Science.gov

Sample records for spiro-crypta phosphazene derivatives

  1. Application of a phosphazene derivative as a flame retardant for cotton fabric using conventional method and supercritical CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional pad-dry-cure (non-scCO2) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) application methods were investigated to study the effectiveness of a phosphazene derivative as a flame retardant on cotton fabric. 1,1',4,5-tetrahydrotrispiro[1,3,2-diazaphosphole-2,2'-[1,3,5,2,4,6]triazatriphosphinine-4...

  2. Phosphazenes 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Frederick F.

    2015-04-01

    Phosphazene chemistry continues to expand in its breadth and application. This article discusses new research published in 2013 covering mono- and dimeric structures, cyclotriphosphazenes, linear polymers, and the use of phosphazenic structures as ligands on metal centres. Papers report new reactions and structures as well as materials designed for specific applications, such as biomedical, energy storage, flame retardant, and optical, among others. The critical similarity is the phosphazene P-N structure that gives this area of study wide variation. Mirroring the diversity in chemistry are the tools used to probe structure and behaviour. These techniques include Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry, various optical methods, electrochemistry, membrane transport experiments, etc. Furthermore, computational methods, such as Density Functional Theory (DFT), have been used to provide additional insight. This article is organized by structure, beginning with monomeric, dimeric, and non-cyclic phosphazenes first, followed by the cyclic and linear morphologies, with reported potential applications.

  3. Phosphazenes (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick F. Stewart

    2010-12-01

    A review of the literature published in 2009 shows an increase in the number of publications addressing phosphazene chemistry over 2008, which suggests a continued strong interest in these intriguing materials. Prominently is the emphasis in the bioactive and biocompatible nature of these materials; although many other applications also exist. Phosphazenes are formed from a phosphorus and nitrogen backbone with pendant group attachments at phosphorus. Typically, they are drawn with alternating single and double bonds between the alternating phosphorus and nitrogen atoms. However, unlike the familiar poly(acetylenes) or poly(thiophenes), the phosphazene backbone is not electrically conductive as there are orbital nodes at phosphorus. Thus, electron delocalization occurs between phosphorus atoms, but not through them. The result of this bonding is a highly flexible backbone that can be controlled through adoit pendant group attachment revealing numerous materials and structures. In this review, novel aspects of the chemistry, structure, and applications of phosphazenes will be discussed.

  4. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  5. Phosphazene diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Harris, D. H.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis of a specific phosphazene diamine was optimized, other phosphorus-containing diamines were prepared, and their effect upon certain characteristics of epoxy resins, prepared via reaction with MY 720, in particular, char yield at elevated temperatures was evaluated. The synthesis of the phosphazene diamine resulting from the interaction of methylenedianline with 4,4'-bis(diphenylphosphino)biphenyl was simplified into a one step process giving 77 percent yield of the pure product. Using this procedure, a related diamine containing bis(diphenylphosphino)methane was obtained in a 70 percent yield. Preparation of another class of phosphorus containing amines based upon p-aminophenyldiphenyl-phosphine was unsuccessful; the inability to produce p-aminophenylithlum was responsible for this failure. Seven epoxy resins employing Araldite MY 720, diaminodiphenylsulfone, and two of the phosphorus containing diamines were prepared, characterized, and their char yield capacity at elevated temperatures assessed. Based on these investigations, the resins containing phosphorus appear to exhibit significantly better char formation characteristics than materials hardened using conventional amines, without impairing the other properties measured.

  6. Phosphazenes (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Frederick F.

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus Chemistry provides a comprehensive and critical review of the recent literature. Coverage includes phosphines and their chalcogenides, phosphonium salts, low coordination number phosphorus compounds, penta- and hexa- coordinated compounds, quiquevalent phosphorus acids, nucleotides and nucleic aicds, ylides and related compounds, phosphazenes and the application of physical methods in the study of organophosphorus compounds. This is the 40th in a series of volumes which first appeared in 1970 under the editorship of Stuart Trippett and which covered the literature of organophosphorus chemistry published in the period from January 1968 to June 1969, citing some 1370 publications. The present volume covers the literature from January 2009 to January 2010, citing more than 2200 publications, continuing our efforts to provide an up to date survey of progress in an area of chemistry that has expanded significantly over the past 40 years.

  7. Phosphazenes [book chapter, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Frederick F.

    2013-04-29

    The unique chemistry of phosphazenes continues to be developed. A phosphazene, which is defined as a P(V) and N structure with these atoms attached to each other by double bonds, exhibits a unique two-step general synthesis in which the P=N skeleton is initially formed, followed by nucleophilic substitution to provide final form. In general, a pure inorganic phosphazene is assembled, typically with halide substitution at P. The lability of the P-X bond allows for substitution with a nearly unlimited variety of nucleophiles. Final substitution can yield stable structures amenable to both characterization and function. This article discusses some of the more recent developments in phosphazene chemistry and seeks to provide the reader a picture of the current state of the art.

  8. Novel fire-resistant polyphosphazenes and phosphazene-containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan Paul

    A functionalized polyphosphazene, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], was blended with a structural polyurethane via reactive mixing of the polymer with diisocyanate and diol prepolymers. The thermal stabilities of the resultant foams were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both qualitative and quantitative flame tests indicated an increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. Methods for the incorporation of phosphate and phosphonate units into the side groups of phosphazenes are described and evaluated. Halogenated organophosphates were used as the phosphorylating agents and were allowed to react with hydroxyl- or lithio-functionalized phosphazenes. Well defined phosphorylated cyclic trimers were synthesized from the hydroxyl-functionalized precursors, and these were examined as flame retardant additives to polystyrene. The thermal stabilities of the high polymers made by this route were analyzed by TGA. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of phosphazene-functionalized norbornenes was demonstrated with the use of the Grubbs catalyst. This allowed the incorporation of alkoxy-, fluoroalkoxy-, and aryloxy-derived cyclic phosphazenes as side groups linked to the organic polymer backbone. The polymers were obtained in moderate yields with the properties being dependent on the side groups present and on the molecular weight. In addition, cyclooctenes and norbornenes with cyclic phosphazene side units bearing trifluoroethoxy or phenoxy groups were polymerized via ROMP using a ruthenium based initiator. The same monomers were also copolymerized with 90--99 mole percent of cyclooctene, norbornene, dicyclopentadiene, or exo,exo-5,6-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. The presence of as little as 2 mol% of the cyclic phosphazene in the copolymers dramatically reduced the combustibility. Poly(diphenyl-p-styrylphosphine) and copolymers of diphenyl- p-styrylphosphine with either styrene or methyl methacrylate were functionalized via the Staudinger reaction with phosphazene cyclic trimers bearing an azide side group. The phosphazene rings bore trifluoroethoxy or phenoxy groups as the cosubstituents. All the polymers were characterized by multi-nuclear NMR, GPC, and DSC. The mechanisms of flame retardance were studied with TGA and OI methods. The chemical structures of the polymer backbone and of the phosphazene side groups affected the thermal stability and fire resistance of the final materials.

  9. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  10. Gas Permeability and Ideal Selectivity of Poly[bis-(phenoxy)phosphazene], Poly[bis-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)phosphazene], and Poly[bis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)1.2(chloro)0.8phosphazene

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; John R. Klaehn; Frederick F. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Described in this paper is the synthesis and gas permeability characterization of poly[bis-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)phosphazene], and poly[bis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)1.2(chloro)0.8phosphazene]. In general, linear chloro-containing polyphosphazenes are hydrolytically unstable. However, in this work, a novel polymer, poly[bis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)1.2(chloro)0.8phosphazene], was observed to have an unusually high degree of hydrolytic stability and excellent membrane formation characteristics. Data derived from these polymers were compared to that of the more common poly[(bis-phenoxy)phosphazene]. These comparisons showed higher gas permeabilities and ideal separation factors for both of the alkyl-substituted phenoxy-phosphazenes, thus validating the concept that adding sterically bulky pendant groups to phosphazenes can affect membrane performance through disruption of orderly chain packing. Chemical characterization of these polymers was conducted using NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, helium pycnometry, elemental analysis, and multi-angle laser light scattering. Membranes were formed by solution casting and were characterized for their pure gas permeability using the following gases: H2, Ar, N2, O2, CH4, CO2, and H2S. Additionally, ideal selectivities of the significant O2/N2 and CO2/CH4 gas pairs are discussed.

  11. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; Grey, Alan E.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Simpson, Brenda M.; Stone, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A composite is produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite.

  12. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; Grey, Alan E.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Simpson, Brenda M.; Stone, Mark L.

    1994-05-03

    A composite is produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite.

  13. A spirocyclic system comprising both phosphazane and phosphazene rings.

    PubMed

    Richards, Philip I; Steiner, Alexander

    2005-01-24

    The reaction of hexakis(cyclohexylamino) cyclotriphosphazene [NP(CyNH)(2)](3), 1, with phosphorus trichloride yields [NP(CyN)(2)PCl](3), 2, which contains three four-membered phosphazane rings fused in spirocyclic fashion to a central six-membered phosphazene ring and constitutes the first structurally characterized compound that comprises both phosphazene and phosphazane rings. The peripheral P atoms feature stereoactive lone pairs, and, thus, 2 exists in isomeric C(3h) and C(s) forms. The spirocyclic phosphazene-phosphazane derivative 2 carries three reactive PCl functions in peripheral positions, promising an interesting precursor molecule for the synthesis of extended phosphorus nitrogen structures of high rigidity. Extension of the PN moiety can be achieved by reaction of 2 with a primary amine yielding [NP(CyN)(2)PN(H)(t)Bu](3), 3, which features a central scaffold of 6 phosphorus and 12 nitrogen centers and aggregates via N-H...P hydrogen bonds in the solid state. On the contrary, the reaction of 1 with SbCl(3) undergoes incomplete proton abstraction, resulting in the formation of the tricyclic compound N(3)P(3)(CyNH)(4)(CyNSbCl(2))(2), 4, which contains two four-coordinate Sb centers chelated by N(exo)-N(ring) sites of the phosphazene. PMID:15651873

  14. Carboranylmethylene-substituted phosphazenes and polymers thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allcock, H. R.; Scopelianos, A. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Carboranylmethylene-substituted cyclophosphazenes are described which can be thermally polymerized into carboranylmethylene-substituted phosphazene polymers. The polymers are useful as thermally stable coatings. Also, due to the characteristics of these polymers in acting as a ligand for transition metals, metalocarboranylmethylene phosphazene polymers are described which can act as immobilized catalyst systems, and are electrically conductive and superconductive.

  15. Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.A.; Grey, A.E.; McCaffrey, R.R.; Simpson, B.M.; Stone, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    The object of the invention is to provide a composite material comprised of phosphazene polymer. A feature of phosphazene-containing composites is their superior stiffness, thermal stability, and hardness which is lacking in more typical composite constituents. An advantage of using phosphazene composites is a wider range of applications, including uses in harsh environments. Another object of the present invention provides a method for producing phosphazene-containing composite materials through a pultrusion process. In brief, these and other objects are achieved by a composite produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Dufek; Mark L. Stone; Kevin L. Gering; Frederick F. Stewart; David Jamison; Aaron D. Wilson; Lucia M. Petkovic; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2014-12-01

    The use of hybrid cyclic phosphazene polymer/graphite anodes, where the phosphazene serves as distributed loci for Li deposition, has been investigated. Capacity within the hybrid system was found to occur reversibly in distinct regions. At the most positive voltages, above 0.06 V vs Li/Li+, the capacity was associated mostly with Li+ intercalation into graphite. In the most negative region, deposition of Li within the polymer was the predominate mechanism. A transitional region is inferred by the data whereby bulk aggregation or clustering of Li atoms occurs in proximity to the phosphazene sites that then serve as a template for more widespread population of Li within the anode at higher voltages, akin to a nucleation process. In full cells with a mixed oxide cathode, controlling the extent of Li deposition by limiting the charging voltage to 4.45 V enabled repeated cycling with no loss in capacity. Capacities as high as 183 mAh g-1 have been achieved for systems containing as little as 10% graphite while retaining coulombic efficiencies of 98% over 50 cycles. This level of cycling equates to the deposition of 7.4 Li per cyclic phosphazene.

  17. Molecular structure, linear and nonlinear optical properties of some cyclic phosphazenes: A theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadji, Djebar; Rahmouni, Ali

    2016-02-01

    We report ab initio and density functional theory calculations of structural data, dipole moment, diagonal vibrational and electronic contributions to polarizability, vibrational and electronic contributions to first hyperpolarizability of some cyclic phosphazenes. The electronic structure of substituted cyclic phosphazenes has been investigated using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory. The vibrational and electronic contributions to polarizabilities and first hyperpolarizability of these molecules were calculated with HF method, and different DFT levels used the traditional B3LYP and PBE functional and the long-range corrected functional like Coulomb-attenuating method CAM-B3LYP, LC-BLYP and wB97XD used different basis sets. These cyclic phosphazenes adopts a planar structure. The chosen level of theory was found to describe satisfactory the molecular structure (r. m. s. of the relative deviations). The study reveals that the cyclic phosphazenes derivatives have large vibrational contribution to static first hyperpolarizability values. The results obtained from this work will provide into the electronic properties of this important class of inorganic polymers.

  18. Revisiting the electronic structure of phosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Adrian B; Harrison, John A; Dyson, Paul J

    2005-11-14

    Natural bond orbital (NBO) and topological electron density analyses have been used to investigate the electronic structure of phosphazenes [N3P3R6] (R = H, F, Cl, Br, CH3, CF3, N(C2H4); 2R = O2C6H4), [N4P4Cl8], and H[NPCl2]4H. Using the former, the two most likely phosphazene bonding alternatives, negative hyperconjugation and ionic bonding have been critically evaluated. Ionic bonding, as suggested by topological analysis, was found to be the dominant bonding feature, although contributions from negative hyperconjugation are necessary for a more complete bonding description. Substituent effects on the P-N bond have been assessed and cases of bond length alternation have been rationalized using this combined bonding model, which supersedes previous models involving d-orbital participation, leading to an explanation for the observed bond length alternation found in some linear polyphosphazenes. In addition, common aromaticity indicators, nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and para-delocalization indices (PDI), have been determined for the cyclophosphazenes. PMID:16270979

  19. Solid state aspects of phosphazene chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Spirocyclotriphosphazenes were used as templates for the WCoel-radiation induced polymerization of several unsaturated monomer molecules. In contrast to polymerization of the monomers in the bulk state, the clathrate-mediated polymerization yielded enhanced stereoregular polymers in most cases. The resultant polymers were linear and many had high molecular weights. Moreover, new polymers could be prepared from multifunctional monomers (divinylbenzene and acrylic anhydride). Simple and complex 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) salts were linked to small molecule cyclophosphazenes and to high molecular weight polyphosphazenes. The high polymers were found to be less electrically conductive than the analogous small molecule cyclic compounds. The conductivity varied with the degree of incorporation of TCNQ salt residues on to the polymers and with the cation structure. Single crystal X-ray crystallography was used to determine the molecular structures of a phosphazene-bridged iron-ruthenium dimer (N3P3F4FeEu(etaV-C5H5)2(CO)3) and a phosphazene polymerization catalyst (triphenylphosphate.boron trichloride).

  20. Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Andrew R.

    This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) were tested in various electrolyte concentrations. After identifying PMII as the most efficient salt additive for promoting anion conduction in the MEE-trimer systems, it was tested in MEEP-based DSSC polymer-gel electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC). The MEEP/PMII type electrolytes were compared against and outperformed similar formulations based on poly(ethylene oxide). Chapter 4 extends the concept of poly[(oligoethyleneoxy)phosphazene] electrolytes by the synthesis of MEEP-analogues with various ammonium ions covalently bound to the polymer side chains in order to create a single-ion conducting polyelectrolyte. In this case iodide is the only ion that is free to move and carry charge since the cation is bound to the polymer. Two candidates from the series of polyelectrolytes were selected for extensive study, one in which the ammonium ion has a hexyl group, and another in which the ammonium ion has an MEE-group. The polymers were characterized by dielectric spectroscopy, X-ray scattering, and density functional theory calculations. In chapter 5 the concept of polyphosphazene based polyelectrolytes is extended further by quaternization of nitrogen atoms that are a part of the polymer backbone rather than a pendent group. The feasibility of the concept is first explored using cyclic-trimeric phosphazenes as small molecule models and is then extended to high polymeric systems. Chapter 6 begins a new section of exploratory synthesis meant to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover useful structure-property relationships as well as to improve on the synthetic procedures of the past. Thus, in chapter 6 a series of cyclotriphosphazenes is synthesized for evaluation as compounds with the ability to complex to metal surfaces or to form ceramic materials after pyrolysis. Several known compounds are resynthesized, many with improvements over previously published procedures either in yield or simplicity of reaction conditions. Also, two new cyclotriphosphazenes were synthesized in an attempt to produce a catechol-like side group that could mimic the metal complexation and adhesive abilities of mussel adhesive proteins which take advantage of similar catecholic moieties. Chapter 7 presents the synthesis of fluorine-bearing aryloxy phosphazenes in an attempt to overcome the deficiencies of some of the classical fluorinated organic polymers. Poly(fluoroaryloxy)phosphazenes can offer many of the same advantages without the deficiencies of some of the more classical organic fluorinated polymers. The materials synthesized are excellent candidates for dielectric film materials in capacitors. In chapter 8 new ground is broken in phosphazene chemistry, wherein cycloalkanoxy groups, a type of side-group for phosphazenes that has been neglected in the past, are attached to the phosphazene skeleton. First, a single previous report of the synthesis of hexakis(cyclohexanoxy)cyclotriphosphazene was reproduced as a model system. Then a series of single substituent polyphosphazenes was synthesized in order to determine how large a saturated cyclic ring can be attached to the polymer backbone while still completing the replacement of the chlorine atoms attached to the backbone. Subsequently, a series of mixed substituent polymers containing both cycloalkanoxy groups (from cyclopentoxy to cyclooctanoxy) and the well-studied trifluoroethoxy group was synthesized and characterized in order to study larger saturated cyclic rings as polyphosphazene side-groups. Chapter 9 contains the author's recommendations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Computational Study of Intramolecular Heterocyclic Ring Formation with Cyclic Phosphazenes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Whelton A.; Moore, Preston B.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphosphazenes, because of their unique properties, have generated many opportunities to explore a variety of applications. These applications include areas such as biomedical research (e.g. drug delivery) and material science (e.g. fire-resistant polymers). Phosphazenes potentially have more variations then benzene analogues because of different substitution patterns. Here we present A computational study of the chemical modifications to a group of cyclic phosphazenes mainly hexachlorophosphazene (PNCl2)3. This study focuses on the relative energies of reactivity of hexachlorophosphazene to understand their geometry and the complexes they likely form. We compare diols, amino alcohols, and diamines with a carbon linker of 1-7 atoms. These heteroatom chains are attached to a single phosphorus atom or adjoining phosphorus atoms to form ring structures of geminal, vicinal (cis), and vicinal (trans) moieties. We find that the reactivities of “heteroatom caps” are predicted to be O,O (diol) > N,O (amino alcohol) > N,N (diamine). These results can be used to predict energetics and thus the stability of new compounds for biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:26702403

  2. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 28. Syntheses, structural characterizations, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and DNA interactions of new phosphazenes bearing vanillinato and pendant ferrocenyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümer, Yasemin; Asmafiliz, Nuran; Kılıç, Zeynel; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yasemin Koç, L.; Açık, Leyla; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Solak, Ali Osman; Öner, Yağmur; Dündar, Devrim; Yavuz, Makbule

    2013-10-01

    The gradually Cl replacement reactions of spirocyclic mono (1 and 2) and bisferrocenyl cyclotriphosphazenes (3-5) with the potassium salt of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (potassium vanillinate) gave mono (1a-5a), geminal (gem-1b-5b), non-geminal (cis-1b, cis-5b and trans-2b-5b), tri (1c-5c) and tetra-substituted phosphazenes (1d-5d). Some phosphazenes have stereogenic P-center(s). The chirality of 4c was verified using chiral HPLC column. Electrochemical behaviors were influenced only by the number of ferrocene groups, but not the length of the amine chains and the substituent(s). The structures of the new phosphazenes were determined by FTIR, MS, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectral data. The solid-state structures of cis-1b and 4d were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The twelve phosphazene derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds 5a, cis-1b and 2c exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against G(+) and G(-) bacteria. In addition, it was found that overall gem-1b inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds 1d, 2d and 4d were tested in HeLa cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 2d had cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell in the first 48 h. Moreover, interactions between compounds 2a, gem-1b, gem-2b, cis-1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 1d, 2d and 4d, and pBR322 plasmid DNA were investigated.

  3. The mechanism of a phosphazene-phosphazane rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert F; Allen, Christopher W

    2016-02-01

    The phosphazene-phosphazane rearrangement of N3P3Cl5O(CH2)2OC([double bond, length as m-dash]O)CMe[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2 (8) has been examined in detail using one and two dimensional NMR ((31)P, (1)H) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The mixed phosphazene-phosphazane [NPCl2]2[N((CH2)2OC([double bond, length as m-dash]O)CMe[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)P(O)Cl] (14), [NPCl2]2[NHP(O)Cl] (13) and a two ring assembly [NPCl2]2[NP(O{(NPCl2)2(N((CH2)2OC([double bond, length as m-dash]O)CMe[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2)P(O)}] (15) have all been detected in the product mixture. The rate of the rearrangement has been measured at five temperatures by (31)P and (1)H NMR. The reaction is first order in 8 (T1/2 at 111 is 4.65 hours). The activation enthalpy is positive and the activation entropy is negative. A mechanism involving competing intra and inter molecular processes which fits the product distribution and kinetic data has been proposed. Several other methyacrylphosphazenes were examined under the same thermolysis conditions. The rearrangement was observed and the rates obtained in cases where the (CH2)2 spacer unit of the methacrylate was replaced by linear and branched propyl units. The rearrangement was not observed when the methacrylate was appended to a spirocyclic unit, the spacer unit was extended to the n-butyl group and when the methacrylate unit was replaced by a methoxy group. These results are all consistent with the proposed mechanism. This investigation resolves conflicting results previous reported for the rearrangement. PMID:26416486

  4. Control of Chemical, Thermal, and Gas Transport Properties in Dense Phosphazene Polymer Membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Eric S. Peterson

    2005-10-01

    Polyphosphazenes are hybrid polymers having organic pendant groups attached to an inorganic backbone. Phosphazene polymers can be tailored to specific applications through the attachment of a variety of different pendant groups to the phosphazene backbone. Applications for which these polymers have proven useful include solid polymer electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells, as well as, membranes for gas and liquid separations. In past work, phosphazene polymers have been synthesized using mixtures of pendant groups with differing chemical affinities. Specific ratios of hydrophobic and hydrophilic pendant groups were placed on the phosphazene backbone with a goal of demonstrating control of solubility, and therefore chemical selectivity. In this work, a series of phosphazene homo-polymers were synthesized having varying amounts of hydrophobic and hydrophilic character on each individual pendant group. Polymers were synthesized having a hydrophilic portion next to the polymer backbone and the hydrophobic portion on the terminal end of the pendant group. The effects of these combined hydrophobic/hydrophilic pendant groups on polymer morphology and gas transport properties are presented. The following data will be addressed: thermal characterization, pure gas permeability on seven gases (Ar, H2, O2, N2, CO2, and CH4 ), and ideal selectivity for the gas pairs: O2/N2, H2/CO2, CO2/H2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2.

  5. Unsaturated phosphazenes as co-solvents for lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.; Jamison, David K.; Dufek, Eric J.; Gering, Kevin L.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper covers the synthesis and use of a related family of cyclic phosphazene solvents containing terminal unsaturations that are being considered as electrolyte additives in lithium-ion cells. A brief synopsis on the synthesis and purification of these compounds is given. Data will be presented that covers physical and chemical properties of the phosphazenes as well as the properties when blended at various levels with representative organic carbonate baseline solvents. Electrochemical cycling data will be presented using commercially available electrode couples as well as studies focusing on cell performance at early lifetime as well as after repeated cycles. Conclusions regarding the effect of the unsaturated phosphazene compounds and their interaction with various alkyl carbonates, and their effect on cell performance will be presented.

  6. Controlled ROP of β-butyrolactone simply mediated by amidine, guanidine, and phosphazene organocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Jaffredo, Cédric G; Carpentier, Jean-François; Guillaume, Sophie M

    2012-11-23

    Basic organocatalysts of the guanidine (1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene, TBD), amidine (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene, DBU), and phosphazene (2-tert-butylimino-2-diethylamino-1,3-dimethylperhydro-1,3,2diazaphosphorine, BEMP) type do effectively polymerize β-butyrolactone (BL). Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)s (PHBs) with controlled molecular features, that is, controlled molar masses, narrow molar mass distributions, and well-defined functional end groups are thus formed at 60 °C from bulk monomer, with M(n,NMR) up to 21 500 g mol(-1). The formation of α,ω-guanidine/amidine/phosphazene,crotonate functionalized PHBs, as demonstrated by NMR, SEC, and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry analyses, mechanistically suggests the formation of N-acyl-α,β-unsaturated propagating species that originate from 1:1 guanidine/amidine/phosphazene:BL adducts. PMID:22887774

  7. Unsaturated Phosphazenes as Co-Solvents for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W.; Jamison, David K.; Dufek, Eric J; Gering, Kevin L; Luther, Thomas A

    2014-07-24

    This paper covers the synthesis and use of a related family of cyclic phosphazene solvents containing terminal unsaturations. A brief synopsis on the synthesis and purification of these compounds is given. Data will be presented that covers physical and chemical properties of the phosphazenes as well as the properties when blended at various level with representative organic carbonate baseline solvents. Cycling data will be presented using commercially available electrode couples (LRMR/C) as well as studies focusing on cell performance at early lifetime as well as after repeated cycles. Conclusions regarding the effect of the unsaturated phosphazene compounds and their interaction with various alkyl carbonates, and their effect on cell performance will be presented.

  8. Organocatalytic Stereoselective Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide with Dimeric Phosphazene Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Nederberg, Fredrik; Messman, Jamie M; Pratt, Russel C; Hedrick, James; Wade, Charles G

    2007-01-01

    Highly isotactic polylactide with a high melting temperature was synthesized from rac-lactide through an organocatalytic route using dimeric phosphazene base 1-tert-butyl-2,2,4,4,4-pentakis(dimethylamino)-2 5,4 5-catenadi(phosphazene) (P2-t-Bu) catalyst at low temperature. Microstructural analysis of the prepared polymer using homodecoupled 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed the formation of a stereoblock architecture containing long isotactic sequence of R- and S- blocks in the main chain. A proposed mechanism involving chain-end control and stereoerror explains the stereoselective polymerization.

  9. A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

    2013-03-01

    Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

  10. Water Transport Polymers -- Structure/Property Relationships of a Series of Phosphazene Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Eric S. Peterson; William F. Bauer; Frederick F. Stewart; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; John R. Klaehn; John E. Wey

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the water passing properties of a series of phosphazene polymers versus attached pendant group structure. Pendant groups containing different numbers ethyleneoxy groups were synthetically attached to the backbone of phosphazene polymers. Phosphazene polymers facilitate these types of studies because during their synthesis the polymer backbone is formed first and then the desired pendant groups are attached through nucleophilic substitution. For these studies, four polymer series were synthesized and tested for their water passing properties. The polymers contained different amounts of ethyleneoxy units. Two polymer families were synthesized and compared in this work. The critical difference in these two series is that one contained pendant groups with aromatic rings, in addition to the oligioethyleneoxy moieties, while the other does not. Polymers with phenyl group-containing pendant groups exhibited poor water permeability if they possessed fewer than six ethyleneoxy units. Polymers with more than six ethyleneoxy units inserted between the phenyl ring (tail) and the polymeric backbone, exhibited reasonable water permeability. Two additional series of mixed pendant group polymers were synthesized and the water passing properties of the phosphazenes varied in proportion to the hydrophilic to hydrophobic balance induced by each individual pendant group. A final study, polymers with shorter pendant groups, is shown to fully demonstrate the effect of pendant group on water permeability. These studies suggest that the polyphosphazenes may be tailored for specific water passing applications.

  11. Experimental Basicities of Phosphazene, Guanidinophosphazene, and Proton Sponge Superbases in the Gas Phase and Solution.

    PubMed

    Kaljurand, Ivari; Saame, Jaan; Rodima, Toomas; Koppel, Ivar; Koppel, Ilmar A; Kögel, Julius F; Sundermeyer, Jörg; Köhn, Uwe; Coles, Martyn P; Leito, Ivo

    2016-04-28

    Experimental gas-phase superbasicity scale spanning 20 orders of magnitude and ranging from bicyclic guanidine 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene to triguanidinophosphazenes and P3 phosphazenes is presented together with solution basicity data in acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran. The most basic compound in the scale-triguanidinophosphazene Et-N═P[N═C(NMe2)2]3-has the highest experimental gas-phase basicity of an organic base ever reported: 273.9 kcal mol(-1). The scale includes besides the higher homologues of classical superbasic phosphazenes and several guanidino-substituted phosphazenes also a number of recently introduced bisphosphazene and bis-guanidino proton sponges. This advancement was made possible by a newly designed Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometry setup with the unique ability to generate and control in the ICR cell sufficient vapor pressures of two delicate compounds having low volatility, which enables determining their basicity difference. The obtained experimental gas-phase and solution basicity data are analyzed in terms of structural and solvent effects and compared with data from theoretical calculations. PMID:27093092

  12. Phenalene-phosphazene complexes: Effect of exocyclic charge densities on the cyclotriphosphazene ring system

    SciTech Connect

    Haddon, R.C.; Chichester-Hicks, S.V.; Mayo, S.L.

    1988-06-01

    The synthesis and properties of a new series of 1,9-diamino-substituted phenalene complexes of the cyclotriphosphazene ring system is described. One of the compounds is shown to be amphoteric, and this behavior allows an examination of the response of the phosphazene linkage to variations in exocyclic charge density at the spiro center in a plane perpendicular to the cyclotriphosphazene ring system. /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy indicates that substituent lone pairs with this orientation are not effective in long-range delocalization within the phosphazene linkage (in accord with their theoretical model of spiro delocalization). An x-ray crystal structure of one compound (7) identifies the presence of clathrated molecules of chloroform together with doubly hydrogen-bonded pairs of the phenalene-phosphazene complexes in the lattice. Crystal data for 7 (C/sub 13/H/sub 8/Cl/sub 4/N/sub 5/P/sub 3/ /times/ CHCl/sub 3/): monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//c, a = 12.401 (4) /angstrom/, b = 28.404 (6) /angstrom/, c = 12.962 (3) /angstrom/, /beta/ = 91.76 (2)/degree/, V = 4564 (2) /angstrom//sup 3/, Z = 8, R = 0.050 for 4525 reflections. 24 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Cyclic and Linear Phosphazenes with Phosphorus-Sulfur Linkages

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, Thomas Alan; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

    2004-04-01

    Recent research at the INEEL has focused on the versatility inherent in polyphosphazene chemistry to membrane separations involving water transport through polymer materials.1 Polyphosphazenes, a hybrid organic and inorganic polymer, have been shown to be effective membranes in gas separation2 and liquid pervaporation applications.3 These characteristics are due to the inorganic nature of the backbone that provides these materials with remarkable chemical and mechanical stability. Additionally, phosphazene materials can be tailored to specific applications depending on the type of pendant groups that are attached to the phosphorus atoms of the backbone.

  14. Low temperature formation of hydroxyapatite-poly(alkyl oxybenzoate)phosphazene composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Greish, Y E; Bender, J D; Lakshmi, S; Brown, P W; Allcock, H R; Laurencin, C T

    2005-01-01

    The formation of biodegradable composites which may be suitable as bone analogs is described. Polyphosphazene-hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites were produced via an acid-base reaction of tetracalcium phosphate and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate in the presence of polyphosphazenes bearing alkyl ester containing side-groups. The polyphosphazenes used were poly(ethyl oxybenzoate)phosphazene (PN-EOB) and poly(propyl oxybenzoate) phosphazene (PN-POB). The effects of temperature and the proportions of polymers, PN-EOB and PN-POB on the kinetics, reaction chemistry and phase evolution during the formation of stoichiometric HAp were studied. Kinetics, phase evolution and microstructural development were evaluated using isothermal calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Analysis of solution chemistry revealed that the increases in the pH during the formation of SHAp, resulted in partial hydrolysis of the polymer surfaces, which led in turn to the formation of a calcium cross-linked polymer surface. The calcium cross-linked polymer surface appeared to facilitate the nucleation and growth of apatite deposits on the polymer. The current study illustrates the in situ formation of HAp in the presence of polyphosphazenes, where HAp is chemically bonded to the polymer. PMID:15193876

  15. On the Contributions to the Materials Science Aspects of Phosphazene Chemistry by Professor Christopher W. Allen: The One-Pot Synthesis of Linear Polyphosphazenes

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Peterson; Thomas A. Luther; Mason K. Harrup; John R. Klaehn; Mark L. Stone; Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2007-06-01

    The wide range of applications for the phosphazene compounds has stimulated a major research effort involving several industrial, academic, and national laboratories over the past 40 years. One of Professor Allen’s research areas was to establish fundamental synthetic methods for the commercial preparation of phosphazene polymers, investigate their properties, and develop useful products. In this paper we review some of the materials science aspects of Professor Allen’s research including recent advances on the preparation and polymerization of Cl3PNP(O)Cl2. This work, in particular, has led to a route for the “one-pot” synthesis of stable linear poly(organophosphazenes) as demonstrated through the formation of poly[bis-(2-methoxyethoxyethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) and a phosphazene heteropolymer (HPP) containing a balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components that allow for control and molecular affinities.

  16. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  17. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  18. Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] is a potent adjuvant for intradermal immunization

    PubMed Central

    Andrianov, Alexander K.; DeCollibus, Daniel P.; Gillis, Helice A.; Kha, Henry H.; Marin, Alexander; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh; Mutwiri, George

    2009-01-01

    Intradermal immunization using microfabricated needles represents a potentially powerful technology, which can enhance immune responses and provide antigen sparing. Solid vaccine formulations, which can be coated onto microneedle patches suitable for simple administration, can also potentially offer improved shelf-life. However the approach is not fully compatible with many vaccine adjuvants including alum, the most common adjuvant used in the vaccine market globally. Here, we introduce a polyphosphazene immuno adjuvant as a biologically potent and synergistic constituent of microneedle-based intradermal immunization technology. Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP, functions both as a vaccine adjuvant and as a key microfabrication material. When used as part of an intradermal delivery system for hepatitis B surface antigen, PCPP demonstrates superior activity in pigs compared to intramascular administration and significant antigen sparing potential. It also accelerates the microneedle fabrication process and reduces its dependence on the use of surfactants. In this way, PCPP-coated microneedles may enable effective intradermal vaccination from an adjuvanted patch delivery system. PMID:19864632

  19. Design, synthesis, and characterization of new phosphazene related materials, and study the structure property correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhicheng

    The work described in this thesis is divided into three major parts, and all of which involve the exploration of the chemistry of polyphosphazenes. The first part (chapters 2 and 3) of my research is synthesis and study polyphoshazenes for biomedical applications, including polymer drug conjugates and injectable hydrogels for drug or biomolecule delivery. The second part (chapters 4 and 5) focuses on the synthesis of several organic/inorganic hybrid polymeric structures, such as diblock, star, brush and palm tree copolymers using living cationic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization techniques. The last part (chapters 6 and 7) is about exploratory synthesis of new polymeric structures with fluorinated side groups or cycloaliphatic side groups, and the study of new structure property relationships. Chapter 1 is an outline of the fundamental concepts for polymeric materials, as such the history, important definitions, and some introductory material for to polymer chemistry and physics. The chemistry and applications of phopshazenes is also briefly described. Chapter 2 is a description of the design, synthesis, and characterization of development of a new class of polymer drug conjugate materials based on biodegradable polyphosphazenes and antibiotics. Poly(dichlorophosphazene), synthesized by a thermal ring opening polymerization, was reacted with up to 25 mol% of ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin and three different amino acid esters (glycine, alanine, or phenylalanine) as cosubstituents via macromolecular substitutions. Nano/microfibers of several selected polymers were prepared by an electrospinning technique. Chapter 3 is concerned with the development of a class of injectable and biodegradable hydrogels based on water-soluble poly(organophosphazenes) containing oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ethers and glycine ethyl esters. The hydrogels can be obtained by mixing alpha-cyclodextrin aqueous solution and poly(organophosphazenes) aqueous solution in various gelation rates depending on the polymer structures and the concentrations. The rheological measurements of the supramolecular hydrogels indicate a fast gelation process and flowable character under a large stain. Chapter 4 outlines the preparation of a number of amphiphilic diblock copolymers based on poly[bis(trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] (TFE) as the hydrophobic block and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as the hydrophilic block. The TFE block was synthesized first by the controlled living cationic polymerization of a phosphoranimine, followed by replacement of all the chlorine atoms using sodium trifluoroethoxide. To allow for the growth of the PDMAEMA block, 3-azidopropyl-2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate, an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was grafted onto the endcap of the TFE block via the 'click' reaction followed by the ATRP of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Chapter 5 is a report on the design and assembly of polyphosphazene materials based on the non-covalent "host--guest" interactions either at the terminus of the polymeric main-chains or the pendant side-chains. The supramolecular interaction at the main chain terminus was used to produce amphiphilic palm-tree like pseudo-block copolymers via host-guest interactions between an adamantane end-functionalized polyphosphazene and a 4-armed beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) initiated poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacylate] branched-star type polymer. The formation of micelles of the obtained amphiphiles was analyzed by fluorescence technique, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chapter 6 is an investigation of the influence of bulky fluoroalkoxy side groups on the properties of polyphosphazenes. A new series of mixed-substituent high polymeric poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazenes) containing trifluoroethoxy and branched fluoroalkoxy side groups was synthesized and characterized by NMR and GPC methods. These polymers contained 19--29 mol% of di-branched hexafluoropropoxy groups or 4mol% of tri-branched tert-perfluorobutoxy groups, which serve as regio-irregularities to reduce the macromolecular microcrystallinity. The structure--property correlations of the polymers were then analyzed and interpreted by several techniques: specifically by the thermal behavior by DSC and TGA methods, the crystallinity by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and the surface hydrophobicity/oleophobicity by contact angle measurements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.). Chapter 7 is an outline of the exploratory synthesis of a new series of phosphazene model cyclic trimers and single- and mixed- substituent high polymers containing cyclic aliphatic rings, --CnH2n-1 (where n = 4--8). The cylco-aliphatic side group containing phosphazenes expand the structural and property boundaries of phosphazene chemistry, and suggest additional approaches for studying slow macromolecular substitution reactions and substituent exchange reactions.

  20. Preparation of Coaxial-Electrospun Poly[bis(p-methylphenoxy)]phosphazene Nanofiber Membrane for Enzyme Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Gen; Jiang, Xin; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Yu, An-Guo; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    A core/sheath nanofiber membrane with poly[bis(p-methylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PMPPh) as the sheath and easily spinnable polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the core was prepared via a coaxial electrospinning process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the nanofiber membrane. It was found that the concentration of the PAN spinning solution and the ratio of the core/sheath solution flow rates played a decisive role in the coaxial electrospinning process. In addition, the stabilized core/sheath PMPPh nanofiber membrane was investigated as a support for enzyme immobilization because of its excellent biocompatibility, high surface/volume ratio, and large porosity. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized on the nanofiber membrane by adsorption. The properties of the immobilized lipase on the polyphosphazene nanofiber membrane were studied and compared with those of a PAN nanofiber membrane. The results showed that the adsorption capacity (20.4 ± 2.7 mg/g) and activity retention (63.7%) of the immobilized lipase on the polyphosphazene nanofiber membrane were higher than those on the PAN membrane. PMID:23203055

  1. Plasma surface functionalization of poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] films and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Allcock, Harry R; Steely, Lee B; Kim, Seong H; Kim, Jeong H; Kang, Bang-Kwon

    2007-07-17

    Polyphosphazenes are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic macromolecules with high thermo-oxidative stability and good solubility in many solvents. Fluoroalkoxy phosphazene polymers also have high surface hydrophobicity. A method is described to tune this surface property while maintaining the advantageous bulk materials characteristics. The polyphosphazene single-substituent polymer, poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene], with flat film, fiber mat, or bead mat morphology was surface functionalized using an atmospheric plasma treatment with oxygen, nitrogen, methane, or tetrafluoromethane/hydrogen gases. Surface chemistry changes were detected by static water contact angle (WCA) measurements as well as X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that changes in the WCA of as much as 150 degrees occurred, accompanied by shifts in the ratio of elements on the polymer surface as detected by XPS. Overall this plasma technique provides a convenient method for the generation of specific surface characteristics while maintaining the hydrophobicity of the bulk material. PMID:17590030

  2. An e.s.c.a. study of atomic oxygen interactions with phosphazene-coated polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, Larry L.; Finney, Lorie

    1991-01-01

    Metallic as well as most nonmetallic materials experience oxidation and mass loss via surface erosion in low earth orbit as shown in previous Space Shuttle flights. This study is an evaluation of select polyphosphazene polymers and their resistance to atomic oxygen attack. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis examinations of the surfaces of polyphosphazene coatings were monitored for microstructural changes induced during exposures to atomic oxygen. Sample exposures in oxygen plasmas and O(3P) beam were compared as to their effect on surface compositional changes in the polyphosphazene coating. High resolution line scans revealed rearrangements in the polymer backbone and scissioning reactions involving fluorocarbon units of long chain fluoroalkoxy pendant groups. Atom percents and peak areas of all species provided a detailed profile of the microstructural changes induced in phosphazene polymers as a result of exposures to atomic oxygen.

  3. In vitro evaluation of poly[bis(ethyl alanato)phosphazene] as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Conconi, Maria Teresa; Lora, Silvano; Menti, Anna Michela; Carampin, Paolo; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo

    2006-04-01

    Polyphosphazenes with amino acid ester as side groups are biocompatible polymers that could provide valid scaffolds for cell growth. In the present study we investigate the adhesion and growth of osteoblasts obtained from rat bone marrow on matrices composed of thin fibers of poly[bis(ethyl alanato)phosphazene] (PAlaP), poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA), or PAlaP/PDLLA blend. Our data show that scaffolds of PAlaP or PAlaP/PDLLA blend enhanced the cell adhesion and growth in comparison with that observed in cultures seeded on polystyrene tissue culture plates. Although collagenase-digestible protein synthesis remained unchanged, all scaffolds induced a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that osteoblasts are in the proliferation phase. Both PAlaP and PAlaP blended with PDLLA may represent a new and interesting substrate for bone tissue engineering. PMID:16674294

  4. Characterization of 2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol Substituted Phosphazene Polymers Using Pervaporation, Solubility Parameters and Sorption Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, Christopher Joseph; Klaehn, John Ray; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Lash, Robert Paul; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

    2005-05-01

    Two linear phosphazene polymers were synthesized with differing amounts of hydrophilic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (MEE) and hydrophobic 4-methoxyphenol (MEOP) substituted on the backbone. These high polymers were cast into membranes and their permeability to water, methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol was evaluated as a function of temperature. An additional polymer with a low content of MEE was studied for water permeation and was characterized by trace flux. At higher levels of MEE on the backbone, fluxes of all solvents increased. Solubility also was found to increase with increasing MEE content for all solvents except water. Unexpectedly, water was found to be less soluble in the higher MEE polymer, although higher membrane fluxes were observed. Diffusion coefficients showed the following trend: methanol 2-propanol > ethanol water. Finally, the affinity of solvents and polymers was discussed in terms of Hansen solubility parameters.

  5. Efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters. Regioselective preparation of alpha-dehydroamino acids, vinylglycines, and alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Aparicio, Domitila

    2006-09-29

    An efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters is achieved through an aza-Wittig reaction of phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of these functionalized 1-azadienes affords vinylglycine derivatives, while conjugative 1,4-reduction gives alpha-dehydroamino acid compounds. Reduction of both the carbon-carbon and the imine-carbon-nitrogen double bonds leads to the formation of alpha-amino acid derivatives. PMID:16995675

  6. Self-assembly and morphological transitions of random amphiphilic poly(β-D-glucose-co-1-octyl) phosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Qian, Yue-Cheng; Sun, Chuan-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-08-21

    The amphiphilic random copolymer poly(β-d-glucose-co-1-octyl)phosphazene (PGOP) can undergo continuous morphological transitions in DMF-water mixed solvents. In this study, the ratio of glucose moieties to octyl moieties was controlled via a two-step thiol-ene reaction. As a result, polyphosphazenes with glycosyl functionalization degrees of 58.1% (PGOP-1), 74.1% (PGOP-2) and 87.0% (PGOP-3) were obtained. These amphiphilic polyphosphazenes self-assemble in both water and water-DMF mixtures. Several self-assembled morphologies including spheres, rods and vesicles were formed though careful control of the water content (WC) in the DMF solvent as well as of the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the copolymers. We also found that an increase in the hydrophobic proportion led to faster morphological transitions at a constant WC. The thermodynamics of micellization were also studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), and the strong hydrophobic interactions in PGOP-1 were demonstrated by their highly exothermic nature. These self-assemblies have potential applications in biosensing, lectin adsorption and drug loading with controlled release. PMID:26160257

  7. Section IV.D.3 for DOE 2013 Annual Report: Novel Phosphazene-based Compounds to Enhance Safety and Stability of Cell Chemistries for High Voltage Applications (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.

  8. Phosphazene Polymers Containing Carborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Basi, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of carborane increases thermal stability. Carborane-substituted polyphosphazenes prepared by thermal polymerization of phenylcarbonyl-pentachlorocyclotriphosphazene followed by reaction with sodium trifluoroethoxide to replace remaining chlorine atoms with trifluoroethoxy groups. Improved polymers offer high char yields and resistance to hydrolysis.

  9. "Stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2016-08-15

    So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C2-C4, C6 and Td) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new "stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C3-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0-2.1nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1-2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1M HNO3). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect. PMID:27107239

  10. Miscibility and in vitro osteocompatibility of biodegradable blends of poly[(ethyl alanato) (p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] and poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Jiang, Tao; Krogman, Nicholas R; Singh, Anurima; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the ability of ethyl glycinato substituted polyphosphazenes to neutralize the acidic degradation products and control the degradation rate of poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) by blending. In this study, blends of high strength poly[(50% ethyl alanato) (50% p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] (PNEA(50)PhPh(50)) and 85:15 PLAGA were prepared using a mutual solvent approach. Three different solvents, methylene chloride (MC), chloroform (CF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were studied to investigate solvent effects on blend miscibility. Three different blends were then fabricated at various weight ratios namely 25:75 (BLEND25), 50:50 (BLEND50), and 75:25 (BLEND75) using THF as the mutual solvent. The miscibility of the blends was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Among these, BLEND25 was miscible while BLEND50 and BLEND75 were partially miscible. Furthermore, BLEND25 formed apatite layers on its surface as evidenced in a biomimetic study performed. These novel blends showed cell adhesion and proliferation comparable to PLAGA. However, the PNEA(50)PhPh(50) component in the blends was able to increase the phenotypic expression and mineralized matrix synthesis of the primary rat osteoblasts (PRO) in vitro. Blends of high strength PNEA(50)PhPh(50) and 85:15 PLAGA are promising biomaterials for a variety of musculoskeletal applications. PMID:17942150

  11. Osteocompatibility evaluation of poly(glycine ethyl ester-co-alanine ethyl ester)phosphazene with honeycomb-patterned surface topography.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shun; Yang, Xiaoping; Mao, Jifu; Qi, Bing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Deng, Xuliang; Wang, Shenguo

    2013-02-01

    Biodegradable amino acid ester-substituted polyphosphazenes are unique biomaterials for tissue engineering. Considering the surface properties as topography and chemical composition having vital roles in regulating cellular response, in this study, a kind of micropatterned polyphosphazene films were prepared and subjected to osteoblasts culture. Briefly, poly(glycine ethyl ester-co-alanine ethyl ester)phosphazene (PGAP) was synthesized, and its solution in chloroform was cast under high (80%) or low (20%) environmental humidity. Honeycomb-patterned or flat PGAP films were resulted. By analyzing with scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and water contact angle measurement, the honeycomb-patterned PGAP films demonstrated higher surface roughness, phosphorous and nitrogen content, and hydrophilicity than the flat one. Although the initial cell attachment and proliferation on PGAP films were inferior to those on conventional poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films, P-containing PGAP was a sort of bone-binding bioactive polymer. With these alternations, honeycomb-patterned PGAP films had accordingly enhanced protein adsorption and apatite deposition in simulated body fluid and showed great advantages in promoting osteogenous differentiation. The results suggested a potential way to make polyphosphazenes as good choices for bone tissue regeneration by increasing their surface roughness and phosphorous content. PMID:22733644

  12. Administration of Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and Avian Beta Defensin as Adjuvants in Inactivated Inclusion Body Hepatitis Virus and its Hexon Protein-Based Experimental Vaccine Formulations in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Dar, Arshud; Tipu, Masroor; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andy; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major infectious diseases adversely affecting the poultry industry of the United States and Canada. Currently, no effective and safe vaccine is available for the control of IBH virus (IBHV) infection in chickens. However, based on the excellent safety and immunogenic profiles of experimental veterinary vaccines developed with the use of new generation adjuvants, we hypothesized that characterization of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV or its capsid protein hexon as antigens, along with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and avian beta defensin 2 (ABD2) as vaccine adjuvants, will be helpful in development of an effective and safe vaccine formulation for IBH. Our data demonstrated that experimental administration of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV and a mixture of PCEP with or without ABD2 as an adjuvant induced significantly higher antibody responses compared with other vaccine formulations, while hexon protein-based vaccine formulations showed relatively lower levels of antibody responses. Thus, a vaccine formulation containing inactivated IBHV with PCEP or a mixture of PCEP and ABD2 (with a reduced dosage of PCEP) as an adjuvant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate. However, in order to overcome the risks associated with whole virus inactivated vaccines, characterization of additional viral capsid proteins, including fiber protein and penton of IBHV along with hexon protein in combination with more new generation adjuvants, will be helpful in further improvements of vaccines against IBHV infection. PMID:26629626

  13. Interaction between proteins and polyphosphazene derivatives having a galactose moiety.

    PubMed

    Heyde, Mieke; Claeyssens, Marc; Schacht, Etienne H

    2008-02-01

    For tissue engineering applications, it is necessary to balance the need for specific biological interactions with the need to prevent unfavorable nonspecific interactions. For this purpose, novel poly[(organo)phosphazenes] were synthesized having galactose and/or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains. The synthesis was described previously. Here, we investigate the human serum albumin (HSA) adhesion to these polymers using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We could conclude that the incorporation of PEG reduced the protein adsorption. The influence of the galactose moieties was investigated using SPR and a sugar-lectin binding assay. The interaction between a lectin (Peanut agglutinin, PNA or Ricinus communis-agglutinin, RCA) and the polyphosphazene derivatives was evaluated. Type IIA polymers, having aminohexyl-galactose, phenylalanine ethyl ester, and glycine ethyl ester side chains, were capable of binding with the lectin. As the amount of galactose was increased, the extent of the galactose specific lectin binding was also increased (higher RU or absorbance). PEG containing polymers failed to bind specifically with the lectin. The presence of PEG, either as a spacer or as additional chains, interfered with the establishment of contact between the galactose and the binding site on the lectin. The adsorption of PNA or RCA to these types of polymers was attributed to nonspecific interactions. SPR was also used to determine rate and equilibrium constants. In addition the effect of the addition of water soluble polyphosphazenes on the enzymatic cleavage of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside was investigated. The galactose moieties were not available as inhibitors because of the presence of PEG. PMID:18208315

  14. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  15. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  16. Dielectric and absorbate effects on the optical properties of phosphazenes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, K.F.; Samuels, W.D.; Morita, Y.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    The optical response of polyphosphazenes can be directly related to the {pi} (out-of-plane) and {pi}{prime} (in-plane) bonding interactions intrinsic to the electronic structure of these materials. Altering this structure either by hydrogen bonding or absorbate effects, affects both the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities. In this paper, we have performed electronic structure calculations on the cyclic molecules, P{sub 3}N{sub 3}(NHCH{sub 3}){sub 6}, P{sub 3}N{sub 3}(SCH{sub 3}){sub 6}, P{sub 3}N{sub 3}(OCH{sub 3}){sub 6} and P{sub 4}N{sub 4}(NHCH{sub 3}){sub 8} as model systems for the polymer. Charge distribution arguments are discussed to explain the influence of a polarizing electric field on the {pi} bonding systems, and are used to suggest methods to enhance their nonlinearities.

  17. Synthesis and thermal stability of carborane-containing phosphazenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Basi, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Carborane-substituted polyphosphazenes were prepared by the thermal polymerization of phenyl-carboranyl pentachlorocylotriphosphazene. Successive isothermal vacuum pyrolyses were conducted on the polymer and examined for structural changes by infrared spectroscopy. The degradation products were ascertained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. It was found that the presence of the carborane group improves the thermal stability of the polymer by retarding the ring-chain equilibrium processes of decomposition. Previously announced in STAR as A83-21034

  18. Synthesis and thermal stability of carborane containing phosphazenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Basi, R. J.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Carborane substituted polyphosphazenes were prepared by the thermal polymerization of phenyl-carboranyl penta chlorocyclotriphosphazene. Successive isothermal vacuum pyrolyses were conducted on the polymer and examined for structural changes by infrared spectroscopy. The degradation products were ascertained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. It was found that the presence of the carborane group improves the thermal stability of the polymer by retarding the ring chain equilibrium processes of decomposition.

  19. ARIANE 5 light derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astorg, Jean-Marc

    1993-01-01

    The Ariane 5 light derivatives are studied in order to complete Ariane 5 launch services with regard to medium size Sun synchronous spacecrafts (S derivative) and small satellites (P derivative). The P derivative is a three stage launcher with two solid propellant motors and a bipropellant upper stage. It is capable of placing 1 ton in a 1000 km circular polar orbit or two 450 kg payloads in the same orbit. The light derivatives are mainly derived from the Ariane 5 solid propellant booster and upper stage. The payload volume is particulary large (2.8 m internal maximal diameter, 6 m height). The light derivatives will be launched from the Ariane spaceport in Guyana. They will use Ariane 5 facilities for payload preparation and launch operation with a specific building for launcher integration. The first flight of the P derivative is scheduled for 1998.

  20. Deriving Verbs in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, R. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with…

  1. Deriving Verbs in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, R. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with

  2. Endohedral Metallofullerene Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Harry C. (Inventor); Iezzi, Erick B. (Inventor); Duchamp, James (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives and their preparation are described. The trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives have the general formula A(sub 3-n)X(sub n)@C(sub m)(R) where n ranges from 0 to 3, A and X may be trivalent metals and may be either rare earth metal or group IIIB metals, m is between about 60 and about 200, and R is preferably an organic group. Derivatives where the R group forms cyclized derivatives with the fullerene cage are also described.

  3. The azobenzene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.

  4. Teaching Cournot without Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Presents a simple technique for teaching the Cournot model to first-year microeconomic students. Involves demonstrating, without the use of derivatives, that out of all rectangles with a common perimeter, the square has the greatest area. (RLH)

  5. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

  6. Synthesis of aza polycyclic compounds derived from pyrrolidine, indolizidine, and indole via intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloadditions of neutral 2-azadienes.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Alonso, Concepción; Amezua, Patricia; Rubiales, Gloria

    2002-03-22

    A method for the preparation of novel oxaza and diaza polycyclic 9-oxa-4-azaphenanthrene, 5H-pyrido[2,3-a]pyrrolizine, 5H,6H-pyrido[3,2-g]indolizine, and 5H,6H-indeno[2,1-a]indole is described, based on tandem reactions: aza-Wittig reaction of N-vinylic phosphazenes with functionalized aldehydes and an intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder reaction. PMID:11895415

  7. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... alternatives. \\5\\ 71 FR 5155 (February 2, 2012). C. 1998 IRPS This proposed rule is consistent with a 1998... promulgation of this proposed rule. \\7\\ 76 FR 37030 (June 24, 2011). First, the Board asked if it should... derivatives transactions independently. \\9\\ 77 FR 5416 (Feb. 3, 2012). Question One. The Board asked if...

  8. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  9. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  10. Ferroelectricity in corundum derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Meng; Vanderbilt, David

    2016-04-01

    The search for new ferroelectric (FE) materials holds promise for broadening our understanding of FE mechanisms and extending the range of application of FE materials. Here we investigate a class of A B O3 and A2B B'O6 materials that can be derived from the X2O3 corundum structure by mixing two or three ordered cations on the X site. Most such corundum derivatives have a polar structure, but it is unclear whether the polarization is reversible, which is a requirement for a FE material. In this paper, we propose a method to study the FE reversal path of materials in the corundum derivative family. We first categorize the corundum derivatives into four classes and show that only two of these allow for the possibility of FE reversal. We then calculate the energy profile and energy barrier of the FE reversal path using first-principles density functional methods with a structural constraint. Furthermore, we identify several empirical measures that can provide a rule of thumb for estimating the energy barriers. Finally, the conditions under which the magnetic ordering is compatible with ferroelectricity are determined. These results lead us to predict several potentially new FE materials.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and dielectric behavior of new oxime-cyclotriphosphazene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koran, Kenan; Özen, Furkan; Biryan, Fatih; Görgülü, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-02-01

    The cyclotriphosphazene compound (2) bearing formyl groups as side groups was obtained from the reaction of 2,2-Dichloro-4,4,6,6-bis[spiro(2‧,2″-dioxy-1‧,1″-biphenylyl)]cyclotriphosphazene (1) with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde in the presence K2CO3 in tetrahydrofuran. Oxime-cyclotriphosphazene compound (3) was synthesized from the reaction of compound 2 with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in pyridine. The synthesized oxime-phosphazene compound (3) was reacted with alkyl and acyl halides. As a results, the cyclotriphosphazene compounds (1-10) bearing oxime ether and ester as side groups were obtained. The chemical structures of these compounds (1-10) were determined by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopic methods. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss factors and conductivity properties of cyclotriphosphazene compounds were measured over the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2 kHz at 25 °C and compared with each other. It is found that ester substituted cyclotriphosphazenes have higher dielectric constant. Our study suggests that these phosphazenes promising candidate materials in multifunctional optoelectronic devices.

  12. Insulin-derived amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Gaurav; Singla, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered and assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, in patients with firm/hard local site reactions, which do not regress after cessation of insulin injection at the affected site. Search strategy: PubMed was searched with terms insulin amyloidosis. Full text of articles available in English was reviewed. Relevant cross references were also reviewed. Last search was made on October 15, 2014. PMID:25593849

  13. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  14. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  15. [Azoles. 18. Sulfonylindazole derivatives].

    PubMed

    Dudzińska-Usarewicz, J; Wrzeciono, U; Frankiewicz, A; Linkowska, E; Köhler, T; Nuhn, P

    1988-09-01

    The nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen to synthesize the sulphonyl indazole derivatives 9-16 is described. The structures of the substitution products are discussed using H-NMR spectra. Chemical structural proof was given by steric hindrance observed in the process of chorination of 9-16. The compounds 3, 4, 7, 8, 14, and 16 are studied to find an inhibition on phospholipase-A2 and lipoxygenase-I. PMID:3149748

  16. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  17. In defense of derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  18. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives. PMID:7614221

  19. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  20. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  1. Radioiodinated estrogen derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mazaitis, J.K.; Gibson, R.E.; Komai, T.; Eckelman, W.C.; Francis, B.; Reba, R.C.

    1980-02-01

    Monoiodohexestrol exhibits 10 to 15% specific binding to the 8S estrogen receptor while the remainder binds to nonreceptor 4S proteins. Reduction of nonreceptor binding with either thyroxine or 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid was not quantitative. Thus no accurate determination of the concentration of receptor sites in the radioreceptor assay was possible by graphical analysis. Two additional estrogens-17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodoethynylestradiol and 17..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)iodoethynyl-11..beta..-methoxy estradiol - were synthesized at high specific activity. Although the iodoethynyl derivatives were stable under synthetic conditions, deiodination in the presence of proteins is too fast to allow either in vivo or in vitro use. To make these compounds clinically useful, therefore, chemical modification to reduce nonreceptor binding and the rate of dehalogenation must be undertaken.

  2. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  3. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  4. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  5. Weyl quantization of fractional derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-10-15

    The quantum analogs of the derivatives with respect to coordinates q{sub k} and momenta p{sub k} are commutators with operators P{sub k} and Q{sub k}. We consider quantum analogs of fractional Riemann-Liouville and Liouville derivatives. To obtain the quantum analogs of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives, which are defined on a finite interval of the real axis, we use a representation of these derivatives for analytic functions. To define a quantum analog of the fractional Liouville derivative, which is defined on the real axis, we can use the representation of the Weyl quantization by the Fourier transformation.

  6. Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konířová, R.; Ernestová, M.; Jedináková-Křížová, V.; Král, V.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of guanidine-bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy—texaphyrin with selected radionuclides (166Ho and 90Y) is described. A basic characterisation of studied porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour in a wide range of pH values and data on holmium and yttrium complexation with these compounds was probed using UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The labelling yield of these macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal: ligand ratio and time of incubation. Optimal reaction conditions for formation of porphyrin and texaphyrin radioactive complexes were determined by thin layer chromatography with the detection of β- activity. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was examined as well. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4 -) because radiopharmaceuticals labelled with isotopes 186Re and 188Re play an important role in therapy of numerous tumour diseases. The possibility of applying ReO4 - anion directly for labelling purposes, without the necessity of its reduction to lower oxidation state, was not proved.

  7. DRS: Derivational Reasoning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bhaskar

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability requirements for airborne systems requires fault-tolerant architectures to address failures in the presence of physical faults, and the elimination of design flaws during the specification and validation phase of the design cycle. Although much progress has been made in developing methods to address physical faults, design flaws remain a serious problem. Formal methods provides a mathematical basis for removing design flaws from digital systems. DRS (Derivational Reasoning System) is a formal design tool based on advanced research in mathematical modeling and formal synthesis. The system implements a basic design algebra for synthesizing digital circuit descriptions from high level functional specifications. DRS incorporates an executable specification language, a set of correctness preserving transformations, verification interface, and a logic synthesis interface, making it a powerful tool for realizing hardware from abstract specifications. DRS integrates recent advances in transformational reasoning, automated theorem proving and high-level CAD synthesis systems in order to provide enhanced reliability in designs with reduced time and cost.

  8. Vaccine-derived polioviruses.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M

    2014-11-01

    The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847

  9. Synthesis of 2-carbethoxybenzofuran derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Prewysz-Kwinto, A.

    1987-12-01

    A mixture of 3-formyl and 3-acetoxymethyl derivatives is formed in the oxidation of 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-7-ethylbenzofuran with selenium dioxide. Reduction with lithium aluminum hydride gives 2,3-dihydroxymethyl derivatives, which are converted to 2,3-diformyl derivatives by successive oxidation. A number of derivatives of 3-methyl-7-ethylbenzofurancarboxylic acid were obtained. The PMR spectra of solutions of the compounds in CDCl/sub 3/ were recorded with a Tesla B-487 spectrometer (80 Hz) with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) as the internal standard. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were obtained with a UR-10 spectrometer.

  10. Biomolecule derived nanostructured arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen

    During the last decade, intensive research have been reported on biomimetic approaches towards achieving mono-dispersed nanoparticles, and building self-assembled system out of those (organizing nanoparticles). However the development of this research avenue is being hindered by the limited knowledge and very few practical, efficient, cost-effective approaches for implementation of the bio-derived arrays into engineering practice. The objective of this work is to biomimeticaly form nanocomposite materials using a simple, rapid, inexpensive, scalable approach, which is general enough and not limited to colloidal particle self-assembly. Throughout the studies, we have developed a universally applicable process, which is to fabricate macro-biomolecular arrays on solid substrates based on the convective self-assembly of colloidal particles. We have demonstrated that protein (ferritin) and virus (phage) arrays were directly deposited onto solid substrates such as glass, silicon wafer, and gold substrate in closed or near closed-packed order. The arrays were further incorporated into a more robust silica matrix, in such that strengthens the thermal stability and provides porous accessibility. After treatment in controlled pyrolysis, the organic protein shell was removed, left mono-dispersed iron-oxide nanoparticles intact on the substrate or in the silica matrix. Both iron-oxide nanoparticles arrays with or without silica matrix have been further characterized to possess superferromagnetic properties at low temperature (15 K), same as that in bulk material. Initial work on protein patterning, through combining either lithography based top-down or bottom-up techniques with our novel deposition approach, was presented as well. Thin film deposition of mesoporous materials using convective self-assembly is another main part in this work. Both silica and carbon mesoporous thin films were successfully formed using the convective self-assembly horizontal-coating approach. We have shown that ultra thin mesoporous film (less than 100 nm) could be obtained through increasing the coating speed with the solution concentration remained same. Combining with lithographically patterned surface, the mesoporous thin films will be well suited for applications for bio-sensing, separations and etc. Studies were also carried out on the transport of fluid and electric current in fluidic channels with size in nanometer range; particular attention was paid on the effect of the electrolyte valence. At these dimensions new physical phenomena begin to occur because the electric double layers formed at the channel walls become comparable to the channel width and the overall wall surface to channel volume ratio increases. Numerical analysis predicts that the electrokinetic transport phenomena differ from multivalent ions to monovalent ions in the nanochannel when double layer overlap is large. This dependence affects the transport of current, fluid and dissolved analytes in a fluidic channel. The valence of the dissolved counterions determines the electric current and fluid flow in a nanochannel by shaping the electrostatic potential distribution. Our calculation shows that in absence of strong adsorption at the wall, divalent counterions lead to greater current and fluid flow than monovalent electrolyte for the same overall ionic strength. The results also indicate that control over the transport processes in fluidic nanochannels can be accomplished through properly selecting and combining electrolytes.

  11. Learning Discrete Mathematics with DERIVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagelgans, Nancy L.

    This study describes a discrete mathematics course for second year college students majoring in computer science or mathematics. Students worked in cooperative learning groups on challenging projects using the computer algebra programming language DERIVE. Results indicate that DERIVE allowed students to verify their conjectures, students generally…

  12. Thiamine phosphorylated derivatives and bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schoffeniels, E

    1983-09-01

    Kinetic as well as thermodynamic considerations favour the idea that the change in sodium conductance explaining the action potential, must result from a bimolecular reaction system. The fact that thiamine phosphorylated derivatives are associated with the specific protein forming the sodium channel could well mean that these thiamine derivatives and more specifically thiamine triphosphate are directly involved in the conductance change. PMID:6198993

  13. MCR Synthesis of Praziquantel Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; William, Samia; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Botros, Sanaa; Dömling, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a high volume neglected tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide, can only be effectively treated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline drug praziquantel (PZQ). Herein, we describe an efficient approach to access PZQ derivatives by the Ugi 4-component reaction followed by the Pictet-Spengler reaction in a two-step, one-pot procedure. 30 Novel PZQ derivatives are described based on the Ugi 4-component reaction and an X-ray structure of a novel derivative revealing different conformation compared with PZQ is discussed. Several analogues comparable in activity to the drug PZQ have been identified based on an in vitro Schistosoma mansoni worm viability assay. PMID:22151001

  14. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

  15. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

  16. Bioactive steroid derivatives and butyrolactone derivatives from a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Liu, Min; She, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Six steroid derivatives, 1-6, and five butyrolactone derivatives, 7-11, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data. Compound 1 is a new, highly conjugated steroid. The NMR and MS data of 7 and 8 are reported for the first time, as their structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 1, 4, 5, and 8-11 inhibited the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 0.63 to 18.4 μg ml(-1) . Butyrolactone derivatives 7 and 8 showed pronounced antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus with the same MIC values as the positive control ciprofloxacin (MIC 1.56 μM for all three compounds). PMID:26363883

  17. Phosphazene Silicate Nanocomposites. A Survey of Materials Properties and Synthetic Methods Using New Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason Kurt; Wertsching, Alan Kevin; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

    2000-03-01

    In the ceramics community, manipulation of synthetic conditions such as the choice of acid, base or ionic species as catalysts, aging of precursor solutions, and choice of sintering temperatures in the formation of silicate networks are known to produce radically different glass and ceramic morphologies.1 Implementation of these approaches has been attempted for some organic polymer based hybrid nanocomposites2 but not for polyphosphazene silicate composites. The desire to create unique and novel network morphologies became the impetus for establishing new catalysis protocols. The surprising inability to reproduce the mechanical properties of a well-established benchmark composite material from the literature,3 was one principal driver that initiated this in-depth investigation into the roles that the nature and amount of catalysts play in the production and physical properties of these composites.

  18. [Antiprotozoal effects of benzodiazepine derivatives].

    PubMed

    Hegenscheid, B; Presber, H W

    1990-11-01

    It is known that some derivatives of the benzodiazepine group act not only as antipsychotic drugs but also have inhibitory effects on the growth of protozoa. The influence of imipramine and its derivatives clomipramine and desipramine on the multiplication of Crithidia luciliae, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis was investigated using in vitro cultivation of the parasites and compared with the effects of chlorpromazine and metronidazole. All trypanosomatides used were inhibited by imipramine and its derivatives with clomipramine having the strongest influence on the growth of parasites (ID50 12.5-35 micrograms/ml). The Trichomonas vaginalis strain used was susceptible to metronidazole but it was nearly resistant to the tricyclic compounds tested (ID50 greater than 100 micrograms/ml). PMID:2085212

  19. Drugs derived from phage display

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Andrew E; Sexton, Daniel J; Ladner, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Phage display, one of today’s fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology. PMID:24262785

  20. Antiviral activity of indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Michele; Balbi, Alessandro; Mazzei, Mauro; La Colla, Paolo; Ibba, Cristina; Loddo, Roberta

    2009-08-01

    Unsymmetrical methylene derivatives 5 were prepared following a known method, by reaction of the Mannich bases of 2-naphthols 4 with indoles. All synthesized compounds were tested against a wide panel of viruses, since previous work showed that Mannich bases on 7-hydroxycoumarin 1 and unsymmetrical methylene derivatives 2 were endowed with some antiviral activities. The symmetrical Mannich bases 4 were completely inactive, whereas the unsymmetrical methylene derivatives 5, although possessing a certain degree of toxicity, showed a significant activity against RSV. Some of compounds 5 showed a moderate antiviral activity against HIV-1, BVDV, YFV and CVB-2. The lack of activity of Mannich bases 4 demonstrates the crucial importance for antiviral activity of coumarin moiety present in Mannich bases 1. PMID:19445965

  1. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  2. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  3. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  4. 12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352... Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract... common types of financial derivatives are futures, forward commitments, options, and swaps. A...

  5. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  6. Synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Zemlyanoi, V.N.; Aleksandrov, A.M.; Kukhar', V.P.

    1986-05-20

    The authors describe the synthesis and properties of 2-phosphadamantane derivatives. For the synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives they decided to use the methodology of the synthesis of 2-thiaadamantane. The IR spectra were determined on CHCl/sub 3/ solutions with a Specord 711R spectrometer, the PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-467 (60 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (200 MHz) spectrometers, external standard hexamethyldisiloxane, the /sup 31/P NMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487 C (30 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (81 MHz) spectrometers, external standard 85% phosphoric acid, and the mass spectra were determined on an MS-1302 spectrometer.

  7. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  8. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Myles A.; Morris, Robert S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  9. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  10. Derivations of Some Trigonometric Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Steven H.

    1976-01-01

    The method involving properties of complex numbers and polar coordinates is used in deriving the formulas for the sine of the sum of two angles, the tangent of the difference of two angles, and the sine of the double angle. (DT)

  11. Shuttle derived manned transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Shuttle derivatives have been under study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for a number of years. With Space Station Freedom and the Lunar/Mars Initiative established as national objectives, the demand for access to earth orbit is accelerating. These objectives have resulted in efforts to address additional launch requirements that must be met as the turn of the century approaches. Among the top level requirements are increased safety, higher reliability, lower cost, and the need for heavy lift launch capability. To satisfy these requirements, some of the largest technology demands will be placed upon the propulsion systems. Shuttle derived manned concepts are presented and the associated propulsion issues which arise from the top level requirements are discussed. These concepts are presented in terms of an overall architecture which can be achieved with modest up-front development.

  12. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xian; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  13. Position Estimation Using Image Derivative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortari, Daniele; deDilectis, Francesco; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an image processing algorithm to process Moon and/or Earth images. The theory presented is based on the fact that Moon hard edge points are characterized by the highest values of the image derivative. Outliers are eliminated by two sequential filters. Moon center and radius are then estimated by nonlinear least-squares using circular sigmoid functions. The proposed image processing has been applied and validated using real and synthetic Moon images.

  14. Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.

  15. 12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of directors' responsibilities with respect to financial... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352... Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial...

  16. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...

  17. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

  18. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

  19. 12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...

  20. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...

  1. 12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

  2. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or more..., forward commitments, options, and swaps. A mortgage derivative security, such as a collateralized...

  3. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  4. Derivation of Jurin's law revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel; Tirado Miranda, María

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also stabilizes. Both descriptions evidently coincide although they are based on different physical quantities. Most undergraduate textbooks do not mention why these two routes draw two identical results; besides, the proofs become conceptually incorrect. We review the underlying ideas in Jurin's law and the two possible derivations.

  5. Phenolic Derivatives from Hypericum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoyong; Zhou, Min; Ye, Qi; Mi, Jun; Fang, Dongmei; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2015-12-01

    Three new acylphloroglucinol glycosides, hypericumols A - C, together with fifteen known phenolic derivatives, were isolated from the total phenolic extract of Hypericum japonicum. Hypericumols A, B, and C were characterized as 4,6-dimethyl-2-methylpropanoylphloroglucinol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4-methyl-2-methylpropanoylphloroglucinol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (2'S)-4,6-dimethyl-2-methylbutyrylphloroglucinol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical degradation reaction. PMID:26882677

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Electron localization in polyaniline derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.H.; Javadi, H.H.S. ); Ray, A.; MacDiarmid, A.G. ); Epstein, A.J. Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH )

    1990-09-15

    Electron localization in the methyl-ring-substituted derivative of polyaniline (PAN), poly({ital o}-toluidine) (POT), has been investigated by transport and magnetic measurements. The HCl salt of POT shows greater electron localization than that of PAN due to decreased interchain diffusion rate caused by increased interchain separation and decreased interchain coherence. Each of these is attributed to the addition of one CH{sub 3} to each C{sub 5} ring. The general implications for control of dimensionality and conductivity are discussed.

  8. Asymptotic vacua with higher derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Kolionis, Georgios; Tsokaros, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    We study limits of vacuum, isotropic universes in the full, effective, four-dimensional theory with higher derivatives. We show that all flat vacua as well as general curved ones are globally attracted by the standard, square root scaling solution at early times. Open vacua asymptote to horizon-free, Milne states in both directions while closed universes exhibit more complex logarithmic singularities, starting from initial data sets of a possibly smaller dimension. We also discuss the relation of our results to the asymptotic stability of the passage through the singularity in ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies.

  9. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  10. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  11. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  12. [Pharmacokinetic properties of platinium derivatives].

    PubMed

    Boisdron-Celle, M; Lebouil, A; Allain, P; Gamelin, E

    2001-08-01

    The three platinum derivatives currently available share many pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) properties but present also some distinct characteristics, due to their structural differences. They result in different systemic PK-PD and metabolic behaviour and toxicity profile. Oxaliplatin is quickly transformed into dach-platinum, the active metabolite, by loosing oxalate chain. Eighty to eighty-eight per cent of platinum are bound to proteins, as for cisplatin, whereas carboplatin is less reactive. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin active metabolites, i.e. monoaquo platin and dach-platin quickly react with small proteins with sulfhydryl groups, such as glutathione, cysteine and methionine, and then with high molecular weight proteins, such as albumin and gammaglobulins through covalent link. Thus, their terminal half lives are long, about ten days, but no platinum accumulation has been reported in plasma with oxaliplatin, whereas after cisplatin administration, both total and ultrafiltrable platinum progressively accumulate in plasma. This difference may play a role in the lack of oxaliplatin nephrotoxicity and its more delayed and reversible neurotoxicity. On the other hand, carboplatin is more stable, less bound to proteins and is largely excreted inchanged in urine. This can explain that it passes more easily through the blood brain barrier. Erythrocytes represent an important deep compartment, especially for oxaliplatin, a little bit less for cisplatin. Oxaliplatin is trapped in erythrocytes through a covalent binding to globin. There, its half life is identical to that of erythrocytes. According to certain authors, this trapping would be involved in the incidence of anemia. On the contrary, carboplatin is quickly extruded from erythrocytes. The three derivatives kinetics in plasma present a wide interindividual variability, resulting in differences in term of toxicity and efficacy. For the three of them, plasma clearance is correlated to creatinine clearance, but only carboplatin dosage can be individually adjusted, based on creatinine clearance measurement, thanks to its simple renal excretion, due to exclusive glomerular filtration, and after Calvert's, Egorin's and Chatelut's population kinetics studies. Cisplatin renal excretion is more complex, combining reabsorption and secretion processes. Therefore, individual dosage adjustment needs platinum concentration measurement in plasma, but there is no general agreement on the platinum species to measure, ultrafiltrable or bound. Oxaliplatin is too recent in clinical practice and still lacks of PK-PD data. These characteristics can help us for a better knowledge of the three platinum derivatives clinical properties, both in term of kinetics, behaviour and toxicity. PMID:11567909

  13. Paleovirology and virally derived immunity.

    PubMed

    Aswad, Amr; Katzourakis, Aris

    2012-11-01

    Paleovirology, the study of viruses on evolutionary timescales, can exploit information from endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from viruses to hosts. The availability of genomic data has increased opportunities to study EVEs, and bioinformatics techniques have been crucial in cataloguing EVE diversity and taxonomic coverage. Recent advances show that some EVEs have been co-opted as cellular genes, often as inhibitors of viral infection. These genes are an intriguing strategy in virus-host evolutionary battles in that genetic material is transferred from virus to host, and then used by the host against the virus. In this review, we consider the genes and processes involved in EVE-derived immunity (EDI), assess factors leading to its emergence, and outline how future work will benefit from incorporating evolutionary approaches. PMID:22901901

  14. Derivatives of Black Knight Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N.; Wright, D.

    This paper traces the line of descent from Black Knight to Black Arrow, and at the same time looks at various proposed projects, both civil and military, which were to be Black Knight derivatives, but which for one reason or another never saw the light of day. Research in this area is rather akin to anthropological work, tracing fossils from Homo erectus (Black Knight) to Homo sapiens (Black Arrow), knowing that a lot of the fossils found will not be on the direct line of descent, but represent branches that became extinct. This article attempts to cover designs, which, although they never made it to hardware, are none the less interesting technically, or shine light on the evolution of design philosophy.

  15. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  16. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  17. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  19. Complex order fractional derivatives in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanacković, Teodor M.; Konjik, Sanja; Pilipović, Stevan; Zorica, Dušan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce complex order fractional derivatives in models that describe viscoelastic materials. This cannot be carried out unrestrictedly, and therefore we derive, for the first time, real valued compatibility constraints, as well as physical constraints that lead to acceptable models. As a result, we introduce a new form of complex order fractional derivative. Also, we consider a fractional differential equation with complex derivatives, and study its solvability. Results obtained for stress relaxation and creep are illustrated by several numerical examples.

  20. hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Sui, Lina; Liu, Guang-Hui; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Successful derivation of pancreatic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro and further differentiation towards functional β cells in vivo may create the possibility of using hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors (PPs), instead of derived β cells, as an alternative transplantable source in β cell replacement therapy. Here we discuss present approaches, as well as future alternatives, in the fields of basic and clinic research on β cell differentiation, derivation and transplantation. PMID:23381137

  1. Stability derivatives of cones at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murry; Wehrend, William R

    1956-01-01

    The aerodynamic stability derivatives due to pitching velocity and vertical acceleration are derived for circular cones traveling at supersonic speeds. Both first-order and a combination of first and second order potential solutions are obtained, and in calculations for the forces, no approximations are made to the tangency condition or the isentropic pressure relation. In addition, expressions for the forces, moments, and stability derivatives of arbitrary bodies of revolution are derived from Newtonian impact theory.

  2. 12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... involving a financial derivative, you should do so to reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of... on implementing a sound risk management program. (e) What records must I keep on financial derivative... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section...

  3. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    PubMed

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  4. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively... § 2001.20 and § 2001.21, except as provided in this section. Information for these markings shall...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively... § 2001.20 and § 2001.21, except as provided in this section. Information for these markings shall...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658... Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

  12. Improved Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2007-01-01

    In this note, a modified Second Derivative Test is introduced for the relative extrema of a single variable function. This improved test overcomes the difficulty of the second derivative vanishing at the critical point, while in contrast the traditional test fails for this case. A proof for this improved Second Derivative Test is presented,…

  13. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Elissawy, Ahmed M.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S.; Singab, AbdelNasser B.; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644

  14. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  15. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813)...

  1. Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.

  2. Massive Higher Derivative Gravity Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullu, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis massive higher derivative gravity theories are analyzed in some detail. One-particle scattering amplitude between two covariantly conserved sources mediated by a graviton exchange is found at tree-level in D dimensional (Anti)-de Sitter and flat spacetimes for the most general quadratic curvature theory augmented with the Pauli-Fierz mass term. From the amplitude expression, the Newtonian potential energies are calculated for various cases. Also, from this amplitude and the propagator structure, a three dimensional unitary theory is identified. In the second part of the thesis, the found three dimensional unitary theory is studied in more detail from a canonical point of view. The general higher order action is written in terms of gauge-invariant functions both in flat and de Sitter backgrounds. The analysis is extended by adding static sources, spinning masses and the gravitational Chern-Simons term separately to the theory in the case of flat spacetime. For all cases the microscopic spectrum and the masses are found. In the discussion of curved spacetime, the masses are found in the relativistic and non-relativistic limits. In the Appendix, some useful calculations that are frequently used in the bulk of the thesis are given.

  3. Animal-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Redwan, el-Rashdy M

    2009-01-01

    Livestock animals have made a significant contribution to human health and well-being throughout humankind's history. A significant contribution of farm animals to human health are the longstanding use of bovine and porcine for production of insulin (for treatment of diabetes), gelatin (for pharmaceutical and other purposes), as well as horse and sheep antibody against natural venoms, toxins, drugs and microbial peptides. Gelatin being the biggest animal protein consumed in human health, follows with antibodies fragments. The chronic problem of animal-derived therapeutics, especially those of high molecular weight, is the immunogenicity induction in addition to their biosafety. However, the invertebrates and lower vertebrates donate the human being a several crucial emergency saving life small-peptides or their analogs such as Refludan, Prialt, Exendin. Not only, but the farm animals are enormously using as models for novel surgical strategies, testing of biodegradable implants and sources of tissue replacements, such as skin and heart valves. Recently, they are being harnessing as bioreactor for production of biopharmaceutical related products through gene farming with efficiency far greater than any conventional microbial or cell-culture production systems. Only 16 transgenic cows would be covering the worldwide needs from human growth hormone. The transgenic, especially animal, technology would be solving a several biopharmaceutical products disadvantages, such as cost, biosafety, immunogenicity and the availability dimensions. PMID:19591041

  4. Eburnamine derivatives and the brain.

    PubMed

    Vas, Adám; Gulyás, Balázs

    2005-11-01

    The Apocynaceae plant family contains a great number of so called eburnamine-vincamine alkaloids. Quite a few of these alkaloids exert varied pharmacological activities on the cell multiplication, cardiovascular system, and brain functions. Many derivatives were also synthesized to find pharmacologically active compounds better characterized and safer to be administered than the natural plant alkaloids themselves. We concentrate on the eburnamine structures with cerebral activities in this review. Vincamine, vinburnine, vindeburnol, apovincaminate, and vinpocetine (cis-ethyl-apovincaminate) all share modulatory effects on brain circulation and neuronal homeostasis, bear antihypoxic and neuroprotective potencies to various degrees. The most eminent compound of this class of alkaloids is vinpocetine. Since its introduction to the market as a neuroprotective agent many non clinical and clinical studies proved vinpocetine's effects on calmodulin dependent phosphodiesterase E1, on sodium, calcium channels, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, and glutamate receptors as well as its clinical usefulness in the treatment of post-ischaemic stroke disease states and various disorders of cerebrovascular origin. Lately, positron emission tomography studies proved that vinpocetine has a rapid uptake in the primate and human brain with a heterogeneous distribution pattern (preference areas: thalamus, basal ganglia, and visual cortex) both after intravenous and oral administration. Vinpocetine exerts beneficial effects in cerebral glucose metabolism and regional cerebral blood flow in chronic post-stroke patients. PMID:16158388

  5. Space-Derived Sewer Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The QuadraScan Longterm Flow Monitoring System is a second generation sewer monitor developed by American Digital Systems, Inc.'s founder Peter Petroff. Petroff, a former spacecraft instrumentation designer at Marshall Space Flight Center, used expertise based on principles acquired in Apollo and other NASA programs. QuadraScan borrows even more heavily from space technology, for example in its data acquisition and memory system derived from NASA satellites. "One-time" measurements are often plagued with substantial errors due to the flow of groundwater absorbed into the system. These system sizing errors stem from a basic informational deficiency: accurate, reliable data on how much water flows through a sewer system over a long period of time is very difficult to obtain. City officials are turning to "permanent," or long-term sewer monitoring systems. QuadraScan offers many advantages to city officials such as the early warning capability to effectively plan for city growth in order to avoid the crippling economic impact of bans on new sewer connections in effect in many cities today.

  6. Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

  7. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  8. Clinical status of benzoporphyrin derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Strong, H. Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous malignancies (basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous metastases) and psoriasis. Results to date suggest that this photosensitizer has potential in both of these areas. Recently, a clinical trial with BPD was initiated for the treatment of age related macular degeneration, a neovascular condition in the eye which leads to blindness. BPD is a lipophilic photosensitizer which is rapidly taken up by activated cells and the vascular endothelium of neovasculature. The PDT effects seen with BPD appear to be a combination of vascular occlusion and direct killing of target cells. Since many diseases involve either activated cells and/or neovasculature, PDT with photosensitizer with characteristics like those of BPD, has applications far wider than oncology. A new area of interest involving photosensitizers is that of immune modulation. A number of photosensitizers have been shown to effect immune modulation in animal models of immune dysfunction including autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), cutaneous hypersensitivity and allografts. BPD and PHOTOFRINR have both been shown to be effective in ameliorating arthritic symptoms in a number of animal models. The mechanisms by which immune modulation is affected in these studies still remains to be resolved.

  9. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without the need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multiyear crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.

  10. Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem.

    PubMed

    King, Leslie A; Ujváry, István; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives should be considered: substances that can be created from a parent structure in a single chemical reaction. In other words, 'derivatives of derivatives' are excluded. However, some substances related to ecgonine (e.g. 2-carbomethoxytropinone) are clearly convertible to cocaine, even though this may require more than one reaction step. It follows that 2-carbomethoxytropinone is a controlled drug, a situation that most chemists would regard as perverse. A more extreme example of the complexity of 'derivative' is shown by the conversion of thebaine to buprenorphine. Even though this requires six or more stages, the US Drug Enforcement Administration successfully argued in a 1986 case that for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act, the number of steps required was irrelevant; buprenorphine was a derivative of thebaine. Because the term derivative is rarely defined in statutes, the legal status of some substances, such as 2-bromo-LSD, is uncertain. Although a number of definitions of derivative can be found in the chemical literature, no single definition is adequate to describe all situations where it occurs in legislation. Unless qualified, it is suggested that the term derivative should be avoided in any future legislation. PMID:23949903

  11. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate. PMID:21603195

  12. Missile motion sensitivity to dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langham, T. F.

    1980-09-01

    A dynamic derivative sensitivity study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of dynamic derivatives in missile motion simulation studies. Generalized bank-to-turn and yaw-to-turn missile configurations were used with a six degree of freedom linearized stability program. The effects of various dynamic derivatives on missile stability were investigated in both level and turning flight for several Mach numbers and altitude conditions.

  13. Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart

    2011-07-01

    We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

  14. ACE inhibitory peptides derived from aquatic protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Lv, Shun; Zhang, Xiaorong; Lu, Jianfeng; Ye, Yingwang; Jiang, Shaotong

    2013-05-01

    Among bioactive peptides derived from aquatic protein, those with ACE inhibitory activity are receiving special attention. This paper presented an overview of ACE inhibitory peptides derived from aquatic proteins, and the peptide sources were listed. The structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action of ACE inhibitory peptides were also discussed. Finally, the antihypertensive effects of ACE inhibitory peptides derived from marine protein, including short-term and long-term influence, were also discussed. PMID:23721314

  15. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease. PMID:26077627

  16. Synthesis of polyfluorene derivatives through polymer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Yu, Wang-Lin; Lai, Yee-Hing; Huang, Wei

    2003-01-01

    A polyfluorene derivative with ester functional groups was synthesized with a high molecular weight and good solubility in common organic solvents through the Suzuki reaction. Efficient blue light emission and good electrochemical properties were demonstrated for this polymer with a decomposition temperature of 331 °C and a glass transition temperature of 111 °C. Due to the ester functional groups, the polymer could be further modified through polymer reactions. Hydrolysis of the polymer afforded a water-soluble carbonate functional polyfluorene derivative. While it underwent a reduction, a new polyfluorene derivative with hydroxy functional groups was obtained. Thermal and optical properties of the derivatives were also studied.

  17. 12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION State Savings Associations-Operations § 390.352 Financial derivatives. (a) What is...

  18. Derive Workshop Matrix Algebra and Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley Kulich, Lisa; Victor, Barbara

    This document presents the course content for a workshop that integrates the use of the computer algebra system Derive with topics in matrix and linear algebra. The first section is a guide to using Derive that provides information on how to write algebraic expressions, make graphs, save files, edit, define functions, differentiate expressions,…

  19. Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1995-01-01

    Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

  20. Understanding the Derivative through the Calculus Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael; Byerley, Cameron; Thompson, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Typical treatments of the derivative do not clearly convey the idea that the derivative function represents the original function's rate of change. Revealing the relationship between a function and its rate-of-change function for static values of "x" does not facilitate productive ways of thinking about generating the rate-of-change function or…

  1. Few Fractional Order Derivatives and Their Computations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an introductory development of fractional order derivatives and their computations. Historical development of fractional calculus is discussed. This paper presents how to obtain computational results of fractional order derivatives for some elementary functions. Computational results are illustrated in tabular and graphical…

  2. [Metabolism of designer drugs. The fentanyl derivatives].

    PubMed

    Melent'ev, A B; Kataev, S S

    2015-01-01

    This literature review is focused on the studies of metabolism of designer drugs, with special reference to fentanyl derivatives. Certain physicochemical characteristics of the main metabolites most frequently encountered in the illegal trade of the fentanyl group analgesics have been calculated. The proposed recommendations include the methods for the identification of certain fentanyl derivatives during analysis of biological media. PMID:26710514

  3. Analysis of Blackbody Radiation with Derivative Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusek, J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment which uses derivative spectroscopy to investigate the validity of the Planck function appearing in the blackbody radiation law. These measurements allow a critical examination of this function and also serve as an introduction to derivative spectroscopy techniques. (Author/HM)

  4. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PUBLIC INFORMATION Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 13526 and directives of the Information...

  5. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  6. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  7. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  8. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  9. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  10. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is...

  11. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  12. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  13. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  14. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  15. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  16. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  17. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  18. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  19. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  20. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  1. Integrating weather derivatives for managing risks

    SciTech Connect

    Bilski, B.

    1999-11-01

    As deregulation and customer choice loom on the horizon, many energy utilities and other energy suppliers are scrambling to find new services that add value for consumers. Many are also seeking opportunities for increasing efficiency to ensure that costs remain competitive. Integrating weather derivatives with marketing programs and financial management can produce attractive new services and increase efficiency. Weather derivatives can be used to create innovative consumer services, such as a guaranteed annual energy bill which is unaffected by weather and energy price changes. They can also be used to protect the earnings of energy suppliers from one of their most significant financial risks, unpredictable weather. There are three basic types of weather derivatives available today. Option or insurance based derivatives (options), swaps or hedge based derivatives (swaps) and packages where other services are combined with one or both of the above.

  2. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  3. Stability-Derivative Determination from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holowicz, Chester H.; Holleman, Euclid C.

    1958-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the various factors affecting the determination of stability and control derivatives from flight data is presented based on the experience of the NASA High-Speed Flight Station. Factors relating to test techniques, determination of mass characteristics, instrumentation, and methods of analysis are discussed. For most longitudinal-stability-derivative analyses simple equations utilizing period and damping have been found to be as satisfactory as more comprehensive methods. The graphical time-vector method has been the basis of lateral-derivative analysis, although simple approximate methods can be useful If applied with caution. Control effectiveness has been generally obtained by relating the peak acceleration to the rapid control input, and consideration must be given to aerodynamic contributions if reasonable accuracy is to be realized.. Because of the many factors involved In the determination of stability derivatives, It is believed that the primary stability and control derivatives are probably accurate to within 10 to 25 percent, depending upon the specific derivative. Static-stability derivatives at low angle of attack show the greatest accuracy.

  4. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly without the differential of this function. Key results are summarized in tables. Several examples show how the quaternion matrix derivatives can be used as an important tool for solving problems related to signal processing.

  5. Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    2004-02-01

    Summarizing market data developments, some inspired by statistical physics, this book explains how to better predict the actual behavior of financial markets with respect to asset allocation, derivative pricing and hedging, and risk control. Risk control and derivative pricing are major concerns to financial institutions. The need for adequate statistical tools to measure and anticipate amplitude of potential moves of financial markets is clearly expressed, in particular for derivative markets. Classical theories, however, are based on assumptions leading to systematic (sometimes dramatic) underestimation of risks. First edition Hb (2000): 0-521-78232-5

  6. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  7. An invariant derivation of flame stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. H.; Law, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    The flame stretch factor is derived using an invariant formulation in a consistent manner. The derived generalized expression has two terms and completely describes the flame area evolution with its movement. One term represents the stretch due to the nonuniform tangential velocity field and the other represents the effect of the curvature of the propagating flame. The effect of curvature for stationary flames is implicitly included in the former term through variations of the tangential velocity. The flame sheet assumption, and thereby the stretch factor, are uniquely defined. Another expression is derived under the assumption that the tangential velocity of the flame equals the tangential component of the fluid velocity.

  8. Synthesis of Hemigossypol and its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Vander Jagt, David L.; Royer, Robert E.; Deck, Lorraine M.

    2012-01-01

    Hemigossypol (3), a sesquiterpene natural product, was previously isolated from Gossypium barbadense and was shown to display improved anti-fungal activity compared to gossypol (1), the disesquiterpene dimer of hemigossypol (3). Gossypol exhibits multiple biological activities. In order to study whether hemigossypol and it derivatives retain the various bioactivities of gossypol, we developed a short and convenient synthetic scheme to synthesize hemigossypol. This is the first de novo synthesis of this natural product. In addition derivatives of hemigossypol with various 2,5-alkyl substituents were synthesized. Modification of the synthetic scheme also afforded the natural product hemigossylic lactone (4) and its 2,5-substituted derivatives. PMID:22837586

  9. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  10. Stereochemistry of a Rhododaurichromanic Acid Derivative.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Mándi, Attila; Anetai, Masaki; Monde, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A rhododaurichromanic acid A derivative was synthesized from the naturally occurring daurichromenic acid in enantiomeric pure form. Its absolute configuration was elucidated by applying VCD, ECD and DFT calculations. PMID:27032199

  11. Concise Derivation of the Rotational Partition Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynne, F.; Andersen, Knud

    1979-01-01

    Derived is the classical partition function for the rotation of a rigid asymmetric molecule, by a transformation of variables in the phase integral circumventing the cumbersome manipulation of the canonical prescription. (Author/GA)

  12. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  13. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  14. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.

  15. Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale

    2015-12-01

    There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064

  16. Derivatives of the Stochastic Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Steinsaltz, David; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    We consider stochastic matrix models for population driven by random environments which form a Markov chain. The top Lyapunov exponent a, which describes the long-term growth rate, depends smoothly on the demographic parameters (represented as matrix entries) and on the parameters that define the stochastic matrix of the driving Markov chain. The derivatives of a — the “stochastic elasticities” — with respect to changes in the demographic parameters were derived by Tuljapurkar (1990). These results are here extended to a formula for the derivatives with respect to changes in the Markov chain driving the environments. We supplement these formulas with rigorous bounds on computational estimation errors, and with rigorous derivations of both the new and the old formulas. PMID:21463645

  17. Perspectives on biologically active camptothecin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Li, Wen-Qun; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Qian, Keduo; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, An-Liang; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Nan, Xiang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    Camptothecins (CPTs) are cytotoxic natural alkaloids that specifically target DNA topoisomerase I. Research on CPTs has undergone a significant evolution from the initial discovery of CPT in the late 1960s through the study of synthetic small-molecule derivatives to investigation of macromolecular constructs and formulations. Over the past years, intensive medicinal chemistry efforts have generated numerous CPT derivatives. Three derivatives, topotecan, irinotecan, and belotecan, are currently prescribed as anticancer drugs, and several related compounds are now in clinical trials. Interest in other biological effects, besides anticancer activity, of CPTs is also growing exponentially, as indicated by the large number of publications on the subject during the last decades. Therefore, the main focus of the present review is to provide an ample but condensed overview on various biological activities of CPT derivatives, in addition to continued up-to-date coverage of anticancer effects. PMID:25808858

  18. Phytol-Derived Novel Isoprenoid Immunostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Roshni Roy; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the adjuvanticity of novel diterpenoids (synthetic phytol derivatives) compared to some commercially available adjuvants. The efficacy of the phytol-derived immunostimulants was evaluated in terms of their ability to activate innate immunity, amplify various antigen-specific immune responses, and engender immunological memory with no discernible adverse effects in both competent and immune-deficient mice. The profile that emerges out of these studies reveals that the phytol derivatives are excellent immunostimulants, superior to a number of commercial adjuvants in terms of long-term memory induction and activation of both innate and acquired immunity. Additionally, the phytol-derived compounds have no cumulative inflammatory or toxic effects even in immuno-compromised mice. PMID:22566931

  19. Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.

  20. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  1. Cytotoxic bioactivity of some phenylpropanoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reta, Guillermo F; Tonn, Carlos E; Ríos-Luci, Carla; León, Leticia G; Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Padrón, José M; Donadel, Osvaldo J

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we synthesized a series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives based on modifications at four selected points of the molecular scaffold. The in vitro antiproliferative activities of the compounds were examined in representative human solid tumor cell lines. A SAR was established pointing out the relevance of the substituents. The best activity profiles were obtained for the derivatives bearing more lipophilic esters (GI50 3.1-21 microM). PMID:23157005

  2. Antihypertensive peptides derived from food proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides originated from food materials and enzymatic hydrolysate of different kinds of proteins. Focus was put on the peptides derived from milk casein by the action of the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria. Some of the peptides exhibit significant antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Some new topics relating to these antihypertensive peptides are introduced. The possible significance of bioactive peptides derived from food in vivo is also discussed. PMID:9216248

  3. Computer derivation of some dolphin echolocation signals.

    PubMed

    Altes, R A

    1971-09-01

    Recent advances in radar theory have given rise to a straightforward method of sonar signal design. The method involves computer maximization of a signal-to-interference ratio. The procedure has been used to derive sonar signals that can accurately measure target velocity. When two dolphins were placed in a situation conducive to the utilization of such signals, their waveforms were similar to those that had been theoretically derived. PMID:17751313

  4. Sedentary ghost poles in higher derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D. A.

    1988-02-01

    Following Antoniadis and Tomboulis [1] we consider the gauge behaviour of the massive spin-2 ghost pole that appears in the propagator of higher derivative gravity theories. In contradistinction to [1] we observe that the pair of complex conjugate poles that appear in the resummed propagator are gauge independent. They are sedentary, that is, under a change in the gauge parameter they do not move. We derive this result using the ubiquitous Nielsen identities [11].

  5. Derived transformation of children's pregambling game playing.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R

    2010-11-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in gambling behavior. The present study therefore sought to demonstrate the ways new stimuli could come to have functions relevant to gambling without those functions being trained directly. Following a successful derived-equivalence-relations test, a simulated board game established high- and low-roll functions for two concurrently presented dice labelled with members of the derived relations. During the test for derived transformation, children were reexposed to the board game with dice labelled with indirectly related stimuli. All participants except 1 who passed the equivalence relations test selected the die that was indirectly related to the trained high-roll die more often than the die that was indirectly related to low-roll die, despite the absence of differential outcomes. All participants except 3 also gave the derived high-roll die higher liking ratings than the derived low-roll die. The implications of the findings for behavior-analytic research on gambling and the development of verbally-based interventions for disordered gambling are discussed. PMID:21541176

  6. Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing

    PubMed Central

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in gambling behavior. The present study therefore sought to demonstrate the ways new stimuli could come to have functions relevant to gambling without those functions being trained directly. Following a successful derived-equivalence-relations test, a simulated board game established high- and low-roll functions for two concurrently presented dice labelled with members of the derived relations. During the test for derived transformation, children were reexposed to the board game with dice labelled with indirectly related stimuli. All participants except 1 who passed the equivalence relations test selected the die that was indirectly related to the trained high-roll die more often than the die that was indirectly related to low-roll die, despite the absence of differential outcomes. All participants except 3 also gave the derived high-roll die higher liking ratings than the derived low-roll die. The implications of the findings for behavior-analytic research on gambling and the development of verbally-based interventions for disordered gambling are discussed. PMID:21541176

  7. Filtering using variable order vertical derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, G. R. J.; Cowan, D. R.

    2004-06-01

    Vertical derivatives of aeromagnetic and gravity datasets are routinely used as an aid to the interpretation process because they enhance detail and sharpen geophysical anomalies. Since they are a form of high-pass filter they also have the undesirable property of enhancing noise. Traditionally, the second order vertical derivative of a dataset would be calculated, and if this proved too noisy then the first-order derivative map would be used. Recently, much interest has been shown in the use of derivatives of fractional order to achieve a derivative map that contains the correct balance between the enhancement of signal and noise. If the data set being processed has a frequency content which does not vary spatially by a great amount this process can be effective. However, if this is not the situation then the result is a map where some portions are too noisy for convenient interpretation, whereas other portions are too smooth and show little detail. The use of derivatives whose order varies across the dataset in a manner based on the local standard deviation of the data proved effective in resolving this problem. The method is demonstrated on aeromagnetic data from Botswana and on elevation data from South Africa.

  8. Synthesis of alpha-phosphorylated alpha,beta-unsaturated imines and their selective reduction to vinylogous and saturated alpha-aminophosphonates.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Aparicio, Domitila

    2007-03-30

    An efficient synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated imines derived from alpha-aminophosphonates is achieved through aza-Wittig reaction of P-trimethyl phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketophosphonates. Selective 1,2-reduction of such 1-azadienes affords beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-aminophosphonates, phosphorylated analogs of vinylglycines, which are hydrogenated to yield saturated alpha-aminophosphonate derivatives. PMID:17328577

  9. Analytic computation of energy derivatives - Relationships among partial derivatives of a variationally determined function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. F.; Komornicki, A.

    1986-01-01

    Formulas are presented relating Taylor series expansion coefficients of three functions of several variables, the energy of the trial wave function (W), the energy computed using the optimized variational wave function (E), and the response function (lambda), under certain conditions. Partial derivatives of lambda are obtained through solution of a recursive system of linear equations, and solution through order n yields derivatives of E through order 2n + 1, extending Puley's application of Wigner's 2n + 1 rule to partial derivatives in couple perturbation theory. An examination of numerical accuracy shows that the usual two-term second derivative formula is less stable than an alternative four-term formula, and that previous claims that energy derivatives are stationary properties of the wave function are fallacious. The results have application to quantum theoretical methods for the computation of derivative properties such as infrared frequencies and intensities.

  10. New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

    2014-01-01

    Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative. PMID:25550906

  11. New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

    2014-01-01

    Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative. PMID:25550906

  12. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  13. Numerical derivative techniques for trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallman, Wayne P.

    1990-01-01

    The adoption of robust numerical optimization techniques in trajectory simulation programs has resulted in powerful design and analysis tools. These trajectory simulation/optimization programs are widely used, and a representative list includes the GTS system, the POST program, and newer collocation methods such as OTIS and FONPAC. All of these programs rely on optimization algorithms which require objective function and constraint gradient data during the iteration process. However, most trajectory optimization problems lack simple analytical expressions for these derivatives. In the general case a function evaluation involves integrating aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces over multiple trajectory phases with complex control models. With the newer collocation methods, the integration is replaced by defect constraints and cubic approximations for the state. While analytic gradient expressions can sometimes be derived for trajectory optimization problems, the derivation is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes. Fortunately, an alternate method exists for the gradient evaluation, namely finite difference approximations. In this paper some finite difference gradient techniques developed for use with the GTS system are presented. These techniques include methods for computing first and second partial derivatives of single and multiple sets of functions. A key feature of these methods is an error control mechanism which automatically adjusts the perturbation size to obtain accurate derivative values.

  14. Structure Activity Relationship of Brevenal Hydrazide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Allan; McCall, Jennifer R.; Jacocks, Henry M.; Thompson, Alysha; Baden, Daniel; Abraham, William M.; Bourdelais, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Brevenal is a ladder frame polyether produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism is also responsible for the production of the neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. Ingestion or inhalation of the brevetoxins leads to adverse effects such as gastrointestinal maladies and bronchoconstriction. Brevenal shows antagonistic behavior to the brevetoxins and shows beneficial attributes when administered alone. For example, in an asthmatic sheep model, brevenal has been shown to increase tracheal mucosal velocity, an attribute which has led to its development as a potential treatment for Cystic Fibrosis. The mechanism of action of brevenal is poorly understood and the exact binding site has not been elucidated. In an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action of brevenal and potentially develop a second generation drug candidate, a series of brevenal derivatives were prepared through modification of the aldehyde moiety. These derivatives include aliphatic, aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrazide derivatives. The brevenal derivatives were tested using in vitro synaptosome binding assays to determine the ability of the compounds to displace brevetoxin and brevenal from their native receptors. A sheep inhalation model was used to determine if instillation of the brevenal derivatives resulted in bronchoconstriction. Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model. PMID:24686558

  15. Microscopically derived free energy of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooiman, M.; Hütter, M.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of large amounts of dislocations is the governing mechanism in metal plasticity. The free energy of a continuous dislocation density profile plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics of dislocations, as free energy derivatives act as the driving forces of dislocation dynamics. In this contribution, an explicit expression for the free energy of straight and parallel dislocations with different Burgers vectors is derived. The free energy is determined using systematic coarse-graining techniques from statistical mechanics. The starting point of the derivation is the grand-canonical partition function derived in an earlier work, in which we accounted for the finite system size, discrete glide planes and multiple slip systems. In this paper, the explicit free energy functional of the dislocation density is calculated and has, to the best of our knowledge, not been derived before in the present form. The free energy consists of a mean-field elastic contribution and a local defect energy, that can be split into a statistical and a many-body contribution. These depend on the density of positive and negative dislocations on each slip system separately, instead of GND-based quantities only. Consequently, a crystal plasticity model based on the here obtained free energy, should account for both statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations.

  16. Dipole-Moment Derivatives of Nitrous Oxide.

    PubMed

    Lobodenko, E. I.; Perevalov, V. I.; Lyulin, O. M.; Teffo, J.-L.

    2001-02-01

    The equations relating the q(2)J-type parameters of the matrix elements of the effective dipole-moment operator with the force field constants and the dipole-moment derivatives have been established by means of contact transformations in the case of nitrous oxide molecule. The effective dipole-moment operator corresponds to the reduced effective Hamiltonian derived by J.-L. Teffo, V. I. Perevalov, and O. M. Lyulin (J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 390-403 (1994)) for the global treatment of the vibrational-rotational energy levels of this molecule. Using these equations, the first and second derivatives of the dipole-moment function of the nitrous oxide molecule have been determined from the published values (O. M. Lyulin, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 174, 566-580 (1995)) of the matrix element parameters of the effective dipole-moment operator. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11162210

  17. Dipole-Moment Derivatives of Nitrous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobodenko, E. I.; Perevalov, V. I.; Lyulin, O. M.; Teffo, J.-L.

    2001-02-01

    The equations relating the q2J-type parameters of the matrix elements of the effective dipole-moment operator with the force field constants and the dipole-moment derivatives have been established by means of contact transformations in the case of nitrous oxide molecule. The effective dipole-moment operator corresponds to the reduced effective Hamiltonian derived by J.-L. Teffo, V. I. Perevalov, and O. M. Lyulin (J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 390-403 (1994)) for the global treatment of the vibrational-rotational energy levels of this molecule. Using these equations, the first and second derivatives of the dipole-moment function of the nitrous oxide molecule have been determined from the published values (O. M. Lyulin, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 174, 566-580 (1995)) of the matrix element parameters of the effective dipole-moment operator.

  18. Analytics of Quinine and its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kluska, Mariusz; Marciniuk-Kluska, Anna; Prukała, Dorota; Prukała, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a synthesis and analysis of the most important information on quinine and its derivatives, which are still very important in the treatment of malaria. The analysis of stereoisomers of quinine and its derivatives was conducted using two techniques, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Particularly noteworthy is the technique used for the determination of isotachophoresis, referred to as one of the so-called green chemistry techniques. Particular attention was paid to properties and the use of quinine and its derivatives in the treatment of malaria. The analytical part will supplement knowledge about quinidine, quinine, and cinchonidine, and will contribute to the growth of research on the so-much-needed drugs against malaria. PMID:25831406

  19. Delayed feedback of sampled higher derivatives.

    PubMed

    Insperger, Tamas; Stepan, Gabor; Turi, Janos

    2010-01-28

    Systems where the present rate of change of the state depends on the past values of the higher rates of change of the state are described by so-called advanced functional differential equations (AFDEs). In an AFDE, the highest derivative of the state-space coordinate appears with delayed argument only. The corresponding linearized equations are always unstable with infinitely many unstable poles, and are rarely related to practical applications due to their inherently implicit nature. In this paper, one of the simplest AFDEs, a linear scalar first-order system, is considered with the delayed feedback of the second derivative of the state in the presence of sampling in the feedback loop (i.e. in the case of digital control). It is shown that sampling of the feedback may stabilize the originally infinitely unstable system for certain parameter combinations. The result explains the stable behaviour of certain dynamical systems with feedback delay in the highest derivative. PMID:20008412

  20. Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole-Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them.

  1. Inequalities for angular derivatives and boundary interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Elin, Mark; Shoikhet, David

    2013-03-01

    The classical Julia-Wolff-Carathéodory theorem asserts that the angular derivative of a holomorphic self-mapping of the open unit disk (Schur function) at its boundary fixed point is a positive number. Cowen and Pommerenke (J Lond Math Soc 26:271-289, 1982) proved that if a Schur function has several boundary regular fixed (or mutual contact) points, then the angular derivatives at these points are subject to certain inequalities. We develop a unified approach to establish relations between angular derivatives of Schur functions with a prescribed (possibly, infinite) collection of either mutual contact points or boundary fixed points. This approach yields diverse inequalities improving both classical and more recent results. We apply them to study the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem with boundary data. Our methods lead to fairly explicit formulas describing the set of solutions.

  2. Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lee M.; Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2015-02-07

    The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.

  3. Immunosuppressive decalin derivatives from red yeast rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Lu, Jing-Guang; Li, Ting; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Han, Quan-Bin; Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2012-04-27

    Five new decalin derivatives (1-5), together with two known compounds (6 and 7), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of red yeast rice. Their structures were elucidated by means of NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. Monascusic lactone A (1) is the first reported naturally occurring decalin derivative possessing a spiro lactone at the C-1 position. The immunosuppressive effects of all these isolates (1-7) on human T cell proliferation were investigated, and all, especially monascusic acids B (2), C (3), D (4), and A (6) and heptaketide (7), suppressed human T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner from 10 to 100 μM. This is the first report on the immunosuppressive activity of decalin derivatives. PMID:22394155

  4. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    PubMed

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development. PMID:19226745

  5. Derivation of wildlife values for mercury.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J; Bradbury, S; Swartout, J

    1999-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to estimate surface water concentrations of toxicants ("wildlife values") that will protect the viability of wildlife populations associated with aquatic resources. This procedure was designed primarily to protect piscivorous birds and mammals from compounds that bioaccumulate in fish and was used in the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLI) to calculate wildlife values (WV) for mercury, DDT/DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Published in 1995, and expressed as total mercury in unfiltered water, the final wildlife value (WVf) for mercury derived in the GLI was 1300 pg Hg/L. This value was selected as the wildlife criterion (WC) for mercury in the Great Lakes basin. A second WVf for mercury was derived in 1997 as part of a Congressionally mandated report on airborne mercury emissions. These calculations were based upon mercury speciation data that were largely unavailable when the GLI was developed. Important features of the WVf in the Report to Congress include its calculation on a dissolved methylmercury basis and a reliance on field data to estimate fish bioaccumulation factors. Calculated as methylmercury in filtered water, the WVf derived in the report is 50 pg Hg/L (equivalent to 54 pg MeHg/L). A comparison of WV in the GLI and the Report to Congress requires that average values be specified for mercury speciation in natural systems. Based on this information, the WVf given in the report corresponds to a value of 910 pg Hg/L, as total mercury in unfiltered water, or about 70% of the WVf derived in the GLI. In this article we describe the algorithm used to derive WV in the GLI and the Report to Congress and review its application to mercury. Scientific uncertainties in deriving WV, particularly as they apply to mercury, are critically examined. PMID:10596301

  6. Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever possible, information regarding the biological activity is presented. PMID:20948911

  7. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-08-15

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  8. Photoluminescence in anthracene and it's derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Arpita; Mirgane, Nitin A.; Moharil, S. V.; Muley, Aarti Iyer

    2016-05-01

    The anthracene and it's derivative 9-chloro acridine and Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate have prepared in Poly vinyl alcohol(PVOH). Their photoluminescence properties have studied. The pure anthracene has an emission at 424 and 443nm. The intense peak is observed at 465nm and shoulder at 407nm. The derivatives of anthracene Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate shows an emission around 440nm for the excitation at 393nm and 9-chloro acridine shows emission around 360nm for the excitation at 290nm. The major problem of this organic material is the stability. The composites prepared in the medium of PVOH are more stable.

  9. Derivation of Ashtekar variables from tetrad gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneaux, M.; Nelson, J. E.; Schomblond, C.

    1989-01-01

    The new gravitational variables introduced recently by Ashtekar are derived from the standard tetrad gravity formalism with full local Lorentz invariance. This is done by a succession of canonical transformations, which involve as a first step the transition from arbitrary tetrads to three-dimensional triads and pure gauge boost variables. It is then shown that the weighted contravariant triads and mixed components of the extrinsic curvature are also canonically conjugate. Finally, the new variables are explicitly derived and proved to be canonical because of a remarkable identity obeyed by the spatial spin connection in three dimensions.

  10. Structural studies of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Shana M.; Rodrigues, Manoel T.; Bastos, Rodrigo M.; Ferrari, Jailton; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Kato, Lucília; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Vencato, Ivo; Lariucci, Carlito

    2005-10-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, benzoyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, maleic anhydride and methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded a series of new antipyrine derivatives. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 29737, and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentration determined. Modest activity was found only to the maleamic acid obtained from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine and maleic anhydride. 1H NMR investigation of this maleamic acid showed that it is slowly converted to the corresponding toxic maleimide. The structures of three derivatives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  11. Synthesis of Amaryllidaceae Constituents and Unnatural Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ghavre, Mukund; Froese, Jordan; Pour, Milan; Hudlicky, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    This update covers the syntheses of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids since the publication of the last major review in 2008. A short summary of past syntheses and their step count is provided for the major constituents; pancratistatin, 7-deoxypancratistatin, narciclasine, lycoricidine, lycorine, and for other natural constituents, as well as for unnatural derivatives. Discussion of biological activities is provided for unnatural derivatives. Future prospects and further developments in this area are covered at the end of the review. The literature is covered to the end of August 2015. PMID:26969844

  12. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  13. The derivative of a continued fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Kimiko o

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers second order continued fractions associated with (I) the Psi function {psi}(z), (II) the continued fraction component in ln {Gamma}(z) due to Stieltjes. The second order sequences k*{sub s}/k{sub s} provide approximants, some of which are remarkably close. In addition a series form for the convergent {chi}{sub s}={omega}{sub s} associated with a continued fraction provides an expression for the derivatives of a continued fraction. The implementation uses a Maple code for derivatives.

  14. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  15. New coumarin derivatives as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Alici, Bülent; Cakir, Umit; Cetinkaya, Engin; Demir, Dudu; Ergün, Adem; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, a series of 4-chloromethyl-7-hydroxy-coumarin derivatives containing imidazolium, benzimidazolium, bisbenzimidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized, characterized and the inhibition effects of the derivatives on human carbonic anhydrases (hCA I and hCA II) were investigated as in vitro. Structures of these coumarins were confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS analyses. Structure activity relationship study showed that 3d (IC50: 79 μM for hCA I and 88 μM for hCA II) performed higher inhibitory activity than others. PMID:23656671

  16. Special Relativity Derived from Spacetime Magma

    PubMed Central

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components and Euclidean which is consistent with an “inversion symmetry” constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of “inverse norms” which play major roles with respect to various unital -algebras more generally. PMID:24959889

  17. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    PubMed

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally. PMID:24959889

  18. Antiretroviral (HIV-1) activity of azulene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peet, Julia; Selyutina, Anastasia; Bredihhin, Aleksei

    2016-04-15

    The antiretroviral activity of azulene derivatives was detected for the first time. A series of eighteen diversely substituted azulenes was synthesized and tested in vitro using HIV-1 based virus-like particles (VLPs) and infectious HIV-1 virus in U2OS and TZM-bl cell lines. Among the compounds tested, the 2-hydroxyazulenes demonstrated the most significant activity by inhibiting HIV-1 replication with IC50 of 2-10 and 8-20μM for the VLPs and the infectious virus, respectively. These results indicate that azulene derivatives may be potentially useful candidates for the development of antiretroviral agents. PMID:26964674

  19. Hydrogermylation of itaconic and sorbic derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gar, T.K.; Viktorov, N.A.; Nosova, V.M.; Kisin, A.V.; Ivashchenko, D.A.; Popkov, M.K.; Mironov, V.F.

    1987-10-10

    We have investigated the reactions of trichlorogermane with itaconic acid and its derivatives and also with derivatives of sorbic acid. It was shown that the acid chlorides and the anhydride of itaconic acid readily undergo addition with the trichlorogermane ether complex. The structures of the compounds obtained were determined by means of /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy with the use of model compounds: 3-butenoyl chloride, methyl 3-butenoate, crotonoyl chloride, methyl crotonate, and products of the addition of trichlorogermane ether complex to the latter.

  20. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  1. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  2. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... from cleaned, frozen, salted, or dried fourth stomachs (abomasa) of calves, kids, or lambs. Bovine...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c)...

  4. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  5. Comparative experimental pharmacokinetics of benzimidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, S A; Gulyaeva, I L

    2008-12-01

    Comparative study of experimental kinetics of distribution of benzimidazole derivatives (bemithyl, etomerzole, and thietazole) in organs and tissues was carried out after single and course treatment. The drugs intensely passed into organs and tissues from the blood after treatment by all protocols. Specific features of drug distribution were detected; for example, splenic tissue selectively accumulated thietazole during course treatment. PMID:19513374

  6. Lithocholic acid and derivatives: Antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Patrícia G G; Lemos, Telma L G; Almeida, Macia C S; de Souza, Juliana M O; Bizerra, Ayla M C; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; da Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop bioactive lithocholic acid derivatives, we prepared fifteen semi-synthetic compounds through modification at C-3 and/or C-24. The reactions showed yields ranging from 37% to 100%. The structures of all compounds obtained were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The activity of lithocholic acid and derivatives was evaluated against the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The derivative 3α-formyloxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid (LA-06) showed the best activity, with MIC values of 0.0790 mM against E. coli (Ec 27) and B. cereus in both cases, and 0.0395 mM against S. aureus (ATCC 12692). Lithocholic acid and the derivatives with MIC⩽1.2 mM were evaluated on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, amikacin and gentamicin was evaluated. There are no previously reported studies about these compounds as modifiers of the action of antibiotics or any other drugs. PMID:26216208

  7. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  8. Two-point derivative dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Erasmo; Sesma, Javier

    2013-03-01

    A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy E and separately at the reference point E = m that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-derivative dispersion relations (DDR). For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms (E/m)λ[ln (E/m)]n that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with λ negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.

  9. Ethos Derived from Karaoke Performance in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    Karaoke (singing along to music videos) has swept Taiwan with such force that many people go to singing schools to improve their singing. Three cases in this paper demonstrate how the ethos, or credibility, of the singer is a combination of initial and derived ethos. Who the singer is tends to determine how much attention he or she receives…

  10. Constraining higher derivative supergravity with scattering amplitudes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-08-31

    We study supersymmetry constraints on higher derivative deformations of type IIB supergravity by consideration of superamplitudes. Thus, combining constraints of on-shell supervertices and basic results from string perturbation theory, we give a simple argument for the non-renormalization theorem of Green and Sethi, and some of its generalizations.

  11. Cometary masses derived from nongravitational forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, A.; Fernández, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    We derive masses and densities for a number of short period comets with known sizes, including 1P/Halley, 2P/Encke, 6P/d'Arrest, 9P/Tempel 1, 10P/Tempel 2, 19P/Borrelly, 22P/Kopff, 45P/Honda-Mkros-Pajdusáková, 46P/Wirtanen, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and 81P/Wild 2. The method follows the one developed by Rickman et al. (1987) based on the asymmetry of the gas production curve, and the delay or advance in the time of the perihelion passage with respect to the one derived for a purely gravitational orbit. This delay or advance in the time of the perihelion passage is related to a change in the orbital period, which is due to the forces arising from the anisotropic outflow of gas, causing a jet acceleration on the nucleus. The gas production curve is derived from an empirical correlation with the visual light curve. Therefore, from the observed light curve and change in the orbital period, we can derive the perturbing force components and hence the mass. The computed densities are in all cases very low (less than about 0.8/cm^3) in agreement with previous results and models of the cometary nucleus depicting it as a very porous object.

  12. 78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 15, 17, 19, 32, 37, 38, 140 and 150 RIN 3038-AD99 Position Limits for Derivatives Correction In proposed rule document 2013-27200 appearing on pages 75679 through 75842 in the issue of Thursday, December 12, 2013, Table 10...

  13. Singlet exciton fission in a hexacene derivative.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Bruzek, Matthew J; Thompson, Nicholas J; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Anthony, John E; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-03-13

    Hexacene, an acene with six benzene rings, is notable for its exceptionally small triplet energy, around one third of the singlet energy. Herein, singlet fission, i.e., conversion of a singlet exciton into two triplets, is demonstrated in a thin film of hexacene derivative, employing both transient absorption spectroscopy and magnetic field effects on photocurrent. PMID:23293054

  14. Radioimmunoassay of tuberculoprotein derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, E; Wu, N

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed for constituent of the purified-protein derivative obtained from cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Crossreacting immunoreactive material was detected in cultures of other mycobacterial species, but no immunoreactivity was present in cultures of various fungal and bacterial species. The development of specific radioimmunoassays for tuberculoproteins offers a new research and diagnostic approach. Images PMID:6933481

  15. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  16. New norbornyl derivatives as woody fragrant materials.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Agnès; Duñach, Elisabet; Clinet, Jean-Claude; Plessis, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The optimization of a Diels-Alder reaction to prepare a novel ketone bearing a 2,3-dimethylnorbornyl group is presented together with the structure elucidation of the isomers. Employing this new ketone as starting material, derivatives with new woody odor notes as well as attempts to obtain ambery-musky odorants are reported. PMID:18618398

  17. Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is

  18. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  19. Lie Algebras of Derivations and Resolvent Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Grundling, Hendrik

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the action δ of a Lie algebra X by derivations on a C*-algebra {{A}} . This action satisfies an "almost inner" property which ensures affiliation of the generators of the derivations δ with {{A}} , and is expressed in terms of corresponding pseudo-resolvents. In particular, for an abelian Lie algebra X acting on a primitive C*-algebra {{A}} , it is shown that there is a central extension of X which determines algebraic relations of the underlying pseudo-resolvents. If the Lie action δ is ergodic, i. e. the only elements of {{A}} on which all the derivations in δ X vanish are multiples of the identity, then this extension is given by a (non-degenerate) symplectic form σ on X. Moreover, the algebra generated by the pseudo-resolvents coincides with the resolvent algebra based on the symplectic space ( X, σ). Thus the resolvent algebra of the canonical commutation relations, which was recently introduced in physically motivated analyses of quantum systems, appears also naturally in the representation theory of Lie algebras of derivations acting on C*-algebras.

  20. Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…

  1. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  2. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  3. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, James Eugene; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Whetten, Ernest Blayne

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  4. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  5. Ecosystem Services Derived from Headwater Catchments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data from the USEPA’s wadeable streams assessment (WSA), US Forest Service’s forest inventory and analysis (FIA), and select USFS experimental forests (EF) to investigate potential ecosystems services derived from headwater catchments. C, N, and P inputs to these catchmen...

  6. Pharmacological characterization of tachykinin tetrabranched derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ruzza, Chiara; Rizzi, Anna; Malfacini, Davide; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Ferrari, Federica; Marzola, Erika; Ambrosio, Caterina; Gro, Cristina; Severo, Salvadori; Costa, Tommaso; Calo, Girolamo; Guerrini, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Peptide welding technology (PWT) is a novel chemical strategy that allows the synthesis of multibranched peptides with high yield, purity and reproducibility. Using this technique, we have synthesized and pharmacologically characterized the tetrabranched derivatives of the tachykinins, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and B (NKB). Experimental Approach The following in vitro assays were used: calcium mobilization in cells expressing human recombinant NK receptors, BRET studies of G-protein – NK1 receptor interaction, guinea pig ileum and rat urinary bladder bioassays. Nociceptive behavioural response experiments were performed in mice following intrathecal injection of PWT2-SP. Key Results In calcium mobilization studies, PWT tachykinin derivatives behaved as full agonists at NK receptors with a selectivity profile similar to that of the natural peptides. NK receptor antagonists display similar potency values when tested against PWT2 derivatives and natural peptides. In BRET and bioassay experiments PWT2-SP mimicked the effects of SP with similar potency, maximal effects and sensitivity to aprepitant. After intrathecal administration in mice, PWT2-SP mimicked the nociceptive effects of SP, but with higher potency and a longer-lasting action. Aprepitant counteracted the effects of PWT2-SP in vivo. Conclusions and Implications The present study has shown that the PWT technology can be successfully applied to the peptide sequence of tachykinins to generate tetrabranched derivatives characterized with a pharmacological profile similar to the native peptides. In vivo, PWT2-SP displayed higher potency and a marked prolongation of action, compared with SP. PMID:24758475

  7. An accelerated subspace iteration for eigenvector derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Tienko

    1991-01-01

    An accelerated subspace iteration method for calculating eigenvector derivatives has been developed. Factors affecting the effectiveness and the reliability of the subspace iteration are identified, and effective strategies concerning these factors are presented. The method has been implemented, and the results of a demonstration problem are presented.

  8. Synthesis of hydroxy derivatives of limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardashov, O. V.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2014-04-01

    Synthetic routes to mono-, di- and trihydroxy derivatives of limonene are presented. Emphasis is given to the problems of regio- and stereoselectivity of transformations. Data on the isolation from natural sources and on the biological activities of the title compounds are given. The bibliography includes 107 references.

  9. Dynamic derivative UV spectroscopy for combustion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassenscheid, Karsten; Klocke, Ulrich; Marb, C.; Riedel, H.; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Tacke, Maurus

    1999-01-01

    Derivative UV-absorption spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopic technique for multicomponent gas analysis, particularly in combustion and process controlling applications. It offers enhanced selectivity and sensitivity compared to conventional techniques. We here report on a test of a special system with optical derivative generation in a waste incineration plant. Gas analysis is performed by transmission spectroscopy. A deuterium lamp is used as UV- source. Spectroscopic filtering is provided by a special grating monochromator. The grating is mounted on a galvanometer scanner, thus allowing a computer controlled wavelength scan and modulation. Signal analysis is performed with lock-in amplifier. The is from of detection for derivative spectra with a movable optical component is the origin of the term DYnamic Derivative Spectroscopy (DDS). The performance of this spectroscopic technique was demonstrated in a measurement campaign at a municipal solid waste incineration plant. The sensitivity for relevant gases is blow ppm level with an optical cell length of 10cm. The basics of the DDS and its performance will be explained, and data on NO, SO2 and NO2 will be reported.

  10. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

  11. Ecosystem Services Derived from Headwater Catchments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used data from the USEPAs wadeable streams assessment (WSA), US Forest Services forest inventory and analysis (FIA), and select USFS experimental forests (EF) to investigate potential ecosystems services derived from headwater catchments. C, N, and P inputs to these catchmen...

  12. Approximate methods for derivation of covariance data

    SciTech Connect

    Tagesen, S.; Larson, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    Several approaches for the derivation of covariance information for evaluated nuclear data files (EFF2 and ENDF/B-VI) have been developed and used at IRK and ORNL respectively. Considerations, governing the choice of a distinct method depending on the quantity and quality of available data are presented, advantages/disadvantages are discussed and examples of results are given.

  13. Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.

  14. Deriving a Pedagogy of Educational Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This sixth and last paper in the series describes four elements believed to be crucial to a high quality pedagogy for educational foundations. These four elements are derived from a close reading of the previous papers. The work of Osguthorpe, Sanger, Haniford, and Mucher, four of the authors in this series, is cited as both a source for these…

  15. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H; Nakagawa, S

    1987-03-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml. PMID:3555334

  16. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml. Images PMID:3555334

  17. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose, amino-benzyl cellulose and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose were carried out. Cellulose derivatives were synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide homogeneous solution. Nitrobenzylation was effec...

  18. Derivative Free Gradient Projection Algorithms for Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.

    2004-01-01

    A simple modification substantially simplifies the use of the gradient projection (GP) rotation algorithms of Jennrich (2001, 2002). These algorithms require subroutines to compute the value and gradient of any specific rotation criterion of interest. The gradient can be difficult to derive and program. It is shown that using numerical gradients…

  19. Metropolitan Reform: Propositions Derived From Two Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Elinor

    1972-01-01

    One purpose of this essay is to attempt to isolate the theoretical sturcture implicit in the traditional metropolitan reform movement so that empirical research can be organized to examine the warrantability of the propositions contained therein; a second is to pose an alternative theoretical structure derived from work of political economists.…

  20. Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is…

  1. Anthelmintic activity of pyrazinothiadiazine dioxide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A; Ochoa, C; Pérez, C; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, F; Jiménez, A; de Armas, C; Criado, A; Font, M

    1993-02-01

    In a search for new anthelmintic compounds, some pyrazinothiadiazine dioxide derivatives were synthesized. Their anthelmintic activity was tested against larva and preadult stages of Trichinella spiralis. The mode of action and acute toxicity of these compounds were investigated. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:8457240

  2. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct

  3. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  4. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  5. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...

  6. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. (1) Classification authority. The authority for classification shall be... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  7. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...

  8. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  9. Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in…

  10. Derivative luminescence spectra in lanthanide analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Poluektov, N.S.; Tochidlovskaya, T.L.; Kucher, A.A.

    1987-06-01

    This communication presents the results of derivative spectroscopic study of luminescence of complex compounds of europium and terbium. Solutions of complexes of europium with ethylenediaminetetraacetate, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, dibenzoylmethane, salicylate and 1,10-phenanthroline, and of terbium with phenyl ester of salicyclic acid and nalidixic acid were investigated.

  11. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings... classification decisions: (b) Verify the information's current level of classification so far as...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings... classification decisions: (b) Verify the information's current level of classification so far as...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings... classification decisions: (b) Verify the information's current level of classification so far as...

  14. Derivative based sensitivity analysis of gamma index.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biplab; Pradhan, Anirudh; Ganesh, T

    2015-01-01

    Originally developed as a tool for patient-specific quality assurance in advanced treatment delivery methods to compare between measured and calculated dose distributions, the gamma index (γ) concept was later extended to compare between any two dose distributions. It takes into effect both the dose difference (DD) and distance-to-agreement (DTA) measurements in the comparison. Its strength lies in its capability to give a quantitative value for the analysis, unlike other methods. For every point on the reference curve, if there is at least one point in the evaluated curve that satisfies the pass criteria (e.g., δDD = 1%, δDTA = 1 mm), the point is included in the quantitative score as "pass." Gamma analysis does not account for the gradient of the evaluated curve - it looks at only the minimum gamma value, and if it is <1, then the point passes, no matter what the gradient of evaluated curve is. In this work, an attempt has been made to present a derivative-based method for the identification of dose gradient. A mathematically derived reference profile (RP) representing the penumbral region of 6 MV 10 cm × 10 cm field was generated from an error function. A general test profile (GTP) was created from this RP by introducing 1 mm distance error and 1% dose error at each point. This was considered as the first of the two evaluated curves. By its nature, this curve is a smooth curve and would satisfy the pass criteria for all points in it. The second evaluated profile was generated as a sawtooth test profile (STTP) which again would satisfy the pass criteria for every point on the RP. However, being a sawtooth curve, it is not a smooth one and would be obviously poor when compared with the smooth profile. Considering the smooth GTP as an acceptable profile when it passed the gamma pass criteria (1% DD and 1 mm DTA) against the RP, the first and second order derivatives of the DDs (δD', δD") between these two curves were derived and used as the boundary values for evaluating the STTP against the RP. Even though the STTP passed the simple gamma pass criteria, it was found failing at many locations when the derivatives were used as the boundary values. The proposed derivative-based method can identify a noisy curve and can prove to be a useful tool for improving the sensitivity of the gamma index. PMID:26865761

  15. Simultaneous determination of carminic acid, riboflavine, curcumin and erythrosine by derivative spectrophotometry and ratio spectra derivative.

    PubMed

    Nevado, J J; Cabanillas, C G; Salcedo, A M

    1994-05-01

    A quaternary mixture of carminic acid, riboflavine, curcumin and erythrosine can be resolved with a previous extraction step into metyl-isobutyl ketone and, resolving the binary mixtures obtained in the aqueous phase and organic phase, using derivative spectrophotometry on the basis of the zero-crossing measurements in the first derivative spectra as well as the first derivative of ratio spectra. The conditions of extraction established and the proposed methods have been tested to determine these colorants in several synthetic mixtures of four dyes, obtaining good recoveries. The methods have been applied in yoghurt samples spiked with the dyes. PMID:18966000

  16. Azaphilone and Diphenyl Ether Derivatives from a Gorgonian-Derived Strain of the Fungus Penicillium pinophilum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Lin; Shao, Chang-Lun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Kai-Ling; Guan, Fei-Fei; Shi, Ting; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2015-09-25

    Three new azaphilone derivatives, pinophilins D-F (1-3), and one new diphenyl ether derivative, hydroxypenicillide (10), together with nine known compounds (4-9, 11-13), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived fungus Penicillium pinophilum XS-20090E18. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data, chemical conversions, the ECD exciton chirality method, and ECD calculations. Compounds 10-13 exhibited inhibitory activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite at nontoxic concentrations. Compounds 10 and 11 showed cytotoxicity against Hep-2, RD, and HeLa cell lines. PMID:26291474

  17. Tissue-Derived Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tesche, Leora J.; Gerber, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization and isolation of various stem cell populations, from embryonic through tissue-derived stem cells, have led a rapid growth in the field of stem cell research. These research efforts have often been interrelated as to the markers that identify a select cell population are frequently analyzed to determine their expression in cells of distinct organs/tissues. In this review, we will expand the current state of research involving select tissue-derived stem cell populations including the liver, central nervous system, and cardiac tissues as examples of the success and challenges in this field of research. Lastly, the challenges of clinical therapies will be discussed as it applies to these unique cell populations. PMID:21048854

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Gurusamy; Korim, Rejaul; Joshi, Nand Madhwa; Alam, Faruk; Hazarika, Rajib; Kumar, Deepak; Uriah, Tiewlasubon

    2010-01-01

    The formazan derivatives (FM1–FM5) were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 μg/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P<0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus. PMID:22247879

  19. Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. Bacterial degradation has been considered a cost-effective and eco-friendly method of removing CPs from the environment. Several bacteria that use CPs as their sole carbon and energy sources have been isolated and characterized. Additionally, the metabolic pathways for degradation of CPs have been studied in bacteria and the genes and enzymes involved in the degradation of various CPs have been identified and characterized. This review describes the biochemical and genetic basis of the degradation of CPs and their derivatives. PMID:24589366

  20. Platelet-derived microparticles - an updated perspective.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Pia R M

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) are a heterogeneous population of vesicles (< 1 mm) generated from the plasma membrane upon platelet activation by various stimuli. They are a discrete population differing from the exosomes which originate from the intracellular multivesicular bodies. PMP also differ from the microparticles derived from megakaryocytes despite the presence of several identical surface markers on the latter. The molecular properties and the functional roles of the PMP are beginning to be elucidated by the rapidly evolving research interest, but novel questions are simultaneously raised. This updated perspective discusses the most recent highlights in the PMP research in context with the methodological problems and the paradoxical role of the PMP in health and disease. PMID:21193112

  1. Thiomorpholine Derivatives with Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Tooulia, Kyriaki-Konstantina; Theodosis-Nobelos, Panagiotis; Rekka, Eleni A

    2015-09-01

    A number of thiomorpholine derivatives that are structurally similar to some substituted morpholines possessing antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activity were synthesized. The new compounds incorporate an antioxidant moiety as the thiomorpholine N-substituent. The derivatives were found to inhibit the ferrous/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids, with IC50 values as low as 7.5 µΜ. In addition, these compounds demonstrate hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic action. The most active compound (5) decreases the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels in the plasma of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, by 80, 78, and 76%, respectively, at 56 mmol/kg (i.p.). They may also act as squalene synthase inhibitors. The above results indicate that the new molecules may be useful as leads for the design of novel compounds as potentially antiatherogenic factors. PMID:26191791

  2. Hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slabey, Vernon A; Wise, Paul H; Gibbons, Louis C

    1953-01-01

    The methods used to prepare and purify 19 hydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane are discussed. Of these hydrocarbons, 13 were synthesized for the first time. In addition to the hydrocarbons, six cyclopropylcarbinols, five alkyl cyclopropyl ketones, three cyclopropyl chlorides, and one cyclopropanedicarboxylate were prepared as synthesis intermediates. The melting points, boiling points, refractive indices, densities, and, in some instances, heats of combustion of both the hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane were determined. These data and the infrared spectrum of each of the 34 cyclopropane compounds are presented in this report. The infrared absorption bands characteristic of the cyclopropyl ring are discussed, and some observations are made on the contribution of the cyclopropyl ring to the molecular refractions of cyclopropane compounds.

  3. Neuroprotective Properties of Chitosan and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal cells are extremely vulnerable and have a limited capacity for self-repair in response to injury. For those reasons, there is obvious interest in limiting neuronal damage. Mechanisms and strategies used in order to protect against neuronal injury, apoptosis, dysfunction, and degeneration in the central nervous system are recognized as neuroprotection. Neuroprotection could be achieved through several classes of natural and synthetic neuroprotective agents. However, considering the side effects of synthetic neuroprotective agents, the search for natural neuroprotective agents has received great attention. Recently, an increasing number of studies have identified neuroprotective properties of chitosan and its derivatives; however, there are some significant challenges that must be overcome for the success of this approach. Hence, the objective of this review is to discuss neuroprotective properties of chitosan and its derivatives. PMID:20714426

  4. Novel harmine derivatives for tumor targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Siwen; Wang, Aqin; Gu, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Tian, Caiping; Qian, Zhiyu; Tang, Liping; Gu, Yueqing

    2015-04-20

    Harmine is a beta-carboline alkaloid found in medicinal plant PeganumHarmala, which has served as a folk anticancer medicine. However, clinical applications of harmine were limited by its low pharmacological effects and noticeable neurotoxicity. In this study, we modified harmine to increase the therapeutic efficacy and to decrease the systemic toxicity. Specifically, two tumor targeting harmine derivatives 2DG-Har-01 and MET-Har-02 were synthesized by modifying substituent in position-2, -7 and -9 of harmine ring with two different targeting group2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and Methionine (Met), respectively. Their therapeutic efficacy and toxicity were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results suggested that the two new harmine derivatives displayed much higher therapeutic effects than non-modified harmine. In particular, MET-Har-02 was more potent than 2DG-Har-01 with promising potential for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25940702

  5. Developmental derivation of embryonic and adult macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shepard, J L; Zon, L I

    2000-01-01

    The macrophage cell lineage continually arises from hematopoietic stem cells during embryonic, fetal, and adult life. Previous theories proposed that macrophages are the recent progeny of bone marrow-derived monocytes and that they function primarily in phagocytosis. More recently, however, observations have shown that the ontogeny of macrophages in early mouse and human embryos is different from that occurring during adult development, and that the embryonic macrophages do not follow the monocyte pathway. Fetal macrophages are thought to differentiate from yolk sac-derived primitive macrophages before the development of adult monocytes. Further support for a separate lineage of fetal macrophages has come from studies of several species, including chicken, zebrafish, Xenopus, Drosophila, and C. elegans. The presence of fetal macrophages in PU.1-null mice indicates their independence from monocyte precursors and their existence as an alternative macrophage lineage. PMID:10608497

  6. An Inverse Problem of Derivative Security Pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanquan; Li, Peijun

    2003-04-01

    Suppose that interest rate is governed by a stochastic differential equation, a partial differential equation for the price of bond can be derived in a similar way to the derivation of the Black-Scholes equation. Valuation of bond with implied function in the equation, which is called the risk market price of interest rate, is known as the model of bond pricing. An inverse problem of bond pricing is to determined the risk market price of interest rate implied by current prices of bonds with different expirations. In this paper, numerical algorithm to solve this system is constructed and some numerical experiments are performed. The numerical results show that the algorithm is quite efficient and robust.

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of polynaphthalene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takeshi; Kijima, Masashi

    2007-12-01

    Naphthalene-base conjugated polymers soluble in organic solvents were newly synthesized, and their optical properties were characterized. Three types of homopolymers were synthesized from 1,4-, 1,5- and 2,6-dibromonaphthalene derivatives by the Ni-catalyzed polycondensation. Alternate naphthalene copolymers with 1,4-phenylene were synthesized by Suzuki coupling. In the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, all polymers emitted bluish purple in CHCl3. Especially, 2,6-polynaphthalene derivatives showed high quantum efficiencies (ϕfl = 0.60-0.96). In the case of thin films, 1,5- and 1,4-linked polynaphthalenes showed PL spectra similar to those in solution, while 2,6-linked polynapthalenes had PL spectra shifted longer in wavelength than the former, which was due to π-interaction of the stacking naphthalene units between the polymer chains.

  8. π-π interaction of quinacridone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaowei; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Houyu; Wang, Yue; Li, Fei

    2011-07-30

    The π–π stacking interactions play an important role in molecular assemblies of quinacridone derivatives (QAs). In our previous work (Sun et al., J Phys Chem A 2008, 112, 11382), we have shown that quinacridone derivatives can be self-associated as dimers in solution by means of NMR study. Herein, we perform theoretical studies on the molecular interaction in the dimers of QAs to illustrate π–π interactions in terms of their strength, geometrical preference, substituent effect, and physical nature. Density functional theory (DFT-D) was adopted to calculate potential energy surfaces. The detailed analysis on the intermolecular interaction in diversity of dimeric configurations reveals that the displaced conformations with specific geometries in both parallel and antiparallel stacking manners can be stabilized, which are in agreement with NMR experimental findings. PMID:21541951

  9. Edge enhancement methods based on derivative operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Jorge L.; Ferrari, José A.

    2010-08-01

    Two methods are described for edge enhancement using optical derivative operations. The proposed methods are based on the polarization properties of the twisted-nematic liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). LCDs traduce the image information in changes of the state of polarization of the light, which allows us to generate simultaneously a "positive" and a "negative" (i.e., a contrast-reversed) replica of the digital image displayed on the LCD. In both methods negative and positive replicas are at the same time imagined across a plane. In first case when the negative replica has a lateral differential displacement relative to the original one, an image with enhanced first derivatives along a specific direction is obtained. In the case when the negative replica is low-pass filtered, one obtains the Laplacian of the original image. Unlike the usual Fourier (coherent) image processing, the technique proposed here works with incoherent illumination. Validation experiments are presented.

  10. Synthesis and Antidiabetic Evaluation of Benzenesulfonamide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Nouraddin; Seraj, Soodeh; Bakhshi-Dezffoli, Mohamad Ebrahim; Hasani, Mohammad; Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Fallah-Bonekohal, Saeed; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    The complex metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, is a major human health concern in the world and is estimated to affect 300 million people by the year 2025. Several drugs such as sulfonylureas and biguanides are presently available to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. These drugs have side effects and thus searching for a new class of compounds is essential to overcome this problems. A series of seven novel N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamides derivatives were synthesized and assayed in-vivo to investigate their antidiabetic activities by streptozotocin-induced model in rat. These derivatives showed considerable biological efficacy when compared to glibenclamide, a potent and well-known antidiabetic agent, as a reference drug. Four of the compounds were effective, amongst which 13 show more prominent activity at 100 mg/Kg p.o. The experimental results are statistically significant at p < 0.05 level. PMID:24250607

  11. Unit Costs for Lunar-Derived Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Brad R.

    2004-02-01

    The estimated propellant production cost per metric ton will be derived and presented for solar system transportation waypoints. Background on recent and ongoing space resource propellant supply models will be presented, with a review of architectural assumptions, costs and expected markets. Integrated economic and engineering models (Duke et al., 2003; Duke, Blair and Diaz, 2002; Lamassoure et al. 2003; and Blair et al., 2002) estimate production costs, expected productivity of the mining and processing system, reusable transportation element behavior, fuel depot activity and revenues based on projected market conditions. Results of these economic models are used to derive total and marginal unit costs for propellant at fuel depot facilities for the purpose of facilitating the commercial development of space and to aid program and logistic planning for human space exploration missions.

  12. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  13. Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Troutner, D.E.; John, C.S.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1995-03-07

    A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula, as shown in the accompanying diagrams, wherein n, m, R, R{sup 1}, R{sup 2} and L are defined in the specification.

  14. Innocent BN bond substitution in anthracene derivatives.

    PubMed

    van de Wouw, H L; Lee, J Y; Siegler, M A; Klausen, R S

    2016-03-15

    Extended azaborine heterocycles are promising biomedical and electronic materials. Herein we report the synthesis of a novel family of azaborine anthracene derivatives and their structural, electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization. We observe that the properties of these materials are remarkably similar to the parent hydrocarbons, suggesting the innocence of the CC to BN bond substitution. Our results support the prospective stability to long-term usage of extended azaborines and the feasibility of using such materials in device applications. PMID:26928939

  15. Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Troutner, David E.; John, Christy S.; Pillai, Maroor R. A.

    1995-01-01

    A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n, m, R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2 and L are defined in the specification.

  16. Antifungal activities of some indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Nine indole derivatives were evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae. Most of the compounds were found to possess antifungal activities. Especially compounds 2, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against the above-mentioned seven phytopathogenic fungi, and showed more potent activities than hymexazole, a commercial agricultural fungicide. PMID:20737910

  17. Piperidine derivatives as nonprostanoid IP receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryoji; Sakagami, Hideki; Koiwa, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Isogaya, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of a new class of nonprostanoid prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) agonists is reported. Among them, the unique piperidine derivative 31b (2-((1-(2-(N-(4-tolyl)benzamido)ethyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)acetic acid) was a good IP receptor agonist and was 50-fold more selective for the human IP receptor than for other human prostanoid receptors. This compound showed good pharmacokinetic properties in dog. PMID:26996371

  18. The derivation and interpretation of control coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, B; Newsholme, E A

    1987-01-01

    1. Equations for control coefficients are derived by using a method that generates all the control coefficients for a system in a single procedure. This requires solving fewer simultaneous equations than an equivalent method based on 'control theorems'. 2. The interpretation of control coefficients is discussed: in particular, it is shown that these functions are unsatisfactory as measures of 'control' and are perhaps best used as a means of testing control theories (models). PMID:3689338

  19. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lisa A; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

  20. Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

  1. Carboxyhemoglobin determination by second-derivative spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Parks, J; Worth, H G

    1985-02-01

    In this procedure hemoglobin is converted to its reduced form and the magnitude of the zero-order spectral shift of the reduced hemoglobin peak at 430 nm to the carboxyhemoglobin peak at 418 nm is determined by second-derivative spectrum analysis. The method is simple, straightforward to set up, and rapid. A result may be obtained within 15 min of receiving the sample. It is sufficiently sensitive to differentiate carboxyhemoglobin concentration in the blood of smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:3967364

  2. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-04-27

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report.

  3. Efficient synthesis of highly substituted tetrahydroindazolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Scala, Angela; Piperno, Anna; Risitano, Francesco; Cirmi, Santa; Navarra, Michele; Grassi, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of novel highly substituted and diversely functionalized indazolone derivatives has been developed. The transformation consists of a cyclocondensation of selected 1,3,3'-tricarbonyls with monosubstituted hydrazines. The starting β-triketones were prepared by an efficient chemo- and regioselective method under MW irradiation, exploiting the oxazolone chemistry. The reaction is easily accomplished under mild conditions and appears versatile, providing a synthetic diversification method with potential for drug-like compounds preparation. PMID:25784276

  4. Uncertainty estimates for derivatives and intercepts

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-09-01

    Straight line least squares fits of experimental data are widely used in the analysis of test results to provide derivatives and intercepts. A method for evaluating the uncertainty in these parameters is described. The method utilizes conventional least squares results and is applicable to experiments where the independent variable is controlled, but not necessarily free of error. A Monte Carlo verification of the method is given.

  5. Affinity of guanosine derivatives for polycytidylate revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Hurley, T. B.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence is presented for complexation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with polycytidylate (poly(C)) at pH 8.0 and 23 degrees C in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl2 and 0.2 M MgCl2 in water. The association of 2-MeImpG with poly(C) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as by monitoring the kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the imidazole moiety by amines. The results of both methods are consistent with moderately strong poly(C) 2-MeImpG complexation and the spectrophotometric measurements allowed the construction of a binding isotherm with a concentration of 2-MeImpG equal to 5.55 +/- 0.15 mM at half occupancy. UV spectroscopy was employed to establish the binding of other guanosine derivatives on poly(C). These derivatives are guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'GMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), and guanosine 5'-monophosphate morpholidate (morpG). Within experimental error these guanosine derivatives exhibit the same affinity for poly(C) as 2-MeImpG.

  6. Antithyroid effects of coal-derived pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.H.; Hill, J.B. ); Gaitan, E.; Cooksey, R.C. ); Jolley, R.L. )

    1992-12-01

    Endemic goiter in iodide-sufficient areas of the United States and Colombia has been linked to watersheds rich in coal and shale, which several reports suggest are the source of water-borne goitrogens. In this report the potential antithyroid activities of aqueous coal and shale extracts and of compounds identified in aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes were assayed in thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroid slice systems. Aqueous extracts of coal and black shale were potent inhibitors of TPO or [sup 125]I organification by thyroid slices. The most abundant water-soluble compounds derived from coal are dihydroxyphenols, thiocyanate, disulfides, and hydroxypyridines. The dihydroxyphenols resorcinol, 2-methylresorcinol, and 5-methylresorcinol (orcinol) were 26.7, 22.5, and 7.2 times more potent, respectively, than the antithyroid drug 6-propylthiouracil (PTU). Other dihydroxyphenols and thiocyanate were less potent but comparable in activity to PTU. All dihydroxypridines and 3-hydroxypridine produced inhibitory effects comparable to PTU. None of the disulfides inhibited TPO. The antiperoxidase effects of combinations of two dihydroxyphenols or one dihydroxyphenol and SCN were additive, whereas the effects of a combination of four dihydroxyphenols at threshold inhibitory concentrations were synergistic. Thus, antithyroid effects may be greatly amplified by exposure to multiple coal-derived goitrogens and could be many times that produced by any one of the contributing pollutants. These results demonstrate that potent water-borne goitrogens are derived from coal and shale and that their contamination of water supplies could pose a serious threat of thyroid disorders.

  7. Higuchi equation: derivation, applications, use and misuse.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Juergen; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2011-10-10

    Fifty years ago, the legendary Professor Takeru Higuchi published the derivation of an equation that allowed for the quantification of drug release from thin ointment films, containing finely dispersed drug into a perfect sink. This became the famous Higuchi equation whose fiftieth anniversary we celebrate this year. Despite the complexity of the involved mass transport processes, Higuchi derived a very simple equation, which is easy to use. Based on a pseudo-steady-state approach, a direct proportionality between the cumulative amount of drug released and the square root of time can be demonstrated. In contrast to various other "square root of time" release kinetics, the constant of proportionality in the classical Higuchi equation has a specific, physically realistic meaning. The major benefits of this equation include the possibility to: (i) facilitate device optimization, and (ii) to better understand the underlying drug release mechanisms. The equation can also be applied to other types of drug delivery systems than thin ointment films, e.g., controlled release transdermal patches or films for oral controlled drug delivery. Later, the equation was extended to other geometries and related theories have been proposed. The aim of this review is to highlight the assumptions the derivation of the classical Higuchi equation is based on and to give an overview on the use and potential misuse of this equation as well as of related theories. PMID:21458553

  8. Facile Preparation of 4-Substituted Quinazoline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daniel Z; Yan, Lesong; Ma, Lingmei

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this paper is a very simple method for direct preparation of 4-substituted quinazoline derivatives from a reaction between substituted 2-aminobenzophenones and thiourea in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). This is a unique complementary reaction system in which thiourea undergoes thermal decomposition to form carbodiimide and hydrogen sulfide, where the former reacts with 2-aminobenzophenone to form 4-phenylquinazolin-2(1H)-imine intermediate, whilst hydrogen sulfide reacts with DMSO to give methanethiol or other sulfur-containing molecule which then functions as a complementary reducing agent to reduce 4-phenylquinazolin-2(1H)-imine intermediate into 4-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-2-amine. Subsequently, the elimination of ammonia from 4-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-2-amine affords substituted quinazoline derivative. This reaction usually gives quinazoline derivative as a single product arising from 2-aminobenzophenone as monitored by GC/MS analysis, along with small amount of sulfur-containing molecules such as dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, etc. The reaction usually completes in 4-6 hr at 160 ºC in small scale but may last over 24 hr when carried out in large scale. The reaction product can be easily purified by means of washing off DMSO with water followed by column chromatography or thin layer chromatography. PMID:26967553

  9. Arterial viscoelasticity: a fractional derivative model.

    PubMed

    Craiem, Damien O; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2006-01-01

    Arteries are viscoelastic materials. Viscoelastic laws are fully characterized by measuring a complex modulus. Arterial mechanics can be described using stress-strain dynamic measurements applied to the particular cylindrical geometry. Most materials show an energy loss per cycle that increases steadily with frequency. By contrast, the frequency modulus response in arteries presents a frequency independence describing a plateau above a corner frequency near 4Hz. Traditional methods to fit this response include several spring and dashpot elements to model integer order differential equations in time domain. Recently, fractional derivative models proved to be efficient to describe rheological tissues, reducing the number of parameters and showing a natural power-law response. In this work a fractional derivative model with 4-parameter was selected to describe the arterial wall mechanics in-vivo. Strain and stress were measured simultaneously in an anaesthetized sheep. A fractional model was applied. The order resulted alpha=0.12, confirming the manifest elastic response of the aorta. The fractional derivative model proved to naturally mimic the elastic modulus spectrum with only 4 parameters and a reasonable small computational effort. PMID:17946443

  10. Plant-derived antigens as mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Herbst-Kralovetz, M M

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, researchers have developed robust systems for recombinant subunit vaccine production in plants. Stably and transiently transformed plants have particular advantages that enable immunization of humans and animals via mucosal delivery. The initial goal to immunize orally by ingestion of plant-derived antigens has proven difficult to attain, although many studies have demonstrated antibody production in both humans and animals, and in a few cases, protection against pathogen challenge. Substantial hurdles for this strategy are low-antigen content in crudely processed plant material and limited antigen stability in the gut. An alternative is intranasal delivery of purified plant-derived antigens expressed with robust viral vectors, especially virus-like particles. The use of pattern recognition receptor agonists as adjuvants for mucosal delivery of plant-derived antigens can substantially enhance serum and mucosal antibody responses. In this chapter, we briefly review the methods for recombinant protein expression in plants, and describe progress with human and animal vaccines that use mucosal delivery routes. We do not attempt to compile a comprehensive list, but focus on studies that progressed to clinical trials or those that showed strong indications of efficacy in animals. Finally, we discuss some regulatory concerns regarding plant-based vaccines. PMID:21811930

  11. Hydrodynamic Nambu brackets derived by geometric constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blender, Richard; Badin, Gualtiero

    2015-03-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-Bénard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can be used for the formulation of conservative numerical algorithms that can be employed, for example, for the study of fronts and singularities.

  12. Development of thermally stable phosphonitrile elastomers for advanced aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, K. A.; Gerber, A. H.; Peterson, T.; Rose, S. H.

    1973-01-01

    Both high and low molecular weight, curable poly(fluoroalkoxy phosphazene) terpolymers were prepared. These terpolymers resulted from reaction of (Cl2PNn) polymer with alkoxides derived from CF3CH2OH and C3F7CH2OH, and an alkoxide derived from CH3CH(OH)C2H4OH. The terpolymers were crosslinked with polyisocyanates at room temperature. High molecular weight materials were converted into isocyanate prepolymers which as films underwent moisture cures at room temperature. Prepolymer solutions were stable for several days, and showed good adhesion. Also the effects of polymerization of (Cl2PN)3 were studied. Purified octachlorophosphazene, thiocyanate salts, or hydrogen chloride were employed in attempts to decrease molecular weight. Hydrogen chloride was found to be a good agent for preparation of low molecular weight poly(dichloro phosphazene).

  13. Haenamindole, an unusual diketopiperazine derivative from a marine-derived Penicillium sp. KCB12F005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Won; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Son, Sangkeun; Shin, Kee-Sun; Ryoo, In-Ja; Hong, Young-Soo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hirota, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shunji; Kim, Bo Yeon; Osada, Hiroyuki; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2015-11-15

    During the chemical investigation of marine-derived fungus, an unusual diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloid, haenamindole (1), was isolated from a culture of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KCB12F005. The structure of 1, which possesses benzyl-hydroxypiperazindione and phenyl-pyrimidoindole rings system in the molecule, was elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by ROESY and advanced Marfey's method. PMID:26403931

  14. 17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... of National Security Information and Material § 200.507 Declassification dates on derivative... derivative document that derives its classification from the approved use of the classification guide...

  15. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501 Section 1203.501 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative...

  16. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect...

  17. 14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500... PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application of derivative classification markings is a responsibility of those who incorporate, paraphrase, restate,...

  18. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  19. Novel sphingolipid derivatives promote keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Paragh, György; Schling, Petra; Ugocsai, Peter; Kel, Alexander E; Liebisch, Gerhard; Heimerl, Susanne; Moehle, Christoph; Schiemann, Yvonne; Wegmann, Michael; Farwick, Mike; Wikonkál, Norbert M; Mandl, József; Langmann, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd

    2008-12-01

    Sphingolipids are important components of the water permeability barrier of the skin. Moreover, ceramides were also shown to influence keratinocyte differentiation and regulate cellular signalling. A confluence-induced differentiation model of normal human keratinocytes was established to allow evaluation of pro- and anti-differentiation effects of exogenous compounds. The effects of phytosphingosine (PS), sphingosine (SO), sphinganine (SA) and their hexanoyl (-C6), stearoyl (-C18) and salicyl (-SLC) derivatives, C12-alkylamine-salicylate (C12-SLC), salicylate (SLC) along with vitamin D3 (VD3) and retinol as control substances were tested in this system. Cytotoxicity assays were carried out to optimize the incubation conditions of compounds and whole genome expression changes were monitored by DNA-microarray on days 0, 1 and 4. Geometric means of gene expression levels of a subset of known keratinocyte differentiation-related genes were calculated from the microarray data to compare effects of the sphingolipid derivatives. Compound treatment-induced transcriptional changes were analysed by the ExPlain software (BIOBASE GmbH). Five of the assayed substances (SA, SO-C6, PS-C6, SO-SLC, PS-SLC) were found to be potent promoters of keratinocyte differentiation compared with VD3, and C12-SLC revealed potential anti-differentiation properties. ExPlain analysis found a different regulatory profile in the computed transcriptional networks of the sphingoid bases versus their -C6 and especially -SLC derivatives suggesting that the change in their keratinocyte differentiation modifying potential is due to a unique effect of the covalent attachment of the salicylic acid. Taken together, these results demonstrate the gene regulatory potential of sphingolipid species that could be valuable for dermatological or cosmetic applications. PMID:18631249

  20. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  1. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    PubMed

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  2. Validation of an Experimentally Derived Uncertainty Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Cox, D. E.; Balas, G. J.; Juang, J.-N.

    1996-01-01

    The results show that uncertainty models can be obtained directly from system identification data by using a minimum norm model validation approach. The error between the test data and an analytical nominal model is modeled as a combination of unstructured additive and structured input multiplicative uncertainty. Robust controllers which use the experimentally derived uncertainty model show significant stability and performance improvements over controllers designed with assumed ad hoc uncertainty levels. Use of the identified uncertainty model also allowed a strong correlation between design predictions and experimental results.

  3. Base-Modified Nucleosides: Etheno Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Jahnz-Wechmann, Zofia; Framski, Grzegorz R.; Januszczyk, Piotr A.; Boryski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This review presents synthesis and chemistry of nucleoside analogs, possessing an additional fused, heterocyclic ring of the “etheno” type, such as 1,N6-ethenoadenosine, 1,N4-ethenocytidine, 1,N2-ethenoguanosine, and other related derivatives. Formation of ethenonucleosides, in the presence of α-halocarbonyl reagents and their mechanism, stability, and degradation, reactions of substitution and transglycosylation, as well as their application in the nucleoside synthesis, have been described. Some of the discussed compounds may be applied as chemotherapeutic agents in antiviral and anticancer treatment, acting as pro-nucleosides of already known, biologically active nucleoside analogs. PMID:27200341

  4. Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  5. Benchmarking derivative-free optimization algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    More', J. J.; Wild, S. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Cornell Univ.

    2009-01-01

    We propose data profiles as a tool for analyzing the performance of derivative-free optimization solvers when there are constraints on the computational budget. We use performance and data profiles, together with a convergence test that measures the decrease in function value, to analyze the performance of three solvers on sets of smooth, noisy, and piecewise-smooth problems. Our results provide estimates for the performance difference between these solvers, and show that on these problems, the model-based solver tested performs better than the two direct search solvers tested.

  6. Stable Tricyclic Antitubercular Ozonides Derived from Artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Vashundhra; Jaiswal, Pradeep K; Gaikwad, Anil N; Sinha, Sudhir K; Puri, Sunil K; Sharon, Ashoke; Maulik, Prakas R; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2015-10-16

    New, highly stable tricyclic antitubercular ozonides 9 and 10 derived from artemisinin are reported in 39 and 9% yields, respectively. The ozonide groups of 9 and 10 were found to be stable under strong basic and acidic conditions. The absolute configuration of ozonides 9 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Ozonide 10 shows promising antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC values of 0.39 and 3.12 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26430796

  7. Simple derivation of the Lindblad equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is ‘simple’ in that all it uses is the expression of a Hermitian matrix in terms of its orthonormal eigenvectors and real eigenvalues. Thus, it is appropriate for students who have learned the algebra of quantum theory. Where helpful, arguments are first given in a two-dimensional Hilbert space.

  8. Synthetic applications of hypophosphite derivatives in reduction.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Carole; Métay, Estelle; Popowycz, Florence; Lemaire, Marc

    2015-08-01

    The development of new tools for the reduction of organic functions to reach high chemo- and stereo-selectivity is an important research domain. Although, aluminum and boron hydrides are commonly used, they suffer from environmentally and safety issues. In particular, at industrial scale, the search for more specific and efficient reagents with a lower ecological impact remains one of the main objectives of organic chemists. This review captures highlights from literature concerning phosphonic and phosphinic acid derivatives as reducing agents and evaluates their potential as alternatives, in particular to boron and aluminum hydrides. PMID:26083977

  9. Neuroprotective properties of resveratrol and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Richard, Tristan; Pawlus, Alison D; Iglésias, Marie-Laure; Pedrot, Eric; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Monti, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Stilbenoid compounds consist of a family of resveratrol derivatives. They have demonstrated promising activities in vitro and in vivo that indicate they may be useful in the prevention of a wide range of pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers, as well have anti-aging effects. More recently stilbenoid compounds have shown promise in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's diseases. This paper primarily focuses on the impact of stilbenoids in Alzheimer's disease and more specifically on the inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation. PMID:21261647

  10. Activity of Bisnaphthalimidopropyl Derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Graça, Nuno A G; Gaspar, Luis; Costa, David M; Loureiro, Inês; Thoo-Lin, Paul Kong; Ramos, Isbaal; Roura, Meritxell; Pruvost, Alain; Pemberton, Ian K; Loukil, Hadjer; MacDougall, Jane; Tavares, Joana; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2016-04-01

    Current treatments for African trypanosomiasis are either toxic, costly, difficult to administer, or prone to elicit resistance. This study evaluated the activity of bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIP) derivatives againstTrypanosoma brucei BNIPDiaminobutane (BNIPDabut), the most active of these compounds, showedin vitroinhibition in the single-unit nanomolar range, similar to the activity in the reference drug pentamidine, and presented low toxicity and adequate metabolic stability. Additionally, using a murine model of acute infection and live imaging, a significant decrease in parasite load in BNIPDabut-treated mice was observed. However, cure was not achieved. BNIPDabut constitutes a new scaffold for antitrypanosomal drugs that deserves further consideration. PMID:26787703

  11. Studies on some derivatives of oxamniquine

    SciTech Connect

    el-Hamouly, W.; Pica-Mattoccia, L.; Cioli, D.; Schwartz, H.M.; Archer, S.

    1988-08-01

    On the basis of the remarkable biological similarities between hycanthone and oxamniquine and as a sequel to our finding that some esters of hycanthone are active against hycanthone-resistant schistosomes, we prepared oxamniquine acetate, oxamniquine N-methylcarbamate, and four substituted phenylsulfonohydrazones of oxamniquine aldehyde. These compounds were tested for their effect on survival of and on (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation into hycanthone-sensitive and -resistant Schistosoma mansoni. All of these derivatives were effective to a greater or lesser degree in killing worms and in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation in the sensitive strain, but none was effective in the resistant strain.

  12. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  13. Dietary derived compounds in cancer chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Rzeski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the application of natural or synthetic agents to suppress or reverse cancer development and progression. In this field especially diet derived compounds have recently attracted researchers’ attention as potential therapeutics generally exerting low toxicity compared with regular drugs. This review presents a survey of recent findings concerning the most promising dietary chemopreventive agents such as green tea polyphenols (i.e. catechins), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, glucosinolates/isothiocyanates, vitamins (i.e. vitamin D and folate) and minerals (i.e. calcium and selenium). Molecular targets involved in intrinsic pathways affected by these natural compounds are also shortly discussed. PMID:23788916

  14. New ligase-derived RNA polymerase ribozymes

    PubMed Central

    LAWRENCE, MICHAEL S.; BARTEL, DAVID P.

    2005-01-01

    The search is underway for a catalytic RNA molecule capable of self-replication. Finding such a ribozyme would lend crucial support to the RNA World hypothesis, which holds that very early life-forms relied on RNA for both replicating and storing genetic information. We previously reported an RNA polymerase isolated from a pool of variants of an existing RNA ligase ribozyme. Here we report eight additional ligase-derived polymerase ribozymes isolated from this pool. Because each of them is a new potential starting point for further in vitro evolution and engineering, together they substantially enrich the set of candidates from which an RNA replicase ribozyme might eventually emerge. PMID:15987804

  15. 24-norhopene derivatives from Diatenopteryx sorbifolia.

    PubMed

    Chávez, J P; David, J M; Yang, S W; Cordell, G A

    1997-09-01

    Two new hopene derivatives, 3 beta,6 beta-dihydroxy-21 alpha H-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene (1) and 3 beta,5 beta-dihydroxy-6 beta-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21 alpha H-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene (2), together with cleomiscosin B (3) and 5,6-dimethoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin (umckalin), were isolated from the timber of Diatenopteryx sorbifolia. This is the first isolation of the norhopene skeleton from nature. The structures of the isolates were established by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:9322363

  16. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  17. Photoactivated insecticidal thiophene derivatives from Xanthopappus subacaulis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqing; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Hanhong

    2006-08-01

    Three new photoactivated insecticidal thiophene derivatives, xanthopappins A-C (1-3), were isolated from Xanthopappus subacaulis, along with three known thiophene acetylenes, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-(E)-hept-5-ene-1,3-diynylthiophene (4), 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-2-(E)-hept-5-ene-1,3-diynylthiophene (5), and 5-(1,2-diacetoxyethyl)-2-(E)-hept-5-ene-1,3-diynylthiophene (6). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-6 exhibited significant photoactivated insecticidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of the Asian tiger mosquito. PMID:16933888

  18. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included. PMID:26784467

  19. Geometric derivation of the chronometric redshift.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I E

    1993-01-01

    The chronometric redshift-distance relation z = tan 2(1/2rho), where rho is the distance in radians in the Einstein metric, is derived by an elementary geometric analysis comparable to that in traditional analysis of the expanding universe model. The differential dTt of Einstein time evolution Tt through time t, as applied to the local Minkowski coordinates x, takes the form sec2(1/2t). At the point of observation t = rho, implying that for a sufficiently localized source, observed wave lengths are a factor of sec2(1/2rho) greater than the corresponding emitted wave lengths. PMID:11607440

  20. Black holes in higher derivative gravity.

    PubMed

    Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S

    2015-05-01

    Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics. PMID:25978224

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activities of 4-Aminoantipyrine Derivatives Derived from Betti-Type Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from a three-component Betti reaction. The synthesis was initiated by the condensation of aromatic aldehyde, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline in presence of fluorite as catalyst in a simple one-step protocol. The reactions were stirred at room temperature for 10–15 min achieving 92–95% yield. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of spectroscopic and elemental analysis. All derivatives 4(a–h) were screened in vivo and in vitro for anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activity against a reference drug, Diclofenac and Albendazole, respectively. The screening results show that compounds 4c, 4d, 4f, and 4h were found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity while compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, and 4g are potent anthelmintic agents when compared with reference drugs, respectively. The bioactivity of these derivatives has also been evaluated with respect to Lipinski's rule of five using molinspiration cheminformatics software. PMID:24955256

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from betti-type reaction.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Ipsita; Meshram, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from a three-component Betti reaction. The synthesis was initiated by the condensation of aromatic aldehyde, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline in presence of fluorite as catalyst in a simple one-step protocol. The reactions were stirred at room temperature for 10-15?min achieving 92-95% yield. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of spectroscopic and elemental analysis. All derivatives 4(a-h) were screened in vivo and in vitro for anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activity against a reference drug, Diclofenac and Albendazole, respectively. The screening results show that compounds 4c, 4d, 4f, and 4h were found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity while compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, and 4g are potent anthelmintic agents when compared with reference drugs, respectively. The bioactivity of these derivatives has also been evaluated with respect to Lipinski's rule of five using molinspiration cheminformatics software. PMID:24955256

  3. Antiviral properties of deazaadenine nucleoside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vittori, S; Dal Ben, D; Lambertucci, C; Marucci, G; Volpini, R; Cristalli, G

    2006-01-01

    Viral infections have menaced human beings since time immemorial, and even today new viral strains that cause lethal diseases are being discovered with alarming frequency. One major example is HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS, which spread up in the last two decades. Very recently, other virus based diseases such as avian flu have spread fear around the world, and hemorrhagic fevers from central Africa serious threaten human health because of their very deadly effects. New antiviral agents are still greatly needed to counter these menaces. Many scientists are involved in this field of research, and many of the recently discovered effective antiviral compounds are nucleoside analogues. Among those derivatives, deazapurine nucleoside analogues have demonstrated potent inhibitory effect of viral replication. This review reports on recently generated data from preparing and testing deazapurine nucleoside derivatives as inhibitors in virus replication systems. Although most of the reported data have been produced in antiHIV, antiHCMV, and antiHSV biological testing, very recently other new important fields of application have been discovered, all in topical subjects of strong interest. In fact, deazapurine nucleosides have been found to be active as chemotherapeutics for some veterinary systemic viral infections, for which no antiviral drugs are licensed yet. Furthermore, they demonstrated efficacy in the inhibition of Hepatitis C virus replication. Finally, these compounds showed high potency as virucides against Ebola Virus, curing Ebola infected mice with a single dose administration. PMID:17168721

  4. Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)

    SciTech Connect

    Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M.

    2004-12-17

    With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

  5. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated. PMID:21710532

  6. Feature Detection in Linked Derived Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, Chris; Gearld-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes by example a strategy for plotting and interacting with data in multiple metric spaces. The example system was designed for use with time-varying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) datasets, but the methodology is directly applicable to other types of field data. The central objects embodied by the tool are {\\em portraits}, which show the data in various coordinate systems, while preserving their spatial connectivity and temporal variability. The coordinates are derived in various ways from the field data, and an important feature is that new and derived portraits can be created interactively. The primary operations supported by the tool are brushing and linking: the user can select a subset of a given portrait, and this subset is highlighted in all portraits. The user can combine highlighted subsets from an arbitrary number of portraits with the usual logical operators, thereby indicating where an arbitrarily complex set of conditions holds. The system is useful for exploratory visualization and feature detection in multivariate data.

  7. Cinnoline derivatives as human neutrophil elastase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Maria Paola; Schepetkin, Igor A; Crocetti, Letizia; Ciciani, Giovanna; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Guerrini, Gabriella; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Quinn, Mark T; Vergelli, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Compounds that can effectively inhibit the proteolytic activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) represent promising therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present here the synthesis, structure-activity relationship analysis, and biological evaluation of a new series of HNE inhibitors with a cinnoline scaffold. These compounds exhibited HNE inhibitory activity but had lower potency compared to N-benzoylindazoles previously reported by us. On the other hand, they exhibited increased stability in aqueous solution. The most potent compound, 18a, had a good balance between HNE inhibitory activity (IC50 value = 56 nM) and chemical stability (t1/2 = 114 min). Analysis of reaction kinetics revealed that these cinnoline derivatives were reversible competitive inhibitors of HNE. Furthermore, molecular docking studies of the active products into the HNE binding site revealed two types of HNE inhibitors: molecules with cinnolin-4(1H)-one scaffold, which were attacked by the HNE Ser195 hydroxyl group at the amido moiety, and cinnoline derivatives containing an ester function at C-4, which is the point of attack of Ser195. PMID:26194018

  8. Formulation of benzoporphyrin derivatives in Pluronics.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Rubinah K; Chansarkar, Namrata; Sharif, Isha; Hioka, Noboru; Dolphin, David

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the potential of Pluronics for the formulation of tetrapyrrole-based photosensitizers, with a particular focus on B-ring benzoporphyrin derivatives. The B-ring derivatives have a high tendency to aggregate in aqueous solutions, and this poses a significant formulation problem. Pluronics are ABA-type triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide section with two hydrophilic polyethylene oxide sections of equal length at either end. Out of a range of different commercially available block copolymers studied, it was found that the longer the hydrophobic block, the better the stabilization of tetrapyrrolic drugs in monomeric form in aqueous suspensions. Of these the best performance was observed in the micelle-forming Pluronic P123. Micelle size determination by laser light scattering confirmed that particle size in stable Pluronic formulations was around 20 nm. Pluronics such as L122 formed emulsions spontaneously without the need for emulsion stabilizers; emulsions were highly stable at ambient temperatures over several days and also highly effective as potential drug delivery agents. PMID:12685658

  9. Deriving Temperatures from the Homopause of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang J.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Kim et al. (Icarus, 2015) derived homopause temperatures from several places on the north and south polar regions of Jupiter by analyzing the 3-μm spectro-images of CH4, which were obtained using the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS). The spectral resolution of the data was R~18,000, which is enough to resolve the sharp 3-μm emission lines of the P and Q branches of CH4. From the next year’s JUNO encounter with Jupiter, we are expecting low resolution spectra from JUNO’s IR 2-5 μm spectrograph, whose resolution is only R~300 at 3 μm. We will present a method to derive homopause temperatures from low-resolution spectra utilizing the gross envelopes of the P, Q, R branch lines of CH4. We will discuss possible sciences extracted from the constructed maps of homopause temperatures over the auroral or non-auroral regions of Jupiter.

  10. Molecular structures of new ciprofloxacin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomii?, Zrinka Bani?; Kujundi?, Nedjeljko; Kraja?i?, Mirjana Bukvi?; Vinjevac, Aleksandar; Koji?-Prodi?, Biserka

    2002-06-01

    Two new derivatives from the ciprofloxacin fluoroquinoline family, 7-chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-quinoline-3-methylcarbamate and 1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-(3-oxopyrazolo)[4,3-c]quinoline, were synthesised, tested for antibacterial activity and crystallised. Their molecular and crystal structures were determined. Tests in vitro reveal lower activities than for ciprofloxacin. Characteristic structural features of these compounds are comparable to data for other known fluoroquinolines. The bicyclic quinoline ring is planar in both compounds; the carbamate side chain and five-membered pyrazolo ring are almost coplanar with it. A piperazinyl ring exhibits a chair conformation. In the crystal packing of the carbamate analogue, two C-H⋯O interactions form a dimer. The pyrazolo derivative crystallises as solvate with 1.5 water molecules per quinoline molecule. In its crystal structure donor and acceptor functionalities form dimers, via hydrogen bonds, which are connected into an infinite pattern through hydrogen bonded water molecules.

  11. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  12. Functional derivatives for multi-scale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Samuel; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    As we look beyond petascale computing and towards the exascale, effectively utilizing computational resources by using multi-fidelity and multi-scale materials simulations becomes increasingly important. Determining when and where to run high-fidelity simulations in order to have the most effect on a given quantity of interest (QoI) is a difficult problem. This work utilizes functional uncertainty quantification (UQ) for this task. While most UQ focuses on uncertainty in output from uncertainty in input parameters, we focus on uncertainty from the function itself (e.g. from using a specific functional form for an interatomic potential or constitutive law). In the case of a multi-scale simulation with a given constitutive law, calculating the functional derivative of the QoI with respect to that constitutive law can determine where a fine-scale model evaluation will maximize the increase in accuracy of the predicted QoI. Additionally, for a given computational budget the optimal set of coarse and fine-scale simulations can be determined. Numerical calculation of the functional derivative has been developed and methods of including this work within existing multi-fidelity and multi-scale orchestrators are explored.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Curcuminoid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ling; Li, Yang; Song, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui-jing; Huai, Qi-yong

    2015-01-01

    Many curcuminoid derivatives have been reported to have multiple biological activities. The aim of this study was to improve the biological activity of curcuminoids by synthesizing 16 new derivatives which combined cinnamic acids with curcuminoids, and we also analyzed the structure-activity relationship of the new compounds. Almost all the new compounds showed encouraging activity, especially compound 7g. It had much better antioxidant activity than curcuminoids and Vitamin C (VC), and also had the most significant antibacterial activity, which was 5-folder better than ampicillin (one of the best marketed antibiotics) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 µg/mL against Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridans) as well as Escherichia coli and 0.6 µg/mL against Enterobacter cloacae. Compound 7g also showed the greatest anticancer activity with a much lower IC50, which was 0.51 µM against MCF-7, 0.58 µM against HepG-2, 0.63 µM against LX-2, and 0.79 µM against 3T3. The results suggest that these compounds have promising potential as candidates for the treatment of cancer and thus further studies are warranted. PMID:26521852

  14. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of Sandia`s Refining of Coal-Derived Liquids Project is to determine the relationships between hydrotreating conditions and product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced in HRI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 6 coal. Distillate fractions of this liquid and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments are performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature (320 to 400{degrees}C), space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/g(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2})) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity is lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 540 ppm at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/g(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppm at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/g(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

  15. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

  16. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced in HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 6 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees} C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2})) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppm at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to < 15 ppm at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

  17. Anionic derivatives of uracil: fragmentation and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Callie A; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Snow, Theodore P; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2014-09-01

    Uracil is an essential biomolecule for terrestrial life, yet its prebiotic formation mechanisms have proven elusive for decades. Meteorites have been shown to contain uracil and the interstellar abundance of aromatic species and nitrogen-containing molecules is well established, providing support for uracil's presence in the interstellar medium (ISM). The ion chemistry of uracil may provide clues to its prebiotic synthesis and role in the origin of life. The fragmentation of biomolecules provides valuable insights into their formation. Previous research focused primarily on the fragmentation and reactivity of cations derived from uracil. In this study, we explore deprotonated uracil-5-carboxylic acid and its anionic fragments to elucidate novel reagents of uracil formation and to characterize the reactivity of uracil's anionic derivatives. The structures of these fragments are identified through theoretical calculations, further fragmentation, experimental acidity bracketing, and reactivity with several detected and potential interstellar species (SO2, OCS, CS2, NO, N2O, CO, NH3, O2, and C2H4). Fragmentation is achieved through collision induced dissociation (CID) in a commercial ion trap mass spectrometer, and all reaction rate constants are measured using a modification of this instrument. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Lastly, the astrochemical implications of the observed fragmentation and reaction processes are discussed. PMID:25036757

  18. New derivative of carnosine for nanoparticle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bellia, Francesco; Oliveri, Valentina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Vecchio, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is an endogenous dipeptide, extensively studied owing to its multifunctional activity exhibited in tissues of several animal species. This natural compound may act as a physiological buffer, ion-chelating agent (especially for copper(II) and zinc(II)), antioxidant and antiglycating agent. The main limit for the therapeutical uses of carnosine is the rapid hydrolysis mostly in human plasma by carnosinase. The chemical derivatization of carnosine is a promising strategy to improve the bioavailability of the dipeptide and facilitating the site-specific transport to different tissues. On this basis, a new carnosine derivative with biotin was synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and MS measurements, with aim of exploiting the avidin-biotin technology that offers a universal system for selective delivery of any biotinylated agent. The stability of the new carnosine derivative towards the hydrolytic action of serum carnosinase as well as the copper(II) binding ability of the carnosine-biotin conjugate were also assessed. The binding affinity of the new molecular entity to avidin and streptavidin, investigated by a spectrophotometric assay, was exploited to functionalize avidin- and streptavidin-gold nanoparticles with the carnosine-biotin conjugate. PMID:24158014

  19. Modeling Interactions of Erythromycin Derivatives with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, A V; Makarova, T M; Tereshchenkov, A G; Makarov, G I; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2015-11-01

    Using a method of static simulation, a series of erythromycin A analogs was designed with aldehyde functions introduced instead of one of the methyl substituents in the 3'-N-position of the antibiotic that was potentially capable of forming a covalent bond with an amino group of one of the nucleotide residues of the 23S rRNA in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Similar interaction is observed for antibiotics of the tylosin series, which bind tightly to the large ribosomal subunit and demonstrate high antibacterial activity. Binding of novel erythromycin derivatives with the bacterial ribosome was investigated with the method of fluorescence polarization. It was found that the erythromycin analog containing a 1-methyl-3-oxopropyl group in the 3'-N-position demonstrates the best binding. Based on the ability to inhibit protein biosynthesis, it is on the same level as erythromycin, and it is significantly better than desmethyl-erythromycin. Molecular dynamic modeling of complexes of the derivatives with ribosomes was conducted to explain the observed effects. PMID:26615442

  20. 3-Nitroasterric Acid Derivatives from an Antarctic Sponge-Derived Pseudogymnoascus sp. Fungus.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Luis; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Areche, Carlos; Chávez, Renato; Henríquez, Marlene; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Díaz, Caridad; Segade, Yuri; Vaca, Inmaculada

    2015-04-24

    Four new nitroasterric acid derivatives, pseudogymnoascins A-C (1-3) and 3-nitroasterric acid (4), along with the two known compounds questin and pyriculamide, were obtained from the cultures of a Pseudogymnoascus sp. fungus isolated from an Antarctic marine sponge belonging to the genus Hymeniacidon. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR and MS analyses. These compounds are the first nitro derivatives of the known fungal metabolite asterric acid. Several asterric acid derivatives isolated from other fungal strains have shown antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, the new compounds described in this work were inactive against a panel of bacteria and fungi (MIC > 64 μg/mL). PMID:25732560

  1. A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 μM in bioactivity assay. PMID:26197797

  2. Cytotoxic Anthranilic Acid Derivatives from Deep Sea Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Shun; Li, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Shu-Shan; Lu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-01-01

    Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A–E (1–5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line. PMID:23966037

  3. Tandem repeats derived from centromeric retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem repeats are ubiquitous and abundant in higher eukaryotic genomes and constitute, along with transposable elements, much of DNA underlying centromeres and other heterochromatic domains. In maize, centromeric satellite repeat (CentC) and centromeric retrotransposons (CR), a class of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, are enriched at centromeres. Some satellite repeats have homology to retrotransposons and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expansion, contraction as well as homogenization of tandem repeats. However, the origin and evolution of tandem repeat loci remain largely unknown. Results CRM1TR and CRM4TR are novel tandem repeats that we show to be entirely derived from CR elements belonging to two different subfamilies, CRM1 and CRM4. Although these tandem repeats clearly originated in at least two separate events, they are derived from similar regions of their respective parent element, namely the long terminal repeat (LTR) and untranslated region (UTR). The 5′ ends of the monomer repeat units of CRM1TR and CRM4TR map to different locations within their respective LTRs, while their 3′ ends map to the same relative position within a conserved region of their UTRs. Based on the insertion times of heterologous retrotransposons that have inserted into these tandem repeats, amplification of the repeats is estimated to have begun at least ~4 (CRM1TR) and ~1 (CRM4TR) million years ago. Distinct CRM1TR sequence variants occupy the two CRM1TR loci, indicating that there is little or no movement of repeats between loci, even though they are separated by only ~1.4 Mb. Conclusions The discovery of two novel retrotransposon derived tandem repeats supports the conclusions from earlier studies that retrotransposons can give rise to tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of monomers from two different CRM1TR loci shows that gene conversion is the major cause of sequence variation. We propose that successive intrastrand deletions generated the initial repeat structure, and gene conversions increased the size of each tandem repeat locus. PMID:23452340

  4. [Effect of piracetam derivatives on antibody formation].

    PubMed

    Ratnikov, V I; Ostrovskaia, R U; Vazhenina, Z P; Skoldinov, A P

    1985-11-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of piracetam and a number of its derivatives were studied in mice. It was shown that multiple injections of such substances at a dose of 50-200 mg/kg change the amount of antibody-forming cells in the spleen of animals immunized with sheep red blood cells. The dose of 200 mg/kg was the most effective one, with the direction of immunomodulatory activity depending on the chemical composition of the compounds. Thus joining of phenol radical to piracetam molecule strengthened immunosuppression, and vice versa insertion of hydrazide group led to stimulation of antibody formation. It is stressed that immunosuppressive effect of piracetam must be taken into consideration during the clinical use of the drug. PMID:4063506

  5. Biologically active Mannich bases derived from nitroxoline.

    PubMed

    Movrin, M; Maysinger, D; Marok, E

    1980-08-01

    A series of compounds with various basic side chains were derived from 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline (nitroxoline). Aminomethylation of nitroxoline led exclusively to the formation of o-substituted phenolic Mannich bases. Depending on the kind of the primary or secondary amine participating in the Mannich reaction differently substituted compounds were prepared in order to study the influence of the basic side chain on their biological activity. The compound with N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino group exhibited the highest mitodepressant activity determined in a phyto test on Lepidium sativum L. Preliminary test for antibacterial and antifungal activities using standard test microorganisms indicate rather strong antimicrobial properties of several synthesized compounds. PMID:7433493

  6. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Thomas A.; Bunel, Florestan; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT)] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples. PMID:24709799

  7. Synthetic Biomaterials from Metabolically Derived Synthons.

    PubMed

    Ricapito, Nicole G; Ghobril, Cynthia; Zhang, Heng; Grinstaff, Mark W; Putnam, David

    2016-02-24

    The utility of metabolic synthons as the building blocks for new biomaterials is based on the early application and success of hydroxy acid based polyesters as degradable sutures and controlled drug delivery matrices. The sheer number of potential monomers derived from the metabolome (e.g., lactic acid, dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, fumarate) gives rise to almost limitless biomaterial structural possibilities, functionality, and performance characteristics, as well as opportunities for the synthesis of new polymers. This review describes recent advances in new chemistries, as well as the inventive use of traditional chemistries, toward the design and synthesis of new polymers. Specific polymeric biomaterials can be prepared for use in varied medical applications (e.g., drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound repair, etc.) through judicious selection of the monomer and backbone linkage. PMID:26821863

  8. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.

    1985-07-01

    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  9. Derivation of quantum probability from measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbut, Fedor

    2016-05-01

    To begin with, it is pointed out that the form of the quantum probability formula originates in the very initial state of the object system as seen when the state is expanded with the eigenprojectors of the measured observable. Making use of the probability reproducibility condition, which is a key concept in unitary measurement theory, one obtains the relevant coherent distribution of the complete-measurement results in the final unitary-measurement state in agreement with the mentioned probability formula. Treating the transition from the final unitary, or premeasurement, state, where all possible results are present, to one complete-measurement result sketchily in the usual way, the well-known probability formula is derived. In conclusion it is pointed out that the entire argument is only formal unless one makes it physical assuming that the quantum probability law is valid in the extreme case of probability-one (certain) events (projectors).

  10. Postbiotic activities of lactobacilli-derived factors.

    PubMed

    Cicenia, Alessia; Scirocco, Annunziata; Carabotti, Marilia; Pallotta, Lucia; Marignani, Massimo; Severi, Carola

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are alive nonpathogenic microorganisms present in the gut microbiota that confer benefits to the host for his health. They act through molecular and cellular mechanisms that contrast pathogen bacteria adhesion, enhance innate immunity, decrease pathogen-induced inflammation, and promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, barrier function, and protective responses. Some of these beneficial effects result to be determined by secreted probiotic-derived factors that recently have been identified as "postbiotic" mediators. They have been reported for several probiotic strains but most available literature concerns Lactobacilli. In this review, we focus on the reported actions of several secretory products of different Lactobacillus species highlighting the available mechanistic data. The identification of soluble factors mediating the beneficial effects of probiotics may present an opportunity not only to understand their fine mechanisms of action, but also to develop effective pharmacological strategies that could integrate the action of treatments with live bacteria. PMID:25291118

  11. Fluorescence spectral studies of some imidazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Srinivasan, Natesan; Venkatesh Perumal, Marimuthu

    2012-05-01

    The photophysical properties of imidazole derivatives namely 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1-p-tolyl-1H-imidazole and N,N-dimethyl-4-(4,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzenamine, synthesized from an unusual four components assembling, were studied in several solvents. Polarization also plays major role in the increase of excited-state dipole moment (μe). From the spectral results, it was found that there is equilibrium between neutral species and monocationic (MC) species in polar aprotic and polar protic solvents. The basicity of the solvent, Cβ or CSB has a negative value, suggesting that the absorption and fluorescence bands shift to lower energies with increasing electron-donating ability of the solvent. Therefore, resonance structures 1b and 2b has the positive charge located at the nitrogen atom stabilized in basic solvents.

  12. Uncertainties in derived temperature-height profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed height profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-height increment Delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.

  13. Antibacterial prenylbenzoic acid derivatives from Anodendron formicinum.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Li, Jiang-Ling; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Anodendron formicinum led to the isolation of eight prenylbenzoic acid derivatives. Three of these were new compounds, designated as formicinuosides A (1), B (2), and C (3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, as well as by comparison with the reported spectroscopic data. This is the first report of chemical constituents from A. formicinum and their antimicrobial activities. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 4, 6 and 8 showed significant antibacterial activities against Providensia smartii with MIC values of 0.781 μg/mL. Moreover, compound 8 showed remarkable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with MIC value of 0.781 μg/mL. PMID:24333261

  14. Optical Properties of waste derived carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    Carbon dots (CDs) have been extensively examined recently, mainly due to their luminescence and excitation wavelength dependent emission behavior. These dots can be derived from a variety of carbonaceous sources. Some of the possible sources are carbonaceous waste materials. Although it is possible to synthesize CDs using waste and their applications in light source, few steps such as to purification of starting material and removal of other impurities during solvothermal processing can enhance the performance of CDs and associated devices. Our primary results suggest that carbonaceous waste in liquid form is easy to process. In contrast the solid carbonaceous wastes are relatively difficult to process, but their availability is higher. In this regard, a detailed study has been performed to formulate the appropriate processing parameters for best performing CDs.

  15. Thiolupinine and some derivatives of pharmacological interest.

    PubMed

    Novelli, F; Sparatore, F

    1993-08-01

    The (quinolizidin-1 alpha-yl)methanthiol (thiolupinine) was prepared and, utilizing the thiol group reactivity, several S-substituted derivatives were obtained among which was a group of 3-[(lupinylthio)methyl]indoles. Eight of the prepared compounds were subjected to a broad pharmacological screening that evidentiated for many of them good level of the following activities in vivo and in vitro: antiarrhythmic, local anesthetic, negative chronotropic on isolated atria, calcium antagonism on ileum and atria, inhibition of spontaneous contraction of isolated trachea, inhibition of guinea pig ileum contractions induced by angiotensin I and II, bradykinin and cholecystokinin, inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by PAF and ADP. Single compounds were remarkable for additional antagonistic activities: 4 against P1-purine receptor, 8 against substance P, 12 against methacholine and 13 strongly inhibited arachidonate induced platelet aggregation. Very peculiar was the ability of compound 6 to protect mice from PAF induced mortality. PMID:8216667

  16. Tire derived fuel, cofiring with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stopek, D.J. ); Licklider, P.L. ); Millis, A.K. ); Diewald, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    It is estimated that each year, a waste tire is generated for every four persons in this country. Only about 25 percent of these tires are currently recycled. This results in a tremendous ongoing disposal problem for out communities. In the past, waste tires were stored in piles. These tire storage piles are hazardous to nearby communities, as a source of insect breeding grounds and as a dangerous fire hazard. Burial of used tires is a waste of valuable landfill space. One alternative is to use waste tires as a fuel supplement with coal. This paper describes the test program conducted by Illinois Power on the 560 MW cyclone-fired boiler at Baldwin Power Station and reviews national activities related to tire-derived fuel (TDF) cofiring with coal.

  17. A derivation of the beam equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Euler–Bernoulli equation describing the deflection of a beam is a vital tool in structural and mechanical engineering. However, its derivation usually entails a number of intermediate steps that may confuse engineering or science students at the beginnig of their undergraduate studies. We explain how this equation may be deduced, beginning with an approximate expression for the energy, from which the forces and finally the equation itself may be obtained. The description is begun at the level of small ‘particles’, and the continuum level is taken later on. However, when a computational solution is sought, the description turns back to the discrete level again. We first consider the easier case of a string under tension, and then focus on the beam. Numerical solutions for several loads are obtained.

  18. Antihypertensive peptides derived from milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Takano, T

    1999-06-01

    This paper reviews the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides originated from milk proteins. Focus was put on the peptides derived from milk casein by the action of some proteolytic enzymes and fermented products by lactic acid bacteria. Some of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides exhibit significant antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, there were some antihypertensive peptides with low inhibitory activity of this enzyme. Key factors needed for the peptide to demonstrate the antihypertensive effects are discussed. Fermented milk, which has inhibitory activity of the enzyme, showed the reduction of blood pressure of hypertensive subjects. The possibility of the bioactive peptides for functional foods are also discussed. PMID:10399348

  19. [Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins].

    PubMed

    Torres-Llanez, María de Jesús; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aaron Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Milk proteins are known for having a wide range of nutritional, functional and biological properties that make them important ingredients in functional or health promoting foods. These properties are partly attributed to bioactive peptides coded in the different milk proteins. Bioactive peptides are inactive within the protein sequence but may be released by the action of native proteolitic enzymes from milk, enzymes from lactic acid bacteria or from exogenous sources or may be produced during gastrointestinal digestion or processing of foods. Peptides derived from caseins and whey proteins were shown to present several bioactive properties such as opioid, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunodulatory, mineral carrier and antithrombotic. This overview presents a perspective of the importance of dairy proteins in the production of bioactive peptides and their biological activities, as well as the main analytical tecniques that have been used for the isolation and identification of these peptides. PMID:16335219

  20. Synthesis of quinone derivatives of quinocarcin.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Sato, A; Ashizawa, T; Morimoto, M; Hirata, T

    1990-12-01

    O-Demethyl-DX-52-1 (3a) was prepared from quinocarcin (1) in two steps (cyanation and O-demethylation). Upon treatment with Fremy's salt, 3a and its esters 3b, 3c afforded the desired quinone 4-6 in good yields. Various substituted quinones 12-37, 47-50 were prepared from 4-6 by Thiele acetylation followed by hydrolysis of acetates and halogenation, by direct addition of amine, alcohol and mercaptan, and by epoxidation and subsequent opening of the epoxide ring with aniline. The quinonemonoketals 39b and 40 were obtained from the corresponding methoxyphenols 7b and 38b. Addition of hydroxylamine gave the quinoneoxime 44 regiospecifically. The antitumor activity of the bis-methylthioquinone (37) among the various derivatives was the most promising. PMID:2092928

  1. Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    to Baben, M.; Achenbach, J. O.; von Lilienfeld, O. A.

    2016-03-01

    We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects.

  2. Overview of medically important antifungal azole derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Fromtling, R A

    1988-01-01

    Fungal infections are a major burden to the health and welfare of modern humans. They range from simply cosmetic, non-life-threatening skin infections to severe, systemic infections that may lead to significant debilitation or death. The selection of chemotherapeutic agents useful for the treatment of fungal infections is small. In this overview, a major chemical group with antifungal activity, the azole derivatives, is examined. Included are historical and state of the art information on the in vitro activity, experimental in vivo activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and uses and adverse reactions of imidazoles currently marketed (clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole, ketoconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, croconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxiconazole, sulconazole, and tioconazole) and under development (aliconazole and omoconazole), as well as triazoles currently marketed (terconazole) and under development (fluconazole, itraconazole, vibunazole, alteconazole, and ICI 195,739). PMID:3069196

  3. Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Serumgard, J.

    1997-12-01

    More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

  4. Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives.

    PubMed

    To Baben, M; Achenbach, J O; von Lilienfeld, O A

    2016-03-14

    We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects. PMID:26979677

  5. Anticonvulsant activity of four oxygenated cannabidiol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Carlini, E A; Mechoulam, R; Lander, N

    1975-09-01

    A pharmacological comparison between cannabidiol (CBD) and four CBD derivatives, namely CBD-aldehyde-diacetate (I), 6-oxo-CBD-diacetate (II), 6-hydroxy-CBD-tri-acetate (III), and 9-hydroxy-CBD-triacetate (IV) was carried out in mice. Protection against maximal electroshock convulsions, potentiation of pentobarbital sleeping-time and reduction of spontaneous motor activity were the effects measured. All 5 compounds were equally potent in potentiating barbiturate sleeping time at doses ranging from 6.25 to 100 mg/kg. At 12.5 and 25 mg/kg only CBD and IV were able to decrease significantly the spontaneous motor activity. CBD, II, III and IV were also active in protecting mice against electroconvulsive shock at doses of 100-200 mg/kg, although at the larger dose CBD and compound II were the most efficient. Compound I was toxic, killing about half of the animals within 24 h after injection. PMID:1188178

  6. Structure activity relationships of selected naphthalene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dumont, J.N.; Sankey, F.D.; Schmoyer, R.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-two derivatives of naphthalene were assayed under an acute static regime with biological activity being monitored as population growth of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Activity varied over one log unit. Substituent constant structure-activity analyses revealed the model, log BR = 0.282Ha + 0.352..pi.. + 0.692F + 0.334/sup 1/X/sub sub//sup v/ - 0.326R + 0.027, to be best and to account for 85% of the variation in log BR (BR, biological response; Ha, hydrogen acceptance; ..pi.., hydrophobic substituent constant; F, polar electronic substituent constant, /sup 1/X/sub sub//sup v/, substituent molar connectivity index; R, resonance electronic substituent constant). The Ha and ..pi.. parameters are the most important, accounting for 71% of the log BR variability. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  7. Malaria and artemisinin derivatives: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Muhammad Tayyab; Saify, Zafar Saeed; Sultana, Nighat; Ahmad, Imran; Saeed-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Tariq, Imran; Khanum, Munawer

    2013-11-01

    Malaria is the world's most prevalent disease that affects 515-600 million people each year and about 40% of the world's population live at risk for this infection. The prevalence of morbidity and mortality from drug resistant malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) is increasing in most of the developing countries, which is also a global threat because international travel is common now and imported malaria is increasingly a serious problem. Since rapid schizonticidal action of naturally occurring endoperoxides pharmacophore present in artemisinin against drug-resistant malaria has been documented, researchers have focused more on artemisinin analogs than any other antimalarials. In this review, drugs of choice about malaria i.e. artemisinin and its analogus/derivatives (arteether, artemether, artemiside, artemisinin, artemisone, artesunate, dihydroartemisinin) have been discussed in detail e.g. bioavailability, formulation development, stability, combination therapy, additional benefits, drug resistance and toxicity have been reviewed. PMID:24070206

  8. Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesurtel, Mickael; Graf, Rolf; Aleil, Boris; Walther, Diego J.; Tian, Yinghua; Jochum, Wolfram; Gachet, Christian; Bader, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2006-04-01

    The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy. Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin. This failure of regeneration was rescued by reloading serotonin-free platelets with a serotonin precursor molecule. These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.

  9. Microscopic derivation of open quantum Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruccione, Francesco; Sinayskiy, Ilya; UKZN Team

    2015-03-01

    Recently a model of open quantum Brownian motion (OQBM) [M. Bauer, D. Bernard, A. Tilloy, Phys. Rev. A 88 (2013) 062340] was introduced as a scaling limit of Open Quantum Walks (OQWs) [S. Attal, F. Petruccione, C. Sabot, I. Sinayskiy, J. Stat. Phys. 147 (20120 832]. OQBM is a new type of quantum Brownian motion where the dynamics of the Brownian particle not only depends on the interactions with a thermal environment, but also depends on the state of the internal degrees of freedom of the Brownian particle. Here, we present the microscopic derivation of the OQBM for a Brownian particle with two internal degrees of freedom. Examples of the dynamics for initial Gaussian and non-Gaussian distributions are presented. This work is based upon research supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.

  10. Antiplasmodial phloroglucinol derivatives from Syncarpia glomulifera.

    PubMed

    Su, Qingxi; Dalal, Seema; Goetz, Michael; Cassera, Maria B; Kingston, David G I

    2016-06-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of the stem bark of Syncarpia glomulifera (Myrtaceae) led to the isolation of the two new phloroglucinol derivatives (±)-rhodomyrtosone F (1) and (±)-calliviminone C (2), the three known triterpenes, betulinic acid (3), ursolic acid-3-acetate (4), and ursolic acid (5), and 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-hexanone (6). Compound 1 exhibited strong antiplasmodial activity, while compounds 2-4 were moderately active and 5 and 6 were inactive in this assay. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated based on analyses of their mass spectrometric data, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and comparison with related compounds. PMID:27112454

  11. Chemical Sensors Based on Cyclodextrin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ogoshi, Tomoki; Harada, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on chemical sensors based on cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. This has been a field of classical interest, and is now of current interest for numerous scientists. First, typical chemical sensors using chromophore appended CDs are mentioned. Various “turn-off” and “turn-on” fluorescent chemical sensors, in which fluorescence intensity was decreased or increased by complexation with guest molecules, respectively, were synthesized. Dye modified CDs and photoactive metal ion-ligand complex appended CDs, metallocyclodextrins, were also applied for chemical sensors. Furthermore, recent novel approaches to chemical sensing systems using supramolecular structures such as CD dimers, trimers and cooperative binding systems of CDs with the other macrocycle [2]rotaxane and supramolecular polymers consisting of CD units are mentioned. New chemical sensors using hybrids of CDs with π-conjugated polymers, peptides, DNA, nanocarbons and nanoparticles are also described in this review.

  12. Antiproliferative activity of arborescidine alkaloids and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo S; Theoduloz, Cristina; Pilli, Ronaldo A; Rodriguez, Jaime

    2009-09-01

    Current issues in cancer research involve searching for novel anticancer compounds that can be used to regulate the cell cycle and lead to more effective treatments of tumors. In this study, it was hypothesized that possessing a cyclic alkaloid similar to harmine, arborescidines can disrupt the proliferative state of cancer cells and block the activity of topoisomerases. The antiproliferative activity of arborescidines A-C and their derivatives was evaluated in vitro against four human tumor cell lines: gastric adenocarcinoma, lung cancer, bladder carcinoma and leukemia. Assuming the mechanism of action by topoisomerase II binding model, the compounds possessing the greatest activity had nonpolar side-chain into hydrophobic binding region on the DNA/topo II complex. PMID:19419803

  13. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Crivello, J.V.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Revisiting satellite derived tropospheric NO2 trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide levels can be used as tracer of anthropogenic pollution as NOx, the sum of NO and NO2, is released during fossil fuel combustion. With its short atmospheric lifetime, atmospheric NO2 can be easily linked to its sources. Using its structured absorption cross section in the blue spectral region, NO2 amounts can be derived from measurements of backscattered solar radiation with the help of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. Satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 became possible with the launch of the GOME instrument in 1995, and since then a series of instruments including SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI provide spectral data which can be used to quantify NO2 columns in the troposphere. Using these observations, spatial distributions of NO2, its sources and transport pathways as well as temporal changes have been investigated over the last years. In particular the latter have shown remarkable atmospheric developments with large reductions of NO2 levels in many industrialised countries and dramatic increases in regions with growing economies, most notably in China but also in many other countries. In this study, recent trends of satellite derived NO2 columns are evaluated using data from all available instruments with a focus on the last years. Combination of data taken from the two GOME-2 instruments and OMI improves coverage and sensitivity, and also provides important constraints on the reliability of the satellite data set. As in previous studies, large changes in NO2 columns are found in many regions, in particular over China where after two years of stagnating NO2 levels an unexpected substantial reduction is observed for 2014.

  15. Cardiovascular activity of the chiral xanthone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Szkaradek, Natalia; Rapacz, Anna; Pytka, Karolina; Filipek, Barbara; Żelaszczyk, Dorota; Szafrański, Przemysław; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Marona, Henryk

    2015-10-15

    A series of 6 derivatives of xanthone were synthesized and evaluated for cardiovascular activity. The following pharmacological experiments were conducted: the binding affinity for adrenoceptors, the influence on the normal electrocardiogram, the effect on the arterial blood pressure, the effect on blood pressor response and prophylactic antiarrhythmic activity in adrenaline induced model of arrhythmia (rats, iv). Two compounds revealed nanomolar affinity for α1-adrenoceptor which was correlated with the strongest cardiovascular (antiarrhythmic and hypotensive) activity in animals' models. They were enantiomers of previously described (R,S)-4-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)-9H-xanthen-9-one hydrochloride and revealed similar antiarrhythmic potential in adrenaline induced model of arrhythmia in rats after intravenous injection (ED50=0.53 mg/kg and 0.81 mg/kg, respectively). These values were lower than values obtained for reference drug urapidil. These compounds were more active in this experiment than urapidil (ED50=1.26 mg/kg). The compound 5 administered iv at doses of 0.62-2.5 mg/kg at the peak of arrhythmia prevented and/or reduced the number of premature ventricular beats in a statistically significant manner. The ED50 value was 1.20 mg/kg. The S-enantiomer (6) given at the same doses did not show therapeutic antiarrhythmic activity in this model. These compounds significantly decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure throughout the whole observation period in anesthetized, normotensive rats. The studied enantiomers showed higher toxicity than urapidil, but imperceptibly higher that another cardiovascular drugs, that is, carvedilol or propranolol. They were also evaluated for mutagenic potential in the Ames (Salmonella) test. It was found that at the concentrations tested the compounds were non mutagenic when compared to solvent control. Results were quite promising and suggested that in the group of xanthone derivatives new potential antiarrhythmics and hypotensives might be found. PMID:26386822

  16. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wen; Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua; Russel, Christian

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. {yields} Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F{sup -} ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. {yields} The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution by the ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g{sup -1} if 5 g L{sup -1}, <100 {mu}m G-HAP was added to a solution with an initial pH value of 6.72 and the adsorption time was 12 h. The results showed that the micro-G-HAP could immobilize F{sup -} in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F{sup -} could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F{sup -} from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  17. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Characterization of Transport Proteins for Aromatic Compounds Derived from Lignin: Benzoate Derivative Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Chang, Changsoo; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro growth experiments have demonstrated that aromatic compounds derived from lignin can be metabolized and represent a major carbon resource for many soil bacteria. However, the proteins that mediate the movement of these metabolites across the cell membrane have not been thoroughly characterized. To address this deficiency, we used a library representative of lignin degradation products and a thermal stability screen to determine ligand specificity for a set of solute-binding proteins (SBPs) from ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ligand mapping process identified a set of proteins from Alphaproteobacteria that recognize various benzoate derivatives. Seven high-resolution crystal structures of these proteins in complex with four different aromatic compounds were obtained. The protein–ligand complexes provide details of molecular recognition that can be used to infer binding specificity. This structure–function characterization provides new insight for the biological roles of these ABC transporters and their SBPs, which had been previously annotated as branched-chain amino-acid-binding proteins. The knowledge derived from the crystal structures provides a foundation for development of sequencebased methods to predict the ligand specificity of other uncharacterized transporters. These results also demonstrate that Alphaproteobacteria possess a diverse set of transport capabilities for lignin-derived compounds. Characterization of this new class of transporters improves genomic annotation projects and provides insight into the metabolic potential of soil bacteria. PMID:22925578

  19. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... commercial extracts containing the active enzyme rennin (CAS Reg. No. 9001-98-3), also known as chymosin (International Union of Biochemistry Enzyme Commission (E.C.) 3.4.23.4). Rennet is the aqueous extract prepared... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... commercial extracts containing the active enzyme rennin (CAS Reg. No. 9001-98-3), also known as chymosin (International Union of Biochemistry Enzyme Commission (E.C.) 3.4.23.4). Rennet is the aqueous extract prepared... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... active enzyme rennin (CAS Reg. No. 9001-98-3), also known as chymosin (International Union of Biochemistry Enzyme Commission (E.C.) 3.4.23.4). Rennet is the aqueous extract prepared from cleaned, frozen... active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic...

  2. Novel celastrol derivatives inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Song; Wang, Xiaolin; Sun, Chris Kin-Wai; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yan, Xinrui; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The molecular co-chaperone CDC37 is over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it functions with HSP90 to regulate the activity of protein kinases in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways that contribute towards hepatocarcinogenesis. Disruption of these signaling pathways via inhibition of HSP90/CDC37 interaction is therefore a rational therapeutic approach. We evaluated the anti-tumor effects of celastrol, pristimerin, and two novel derivatives (cel-D2, and cel-D7) on HCC cell lines in vitro and on orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo. All four compounds preferentially inhibited viability of HCC cells in vitro, and significantly inhibited the growth of three orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo; with the novel derivatives cel-D2 and cel-D7 exhibiting lower toxicity. All four compounds also induced cell apoptosis; and promoted degradation and inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinases in the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. We demonstrated that HSP90/CDC37 antagonists are potentially broad spectrum agents that might be beneficial for treating the heterogeneous subtypes of HCC, either as monotherapy, or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25051375

  3. Benzene derivatives produced by Fusarium graminearum - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Setshedi, Itumeleng

    2015-06-01

    Using NMR spectroscopy benzene derivatives were detected in mycelia of Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize. In previous studies F. graminearum was found to cause cancer to humans and benzene derivatives were detected in breath of cancer sufferers. Surprisingly, no study found benzene derivatives to be the cancerous agents in F. graminearum. In this study we detected benzene derivatives in F. graminearum and propose to study their role as cancer agents. PMID:26081280

  4. Optimum sensitivity derivatives of objective functions in nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of eliminating second derivatives from the input of optimum sensitivity analyses of optimization problems is demonstrated. This elimination restricts the sensitivity analysis to the first-order sensitivity derivatives of the objective function. It is also shown that when a complete first-order sensitivity analysis is performed, second-order sensitivity derivatives of the objective function are available at little additional cost. An expression is derived whose application to linear programming is presented.

  5. Alternative derivation of the response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, Neil J.

    2009-10-15

    It has recently been pointed out by Finn that the long-standing derivation of the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector contains several errors. Here I point out that a contemporaneous derivation of the gravitational wave response for spacecraft doppler tracking and pulsar timing avoids these pitfalls, and when adapted to describe interferometers, recovers a simplified version of Finn's derivation. This simplified derivation may be useful for pedagogical purposes.

  6. Redox-sensitive proteins are potential targets of garlic-derived mercaptocysteine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pinto, John T; Krasnikov, Boris F; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2006-03-01

    Molecular investigations support existing clinical and epidemiological data that garlic-derived allylsulfides reduce cancer risk. Various allylsulfides can diminish progression of cancer cells at either the G1/S or G2/M phase. Allylsulfide derivatives modify redox-sensitive signal pathways and cause growth inhibition, mitotic arrest, and apoptosis induction. Whether allylsulfides modify intracellular redox potentials by affecting the ratio of glutathione:glutathione disulfide and/or by interacting directly with sulfhydryl domains on regulatory or catalytic-signal proteins requires further investigation. To understand the possible biochemical mechanisms contributing to the protective effects of allylsulfides, we investigated the ability of these compounds to undergo enzyme-catalyzed transformations. In addition to catalyzing gamma-elimination reactions, gamma-cystathionase can perform beta-elimination reactions with cysteinyl S-conjugates derived from garlic extracts when the S-alkyl group (R) is larger than ethyl. The reaction products are pyruvate, ammonium, and a sulfur-containing fragment (RSH). beta-Lyase substrates of gamma-cystathionase thus far identified from garlic include: S-allyl-L-cysteine (R=CH2=CHCH2-), S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine (R=CH2=CHCH2S-), and S-propylmercapto-L-cysteine (R=CH3CH2CH2S-). Mercapto derivatives yield persulfide products (RSSH) that are potential sources of sulfane sulfur, which may modify protein function by reacting at important cysteinyl domains. Thus, beta-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates in garlic may modify cancer-cell growth by targeting redox-sensitive signal proteins at sulfhydryl sites, thereby regulating cell proliferation and/or apoptotic responses. These interactions may be useful in identifying efficacy of garlic-derived compounds and/or developing other novel organosulfur compounds that may modify intracellular redox potentials or interact with thiols associated within cysteine domains in regulatory, catalytic, signal, or structural proteins. PMID:16484576

  7. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Equilibrium Distribution Functions of Statistical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckly, Beth

    1979-01-01

    Presents a simplified derivation of the equilibrium distribution functions. The derivation proceeds from the change in the Helmholtz free energy when a particle is added to a system of fixed temperature, volume, and chemical potential. The derivations show the relationship between statistical mechanics and macroscopic thermodynamics. (Author/GA)

  8. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 76 FR 43892 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY... contains final and temporary regulations that address when a transfer or assignment of certain derivative... the movement of entire books of derivative contracts. In particular, there is a concern that...

  19. Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…

  20. 45 CFR 1630.12 - Applicability to derivative income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section is subject to the requirements of this part, including the requirement of 45 CFR 1630.3(a)(4) that... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability to derivative income. 1630.12... CORPORATION COST STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES § 1630.12 Applicability to derivative income. (a) Derivative...

  1. Generalized Second-Order Partial Derivatives of 1/r

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hnizdo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized second-order partial derivatives of 1/r, where r is the radial distance in three dimensions (3D), are obtained using a result of the potential theory of classical analysis. Some non-spherical-regularization alternatives to the standard spherical-regularization expression for the derivatives are derived. The utility of a…

  2. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical... as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives... Substances § 721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and P-93-375) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical... as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  9. Regularization of derivatives on non-differentiable points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanov, Dimiter

    2016-03-01

    The notion of derivative is limited only to the idealization of linear growth. The paper presents a formal regularization procedure for the derivatives of functions using the fractional velocity, i.e. a local fractional derivation operation. The approach can be applied in strongly non-linear or fractal settings, such as singular functions, Brownian motion, quantum paths, etc.

  10. Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopp, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…

  11. 21 CFR 173.135 - Catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.135 Catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Bacterial catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus by a pure...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. (a) Persons who reproduce, extract, or summarize...

  13. Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.

  14. Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skopp, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for

  15. Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Michael I.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)

  16. Polyketides from a Marine-Derived Fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1–18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

  17. Mutilins derivatives: from veterinary to human-used antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changhua; Zou, Yi

    2009-10-01

    Mutilins derivatives, which were successfully developed in veterinary medicines such as tiamulin and valnemulin, have regained interest as promising antibacterial agents with potential for human use in the past few years. In 2007, Retapamulin, as the first in a new class of topical antibacterial in the nearly two decades, was approved for use in human skin infections. This review provides a developed process of mutilins derivatives from veterinary to human-used antibiotics and emphasizes the structure activity relationship (SAR) and antibacterial mechanism of mutilins derivatives. Moreover, the semi-synthetic strategy of water-soluble mutilins derivatives and related novel derivatives during 2006-2008 will also be reviewed. PMID:19929813

  18. Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1-18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

  19. Amino acids derived from Titan Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat; Schram, Karl H.; Arakawa, Edward T.

    1986-10-01

    An organic heteropolymer(Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N 2/0.1 CH 4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6 N HCI yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivazation to N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and α- and β-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was ˜ 10 -2, approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC 2CN, and (CN) 2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  20. Derivation of the proper basis of quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervellino, A.; Haibach, T.; Steurer, W.

    1998-05-01

    A method based on the physical space Patterson (pair correlation) function is derived which allows the determination of the correct n-D Bravais lattice of quasicrystals. [Hereafter, we will abbreviate n-D for n dimensional. We will also call perpendicular space the (n-3)-D orthogonal space that is added to physical 3D space to form the n-D embedding space.] The optimum unit cell can be chosen and therefore the proper indexing of the diffraction pattern. The size of the integrated maxima of the Patterson function depends on their multiplicity and on their perpendicular space component. Lifting the positions of these maxima into n-D space allows the set of ``quasilattice'' vectors to be distinguished from the set of decoration vectors. This procedure leads to a unique n-D lattice. Taking advantage of scaling symmetries, the best choice of the n-D unit cell can be found. A detailed analysis of the decoration vectors reveals all possible positions of the hyperatoms therein. This powerful technique is illustrated on simulated data of a decorated Fibonacci chain and on experimental data of decagonal Al70.5Mn16.5Pd13 quasicrystals.

  1. Oxygenated verticillene derivatives from Bursera suntui.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Hugo A; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    Medium polarity fractions of the hexane extracts of the stems of Bursera suntui afforded six previously known (1-6) and four hitherto unknown verticillane derivatives: (1S,3Z,7S,8S,11S,12S)-(+)-7,8-epoxyverticill-3-en-12,20-diol (7), (1S,3Z,7S,8S,11S,12S)-(+)-7,8-epoxyverticill-3-en-12,20-diol 20-acetate (8), (1S,3Z,7S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,8(19)-dien-7,12,20-triol (9), and (1S,3Z,7S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,8(19)-dien-7,12,20-triol 20-acetate (10). Acetylation of 9 and 10 yielded (1S,3Z,7S,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,8(19)-dien-7,12,20-triol 7,20-diacetate (11), while hydrolysis of 8 gave 7. The structures and stereochemistry of 7-11 were established by spectroscopic analyses, particularly by 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS. The conformational preferences of 7-11 were studied by molecular mechanics modelling employing the Monte Carlo protocol followed by B3LYP/DGDZVP DFT calculation, thus supporting the observed (1)H NMR NOESY cross peaks. PMID:18952247

  2. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.D.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the relationship between macroscopic thermodynamic properties and the various types of intermolecular forces. Since coal-derived liquids contain a wide variety of compounds, a theory capable of successfully predicting the thermophysical properties for coal processes must take into account the molecular shapes and all significant intermolecular forces: dispersion forces, anisotropic forces due to dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions. We have developed the Acid-Base-Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain Theory (ABPACT), a comprehensive theory that is capable of predicting the thermophysical properties for many systems where these different intermolecular forces are present. The ABPACT can treat non-polar compounds, polar compounds and compounds that associate through Lewis acid-base interactions. In addition to our theoretical work, we have used computer simulations to evaluate (and in some cases correct) the assumptions made in this theory. We also have conducted experiments to help us better understand the interplay of different kinds of interactions in multicomponent mixtures.

  3. Cardiovascular pharmacological effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jia-Qing

    2002-12-01

    Tetrandrine, dauricine, daurisoline and neferine are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives isolated from Chinese traditional medicine and herbs. The cardiovascular pharmacological effects and the mechanism of actions of these compounds were reviewed. Tetrandrine isolated from Stephania tetrandra S Moore possesses antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic effects. The antihypertensive effects of tetrandrine have been demonstrated in experimental hypertensive animals and in hypertensive patients. Recent studies showed that in addition to its calcium antagonistic effect, tetrandrine interacted with M receptors. Modulation by M receptor is one of the pharmacological mechanisms of cardiovascular effects of tetrandrine. Dauricine and daurisoloine were isolated from Menispermum dauricum DC. The antiarrhythmic effects of dauricine have been verified in different experimental arrhythmic models and in cardiac arrhythmic patients. Dauricine blocked the cardiac transmembrane Na+,K+ and Ca2+ ion currents. Differing from quinidine and sotalol, which exhibited reverse use-dependent effect, dauricine prolonged APD in a normal use-dependent manner in experimental studies. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline and neferine which is an alkaloid isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, and their mechanisms of actions have also been studied. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline is more potent than that of dauricine. PMID:12466045

  4. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  5. Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tevlin, Ruth; McArdle, Adrian; Chan, Charles K F; Pluvinage, John; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Hu, Michael S; Paik, Kevin J; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Atashroo, David A; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wan, Derrick C; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. PMID:25407120

  6. Uveal Melanoma Patient-Derived Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Carita, Guillaume; Némati, Fariba; Decaudin, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of uveal melanoma (UM) remains poor due to a high risk of metastatic disease. No effective therapies have been described for metastatic UM, and new therapies are needed to improve the outcome for these patients. To achieve this goal, new preclinical animal models are needed. Existing animal models, including genetically engineered mice and orthotopic xenograft models in immunodeficient animals, are inadequate for modelling human disease. In this review, we present the development and characterization of a large panel of UM patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Based on molecular features as identified in patient tumors, i.e. histopathological classification, specific gene mutations, as well as genomic and gene expression profiles, we show that PDXs closely resemble many important genetic and histological aspects of human UM with a remarkable stability over the course of their in vivo maintenance. Our techniques for establishing and maintaining primary UMs as xenograft tumors in immunodeficient mice provide a high degree of genetic conservation between the primary tumor and its xenograft over multiple in vivo passages. These models therefore represent a significant advance in the resources available for drug screening and studies of the pathogenesis of UM.

  7. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  8. Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Dianhydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to the compositions and processes for preparing thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides derived from novel asymmetrical dianhydrides: specifically 2,3,3',4' benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA), and 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (a-6FDA). The a-BTDA anhydride is prepared by Suzuki coupling with catalysts from a mixed anhydride of 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid or 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid with 2,3-dimethylphenylboronic acid or 3,4-dimethylphenylboronic acid respectively, to form 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone which is oxidized to form 2,3,3',4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid followed by cyclodehydration to obtain a-BTDA. The a-6FDA is prepared by nucleophilic triflouoromethylation of 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone with trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane to form 3,4'-(trifluoromethylmethanol)-bis(o-xylene) which is converted to 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene-bis(o-xylene). The 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(o-xylene) is oxidized to the corresponding tetraacid followed by cyclodehydration to yield a-6FDA.

  9. Biological Derived Nanomotors in a ``Domino Fashion''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    For disproportionation of H2 O2 , we also considers an electrokinetic mechanism they appear.So far, the more efficient micro/nanoscale motors are derived from biological systems [2003]. Besides, a control experimenting using 3 stripped Au/Pt/Au rods with catalyzed the composition of H2 O2 , at a similar rate-Walter F Paxton: ``Catalytic Nanomotors,'' JACS, 2004. We also intended to accomaplishes the HCCI quotes from Marcin Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, just in several characters seems as twin of IGNITION through IceCube document project held since Oct 11, 2001 ever concludes as ``saw none'' so they can be follows the ITER/IFMIF. Refers to S29286 file in UI retrieved: ``magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata which is nonvolatile & lower power consist of nanomagnets. Since they are magnetically coupled, logic can be performed by switching, on the other hand in a DOMINO fashion..'' [A. Klenm: ``Fabrication of Magnetic Tunnel Junction-based Spintronic Devices..,'' convocation, Aug 11-14, 2010]. Acknowledgments devotes to BB Mandelbrot: ``Fractal Geometry: What is it & What Does it do?''.

  10. Derivation of the Korean radwaste scaling factor

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang Yong Jee; Hong Joo Ahn; Se Chul Sohn; Sun Ho Han; Ki Seop Choi

    2007-07-01

    The concentrations of several radionuclides in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) drums have to be determined before shipping to disposal facilities. A notice, by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the Korean Government, related to the disposal of LILW drums came into effect at the beginning of 2005, with regards to a radionuclide regulation inside a waste drum. MOST allows for an indirect radionuclide assay using a scaling factor to measure the inventories due to the difficulty of nondestructively measuring the essential {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides inside a drum. That is, a scaling factor calculated through a correlation of the {alpha} or {beta}-emitting nuclide (DTM, Difficult-To-Measure) with a {gamma}-emitting nuclide (ETM, Easy-To-Measure) which has systematically similar properties with DTM nuclides. In this study, radioactive wastes, such as spent resin and dry active waste which were generated at different sites of a PWR and a site of a PHWR type Korean NPP, were partially sampled and analyzed for regulated radionuclides by using radiochemical methods. According to a reactor type and a waste form, the analysis results of each radionuclide were classified. Korean radwaste scaling factor was derived from database of radionuclide concentrations. (authors)

  11. Latent Heating Structures Derived from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R.; Hou, A.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T.; Kummerow, C.; Lang, S.; Olson, W.; Satoh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall is the fundamental variable within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it is both the main forcing term leading to variations in continental and oceanic surface water budgets. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied with rain, modulates large-scale meridional and zonal circulations within the tropics as well as modifying the energetic efficiency of mid-latitude weather systems. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water.This paper focuses on the retrieval of latent heat release from satellite measurements generated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 0. The TRMM observatory, whose development was a joint US-Japan space endeavor, was launched in November 1997. TRMM measurements provide an accurate account of rainfall over the global tropics, information which can be .used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of latent heating across the entire tropical and sub-tropical regions. Various algorithm methodologies for estimating latent heating based on rain rate measurements from TRMM observations are described. The strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms, as well as the latent heating products generated by these algorithms, are also discussed along with validation analyses of the products. The investigation paper provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, and concludes with remarks designed to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval

  12. Antioxidant activities of licorice-derived prenylflavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Lim, Soon Sung

    2012-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis (or licorice) is a widely used Oriental herbal medicine from which the phenylflavonoids dehydroglyasperin C (DGC), dehydroglyasperin D (DGD), and isoangustone A (IsoA) are derived. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of DGC, DGD, and IsoA. The three compounds showed strong ferric reducing activities and effectively scavenged DPPH, ABTS+, and singlet oxygen radicals. Among the three compounds tested, DGC showed the highest free radical scavenging capacity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells as assessed by oxidant-sensitive fluorescent dyes dichlorofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium bromide. In addition, all three compounds effectively suppressed lipid peroxidation in rat tissues as well as H2O2-induced ROS production in hepatoma cells. This study demonstrates that among the three phenylflavonoids isolated from licorice, DGC possesses the most potent antioxidant activity, suggesting it has protective effects against chronic diseases caused by reactive oxygen species as well as potential as an antioxidant food additive. PMID:23346298

  13. Borane derivatives: A New Class of Superhalogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devleena; Pathak, Biswarup; Ahuja, Rajeev; Jena, Purusottam

    2012-02-01

    Halogens have the largest electron affinities of all elements in the periodic table, that of Cl being the highest, namely 3.6 eV. Superhalogens have electron affinities that far exceed that of halogens. Based on density functional theory calculations, we show that the Wade-Mingo's rule, well known for describing the stability of closo-boranes (BnHn^2-), can be used to design a new class of superhalogens by tailoring the size and composition of borane derivatives. These superhalogens do not have to have either a metal or a halogen atom unlike conventional superhalogens. We show this by taking B12H13 and CB11H12 as examples. Also, these superhalogens can be used as building blocks of hyperhalogens of the form M(B12H13)2 and M(CB11H12)2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs). This finding opens the door to an untapped source of superhalogens and weakly coordinating anions with potential applications.

  14. [Sulphonylurea derivatives or insulin with metformin?].

    PubMed

    Tack, Cees J J; van de Laar, Floris A

    2014-01-01

    If pharmacological treatment of glycaemia with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes fails, a second agent is advised, however, the optimal choice is unclear. Most guidelines suggest the addition of sulphonylurea (SU) derivatives as the first option, but sometimes insulin is preferred as there have been doubts concerning the cardiovascular safety of SUs. From a large Veterans Administration (VA) registry study, Roumie et al. extracted patients on metformin who received additional treatment with either SU (majority) or insulin, and compared the number of cardiovascular endpoints over the subsequent 7-year period. The number of endpoints was higher in the metformin+insulin group than in the metformin+SU group, with a relative risk of 1.3. The authors conclude that when compared with the addition of SU the addition of insulin to metformin is associated with an elevated risk of a cardiovascular endpoint. While the authors have performed multiple adjustments for potential differences in the two treatment groups, this is in fact a retrospective cohort study and hence selection bias cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the current guidelines/practice of adding SU to metformin is at least as safe as adding insulin and should not be changed. PMID:25308229

  15. Occupationally derived chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Wolff, M S

    1983-01-01

    Exogenously derived chemicals have been widely reported in breast milk. Chemicals typically found in occupational exposures, including trace metals, solvents, and halogenated hydrocarbons, are reviewed, in terms of milk partition factors, potential infant exposures, and possible infant health effects. In addition to ingestion of a chemical from breast milk, an infant incurs a neonatal body burden of a chemical due to transplacental migration from maternal blood. For trace metals, neonatal blood levels are similar to maternal blood levels. Partition of metals to milk is less efficient, but nevertheless can contribute significantly to an infant's body burden. For lipid-soluble pesticide residues and halogenated biphenyls, neonatal body burden is much less than that of the mother, but transfer to milk is efficient, due to the high proportion of milk fat. It is suggested that potential organic mercury toxicity can be estimated from concentration in maternal blood or milk. For other chemicals, available data are not sufficient to evaluate short- or long-term health effects. However, for many halogenated hydrocarbons, concentrations in normal human milk would permit infant exposure above guidelines for allowable daily intake set by the World Health organization. PMID:6404163

  16. Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, S.; Kühn, R.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of adequately modeling credit risk has once again been highlighted in the recent financial crisis. Defaults tend to cluster around times of economic stress due to poor macro-economic conditions, but also by directly triggering each other through contagion. Although credit default swaps have radically altered the dynamics of contagion for more than a decade, models quantifying their impact on systemic risk are still missing. Here, we examine contagion through credit default swaps in a stylized economic network of corporates and financial institutions. We analyse such a system using a stochastic setting, which allows us to exploit limit theorems to exactly solve the contagion dynamics for the entire system. Our analysis shows that, by creating additional contagion channels, CDS can actually lead to greater instability of the entire network in times of economic stress. This is particularly pronounced when CDS are used by banks to expand their loan books (arguing that CDS would offload the additional risks from their balance sheets). Thus, even with complete hedging through CDS, a significant loan book expansion can lead to considerably enhanced probabilities for the occurrence of very large losses and very high default rates in the system. Our approach adds a new dimension to research on credit contagion, and could feed into a rational underpinning of an improved regulatory framework for credit derivatives.

  17. Antihypertensive peptides derived from egg proteins.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2006-06-01

    There have been studies of antihypertensive peptides derived from food proteins, but very few described the production of bioactive peptides from egg proteins. The first 2 antihypertensive peptides isolated in egg were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of ovalbumin. They correspond to the sequences Phe-Arg-Ala-Asp-His-Pro-Phe-Leu (ovokinin) and Arg-Ala-Asp-His-Phe-Leu (ovokinin 2-7). Both exhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilatory activity. Ovokinin (2-7) had higher antihypertensive potency than ovokinin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Modifications in the sequence of ovokinin (2-7) improved the bioavailability of this peptide. It was also demonstrated that different ovalbumin hydrolysates can inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). We recently obtained an egg white hydrolysate that inhibited the enzyme in vitro. It was obtained by treating egg white with pepsin and it exhibited antihypertensive activity in SHR. Some ACE-inhibitory peptides obtained from this hydrolysate (Tyr-Arg-Glu-Glu-Arg-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Leu, Arg-Ala-Asp-His-Pro-Phe-Leu, and Ile-Val-Phe) also showed antihypertensive activity in these rats. The egg products mentioned could be used as functional food ingredients with potential therapeutic benefit in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. PMID:16702303

  18. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    PubMed Central

    Siwetz, Monika; Blaschitz, Astrid; Kremshofer, Julia; Bilic, Jelena; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine. PMID:24771984

  19. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  20. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.