorders, prevent unhealthy behaviors and promote resilience. This study explored and described two questions regarding the concepts of the terminology religion and spirituality, and the perceptions of the use of religion and spirituality in therapy. Purposive sampling was utilized in a qualitative study of 15 registered psychologists, and data were analyzed using Tesch's model of qualitative content analysis. The concepts religion and spirituality appear difficult to define but the importance of their use as coping mechanisms in their own and their clients' lives was recognized. These findings have implications for professional training. PMID:22562170
McClung, Emily; Grossoehme, Daniel H; Jacobson, Ann F
Current accreditation and professional standards in health care reflect the importance of chaplaincy services to patients, families, the health care team, and the organization. However, inadequate spiritual assessment, the organizational structure and climate, and lack of understanding of the chaplain's role can prevent these services from being optimally utilized. Chaplains are trained extensively to provide spiritual care to patients, families, and staff as they assist in meeting the organization's mission to provide patient-centered care. Spiritual assessment is a tool for nurses to recognize patient's needs for spiritual intervention and chaplain referral. By collaborating with chaplains, nurses can help develop an organizational infrastructure capable of timely responsiveness to patients' spiritual needs. PMID:16817296
Grover, Sandeep; Davuluri, Triveni; Chakrabarti, Subho
Religion and spirituality exert a significant role in the lives of many individuals, including people with schizophrenia. However, the contribution of religion and spirituality to various domains (psychopathology, explanatory models, treatment seeking, treatment adherence, outcome, etc.) has not received much attention. In this article, we review the exiting data with regards to the relationship of religion, spirituality, and various domains in patients with schizophrenia. Available evidence suggests that for some patients, religion instills hope, purpose, and meaning in their lives, whereas for others, it induces spiritual despair. Patients with schizophrenia also exhibit religious delusions and hallucinations. Further, there is some evidence to suggest that religion influences the level of psychopathology. Religion and religious practices also influence social integration, risk of suicide attempts, and substance use. Religion and spirituality also serves as an effective method of coping with the illness. Religion also influences the treatment compliance and outcome in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24860209
This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions. PMID:21534069
Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.
Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…
Osborn, Debra; Street, Sue; Bradham-Cousar, Michelle
This study examined the self-reported value of spirituality, types of spiritual practices, and values of 69 counselor education students. It also examined counseling students' ideas for how to increase their comfort with incorporating spirituality into counseling practice. Implications for implementing spirituality training in counselor education…
Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.
The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…
Myers, Jane E.; Williard, Kirk
Incorporating spirituality within a wellness paradigm can help counselors and counselor educators value and address spirituality as an integral component of optimum human functioning. By distinguishing between religiosity and spirituality and operationally conceptualizing spirituality as a lifespan developmental phenomenon that is essential for…
Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.
This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…
Momennasab, Marzieh; Moattari, Marzieh; Abbaszade, Abbas; Shamshiri, Babak
Background: Life-threatening and stressful events, such as myocardial infarction (MI) can lead to an actual crisis, which affects the patients spiritually as well as physically, psychologically, and socially. However, the focus of health care providers is on physical needs. Furthermore, the spirituality of the patients experiencing heart attack in the light of our cultural context is not well addressed in the literature. This study is aimed at exploring the spiritual experiences of the survivors of the MI. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research a grounded theory approach was used. Key informants were 9 MI patients hospitalized in the coronary care units of 3 hospitals in Shiraz. In addition, 7 nurses participated in the study. In-depth interviews and a focus group were used to generate data. Data analysis was done based on Strauss and Corbin method. Constant comparison analysis was performed until data saturation. Results: Five main categories emerged from the data, including perceived threat, seeking spiritual support, referring to religious values, increasing faith, and realization. The latter with its 3 subcategories was recognized as core category and represents a deep understanding beyond knowing. At the time of encountering MI, spirituality provided hope, strength, and peace for the participants. Conclusion: Based on the results we can conclude that connecting to God, religious values, and interconnectedness to others are the essential components of the participants’ spiritual experience during the occurrence of MI. Spirituality helps patients to overcome this stressful life-threatening situation. PMID:23853646
Johnson, Ruth W; Tilghman, Joan S; Davis-Dick, Lorrie R; Hamilton-Faison, Barbara
The following article is an attempt to encapsulate an historical overview of spirituality in nursing. Despite a plethora of information relative to spirituality in nursing, the decision was to do an eclectic overview that was not reflective of any one spiritual/religious group. The authors at times found this goal difficult when writing about the Pre-Christian and Christian eras. Most of the major religions have their own perspective on the concept of spirituality, and historical personalities recorded maybe reflective of that particular religion. Another factor that impacted on the writing of this article was the concept that spirituality was not always linked specifically to religion. Spirituality was an experiential component of the wonders of nature and life, a domain that the authors took into account but did not expound upon. Finally the authors realized that spirituality has almost always been an aspect of African-American life and certainly of those in nursing. To this end the authors realize that there is a need for more research in this area. PMID:18402344
Dougherty, Troy J.
Very little research exists to empirically support a spiritual component to leadership. Most of the literature connecting spirituality to leadership is either theory based or anecdotal. Even less research exists involving college students and the contribution of spirituality to their attitudes and behaviors as leaders. Spiritual intelligence has…
Melhem, Ghaith Ahmad Bani; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Zaqqout, Ossama Abed.; Aljwad, Ashraf Ismail; Shawagfeh, Mohammed Qasim; Al- Rahim, Maysoon Abd
Aims: This study aimed to describe nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care in Jordan, and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographic variables. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design and recruited a convenience sample of 408 Jordanian registered nurses to complete the spiritual care giving scale. Results: The findings of the study demonstrated that most of the participating nurses had a high level of spirituality and spiritual care perception. Significant differences were found between male and female nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care (P < 0.05); previous attendance of courses on spiritual care also made a significant difference to perceptions (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The research findings suggest that, Jordanian nurses’ gender made a difference in their perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. They had satisfactory levels of perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Moreover, spiritual care courses appeared to have a positive impact on their perception of spirituality and spiritual care. Enhancing nursing care by integrating standardized spiritual care into the current nursing care, training, and education should also be emphasized. PMID:26962280
Schonfeld, Toby L; Schmid, Kendra K; Boucher-Payne, Deborah
Researchers are beginning to collect empiric data about coping mechanisms of health science students. Yet, there is an important aspect of coping with stress that is only partially addressed in health sciences curricula: students' spiritual well-being. In this essay, we describe a course in spirituality and health care that we offered to fourth-year medical students, as well as a small empirical study we conducted to assess students' spiritual needs and practices. We then offer reflections on the broad applicability of this work to students in the health sciences more generally, including suggestions for curriculum interventions that may ensure students' success. PMID:25404167
Lowery, John Wesley
An increasingly litigious environment, combined with a renewed interest in spirituality, makes it imperative for higher education officials to be cognizant of the legal implication of two competing fundamental rights.
Solomon, Jeffrey; Hunter, Jeremy
Using Howard Gardner's concept of existential intelligence along with others such as Jerome Bruner, explores the psychology of spirituality and leadership. Describes how famous film director uses meditation in his work. Draws implications for educational leadership. (PKP)
... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...
Miller, Lynda W.
Parish nursing is a health promotion ministry that links faith and health. A continuing education course to prepare nurses for it addresses spiritual, emotional, physical, mental, cultural, and social dimensions. It includes reflective and self-assessment activities. (SK)
Boss, Lisa; Branson, Sandy; Cron, Stanley; Kang, Duck-Hee
Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping) and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β) in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4). Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001), depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01), and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01). Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly.
Promotion of students' spiritual development is one of the goals of pastoral care in schools. The heritage of Chinese calligraphy is traditionally used as a way to enhance an individual's self-reflection and cultivation, and has an educational value in spiritual development. This study aims to examine the cultural meaning of Chinese calligraphy…
Mercer, Joyce Ann
Children's spirituality has become a significant for-profit enterprise in North American consumer culture. This article explores the marketing of children's spirituality as an aspect of the larger construction of children as consumers in the context of late globalized capitalism. Playing off of parental anxieties over the need to avail their…
Campbell, Karen P.
The purpose of this heuristic study was to explore the ways in which spirituality informed and impacted educators' own experience of learning as a transformative inner encounter. It inquired into the experience of learning from a spiritual perspective in order to determine the extent to which transformative learning could be described as a…
Miller, Vachel W., Ed.; Ryan, Merle M., Ed.
The chapters in this collection explore the religious and spiritual dimensions of college life. They offer innovative approaches for positive change and address legal, organizational, and cultural issues involved in making campuses more hospitable to the human spirit. The chapters in Part 1, Religious Pluralism and Spirituality in Campus Life:…
Hodge, David R.; Derezotes, David S.
The integration of spirituality content into curricula has accelerated dramatically during the past decade. Despite this trend, little discussion has appeared in the literature about the instructional methods best suited to teach spirituality. Adopting a new approach referred to as "pedagogical pluralism," the authors suggest that some aspects of…
Hammermeister, Jon; Peterson, Margaret
Examined relationships among college students' differing levels of spiritual well-being and 11 psycho-social and health-related characteristics. Results revealed that students scoring higher on the spiritual health measure displayed better outcomes on psycho-social measures (e.g., loneliness, self-esteem and hopelessness). Alcohol and drug use…
Günther, Andreas; Baumann, Klaus; Frick, Eckhard; Jacobs, Christoph
Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS). Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies. PMID:23843867
Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham
The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality and suicide in this paper. After an overview of the attitudes of the dominant religions (e.g., Catholicism, Islam, and Buddhism) toward suicide, the three main theories that have speculated regarding the link between religion and suicide are presented: "integration theory" (Durkheim, 1897/1997), "religious commitment theory" (Stack, 1983a; Stark, 1983), and "network theory" (Pescosolido & Georgianna, 1989). Subsequent to this theoretical introduction, we report on studies on religion/spirituality keeping the suicidal path as a reference: from suicidal ideation to nonlethal suicidal behavior to lethal suicidal behavior. Studies presenting indications of religious beliefs as a possible risk factor for suicidal behavior are also presented. The last section reviews possible intervention strategies for suicidal patients and suicide survivors. Indications for future research, such as more studies on nonreligious forms of spirituality and the use of qualitative methodology to achieve a better and deeper understanding of the spiritual dimension of suicidal behavior and treatment, are offered. PMID:18444780
Kessler, C; Wischnewsky, M; Michalsen, A; Eisenmann, C; Melzer, J
Ayurveda is playing a growing part in Europe. Questions regarding the role of religion and spirituality within Ayurveda are discussed widely. Yet, there is little data on the influence of religious and spiritual aspects on its European diffusion. Methods. A survey was conducted with a new questionnaire. It was analysed by calculating frequency variables and testing differences in distributions with the χ (2)-Test. Principal Component Analyses with Varimax Rotation were performed. Results. 140 questionnaires were analysed. Researchers found that individual religious and spiritual backgrounds influence attitudes and expectations towards Ayurveda. Statistical relationships were found between religious/spiritual backgrounds and decisions to offer/access Ayurveda. Accessing Ayurveda did not exclude the simultaneous use of modern medicine and CAM. From the majority's perspective Ayurveda is simultaneously a science, medicine, and a spiritual approach. Conclusion. Ayurveda seems to be able to satisfy the individual needs of therapists and patients, despite worldview differences. Ayurvedic concepts are based on anthropologic assumptions including different levels of existence in healing approaches. Thereby, Ayurveda can be seen in accordance with the prerequisites for a Whole Medical System. As a result of this, intimate and individual therapist-patient relationships can emerge. Larger surveys involving bigger participant numbers with fully validated questionnaires are warranted to support these results. PMID:24368928
Newberg, Andrew B.
The purpose of this paper will be to provide a perspective on the current state of the research evaluating the neurobiological correlates of spiritual practices and review the methodological issues that confront this research field. There are many types of spiritual practices that might be studied including prayer and meditation, as well as unusual practices such as mediumistic trance states, speaking in tongues, and also drug-induced experiences. Current studies have utilized neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. These studies have helped elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms associated with spiritual practices. Such studies confront unique challenges for scientific methodology including determining the most appropriate objective measures such as neuroimaging studies and physiological parameters, and correlating them with subjective measures that help capture states of spiritual significance. Overall, a neuroscientific study of spiritual practices and experiences has the potential to provide fascinating data to further our understanding of the relationship between the brain and such phenomena. PMID:24672504
Kessler, C.; Wischnewsky, M.; Michalsen, A.; Eisenmann, C.; Melzer, J.
Ayurveda is playing a growing part in Europe. Questions regarding the role of religion and spirituality within Ayurveda are discussed widely. Yet, there is little data on the influence of religious and spiritual aspects on its European diffusion. Methods. A survey was conducted with a new questionnaire. It was analysed by calculating frequency variables and testing differences in distributions with the χ2-Test. Principal Component Analyses with Varimax Rotation were performed. Results. 140 questionnaires were analysed. Researchers found that individual religious and spiritual backgrounds influence attitudes and expectations towards Ayurveda. Statistical relationships were found between religious/spiritual backgrounds and decisions to offer/access Ayurveda. Accessing Ayurveda did not exclude the simultaneous use of modern medicine and CAM. From the majority's perspective Ayurveda is simultaneously a science, medicine, and a spiritual approach. Conclusion. Ayurveda seems to be able to satisfy the individual needs of therapists and patients, despite worldview differences. Ayurvedic concepts are based on anthropologic assumptions including different levels of existence in healing approaches. Thereby, Ayurveda can be seen in accordance with the prerequisites for a Whole Medical System. As a result of this, intimate and individual therapist-patient relationships can emerge. Larger surveys involving bigger participant numbers with fully validated questionnaires are warranted to support these results. PMID:24368928
Monareng, Lydia V
Although the concept 'spiritual nursing care' has its roots in the history of the nursing profession, many nurses in practice have difficulty integrating the concept into practice. There is an ongoing debate in the empirical literature about its definition, clarity and application in nursing practice. The study aimed to develop an operational definition of the concept and its application in clinical practice. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe how professional nurses render spiritual nursing care. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit the sample. Individual and focus group interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Trustworthiness was ensured through strategies of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Data were analysed using the NUD*IST power version 4 software, constant comparison, open, axial and selective coding. Tech's eight steps of analysis were also used, which led to the emergence of themes, categories and sub-categories. Concept analysis was conducted through a comprehensive literature review and as a result 'caring presence' was identified as the core variable from which all the other characteristics of spiritual nursing care arise. An operational definition of spiritual nursing care based on the findings was that humane care is demonstrated by showing caring presence, respect and concern for meeting the needs not only of the body and mind of patients, but also their spiritual needs of hope and meaning in the midst of health crisis, which demand equal attention for optimal care from both religious and nonreligious nurses. PMID:23327772
Cashwell, Craig S.; Bentley, Paige B.; Yarborough, J. Preston
Given the increased attention to spirituality in the counseling literature, with a primary emphasis on helping clients find their spiritual path, it is important for counselors to be aware of one potential pitfall of the spiritual path, namely spiritual bypass. Spiritual bypass occurs when clients seek to use their spiritual beliefs, practices,…
Rudolfsson, Gudrun; Berggren, Ingela; da Silva, António Barbosa
Spirituality is often mistakenly equated with religion but is in fact a far broader concept. The aim of this integrative review was to describe experiences of the positive impact of spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing. The analysis was guided by Whittemore and Knafl’s integrative review method. The findings revealed seven themes: ‘Being part of a greater wholeness’, ‘Togetherness − value based relationships’, ‘Developing inner strength’, ‘Ministering to patients’, ‘Maintaining one’s sense of humanity’, ‘Viewing life as a gift evokes a desire to ‘give back’’ and ‘Achieving closure − life goes on’. It is difficult to draw definite conclusions, as spirituality involves many perspectives on various levels of awareness. However, spirituality was considered more inclusive, fluid and personal. Furthermore, it emerged that spirituality and spiritual values in the context of nursing are closely intertwined with the concept of caring. PMID:25598856
Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance
The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life. PMID:26922751
Bagheri Noaparast, Khosrow
This paper aims at showing the dimensions of spirituality in childhood education by suggesting a new analysis of the concept of "pure life" used in the Qur'an. Putting spirituality in the framework of the pure life provides us with a rich framework in dealing with spirituality as the latter will be extended to all dimensions of a life. In the…
Buzzanell, Patrice M.
Spirituality offers a range of connections--to oneself, others, organizations, a higher being--that may shift over the course of an individual's lifetime. The spiritual values of compassion, humility, and simplicity are a basis on which spiritual practices and identities form and grow. In turn, practices and identities shape the meanings and…
Spirituality is an important aspect of counseling. This paper identifies spirituality as a task that is a journey universal to human beings. It presents a taxonomy of spirituality/consciousness developed by Render and Lemire, postulating five levels of taxonomy: self, others, groups, the world, and cosmic. These levels apply across cultural,…
Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C.
Addressing the spiritual development of young people has the potential to strengthen youth work and its outcomes. Spiritual development matters because it is an intrinsic part of being human and because young people themselves view it as important. This article reviews the research that points to positive impacts of spiritual development for youth…
Numerous popular figures currently espouse the importance of spirituality. Some prominent voices, such as Deepak Chopra, Marianne Williamson, and Eckhart Tolle, advocate a more spiritual existence, warning that the earth and humanity are engaged in a seismic change. The shift of spiritual leaders from fringe to fairly mainline attention is…
Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to interview 4…
Hodge, David R.
A paucity of research exists on the effectiveness of spiritual interventions, despite their wide use by practitioners and the acknowledged importance of evidence-based practice. To assist practitioners in their selection of spiritual interventions, the author reviewed research on the effectiveness of spiritually modified cognitive therapy. The…
The purpose of this study was to provide a rich description of what spiritual experiences look like in children in a kindergarten classroom, in which typically, spirituality is not considered a part of the philosophy or curriculum of the school. This study sought to first describe what constitutes a spiritual experience, to then describe how…
Stloukal, Merit E.; Wickman, Scott A.
The authors present a model for creating spiritual and religious safe zones in school counseling programs that implements the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's (ASERVIC; 2009) "Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling" in a school setting. The authors frame the model within the…
Daniels, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn
In recent decades, spirituality has become a prominent focus of psychological inquiry. As research begins to elucidate the role of spiritual beliefs and behaviours in mental health and the influences of spirituality in psychotherapy, developing therapist competency in this domain has increased in importance. This article will first situate…
We are living in a time of increasing interest in the religious and spiritual aspects of sport and human movement activities. A strict distinction between religion and spirituality is, however, still missing in much of the literature. After delimiting religious and spiritual modes of experience, this article addresses Coubertin's "religio…
Marsh, Paul E.
What do people mean when they describe backcountry adventure experiences as being "spiritual"? Spiritual aspects of adventure experiences in the wilderness have been recounted anecdotally and recognized in research. This body of research, however, has left the definition of the term spiritual to the individual participants, and has not yet…
A co-operative inquiry group consisting of 8 counsellors met for 11 months to explore their experience of spirituality in their training and in their work with clients [Swinton, V. (2010). The spiritual in counselling training (Unpublished Thesis). The University of Manchester; Swinton, V. (2015). The spiritual in counselling training. In G. Nolan…
Spirituality is recognised by many to be an inherent property of the human being. Empirical studies and theoretical literature both suggest that spirituality affects one's quality of life in terms of emotional and physical well-being, relationships, and social inclusion. However, the importance of the spiritual dimension of life is rarely…
du Plessis, Emmerentia
This article argues that while not all nurses are comfortable with spiritual care, nurses may be comfortable with enacting presence. Presence, an encompassing element in spiritual care, might be a more accessible first step for nurses toward spiritual care. To further highlight this viewpoint, the nature, consequences, and cultivation of presence are also discussed. PMID:26633726
Looks at the spiritual dimensions of nursing at various historical periods: ancient civilizations, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and the 18th and 19th centuries. Reviews contemporary perspectives on spirituality and nursing and suggests how nurses can be equipped to deal with patients' spiritual needs. (SK)
Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence
Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…
Farias, Miguel; Underwood, Raphael; Claridge, Gordon
Previous research has linked certain types of modern spirituality, including New Age and Pagan, with either benign schizotypy or insecure attachment. While the first view emphasizes a positive aspect of spiritual believers' mental health (benign schizotypy), the second view emphasizes a negative aspect, namely the unhealthy emotional compensation associated with an insecure attachment style. This study addresses these two conflicting views by comparing a sample of modern spiritual individuals (N = 114) with a contrast group of traditional religious believers (N = 86). Measures of schizotypy and attachment style were combined with mental health scales of anxiety and depression. We further assessed death anxiety to determine whether modern spiritual beliefs fulfilled a similar function as traditional religious beliefs in the reduction of existential threat. Our results support a psychological contiguity between traditional and modern spiritual believers and reinforce the need to de-stigmatize spiritual ideas and experiences. Using hierarchical regression, we showed that unusual experiences and ideas are the major predictor of engagement in modern spiritual practices. Anxiety, depression variables, and insecure attachment were not significant predictors of spirituality or correlated with them; on the other hand, the results show that spiritual believers report high social support satisfaction and this variable predicts involvement in modern spirituality. Further, spiritual practices were negatively correlated with and negatively predicted by death anxiety scores. Overall, the results strengthen the association between modern spirituality, good mental health, and general well-being. PMID:23848387
Lili, Tian; Shenghua, Jin
Objective: To explore the characteristics of the spiritual beliefs among junior high school students. Method: 431 junior high school students are measured by Students' Basic Information Questionnaire (SBIQ) and Middle School Students' Spiritual Beliefs Questionnaire (MSSSBQ). Results: (1) The overall characteristics of the spiritual beliefs among…
Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay
Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.
Nakasone, R Y
The spiritual journey of a Buddhist devotee is a continual exploration of the truth of interdependence which Siddhartha Gautama realized to become the Buddha, "the Enlightened One." On the morning of the enlightenment, the Buddha apprehended the truth that all things and all beings are interconnected and mutually dependent in time and space. One measure of the spiritual maturity of the Buddhist devotee is his or her appreciation for the profound responsibilities and gratitude we share for all things. To illustrate the significance of interdependence in our lives, the author turns to the wisdom contained inVital Involvement in Old Age by Erik and Joan Erikson and Helen Q. Kivnick. PMID:24264030
LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.
The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291
Yaghjian, Lucretia B.
Mentoring is an important but often overlooked resource in theological education and students' academic and spiritual formation. This essay profiles the mentoring practices and postures of the writing tutor and the spiritual director as exemplars of academic and spiritual mentoring. An extended probe of this analogy affirms the integration of…
Corry, Lisa M.
The question explored in this research from the literature is: Regarding college student identity development, what is known about personal integrative spirituality and relational Christian spirituality, with a particular focus on gender differences? Spirituality is included as an aspect of identity development by theorists Erikson, Marcia,…
Lewis, Jeffrey S.; Geroy, Gary D.
Discusses six entry points to initiate discussion of employee spirituality in management education: cross-cultural management, workplace diversity, leadership, team management, organizational culture, and human resource development. (SK)
Hatala, Andrew R
Previous research on Aboriginal [Native American] spirituality has demonstrated that some of its dimensions have significant, positive effects on health and healing. This review will explore and highlight some important spiritual domains and characteristics of Aboriginal life that are significant factors in both the prevention of and recovery from various mental health issues afflicting the Canadian Aboriginal population today. Findings from current research in this area is explored and presented as grounds for supporting the current objectives. As demonstrated, Aboriginal perspectives on health and healing are broader than those of biomedicine, encompassing emotional and spiritual aspects as well as the mental and physical. Mental health practitioners should, therefore, include spiritual dimensions while working with Aboriginal patients, not only to respect the patients' worldview but also for the demonstrated positive effects on healing. PMID:20664135
Mooney, Bróna; Timmins, Fiona
Precise definitions of spirituality can be elusive (McSherry, 2000). This factor together with the increasing class sizes for undergraduate nursing students render the teaching and learning of spirituality in nursing a challenge for both lecturers and students alike (McSherry, 2000). This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative spirituality program for second year nursing students attending a Bachelor of Science degree at a university in the Republic of Ireland. This teaching program was introduced in 2005 to enhance nursing students' engagement with the concept of spirituality. The program consisted of a series of lectures on the topic, followed by a visit to the National Gallery of Ireland. The latter involved a structured visit, whereby the students (n=100) were divided into ten small groups and asked to wander through a section of the gallery and choose a piece of art work that they perceived to be spiritual in nature. Students were then asked to write their subjective impressions and reasons for their choice of painting. A list of themes related to spirituality was provided to the students as a prompt. Students later visited the paintings with both a lecturer and an art gallery guide and their chosen paintings were discussed within the group. Later that day, purposive sampling was used, whereby a selection of nursing students participating in the Gallery visit (n=21) partook in four recorded focus group interviews following the Gallery visit. Themes emerging from the interviews pertained to the universal and individual nature of spirituality. In keeping with Mc Sherry's (2000:27) definition of spirituality as a "universal concept relevant to all individuals", students in the study revealed their surprise at the uniqueness of their colleague's interpretations. The teaching methodology offered them an opportunity to reflect upon their own understandings and develop a deeper awareness of the meaning of spirituality. It also allowed
Dobratz, Marjorie C
The purpose of this article is to describe a Roy adaptation model based- research abstraction, the findings of which were synthesized into a middle-range theory (MRT) of adaptive spirituality. The published literature yielded 21 empirical studies that investigated religion/spirituality. Quantitative results supported the influence of spirituality on quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, well-being, adaptive coping, and the self-concept mode. Qualitative findings showed the importance of spiritual expressions, values, and beliefs in adapting to chronic illness, bereavement, death, and other life transitions. These findings were abstracted into six theoretical statements, a conceptual definition of adaptive spirituality, and three hypotheses for future testing. PMID:26980894
Ferrell, Betty; Wittenberg, Elaine; Battista, Vanessa; Walker, Gay
Although we know that families of seriously ill children experience spiritual distress, especially at the end of the child's life, there is little information on the specific spiritual needs of families. In order to develop further training for nurses in paediatrics and help nurses develop skills for communicating about spirituality, this research examined the spiritual needs of families based on nurses' experiences with families of seriously ill children. Nurses' experiences revealed that families' anger with God, blame/regret, forgiveness, and ritual and cultural traditions are salient spiritual needs requiring effective nurse communication skills to support families of ill children. PMID:27568778
King, Michael B; Koenig, Harold G
The need to take account of spirituality in research and health services provision is assuming ever greater importance. However the field has long been hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity about the nature of spirituality itself. We do not agree with the sceptical claim that it is impossible to conceptualise spirituality within a scientific paradigm. Our aims are to 1) provide a brief over-view of critical thinking that might form the basis for a useful definition of spirituality for research and clinical work and 2) demystify the language of spirituality for clinical practice and research. PMID:19594903
Parallels between the reconstruction of self in Alcoholics Anonymous and the reconstruction of self in second language acquisition are drawn out and examined in three areas: ego deflation, identification at depth, and mutual assistance. These spiritual principles are shown to be theoretically and empirically supported in SLA literature and…
McGinnis, Jane Berndt
This review examines research in moral and spiritual development during the adolescent years, with a primary focus on Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories. It begins by presenting definitions of morality and then discusses theories of moral development set forth by Piaget, Elkind, and Kohlberg. Theories of Piaget and Kohlberg are briefly compared.…
Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara; Valenti, Michael Pickren
Research suggests that spiritual transformation, a change in the way a person considers the sacred, can change medical outcome (Pargament, 2006). Psychometric studies have failed to identify specific factors, but qualitative reports detail an experience that can be reliably shown to have an impact. We report on the development of a rubric for…
Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham
The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality…
McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John
For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597
Kuh, George D.; Gonyea, Robert M.
One of the more intriguing trends at the turn of the twenty-first century is the ascendant influence of religion in various aspects of American life. The renewed interest in religion and spirituality is not just a function of aging baby boomers acknowledging their mortality. The University of Pennsylvania reported that 86 percent of those between…
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Falb, Melissa D; Pargament, Kenneth I
Mindfulness training, which emphasizes deliberate non-judgmental attention to present moment experiences, has become increasingly mainstream over the past several decades. With accumulating evidence for the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness, it has been integrated into medical and psychological treatments and is increasingly accepted in the fields of psychology and psychiatry. However, several elements of mindfulness practice which potentially contribute to its benefits have been largely neglected. These include the connections between mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, spirituality, and the psychotherapeutic alliance. The emerging concept of "relational mindfulness" focuses attention on the oft-neglected interpersonal aspects of mindfulness practices. Relational mindfulness is potentially relevant to the psychotherapeutic process, due to its cultivation of the types of qualities that enhance the therapeutic relationship, including warmth, empathy, curiosity, acceptance, self-attunement, and emotional intelligence. In addition, mindfulness practices, especially relational ones, can contribute to the development of spiritual qualities, such as transcendence, boundlessness, ultimacy, and interconnectedness. Several recent studies suggest that meditation/mindfulness interventions may be explained and or enhanced by an emphasis on spiritual components. In this paper, we suggest that focusing on the oft-neglected relational and spiritual aspects of mindfulness practice has the potential to deepen its benefits, especially within the context of the psychotherapeutic relationship. PMID:23174445
Franklin, H. Carolyn
Attention to teaching and developing spirituality in interpersonal communication is timely. Today's technology usurps the "human" in human being. Humankind is displaced by computers, e-mail, and various websites which substitute for the "person" in interpersonal communication. This technology, combined with the emergence of widespread cultural…
McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John
For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597
Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled. PMID:10558611
Church documents, theology, leadership theory, and sociology come together in this article to present a pedagogy for Catholic schools that is deeply rooted in a personal faith and a contemporary understanding of the person. In order to construct a conceptual model of a pedagogy grounded in Christian spirituality, the meaning of the term "pedagogy"…
York, Kenneth D.; Miller, Doreen M.; Duncan, Cecil
The purpose of this study was to assess the rehabilitation counselor issues regarding the integration of spirituality into rehabilitation counseling. Rehabilitation counseling, from its inception, has espoused the concept of holism. The holistic approach to rehabilitation counseling recognizes the importance of working with the whole person, to…
Evolution of the relationship between counseling and spirituality since 1840 is examined in terms of the number of publications that have appeared over time that include these terms. The author retrieved the data using the American Psychological Association's PsycINFO database. A similar search was done adding the term training. The rise of…
Asserts the importance of psychological and spiritual factors in the treatment of chronic illness. Discusses the inevitably of sickness, old age, and death, as well as the presence of the physician, patience, pain, and hope. Maintains that reflection on these qualities can benefit both the physician and patient. (MJP)
A teacher developing a method to teach spiritual care to nursing students over age 25 used a journal to record and reflect on experiences. The importance of a safe and open learning environment, use of adult-learning principles, and immediate recording of journal entries was underscored. (SK)
Arden, Harvey; Wall, Steve
This book documents meetings with Native American elders who shared their tribal stories of origin, sacred traditions, social life and customs, and traditional wisdom. The idea for the book began when a Cherokee medicine man requested that his tribal knowledge be documented for future generations. For the past 10 years, the spiritual elders of…
This paper, informed especially by the work of the philosopher John Macmurray, focuses on two personal anecdotes in order to explore the relationship and distinctions between emotional and spiritual experience. Despite being unique to the individual, emotional experience requires relationship, and thus appreciation of the feelings of others is…
Louie-Badua, Liane J.; Wolf, Maura
Service-learning, by its very nature, fosters young people's spiritual development, especially in experiencing a sense of interconnectedness with others and the rest of the world; opening one's heart; and expanding self-inquiry and self-knowledge. (Contains 7 notes.)
Bruce, Anne; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita
Despite growing interest in spiritual matters throughout society, definitions and descriptions of spirituality seem incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. In this article, the authors consider the possibility that such incompleteness is perhaps necessary and welcomed in addressing spirituality. In particular, they investigate the challenges of using metaphor and metonymic approaches to "languaging" spirituality. By exploring these figures of speech they hope to diversify how nurses articulate deeply personal and perhaps enigmatic human phenomena such as spirituality. Metaphoric language uses everyday structures to help make sense of complex, emotional, and abstract experience. Whereas metaphor creates substitutive relationships between things and provides insights into conceptualizing spirituality, metonymy and metonymic writing establish relationships of contiguity. Whereas metaphor functions to represent and facilitates understanding and feelings about spirituality, metonymy disrupts while opening possibilities of moving beyond binary thinking. Attending to language and its various ontological assumptions opens diverse and potentially more inclusive possibilities. PMID:20841392
Miller, Lisa; Bansal, Ravi; Wickramaratne, Priya; Hao, Xuejun; Tenke, Craig E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Peterson, Bradley S.
IMPORTANCE We previously reported a 90% decreased risk in major depression, assessed prospectively, in adult offspring of depressed probands who reported that religion or spirituality was highly important to them. Frequency of church attendance was not significantly related to depression risk. Our previous brain imaging findings in adult offspring in these high-risk families also revealed large expanses of cortical thinning across the lateral surface of the right cerebral hemisphere. OBJECTIVE To determine whether high-risk adults who reported high importance of religion or spirituality had thicker cortices than those who reported moderate or low importance of religion or spirituality and whether this effect varied by family risk status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal, retrospective cohort, familial study of 103 adults (aged 18–54 years) who were the second- or third-generation offspring of depressed (high familial risk) or nondepressed (low familiar risk) probands (first generation). Religious or spiritual importance and church attendance were assessed at 2 time points during 5 years, and cortical thickness was measured on anatomical images of the brain acquired with magnetic resonance imaging at the second time point. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical thickness in the parietal regions by risk status. RESULTS Importance of religion or spirituality, but not frequency of attendance, was associated with thicker cortices in the left and right parietal and occipital regions, the mesial frontal lobe of the right hemisphere, and the cuneus and precuneus in the left hemisphere, independent of familial risk. In addition, the effects of importance on cortical thickness were significantly stronger in the high-risk than in the low-risk group, particularly along the mesial wall of the left hemisphere, in the same region where we previously reported a significant thinner cortex associated with a familial risk of developing depressive illness. We note that
Spinale, Joann; Cohen, Scott D.; Khetpal, Prashant; Peterson, Rolf A.; Clougherty, Brenna; Puchalski, Christina M.; Patel, Samir S.; Kimmel, Paul L.
Background and objectives: No studies have evaluated the relationship among spirituality, social support, and survival in patients with ESRD. This study assessed whether spirituality was an independent predictor of survival in dialysis patients with ESRD after controlling for age, diabetes, albumin, and social support. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A total of 166 patients who had ESRD and were treated with hemodialysis completed questionnaires on psychosocial variables, quality of life, and religious and spiritual beliefs. The religious variables were categorized into three scores on a 0 to 20 scale (low to high levels): Spirituality, religious involvement, and religion as coping. Social support was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support. Analyses were also performed including and excluding patients with HIV infection. Religious variables were categorized on the basis of means, medians, and tertiles. Results: In analyses that used religious variables, only the responses on the spirituality scale split at the mean were associated with survival. The association of other religious variables with survival did not reach significance. Social support correlated with spirituality, religion as coping, and religious involvement measures. Only social support and age were associated with survival when controlling for diabetes, albumin concentration, HIV infection, and spirituality. Conclusions: These data suggest that the effects of spirituality may be mediated by social support. Larger, multicenter, prospective studies that use well-validated tools to measure religiosity and spirituality are needed to determine whether there is an independent association of spirituality variables with survival in patients with ESRD. PMID:18922991
Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Prapa, Efi; Smyrnioti, Marilena; Pagoropoulou, Anna; Lambros, Vlahos
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between spirituality and hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and clinical and disease-related characteristics among patients with advanced cancer, and to investigate predictors of spirituality. Spiritual well-being is thought to have a beneficial effect on patients’ response to illness. DESIGN Patients were asked to complete 4 questionnaires: the Greek version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, the Greek version of the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and a questionnaire on demographics. SETTING A palliative care unit in Athens, Greece. PARTICIPANTS A total of 91 patients with advanced cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between scores on the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs scale and scores on the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scale and the Beck Hopelessness scale, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS Statistically significant associations were found between spirituality and sex of patients (P = .001) and spirituality and stronger hopelessness (r = 0.252, P = .016). In multivariate analyses, stronger hopelessness, male sex, younger age, and receiving chemotherapy were found to be the strongest predictors of being spiritual. CONCLUSION Demographic and clinical characteristics and stronger hopelessness appeared to have statistically significant relationships with spirituality. Interventions to improve patients’ spiritual well-being should take these relationships into account. PMID:19074719
Seddigh, Ruohollah; Keshavarz-Akhlaghi, Amir-Abbas; Azarnik, Somayeh
Context The objective of the present review was to collect published spiritual needs questionnaires and to present a clear image of the research condition of this domain. Evidence Acquisition First, an electronic search was conducted with no limits on time span (until June 2015) or language in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, ProQuest and Google Scholar. All derivations of the keywords religion and spiritual alongside need and its synonyms were included in the search. Researches that introduced new tools was then selected and included in the study. Due to the limited quantity of questionnaires in this domain and with no consideration given to the existence or lack of exact standardization information, all of the questionnaires were included in the final report. Results Eight questionnaires were found: patients spiritual needs assessment scale (PSNAS), spiritual needs inventory (SNI), spiritual interests related to illness tool (SpIRIT), spiritual needs questionnaire (SpNQ), spiritual needs assessment for patients (SNAP), spiritual needs scale (SNS), spiritual care needs inventory (SCNI), and spiritual needs questionnaire for palliative care. Conclusions These questionnaires have been designed from a limited medical perspective and often involve cultural concepts which complicate their cross-cultural applicability. PMID:27284281
Cramer, Emily M; Tenzek, Kelly E; Allen, Mike
Chaplains provide a much-needed service to patients and families requiring spiritual care in the healthcare setting. Despite evidence documenting improvements quality of life for patients using spiritual services, chaplains experience challenges in translating the benefits they provide into concepts understood by patients, team members, and administrators. A qualitative study using interviews with 19 chaplains found that translation problems occur in three main areas: (a) justifying the role to patients and families, (b) determinations of what constitutes a "productive" employee, and (c) effective collaboration with other members of the health care team. This study outlines several strategies used by chaplains to ease the process of translation, as well as some directions for future research. PMID:24040699
Igboin, Benson O
Everyday experience shows that there is a commonality between spirituality and medical practice. A text message I received from a friend recently read, "Please pray for me. I've been getting a mysterious headache for some days now. I will be seeing the doctor today." This clearly speaks of a relationship: asking for prayer so as to be relieved of a "mysterious headache", yet going to see a doctor whose job is not to cure mysterious headaches. Even though both areas of human experience have their peculiar and largely unrelated methodologies, this paper argues that any extreme separation of the two is injurious to the teleology of both disciplines in relation to human well-being, which forms the core of spirituality and medicine. PMID:26592781
Mermann, A. C.
Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377
Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Emami, Hamid; Loghmani, Amir; Jafari, Nooshin
Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 31). Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12) and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30), respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18) for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD = 6.63) to 37.24 (SD = 3.52) in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between arms of study (F = 22.91, P < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was detected between meaning and peace with all subscales of functional subscales on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) (P < 0.05). Hierarchical regression analyses of participants indicated that the study arm, pain, and financial impact were significant predictors of spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer. PMID:24023572
Salladay, Susan A
Aostmodern thinking that embraces tolerance and suggests there is no absolute truth may make Christian nurses feel uncertain or uncomfortable in giving spiritual care, especially care consistent wtih their beliefs. Christian nurses can be guided by the example of Jesus Christ and the Apostles Peter and Paul in the bible, being sensitive to postmodern perceptions without being intimidated by them and feeling neither obliated to share their faith, nor afraid to do so if a patient asks and gives consent. PMID:21473195
Messina, Giuseppina; Anania, Stefania; Bonomo, Claudia; Veneroni, Laura; Andreoli, Antonietta; Mameli, Francesca; Ortolina, Chiara; De Fabritiis, Paola; Gaffuri, Maria; Imbesi, Francesco; Moja, Egidio
Background: It has been shown that the pineal gland plays a fundamental role in mediating either the spiritual perception or the anticancer immunity by stimulating the endogenous production of anticancer cytokine interleukin (IL)-2. Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of a spiritual approach consisting of Kriya Yoga program alone or in association with melatonin (MLT) or low-dose IL-2 plus MLT on the survival time in a group of metastatic cancer patients with life expectancy less than 1 year. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 240 patients (M/F: 146/94; median age: 62 years, range: 34-71, suffering from non-small-cell lung cancer or gastrointestinal tumors) who were subdivided into 6 groups of 40 patients, treated with supportive care alone as a control group, supportive care plus Yoga, MLT alone, MLT plus Yoga, inteleukin-2 plus MLT, or IL-2 plus MLT plus Yoga. Results: The best results in terms of increased survival time were obtained by the association between neuroimmunotherapy with MLT plus IL-2 and Yoga program (2 years), which was significantly longer with respect to that achieved by supportive care alone, Yoga alone, or IL-2 plus MLT alone (1 year). Conclusions: This study would suggest that a spiritual therapeutic approach may improve the survival time of untreatable metastatic solid tumor patients. PMID:21654973
Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa
Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS); the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire; and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) sub-scale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(1), 30-37.]. PMID:25490775
Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce
People who have near-death experiences often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined spiritual well-being, using Paloutzian and Ellison's Spiritual Well-Being Scale, among 224 persons who had come close to death. Participants who reported having near-death experiences reported greater spiritual well-being than those who did not, and depth of spiritual well-being was positively correlated with depth of near-death experience. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of near-death experiences and of spiritual well-being among other populations. PMID:23625172
Batcheller, Joyce; Davis, James; Yoder-Wise, Patricia S
Healthy workplaces address various issues. Work focused on ergonomics addresses physical issues, satisfaction surveys reveal psychosocial issues; and other approaches address spirituality issues. Spirituality in the workplace contributes to holistic care and to the worth of the individual. Incorporating the concept of spirituality, in its broad sense, into the workplace enriches leadership practice and contributes to a holistic work environment. Spirituality is core to the servant leader approach to leadership and beneficial to other approaches. Followers benefit from a holistic approach to leadership; and some specific practices can exhibit the belief an organization holds related to the worth of the individual. Incorporating spirituality into an organization reflects the same values nursing holds for person-centered care, a view of integration of physical, psychological, and spiritual needs. PMID:24022284
Peteet, John R.
Many studies have found an inverse correlation between religious/spiritual involvement and depression. Yet several obstacles impede spiritually integrated treatment of depressed individuals. These include specialization and fragmentation of care, inexperience of clinicians and spiritual care providers, ideological bias, boundary and ethical concerns, and the lack of an accepted conceptual framework for integrated treatment. Here I suggest a framework for approaching these obstacles, constructed from a unified view of human experience (having emotional, existential, and spiritual dimensions); spirituality seen as a response to existential concerns (in domains such as identity, hope, meaning/purpose, morality, and autonomy in relation to authority, which are frequently distorted and amplified in depression); a rationale for locating spiritually oriented approaches within a clinician's assessment, formulation, and treatment plan; and recognition of the challenges and potential pitfalls of integrated treatment. PMID:22577530
Interest in both spirituality and complementary therapies is growing, with their inclusion in both daily life and in health care. The concept of spirituality and the delivery of a therapy have a certain synergy as they both espouse a view of the world that recognises the importance of the whole person. Increasingly, clients want their values and beliefs attended to, perhaps choosing a therapy as a pathway to nourish their sense of the spiritual. Consequently working in a holistic way the complementary therapist needs to acknowledge the spiritual dimension of the client. Integral to this is how the therapeutic encounter facilitates this engagement and how important it is that the therapist develops and explores their own spirituality and life values. This article is an exploration of how spirituality and complementary therapies can legitimately work together, creating a sacred space for both therapist and client. PMID:16648095
There is an increasing interest in the role of spirituality on the experience of health, wellness and illness, as well as the role of spiritual practice in health care provision. For pregnancy and childbirth, this focus has tended to concentrate on hospital birth settings and care, and religious forms of spirituality. The blessingway ceremony can be described as an alternative baby shower, popular with home-birthing women. Its focus is woman-centred and draws on the power of ritual to evoke a spiritual experience for the pregnant host and her guests. This spirituality is experienced as a strong connection between women, their relationship with 'nature', and forged via the nostalgic imagination of women through time and space. This article will draw on data obtained in 2010 during doctoral fieldwork with 52 home-birthing women across eastern Australia and will examine the blessingway ceremony and its significance as a site of potential spiritual empowerment for pregnant and birthing women. PMID:25577206
Religion, spirituality, health and medicine have common roots in the conceptual framework of relationship amongst human beings, nature and God. Of late, there has been a surge in interest in understanding the interplay of religion, spirituality, health and medicine, both in popular and scientific literature. A number of published empirical studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with better outcomes in physical and mental health. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies do point towards a positive association between religious involvement and better health. When faced with disease, disability and death, many patients would like physicians to address their emotional and spiritual needs, as well. The renewed interest in the interaction of religion and spirituality with health and medicine has significant implications in the Indian context. Although religion is translated as dharma in major Indian languages, dharma and religion are etymologically different and dharma is closer to spirituality than religion as an organized institution. Religion and spirituality play important roles in the lives of millions of Indians and therefore, Indian physicians need to respectfully acknowledge religious issues and address the spiritual needs of their patients. Incorporating religion and spirituality into health and medicine may also go a long way in making the practice of medicine more holistic, ethical and compassionate. It may also offer new opportunities to learn more about Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine and have more enriched understanding and collaborative interaction between different systems of medicine. Indian physicians may also find religion and spirituality significant and fulfilling in their own lives. PMID:18097118
Milner, Kerry A; Foito, Kim; Watson, Sherylyn
Nurse educators need to equip nursing students with suitable resources and education so they can develop their own spiritual care, as well as recognize spiritual care needs in patients. There is a paucity of literature on teaching strategies for spiritual care and prayer in undergraduate nursing programs. This article describes how one faith-based school implemented strategies to facilitate spiritual development in students, which are integrated throughout the curriculum and utilized in the U.S. and a study-abroad program in Ireland. PMID:27610908
The purpose of this article is to bring to focus an historical perspective to the subject of spirituality in nurse education. In doing so, the historical roots of spirituality in nursing are traced and commented. Whilst acknowledging the emerging perspectives on spirituality (Simsen 1986, Burnard 1986, 1987, Narayanasamy 1991, 1993, Harrison 1993, Bradshaw 1994, Ross 1995, Oldnall 1996, McSherry & Draper 1998) this paper attempts to address its historical dimension, which is presently lacking in the nursing literature. In order to address this historical gap in spirituality, this paper begins by looking at the spiritual influences of nursing in ancient civilizations like Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Palestine, India, Greece and Rome and then examines the influence of Christianity. After this, the spiritual dimension of nursing is portrayed as it was in the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries. Finally, the emerging nursing theories and their positions on spirituality (including those of humanists) are reviewed and commented. It is hoped that this paper, through a brief review of events, has begun to highlight the significance of the precursor to spirituality in nursing from an historical perspective. It is concluded that contemporary literature suggests there is scope for development of educational programmes to better equip nurses to meet patients' spiritual needs. PMID:10693486
Egan, Richard; Wood, Sarah; MacLeod, Rod; Walker, Robert
Chronic kidney disease is marked by a reduced life expectancy and a high symptom burden. For those who reach end-stage renal disease, the prognosis is poor, and this combined with the growing prevalence of the disease necessitates supportive and palliative care programmes that will address people’s psychosocial, cultural and spiritual needs. While there is variation between countries, research reveals that many renal specialist nurses and doctors are reluctant to address spirituality, initiate end-of-life conversations or implement conservative treatment plans early. Yet, other studies indicate that the provision of palliative care services, which includes the spiritual dimension, can reduce symptom burden, assist patients in making advanced directives/plans and improve health-related quality of life. This review brings together the current literature related to renal supportive care and spirituality under the following sections and themes. The introduction and background sections situate spirituality in both healthcare generally and chronic kidney disease. Gaps in the provision of chronic kidney disease spiritual care are then considered, followed by a discussion of the palliative care model related to chronic kidney disease and spirituality. Chronic kidney disease spiritual needs and care approaches are discussed with reference to advanced care planning, hope, grief and relationships. A particular focus on quality of life is developed, with spirituality named as a key dimension. Finally, further challenges, such as culture, training and limitations, are explicated. PMID:27417819
Haroutiounian, Ara; Ghavam, Shirin; Gomez, Stephanie Jo; Ivshin, Ella; Phelan, Sherry; Freshman, Brenda; Griffin, Matt; Lindsay, Cindy
Members of a diverse management class discuss how they explored issues of spirituality "in" and "of" work, an inclusive definition of spirituality and work, and opposition to organizational imposition of spiritual values. (SK)
Background As professional spiritual care (chaplaincy) is introduced to new cultures worldwide, it bears examining which elements of screening and care are universal and, for those elements showing cultural difference, to study them in each culture. No quantitative spiritual care patient study had previously been done in Israel. Our objectives were twofold: 1) to examine who wants spiritual care in Israel, including demographic and clinical variables, and to compare against other results worldwide to further develop universal screening protocols 2) to see what patients want from spiritual care specifically in the Israeli setting. Methods Self-administered patient questionnaire examining spirituality/religiosity, interest in spiritual care (subdivided by type of care), and key demographic, social, and clinical data. The study setting was an Israeli oncology center at which spiritual care had been recently introduced. Results Data from 364 oncology patient questionnaires found 41% interest in spiritual care, as compared to 35%-54% in American studies. Having previously been visited by a spiritual caregiver predicted patient interest in further spiritual care (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.6), suggesting that the new service is being well-received. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis identified additional predictors of openness to receiving spiritual care: self-describing as somewhat/very spiritual vs. not spiritual (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.9 and 6.3, 95% CI 1.8-8.6 and 2.6-15.1) or traditional/religious vs. secular (AOR 2.2 and 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.6 and 1.1-4.0); and receiving one visit a week or less from family and friends (AOR 5.6, 95% CI 2.1-15.1). These findings are in line with previous American studies, suggesting universality across cultures that could be utilized in screening. Differences in demographic data and medical condition were not significant predictors of patient interest, suggesting a cultural difference, where age and education were
The "Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century" provides a mandate for discussion of the spiritual within secular state schooling, but this discussion has never occurred. This is a serious omission given what could be called an "undercurrent of concern" for the ways in which young people today frame and make…
King, Pamela Ebstyne; Clardy, Casey E.; Ramos, Jenel Sánchez
This qualitative study aimed to develop theory about psychological constructs relevant to spiritual development in diverse adolescents. Exemplar and Consensual Qualitative Research methods were used to explore 30 interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 21 years ("M" = 17.73 years) representing eight religions and six countries from around…
Rassouli, Maryam; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Alireza
Background: Although nurses acknowledge that spiritual care is part of their role, in reality, it is performed to a lesser extent. The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ and patients’ experiences about the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in the oncology units of Tabriz. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in the oncology units of hospitals in Tabriz. Data were collected through purposive sampling by conducting unstructured interviews with 10 patients and 7 nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: Three categories emerged from the study: (1) “perceived barriers for providing spiritual care” including “lack of preparation for spiritual care,” “time and space constraints,” “unprofessional view,” and “lack of support”; (2) “communication: A way for Strengthening spirituality despite the limitations” including “manifestation of spirituality in the appearances and communicative behaviors of nurses” and “communication: Transmission of spiritual energy”; and (3) “religion-related spiritual experiences” including “life events as divine will and divine exam,” “death as reincarnation,” “trust in God,” “prayer/recourse to Holy Imams,” and “acceptance of divine providence.” Although nurses had little skills in assessing and responding to the patients’ spiritual needs and did not have the organizational and clergymen's support in dealing with the spiritual distress of patients, they were the source of energy, joy, hope, and power for patients by showing empathy and compassion. The patients and nurses were using religious beliefs mentioned in Islam to strengthen the patients’ spiritual dimension. Conclusions: According to the results, integration of spiritual care in the curriculum of nursing is recommended. Patients and
Marchais, P; Randrup, A
The meaning of the themes with spiritual connotations poses complex problems for psychiatry, because these themes induce the observer to project his own convictions and frames of references on his investigations. A double detachment (objectivation) concerning both the object of study and the observer is implied. This makes it possible to study these phenomena by a more rigorous method, to investigate the conditions of their formation and to demonstrate objectifiable correlates (experienced space and time, the various levels of psychic experience, factors in the environment...). In consequence the appropriate medical behaviour can be more precisely delineated. PMID:7818230
In order to provide whole-person care for patients and families, Loma Linda University Health recognizes the importance of supporting employee wholeness. The Employee Spiritual Care department helps create and support an environment that nurtures the spiritual health and wholeness of employees, and provides employees tools and knowledge about providing whole-person care to patients and colleagues. PMID:27119805
It is my thesis that the Child Theology Movement is a new and significant aspect of cultural change within the Christian church that will have resonance with the wider community, affecting parenting behaviour as well as spiritual and religious education. This paper examines some of the aspects of children's spirituality that link to and have value…
Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah
Eight non-Indigenous counsellors who temporarily lived in Nunavut to serve Inuit clients were interviewed regarding what they learned about Inuit spirituality during their cultural immersion experience. They were also asked about how they applied their understandings of the Inuit spiritual worldview in their professional practice. Counsellors'…
Bosacki, Sandra; Elliott, Anne; Akseer, Spogmai; Bajovic, Mira
Drawn from a larger study of Canadian children's sense of self and media habits, this study explores the role of religiosity and/or spirituality within 535 children's (281 girls, 254 boys; 5-13 years of age) self-reported media preferences and habits over a three-year period. Results indicate that the theme of spirituality and/or religiosity…
Three leadership characteristics are experience, competencies, and spiritual awareness. Eighteen youths spent a week on the remote island of Mull (United Kingdom) to explore their own spirituality away from the noise of 20th-century living. Activities using music, discussion, art, poetry, and outdoor experience acted as catalysts for spiritual…
Kim, Sangwon; Esquivel, Giselle B.
Spirituality is a universal phenomenon and an inherent aspect of human nature that unfolds during adolescence as the individual searches for transcendence, meaning, and purpose in life. Recently, spirituality has received attention as a source of resilience for adolescents. Theoretical perspectives and empirical research suggest that spirituality…
Bensley, Robert J.
Literature review explores various components of spiritual health, defining and categorizing existing definitions identified in the literature into six perspectives: sense of fulfillment in life; values and beliefs of community and self; wholeness in life; a factor in well-being; a controlling higher power; and human/spiritual interaction. (SM)
Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga
Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains…
Muselman, Dannette M.; Wiggins, Marsha I.
The death of a loved one has serious implications for adolescent growth and development. The authors review relevant research on the grief process and spirituality in adolescence, and they give a rationale for integrating spirituality into adolescent grief work. By way of a case illustration, they draw implications for counselors' use of…
Puterbaugh, Dolores T.
This article draws from a phenomenological study on the experience of being a bereavement counselor. Ten bereavement counselors shared their experiences in bereavement counseling. Spiritual and emotional aspects of bereavement counseling with grieving and dying persons are discussed as well as the spiritual effects on and growth processes of the…