Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Conventional pad-dry-cure (non-scCO2) and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) application methods were investigated to study the effectiveness of a phosphazene derivative as a flame retardant on cotton fabric. 1,1',4,5-tetrahydrotrispiro[1,3,2-diazaphosphole-2,2'-[1,3,5,2,4,6]triazatriphosphinine-4...
Frederick F. Stewart
2010-12-01
A review of the literature published in 2009 shows an increase in the number of publications addressing phosphazene chemistry over 2008, which suggests a continued strong interest in these intriguing materials. Prominently is the emphasis in the bioactive and biocompatible nature of these materials; although many other applications also exist. Phosphazenes are formed from a phosphorus and nitrogen backbone with pendant group attachments at phosphorus. Typically, they are drawn with alternating single and double bonds between the alternating phosphorus and nitrogen atoms. However, unlike the familiar poly(acetylenes) or poly(thiophenes), the phosphazene backbone is not electrically conductive as there are orbital nodes at phosphorus. Thus, electron delocalization occurs between phosphorus atoms, but not through them. The result of this bonding is a highly flexible backbone that can be controlled through adoit pendant group attachment revealing numerous materials and structures. In this review, novel aspects of the chemistry, structure, and applications of phosphazenes will be discussed.
Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W
2013-11-26
An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paciorek, K. L.; Harris, D. H.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.
1980-01-01
The synthesis of a specific phosphazene diamine was optimized, other phosphorus-containing diamines were prepared, and their effect upon certain characteristics of epoxy resins, prepared via reaction with MY 720, in particular, char yield at elevated temperatures was evaluated. The synthesis of the phosphazene diamine resulting from the interaction of methylenedianline with 4,4'-bis(diphenylphosphino)biphenyl was simplified into a one step process giving 77 percent yield of the pure product. Using this procedure, a related diamine containing bis(diphenylphosphino)methane was obtained in a 70 percent yield. Preparation of another class of phosphorus containing amines based upon p-aminophenyldiphenyl-phosphine was unsuccessful; the inability to produce p-aminophenylithlum was responsible for this failure. Seven epoxy resins employing Araldite MY 720, diaminodiphenylsulfone, and two of the phosphorus containing diamines were prepared, characterized, and their char yield capacity at elevated temperatures assessed. Based on these investigations, the resins containing phosphorus appear to exhibit significantly better char formation characteristics than materials hardened using conventional amines, without impairing the other properties measured.
Phosphazenes [book chapter, 2013
Stewart, Frederick F.
2013-04-29
The unique chemistry of phosphazenes continues to be developed. A phosphazene, which is defined as a P(V) and N structure with these atoms attached to each other by double bonds, exhibits a unique two-step general synthesis in which the P=N skeleton is initially formed, followed by nucleophilic substitution to provide final form. In general, a pure inorganic phosphazene is assembled, typically with halide substitution at P. The lability of the P-X bond allows for substitution with a nearly unlimited variety of nucleophiles. Final substitution can yield stable structures amenable to both characterization and function. This article discusses some of the more recent developments in phosphazene chemistry and seeks to provide the reader a picture of the current state of the art.
Phosphazene membranes for gas separations
Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.
2006-07-11
A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.
Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); McCaffrey, Robert R. (Milford, MA); Simpson, Brenda M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)
1994-01-01
A composite is produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite.
Carboranylmethylene-substituted phosphazenes and polymers thereof
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allcock, H. R.; Scopelianos, A. G. (inventors)
1984-01-01
Carboranylmethylene-substituted cyclophosphazenes are described which can be thermally polymerized into carboranylmethylene-substituted phosphazene polymers. The polymers are useful as thermally stable coatings. Also, due to the characteristics of these polymers in acting as a ligand for transition metals, metalocarboranylmethylene phosphazene polymers are described which can act as immobilized catalyst systems, and are electrically conductive and superconductive.
Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications
Eric J. Dufek; Mark L. Stone; Kevin L. Gering; Frederick F. Stewart; David Jamison; Aaron D. Wilson; Lucia M. Petkovic; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins
2014-12-01
The use of hybrid cyclic phosphazene polymer/graphite anodes, where the phosphazene serves as distributed loci for Li deposition, has been investigated. Capacity within the hybrid system was found to occur reversibly in distinct regions. At the most positive voltages, above 0.06 V vs Li/Li+, the capacity was associated mostly with Li+ intercalation into graphite. In the most negative region, deposition of Li within the polymer was the predominate mechanism. A transitional region is inferred by the data whereby bulk aggregation or clustering of Li atoms occurs in proximity to the phosphazene sites that then serve as a template for more widespread population of Li within the anode at higher voltages, akin to a nucleation process. In full cells with a mixed oxide cathode, controlling the extent of Li deposition by limiting the charging voltage to 4.45 V enabled repeated cycling with no loss in capacity. Capacities as high as 183 mAh g-1 have been achieved for systems containing as little as 10% graphite while retaining coulombic efficiencies of 98% over 50 cycles. This level of cycling equates to the deposition of 7.4 Li per cyclic phosphazene.
Phosphazenes for energy production and storage: Applied and exploratory synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, Andrew R.
This dissertation involves progress toward phosphazene-based ion conducting materials with a focus on structure-property relationships to improve these materials. This dissertation also includes some more fundamental exploratory syntheses to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover structure-property relationships that may be useful in designing compounds to fulfill important technical requirements. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to polymers and polyphosphazenes as well as ion-conducting materials and the contribution of polyphosphazene chemistry to that field. Chapter 1 also provides a brief introduction to some analytical techniques. Chapter 2 begins with the use of organophosphates as stand-alone non-volatile and fire-retardant liquid electrolyte media for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as well as their use as plasticizer in polymer gel electrolytes intended for application in lithium batteries. These organophosphates are the smallest phosphorus containing model molecules investigated in this dissertation. A homologous series of oligoalkyleneoxy substituted phosphates was synthesized and the effect of the substituent chain length on viscosity and conductivity was investigated. Small, test-scale DSSCs were constructed and showed promising results with overall cell efficiencies of up to 3.6% under un-optimized conditions. Conductivity measurements were performed on polymer gel-electrolytes based on poly[bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene] (MEEP) plasticized with the phosphate with the best combination of properties, using a system loaded with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the charge carrier. In chapter 3 the effect of the cation of the charge carrier species on the anionic conductivity of DSSC type electrolytes is evaluated using hexakis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)cyclotriphosphazene (MEE-trimer) as a small molecule model for MEEP. The iodides of lithium, sodium, and ammonium as well as the ionic liquid, 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) were tested in various electrolyte concentrations. After identifying PMII as the most efficient salt additive for promoting anion conduction in the MEE-trimer systems, it was tested in MEEP-based DSSC polymer-gel electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC). The MEEP/PMII type electrolytes were compared against and outperformed similar formulations based on poly(ethylene oxide). Chapter 4 extends the concept of poly[(oligoethyleneoxy)phosphazene] electrolytes by the synthesis of MEEP-analogues with various ammonium ions covalently bound to the polymer side chains in order to create a single-ion conducting polyelectrolyte. In this case iodide is the only ion that is free to move and carry charge since the cation is bound to the polymer. Two candidates from the series of polyelectrolytes were selected for extensive study, one in which the ammonium ion has a hexyl group, and another in which the ammonium ion has an MEE-group. The polymers were characterized by dielectric spectroscopy, X-ray scattering, and density functional theory calculations. In chapter 5 the concept of polyphosphazene based polyelectrolytes is extended further by quaternization of nitrogen atoms that are a part of the polymer backbone rather than a pendent group. The feasibility of the concept is first explored using cyclic-trimeric phosphazenes as small molecule models and is then extended to high polymeric systems. Chapter 6 begins a new section of exploratory synthesis meant to probe the limits of phosphazene chemistry and discover useful structure-property relationships as well as to improve on the synthetic procedures of the past. Thus, in chapter 6 a series of cyclotriphosphazenes is synthesized for evaluation as compounds with the ability to complex to metal surfaces or to form ceramic materials after pyrolysis. Several known compounds are resynthesized, many with improvements over previously published procedures either in yield or simplicity of reaction conditions. Also, two new cyclotriphosphazenes were synthesized in an attempt to produce a catechol-l
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tümer, Yasemin; Asmafiliz, Nuran; K?l?ç, Zeynel; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yasemin Koç, L.; Aç?k, Leyla; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Solak, Ali Osman; Öner, Ya?mur; Dündar, Devrim; Yavuz, Makbule
2013-10-01
The gradually Cl replacement reactions of spirocyclic mono (1 and 2) and bisferrocenyl cyclotriphosphazenes (3-5) with the potassium salt of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (potassium vanillinate) gave mono (1a-5a), geminal (gem-1b-5b), non-geminal (cis-1b, cis-5b and trans-2b-5b), tri (1c-5c) and tetra-substituted phosphazenes (1d-5d). Some phosphazenes have stereogenic P-center(s). The chirality of 4c was verified using chiral HPLC column. Electrochemical behaviors were influenced only by the number of ferrocene groups, but not the length of the amine chains and the substituent(s). The structures of the new phosphazenes were determined by FTIR, MS, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectral data. The solid-state structures of cis-1b and 4d were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The twelve phosphazene derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds 5a, cis-1b and 2c exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against G(+) and G(-) bacteria. In addition, it was found that overall gem-1b inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds 1d, 2d and 4d were tested in HeLa cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 2d had cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell in the first 48 h. Moreover, interactions between compounds 2a, gem-1b, gem-2b, cis-1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 1d, 2d and 4d, and pBR322 plasmid DNA were investigated.
Computational Study of Intramolecular Heterocyclic Ring Formation with Cyclic Phosphazenes
Miller, Whelton A.; Moore, Preston B.
2015-01-01
Polyphosphazenes, because of their unique properties, have generated many opportunities to explore a variety of applications. These applications include areas such as biomedical research (e.g. drug delivery) and material science (e.g. fire-resistant polymers). Phosphazenes potentially have more variations then benzene analogues because of different substitution patterns. Here we present A computational study of the chemical modifications to a group of cyclic phosphazenes mainly hexachlorophosphazene (PNCl2)3. This study focuses on the relative energies of reactivity of hexachlorophosphazene to understand their geometry and the complexes they likely form. We compare diols, amino alcohols, and diamines with a carbon linker of 1-7 atoms. These heteroatom chains are attached to a single phosphorus atom or adjoining phosphorus atoms to form ring structures of geminal, vicinal (cis), and vicinal (trans) moieties. We find that the reactivities of “heteroatom caps” are predicted to be O,O (diol) > N,O (amino alcohol) > N,N (diamine). These results can be used to predict energetics and thus the stability of new compounds for biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:26702403
Design, synthesis, and molecular recognition of phosphazene materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunderland, Nicolas Jean
2000-08-01
This thesis represents several innovative approaches in the modification of polymers and solid-state hosts in order to obtain novel microstructures and properties. The first approach involves the use of cyclotriphosphazenes, a versatile class of hosts that generate tunnel clathrate adducts. Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene was found to form hexagonal host-guest inclusion adducts (clathrates) with the polymers: cis-1,4-polybutadiene, trans-1,4-polyisoprene, polyethylene, poly(ethylene oxide) and polytetrahydrofuran. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of both the polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide) inclusion adduct revealed the presence of individual polymer chains extended along tunnel-like voids within the host lattice. Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene can entrap and separate various polymers and small molecules within its tunnels based on their microstructure, molecular weight, and end-group functionality. Inclusion adducts with various polymers show a preferential inclusion for the polymer that will best stabilize the hexagonal structure of the host. Separations based on end-groups show preferential inclusion of the species with the more hydrophobic end-groups. Polymers and small molecule hydrocarbons with higher molecular weights are preferentially included within the tunnel compared to analogues with lower molecular weights. The synthesis and inclusion properties of a new clathration host, tris(3,6-dimethylphenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene, is described. The guest-free structure has a triclinic unit cell. The dioxane inclusion adduct crystallizes in a monoclinic system. The guest occupies a cage-like void located between the phosphazene rings. The poly(tetramethylene oxide) adduct crystallizes in a hexagonal system, with the guest located in tunnels created along the c-axis. Adduct formation also with tetrahydrofuran, methylene chloride, polyethylene and cis-polybutadiene. Modification of polymer properties is investigated by using a Staudinger reaction to attach cyclic phosphazene trimers bearing azide groups to phosphorus(III) atoms pendent to an organic polymer or co-polymer backbone. Diphenyl- p-styrylphosphine was polymerized via free radical or anionic methods and subsequently reacted with N3P3(OCH2CF 3)5(N3) and N3P3(OC 6H5)(N3). Fire retardance is improved these homopolymers, and also for polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) co-polymers after reaction with the azide cyclic trimers. The ability to control the molecular weight and architecture of poly[bis(methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene], a known solid polymer electrolyte, allows for a systematic study of the effect of molecular weight and architecture on conductivity. The mechanism of ion transport in these linear and star-branched systems is discussed.
Homogeneous nucleophilic radiofluorination and fluorination with phosphazene hydrofluorides.
Mathiessen, Bente; Jensen, Andreas T I; Zhuravlev, Fedor
2011-07-01
A series of phosphazenium hydrofluorides, P(1)(tBu)·[(18/19)F]HF, P(1)(tOct)·[(18/19)F]HF, P(2)(Et)·[(18/19)F]HF, and P(4)(tBu)·[(18/19)F]HF, was synthesized. The radioactive phosphazenium [(18)F]hydrofluorides were obtained by the one-step formation and trapping of gaseous [(18)F]HF with the respective phosphazene bases. The [(19)F] isotopomers were prepared from the corresponding phosphazene bases and Et(3)N·3HF. Under the design of experiment (DoE)-optimized conditions, P(2)(Et)·HF and P(4)(tBu)·HF fluorinated alkyl chlorides, bromides, and pseudohalides in 76-98% yield, but gave lower yields with iodides and electron-deficient arenes. DoE models showed that fluorination can be performed in glass vessels, and that the reactivity of P(2)(Et)·HF and P(4)(tBu)·HF is dominated by solvent polarity but is insensitive to water to at least 2 equiv. In contrast, P(1)(tBu)·HF and P(1)(tOct)·HF were unstable towards autofluorolysis. DFT calculations were performed to rationalize this finding in terms of diminished steric bulk, higher Parr's electrophilicity, and chemical hardness of P(1)(R)H(+). The corresponding radiofluorination reaction gave no valid DoE model but displayed similar substrate scope. High specific activity and excellent radiochemical yields with various pseudohalides (81-91%) suggest that the proposed radiofluorination methodology can complement the current [(18)F]KF/Kryptofix methods, particularly in the areas for which nonpolar reaction conditions are required. PMID:21626586
Unsaturated Phosphazenes as Co-Solvents for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes
Mason K Harrup; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Eric J Dufek; Kevin L Gering; Thomas A Luther
2014-07-01
This paper covers the synthesis and use of a related family of cyclic phosphazene solvents containing terminal unsaturations. A brief synopsis on the synthesis and purification of these compounds is given. Data will be presented that covers physical and chemical properties of the phosphazenes as well as the properties when blended at various level with representative organic carbonate baseline solvents. Cycling data will be presented using commercially available electrode couples (LRMR/C) as well as studies focusing on cell performance at early lifetime as well as after repeated cycles. Conclusions regarding the effect of the unsaturated phosphazene compounds and their interaction with various alkyl carbonates, and their effect on cell performance will be presented.
Water Transport Polymers -- Structure/Property Relationships of a Series of Phosphazene Polymers
Christopher J. Orme; Eric S. Peterson; William F. Bauer; Frederick F. Stewart; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; John R. Klaehn; John E. Wey
2010-01-01
A study was undertaken to explore the water passing properties of a series of phosphazene polymers versus attached pendant group structure. Pendant groups containing different numbers ethyleneoxy groups were synthetically attached to the backbone of phosphazene polymers. Phosphazene polymers facilitate these types of studies because during their synthesis the polymer backbone is formed first and then the desired pendant groups are attached through nucleophilic substitution. For these studies, four polymer series were synthesized and tested for their water passing properties. The polymers contained different amounts of ethyleneoxy units. Two polymer families were synthesized and compared in this work. The critical difference in these two series is that one contained pendant groups with aromatic rings, in addition to the oligioethyleneoxy moieties, while the other does not. Polymers with phenyl group-containing pendant groups exhibited poor water permeability if they possessed fewer than six ethyleneoxy units. Polymers with more than six ethyleneoxy units inserted between the phenyl ring (tail) and the polymeric backbone, exhibited reasonable water permeability. Two additional series of mixed pendant group polymers were synthesized and the water passing properties of the phosphazenes varied in proportion to the hydrophilic to hydrophobic balance induced by each individual pendant group. A final study, polymers with shorter pendant groups, is shown to fully demonstrate the effect of pendant group on water permeability. These studies suggest that the polyphosphazenes may be tailored for specific water passing applications.
A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis
Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart
2013-03-01
Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).
Haddon, R.C.; Chichester-Hicks, S.V.; Mayo, S.L.
1988-06-01
The synthesis and properties of a new series of 1,9-diamino-substituted phenalene complexes of the cyclotriphosphazene ring system is described. One of the compounds is shown to be amphoteric, and this behavior allows an examination of the response of the phosphazene linkage to variations in exocyclic charge density at the spiro center in a plane perpendicular to the cyclotriphosphazene ring system. /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy indicates that substituent lone pairs with this orientation are not effective in long-range delocalization within the phosphazene linkage (in accord with their theoretical model of spiro delocalization). An x-ray crystal structure of one compound (7) identifies the presence of clathrated molecules of chloroform together with doubly hydrogen-bonded pairs of the phenalene-phosphazene complexes in the lattice. Crystal data for 7 (C/sub 13/H/sub 8/Cl/sub 4/N/sub 5/P/sub 3/ /times/ CHCl/sub 3/): monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//c, a = 12.401 (4) /angstrom/, b = 28.404 (6) /angstrom/, c = 12.962 (3) /angstrom/, /beta/ = 91.76 (2)/degree/, V = 4564 (2) /angstrom//sup 3/, Z = 8, R = 0.050 for 4525 reflections. 24 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.
Reich, Hans J.
/mol represents an upper limit on the strength of the hydrogen bond. Injection of ethereal HCl or HBF4Stabilization of Ketone and Aldehyde Enols by Formation of Hydrogen Bonds to Phosphazene Enolates, which is characteristic of low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHB),6 we have identified it as the enol
Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries
Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher
2011-10-01
There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.
Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras
2014-10-01
The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.
Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] is a potent adjuvant for intradermal immunization
Andrianov, Alexander K.; DeCollibus, Daniel P.; Gillis, Helice A.; Kha, Henry H.; Marin, Alexander; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh; Mutwiri, George
2009-01-01
Intradermal immunization using microfabricated needles represents a potentially powerful technology, which can enhance immune responses and provide antigen sparing. Solid vaccine formulations, which can be coated onto microneedle patches suitable for simple administration, can also potentially offer improved shelf-life. However the approach is not fully compatible with many vaccine adjuvants including alum, the most common adjuvant used in the vaccine market globally. Here, we introduce a polyphosphazene immuno adjuvant as a biologically potent and synergistic constituent of microneedle-based intradermal immunization technology. Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP, functions both as a vaccine adjuvant and as a key microfabrication material. When used as part of an intradermal delivery system for hepatitis B surface antigen, PCPP demonstrates superior activity in pigs compared to intramascular administration and significant antigen sparing potential. It also accelerates the microneedle fabrication process and reduces its dependence on the use of surfactants. In this way, PCPP-coated microneedles may enable effective intradermal vaccination from an adjuvanted patch delivery system. PMID:19864632
An e.s.c.a. study of atomic oxygen interactions with phosphazene-coated polyimide films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fewell, Larry L.; Finney, Lorie
1991-01-01
Metallic as well as most nonmetallic materials experience oxidation and mass loss via surface erosion in low earth orbit as shown in previous Space Shuttle flights. This study is an evaluation of select polyphosphazene polymers and their resistance to atomic oxygen attack. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis examinations of the surfaces of polyphosphazene coatings were monitored for microstructural changes induced during exposures to atomic oxygen. Sample exposures in oxygen plasmas and O(3P) beam were compared as to their effect on surface compositional changes in the polyphosphazene coating. High resolution line scans revealed rearrangements in the polymer backbone and scissioning reactions involving fluorocarbon units of long chain fluoroalkoxy pendant groups. Atom percents and peak areas of all species provided a detailed profile of the microstructural changes induced in phosphazene polymers as a result of exposures to atomic oxygen.
Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba
2013-09-01
Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.
Dar, Arshud; Tipu, Masroor; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andy; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh
2015-12-01
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major infectious diseases adversely affecting the poultry industry of the United States and Canada. Currently, no effective and safe vaccine is available for the control of IBH virus (IBHV) infection in chickens. However, based on the excellent safety and immunogenic profiles of experimental veterinary vaccines developed with the use of new generation adjuvants, we hypothesized that characterization of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV or its capsid protein hexon as antigens, along with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and avian beta defensin 2 (ABD2) as vaccine adjuvants, will be helpful in development of an effective and safe vaccine formulation for IBH. Our data demonstrated that experimental administration of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV and a mixture of PCEP with or without ABD2 as an adjuvant induced significantly higher antibody responses compared with other vaccine formulations, while hexon protein-based vaccine formulations showed relatively lower levels of antibody responses. Thus, a vaccine formulation containing inactivated IBHV with PCEP or a mixture of PCEP and ABD2 (with a reduced dosage of PCEP) as an adjuvant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate. However, in order to overcome the risks associated with whole virus inactivated vaccines, characterization of additional viral capsid proteins, including fiber protein and penton of IBHV along with hexon protein in combination with more new generation adjuvants, will be helpful in further improvements of vaccines against IBHV infection. PMID:26629626
Noller, Johannes
2012-07-01
We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field ?, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ?{sub ?}??{sup ?}?,??,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(?,?{sub ?}??{sup ?}?). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for ? ? ?+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.
Johannes Noller
2012-03-29
We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noller, Johannes
2012-07-01
We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ??phi??phi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,??phi??phi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi ? phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.
Dielectric and absorbate effects on the optical properties of phosphazenes
Ferris, K.F.; Samuels, W.D.; Morita, Y.; Exarhos, G.J.
1993-12-01
The optical response of polyphosphazenes can be directly related to the {pi} (out-of-plane) and {pi}{prime} (in-plane) bonding interactions intrinsic to the electronic structure of these materials. Altering this structure either by hydrogen bonding or absorbate effects, affects both the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities. In this paper, we have performed electronic structure calculations on the cyclic molecules, P{sub 3}N{sub 3}(NHCH{sub 3}){sub 6}, P{sub 3}N{sub 3}(SCH{sub 3}){sub 6}, P{sub 3}N{sub 3}(OCH{sub 3}){sub 6} and P{sub 4}N{sub 4}(NHCH{sub 3}){sub 8} as model systems for the polymer. Charge distribution arguments are discussed to explain the influence of a polarizing electric field on the {pi} bonding systems, and are used to suggest methods to enhance their nonlinearities.
Synthesis and thermal stability of carborane containing phosphazenes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fewell, L. L.; Basi, R. J.; Parker, J. A.
1983-01-01
Carborane substituted polyphosphazenes were prepared by the thermal polymerization of phenyl-carboranyl penta chlorocyclotriphosphazene. Successive isothermal vacuum pyrolyses were conducted on the polymer and examined for structural changes by infrared spectroscopy. The degradation products were ascertained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. It was found that the presence of the carborane group improves the thermal stability of the polymer by retarding the ring chain equilibrium processes of decomposition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jewson, Stephen; Brix, Anders
2005-04-01
Weather Derivative Valuation is the first book to cover all the meteorological, statistical, financial and mathematical issues that arise in the pricing and risk management of weather derivatives. There are chapters on meteorological data and data cleaning, the modelling and pricing of single weather derivatives, the modelling and valuation of portfolios, the use of weather and seasonal forecasts in the pricing of weather derivatives, arbitrage pricing for weather derivatives, risk management, and the modelling of temperature, wind and precipitation. Specific issues covered in detail include the analysis of uncertainty in weather derivative pricing, time-series modelling of daily temperatures, the creation and use of probabilistic meteorological forecasts and the derivation of the weather derivative version of the Black-Scholes equation of mathematical finance. Written by consultants who work within the weather derivative industry, this book is packed with practical information and theoretical insight into the world of weather derivative pricing.
Introduction Derivative Expansion
Introduction Derivative Expansion Examples Generalization: Higher dimensions + thermal effects Electromagnetic field and imperfect mirrors Conclusions A Derivative Expansion for the Casimir Effect C. D. Fosco1-10-2012 C. D. Fosco. In collaboration with: F. D. Lombardo and F. D. Mazzitelli Derivative Expansion #12
T. Matolcsi; P. Van
2006-10-23
A four dimensional treatment of nonrelativistic space-time gives a natural frame to deal with objective time derivatives. In this framework some well known objective time derivatives of continuum mechanics appear as Lie-derivatives. Their coordinatized forms depends on the tensorial properties of the relevant physical quantities. We calculate the particular forms of objective time derivatives for scalars, vectors, covectors and different second order tensors from the point of view of a rotating observer. The relation of substantial, material and objective time derivatives is treated.
Generalized \\delta-Derivations
Kaygorodov, Ivan
2011-01-01
We defined generalized \\delta-derivations of algebra A as linear mapping \\chi associated with usual \\delta-derivation \\phi by the rule \\chi(xy)=\\delta(\\chi(x)y+x\\phi(y))=\\delta(\\phi(x)y+x\\chi(y)) for any x,y \\in A. We described generalized \\delta-derivations of prime alternative algebras, prime Lie algebras and superalgebras, unital algebras, and semisimple finite-dimensional Jordan superalgebras. In this cases we proved that generalized \\delta-derivation is a generalized derivation or \\delta-derivation. After that we described \\delta-superderivations of superalgebras >, arising from prime alternative algebras, prime Lie algebras and superalgebras, unital algebras, and semisimple finite-dimensional Jordan superalgebras. In the end, we constructed new examples of non-trivial \\delta-derivations of Lie algebras.
Endohedral Metallofullerene Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorn, Harry C. (Inventor); Iezzi, Erick B. (Inventor); Duchamp, James (Inventor)
2008-01-01
Trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives and their preparation are described. The trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives have the general formula A(sub 3-n)X(sub n)@C(sub m)(R) where n ranges from 0 to 3, A and X may be trivalent metals and may be either rare earth metal or group IIIB metals, m is between about 60 and about 200, and R is preferably an organic group. Derivatives where the R group forms cyclized derivatives with the fullerene cage are also described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsina, C.; Schweizer, B.
1988-06-01
A binary operation ø on probability distribution functions is derivable from a binary operation on random variables if there exists a two-place function V such that, for any distribution functions F and G, there exist random variables X and Y, defined on a common probability space, such that F and G are the distribution functions of X and Y , respectively, and ø( F, G) is the distribution function of V ( X, Y). We show that if ø( F, G) = cF + (1 - c) G, 0 < c < 1, then ø is not derivable; similarly,? (F,G) = sqrt {FG} is not derivable.
Rüther, Henrique
2007-01-01
The amounts outstanding of credit derivatives have grown exponentially over the past years, and these financial intruments that allow market participants to trade credit risk have become very popular in Europe and in the ...
Lin, Shaowei
2014-07-02
The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana
2015-02-01
Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.
Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...
Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altmann, Karl-Heinz
Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.
de Lange, Titia
Telomeric 30 Overhangs Derive from Resection by Exo1 and Apollo and Fill-In by POT1b-Associated CST and main- tenance of mammalian telomeres, but its synthesis must be regulated to avoid excessive resection of the 50 end, which could cause telomere shortening. How this balance is achieved in mammals has not been
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-05-29
... alternatives. \\5\\ 71 FR 5155 (February 2, 2012). C. 1998 IRPS This proposed rule is consistent with a 1998... promulgation of this proposed rule. \\7\\ 76 FR 37030 (June 24, 2011). First, the Board asked if it should... derivatives transactions independently. \\9\\ 77 FR 5416 (Feb. 3, 2012). Question One. The Board asked if...
Biotechnology and derived products
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...
Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Gaurav; Singla, Rajiv
2015-01-01
Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered and assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, in patients with firm/hard local site reactions, which do not regress after cessation of insulin injection at the affected site. Search strategy: PubMed was searched with terms “insulin amyloidosis”. Full text of articles available in English was reviewed. Relevant cross references were also reviewed. Last search was made on October 15, 2014. PMID:25593849
Derived enriched uranium market
Rutkowski, E.
1996-12-01
The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.
Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.
2012-01-01
Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…
6-Bromocholesterol derivatives
Flanagan, R.J.
1984-02-07
Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.
Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.
2015-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.
Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koní?ová, R.; Ernestová, M.; Jedináková-K?ížová, V.; Král, V.
2003-01-01
Radioactive labelling of guanidine-bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy—texaphyrin with selected radionuclides (166Ho and 90Y) is described. A basic characterisation of studied porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour in a wide range of pH values and data on holmium and yttrium complexation with these compounds was probed using UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The labelling yield of these macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal: ligand ratio and time of incubation. Optimal reaction conditions for formation of porphyrin and texaphyrin radioactive complexes were determined by thin layer chromatography with the detection of ?- activity. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was examined as well. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4 -) because radiopharmaceuticals labelled with isotopes 186Re and 188Re play an important role in therapy of numerous tumour diseases. The possibility of applying ReO4 - anion directly for labelling purposes, without the necessity of its reduction to lower oxidation state, was not proved.
Four novel spirooxazacamphorsultam derivatives.
Wilke, Burkhardt I; Goodenough, Angela K; Bausch, Cory C; Cline, Erika N; Abrams, M Leigh; Fayer, Effrat L; Swenson, Dale C; Cermak, Diana M
2010-12-01
The chiral compounds (6aS,9S,10aR)-11,11-dimethyl-5,5-dioxo-2,3,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-6a,9-methanooxazaolo[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-10(7H)-one, C(12)H(17)NO(4)S, (1), (7aS,10S,11aR)-12,12-dimethyl-6,6-dioxo-3,4,9,10-tetrahydro-7H-7a,10-methano-2H-1,3-oxazino[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-11(8H)-one, C(13)H(19)NO(4)S, (2), (6aS,9S,10R,10aR)-11,11-dimethyl-5,5-dioxo-2,3,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-6H-6a,9-methanooxazolo[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-10-ol, C(12)H(19)NO(4)S, (3), and (7aS,10S,11R,11aR)-12,12-dimethyl-6,6-dioxo-3,4,8,9,10,11-hexahydro-7H-7a-methano-2H-[1,3]oxazino[2,3-i][2,1]benzisothiazol-11-ol, C(13)H(21)NO(4)S, (4), consist of a camphor core with a five-membered spirosultaoxazolidine or six-membered spirosultaoxazine, as both their keto and hydroxy derivatives. In each structure, the molecules are linked via hydrogen bonding to the sulfonyl O atoms, forming chains in the unit-cell b-axis direction. The chains interconnect via weak C-H...O interactions. The keto compounds have very similar packing but represent the highest melting [507-508?K for (1)] and lowest melting [457-458?K for (2)] solids. PMID:21123893
Quantum mechanics of higher derivative systems and total derivative terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaminaga, Yasuhito
1996-08-01
A general theory is presented of the classical and quantum mechanics of singular, non-autonomous, higher derivative systems. It is shown that adding a total derivative to a Lagrangian does not materially affect either, (a) the canonical analysis of the system, or (b) its quantum mechanics.
Biomolecule derived nanostructured arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhen
During the last decade, intensive research have been reported on biomimetic approaches towards achieving mono-dispersed nanoparticles, and building self-assembled system out of those (organizing nanoparticles). However the development of this research avenue is being hindered by the limited knowledge and very few practical, efficient, cost-effective approaches for implementation of the bio-derived arrays into engineering practice. The objective of this work is to biomimeticaly form nanocomposite materials using a simple, rapid, inexpensive, scalable approach, which is general enough and not limited to colloidal particle self-assembly. Throughout the studies, we have developed a universally applicable process, which is to fabricate macro-biomolecular arrays on solid substrates based on the convective self-assembly of colloidal particles. We have demonstrated that protein (ferritin) and virus (phage) arrays were directly deposited onto solid substrates such as glass, silicon wafer, and gold substrate in closed or near closed-packed order. The arrays were further incorporated into a more robust silica matrix, in such that strengthens the thermal stability and provides porous accessibility. After treatment in controlled pyrolysis, the organic protein shell was removed, left mono-dispersed iron-oxide nanoparticles intact on the substrate or in the silica matrix. Both iron-oxide nanoparticles arrays with or without silica matrix have been further characterized to possess superferromagnetic properties at low temperature (15 K), same as that in bulk material. Initial work on protein patterning, through combining either lithography based top-down or bottom-up techniques with our novel deposition approach, was presented as well. Thin film deposition of mesoporous materials using convective self-assembly is another main part in this work. Both silica and carbon mesoporous thin films were successfully formed using the convective self-assembly horizontal-coating approach. We have shown that ultra thin mesoporous film (less than 100 nm) could be obtained through increasing the coating speed with the solution concentration remained same. Combining with lithographically patterned surface, the mesoporous thin films will be well suited for applications for bio-sensing, separations and etc. Studies were also carried out on the transport of fluid and electric current in fluidic channels with size in nanometer range; particular attention was paid on the effect of the electrolyte valence. At these dimensions new physical phenomena begin to occur because the electric double layers formed at the channel walls become comparable to the channel width and the overall wall surface to channel volume ratio increases. Numerical analysis predicts that the electrokinetic transport phenomena differ from multivalent ions to monovalent ions in the nanochannel when double layer overlap is large. This dependence affects the transport of current, fluid and dissolved analytes in a fluidic channel. The valence of the dissolved counterions determines the electric current and fluid flow in a nanochannel by shaping the electrostatic potential distribution. Our calculation shows that in absence of strong adsorption at the wall, divalent counterions lead to greater current and fluid flow than monovalent electrolyte for the same overall ionic strength. The results also indicate that control over the transport processes in fluidic nanochannels can be accomplished through properly selecting and combining electrolytes.
Learning Discrete Mathematics with DERIVE.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hagelgans, Nancy L.
This study describes a discrete mathematics course for second year college students majoring in computer science or mathematics. Students worked in cooperative learning groups on challenging projects using the computer algebra programming language DERIVE. Results indicate that DERIVE allowed students to verify their conjectures, students generally…
What is a fractional derivative?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortigueira, Manuel D.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.
2015-07-01
This paper discusses the concepts underlying the formulation of operators capable of being interpreted as fractional derivatives or fractional integrals. Two criteria for required by a fractional operator are formulated. The Grünwald-Letnikov, Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional derivatives and the Riesz potential are accessed in the light of the proposed criteria. A Leibniz rule is also obtained for the Riesz potential.
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks...Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks...Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...
Elevation Derivatives for National Applications
U.S. Geological Survey
2005-01-01
The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).
Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities
2013-01-01
Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671
Rational design of pyrrolobenzodiazepine derivatives
Kaliszczak, Maciej
2009-11-25
Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) derivatives interact with the minor-groove of DNA to form mono-adducts (monomers) or cross-links (dimers). They show remarkable activity in vitro and in vivo in a wide range of tumour types ...
Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1
ESR studies of radicals derived from tetrahydrofuran derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Share-Wing; Ling, A. Campbell; Waltman, Robert J.; Bargon, Joachim
Free radicals derived from tetrahydrofuran, 2,3- or 2,5-dihydrofuran as well as from some methoxy or mono- and di-methyl derivatives thereof have been generated via hydrogen abstraction via photolytically generated t-butoxy radicals. The g values of these radicals have been determined by ESR spectrometry and the hyperfine splitting constants have been assigned using deuterium labeling. Saturated systems give rise to cyclic alkyl radicals via hydrogen abstraction from the carbon in the a-position to oxygen; unsaturated systems yield cyclic allyl-type radicals.
Drugs derived from phage display
Nixon, Andrew E; Sexton, Daniel J; Ladner, Robert C
2014-01-01
Phage display, one of today’s fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology. PMID:24262785
Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives
José Weberszpil; José Abdalla Helayël-Neto
2015-11-09
Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.
Variational Approach and Deformed Derivatives
Weberszpil, José
2015-01-01
Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved Nether current, are worked out.
Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.
2003-11-11
Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.
Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures
Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)
1986-09-16
Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.
Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures
Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.
1986-09-16
Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.
Informational derivation of Quantum Theory
G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano; P. Perinotti
2011-07-15
Quantum theory can be derived from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms-causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning-define a broad class of theories of information-processing that can be regarded as a standard. One postulate-purification-singles out quantum theory within this class. The main structures of quantum theory, such as the representation of mixed states as convex combinations of perfectly distinguishable pure states, are derived directly from the principles without using the Hilbert space framework.
Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics
Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M
2011-01-01
We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721...721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721...721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with...
Harrup, Mason Kurt; Wertsching, Alan Kevin; Stewart, Frederick Forrest
2000-03-01
In the ceramics community, manipulation of synthetic conditions such as the choice of acid, base or ionic species as catalysts, aging of precursor solutions, and choice of sintering temperatures in the formation of silicate networks are known to produce radically different glass and ceramic morphologies.1 Implementation of these approaches has been attempted for some organic polymer based hybrid nanocomposites2 but not for polyphosphazene silicate composites. The desire to create unique and novel network morphologies became the impetus for establishing new catalysis protocols. The surprising inability to reproduce the mechanical properties of a well-established benchmark composite material from the literature,3 was one principal driver that initiated this in-depth investigation into the roles that the nature and amount of catalysts play in the production and physical properties of these composites.
28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...
40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...
46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...
46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section...NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct...authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative classification markings...
40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...
28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721.1820...Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...
40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...
40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 2011-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721.1820...Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...
32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section...Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General... (b) Identity of persons who apply derivative classification markings....
32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section...Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General... (b) Identity of persons who apply derivative classification markings....
Quaternion Derivatives: The GHR Calculus
Dongpo Xu; Cyrus Jahanchahi; Clive C. Took; Danilo P. Mandic
2014-09-25
Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential technical obstacle, that is, the traditional product rule is invalid due to the non- commutativity of the quaternion algebra. To address this issue, a generalized form of the HR derivative is proposed based on a general orthogonal system. The so introduced generalization, called the generalized HR (GHR) calculus, encompasses not just the left- and right-hand versions of quaternion derivative, but also enables solutions to some long standing problems, such as the novel product rule, the chain rule, the mean-valued theorem and Taylor's theorem. At the core of the proposed approach is the quaternion rotation, which can naturally be applied to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples on using the GHR calculus in adaptive signal processing support the analysis.
Derivation Trees and Regular Languages
Goddard, Wayne
pieces, one can write S A | B; and if the concatenation of two pieces, one can write S CD. If overall language is the star of a piece, say generated by E, then one can write S ES | . Goddard 6b: 10 #12 of is the sequence of steps that gets to . A leftmost derivation is where at each stage one replaces the leftmost
New heteroaryl derivatives of fentanyl.
Llama, E F; del Campo, C; Capo, M
1991-01-01
The preparation of analogues of fentanyl with N-phenyl replaced with a heterocyclic aromatic ring, and with N-alkyl/arylalkyl N-acyl substituents is reported. Only those compounds carrying an N-phenylethyl substituent were active in the rat tail-withdrawal test. Fentanyl (1) is the prototype of the 4-anilido-piperidine class of opioid analgesics (Casy & Parfitt 1986). Several recent publications (Casy & Huckstep 1988; Bagley et al 1989) on this series have dealt with heterocyclic and aromatic modifications of the fentanyl molecule. Although the antinociceptive potency of most novel derivatives was greater than that of morphine, they had reduced activity when compared with fentanyl itself. To acquire further information on the structure-reactivity relationships of the series, new heteroaryl derivatives have been prepared and tested for antinociceptive activity. PMID:1676069
Derivation of aerodynamic kernel functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowell, E. H.; Ventres, C. S.
1973-01-01
The method of Fourier transforms is used to determine the kernel function which relates the pressure on a lifting surface to the prescribed downwash within the framework of Dowell's (1971) shear flow model. This model is intended to improve upon the potential flow aerodynamic model by allowing for the aerodynamic boundary layer effects neglected in the potential flow model. For simplicity, incompressible, steady flow is considered. The proposed method is illustrated by deriving known results from potential flow theory.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Nagaraj, Srinivas; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I
2007-01-01
The development of tumor-specific T cell tolerance is largely responsible for tumor escape. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in animal tumor models as well as in cancer patients is involved in tumor-associated T cell tolerance. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that MDSCs bring about antigen-specific T cell tolerance by various mechanisms, which is the focus of this chapter. PMID:17713008
Position Estimation Using Image Derivative
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mortari, Daniele; deDilectis, Francesco; Zanetti, Renato
2015-01-01
This paper describes an image processing algorithm to process Moon and/or Earth images. The theory presented is based on the fact that Moon hard edge points are characterized by the highest values of the image derivative. Outliers are eliminated by two sequential filters. Moon center and radius are then estimated by nonlinear least-squares using circular sigmoid functions. The proposed image processing has been applied and validated using real and synthetic Moon images.
Newton's hypothetical orbits independently derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenyon, K. E.
The mathematical results of four hypothetical orbital problems from the Principia are confirmed by an independent physical method. Each orbital problem that Newton posed and solved is characterized as follows. Given the shape of the orbit and the position of the force center, find the functional form of the central attractive force that will keep a body moving around the orbit. None of Newton's hypothetical orbital problems has so far found any apparent practical application, whereas the Kepler problem, also solved by Newton in the Principia, is of great importance to physics. The Kepler problem too can be derived easily by the present method. Newton used primarily geometrical constructions and logical deductions to arrive at his force functions. In contrast to this, the present (inverse) approach is based on a force balance: as a body moves along a curved path the outward centrifugal force always balances the component of the inward attractive force that is perpendicular to the orbit. Taking the functional form for the central force derived by Newton and inserting it into the force balance, the orbital shape can be derived by solving an ordinary second-order differential equation-the forced harmonic oscillator equation. Two of Newton's four force functions examined in this way lead to (different) fully nonlinear differential equations, which, surprisingly, can both be solved analytically and in closed form by means of the elementary functions that describe the shapes of the orbits.
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a financial contract whose value depends on the value of one or...
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA DERIVATIVES POLICY
Meyers, Steven D.
of financial position and measurement of those instruments at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative (gains and losses) depends on the intended use of the derivative and reporting standards for derivative instruments, a financial instrument which derives its value from
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...
The Fermi derivative in the hypersurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karaku?, Fatma; Yayli, Yusuf
2015-10-01
In this study, Fermi derivative and according to the derivative Fermi parallelism and non-rotating frame concepts are given on any hypersurface in En+1. Initially, Fermi derivative and non-rotating concepts are analyzed on any hypersurface in E4. As an example, S3 is taken instead of the hypersurface in E4. Fermi derivative and non-rotating concepts are examined for S3. Then a correlation is found between Fermi derivative and Levi-Civita derivative of any vector field in E4. And then the concepts of Fermi derivative are generalized for n > 4 in En+1.
The Derivation of Primary Human Epicardium-Derived Cells.
Clunie-O'Connor, Caitlin; Smits, Anke M; Antoniades, Charalambos; Russell, Angela J; Yellon, Derek M; Goumans, Marie-José; Riley, Paul R
2015-01-01
To develop therapeutic strategies for the regeneration of lost heart muscle after myocardial infarction (MI), a source of functional new muscle cells and associated coronary vessels must be identified. The epicardium is a source of several cardiovascular cell types during heart development and is widely regarded as a resident progenitor population, which becomes dormant during adulthood. In adult mice, MI induces epicardial reactivation characterized by an upregulation of fetal genes and subsequent epicardium derived cell (EPDC) proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Determining whether the epicardium can be therapeutically targeted following cardiovascular disease requires an in vitro system for the study of adult human EPDCs (hEPDCs). This protocol describes techniques to establish and maintain human epicardium explant cultures from patient-derived right atrial appendage biopsies and documents methods to probe the resultant outgrowth of hEPDCs. The model facilitates a high-throughput approach to either genetic or chemical phenotypic screening for drug-like modifiers of hEPDC activation and potential cell fate. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26544538
Deriving projective hyperspace from harmonic
Jain, Dharmesh; Siegel, Warren
2009-08-15
We derive actions for projective N=2 superspace ('hyperspace') from those for harmonic hyperspace, including that for non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory (a new result). The method uses Wick rotation of the sphere from complex conjugate coordinates to real, null ones, which can be treated as independent. The result can be considered 'holographic' in that the dimension of the internal (R symmetry) space is reduced from 2 to 1, by solving equations of motion or gauge conditions for dependence on the other coordinate. The auxiliary nature of the redundant dimension makes the hypergraph rules and evaluation almost identical.
Generalized derivatives and generalized convexities
Penot, J.P.; Quang, P.H.; Sach, P.H.
1994-12-31
We give a survey of the contributions of the speaker and of his co-authors in the use of nonsmooth analysis for the study of generalized convexities such as quasiconvexity, pseudoconvexity, invexity. One line of though corresponds to the use of generalized directional derivatives, as in S. Komlosi. Another track consists in using a subdifferential. This could be done in an axiomatic way, but we use essentially three classical instances; the Clarke subdifferential, the contingent subdifferential and the Frechet subdifferential. For algorithmic purposes, variants of Plastra`s subdifferential can be use.
On Derivation of Goldman Bracket
S. Hasibul Hassan Chowdhury
2015-10-05
In this paper, we obtain an infinite dimensional Lie algebra of exotic gauge invariant observables that is closed under Goldman-type bracket associated with monodromy matrices of flat connections on a compact Riemann surface for $G_{2}$ gauge group. As a by-product, we give an alternative derivation of known Goldman bracket for classical gauge groups $GL(n,\\mathbb{R})$, $SL(n,\\mathbb{R})$, $U(n)$, $SU(n)$, $Sp(2n,\\mathbb{R})$ and $SO(n)$.
Fourth order spatial derivative gravity
Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.
2011-10-15
In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.
Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knuth, Kevin H.
2004-01-01
The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.
Pandoraviruses are highly derived phycodnaviruses
2013-01-01
The recently discovered Pandoraviruses are by far the largest viruses known, with their 2 megabase genomes exceeding in size the genomes of numerous bacteria and archaea. Pandoraviruses show a distant relationship with other nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes, lack some of the NCLDV core genes and in particular do not appear to be specifically related to the other, better characterized family of giant viruses, the Mimiviridae. Here we report phylogenetic analysis of 6 core NCLDV genes that confidently places Pandoraviruses within the family Phycodnaviridae, with an apparent specific affinity with Coccolithoviruses. We conclude that, despite their many unusual characteristics, Pandoraviruses are highly derived phycodnaviruses. These findings imply that giant viruses have independently evolved from smaller NCLDV on at least two occasions. This article was reviewed by Patrick Forterre and Lakshminarayan Iyer. For the full reviews, see the Reviewers’ reports section. PMID:24148757
Derivatives of Black Knight Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, N.; Wright, D.
This paper traces the line of descent from Black Knight to Black Arrow, and at the same time looks at various proposed projects, both civil and military, which were to be Black Knight derivatives, but which for one reason or another never saw the light of day. Research in this area is rather akin to anthropological work, tracing fossils from Homo erectus (Black Knight) to Homo sapiens (Black Arrow), knowing that a lot of the fossils found will not be on the direct line of descent, but represent branches that became extinct. This article attempts to cover designs, which, although they never made it to hardware, are none the less interesting technically, or shine light on the evolution of design philosophy.
Endothelium-derived endothelin-1.
Thorin, Eric; Webb, David J
2010-05-01
One year after the revelation by Dr. Furchgott in 1980 that the endothelium was obligatory for acetylcholine to relax isolated arteries, it was clearly shown that the endothelium could also promote contraction. In 1988, Dr. Yanagisawa's group identified endothelin-1 (ET-1) as the first endothelium-derived contracting factor. The circulating levels of this short (21-amino acid) peptide were quickly determined in humans, and it was reported that, in most cardiovascular diseases, circulating levels of ET-1 were increased, and ET-1 was then tagged as "a bad guy." The discovery of two receptor subtypes in 1990, ET(A) and ET(B), permitted optimization of the first dual ET-1 receptor antagonist in 1993 by Dr. Clozel's team, who entered clinical development with bosentan, which was offered to patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in 2001. The revelation of Dr. Furchgott opened a Pandora's box with ET-1 as one of the actors. In this brief review, we will discuss the physiological and pathophysiological role of endothelium-derived ET-1 focusing on the regulation of the vascular tone, and as much as possible in humans. The coronary bed will be used as a running example in this review because it is the most susceptible to endothelial dysfunction, but references to the cerebral and renal circulation will also be made. Many of the cardiovascular complications associated with aging and cardiovascular risk factors are initially attributable, at least in part, to endothelial dysfunction, particularly dysregulation of the vascular function associated with an imbalance in the close interdependence of nitric oxide and ET-1. PMID:19967386
Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knuth, Kevin H.
2003-01-01
It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.
A study on real estate derivatives
Lim, Jong Yoon, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2006-01-01
All major asset classes including stocks and bonds have a well developed derivative market. Derivatives enable counterparties to reflect a view on a particular market, without having to trade the underlying asset. This ...
5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative...PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves...
Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schilling, Kenneth
2013-01-01
Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.
17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200.506 Section 200.506 Commodity...National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...
5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative...PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves...
17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200.506 Section 200.506 Commodity...National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...
Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon
Post, Wilfred M.
Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon (Earthworm Phase) Mac Callaham Corey Babb in each treatment Sampling #12;Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon (millipede phase) Plans for the Future: #12;
Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon
Post, Wilfred M.
Macrobiotic Vertical Transport of Litter Derived Carbon (UPDATE) Mac Callaham Corey Babb Paul vertical transport of litter derived carbon-millipede phase More germane to upland sites Sampled uplands for worms (and found one) Plans for the Future: #12;
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section 721...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (PMN P-02-514) is subject to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section 721...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (PMN P-02-514) is subject to...
summary of local polynomial regression is given. 1.1 Previous Methods And Objectives Ever sinceDerivative Estimation with Local Polynomial Fitting Derivative Estimation with Local Polynomial polynomial regression framework. Keywords: nonparametric derivative estimation, model selection, empirical
12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... involving a financial derivative, you should do so to reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of... on implementing a sound risk management program. (e) What records must I keep on financial derivative... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section...
12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... involving a financial derivative, you should do so to reduce your risk exposure. (c) What are my board of... on implementing a sound risk management program. (e) What records must I keep on financial derivative... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509)...
DERIVATION DOUBLE LIE ALGEBRAS DIETRICH BURDE
Burde, Dietrich
determined all complex semisimple Lie algebras g with Lie bracket [ , ], and all C, z g such that [x, yDERIVATION DOUBLE LIE ALGEBRAS DIETRICH BURDE Abstract. We study classical R-matrices D for Lie algebras g such that D is also a derivation of g. This yields derivation double Lie algebras (g, D
Improved Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Yan
2007-01-01
In this note, a modified Second Derivative Test is introduced for the relative extrema of a single variable function. This improved test overcomes the difficulty of the second derivative vanishing at the critical point, while in contrast the traditional test fails for this case. A proof for this improved Second Derivative Test is presented,…
Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi
Elissawy, Ahmed M.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S.; Singab, AbdelNasser B.; Proksch, Peter
2015-01-01
Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities. PMID:25854644
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rulko, Robert Pawel
Multigroup P_{N} theory is a widely-used approximation to multigroup transport theory. However, there are aspects of multigroup P _{N} theory that are not satisfactory, particularly regarding boundary conditions at a boundary having a prescribed incident flux. Historically, P _{N} boundary conditions at such a boundary have been assumed to be in the form given by Marshak or Mark, although Federighi and Pomraning have considered other possibilities for the case of one energy group. In this work we introduce two new variational principles. The first principle, unambiguously leads from a steady-state, first order, slab geometry multigroup transport problem to a multigroup P_{N} problem. The variationally-derived P_{N } problem consists of the conventional multigroup P_{N} equations and variational boundary conditions. At a boundary with a prescribed incident flux, these conditions are new and consistitute a generalization of Pomraning's boundary conditions applied to each energy group. For a vacuum boundary, these conditions reduce the Federighi's boundary condition applied to each energy group. Therefore, we refer to these newly developed P _{N} boundary conditions as the Generalized Federighi-Pomraning (GFP) boundary conditions. The second variational principle introduced in this work leads from a steady-state, even-parity slab geometry, multigroup transport problem to a multigroup, second-order P _{N} problem. This problem consists of the multigroup second-order P_{N } equations and Marshak boundary conditions. We generalize the second-order variational procedure to the three-dimensional geometry and obtain the general geometry multigroup second-order P_{N} equations and the three-dimensional Marshak-like boundary conditions. We also show how the first-order variational principle can be used to derive rigorous boundary conditions for the even-order P_{N}~imations and that these P_{N} approximations can provide accurate numerical results. Finally, a numerical comparison of the Generalized Federighi-Pomraning, Mark, Marshak and (newly developed by Larsen and Pomraning) variational-asymptotic boundary conditions shows that outside the asymptotic limit in which the variational-asymptotic and GFP boundary conditions are always superior, different boundary conditions perform best in different physical situations.
Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scotti, Stephen J.
1993-01-01
A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.
STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave
2004-01-01
A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.
Clinical status of benzoporphyrin derivative
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, Julia G.; Chan, Agnes H.; Strong, H. Andrew
1996-01-01
Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cutaneous malignancies (basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous metastases) and psoriasis. Results to date suggest that this photosensitizer has potential in both of these areas. Recently, a clinical trial with BPD was initiated for the treatment of age related macular degeneration, a neovascular condition in the eye which leads to blindness. BPD is a lipophilic photosensitizer which is rapidly taken up by activated cells and the vascular endothelium of neovasculature. The PDT effects seen with BPD appear to be a combination of vascular occlusion and direct killing of target cells. Since many diseases involve either activated cells and/or neovasculature, PDT with photosensitizer with characteristics like those of BPD, has applications far wider than oncology. A new area of interest involving photosensitizers is that of immune modulation. A number of photosensitizers have been shown to effect immune modulation in animal models of immune dysfunction including autoimmunity (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus), cutaneous hypersensitivity and allografts. BPD and PHOTOFRINR have both been shown to be effective in ameliorating arthritic symptoms in a number of animal models. The mechanisms by which immune modulation is affected in these studies still remains to be resolved.
?-Nitro Derivatives of Iron Corrolates
Nardis, Sara; Stefanelli, Manuela; Mohite, Pruthviraj; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Manowong, Machima; Chen, Ping; Fronczek, Frank R.; McCandless, Gregory T.
2012-01-01
Two different methods for the regioselective nitration of different meso-triarylcorroles leading to the corresponding ?-substituted nitrocorrole iron complexes have been developed. A two-step procedure affords three Fe(III) nitrosyl products - the unsubstituted corrole, the 3-nitrocorrole and the 3,17-dinitrocorrole. In contrast, a one-pot synthetic approach drives the reaction almost exclusively to formation of the iron nitrosyl 3,17-dinitrocorrole. Electron-releasing substituents on the meso-aryl groups of the triarylcorroles induce higher yields and longer reaction times than what is observed for the synthesis of similar triarylcorroles with electron-withdrawing functionalities, and these results can be confidently attributed to the facile formation and stabilization of an intermediate iron corrole ?-cation radical. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the meso-aryl groups of triarylcorrole also seem to labilize the axial nitrosyl group which, in the case of the pentafluorophenylcorrole derivative, results in the direct formation of a disubstituted iron ?-oxo dimer complex. The influence of meso-aryl substituents on the progress and products of the nitration reaction was investigated. In addition, to elucidate the most important factors which influence the redox reactivity of these different iron nitrosyl complexes, selected compounds were examined by cyclic voltammetry and thin-layer UV-visible or FTIR spectroelectrochemistry in CH2Cl2. PMID:22394192
Satellite-Derived Management Zones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent
2005-01-01
The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without the need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multiyear crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.
Capanna, R.; Campanacci, D.A.; De Biase, P.; Cuomo, P.; Lorenzoni, A.
2010-01-01
Bone regeneration is based on the synergy between osteconduction, osteoinduction and osteogenesis. In recent years, we have witnessed the birth and development of numerous osteoconductive substrates, created with the intention of replacing bone grafts, both autologous and homologous. Recently, attention has shifted to osteogenesis, in other words, to the study of mesenchymal cells and their differentiation into osteoblastic cell lines that can be cultured in vitro (as already seen with chondroblasts). Osteoinduction, too, has been shown to be equally important, ever since Urist’s 1967 study which drew attention to the demineralised bone matrix and its properties. The following twenty years led to the definition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and finally to the marketing of the first ostegenic protein (OP-1) obtained by means of the gene recombination technique. The BMPs produced using this technique that, so far, have been shown to be most active are BMP-2 (Infuse) and BMP-7 (Osigraft). The BMPs are not the only molecules with osteoinductive capacity. Other molecules capable of influencing bone regeneration are: platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs), the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) family, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and the acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). All these growth factors act in synergy with the BMPs, modulating their action and exerting an inductive and proliferative action on the cell lines responsible for regenerating the bone matrix. The literature has been literally invaded by studies, both experimental and preclinical, on these proteins (Termaat, 2005), and they have provided ample demonstration that the BMPs are effective in improving healing of fractures, pseudoarthrosis and spinal fusions. Important advantages of BMPs are the complete absence of risk of transmissible disease, given that they are produced using recombination technology; their purity, and thus absence of an immune response (although such a response could be linked to the carrier used to administer them); their efficacy, which derives from the use of a pre-established dose and not from the individual variability that is a specific feature of demineralized bone matrix homologous bone grafts. In addition to their use in fractures, pseudoarthrosis and spinal fusions, very recent studies are opening up new possibilities which may represent the future field of application of these proteins: Cook et al. (Cook, 2001, Barrack, 2003) have presented the first results obtained using OP-1 in prosthetic revisions carried out in the presence of bone defects; other authors have published a case report on osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with grafts in association with OP-1; an Italian group is currently experimenting the use of OP-1 in distraction osteogenesis with the aim of speeding up the results that can be obtained using this already well-established technique. However, the most interesting results on the use of recombinant morphogenetic proteins are those obtained by Warnke et al. (2004), maxillo-facial surgeons who, by mixing synthetic spongious bone grafts, bone marrow concentrate and morphogenetic proteins, prepared a new, replacement mandible for implantation in a patient who had lost his own due to cancer, thereby creating new vacularised bone, tailored to that specific patient. The experimental applications of these new drugs are countless and, with regard to their therapeutic potential, the general feeling is that what we are seeing is only the tip of the iceberg. However, it is necessary to ensure that experiments in this field are always geared towards sustainable clinical applications and, to this end, they should be concentrated in a smaller number of centres and conducted in accordance with approved and recognised guidelines.
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via...
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via...
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via...
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via...
Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem.
King, Leslie A; Ujváry, István; Brandt, Simon D
2014-01-01
The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives should be considered: substances that can be created from a parent structure in a single chemical reaction. In other words, 'derivatives of derivatives' are excluded. However, some substances related to ecgonine (e.g. 2-carbomethoxytropinone) are clearly convertible to cocaine, even though this may require more than one reaction step. It follows that 2-carbomethoxytropinone is a controlled drug, a situation that most chemists would regard as perverse. A more extreme example of the complexity of 'derivative' is shown by the conversion of thebaine to buprenorphine. Even though this requires six or more stages, the US Drug Enforcement Administration successfully argued in a 1986 case that for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act, the number of steps required was irrelevant; buprenorphine was a derivative of thebaine. Because the term derivative is rarely defined in statutes, the legal status of some substances, such as 2-bromo-LSD, is uncertain. Although a number of definitions of derivative can be found in the chemical literature, no single definition is adequate to describe all situations where it occurs in legislation. Unless qualified, it is suggested that the term derivative should be avoided in any future legislation. PMID:23949903
Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic Acid derivatives.
Moribe, Kunikazu; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji
2011-01-01
Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate. PMID:21603195
Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives
Moribe, Kunikazu; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji
2011-01-01
Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate. PMID:21603195
Anisotropic higher derivative gravity and inflationary universe
Kao, W. F.
2006-08-15
Stability analysis of the Kantowski-Sachs type universe in pure higher derivative gravity theory is studied in detail. The nonredundant generalized Friedmann equation of the system is derived by introducing a reduced one-dimensional generalized Kantowski-Sachs type action. Existence and stability of inflationary solution in the presence of higher derivative terms are also studied in detail. Implications to the choice of physical theories are discussed in detail in this paper.
A subspace iteration for eigenvector derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, T.
1992-01-01
An iterative procedure for calculating eigenvector derivatives has been developed based on the subspace iteration concept. The basic formulation is derived directly from the first variation of the resulting equations of subspace iteration for solving eigenvalue problems. Since the basic formulation conserves the convergence properties of the original subspace iteration for eigen-problems, an overrelaxation scheme similar to Bathe's approach is employed to accelerate the subspace iteration process for calculating eigenvector derivatives.
Anisotropic higher derivative gravity and inflationary universe
W. F. Kao
2006-05-21
Stability analysis of the Kantowski-Sachs type universe in pure higher derivative gravity theory is studied in details. The non-redundant generalized Friedmann equation of the system is derived by introducing a reduced one dimensional generalized KS type action. This method greatly reduces the labor in deriving field equations of any complicate models. Existence and stability of inflationary solution in the presence of higher derivative terms are also studied in details. Implications to the choice of physical theories are discussed in details in this paper.
Periodic derivations and prederivations of Lie algebras
Burde, D
2011-01-01
We consider finite-dimensional complex Lie algebras admitting a periodic derivation, i.e., a nonsingular derivation which has finite multiplicative order. We show that such Lie algebras are at most two-step nilpotent and give several characterizations, such as the existence of gradings by sixth roots of unity, or the existence of a nonsingular derivation whose inverse is again a derivation. We also obtain results on the existence of periodic prederivations. In this context we study a generalization of Engel-4-Lie algebras.
Ram K. Saxena; R. Garra; E. Orsingher
2015-06-19
In this paper we consider space-time fractional telegraph equations, where the time derivatives are intended in the sense of Hilfer and Hadamard while the space fractional derivatives are meant in the sense of Riesz-Feller. We provide the Fourier transforms of the solutions of some Cauchy problems for these fractional equations. Probabilistic interpretations of some specific cases are also provided.
Mantle derived economic sulfide mineralization?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivolutskaya, Nadezda; Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Svirskaya, Natalia
2014-05-01
Sulfide ores of the unique Pt-Cu-Ni Noril'sk deposits are characterized by heavy sulfur isotopic composition (d34S = 6-18 ‰ ; Grinenko, 1985). These data are traditionally explained by the crustal contamination of the mantle melts by Devonian sedimentary rocks with anhydrites at certain depths or in a chamber of crystallization (Naldrett, 1992; Li et al., 2009). However, data on the distribution of major and trace elements and isotopic composition (their eNd, 87Sr/86Sr, d34S) in the contact zones of the intrusions with the host rocks are at variance with any significant in-situ contamination. Moreover , the mechanism of the "digestion" of this high-temperature material (Tm = 1430ºC) by the lower temperature magma (1250ºC) has never been analyzed and questioned. Our pioneering data on the sulfur radiogenic isotopes in the anhydrite are in conflict with the hypothesis that this mineral could serve as a sulfur source for the Noril'sk ores. The fact that the average composition of the intrusions is independent on the stratigraphic setting of these intrusions, which can be hosted by limestone, sandstone, and/or basalt, provides further support for the idea that no assimilation took place at the depths of the chambers in which the melts crystallized.The reason for the heavy sulfur isotopic composition of ores in the Noril'sk district is still uncertain. Last data obtained on the sulfur isotopic composition of basalts and ores from some intrusions in the Taimyr Peninsula likely provide a clue to this problem. The highest d34S values in rocks of all of the trap formations were detected in the Gudchikhinsky picrites (d34S = +8,7; Ripley et al., 2003) formed from a primitive mantle magma. They are geochemically similar to the rocks from the Dyumtaleysky Massif (d34S = 12.2; Krivolutskaya and Gongalsky, 2013) which crystallized from a primitive mantle-derived magma (with no Ta-Nb and Pb anomalies and high Gd/Yb ratio) too. This intrusion comprises economic important sulfide ores with geochemical and mineralogical characteristics similar to unique Noril'sk deposits - Talnakh, Okty'abr sky and Norilsk 1. The features of the Dyumtaleysky massif can be explained by its origin from an unusual sulfide-bearing mantle source that had sulfides through earlier crustal-mantle interaction. These data support that the mantle source of magmas in the Noril'sk district was enriched in the heavy sulfur isotope. It is the age difference that could be responsible for the unusual composition of the Noril'sk ores, because the mantle source in the Early Mesozoic was remarkably different from that in the Proterozoic one, when practically all Cu-Ni deposits worldwide were produced.
75 FR 63113 - Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-14
...Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity...financial resources requirements for derivatives clearing organizations (DCOs) for...execution requirements on standardized derivative products; (3) creating...
Derive Workshop Matrix Algebra and Linear Algebra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Townsley Kulich, Lisa; Victor, Barbara
This document presents the course content for a workshop that integrates the use of the computer algebra system Derive with topics in matrix and linear algebra. The first section is a guide to using Derive that provides information on how to write algebraic expressions, make graphs, save files, edit, define functions, differentiate expressions,…
Equity and Equity Index Derivatives Trading Strategies
Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut
Omega (Leverage Effect) #12;Strategies for Stock Options and Equity Index Options 47 Trading Strategiese u r e x Equity and Equity Index Derivatives Trading Strategies e u r e x #12;Please Note and corresponding preparatory material. #12;e u r e x Equity and Equity Index Derivatives Trading Strategies #12
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is...
Few Fractional Order Derivatives and Their Computations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bhatta, D. D.
2007-01-01
This work presents an introductory development of fractional order derivatives and their computations. Historical development of fractional calculus is discussed. This paper presents how to obtain computational results of fractional order derivatives for some elementary functions. Computational results are illustrated in tabular and graphical…
Understanding the Derivative through the Calculus Triangle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael; Byerley, Cameron; Thompson, Patrick W.
2012-01-01
Typical treatments of the derivative do not clearly convey the idea that the derivative function represents the original function's rate of change. Revealing the relationship between a function and its rate-of-change function for static values of "x" does not facilitate productive ways of thinking about generating the rate-of-change function or…
Smoothing splines: Regression, derivatives and deconvolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, J.; Rosenblatt, M.
1982-01-01
The statistical properties of a cubic smoothing spline and its derivative are analyzed. It is shown that unless unnatural boundary conditions hold, the integrated squared bias is dominated by local effects near the boundary. Similar effects are shown to occur in the regularized solution of a translation-kernel intergral equation. These results are derived by developing a Fourier representation for a smoothing spline.
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial...
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial...
12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial...
12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Financial Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial...
Aging and rejuvenation with fractional derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aquino, Gerardo; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo; West, Bruce J.
2004-09-01
We discuss a dynamic procedure that makes fractional derivatives emerge in the time asymptotic limit of non-Poisson processes. We find that two-state fluctuations, with an inverse power-law distribution of waiting times, finite first moment, and divergent second moment, namely, with the power index ? in the interval 2derivative term. We show that the order of the fractional derivative depends on the age of the process under study. If the system is infinitely old, the order of the fractional derivative, o , is given by o=3-? . A brand new system is characterized by the degree o=?-2 . If the system is prepared at time -ta<0 and the observation begins at time t=0 , we derive the following scenario. For times 0
Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurie, Boris J.
1995-01-01
Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.
Biology-Derived Algorithms in Engineering Optimization
Yang, Xin-She
2010-01-01
Biology-derived algorithms are an important part of computational sciences, which are essential to many scientific disciplines and engineering applications. Many computational methods are derived from or based on the analogy to natural evolution and biological activities, and these biologically inspired computations include genetic algorithms, neural networks, cellular automata, and other algorithms.
17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...
17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...
Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath
2013-04-01
Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.
Stability-Derivative Determination from Flight Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holowicz, Chester H.; Holleman, Euclid C.
1958-01-01
A comprehensive discussion of the various factors affecting the determination of stability and control derivatives from flight data is presented based on the experience of the NASA High-Speed Flight Station. Factors relating to test techniques, determination of mass characteristics, instrumentation, and methods of analysis are discussed. For most longitudinal-stability-derivative analyses simple equations utilizing period and damping have been found to be as satisfactory as more comprehensive methods. The graphical time-vector method has been the basis of lateral-derivative analysis, although simple approximate methods can be useful If applied with caution. Control effectiveness has been generally obtained by relating the peak acceleration to the rapid control input, and consideration must be given to aerodynamic contributions if reasonable accuracy is to be realized.. Because of the many factors involved In the determination of stability derivatives, It is believed that the primary stability and control derivatives are probably accurate to within 10 to 25 percent, depending upon the specific derivative. Static-stability derivatives at low angle of attack show the greatest accuracy.
Pharmacokinetics of 4-aminopyridine derivatives in dogs.
Olby, N J; Smith, D T; Humphrey, J; Spinapolice, K; Parke, N; Mehta, P M; Dise, D; Papich, M
2009-10-01
Blockade of potassium channels with 4-aminopryidine (4-AP) restores conduction to demyelinated axons and improves function. Unfortunately, 4-AP causes adverse effects and its clinical effects are unpredictable and limited. Derivatives of 4-AP have been tested in models of spinal cord injury in guinea pigs; three derivatives (methyl-, ethyl- and t-butyl carbamate derivatives) showed promise. This study investigates the safety and pharmacokinetics of these derivatives in dogs. Each derivative was administered orally to dogs starting at doses below effective doses in guinea pigs, and increasing the dose on sequential days. Routine blood work was performed prior to and 24 h after drug administration, blood samples were collected at intervals over 24 h after drug administration, and dogs were monitored for side effects. Derivative plasma levels were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken to determine CSF levels. No adverse effects were seen even when using doses higher than those that improved conduction in spinal cord injured guinea pigs. Peak plasma levels occurred at 36.6 (ethyl), 87 (t-butyl) and 175 (methyl) min and plasma level was related to drug dose. Penetration of the central nervous system (CNS) was good, with CSF levels higher than plasma levels for the t-butyl derivative. PMID:19754916
Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc
2004-02-01
Summarizing market data developments, some inspired by statistical physics, this book explains how to better predict the actual behavior of financial markets with respect to asset allocation, derivative pricing and hedging, and risk control. Risk control and derivative pricing are major concerns to financial institutions. The need for adequate statistical tools to measure and anticipate amplitude of potential moves of financial markets is clearly expressed, in particular for derivative markets. Classical theories, however, are based on assumptions leading to systematic (sometimes dramatic) underestimation of risks. First edition Hb (2000): 0-521-78232-5
Synthesis of Sterically Hindered Polychlorinated Biphenyl Derivatives
Joshi, S. N.; Vyas, S. M.; Duffel, M. W.; Parkin, S.; Lehmler, H.-J.
2011-01-01
A series of sterically hindered (methoxylated) polychlorinated biphenyl derivatives was synthesized using the Suzuki and the Ullmann coupling reaction. The Suzuki coupling with Pd(dba)2/2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2?,6?-dimethoxybiphenyl (DPDB) gave better yields (65–98%) compared to the classic Ullmann coupling reaction (20–38%). Despite the reactive catalyst system, no significant coupling with aromatic chlorine substituents was observed. Crystal structure analysis of four PCB derivatives revealed solid state dihedral angles ranging from 69.7° to 81.0°, which indicates that these highly ortho substituted PCB derivatives have some conformational flexibility. PMID:21516177
Reaction of arenesulfinimidic acid derivatives with thiophenols
Pel'kis, N.P.; Levchenko, E.S.
1986-07-20
The amides and esters of N-substituted arenesulfinimidic acids are reduced by the action of thiophenols primarily to N-substituted arenesulfenamides, while the thiophenols are oxidized to the corresponding derivatives of the arenesulfinic acids.
Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Benzophenone Dianhydrides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)
2015-01-01
This invention relates to the composition and processes for preparing thermoset polyimides derived from an asymmetric dianhydride, namely 2,3,3',4'-benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA) with at least one diamine, and a monofunctional terminal endcaps. The monofunctional terminating groups include 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride ester-acid derivatives, phenylethyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA) and its ester derivatives as well as 3-phenylethynylaniline. The process of polyimide composite comprises impregnating monomer reactants of dianhydride or its ester-acid derivatives, diamine and with monofunctional reactive endcaps into glass, carbon, quartz or synthetic fibers and fabrics, and then stack up into laminates and subsequently heated to between 150-375.degree. C. either at atmosphere or under pressure to promote the curing and crosslinking of the reactive endcaps to form a network of thermoset polyimides.
Concise Derivation of the Rotational Partition Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hynne, F.; Andersen, Knud
1979-01-01
Derived is the classical partition function for the rotation of a rigid asymmetric molecule, by a transformation of variables in the phase integral circumventing the cumbersome manipulation of the canonical prescription. (Author/GA)
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION...DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative...is the determination that information is in substance the same as information currently...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION...DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative...is the determination that information is in substance the same as information currently...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION...DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative...is the determination that information is in substance the same as information currently...
Real estate derivatives : products and prospects
Eisenberg, Oriel
2013-01-01
The paper reviews the development, structure and trade of past real estate equity hedging instruments. The reviewed products represent a wide array of real estate derivatives, covering multiple property types, index ...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... information that is already classified, and marking the newly developed material consistent with the marking..., or who only apply classification markings derived from source material or as directed by...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... information that is already classified, and marking the newly developed material consistent with the marking..., or who only apply classification markings derived from source material or as directed by...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... information that is already classified, and marking the newly developed material consistent with the marking..., or who only apply classification markings derived from source material or as directed by...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... information that is already classified, and marking the newly developed material consistent with the marking..., or who only apply classification markings derived from source material or as directed by...
Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives
Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)
2008-01-01
I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...
Higher-derivative supergravity and moduli stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciupke, David; Louis, Jan; Westphal, Alexander
2015-10-01
We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the ( ?')3 R 4 corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kähler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known ( ?')3-corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.
Formal Derivation of a Class of Computers
Wang, Li-Guo
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how to use logic-based specification, construction, and proof methods to formally derive a class of computers. Differing from the traditional concepts of specification, verification ...
Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose, amino-benzyl cellulose and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose were carried out. Cellulose derivatives were synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide homogeneous solution. Nitrobenzylation was effec...
Sums and Differences vs. Integrals and Derivatives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strang, Gilbert
1990-01-01
Offers an approach to the understanding and to the teaching of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Stresses teaching the relation between a function and its derivative and the functions themselves. (YP)
Analysis and the Derivation of Valid Objectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tiemann, Philip W.
1973-01-01
Author states that "to the extent that behavioral objectives are derived from an analysis of relatively broad objectives, they can serve as valid criteria which enable our students to avoid trivia." (Author)
MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS
Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...
SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses
Jakob, Christian
2008-01-15
Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.
Derivative Evaluation Function Learning Using Genetic Operators
Markovitch, Shaul
Derivative Evaluation Function Learning Using Genetic Operators David H. Lorenz Shaul Markovitch of game playing, emphasising on learn- ing a static evaluation function. Learning involves ex- perience generation, hypothesis generation and hypoth- esis evaluation. Most learning systems use preclassi ed
Catalytic combustion of coal-derived liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bulzan, D. L.; Tacina, R. R.
1981-01-01
A noble metal catalytic reactor was tested with three grades of SRC 2 coal derived liquids, naphtha, middle distillate, and a blend of three parts middle distillate to one part heavy distillate. A petroleum derived number 2 diesel fuel was also tested to provide a direct comparison. The catalytic reactor was tested at inlet temperatures from 600 to 800 K, reference velocities from 10 to 20 m/s, lean fuel air ratios, and a pressure of 3 x 10 to the 5th power Pa. Compared to the diesel, the naphtha gave slightly better combustion efficiency, the middle distillate was almost identical, and the middle heavy blend was slightly poorer. The coal derived liquid fuels contained from 0.58 to 0.95 percent nitrogen by weight. Conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx was approximately 75 percent for all three grades of the coal derived liquids.
Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications
Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...
45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION...DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative...is the determination that information is in substance the same as information currently...
Frequency analysis of photoplethysmogram and its derivatives.
Elgendi, Mohamed; Fletcher, Richard R; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Lovell, Nigel H; Schuurmans, Dale
2015-12-01
There are a limited number of studies on heat stress dynamics during exercise using the photoplethysmogram (PPG). We investigate the PPG signal and its derivatives for heat stress assessment using Welch (non-parametric) and autoregressive (parametric) spectral estimation methods. The preliminary results of this study indicate that applying the first and second derivatives to PPG waveforms is useful for determining heat stress level using 20-s recordings. Interestingly, Welch's and Yule-Walker's methods in agreement that the second derivative is an improved detector for heat stress. In fact, both spectral estimation methods showed a clear separation in the frequency domain between measurements before and after simulated heat-stress induction when the second derivative is applied. Moreover, the results demonstrate superior performance of the Welch's method over the Yule-Walker's method in separating before and after the three simulated heat-stress inductions. PMID:26498064
Battery failure model derived from flaw theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schulman, I.
1981-01-01
A previously derived failure model for battery lifetime is discussed in terms of growth rate of the flaw, distribution of flaw sizes, and number of flaws. Equations are presented for determining the failure model for a nickel cadmium battery.
Confidence Measures Derived from an Acceptor HMM
Williams, Gethin; Renals, Steve
In this paper we define a number of confidence measures derived from an acceptor HMM and evaluate their performance for the task of utterance verification using the North American Business News (NAB) and Broadcast News ...
Future for Aero turbine derived cogeneration plants
Not Available
1984-06-01
Cogeneration installations in the Hague and Rotterdam in the Netherlands illustrate the growing emphasis on using highly efficient aero-derived gas turbines in energy conservation schemes such as district heating and power generation.
Deriving Mathisson - Papapetrou equations from relativistic pseudomechanics
R. R. Lompay
2005-03-12
It is shown that the equations of motion of a test point particle with spin in a given gravitational field, so called Mathisson - Papapetrou equations, can be derived from Euler - Lagrange equations of the relativistic pseudomechanics -- relativistic mechanics, which side by side uses the conventional (commuting) and Grassmannian (anticommuting) variables. In this approach the known difficulties of the Mathisson - Papapetrou equations, namely, the problem of the choice of supplementary conditions and the problem of higher derivatives are not appear.
Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lennon, Lorna
This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains the full experimental details and spectral characterisation of all novel compounds synthesised in this project and relevant crystallographic information.
Numerical derivative techniques for trajectory optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hallman, Wayne P.
1990-01-01
The adoption of robust numerical optimization techniques in trajectory simulation programs has resulted in powerful design and analysis tools. These trajectory simulation/optimization programs are widely used, and a representative list includes the GTS system, the POST program, and newer collocation methods such as OTIS and FONPAC. All of these programs rely on optimization algorithms which require objective function and constraint gradient data during the iteration process. However, most trajectory optimization problems lack simple analytical expressions for these derivatives. In the general case a function evaluation involves integrating aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces over multiple trajectory phases with complex control models. With the newer collocation methods, the integration is replaced by defect constraints and cubic approximations for the state. While analytic gradient expressions can sometimes be derived for trajectory optimization problems, the derivation is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes. Fortunately, an alternate method exists for the gradient evaluation, namely finite difference approximations. In this paper some finite difference gradient techniques developed for use with the GTS system are presented. These techniques include methods for computing first and second partial derivatives of single and multiple sets of functions. A key feature of these methods is an error control mechanism which automatically adjusts the perturbation size to obtain accurate derivative values.
Anticancer agents derived from natural cinnamic acids.
Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Wang, Jinfeng; Shen, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Jie
2015-01-01
Cancer is the most dangerous disease that causes deaths all over the world. Natural products have afforded a rich source of drugs in a number of therapeutic fields including anticancer agents. Many significant drugs have been derived from natural sources by structural optimization of natural products. Cinnamic acid has gained great interest due to its antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic potency. Currently it has been observed that cinnamic acid and its analogs such as caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid display various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, anticancer and antioxidant. They have served to be the major sources of potential leading anticancer compounds. In this review, we focus on the anticancer potency of cinnamic acid derivatives and novel strategies to design these derivatives. We hope this review will be useful for researchers who are interested in developing anticancer agents. PMID:25634446
Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints
Blender, Richard
2015-01-01
A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...
Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Lee M.; Hratchian, Hrant P.
2015-02-01
The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.
A geometric derivation of Kane's equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Storch, Joel; Gates, Stephen
1989-01-01
A geometrically-based derivation of Kane's dynamical equations is presented. Equations for both holonomic and nonholonomic systems are derived by considering the system's motion in a hypersurface determined from the equations relating Cartesian to generalized coordinates. Using vector space methods, the equations of motion are projected onto the tangent plane to the hypersurface. In the course of this construction, a requirement on the transformation between generalized and Cartesian coordinates is revealed that is often overlooked. This restriction is then shown to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the invertibility of the coefficient matrix of the generalized accelerations appearing in Kane's dynamical equations. Although less succinct than the traditional approach, the present derivation offers some insight into the physics embodied in Kane's equations and appears as a natural generalization of methods used in elementary problems.
Summing the derivative expansion of the effective action
Eduard Masso; Francesc Rota
2002-01-22
The derivative expansion of the effective action is a perturbative development in derivatives of the fields. The expansion breaks down when some of the derivatives are too large. We show how to sum exactly the first and second derivatives and treat perturbatively derivatives higher than second.
High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus
Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)
1983-01-01
Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).
High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus
Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.
1983-05-24
Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).
Structural studies of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Shana M.; Rodrigues, Manoel T.; Bastos, Rodrigo M.; Ferrari, Jailton; de Oliveira, Cecília M. A.; Kato, Lucília; Napolitano, Hamilton B.; Vencato, Ivo; Lariucci, Carlito
2005-10-01
Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with acetylacetone, ethyl acetoacetate, benzoyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, maleic anhydride and methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded a series of new antipyrine derivatives. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 29737, and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was evaluated and the minimal inhibitory concentration determined. Modest activity was found only to the maleamic acid obtained from the reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine and maleic anhydride. 1H NMR investigation of this maleamic acid showed that it is slowly converted to the corresponding toxic maleimide. The structures of three derivatives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.
Special Relativity Derived from Spacetime Magma
Greensite, Fred
2014-01-01
We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components and Euclidean which is consistent with an “inversion symmetry” constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of “inverse norms” which play major roles with respect to various unital -algebras more generally. PMID:24959889
A rigorous derivation of multicomponent diffusion laws
Zaibao Yang; Wen-An Yong; Yi Zhu
2015-02-12
This article is concerned with the dynamics of a mixture of gases. Under the assumption that all the gases are isothermal and inviscid, we show that the governing equations have an elegant conservation-dissipation structure. With the help of this structure, a multicomponent diffusion law is derived mathematically rigorously. This clarifies a long-standing non-uniqueness issue in the field for the first time. The multicomponent diffusion law derived here takes the spatial gradient of an entropic variable as the thermodynamic forces and satisfies a nonlinear version of the Onsager reciprocal relations.
Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.
Greensite, Fred
2014-01-01
We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally. PMID:24959889
Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat
Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila
2008-01-01
This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.
Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories
Salvio, Alberto
2015-01-01
A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantisation. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalisable wave functions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm.
21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances...
Barriers to growth in the US real estate derivatives market
Venter, Jani
2007-01-01
Commercial real estate is an important asset class but it does not yet have a well-developed derivatives market in the United States. A derivative is a contract that derives its value from an underlying index or asset. ...
40 CFR 721.10672 - Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.10672 Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic...chemical substances identified generically as sodium olefin sulfonate derivative...
76 FR 43957 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-07-22
...1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue...when there is an assignment of certain derivative contracts. The text of those regulations...that the transfer or assignment of a derivative contract in certain situations is...
17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...
18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750...Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...
76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-19
...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...1001-4T Modifications of certain derivative contracts...
40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...
40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...
40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...
17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...
40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...
32 CFR 2400.14 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of derivative classification. 2400.14 Section...TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.14 Use of derivative classification. (a)...
76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-19
...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...clearinghouse transfers or assigns a derivative contract to another dealer in...
21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...true Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food...275 Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives identified in this section may be...
40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...
40 CFR 721.9740 - Brominated triazine derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Brominated triazine derivative. 721.9740 Section 721.9740... § 721.9740 Brominated triazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a brominated triazine derivative (PMN P-91-403) is subject...
21 CFR 178.3870 - Rosins and rosin derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false Rosins and rosin derivatives. 178.3870 Section 178.3870 Food...Production Aids § 178.3870 Rosins and rosin derivatives. The rosins and rosin derivatives identified in paragraph (a) of...
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The...
40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...
18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...
40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...
40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 2011-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...
17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 ...Securities Dealers § 240.16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and the...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...
18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...
32 CFR 2400.14 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of derivative classification. 2400.14 Section...TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.14 Use of derivative classification. (a)...
40 CFR 721.9740 - Brominated triazine derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Brominated triazine derivative. 721.9740 Section 721.9740... § 721.9740 Brominated triazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a brominated triazine derivative (PMN P-91-403) is subject...
40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...
21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food...275 Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives identified in this section may be...
17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 ...Securities Dealers § 240.16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and the...
18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750...Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...
75 FR 78185 - Information Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-12-15
...Information Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity...implement certain core principles for derivatives clearing organizations (DCOs) as amended...execution requirements on standardized derivative products; (3) creating...
40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...
40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 2010-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...
21 CFR 178.3870 - Rosins and rosin derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 2009-04-01 true Rosins and rosin derivatives. 178.3870 Section 178.3870 Food...Production Aids § 178.3870 Rosins and rosin derivatives. The rosins and rosin derivatives identified in paragraph (a) of...
78 FR 66639 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-11-06
...1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue...the transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts. The final regulations provide...to the nonassigning counterparty to a derivative contract and an assignee on...
40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...
76 FR 43892 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-07-22
...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...necessitate the movement of entire books of derivative contracts. In particular, there...
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The...
40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721...721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487)...
40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721...721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487)...
40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721...721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487)...
40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317...Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040)...
40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317...Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040)...
40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317...Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040)...
High speed point derivative microseismic detector
Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.
1998-06-30
A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.
High speed point derivative microseismic detector
Uhl, James Eugene (Albuquerque, NM); Warpinski, Norman Raymond (Albuquerque, NM); Whetten, Ernest Blayne (Albuquerque, NM)
1998-01-01
A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.
Radioimmunoassay of tuberculoprotein derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Straus, E; Wu, N
1980-01-01
A radioimmunoassay was developed for constituent of the purified-protein derivative obtained from cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Crossreacting immunoreactive material was detected in cultures of other mycobacterial species, but no immunoreactivity was present in cultures of various fungal and bacterial species. The development of specific radioimmunoassays for tuberculoproteins offers a new research and diagnostic approach. Images PMID:6933481
An Empirically Derived Model of Job Satisfaction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnowe, J. Thad; And Others
This paper reviews the various experimental and survey strategies employed to assess the relative importance of different job characteristics in determining job satisfaction, and analyzes the problems involved with the different approaches. The paper then describes the development of an empirically derived explanatory model of job satisfaction,…
Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives
Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives Master thesis Cathrin van Emmerich Supervisor of a European put . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Rain, Schleswig, 1947-2003, 7-days-intervals . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Rain, Schleswig, 1980-2003, 28-days-intervals . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 Rain, Schleswig, 1992
Notes on Derived Functors and Grothendieck Duality.
2008-12-02
with respect to any composition of three maps, see §(3.6.5). ... the appearance macros in those days when canned style files were not ..... d-dimensional fibers, a canonical derived-category map ?d. X/Y ...... F(vu) is the composite isomorphism.
Geometric Derivation of Radial Acceleration Magnitude.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraft, David W.; Motz, Lloyd
1995-01-01
Standard treatments of uniform circular motion generally employ a combination of geometric and kinematic arguments to obtain the magnitude of radial acceleration. Presents a novel approach to the geometric portion of the derivation that uses the property that vectors can be translated parallel to themselves. (JRH)
UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY
Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...
DERIVATIVE-FREE OPTIMIZATION Algorithms, software and
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
-ligand binding Two new algorithms #12;3 MODEL CALIBRATION (Maguthan and Shoemaker, 2005) Tetrachloroethene Stochastic global optimization » Hit-and-run » Simulated annealing » Genetic algorithms » Particle swarm1 DERIVATIVE-FREE OPTIMIZATION Algorithms, software and applications Nick Sahinidis National Energy
Two-point derivative dispersion relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Erasmo; Sesma, Javier
2013-03-01
A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy E and separately at the reference point E = m that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-derivative dispersion relations (DDR). For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms (E/m)?[ln (E/m)]n that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with ? negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.
Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...
CYTOPATHOLOGY Computer-Derived Nuclear Features Compared
Street, Nick
Cytopathol) 1997;81:1729. 1997 American Cancer Society. Presented as a poster and computer demon- KEYWORDS 1997 American Cancer Society #12;Breast Carcinoma Prognosis by Computer/Wolberg et al. 173 TABLE 1172 CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY Computer-Derived Nuclear Features Compared with Axillary Lymph Node Status
Anticorrosion activity of some 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives
Starchak, V.G.; Krasovskii, A.N.; Anishchenko, V.A.; Kosukhina, L.D.
1994-07-01
Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of steel 20 was studied in an acidic solution (1 M HCl), which contained inhibiting 2-mercaptobenzimidazole derivatives. Their effectiveness and nonselectivity are discussed. The results are interpreted from the viewpoint of a probable formation of macrocyclic chelate complexes and {pi}-bonded chelates, taking into account the resonance and induction factors of polar substituents.
Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model
Mikelic, Andro
2015-01-01
In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...
Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.
2015-01-01
Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555
Constraining higher derivative supergravity with scattering amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi
2015-08-01
We study supersymmetry constraints on higher derivative deformations of type IIB supergravity by consideration of superamplitudes. Combining constraints of on-shell supervertices and basic results from string perturbation theory, we give a simple argument for the nonrenormalization theorem of Green and Sethi, and some of its generalizations.
Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Mechanics Danny Vance
Morrow, James A.
to the fractional damped harmonic oscil- lator problem. Contents 1 Basic Fractional Operators 1 1.1 The Fractional Damped Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. Basic Fractional Operators 1.1. The FractionalFractional Derivatives and Fractional Mechanics Danny Vance June 2, 2014 Abstract This paper
5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as the temporary physical custodian of classified information which originated in other agencies of the...
Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearle, Philip
2012-01-01
The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is…
32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Identification and Markings § 2001.22...
Lithocholic acid and derivatives: Antibacterial activity.
do Nascimento, Patrícia G G; Lemos, Telma L G; Almeida, Macia C S; de Souza, Juliana M O; Bizerra, Ayla M C; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; da Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M
2015-12-01
In order to develop bioactive lithocholic acid derivatives, we prepared fifteen semi-synthetic compounds through modification at C-3 and/or C-24. The reactions showed yields ranging from 37% to 100%. The structures of all compounds obtained were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The activity of lithocholic acid and derivatives was evaluated against the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The derivative 3?-formyloxy-5?-cholan-24-oic acid (LA-06) showed the best activity, with MIC values of 0.0790mM against E. coli (Ec 27) and B. cereus in both cases, and 0.0395mM against S. aureus (ATCC 12692). Lithocholic acid and the derivatives with MIC?1.2mM were evaluated on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, amikacin and gentamicin was evaluated. There are no previously reported studies about these compounds as modifiers of the action of antibiotics or any other drugs. PMID:26216208
Derivative Free Gradient Projection Algorithms for Rotation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jennrich, Robert I.
2004-01-01
A simple modification substantially simplifies the use of the gradient projection (GP) rotation algorithms of Jennrich (2001, 2002). These algorithms require subroutines to compute the value and gradient of any specific rotation criterion of interest. The gradient can be difficult to derive and program. It is shown that using numerical gradients…
Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...
Robust Derivation of Risk Reduction Strategies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin
2007-01-01
Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.
78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-12-19
...FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 15, 17, 19, 32, 37, 38, 140 and 150 RIN 3038-AD99 Position Limits for Derivatives Correction In proposed rule document 2013-27200 appearing on pages 75679 through 75842 in the issue of Thursday,...
Supplementary Material Derivation of Equation (1)
volume (M/ where M is molecular weight and is density) of pure water, R is the universal gas constant, T is the solution temperature, and Daq is the aqueous particle diameter. The water activity for a multiSupplementary Material Derivation of Equation (1) The vapor pressure of water over an aqueous
An accelerated subspace iteration for eigenvector derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, Tienko
1991-01-01
An accelerated subspace iteration method for calculating eigenvector derivatives has been developed. Factors affecting the effectiveness and the reliability of the subspace iteration are identified, and effective strategies concerning these factors are presented. The method has been implemented, and the results of a demonstration problem are presented.
Wave function derivation of the JIMWLK equation
Alexey V. Popov
2008-12-16
Using the stationary lightcone perturbation theory, we propose the complete and careful derivation the JIMWLK equation. We show that the rigorous treatment requires the knowledge of a boosted wave function with second order accuracy. Previous wave function approaches are incomplete and implicitly used the time ordered perturbation theory, which requires a usage of an external target field.
DERIVATIONS AND PROJECTIONS ON JORDAN TRIPLES
Russo, Bernard
DERIVATIONS AND PROJECTIONS ON JORDAN TRIPLES Introduction to non-associative algebra, continuous and differential equations. #12;Pascual Jordan (1902Â1980) Pascual Jordan was a German theoretical and mathematical in the Department of Mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is noted for his work with Michael
Detection of 50 -UTR-derived small
Storz, Gisela
to the identification of 60 small RNA genes in Escherichia coli. However, most of these studies focusedDetection of 50 - and 30 -UTR-derived small RNAs and cis-encoded antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli all three domains of life. In Escherichia coli, these regulatory RNAs, also termed noncoding RNAs
Partial Derivative Automata Formalized in Coq
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, José Bacelar; Moreira, Nelma; Pereira, David; de Sousa, Simão Melo
In this paper we present a computer assisted proof of the correctness of a partial derivative automata construction from a regular expression within the Coq proof assistant. This proof is part of a formalization of Kleene algebra and regular languages in Coq towards their usage in program certification.
Chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Trofimov, A. V.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.
2010-02-01
The results of studies on chemiluminescence of indole and its derivatives are critically analyzed. It is shown that chemical transformations of indoles lead, depending on the structure and experimental conditions, to various electronically excited products and emission of light. Many reactions considered are used as a basis for highly sensitive methods for detection of indoles in biology, medicine, ecology and forensics.
Derivative luminescence spectra in lanthanide analysis
Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Poluektov, N.S.; Tochidlovskaya, T.L.; Kucher, A.A.
1987-06-01
This communication presents the results of derivative spectroscopic study of luminescence of complex compounds of europium and terbium. Solutions of complexes of europium with ethylenediaminetetraacetate, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, dibenzoylmethane, salicylate and 1,10-phenanthroline, and of terbium with phenyl ester of salicyclic acid and nalidixic acid were investigated.
CONFIGURATION INTERACTION ENERGY DERIVATIVES Jack Simons
Simons, Jack
orbitaIs (as given by the MCSCF orbital response of J0rgensen) allows the variation of the CI orbital (ao) parameterization and orthonormalization proeessl allows for effieient treatment are in the moleeular orbital basis. The resulting expressions for geometrieal derivatives of the Hamiltonian eontain ao
Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tylee, J. Louis
1997-01-01
Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)
Ecosystem Services Derived from Headwater Catchments
We used data from the USEPA’s wadeable streams assessment (WSA), US Forest Service’s forest inventory and analysis (FIA), and select USFS experimental forests (EF) to investigate potential ecosystems services derived from headwater catchments. C, N, and P inputs to these catchmen...
CORRESPONDENCE Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Serotonin
Kalueff, Allan V.
on the role of BDNF in depression, with both antidepressant and pro- depressant effects described (seeCORRESPONDENCE Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Serotonin Transporter, and Depression: Comment) have recently been implicated in depression (Caspi et al. 2003; Kaufman et al. 2004) and depression
Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef
2007-01-01
Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…
Ethos Derived from Karaoke Performance in Taiwan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ma, Ringo
Karaoke (singing along to music videos) has swept Taiwan with such force that many people go to singing schools to improve their singing. Three cases in this paper demonstrate how the ethos, or credibility, of the singer is a combination of initial and derived ethos. Who the singer is tends to determine how much attention he or she receives…
DERIVING PROTOCOL SPECIFICATIONS FROM SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS
von Bochmann, Gregor
DERIVING PROTOCOL SPECIFICATIONS FROM SERVICE SPECIFICATIONS Gregor van BOCHMANN, Reinhard GOTZHEIN Departement d'lR0, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale A Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada Abstract - The service concept has acquired an increasing level of recognition by protocol designers. Being
Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.
Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-08-01
Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kudo, Hiroto; Kozawa, Takahiro
2014-03-01
Novel resist materials are required for lithographic processing with ionization radiation such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and electron beam (EB) exposure tool. In this study, we developed positive-tone chemically amplified molecular resists based on noria derivatives and calixarene derivatives and evaluated the lithographic performance using EUV and EB. We make clear that a small change in modification of noria resists can cause a significant change of sensitivity. Especially, it is useful for the improvement of resist sensitivities to use protecting groups such as 2-acetyloxy-2-methyladamantyl ester (AD) groups and ethoxy groups. Also, novel calixarene derivative such as pillar[5]arene protected by AD showed a semi-isolated pattern with the line width of 40 nm (pitch: 100nm). Noria derivatives and calixarene derivative resists were promising candidates because of high sensitivity, high resolution and etch durability similar to conventional resist such as ZEP 520A and UVIII.
Development of thermally stable phosphonitrile elastomers for advanced aerospace structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynard, K. A.; Gerber, A. H.; Peterson, T.; Rose, S. H.
1973-01-01
Both high and low molecular weight, curable poly(fluoroalkoxy phosphazene) terpolymers were prepared. These terpolymers resulted from reaction of (Cl2PNn) polymer with alkoxides derived from CF3CH2OH and C3F7CH2OH, and an alkoxide derived from CH3CH(OH)C2H4OH. The terpolymers were crosslinked with polyisocyanates at room temperature. High molecular weight materials were converted into isocyanate prepolymers which as films underwent moisture cures at room temperature. Prepolymer solutions were stable for several days, and showed good adhesion. Also the effects of polymerization of (Cl2PN)3 were studied. Purified octachlorophosphazene, thiocyanate salts, or hydrogen chloride were employed in attempts to decrease molecular weight. Hydrogen chloride was found to be a good agent for preparation of low molecular weight poly(dichloro phosphazene).
Zhao, Dong-Lin; Shao, Chang-Lun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Kai-Ling; Guan, Fei-Fei; Shi, Ting; Wang, Chang-Yun
2015-09-25
Three new azaphilone derivatives, pinophilins D-F (1-3), and one new diphenyl ether derivative, hydroxypenicillide (10), together with nine known compounds (4-9, 11-13), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived fungus Penicillium pinophilum XS-20090E18. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data, chemical conversions, the ECD exciton chirality method, and ECD calculations. Compounds 10-13 exhibited inhibitory activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite at nontoxic concentrations. Compounds 10 and 11 showed cytotoxicity against Hep-2, RD, and HeLa cell lines. PMID:26291474
Tooth-derived bone graft material
Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Junho; Kim, Kyung-Wook; Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Masaharu
2013-01-01
With successful extraction of growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) from mammalian teeth, many researchers have supported development of a bone substitute using tooth-derived substances. Some studies have also expanded the potential use of teeth as a carrier for growth factors and stem cells. A broad overview of the published findings with regard to tooth-derived regenerative tissue engineering technique is outlined. Considering more than 100 published papers, our team has developed the protocols and techniques for processing of bone graft material using extracted teeth. Based on current studies and studies that will be needed in the future, we can anticipate development of scaffolds, homogenous and xenogenous tooth bone grafts, and dental restorative materials using extracted teeth. PMID:24471027
Deriving Temperatures from the Homopause of Jupiter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang J.
2015-11-01
Recently, Kim et al. (Icarus, 2015) derived homopause temperatures from several places on the north and south polar regions of Jupiter by analyzing the 3-?m spectro-images of CH4, which were obtained using the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS). The spectral resolution of the data was R~18,000, which is enough to resolve the sharp 3-?m emission lines of the P and Q branches of CH4. From the next year’s JUNO encounter with Jupiter, we are expecting low resolution spectra from JUNO’s IR 2-5 ?m spectrograph, whose resolution is only R~300 at 3 ?m. We will present a method to derive homopause temperatures from low-resolution spectra utilizing the gross envelopes of the P, Q, R branch lines of CH4. We will discuss possible sciences extracted from the constructed maps of homopause temperatures over the auroral or non-auroral regions of Jupiter.
Novel harmine derivatives for tumor targeted therapy
Gu, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Tian, Caiping; Qian, Zhiyu; Tang, Liping; Gu, Yueqing
2015-01-01
Harmine is a beta-carboline alkaloid found in medicinal plant PeganumHarmala, which has served as a folk anticancer medicine. However, clinical applications of harmine were limited by its low pharmacological effects and noticeable neurotoxicity. In this study, we modified harmine to increase the therapeutic efficacy and to decrease the systemic toxicity. Specifically, two tumor targeting harmine derivatives 2DG-Har-01 and MET-Har-02 were synthesized by modifying substituent in position-2, -7 and -9 of harmine ring with two different targeting group2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and Methionine (Met), respectively. Their therapeutic efficacy and toxicity were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results suggested that the two newharmine derivatives displayed much higher therapeutic effects than non-modified harmine. In particular, MET-Har-02 was more potent than 2DG-Har-01 with promising potential for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25940702
Hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slabey, Vernon A; Wise, Paul H; Gibbons, Louis C
1953-01-01
The methods used to prepare and purify 19 hydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane are discussed. Of these hydrocarbons, 13 were synthesized for the first time. In addition to the hydrocarbons, six cyclopropylcarbinols, five alkyl cyclopropyl ketones, three cyclopropyl chlorides, and one cyclopropanedicarboxylate were prepared as synthesis intermediates. The melting points, boiling points, refractive indices, densities, and, in some instances, heats of combustion of both the hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane were determined. These data and the infrared spectrum of each of the 34 cyclopropane compounds are presented in this report. The infrared absorption bands characteristic of the cyclopropyl ring are discussed, and some observations are made on the contribution of the cyclopropyl ring to the molecular refractions of cyclopropane compounds.
Momenta fields and the derivative expansion
Zambelli, Luca
2015-01-01
The Polchinski exact renormalization group equation for a scalar field theory in arbitrary dimensions is translated, by means of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism, into a partial differential equation for an effective Hamiltonian density that depends on an infinite tower of momenta fields with higher spin. A natural approximation scheme is then expanding the Hamiltonian in momenta with increasing rank. The first order of this expansion, one next to the local potential approximation, is regulator-independent and already includes infinitely many derivative interactions. Further truncating this down to a quadratic dependence on the momenta leads to an alternative to the first order of the derivative expansion, which is used to compute $\\eta=0.03616(1)$ for the critical exponent of the three dimensional Ising model.
Histochemical staining of cadmium with thiazolylazophenol derivatives.
Sumi, Y
1980-01-01
In the search for a more sensitive and specific chelant for cadmium, thiazolylazophenol derivatives were synthesized and their staining properties for cadmium and zinc were examined. The compounds synthesized for this study were identified as being thiazolylazophenol derivatives via analysis of their melting point, absorption maxima and their C, H, N, S content. Thiazolylazo-p-methoxyphenol (TAMe) was found to stain cadmium and zinc differentially and with the highest optical density amongst dyestuffs reported to date. The plots of absorbance vs. metal concentration for thiazolylazophenol chelates gave a straight line obeying the Beer-Lambert law. Only the plot for TAMe-zinc chelates deviated significantly from a straight line above a specific concentration. The change from a 2:1 (chelant:metal) to a 3:1 (chelant:metal) complex is suggested to be the reason for the differential coloring. PMID:6156927
Polyphenol derivatives – potential regulators of neutrophil activity
Pere?ko, Tomáš; Nosá?, Radomír; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, Jan; Jan?inová, Viera
2012-01-01
The study provides new information on the effect of natural polyphenols (derivatives of stilbene – resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin and piceatannol and derivatives of ferulic acid – curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) on the activity of human neutrophils in influencing oxidative burst. All the polyphenols tested were found to reduce markedly the production of reactive oxygen species released by human neutrophils on extra-and intracellular levels as well as in cell free system. Moreover, pinosylvin, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin and resveratrol decreased protein kinase C activity involved in neutrophil signalling and reactive oxygen species production. Our results suggest that due to their anti-neutrophil activity, the polyphenols tested might be attractive candidates in therapeutic development. PMID:23118589
Mantle-derived Archaean monzodiorites and trachyandesites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirey, S. B.; Hanson, G. N.
1984-07-01
Geochemical data on monzodiorites and trachyandesites from the Rainy Lake area in Ontario which are strongly enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) are presented. It is concluded that they are derived by direct melting of the mantle at depths of less than 50 km in either anhydrous or hydrous conditions. Their rare earth element abundances and initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios suggest that their mantle sources were enriched in LILE shortly before melting. The monzodiorites-trachyandesites and their granodioritic derivatives may comprise up to 20 percent of the exposed igneous rocks in the Rainy Lake region and Vermilion District. If these rocks are as abundant in other Archaean terranes, a significant part of the early continental crust could have formed by direct melting of LILE-enriched mantle.
Novel harmine derivatives for tumor targeted therapy.
Li, Siwen; Wang, Aqin; Gu, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Tian, Caiping; Qian, Zhiyu; Tang, Liping; Gu, Yueqing
2015-04-20
Harmine is a beta-carboline alkaloid found in medicinal plant PeganumHarmala, which has served as a folk anticancer medicine. However, clinical applications of harmine were limited by its low pharmacological effects and noticeable neurotoxicity. In this study, we modified harmine to increase the therapeutic efficacy and to decrease the systemic toxicity. Specifically, two tumor targeting harmine derivatives 2DG-Har-01 and MET-Har-02 were synthesized by modifying substituent in position-2, -7 and -9 of harmine ring with two different targeting group2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and Methionine (Met), respectively. Their therapeutic efficacy and toxicity were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results suggested that the two newharmine derivatives displayed much higher therapeutic effects than non-modified harmine. In particular, MET-Har-02 was more potent than 2DG-Har-01 with promising potential for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25940702
Coal fueled aero-derivative gas turbine
Horner, M.W.; Sabla, P.E. . Aircraft Engine Group); Kimura, S.G. . Corporate Research and Development Center)
1988-01-01
The direct use of coal as a gas turbine fuel offers the opportunity to burn coal in an environmentally sound manner at a competitive cost of energy. A development program is underway to verify the feasibility of using a coal water mixture to fuel an aero-derivative gas turbine. This paper presents the overall program approach, required gas turbine design modifications, and reports the results from small-scale combustor test facilities.
Fixed points of higher-derivative gravity.
Codello, Alessandro; Percacci, Roberto
2006-12-01
We recalculate the beta functions of higher-derivative gravity in four dimensions using the one-loop approximation to an exact renormalization group equation. We reproduce the beta functions of the dimensionless couplings that were known in the literature, but we find new terms for the beta functions of Newton's constant and of the cosmological constant. As a result, the theory appears to be asymptotically safe at a non-Gaussian fixed point rather than perturbatively renormalizable and asymptotically free. PMID:17155791
Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines
Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.
2014-01-01
Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174
Enhanced Coset Symmetries and Higher Derivative Corrections
Neil Lambert; Peter West
2006-08-17
After dimensional reduction to three dimensions, the lowest order effective actions for pure gravity, M-theory and the Bosonic string admit an enhanced symmetry group. In this paper we initiate study of how this enhancement is affected by the inclusion of higher derivative terms. In particular we show that the coefficients of the scalar fields associated to the Cartan subalgebra are given by weights of the enhanced symmetry group.
Synthesis and pharmacological activity of diterpenylnaphthoquinone derivatives.
Pertino, Mariano Walter; Theoduloz, Cristina; Palenzuela, Jose Antonio; Afonso, Maria del Mar; Yesilada, Erdem; Monsalve, Francisco; González, Paulo; Droguett, Daniel; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo
2011-01-01
New diterpenylquinones, combining a diterpene diacid and a naphthoquinone, were prepared from junicedric acid and lapachol. The new derivatives were assessed as gastroprotective agents by the HCl-EtOH-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as for basal cytotoxicity on the following human cell lines: Normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS), and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2). Several of the new compounds were significantly active as antiulcer agents and showed selective cytotoxicity against AGS cells. PMID:21996716
Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates
Troutner, D.E.; John, C.S.; Pillai, M.R.A.
1995-03-07
A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula, as shown in the accompanying diagrams, wherein n, m, R, R{sup 1}, R{sup 2} and L are defined in the specification.
Antiaggregant activity of a new benzimidazole derivative.
Kucheryavenko, A F; Spasov, A A; Petrov, V I; Anisimova, V A
2014-04-01
Antiaggregant activity of a new tricyclic benzimidazole derivative, RU-891 compound, was studied on the model of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and intravascular platelet aggregation in vivo. We evaluated the effect of this substance on blood coagulation potential. Antiaggregant agent acetylsalicylic acid was used as the reference drug. RU-891 produced a dose-dependent antiaggregant effect in vivo and in vitro that exceeded the effect of the reference drug. This compound did not modulate blood coagulation potential. PMID:24824700
Antidepressant activity of aspartic acid derivatives.
Petrov, V I; Sergeev, V S; Onishchenko, N V; Piotrovskii, L B
2001-04-01
Antidepressant activity of N-phenyl(benzyl)amino derivatives of aspartic acid was studied on various experimental models of depression. IEM-1770 (30 mg/kg) and IEM-1944 (20 mg/kg) exhibited antidepressant activity after single injection in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Antidepressant effect of 14-day administration of these compounds and reference drugs maprotiline (10 mg/kg) and citalopram (10 mg/kg) was confirmed on the model of learned helplessness. PMID:11550022
Uncertainty estimates for derivatives and intercepts
Clark, E.L.
1994-09-01
Straight line least squares fits of experimental data are widely used in the analysis of test results to provide derivatives and intercepts. A method for evaluating the uncertainty in these parameters is described. The method utilizes conventional least squares results and is applicable to experiments where the independent variable is controlled, but not necessarily free of error. A Monte Carlo verification of the method is given.
Derivative processes for modelling metabolic fluxes
Žurauskien?, Justina; Kirk, Paul; Thorne, Thomas; Pinney, John; Stumpf, Michael
2014-01-01
Motivation: One of the challenging questions in modelling biological systems is to characterize the functional forms of the processes that control and orchestrate molecular and cellular phenotypes. Recently proposed methods for the analysis of metabolic pathways, for example, dynamic flux estimation, can only provide estimates of the underlying fluxes at discrete time points but fail to capture the complete temporal behaviour. To describe the dynamic variation of the fluxes, we additionally require the assumption of specific functional forms that can capture the temporal behaviour. However, it also remains unclear how to address the noise which might be present in experimentally measured metabolite concentrations. Results: Here we propose a novel approach to modelling metabolic fluxes: derivative processes that are based on multiple-output Gaussian processes (MGPs), which are a flexible non-parametric Bayesian modelling technique. The main advantages that follow from MGPs approach include the natural non-parametric representation of the fluxes and ability to impute the missing data in between the measurements. Our derivative process approach allows us to model changes in metabolite derivative concentrations and to characterize the temporal behaviour of metabolic fluxes from time course data. Because the derivative of a Gaussian process is itself a Gaussian process, we can readily link metabolite concentrations to metabolic fluxes and vice versa. Here we discuss how this can be implemented in an MGP framework and illustrate its application to simple models, including nitrogen metabolism in Escherichia coli. Availability and implementation: R code is available from the authors upon request. Contact: j.norkunaite@imperial.ac.uk; m.stumpf@imperial.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24578401
Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints
Richard Blender; Gualtiero Badin
2015-10-16
A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can be used for the formulation of conservative numerical algorithms that can be employed, for example, for the study of fronts and singularities.
Joint moments of derivatives of characteristic polynomials
Paul-Olivier Dehaye
2007-09-17
We investigate the joint moments of the 2k-th power of the characteristic polynomial of random unitary matrices with the 2h-th power of the derivative of this same polynomial. We prove that for a fixed h, the moments are given by rational functions of k, up to a well-known factor that already arises when h=0. We fully describe the denominator in those rational functions (this had already been done by Hughes experimentally), and define the numerators through various formulas, mostly sums over partitions. We also use this to formulate conjectures on joint moments of the zeta function and its derivatives, or even the same questions for the Hardy function, if we use a ``real'' version of characteristic polynomials. Our methods should easily be applicable to other similar problems, for instance with higher derivatives of characteristic polynomials. NOTE: More data is available on the author's website or attached to the LaTeX source of this arXiv submission.
Novel isoquinoline derivatives as antimicrobial agents.
Galán, Abraham; Moreno, Laura; Párraga, Javier; Serrano, Ángel; Sanz, Ma Jesús; Cortes, Diego; Cabedo, Nuria
2013-06-01
The wide variety of potent biological activities of natural and synthetic isoquinoline alkaloids encouraged us to develop novel antimicrobial isoquinoline compounds. We synthesized a variety of differently functionalized 1-pentyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs), including dihydroisoquinolinium salts (2 and 5), methyl pentanoate-THIQ (6), 1-pentanol-THIQ (7), ester derivatives (8-15) and carbamate derivatives (16-23). We employed classic intramolecular Bischler-Napieralski cyclodehydration to generate the isoquinoline core. All the structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bactericide and fungicide activities were evaluated for all the synthesized compounds and structure-activity relationships were established. Many compounds exhibited high and broad-range bactericidal activity. Fluorophenylpropanoate ester 13 and the halogenated phenyl- (17, 18) and phenethyl carbamates (21, 22) exerted the most remarkable bactericidal activity. However, few compounds displayed antifungal activity against most of the fungi tested. Among them, chlorinated derivatives like chlorobenzoate and chlorophenylpropanoate esters (10 and 14, respectively) and chlorophenethyl carbamate 22, exhibited the greatest antifungal activity. PMID:23601815
Interactions of benzodiazepine derivatives with annexins.
Hofmann, A; Escherich, A; Lewit-Bentley, A; Benz, J; Raguenes-Nicol, C; Russo-Marie, F; Gerke, V; Moroder, L; Huber, R
1998-01-30
Human annexins III and V, members of the annexin family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins, were complexed within the crystals with BDA452, a new 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative by soaking and co-crystallization methods. The crystal structures of the complexes were analyzed by x-ray crystallography and refined to 2.3- and 3.0-A resolution. BDA452 binds to a cleft which is located close to the N-terminus opposite to the membrane binding side of the proteins. Biophysical studies of the interactions of various benzodiazepine derivatives with annexins were performed to analyze the binding of benzodiazepines to annexins and their effects on the annexin-induced calcium influx into phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes. Different effects were observed with a variety of benzodiazepines and different annexins depending on both the ligand and the protein. Almost opposite effects on annexin function are elicited by BDA250 and diazepam, its 7-chloro-derivative. We conclude that benzodiazepines modulate the calcium influx activity of annexins allosterically by stabilizing or destabilizing the conducting state of peripherally bound annexins in agreement with suggestions by Kaneko (Kaneko, N., Ago, H., Matsuda, R., Inagaki, E., and Miyano, M. (1997) J. Mol. Biol., in press). PMID:9446599
Affinity of guanosine derivatives for polycytidylate revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanavarioti, A.; Hurley, T. B.; Baird, E. E.
1995-01-01
Evidence is presented for complexation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with polycytidylate (poly(C)) at pH 8.0 and 23 degrees C in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl2 and 0.2 M MgCl2 in water. The association of 2-MeImpG with poly(C) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as by monitoring the kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the imidazole moiety by amines. The results of both methods are consistent with moderately strong poly(C) 2-MeImpG complexation and the spectrophotometric measurements allowed the construction of a binding isotherm with a concentration of 2-MeImpG equal to 5.55 +/- 0.15 mM at half occupancy. UV spectroscopy was employed to establish the binding of other guanosine derivatives on poly(C). These derivatives are guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'GMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), and guanosine 5'-monophosphate morpholidate (morpG). Within experimental error these guanosine derivatives exhibit the same affinity for poly(C) as 2-MeImpG.
Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Yu, Bo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaorong
2014-01-01
The functional mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have become a research focus in recent years. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that MSCs act in a paracrine manner. Therefore, the biological factors in conditioned medium, including exosomes and soluble factors, derived from MSC cultures are being explored extensively. The results from most investigations show that MSC-conditioned medium or its components mediate some biological functions of MSCs. Several studies have reported that MSC-derived exosomes have functions similar to those of MSCs, such as repairing tissue damage, suppressing inflammatory responses, and modulating the immune system. However, the mechanisms are still not fully understood and the results remain controversial. Compared with cells, exosomes are more stable and reservable, have no risk of aneuploidy, a lower possibility of immune rejection following in vivo allogeneic administration, and may provide an alternative therapy for various diseases. In this review, we summarize the properties and biological functions of MSC-derived exosomes and discuss the related mechanisms. PMID:24608926
Reactions of glycidyl derivatives with ambident nucleophiles; part 2: amino acid derivatives
Dyker, Gerald; Thöne, Andreas; Henkel, Gerald
2007-01-01
A three-step procedure for the synthesis of multifunctionalized heterocycles from a pyroglutamic acid derivative, glycidyl components and anilines by nucleophilic substitution and cobalt catalysis is presented. PMID:17900352
Transformation of spatial and perturbation derivatives of travel time
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Transformation of spatial and perturbation derivatives of travel time at a general interface We consider the partial derivatives of travel time with respect to both spatial coordinates and perturbation parameters. We derive the explicit equations for transforming these travelÂtime derivatives
Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs
M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller
2011-12-31
Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.
Derivation of Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Baird, Aeg; Barsby, T; Guest, D J
2015-08-01
Dogs and humans have many inherited genetic diseases in common and conditions that are increasingly prevalent in humans also occur naturally in dogs. The use of dogs for the experimental and clinical testing of stem cell and regenerative medicine products would benefit canine health and welfare and provide relevant animal models for the translation of therapies to the human field. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the capacity to turn into all cells of the body and therefore have the potential to provide cells for therapeutic use and for disease modelling. The objective of this study was to derive and characterize iPSCs from karyotypically abnormal adult canine cells. Aneuploid adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AdMSCs) from an adult female Weimeraner were re-programmed into iPSCs via overexpression of four human pluripotency factors (Oct 4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc) using retroviral vectors. The iPSCs showed similarity to human ESCs with regard to morphology, pluripotency marker expression and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro (endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm). The iPSCs also demonstrated silencing of the viral transgenes and re-activation of the silent X chromosome, suggesting full reprogramming had occurred. The levels of aneuploidy observed in the AdMSCs were maintained in the iPSCs. This finding demonstrates the potential for generating canine induced pluripotent stem cells for use as disease models in addition to regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical testing. PMID:26074059
Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs
Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto
2011-01-01
Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920
Enveloped virus inactivation by fatty acid derivatives.
Sands, J A; Auperin, L D; Reinhardt, A
1979-01-01
The enveloped bacteriophage phi6 has been shown to be a valuable model system for the preliminary screening of compounds that might be expected to inactivate herpes simplex virus and other enveloped mammalian viruses. A variety of fatty acid derivatives that form fluid micelles in aqueous media have been found to be potent inactivators of phi6. The chemical nature of the polar head group, the length of the alkyl chain(s), and the extent and geometry of unsaturation are all important parameters in determining the antiviral effectiveness of this class of compounds. PMID:218498
Stable Tricyclic Antitubercular Ozonides Derived from Artemisinin.
Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Vashundhra; Jaiswal, Pradeep K; Gaikwad, Anil N; Sinha, Sudhir K; Puri, Sunil K; Sharon, Ashoke; Maulik, Prakas R; Chaturvedi, Vinita
2015-10-16
New, highly stable tricyclic antitubercular ozonides 9 and 10 derived from artemisinin are reported in 39 and 9% yields, respectively. The ozonide groups of 9 and 10 were found to be stable under strong basic and acidic conditions. The absolute configuration of ozonides 9 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Ozonide 10 shows promising antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC values of 0.39 and 3.12 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:26430796
Anticancer Advances of Matrine and Its Derivatives.
Yong, Jianping; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Canzhong
2015-01-01
As the second leading cause of death in the world, the total number caused by cancer in 2008 is 1.4 million. The great cancer incidence worldwide increases the search for new, safer and efficient anticancer agents (especially to find the new structures and more active anticancer drugs from the natural products) aiming the prevention or the cure of such illness. For a century, matrine (an alkaloid isolated from sophorae flavescens Ait.) has been widely studied in the field of cancer. This review briefly describes the progress of matrine, its derivatives and their anticancer activity. PMID:25613788
Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources
Crivello, J.V.
1992-10-01
The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.
NASP derived vehicles - Not just to space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Donald B.; Espinosa, Angel M.; Althuis, Jeffrey S.
1992-12-01
NASP-derived vehicles (NDVs) are presently noted to include not only exoatmospheric launch vehicles but also hypersonic cruisers. A conceptual development status evaluation is presented for such hypersonic aircraft, with a view to their likely military and civilian missions and the technical issues that remain to be solved for their implementation. Attention is given to plausible NDV configurations, propulsion systems, and performance goals for Mach 4.0 fighter-bomber, Mach 5.0 commercial/military transport, Mach 10.0 long-range cruiser, and SSTO launch vehicle.
Validation of an Experimentally Derived Uncertainty Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lim, K. B.; Cox, D. E.; Balas, G. J.; Juang, J.-N.
1996-01-01
The results show that uncertainty models can be obtained directly from system identification data by using a minimum norm model validation approach. The error between the test data and an analytical nominal model is modeled as a combination of unstructured additive and structured input multiplicative uncertainty. Robust controllers which use the experimentally derived uncertainty model show significant stability and performance improvements over controllers designed with assumed ad hoc uncertainty levels. Use of the identified uncertainty model also allowed a strong correlation between design predictions and experimental results.
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics. PMID:25978224
Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.
Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori
2015-12-01
Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373
Studies on some derivatives of oxamniquine
el-Hamouly, W.; Pica-Mattoccia, L.; Cioli, D.; Schwartz, H.M.; Archer, S.
1988-08-01
On the basis of the remarkable biological similarities between hycanthone and oxamniquine and as a sequel to our finding that some esters of hycanthone are active against hycanthone-resistant schistosomes, we prepared oxamniquine acetate, oxamniquine N-methylcarbamate, and four substituted phenylsulfonohydrazones of oxamniquine aldehyde. These compounds were tested for their effect on survival of and on (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation into hycanthone-sensitive and -resistant Schistosoma mansoni. All of these derivatives were effective to a greater or lesser degree in killing worms and in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation in the sensitive strain, but none was effective in the resistant strain.
Gamma Ray Spectrum Unfolding Using Derivative Kernels
D. S. Vlachos; O. T. Kosmas
2009-05-04
The unfolding of a gamma ray spectrum experience many difficulties due to noise in the recorded data, that is based mainly on the change of photon energy due to scattering mechanisms (either in the detector or the medium), the accumulation of recorded counts in a fixed energy interval (the channel width of the detector) and finally the statistical fluctuation inside the detector. In order to deal with these problems, a new method is developed which interpolates the ideal spectrum with the use of special designed derivative kernels. Preliminary simulation results are presented and show that this approach is very effective even in spectra with low statistics.
Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.
Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.
2015-01-01
We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release
Derivative scalar coupling model versus ?-? model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian-Kang; Onley, D. S.
1991-11-01
The relativistic derivative scalar coupling model of Zimanyi and Moszkowski, which is based on the original ?-? model, is investigated both for infinite symmetric nuclear matter and finite spherical nuclei. We find that while this model yields satisfactory compressibility in nuclear matter, and consequently gives good total binding energies for finite nuclei, it however fails to give the right spin-orbit interaction in finite nuclei. Calculated results are shown for 16O and compared to the ?-? model and experimental data; the origin of the discrepancy is discussed.
Benchmarking derivative-free optimization algorithms.
More', J. J.; Wild, S. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Cornell Univ.
2009-01-01
We propose data profiles as a tool for analyzing the performance of derivative-free optimization solvers when there are constraints on the computational budget. We use performance and data profiles, together with a convergence test that measures the decrease in function value, to analyze the performance of three solvers on sets of smooth, noisy, and piecewise-smooth problems. Our results provide estimates for the performance difference between these solvers, and show that on these problems, the model-based solver tested performs better than the two direct search solvers tested.
Meshram, Jyotsna
2014-01-01
The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from a three-component Betti reaction. The synthesis was initiated by the condensation of aromatic aldehyde, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline in presence of fluorite as catalyst in a simple one-step protocol. The reactions were stirred at room temperature for 10–15?min achieving 92–95% yield. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of spectroscopic and elemental analysis. All derivatives 4(a–h) were screened in vivo and in vitro for anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activity against a reference drug, Diclofenac and Albendazole, respectively. The screening results show that compounds 4c, 4d, 4f, and 4h were found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity while compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, and 4g are potent anthelmintic agents when compared with reference drugs, respectively. The bioactivity of these derivatives has also been evaluated with respect to Lipinski's rule of five using molinspiration cheminformatics software. PMID:24955256
Modeling Interactions of Erythromycin Derivatives with Ribosomes.
Shishkina, A V; Makarova, T M; Tereshchenkov, A G; Makarov, G I; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A
2015-11-01
Using a method of static simulation, a series of erythromycin A analogs was designed with aldehyde functions introduced instead of one of the methyl substituents in the 3'-N-position of the antibiotic that was potentially capable of forming a covalent bond with an amino group of one of the nucleotide residues of the 23S rRNA in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Similar interaction is observed for antibiotics of the tylosin series, which bind tightly to the large ribosomal subunit and demonstrate high antibacterial activity. Binding of novel erythromycin derivatives with the bacterial ribosome was investigated with the method of fluorescence polarization. It was found that the erythromycin analog containing a 1-methyl-3-oxopropyl group in the 3'-N-position demonstrates the best binding. Based on the ability to inhibit protein biosynthesis, it is on the same level as erythromycin, and it is significantly better than desmethyl-erythromycin. Molecular dynamic modeling of complexes of the derivatives with ribosomes was conducted to explain the observed effects. PMID:26615442
Quinolines derivatives as novel sunscreening agents.
Polonini, Hudson C; Dias, Rafael M P; Souza, Isabela O; Gonçalves, Karla Mara; Gomes, Tiago B B; Raposo, Nádia R B; da Silva, Adilson David
2013-08-15
Currently, the research and development of sunscreens play an important role on the synthesis of actives that are stable in various kinds of formulations-in addition to their efficiency and broad spectrum of protection against ultraviolet radiation. Our objective here was to synthesize new sunscreening chemical agents using quinoline as a base molecule. Twelve quinoline derivatives were synthesized, four of them novel molecules, and their photoprotective activity was determined in vitro using diffuse transmittance spectrophotometry. We determined their SPF, UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength and Boots Star Rating. The quinolines derivatives presented a varied profile of photoprotection, their SPF ranging from 2 to 11 and their UVAPF from 2 to 7. In terms of the critical wavelength, all molecules were considered of broad-spectrum by different classifications. Regarding the Boots Star Rating, one compound received no rating, seven of them received a three stars rating, three received a four stars rating and three were given a five stars rating. The molecules showed in the present work have a wide range of possibilities for creating new sunscreen products, once they have good SPF or UVAPF for single molecules, and they also possess other different qualities that can act synergistically. PMID:23856048
Tetrahydrofurfuryloxide derivatives of alkyl aluminum species.
Boyle, Timothy J.; Avilucea, Gabriel; Bunge, Scott D.; Alam, Todd Michael; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Cherry, Brian Ray; Tissot, Ralph George, Jr.; Segall, Judith M.
2004-12-01
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (H-OTHF) was successfully reacted with a series of aluminum alkyls (AlR{sub 3}) to yield compounds of the general formula [R{sub 2}Al({mu}-OTHF)]{sub 2} where R = CH{sub 3} (1), CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3} (2), and CH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} (3). Further, reactivity studies showed that the alkyls for 1 were easily exchanged, forming compounds of the general formula [Me(OR)Al({mu}-OTHF)]{sub 2} where OR = OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(Me){sub 2}-2,6 (4), OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}-2,6 (5a), and OSi(C{sub 6}H5){sub 3} (6). For 5a, reflux temperatures were required to get the full exchange; otherwise the asymmetric derivative [Me(OR)Al({mu}-OTHF){sub 2}AlMe{sub 2}] (5b) was isolated. The bulk powders of 1-6 were found to be in agreement with the crystal structures on the basis of elemental analyses and multinuclear solid state NMR studies. Multinuclear solution state NMR studies indicate that the alkyl OTHF derivatives have cis/trans isomers due to the chiral proton on the OTHF ligand.
Fluoroalkane thioheterocyclic derivatives and their antitumor activity.
Li, Guangxiao; Sun, Qian; Wang, Dongling; Xu, Ying; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhang, Qian; Sun, Dequn
2015-03-26
Two series of novel trifluorobutenyl derivatives of heterocyclic with convenient and efficient synthesis methods and their antitumor activity on three cell lines have been reported for the first time. The derivatives were synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution between 4-bromo-1,1,2-trifluorobutene-1-ene and commercially available nitrogen-containing heterocycles with sulfydryl or monosubstituted malononitrile. The twenty-four new compounds were characterized by (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and HR-MS. Totally, thirty-seven compounds were evaluated for the antitumor activity on three cancer cell lines (SH-SY5Y, MCF-7 and HepG2) using conventional MTT assay. The pharmacological results indicated that the compounds 3c, 3h, 4c, 8, 9, 10 and 11 showed potent to moderate antitumor activity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging between 0.4 ?M and 41.5 ?M. Even though they had less active than the reference compound taxol against MCF-7 and HepG2 lines, but they were better than the reference compound noscapine against SH-SY5Y cells, especially the compound 3h with a IC50 value of 0.4 ?M. PMID:25728023
Hyperspectral derivatives analysis for intertidal habitat mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oppelt, N.; Schulze, F.; Bartsch, I.
2012-09-01
Analysis of coastal marine algae communities enables an estimation of the state of coastal marine environments and provides evidence for environmental changes. Hyperspectral remote sensing provides a tool for mapping macroalgal habitats if the algal communities are spectrally resolvable. We tested the performance of a new approach for determining the distribution of macroalgae communities in the rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (Germany) using airborne hyperspectral (AISAeagle) data. This new approach calculates the slopes in wavelength regions between specific pigment absorption features and does not rely on absolute reflectance values. The first order derivatives of these wavelength regions form slope bands, which are then classified using a k-Means approach. The new derivatives approach proved to be a time effective possibility for identifying the dominating macroalgae species with sufficient accuracy (Cohan's kappa = 0.70). The method was tested on another AISA data set and turned out to be as a robust (Cohan's kappa = 0.77) and easy-to-use approach for delineating dominant algae communities or habitats, which can be adapted easily to different data sets.
Classes of unitarizable derived functor modules
Enright, Thomas J.; Parthasarathy, Rajagopalan; Wallach, Nolan R.; Wolf, Joseph A.
1983-01-01
For a real semisimple Lie group G, the description of the unitary dual remains an elusive question. One of the difficulties has been the lack of technique for constructing unitary representations. Unitary induction from parabolic subgroups of G yields unitary representations by the very definition of these representations. However, not all unitary irreducible representations of G are obtained by this type of induction. In addition, we need derived functor parabolic induction [ef. Vogan, D. (1981) Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups (Birkhäuser, Boston)] to describe all irreducible representations of G. For this second type of induction, the obvious analogues from parabolic subgroup induction regarding unitarity are false. In this announcement, we describe a setting where derived functor parabolic induction yields unitary representations of G. These results include proofs of unitarity for some of the representations conjectured to be unitary by Vogan and Zuckerman [(1983) Invent. Math., in press] and also proofs of unitarity for some which lie outside the domain described in those conjectures. PMID:16593391
Model-Derived Multisensor Target Discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Mark A.; Chan, Tony C.
1989-01-01
Prediction of target signatures using complex computer models of targets and sensor characteristics permits the development of robust target discrimination algorithms in the absence of large data collections. This paper describes the methodology of employing model-derived data in multisensor target discrimination activities. The signature predictions not only provide reference data for algorithms but also aid in the design optimization of multisensor collection configurations. Due to their ability to process more information, multisensor target recognition algorithms are expected to outperform single sensor designs. Development of multisensor algorithms is hampered by extensive requirements for registered training and reference data. By relying heavily on predicted signatures for sensor parameter selection and algorithm development, the required quantity of sensed data collection is greatly reduced. The usefulness of the collected data is focused and enhanced by examination of modeling and validation requirements. Final expansion of algo-rithm designs from straightforward pattern recognition approaches to more highly-evolved model-based recognition concepts is more easily bridged when model-derived data plays a significant role at each developmental stage.
Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives
Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.
1998-01-01
Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.
Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids
Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.
1995-06-01
The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.
Updated PMC trends derived from SBUV data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeLand, Matthew T.; Thomas, Gary E.
2015-03-01
Previous analysis of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) observed by Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments found that long-term variations in PMC brightness and occurrence frequency were anticorrelated with solar activity and that an increasing secular trend was present at most latitudes. In this paper, long-term PMC variations are presented in terms of ice water content (IWC), a physically based variable which is easier to interpret than previously reported UV albedo values. This model-based conversion from albedo to IWC removes most scattering angle effects. The derived long-term PMC variations in the SBUV data set are qualitatively the same using either an empirically derived adjustment for local time effects or no adjustment (i.e., assuming cancelation of interannual variations in tidally induced amplitude and/or phase). When we use stratospheric ozone variations as a proxy for mesospheric temperature changes, as suggested by recent model studies, we can explain more of the long-term IWC variability than if we use a linear trend. These results show that PMC ice water content in bright clouds increased rapidly from 1979 through the late 1990s and has been approximately constant from the late 1990s through 2013. The numerical value and sign of this trend during the last 15 years depend on the choice of end points and latitude band. Simultaneously, the solar response of IWC observed by SBUV has weakened during the most recent cycle in the Northern Hemisphere, but increased in the Southern Hemisphere.
Thermal electron heating rate: A derivation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoegy, W. R.
1983-01-01
The thermal electron heating rate is an important heat source term in the ionospheric electron energy balance equation, representing heating by photoelectrons or by precipitating higher energy electrons. A formula for the thermal electron heating rate is derived from the kinetic equation using the electron-electron collision operator as given by the unified theory of Kihara and Aono. This collision operator includes collective interactions to produce a finite collision operator with an exact Coulomb logarithm term. The derived heating rate O(e) is the sum of three terms, O(e) = O(p) + S + O(int), which are respectively: (1) primary electron production term giving the heating from newly created electrons that have not yet suffered collisions with the ambient electrons; (2) a heating term evaluated on the energy surface m(e)/2 = E(T) at the transition between Maxwellian and tail electrons at E(T); and (3) the integral term representing heating of Maxwellian electrons by energetic tail electrons at energies ET. Published ionospheric electron temperature studies used only the integral term O(int) with differing lower integration limits. Use of the incomplete heating rate could lead to erroneous conclusions regarding electron heat balance, since O(e) is greater than O(int) by as much as a factor of two.
Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)
Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M.
2004-12-17
With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.
3-Nitroasterric Acid Derivatives from an Antarctic Sponge-Derived Pseudogymnoascus sp. Fungus.
Figueroa, Luis; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Areche, Carlos; Chávez, Renato; Henríquez, Marlene; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Díaz, Caridad; Segade, Yuri; Vaca, Inmaculada
2015-04-24
Four new nitroasterric acid derivatives, pseudogymnoascins A-C (1-3) and 3-nitroasterric acid (4), along with the two known compounds questin and pyriculamide, were obtained from the cultures of a Pseudogymnoascus sp. fungus isolated from an Antarctic marine sponge belonging to the genus Hymeniacidon. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR and MS analyses. These compounds are the first nitro derivatives of the known fungal metabolite asterric acid. Several asterric acid derivatives isolated from other fungal strains have shown antibacterial and antifungal activities. However, the new compounds described in this work were inactive against a panel of bacteria and fungi (MIC > 64 ?g/mL). PMID:25732560
A viewshed accuracy assessment: Comparison of field-derived and computer-derived viewsheds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sims, Brian Russell
2011-12-01
A viewshed is the visible area from an observation location, or what can be seen from a particular vantage point. Viewsheds are calculated using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and are used widely by the wireless communications industry, city planners, and military planners. The goal of this research was to determine which combination of DEM interpolation methods and spatial resolutions result in the most accurate DEM and which DEMs produce the most accurate viewsheds. Results indicate the most accurate viewshed was computed from a surface generated from one of the least accurate DEMs (inverse distance weighted at 10 meter spatial resolution). DEM-derived viewsheds vary by as little as 60 percent and as much as 116 percent from field-derived calculations. The variation of the computer-derived viewshed always under predicted the visible area. This research highlights some limitations in the viewshed calculation and serves as a caution to users of viewsheds computed from commercial geographic information system software.
A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.
Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo
2016-01-01
A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 ?M in bioactivity assay. PMID:26197797
Warped Phenomenology of Higher-Derivative Gravity
Thomas G. Rizzo
2004-12-14
We examine the phenomenological implications at colliders for the existence of higher-derivative gravity terms as extensions to the Randall-Sundrum model. Such terms are expected to arise on rather general grounds, e.g., from string theory. In 5-d, if we demand that the theory be unitary and ghost free, these new contributions to the bulk action are uniquely of the Gauss-Bonnet form. We demonstrate that the usual expectations for the production cross section and detailed properties of graviton Kaluza-Klein resonances and TeV-scale black holes can be substantially altered by existence of these additional contributions. It is shown that measurements at future colliders will be highly sensitive to the presence of such terms.
A derivation of the beam equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duque, Daniel
2016-01-01
The Euler–Bernoulli equation describing the deflection of a beam is a vital tool in structural and mechanical engineering. However, its derivation usually entails a number of intermediate steps that may confuse engineering or science students at the beginnig of their undergraduate studies. We explain how this equation may be deduced, beginning with an approximate expression for the energy, from which the forces and finally the equation itself may be obtained. The description is begun at the level of small ‘particles’, and the continuum level is taken later on. However, when a computational solution is sought, the description turns back to the discrete level again. We first consider the easier case of a string under tension, and then focus on the beam. Numerical solutions for several loads are obtained.
Chaotic inflation in higher derivative gravity theories
Shynaray Myrzakul; Ratbay Myrzakulov; Lorenzo Sebastiani
2015-02-25
In this paper, we investigate chaotic inflation from scalar field subjected to potential in the framework of $f(R^2, P, Q)$-gravity, where we add a correction to Einstein's gravity based on a function of the square of the Ricci scalar $R^2$, the contraction of the Ricci tensor $P$, and the contraction of the Riemann tensor $Q$. The Gauss-Bonnet case is also discussed. We give the general formalism of inflation, deriving the slow-roll parameters, the $e$-folds number, and the spectral indexes. Several explicit examples are furnished, namely we will consider the cases of massive scalar field and scalar field with quartic potential and some power-law function of the curvature invariants under investigation in the gravitational action of the theory. Viable inflation according with observations is analyzed.
Derivation of quantum probabilities from deterministic evolution
T. G. Philbin
2015-06-15
The predictions of quantum mechanics are probabilistic. Quantum probabilities are extracted using a postulate of the theory called the Born rule, the status of which is central to the "measurement problem" of quantum mechanics. Efforts to justify the Born rule from other physical principles, and thus elucidate the measurement process, have involved lengthy statistical or information-theoretic arguments. Here we show that Bohm's deterministic formulation of quantum mechanics allows the Born rule for measurements on a single system to be derived, without any statistical assumptions. We solve a simple example where the creation of an ensemble of identical quantum states, together with position measurements on those states, are described by Bohm's quantum dynamics. The calculated measurement outcomes agree with the Born-rule probabilities, which are thus a consequence of deterministic evolution. Our results demonstrate that quantum probabilities can emerge from simple dynamical laws alone, and they support the view that there is no underlying indeterminism in quantum phenomena.
Towards Tartaric-Acid-Derived Asymmetric Organocatalysts
Gratzer, Katharina; Gururaja, Guddeangadi N; Waser, Mario
2013-01-01
Tartaric acid is one of the most prominent naturally occurring chiral compounds. Whereas its application in the production of chiral ligands for metal-catalysed reactions has been exhaustively investigated, its potential to provide new organocatalysts has been less extensively explored. Nevertheless, some impressive results, such as the use of TADDOLs as chiral H-bonding catalysts or of tartrate-derived asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt catalysts, have been reported over the last decade. The goal of this article is to provide a representative overview of the potential and the limitations of tartaric acid or TADDOLs in the creation of new organocatalysts and to highlight some of the most spectacular applications of these catalysts, as well as to summarize case studies in which other classes of chiral backbones were better suited. PMID:24194674
Overview of medically important antifungal azole derivatives.
Fromtling, R A
1988-01-01
Fungal infections are a major burden to the health and welfare of modern humans. They range from simply cosmetic, non-life-threatening skin infections to severe, systemic infections that may lead to significant debilitation or death. The selection of chemotherapeutic agents useful for the treatment of fungal infections is small. In this overview, a major chemical group with antifungal activity, the azole derivatives, is examined. Included are historical and state of the art information on the in vitro activity, experimental in vivo activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and uses and adverse reactions of imidazoles currently marketed (clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole, ketoconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, croconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxiconazole, sulconazole, and tioconazole) and under development (aliconazole and omoconazole), as well as triazoles currently marketed (terconazole) and under development (fluconazole, itraconazole, vibunazole, alteconazole, and ICI 195,739). PMID:3069196
Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesurtel, Mickael; Graf, Rolf; Aleil, Boris; Walther, Diego J.; Tian, Yinghua; Jochum, Wolfram; Gachet, Christian; Bader, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain
2006-04-01
The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy. Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin. This failure of regeneration was rescued by reloading serotonin-free platelets with a serotonin precursor molecule. These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.
Radon-Nikodym derivatives of quantum operations
Maxim Raginsky
2003-09-16
Given a completely positive (CP) map $T$, there is a theorem of the Radon-Nikodym type [W.B. Arveson, Acta Math. {\\bf 123}, 141 (1969); V.P. Belavkin and P. Staszewski, Rep. Math. Phys. {\\bf 24}, 49 (1986)] that completely characterizes all CP maps $S$ such that $T-S$ is also a CP map. This theorem is reviewed, and several alternative formulations are given along the way. We then use the Radon-Nikodym formalism to study the structure of order intervals of quantum operations, as well as a certain one-to-one correspondence between CP maps and positive operators, already fruitfully exploited in many quantum information-theoretic treatments. We also comment on how the Radon-Nikodym theorem can be used to derive norm estimates for differences of CP maps in general, and of quantum operations in particular.
Synthesis and cytotoxic properties of tryptamine derivatives.
Salikov, Rinat F; Belyy, Aleksandr Yu; Khusnutdinova, Nailya S; Vakhitova, Yulia V; Tomilov, Yury V
2015-09-01
The cyclopropyliminium and subsequent Grandberg rearrangements of cyclopropylketone hydrozones lead to the formation of tryptamines, which were additionally substituted at either the aromatic ring atoms or the amino group. The products were tested for their cytotoxic properties against HepG2, Jurkat and HEK293 cell lines using MTT assay. The highest activity as well as the highest selectivity was found amongst the compounds derived with one benzyl substituent at the amino group. The flow cytometry technique revealed cell-type specificity in terms of the mechanism of viability inhibition. Thus, the compounds were found to induce mainly apoptosis in HEK293 and HepG2 cells, while Jurkat cells displayed late apoptotic and necrotic responses. The apoptosis pathway is most likely to include mitochondrial damage. PMID:26174553
Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources
Crivello, J.V.
1991-10-01
The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.
Structure activity relationships of selected naphthalene derivatives
Schultz, T.W.; Dumont, J.N.; Sankey, F.D.; Schmoyer, R.L. Jr.
1983-01-01
Twenty-two derivatives of naphthalene were assayed under an acute static regime with biological activity being monitored as population growth of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Activity varied over one log unit. Substituent constant structure-activity analyses revealed the model, log BR = 0.282Ha + 0.352..pi.. + 0.692F + 0.334/sup 1/X/sub sub//sup v/ - 0.326R + 0.027, to be best and to account for 85% of the variation in log BR (BR, biological response; Ha, hydrogen acceptance; ..pi.., hydrophobic substituent constant; F, polar electronic substituent constant, /sup 1/X/sub sub//sup v/, substituent molar connectivity index; R, resonance electronic substituent constant). The Ha and ..pi.. parameters are the most important, accounting for 71% of the log BR variability. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.
Synthesis and biological activity of flavanone derivatives.
Shi, Lei; Feng, Xiu E; Cui, Jing Rong; Fang, Lian Hua; Du, Guan Hua; Li, Qing Shan
2010-09-15
A series of new flavanone derivatives of farrerol was synthesized by a convenient method. The in vitro anti-tumor activity of these compounds was evaluated against human Bel-7402, HL-60, BGC-823 and KB cell lines, the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor activity was also tested. Their cytoprotective activity was tested using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Their in vitro anti-atherosclerosis activity was tested on vascular smooth muscle cells by the MTT method using tetrandrine as a positive contrast drug. The structures of all compounds synthesized were confirmed by 1H, 13C NMR and ESI-MS. Most of the compounds exhibited good pharmacological activity and the preliminary structure-activity relationships were described. PMID:20708932
Synthesis and antitumor activity of tetrandrine derivatives.
Wu, Chun-Zhen; Lai, Long; Hu, Xiao; Lei, Rong-Rong; Yang, Yi-Fang
2013-09-01
Tetrandrine possesses antitumor activity, however, only a few studies on its structure modification were reported. To improve the antitumor activity of tetrandrine, 20 new tetrandrine derivatives were designed and synthesized by Sonogashira and Suzuki reactions. Their antitumor activities were evaluated against three tumor cell lines including A549, HepG2, and BGC-823 by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay with taxol as a positive control. The results showed that compounds 2c and 2g were highly potent against BGC-823 cell line, and compounds 1i and 1k showed particular activity against HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that compounds 1i, 1k, 2c, and 2g were promising leads for further investigation. PMID:23944846
Non-Covalent Derivatives: Cocrystals and Eutectics.
Stoler, Emily; Warner, John C
2015-01-01
Non-covalent derivatives (NCDs) are formed by incorporating one (or more) coformer molecule(s) into the matrix of a parent molecule via non-covalent forces. These forces can include ionic forces, Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, lipophilic-lipophilic interactions and pi-pi interactions. NCDs, in both cocrystal and eutectic forms, possess properties that are unique to their supramolecular matrix. These properties include critical product performance factors such as solubility, stability and bioavailability. NCDs have been used to tailor materials for a variety of applications and have the potential to be used in an even broader range of materials and processes. NCDs can be prepared using little or no solvent and none of the reagents typical to synthetic modifications. Thus, NCDs represent a powerfully versatile, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective opportunity. PMID:26287141
Functionalized carbon nanomaterials derived from carbohydrates.
Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy
2010-02-01
A tremendous growth in the field of carbon nanomaterials has led to the emergence of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, mesoporous carbon and more recently graphene. Some of these materials have found applications in electronics, sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, composites, and so forth. The high temperatures and hydrocarbon precursors involved in their synthesis usually yield highly inert graphitic surfaces. As some of the applications require functionalization of their inert graphitic surface with groups like -COOH, -OH, and -NH(2), treatment of these materials in oxidizing agents and concentrated acids become inevitable. More recent works have involved using precursors like carbohydrates to produce carbon nanostructures rich in functional groups in a single-step under hydrothermal conditions. These carbon nanostructures have already found many applications in composites, drug delivery, materials synthesis, and Li ion batteries. The review aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the application of carbohydrate derived carbon nanostructures and also provide an outlook of their future prospects. PMID:20029888
A Shuttle Derived Vehicle launch system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tewell, J. R.; Buell, D. N.; Ewing, E. S.
1982-01-01
This paper describes a Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) launch system presently being studied for the NASA by Martin Marietta Aerospace which capitalizes on existing Shuttle hardware elements to provide increased accommodations for payload weight, payload volume, or both. The SDV configuration utilizes the existing solid rocket boosters, external tank and the Space Shuttle main engines but replaces the manned orbiter with an unmanned, remotely controlled cargo carrier. This cargo carrier substitution more than doubles the performance capability of the orbiter system and is realistically achievable for minimal cost. The advantages of the SDV are presented in terms of performance and economics. Based on these considerations, it is concluded that an unmanned SDV offers a most attractive complement to the present Space Transportation System.
A derivation of the beam equation
Duque, Daniel
2015-01-01
The Euler-Bernoulli equation describing the deflection of a beam is a vital tool in structural and mechanical engineering. However, its derivation usually entails a number of intermediate steps that may confuse engineering or science students at the beginnig of their undergraduate studies. We explain how this equation may be deduced, beginning with an approximate expression for the energy, from which the forces and finally the equation itself may be obtained. The description is begun at the level of small "particles", and the continuum level is taken later on. However, when a computational solution is sought, the description turns back to the discrete level again. We first consider the easier case of a string under tension, and then focus on the beam. Numerical solutions for several loads are obtained.
Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward
2010-01-01
BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.
Revisiting satellite derived tropospheric NO2 trends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Andreas; Hilboll, Andreas; Burrows, John P.
2015-04-01
Nitrogen dioxide levels can be used as tracer of anthropogenic pollution as NOx, the sum of NO and NO2, is released during fossil fuel combustion. With its short atmospheric lifetime, atmospheric NO2 can be easily linked to its sources. Using its structured absorption cross section in the blue spectral region, NO2 amounts can be derived from measurements of backscattered solar radiation with the help of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. Satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2 became possible with the launch of the GOME instrument in 1995, and since then a series of instruments including SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI provide spectral data which can be used to quantify NO2 columns in the troposphere. Using these observations, spatial distributions of NO2, its sources and transport pathways as well as temporal changes have been investigated over the last years. In particular the latter have shown remarkable atmospheric developments with large reductions of NO2 levels in many industrialised countries and dramatic increases in regions with growing economies, most notably in China but also in many other countries. In this study, recent trends of satellite derived NO2 columns are evaluated using data from all available instruments with a focus on the last years. Combination of data taken from the two GOME-2 instruments and OMI improves coverage and sensitivity, and also provides important constraints on the reliability of the satellite data set. As in previous studies, large changes in NO2 columns are found in many regions, in particular over China where after two years of stagnating NO2 levels an unexpected substantial reduction is observed for 2014.
40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...chemical substance identified generically as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine...
40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...chemical substance identified generically as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine...
21 CFR 184.1282 - Dill and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...184.1282 Dill and its derivatives. (a) Dill (American or European) is the herb and seeds from Anethum graveolens L., and dill (Indian) is the herb and seeds from Anethum sowa, D.C. Its derivatives include essential oils,...
21 CFR 184.1282 - Dill and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...184.1282 Dill and its derivatives. (a) Dill (American or European) is the herb and seeds from Anethum graveolens L., and dill (Indian) is the herb and seeds from Anethum sowa, D.C. Its derivatives include essential oils,...
21 CFR 184.1282 - Dill and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...184.1282 Dill and its derivatives. (a) Dill (American or European) is the herb and seeds from Anethum graveolens L., and dill (Indian) is the herb and seeds from Anethum sowa, D.C. Its derivatives include essential oils,...
76 FR 16587 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-03-24
...Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading...the comment period for a proposed rule that would require derivatives clearing organizations (DCOs) to report...
76 FR 66011 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Hearing Cancellation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-10-25
...REG-109006-11] RIN 1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...nonassigning counterparty when there is an assignment of certain derivative contracts. DATES: The public hearing, originally...
76 FR 51922 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-08-19
...REG-109006-11] RIN 1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...nonassigning counterparty when there is an assignment of certain derivative contracts. It was published in the Federal Register on...
A general entry to C7-borono indole derivatives
Fenton, Owen S. (Owen Shea)
2012-01-01
The development of a methodology to access C7 pinacolatoboron substituted indole derivatives is described. It has been applied to indole, tryptophan, and tryptamine derivatives. Further functionalization to a C7 phenolic ...
21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...
21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...
21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...
21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...
21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...
21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...
21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...
21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...
21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...
21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...
Mjolsness, Eric
Symbolic Neural Networks Derived from Stochastic Grammar Domain Models 1 Symbolic Neural Networks neural network architectures with some of the expressive power of a semantic network and also some of the pattern recognition and learning capabilities of more conventional neural networks. For example
Michalska, Karolina; Chang, Changsoo; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.
2013-01-01
In vitro growth experiments have demonstrated that aromatic compounds derived from lignin can be metabolized and represent a major carbon resource for many soil bacteria. However, the proteins that mediate the movement of these metabolites across the cell membrane have not been thoroughly characterized. To address this deficiency, we used a library representative of lignin degradation products and a thermal stability screen to determine ligand specificity for a set of solute-binding proteins (SBPs) from ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ligand mapping process identified a set of proteins from Alphaproteobacteria that recognize various benzoate derivatives. Seven high-resolution crystal structures of these proteins in complex with four different aromatic compounds were obtained. The protein–ligand complexes provide details of molecular recognition that can be used to infer binding specificity. This structure–function characterization provides new insight for the biological roles of these ABC transporters and their SBPs, which had been previously annotated as branched-chain amino-acid-binding proteins. The knowledge derived from the crystal structures provides a foundation for development of sequencebased methods to predict the ligand specificity of other uncharacterized transporters. These results also demonstrate that Alphaproteobacteria possess a diverse set of transport capabilities for lignin-derived compounds. Characterization of this new class of transporters improves genomic annotation projects and provides insight into the metabolic potential of soil bacteria. PMID:22925578
a sonic anemometer, from the transit time of two sound pulses, t1, t2, over an assumed known distance, la, followed by a mixture of models and equations. B.3 Derivation of corrections to sonic temperature A more to sonic temperature are outlined in (Kaimal & Gaynor 1991; Schotanus, Nieuwstadt, & De Bruin 1983
Fractional calculus of variations for a combined Caputo derivative
Malinowska, Agnieszka B; 10.2478/s13540-011-0032-6
2011-01-01
We generalize the fractional Caputo derivative to the fractional derivative ${{^CD}^{\\alpha,\\beta}_{\\gamma}}$, which is a convex combination of the left Caputo fractional derivative of order $\\alpha$ and the right Caputo fractional derivative of order $\\beta$. The fractional variational problems under our consideration are formulated in terms of ${{^CD}^{\\alpha,\\beta}_{\\gamma}}$. The Euler-Lagrange equations for the basic and isoperimetric problems, as well as transversality conditions, are proved.
Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skopp, Joseph
2009-01-01
The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…
A Methodology for the Derivation of Parallel Programs
Goodman, Joy
A Methodology for the Derivation of Parallel Programs Joy Goodman Department of Computer Science, University of Glasgow Abstract. I am currently developing a methodology for deriving paral lel programs from The methodology which I present provides a framework for the derivation of parallel programs. It divides
Thermodynamic Derivation of the Equilibrium Distribution Functions of Statistical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoeckly, Beth
1979-01-01
Presents a simplified derivation of the equilibrium distribution functions. The derivation proceeds from the change in the Helmholtz free energy when a particle is added to a system of fixed temperature, volume, and chemical potential. The derivations show the relationship between statistical mechanics and macroscopic thermodynamics. (Author/GA)
Risk-neutral hedging of interest rate derivatives
Privault, Nicolas
Risk-neutral hedging of interest rate derivatives Nicolas Privault Timothy Robin Teng November 23, 2011 Abstract In this paper we review the hedging of interest rate derivatives priced under a risk-neutral on the hedging of interest rate derivatives under the risk-neutral probability measure P itself, using
40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...
40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...
40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...
Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobel, Michael I.
1980-01-01
Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)
17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...
Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria
2011-01-01
This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…
21 CFR 184.1282 - Dill and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2009-04-01 true Dill and its derivatives. 184.1282 Section 184.1282...as GRAS § 184.1282 Dill and its derivatives. (a) Dill (American or European...seeds from Anethum sowa, D.C. Its derivatives include essential oils,...
40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...
21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2009-04-01 true Clove and its derivatives. 184.1257 Section 184.1257...GRAS § 184.1257 Clove and its derivatives. (a) Cloves are the dried unopened...Thunberg, native to tropical Asia. Their derivatives include essential oils...
21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false Clove and its derivatives. 184.1257 Section 184.1257...GRAS § 184.1257 Clove and its derivatives. (a) Cloves are the dried unopened...Thunberg, native to tropical Asia. Their derivatives include essential oils...
8 CFR 207.7 - Derivatives of refugees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivatives of refugees. 207.7 Section 207... ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.7 Derivatives of refugees. (a) Eligibility...the principal alien. An accompanying derivative is a spouse or child of a...
40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...
8 CFR 207.7 - Derivatives of refugees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivatives of refugees. 207.7 Section 207... ADMISSION OF REFUGEES § 207.7 Derivatives of refugees. (a) Eligibility...the principal alien. An accompanying derivative is a spouse or child of a...
Generalized Second-Order Partial Derivatives of 1/r
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hnizdo, V.
2011-01-01
The generalized second-order partial derivatives of 1/r, where r is the radial distance in three dimensions (3D), are obtained using a result of the potential theory of classical analysis. Some non-spherical-regularization alternatives to the standard spherical-regularization expression for the derivatives are derived. The utility of a…
17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...
21 CFR 184.1282 - Dill and its derivatives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false Dill and its derivatives. 184.1282 Section 184.1282...as GRAS § 184.1282 Dill and its derivatives. (a) Dill (American or European...seeds from Anethum sowa, D.C. Its derivatives include essential oils,...
Exact Multisoliton Solutions of General Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Derivative
Li, Qi; Duan, Qiu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-bing
2014-01-01
Multisoliton solutions are derived for a general nonlinear Schrödinger equation with derivative by using Hirota's approach. The dynamics of one-soliton solution and two-soliton interactions are also illustrated. The considered equation can reduce to nonlinear Schrödinger equation with derivative as well as the solutions. PMID:25013858
Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.
1988-01-01
A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.
Simplified Derivation of the Fokker-Planck Equation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegman, A. E.
1979-01-01
Presents an alternative derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of a random noise process, starting from the Langevin equation. The derivation makes use of the first two derivatives of the Dirac delta function. (Author/GA)
Satellite Products and Services Review Board ATBD: Satellite-Derived
Miami, University of
Satellite Products and Services Review Board ATBD: Satellite-Derived Ocean Heat Content Version 1.0 July 2012 ___________________________________ #12;NOAA /RSMAS ATBD : Satellite-Derived Ocean Heat/STAR) #12;NOAA /RSMAS ATBD : Satellite-Derived Ocean Heat Content Product Page 3 of 32 TABLE OF CONTENTS
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501 Section 1203.501 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification...
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application...
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501 Section 1203.501 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501 Section 1203.501 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification...
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The application...
14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section 1203.500 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. (a) Persons who...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501 Section 1203.501 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification...
14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501 Section 1203.501 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification...
AUTOMATIC CONTINUITY OF DERIVATIONS ON -ALGEBRAS AND JB
Russo, Bernard
AUTOMATIC CONTINUITY OF DERIVATIONS ON C -ALGEBRAS AND JB -TRIPLES ANTONIO M. PERALTA AND BERNARD conditions under which every derivation from a JB-triple E into a Banach (Jordan) triple E-module is continuous. In particular, every derivation from a real or complex JB-triple into its dual space is automati
Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp.
Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua
2013-05-01
Eighteen polyketides (1-18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953
Exotic leptoquarks from superstring derived models
Elwood, J.K.; Faraggi, A.E.
1997-03-01
The H1 and ZEUS collaborations have recently reported a significant excess of e{sup +}p {r_arrow} e{sup +} jet events at high Q{sup 2}. While there exists insufficient data to conclusively determine the origin of this excess, one possibility is that it is due to a new leptoquark at mass scale around 200 GeV. We examine the type of leptoquark states that exist in superstring derived standard-like models, and show that, while these models may contain the standard leptoquark states which exist in Grand Unified Theories, they also generically contain new and exotic leptoquark states with fractional lepton number, {+-}1/2. In contrast to the traditional GUT-type leptoquark states, the couplings of the exotic leptoquarks to the Standard Model states are generated after the breaking of U(1){sub B-L}. This important feature of the exotic leptoquark states may result in local discrete symmetries which forbid some of the undesired leptoquark couplings. We examine these couplings in several models and study the phenomenological implications. The flavor symmetries of the superstring models are found to naturally suppress leptoquark flavor changing processes.
Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Dianhydrides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)
2012-01-01
This invention relates to the compositions and processes for preparing thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides derived from novel asymmetrical dianhydrides: specifically 2,3,3',4' benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA), and 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (a-6FDA). The a-BTDA anhydride is prepared by Suzuki coupling with catalysts from a mixed anhydride of 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid or 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid with 2,3-dimethylphenylboronic acid or 3,4-dimethylphenylboronic acid respectively, to form 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone which is oxidized to form 2,3,3',4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid followed by cyclodehydration to obtain a-BTDA. The a-6FDA is prepared by nucleophilic triflouoromethylation of 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone with trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane to form 3,4'-(trifluoromethylmethanol)-bis(o-xylene) which is converted to 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene-bis(o-xylene). The 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(o-xylene) is oxidized to the corresponding tetraacid followed by cyclodehydration to yield a-6FDA.
Urease inhibitory activities of ?-boswellic acid derivatives
2013-01-01
Background and the purpose of the study Boswellia carterii have been used in traditional medicine for many years for management different gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we wish to report urease inhibitory activity of four isolated compound of boswellic acid derivative. Methods 4 pentacyclic triterpenoid acids were isolated from Boswellia carterii and identified by NMR and Mass spectroscopic analysis (compounds 1, 3-O-acetyl-9,11-dehydro-?-boswellic acid; 2, 3-O-acetyl-11-hydroxy-?-boswellic acid; 3. 3-O- acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid and 4, 11-keto-?-boswellic acid. Their inhibitory activity on Jack bean urease were evaluated. Docking and pharmacophore analysis using AutoDock 4.2 and Ligandscout 3.03 programs were also performed to explain possible mechanism of interaction between isolated compounds and urease enzyme. Results It was found that compound 1 has the strongest inhibitory activity against Jack bean urease (IC50?=?6.27?±?0.03 ?M), compared with thiourea as a standard inhibitor (IC50?=?21.1?±?0.3 ?M). Conclusion The inhibition potency is probably due to the formation of appropriate hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions between the investigated compounds and urease enzyme active site and confirms its traditional usage. PMID:23351363
Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heise, S.; Kühn, R.
2012-04-01
The importance of adequately modeling credit risk has once again been highlighted in the recent financial crisis. Defaults tend to cluster around times of economic stress due to poor macro-economic conditions, but also by directly triggering each other through contagion. Although credit default swaps have radically altered the dynamics of contagion for more than a decade, models quantifying their impact on systemic risk are still missing. Here, we examine contagion through credit default swaps in a stylized economic network of corporates and financial institutions. We analyse such a system using a stochastic setting, which allows us to exploit limit theorems to exactly solve the contagion dynamics for the entire system. Our analysis shows that, by creating additional contagion channels, CDS can actually lead to greater instability of the entire network in times of economic stress. This is particularly pronounced when CDS are used by banks to expand their loan books (arguing that CDS would offload the additional risks from their balance sheets). Thus, even with complete hedging through CDS, a significant loan book expansion can lead to considerably enhanced probabilities for the occurrence of very large losses and very high default rates in the system. Our approach adds a new dimension to research on credit contagion, and could feed into a rational underpinning of an improved regulatory framework for credit derivatives.
Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium
Killough, G. G.
1982-03-01
For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.
Derived relations and generalized alteration of preferences.
Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Dougher, Michael J; Luciano, Carmen
2013-06-01
The present study examined the role of derived relations in the generalizability of the evaluative conditioning effect. Healthy university students participated. Four geometrical shapes were first established as discriminative stimuli for the contingent presentation of pictograms (B1, B2, C1, and C2, respectively). We then assessed the reinforcing properties of B1 versus B2, and C1 versus C2 by using simultaneous discrimination tasks: at baseline (baseline assessment), after pairing B1 with aversive slides plus noise and B2 with pleasant slides (test I), and after employing equivalence training and testing to establish B1 as equivalent to C1 and B2 as equivalent to C2 (test II). Most participants (82%) in the experimental condition, as compared with the control conditions (17% and 10%), selected the discriminative shapes for B2 (test I) and C2 (test II) on most trials, replicating and extending previous findings. Subsequently, the geometrical shapes were established as equivalent to the letters X, Y, W, and Z, respectively, which then served as antecedent stimuli in simultaneous discrimination tasks as before (test III). As was expected, only participants in the experimental condition showed preference for the novel letters that were established as equivalent to B2-producing and C2-producing shapes. These findings suggest that the evaluative conditioning effect may extend far beyond the stimulus being de/valuated and narrow the behavioral repertoire. PMID:23242738
Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards
Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.
2013-01-01
Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.
Derivation of the Korean radwaste scaling factor
Kwang Yong Jee; Hong Joo Ahn; Se Chul Sohn; Sun Ho Han; Ki Seop Choi
2007-07-01
The concentrations of several radionuclides in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) drums have to be determined before shipping to disposal facilities. A notice, by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the Korean Government, related to the disposal of LILW drums came into effect at the beginning of 2005, with regards to a radionuclide regulation inside a waste drum. MOST allows for an indirect radionuclide assay using a scaling factor to measure the inventories due to the difficulty of nondestructively measuring the essential {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides inside a drum. That is, a scaling factor calculated through a correlation of the {alpha} or {beta}-emitting nuclide (DTM, Difficult-To-Measure) with a {gamma}-emitting nuclide (ETM, Easy-To-Measure) which has systematically similar properties with DTM nuclides. In this study, radioactive wastes, such as spent resin and dry active waste which were generated at different sites of a PWR and a site of a PHWR type Korean NPP, were partially sampled and analyzed for regulated radionuclides by using radiochemical methods. According to a reactor type and a waste form, the analysis results of each radionuclide were classified. Korean radwaste scaling factor was derived from database of radionuclide concentrations. (authors)
Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.
Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann
2004-06-01
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line. PMID:15359599
Cloned mice derived from somatic cell nuclei.
Hosaka, K; Ohi, S; Ando, A; Kobayashi, M; Sato, K
2000-12-01
In 1997, a cloned sheep "Dolly" was produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell. The first birth of cloned mice derived from some somatic cells were succeeded in 1998. At present, it is shown that somatic cells, cumulus cells, fibroblasts and Sertoli cells can be used to the study of cloned animal as nuclear donor. In this study investigation was designed to compare with efficiency on the production of cloned embryos by using the microinjection and the electrofusion methods for nuclear transfer. Oocyte enucleation was performed with a micromanipulator. The oocyte was held by holding pipette, and was enucleated using a beveled pipette. Microinjection method: Cell's nucleus injection was carried out by piezo-micromanipulator. Cytochalasin B treated cumulus cell was aspirated into a injection pipette, and was broken its plasma membrane using the injection pipette. Then, the cumulus cell was injected into the enucleated ooplasm directly. Electrofusion method: The cell was aspirated into a beveled pipette, and then an aspirated cell was inserted into perivitelline space. Then, the pair of enucleated oocyte and cell was fused using electrical cell fusion apparatus. The reconstituted embryos were activated after nuclear transfer using St2+. Reconstituted embryos had been produced by the microinjection showed the embryonic development to over 8-cell stages. But, the rate of fragmentation of reconstituted embryos by the microinjection showed a little high rate in comparison with the electrofusion. When some reconstituted embryos by the microinjection were transplanted to pseudopregnant females' oviduct, 9 fetuses were observed at 14 days post coitum. PMID:11329940
Biological properties of some benzopsoralen derivatives.
Bordin, F; Carlassare, F; Conconi, M T; Capozzi, A; Majone, F; Guiotto, A; Baccichetti, F
1992-02-01
The biological activity of some benzopsoralen derivatives, prepared with the aim of obtaining new drugs for photochemotherapy, has been studied. The more interesting compounds are 4-hydroxymethyl-4',5'-benzopsoralen and 4-hydroxymethyl-4',5'-tetrahydro-benzopsoralen, which were found to be active in the dark also: DNA and RNA synthesis were both inhibited in Ehrlich cells, even if in a partially reversible fashion, while protein synthesis remained unaffected. In Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured in vitro, the clonal growth was strongly inhibited by incubation in the dark with both drugs, while a number of chromosomal aberrations was observed in the fraction of growing cells. Using alkaline elution, DNA strand breaks were detected. In addition, in the presence of aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase, the clonal growing capacity was completely restored; in contrast, the number of DNA strand breaks remained unchanged. All these results suggest that DNA topoisomerases are probably the target of these two benzopsoralens. These compounds are also good sensitizers; by UV-A irradiation they have a good capacity to produce singlet oxygen, but they appeared to be unable to induce erythemas on guinea-pig skin. Under UV-A light, they induced a strong inhibition of DNA synthesis in Ehrlich cells. Thus, benzopsoralens appear to be capable of inducing strong antiproliferative effects by two different mechanisms, by UV-A irradiation and in the dark. PMID:1542703
Caffeic acid derivatives from Bupleurum chinense
Haghi, G.; Hatami, A.; Mehran, M.; Hosseini, H.
2014-01-01
In this study, caffeic acid (CA) and its three derivatives including 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA, neochlorogenic acid), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA, cryptochlorogenic acid), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, chlorogenic acid) were identified in Bupleurum chinense aerial parts using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector, reference compounds and chemical reactions. Separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution with 4% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at ambient temperature. In addition, the flavonoid aglycones were characterized and quantified after acid hydrolysis of the plant material. The flavonols profile showed quercetin (0.36 g per 100 g), kaempferol (1.11 g per 100 g) and isorhamnetin (0.16 g per 100 g). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents ranged from 7.3 to 18.7% and 0.58 to 2.72% in dry plant material, respectively. PMID:25657804
Amino acids derived from Titan tholins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.
1986-01-01
An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.
Cerebrovascular and Neuroprotective Effects of Adamantane Derivative
Mirzoyan, Ruben S.; Gan'shina, Tamara S.; Maslennikov, Denis V.; Kovalev, Georgy I.; Zimin, Ivan A.; Pyatin, Boris M.; Avdyunina, Nina I.; Kukhtarova, Anna M.; Khostikyan, Nelly G.; Meliksetyan, Vahe S.; Alikhanyan, Cristina B.; Mirzoyan, Narine R.
2014-01-01
Objectives. The influence of 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on was studied on the rats' brain blood flow and on morphological state of brain tissue under the condition of brain ischemia. The interaction of the substance with NMDA receptors was also studied. Methods. Study has been implemented using the methods of local blood flow registration by laser flowmeter, [3H]-MK-801binding, and morphological examination of the brain tissue. We used the models of global transient ischemia of the brain, occlusion of middle cerebral artery, and hypergravity ischemia of the brain. Results. Unlike memantine, antagonist of glutamatergic receptors, the 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on does not block NMDA receptors but enhances the cerebral blood flow of rats with brain ischemia. This effect is eliminated by bicuculline. Under conditions of permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery, 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on has recovered compensatory regeneration in neural cells, axons, and glial cells, and the number of microcirculatory vessels was increased. 5-Hydroxyadamantane-2-on was increasing the survival rate of animals with hypergravity ischemia. Conclusions. 5-Hydroxyadamantane-2-on, an adamantane derivative, which is not NMDA receptors antagonist, demonstrates significant cerebrovascular and neuroprotective activity in conditions of brain ischemia. Presumably, the GABA-ergic system of brain vessels is involved in mechanisms of cerebrovascular and neuroprotective activity of 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on. PMID:24772429
Cardiovascular pharmacological effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives.
Qian, Jia-Qing
2002-12-01
Tetrandrine, dauricine, daurisoline and neferine are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives isolated from Chinese traditional medicine and herbs. The cardiovascular pharmacological effects and the mechanism of actions of these compounds were reviewed. Tetrandrine isolated from Stephania tetrandra S Moore possesses antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic effects. The antihypertensive effects of tetrandrine have been demonstrated in experimental hypertensive animals and in hypertensive patients. Recent studies showed that in addition to its calcium antagonistic effect, tetrandrine interacted with M receptors. Modulation by M receptor is one of the pharmacological mechanisms of cardiovascular effects of tetrandrine. Dauricine and daurisoloine were isolated from Menispermum dauricum DC. The antiarrhythmic effects of dauricine have been verified in different experimental arrhythmic models and in cardiac arrhythmic patients. Dauricine blocked the cardiac transmembrane Na+,K+ and Ca2+ ion currents. Differing from quinidine and sotalol, which exhibited reverse use-dependent effect, dauricine prolonged APD in a normal use-dependent manner in experimental studies. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline and neferine which is an alkaloid isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, and their mechanisms of actions have also been studied. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline is more potent than that of dauricine. PMID:12466045
Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua
2014-06-01
Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-? in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.
The fate of flat directions in higher derivative gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Lodato, Ivano
2013-05-01
We discuss the fate of flat directions in higher derivative gravity by studying two explicit examples, namely higher derivative gauged supergravity in five dimensions and higher derivative type IIB string theory in ten dimensions. In the first case, the supersymmetric spinning black hole solution in asymptotically AdS spacetime, found by Gutowski and Reall, is analyzed. In this case we find that the flat direction at the two derivative level is not lifted after addition of higher derivative terms, and as it turns out, this result holds even for non-supersymmetric deformations of the higher derivative action. For the rotating D3-brane solutions in type IIB theory, the dilaton parametrizes a flat direction at leading order, but its fate changes upon including order (?')3 supersymmetric higher derivative corrections to the type IIB action, i.e. its leading value gets fixed.
Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances
Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.
1980-01-01
General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.
Han, Li; Huo, Peiyuan; Chen, Huahong; Li, Songtao; Jiang, Yi; Li, Liya; Xu, Lihua; Jiang, Chenglin; Huang, Xueshi
2014-07-01
Six new nonactic and homononactic acid derivatives, ethyl homononactate (1), ethyl nonactate (2), homononactyl homononactate (6), ethyl homononactyl nonactate (7), ethyl homononactyl homononactate (8), and ethyl nonactyl nonactate (9), as well as four known compounds, homononactic acid (3), nonactic acid (4), homononactyl nonactate (5), and bishomononactic acid (10), were isolated from culture broth of Bacillus pumilus derived from Breynia fruticosa. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The optical purities of 1-6 were determined by HPLC/MS after treatment with L-phenylalanine methyl ester. The dimeric compounds 5-9 showed weak cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (IC50 19-100??g/ml). PMID:25044594
Kaneko, Naoko; Kako, Eisuke; Sawamoto, Kazunobu
2013-01-01
In the postnatal mammalian brain, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) continuously generate neuronal and glial cells throughout life. Genetic labeling of cells of specific lineages have demonstrated that the V-SVZ is an important source of the neuroblasts and/or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that migrate toward injured brain areas in response to several types of insult, including ischemia and demyelinating diseases. However, this spontaneous regeneration is insufficient for complete structural and functional restoration of the injured brain, so interventions to enhance these processes are sought for clinical applications. Erythropoietin (EPO), a clinically applied erythropoietic factor, is reported to have cytoprotective effects in various kinds of insult in the central nervous system. Moreover, recent studies suggest that EPO promotes the V-SVZ-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. EPO increases the proliferation of progenitors in the V-SVZ and/or the migration and differentiation of their progenies in and around injured areas, depending on the dosage, timing, and duration of treatment, as well as the type of animal model used. On the other hand, EPO has undesirable side effects, including thrombotic complications. We recently demonstrated that a 2-week treatment with the EPO derivative asialo-EPO promotes the differentiation of V-SVZ-derived OPCs into myelin-forming mature oligodendrocytes in the injured white matter of neonatal mice without causing erythropoiesis. Here we present an overview of the multifaceted effects of EPO and its derivatives in the V-SVZ and discuss the possible applications of these molecules in regenerative medicine. PMID:24348331
Gelatin Nanofiber Matrices Derived from Schiff Base Derivative for Tissue Engineering Applications.
Jaiswal, Devina; James, Roshan; Shelke, Namdev B; Harmon, Matthew D; Brown, Justin L; Hussain, Fazle; Kumbar, Sangamesh G
2015-11-01
Electrospinning of water-soluble polymers and retaining their mechanical strength and bioactivity remain challenging. Volatile organic solvent soluble polymers and their derivatives are preferred for fabricating electrospun nanofibers. We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-nitrobenzyl-gelatin (N-Gelatin)--a novel gelatin Schiff base derivative--and the resulting electrospun nanofiber matrices. The 2-nitrobenzyl group is a photoactivatable-caged compound and can be cleaved from the gelatin nanofiber matrices following UV exposure. Such hydrophobic modification allowed the fabrication of gelatin and blend nanofibers with poly(caprolactone) (PCL) having significantly improved tensile properties. Neat gelatin and their PCL blend nanofiber matrices showed a modulus of 9.08 ± 1.5 MPa and 27.61 ± 4.3 MPa, respectively while the modified gelatin and their blends showed 15.63 ± 2.8 MPa and 24.47 ± 8.7 MPa, respectively. The characteristic infrared spectroscopy band for gelatin Schiff base derivative at 1560 cm(-1) disappeared following exposure to UV light indicating the regeneration of free NH2 group and gelatin. These nanofiber matrices supported cell attachment and proliferation with a well spread morphology as evidenced through cell proliferation assay and microscopic techniques. Modified gelatin fiber matrices showed a 73% enhanced cell attachment and proliferation rate compared to pure gelatin. This polymer modification methodology may offer a promising way to fabricate electrospun nanofiber matrices using a variety of proteins and peptides without loss of bioactivity and mechanical strength. PMID:26554164
SAMZ: Satellite-Derived Management Zones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multi-year crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.
Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives.
Yong, Soon Kong; Shrivastava, Manoj; Srivastava, Prashant; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi
2015-01-01
Chitosan originates from the seafood processing industry and is one of the most abundant of bio-waste materials. Chitosan is a by-product of the alkaline deacetylation process of chitin. Chemically, chitosan is a polysaccharide that is soluble in acidic solution and precipitates at higher pHs. It has great potential for certain environmental applications, such as remediation of organic and inorganic contaminants, including toxic metals and dyes in soil, sediment and water, and development of contaminant sensors. Traditionally, seafood waste has been the primary source of chitin. More recently, alternative sources have emerged such as fungal mycelium, mushroom and krill wastes, and these new sources of chitin and chitosan may overcome seasonal supply limitations that have existed. The production of chitosan from the above-mentioned waste streams not only reduces waste volume, but alleviates pressure on landfills to which the waste would otherwise go. Chitosan production involves four major steps, viz., deproteination, demineralization, bleaching and deacetylation. These four processes require excessive usage of strong alkali at different stages, and drives chitosan's production cost up, potentially making the application of high-grade chitosan for commercial remediation untenable. Alternate chitosan processing techniques, such as microbial or enzymatic processes, may become more cost-effective due to lower energy consumption and waste generation. Chitosan has proved to be versatile for so many environmental applications, because it possesses certain key functional groups, including - OH and -NH2 . However, the efficacy of chitosan is diminished at low pH because of its increased solubility and instability. These deficiencies can be overcome by modifying chitosan's structure via crosslinking. Such modification not only enhances the structural stability of chitosan under low pH conditions, but also improves its physicochemical characteristics, such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity, permeability, surface area and sorption capacity. Crosslinked chitosan is an excellent sorbent for trace metals especially because of the high flexibility of its structural stability. Sorption of trace metals by chitosan is selective and independent of the size and hardness of metal ions, or the physical form of chitosan (e.g., film, powder and solution). Both -OH and -NH2 groups in chitosan provide vital binding sites for complexing metal cations. At low pH, -NH3 + groups attract and coagulate negatively charged contaminants such as metal oxyanions, humic acids and dye molecules. Grafting certain functional molecules into the chitin structure improves sorption capacity and selectivity for remediating specific metal ions. For example, introducing sulfur and nitrogen donor ligands to chitosan alters the sorption preference for metals. Low molecular weight chitosan derivatives have been used to remediate metal contaminated soil and sediments. They have also been applied in permeable reactive barriers to remediate metals in soil and groundwater. Both chitosan and modified chitosan have been used to phytoremediate metals; however, the mechanisms by which they assist in mobilizing metals are not yet well understood. In addition, microbes have been used in combination with chitosan to remediate metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) in contaminated soils. Chitosan has also been used to remediate organic contaminants, such as oil-based wastewater, dyes, tannins, humic acids, phenols, bisphenoi-A, p-benzoquinone, organo-phosphorus insecticides, among others. Chitosan has also been utilized to develop optical and electrochemical sensors for in-situ detection of trace contaminants. In sensor technology, naturally-derived chitosan is used primarily as an immobilizing agent that results from its enzyme compatibility, and stabilizing effect on nanoparticles. Contaminant-sensing agents, such as enzymes, microbes and nanoparticles, have been homogeneously immobilized in chitosan gels by using coagulating (e.g., alginate, phosphate) or crosslinking agents (e.g., GA, ECH).
Fucoxanthin Derivatives: Synthesis and their Chemical Properties.
Komba, Shiro; Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Machida, Sachiko
2015-01-01
Novel fucoxanthin derivatives that could change the size of mixed micelles were synthesized. The mixed micelles under consideration consist of a bile acid and some additives. To change the affinity against a bile acid, we designed the synthesis of a fucoxanthin-lithocholic acid complex. Lithocholic acid is one of the bile acids. The 3-OH on lithocholic acid was protected by a levulinyl group, and the protected lithocholic acid was selectively coupled via an ester linkage to the 3-OH on fucoxanthin to obtain levulinyl-protected lithocholyl fucoxanthin (LevLF). The levulinyl group was then selectively deprotected using hydrazine to obtain a lithocholyl fucoxanthin (LF). The average sizes of the micelles that contained these compounds (fucoxanthin, LevLF, and LF) with a bile acid (sodium taurocholate) were measured. The LevLF induced larger micelles than fucoxanthin or LF. Interestingly, the addition of 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol induced a more efficient change in the micelle size. The large micelles grew larger, and the small micelles became smaller. Triple-mixed micelles with LevLF, sodium taurocholate, and 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol formed the largest micelle with a diameter of 68 nm. On the other hand, triple-mixed micelles using LF, sodium taurocholate, and 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol made the smallest micelles with diameters as low as 12 nm. We also investigated the hydrolysis of these compounds with enzymes (esterase from porcine liver, lipase from porcine pancreas, and cholesterol esterase from Pseudomonas sp.). The ester linkage between the lithocholic acid and fucoxanthin of LevLF was hydrolyzed with cholesterol esterase. In addition, the intestinal absorption was examined with Caco-2 cells, and no advantageous change in absorption efficiency was observed by chemically modifying the fucoxanthin unless different micelles sizes and increasing hydrophobicity are induced. PMID:26250423
Nanofiltration of plasma-derived biopharmaceutical products.
Burnouf, T; Radosevich, M
2003-01-01
This review presents the current status on the use and benefits of viral removal filtration systems--known as nanofiltration--in the manufacture of plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrates and other biopharmaceutical products from human blood origin. Nanofiltration of plasma products has been implemented at a production scale in the early 1990s to improve margin of viral safety, as a complement to the viral reduction treatments, such as solvent-detergent and heat treatments, already applied for the inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. The main reason for the introduction of nanofiltration was the need to improve product safety against non-enveloped viruses and to provide a possible safeguard against new infectious agents potentially entering the human plasma pool. Nanofiltration has gained quick acceptance as it is a relatively simple manufacturing step that consists in filtering protein solution through membranes of a very small pore size (typically 15-40 nm) under conditions that retain viruses by a mechanism largely based on size exclusion. Recent large-scale experience throughout the world has now established that nanofiltration is a robust and reliable viral reduction technique that can be applied to essentially all plasma products. Many of the licensed plasma products are currently nanofiltered. The technology has major advantages as it is flexible and it may combine efficient and largely predictable removal of more than 4 to 6 logs of a wide range of viruses, with an absence of denaturing effect on plasma proteins. Compared with other viral reduction means, nanofiltration may be the only method to date permitting efficient removal of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses under conditions where 90-95% of protein activity is recovered. New data indicate that nanofiltration may also remove prions, opening new perspectives in the development and interest of this technique. Nanofiltration is increasingly becoming a routine step in the manufacture of biopharmaceutical products. PMID:12558776
Deriving Motor Primitives Through Action Segmentation
Hemeren, Paul E.; Thill, Serge
2011-01-01
The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics. PMID:21833296
Tachometers Derived From a Brushless DC Motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.
2007-01-01
The upper part of the figure illustrates the major functional blocks of a direction-sensitive analog tachometer circuit based on the use of an unexcited two-phase brushless dc motor as a rotation transducer. The primary advantages of this circuit over many older tachometer circuits include the following: Its output inherently varies linearly with the rate of rotation of the shaft. Unlike some tachometer circuits that rely on differentiation of voltages with respect to time, this circuit relies on integration, which results in signals that are less noisy. There is no need for an additional shaft-angle sensor, nor is there any need to supply electrical excitation to a shaft-angle sensor. There is no need for mechanical brushes (which tend to act as sources of electrical noise). The underlying concept and electrical design are relatively simple. This circuit processes the back-electromagnetic force (back-emf) outputs of the two motor phases into a voltage directly proportional to the instantaneous rate (sign magnitude) of rotation of the shaft. The processing in this circuit effects a straightforward combination of mathematical operations leading to a final operation based on the well-known trigonometric identity (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1 for any value of x. The principle of operation of this circuit is closely related to that of the tachometer circuit described in Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver (MFS-28845), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 1995), page 39. However, the present circuit is simpler in some respects because there is no need for sinusoidal excitation of shaftangle- resolver windings.
Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dotzek, Nikolai
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.
Synthesis and electronic aspects of tetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidine derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajda, Katarzyna; Astakhina, Valeriia; Ejsmont, Krzysztof; Kolomeitsev, Dmytro; Kovalenko, Sergiy; Zarychta, Bartosz
2015-03-01
The chemistry of thiophenes, pyrimidines, triazolopyrimidines and benzothiophenes has drawn much attention because of their biological activities. Their interesting properties are connected with their complex ?-electron delocalisation effects. Herein the synthesis, crystal and molecular structures at 100 K and DFT calculated structures of three tetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidine derivatives are reported i.e. 4-hydrazino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1]benzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine which was a substrate for 2-phenyl-8,9,10,11-tetrahydro[1]benzothieno[3,2-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine and 3-methyl-9,10,11,12-tetrahydro-2H-[1]benzothieno[2?,3?:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-b][1,2,4]triazin-2-one. Moreover the influence of the substituents, polycyclic structure and crystal packing and on the aromaticity of the fused heterocyclic rings have been also discussed. The 4-hydrazino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1]benzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine is a promising substrate for a number of different reactions and discovering novel biologically active heterocycles. All three molecules are planar except of the tetrahydrobenzene part, which shows normal conformation. In crystals the molecules are connected to each other by C-H⋯N, N-H⋯N, C-H⋯S and S⋯? contacts. The geometry of common core in all structures is similar and typical for this class of compounds. The aromaticity of the fused heteroaromatic systems has been investigated by means of the HOMA indices. The discrepancy between values of HOMA for isolated monocyclic compounds and studied molecules from crystal structure shows destabilization of aromaticity when the rings are fused in a larger heterocyclic systems. The thiophene part of the molecule is far more sensitive on the influence of both mesomeric effects in polycyclic system and molecular environment in solid-state than pyrimidine ring. The presence of intermolecular interactions was confirmed by Hirshfeld area analysis.
Asteroid Thermal Properties Derived from Meteorite Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Consolmagno, Guy; Macke, R. J.; Britt, D. T.
2013-10-01
The thermal inertia of an asteroid’s surface determines its response to the various Yarkovsky effects, while its internal thermal diffusivity controls its thermal evolution. Each quantity is a function of the material’s thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and density. Over the past ten years we have conducted a detailed survey measuring density in meteorites and are currently in the early stages of similar surveys for thermal conductivity and heat capacity. While various meteorite types differ in small but significant ways, for asteroid studies typical average values of these quantities can be estimated to within about 10%. (Metallic asteroids would have significantly different behavior.) The most important variable controlling density and thermal conductivity is porosity, P, while heat capacity is a strong function of temperature, T. Most stony meteorite densities are within 10% of 3500*(1-P) (SI units); basaltic and volatile rich meteorites are 10% to 30% less dense. Thermal conductivity in the temperature range of interest in the asteroid belt is nearly constant with temperature but varies strongly with porosity; assuming the trend seen for meteorite porosities up to 25% can be extrapolated to higher porosities, with zero conductivity at 100% porosity, a typical conductivity (for porosities greater than 2%) can be approximated by k = 0.11/P - 0.11 (SI units). Heat capacity ranges from under 250 J/kgK at 100 K to over 600 J/kgK at 250 K; over these temperatures this variation can be fitted by a quadratic in T. From these formulae we can derive representative values for thermal inertia and diffusivity and see how they vary as a function of porosity and temperature values appropriate for most asteroids. The greatest variation is with porosity. Thermal diffusivity drops by nearly two orders of magnitude from 0 to 20% porosity, more slowly at higher porosities. Thermal inertia (at 200K) varies from 3000 (SI units) near zero porosity down to 3 as porosity approaches 100%; 10% porosity has a thermal inertia near 1000 while 90% porous is about 60. Literature asteroid thermal inertias range from as high as 1000 to below 30; asteroid thermal inertias below 100 demand an extremely porous (>80%) surface.
Rigorous derivation of electromagnetic self-force
Gralla, Samuel E.; Harte, Abraham I.; Wald, Robert M.
2009-07-15
During the past century, there has been considerable discussion and analysis of the motion of a point charge in an external electromagnetic field in special relativity, taking into account 'self-force' effects due to the particle's own electromagnetic field. We analyze the issue of 'particle motion' in classical electromagnetism in a rigorous and systematic way by considering a one-parameter family of solutions to the coupled Maxwell and matter equations corresponding to having a body whose charge-current density J{sup a}({lambda}) and stress-energy tensor T{sub ab}({lambda}) scale to zero size in an asymptotically self-similar manner about a worldline {gamma} as {lambda}{yields}0. In this limit, the charge, q, and total mass, m, of the body go to zero, and q/m goes to a well-defined limit. The Maxwell field F{sub ab}({lambda}) is assumed to be the retarded solution associated with J{sup a}({lambda}) plus a homogeneous solution (the 'external field') that varies smoothly with {lambda}. We prove that the worldline {gamma} must be a solution to the Lorentz force equations of motion in the external field F{sub ab}({lambda}=0). We then obtain self-force, dipole forces, and spin force as first-order perturbative corrections to the center-of-mass motion of the body. We believe that this is the first rigorous derivation of the complete first-order correction to Lorentz force motion. We also address the issue of obtaining a self-consistent perturbative equation of motion associated with our perturbative result, and argue that the self-force equations of motion that have previously been written down in conjunction with the 'reduction of order' procedure should provide accurate equations of motion for a sufficiently small charged body with negligible dipole moments and spin. (There is no corresponding justification for the non-reduced-order equations.) We restrict consideration in this paper to classical electrodynamics in flat spacetime, but there should be no difficulty in extending our results to the motion of a charged body in an arbitrary globally hyperbolic curved spacetime.
Electron transport through chemically-derived nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Andrew Kean Leong
Electrical devices that combine the functionality of lithographically patterned semiconductor circuits with the flexibility inherent in chemical systems present an opportunity to explore fundamental physical processes and simultaneously, to address more practical applications. This dissertation describes efforts to make such chemically-derived structures, by incorporating individual nanometre-sized molecules (C60 and semiconductor nanocrystals/nanorods) into a single electron transistor geometry. Electrical transport measurements are used to characterise these devices. A significant barrier to building these devices is the difficulty in connecting electrodes from the external metre-sized world where measurements are made to a nanometre-sized object. One solution is to place the molecule in a junction formed by the electromigration-induced failure of a metal nanowire, a technique that produces electrically stable transistors in surprisingly high yields. Understanding the process of junction formation is not only of intrinsic interest, but it has also proven to be a highly reliable diagnostic tool to differentiate between successful devices and tunnel junctions not containing the sample molecule. The fabrication of C60-based single electron transistors was one of the first applications of this method. Extensive transport spectroscopy was performed on these devices by tuning parameters such as the transistor bias voltage, the applied electric and magnetic fields and the temperature. The electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom of the cluster appear to couple during electron transport and a model for this behaviour was proposed, based on molecular oscillations within a transistor junction. On several occasions, individual C60 molecules were well connected to the junction electrodes, permitting observation of the Kondo effect in these devices. The break-junction technique was also used to create single electron transistors based upon colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, facilitating spectroscopy on a semiconductor material that is quantum confined in three dimensions. The techniques to produce these nanocrystals are chemically quite flexible and recent syntheses have produced elongated nanorods where confinement is lost in one direction (resulting in a one-dimensional quantum wire). Preliminary experiments on these objects exhibit an intriguing dependence on the applied magnetic field.
Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings
Rajendra Bordia
2009-07-31
The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.
Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, S.; Mashino, T.
2009-04-01
Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C60-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C60-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC50 values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.
Derivation of Formulations 1 and 1A of Farassat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farassat, F.
2007-01-01
Formulations 1 and 1A are the solutions of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation with surface sources only when the surface moves at subsonic speed. Both formulations have been successfully used for helicopter rotor and propeller noise prediction for many years although we now recommend using Formulation 1A for this purpose. Formulation 1 has an observer time derivative that is taken numerically, and thus, increasing execution time on a computer and reducing the accuracy of the results. After some discussion of the Green's function of the wave equation, we derive Formulation 1 which is the basis of deriving Formulation 1A. We will then show how to take this observer time derivative analytically to get Formulation 1A. We give here the most detailed derivation of these formulations. Once you see the whole derivation, you will ask yourself why you did not do it yourself!
Automatic evaluation of first- and higher-derivative vectors
Griewank, A.
1990-01-01
The numerical analysis of parameter-dependent nonlinear systems almost always involves first-derivative matrices and often also requires the evaluation of higher derivatives along certain singular directions. It is shown here how these selected derivative values can be obtained without differencing and at a reasonable cost under the realistic assumption that the nonlinear system is given in the form of a computer program for its evaluation. 14 refs.
Time-derivatives and frame-invariance beyond Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biscari, Paolo; Cercignani, Carlo; Slemrod, Marshall
Replacing the time-derivatives with spatial gradients is a quite useful and ordinary method to work with the Chapman-Enskog expansion when dealing with non-uniform fluids. However, to perform the substitution, approximated balance equations, which are not frame invariant, are usually used. Alternatively, frame-invariant but not frame-indifferent expansions may be derived. In this paper we analyze the possibility of deriving a Chapman-Enskog expansion both frame-invariant and frame-indifferent.
Arbutin derivatives from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia.
Khan, Shazia; Kardar, M Nadeem; Siddiqui, Bina S
2011-11-01
A new arbutin derivative, madhuglucoside (1), along with three known arbutin derivatives were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia in addition to seven other known constituents. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 1a, 2a and 3a were obtained in a pure state after acetylation of the mother fraction and characterized as their acetyl derivatives. PMID:22224283
Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil
Brandvold, Timothy A.
2015-07-14
Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method comprising the steps of diluting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil with a phenolic-containing diluent to form a diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is provided. The diluted pyoil-phenolic feed is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.
Massive Gravity from Higher Derivative Gravity with Boundary Conditions
Minjoon Park; Lorenzo Sorbo
2012-10-29
With an appropriate choice of parameters, a higher derivative theory of gravity can describe a normal massive sector and a ghost massless sector. We show that, when defined on an asymptotically de Sitter spacetime with Dirichlet boundary conditions, such a higher derivative gravity can provide a framework for a unitary theory of massive gravity in four spacetime dimensions. The resulting theory is free not only of higher derivative ghosts but also of the Boulware-Deser mode.
Ferroquine and its derivatives: new generation of antimalarial agents.
Wani, Waseem A; Jameel, Ehtesham; Baig, Umair; Mumtazuddin, Syed; Hun, Lee Ting
2015-08-28
Malaria has been teasing human populations from a long time. Presently, several classes of antimalarial drugs are available in market, but the issues of toxicity, lower efficacy and the resistance by malarial parasites have decreased their overall therapeutic indices. Thus, the search for new promising antimalarials continues, however, the battle against malaria is far from over. Ferroquine is a derivative of chloroquine with antimalarial properties. It is the most successful of the chloroquine derivatives. Not only ferroquine, but also its derivatives have shown promising potential as antimalarials of clinical interest. Presently, much research is dedicated to the development of ferroquine derivatives as safe alternatives to antimalarial chemotherapy. The present article describes the structural, chemical and biological features of ferroquine. Several classes of ferroquine derivatives including hydroxyferroquines, trioxaferroquines, chloroquine-bridged ferrocenophanes, thiosemicarbazone derivatives, ferrocene dual conjugates, 4-N-substituted derivatives, and others have been discussed. Besides, the mechanism of action of ferroquine has been discussed. A careful observation has been made into pharmacologically significant ferroquine derivatives with better or equal therapeutic effects to that of chloroquine and ferroquine. A brief discussion of the toxicities of ferroquine derivatives has been made. Finally, efforts have been made to discuss the current challenges and future perspectives of ferroquine-based antimalarial drug development. PMID:26188909
Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity
Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.
2015-01-01
Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive ?,?-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen–Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent. PMID:26317075
Thio and epidithio derivatives of methyl beta-lactoside.
Ali, M A; Hough, L; Richardson, A C
1991-09-01
Treatment of methyl beta-lactoside with triphenylphosphine-carbon tetrabromide in pyridine gave the 3',6'-anhydro-6-bromo-6-deoxy derivative, from which 6-thio derivatives were prepared, and methyl 3',4'-O-isopropylidene-beta-lactoside gave the 6,6'-dibromo-6,6'-dideoxy derivative. A dibromide was prepared also from methyl 4',6'-O-benzylidene-beta-lactoside by bromination with Ph3P-CBr4, acetylation, and then treatment with N-bromosuccinimide. Various 6,6'-dithio derivatives were prepared from the 6,6'-dibromide by nucleophilic substitution reactions. Reaction of the 6,6'-dibromide with thiourea led to the 6,6'-epidithio derivative and, with potassium tricarbonate, the bridged 6,6'-trithiocarbonate was formed. The 6,6'-dibromo derivative underwent selective nucleophilic substitution to give a variety of 6'-bromo-6-thio derivatives. Likewise, with azide, the 6-azide was formed first, followed by the 6,6'-diazide and the product of elimination, the 6-azido-5%-ene. Raney nickel-mediated desulphuration of the various 6,6'-dithio derivatives afforded methyl 6,6'-dideoxy-beta-lactoside and desulphuration of the 6'-bromo-6-thio derivatives could be accomplished without reductive dehalogenation to give methyl 6'-bromo-6,6'-dideoxylactoside. PMID:1797381
Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Dearomatization of Naphthalene Derivatives
Kessler, Florian
An intramolecular enantioselective metal-catalyzed dearomatization reaction is described. This procedure allows the dearomatization of naphthalene derivatives through an electrophilic aromatic substitution-type reaction ...
Holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Rong-Xin; Guo, Wu-zhong
2015-08-01
The holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity is investigated. We find a new type of Wald entropy, which appears on entangling surface without the rotational symmetry and reduces to usual Wald entropy on Killing horizon. Furthermore, we obtain a formal formula of HEE for the most general higher derivative gravity and work it out exactly for some squashed cones. As an important application, we derive HEE for gravitational action with one derivative of the curvature when the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We also study some toy models with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We prove that our formula yields the correct universal term of entanglement entropy for 4d CFTs. Furthermore, we solve the puzzle raised by Hung, Myers and Smolkin that the logarithmic term of entanglement entropy derived from Weyl anomaly of CFTs does not match the holographic result even if the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We find that such mismatch comes from the `anomaly of entropy' of the derivative of curvature. After considering such contributions carefully, we resolve the puzzle successfully. In general, we need to fix the splitting problem for the conical metrics in order to derive the holographic entanglement entropy. We find that, at least for Einstein gravity, the splitting problem can be fixed by using equations of motion. How to derive the splittings for higher derivative gravity is a non-trivial and open question. For simplicity, we ignore the splitting problem in this paper and find that it does not affect our main results.
Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil
Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.
2015-06-30
Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.
Production of Chemical Derivatives from Renewables
Davison, Brian; Nghiem, John; Donnelly, Mark; Tsai, Shih-Perng; Frye, John; Landucci, Ron; Griffin, Michael
1996-06-01
The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp., (LMER), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Battelle Memorial Institute, operator of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), (collectively referred to as the 'Contractor'), and Applied Carbochemicals, Inc. (Participant) was to scale-up from bench results an economically promising and competitive process for the production of chemical derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid. The products that were under consideration for production from the succinic acid platform included 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}y-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Preliminary economic analyses indicated that this platform was competitive with the most recent petrochemical routes. The Contractors and participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties.' Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on preliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. At the time, the current need was to provide the necessary laboratory follow-up information to properly optimize, design and operate a pilot scale process. The purpose of the pilot work was to validate the integrated process, assure 'robustness' of the process, define operating conditions, and provide samples for potential customer evaluation. The data from the pilot scale process was used in design and development of a full scale production facility. A new strain, AFP111 (patented), discovered at ANL was tested and developed for process use at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ANL. The operability and product formation are attractive for this strain and effort was being directed at process development and optimization. Key to the transition from the fermentative production unit operation to the chemical catalysis is the 'clean-up' of fermentation broth, succinic acid formation from the salt, and succinic acid concentration. These steps are accomplished by a two-stage membrane ED separation process developed at AWL. Although the current process is well developed, possible modifications and optimization may be called for as development work continues in both the fermentation and catalysis areas. Research to date performed at PNNL has demonstrated that succinic acid can be converted to value added chemicals such as 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, N-methyl pyrrolidinone, and 2 pyrrolidinone with high conversion and selectivities. Continued research will be performed in catalyst development and reaction condition optimization to move this work from the bench scale to the pilot scale. All development of the process was guided by the NREL technoeconomic model. The model showed that direct aqueous phase catalysis of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, and N-methyl pyrrolidinone provided significant economical advantages in the market, the margin, and the return on capital investment over existing petrochemical processes for production of these compounds. The model also provided the baseline for evaluating current laboratory research. As data from the bench and pilot work were made available the model was modified and appropriate sensitivities ran to determine impact of the process changes and optimization. The report will present the planned CRADA tasks followed by the results. The results section has an overall project summary follwed by more detailed reports from the participants. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.
Single Molecule Conductance of Oligothiophene Derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dell, Emma J.
This thesis studies the electronic properties of small organic molecules based on the thiophene motif. If we are to build next-generation devices, advanced materials must be designed which possess requisite electronic functionality. Molecules present attractive candidates for these ad- vanced materials since nanoscale devices are particularly sought after. However, selecting a molecule that is suited to a certain electronic function remains a challenge, and characterization of electronic behavior is therefore critical. Single molecule conductance measurements are a powerful tool to determine properties on the nanoscale and, as such, can be used to investigate novel building blocks that may fulfill the design requirements of next-generation devices. Combining these conductance results with strategic chemical synthesis allows for the development of new families of molecules that show attractive properties for future electronic devices. Since thiophene rings are the fruitflies of organic semiconductors on the bulk scale, they present an intriguing starting point for building functional materials on the nanoscale, and therefore form the structural basis of all molecules studied herein. First, the single-molecule conductance of a family of bithiophene derivatives was measured. A broad distribution in the single-molecule conductance of bithiophene was found compared with that of a biphenyl. This increased breadth in the conductance distribution was shown to be explained by the difference in 5-fold symmetry of thiophene rings as compared to the 6-fold symmetry of benzene rings. The reduced symmetry of thiophene rings results in a restriction on the torsion angle space available to these molecules when bound between two metal electrodes in a junction, causing each molecular junction to sample a different set of conformers in the conductance measurements. By contrast, the rotations of biphenyl are essentially unimpeded by junction binding, allowing each molecular junction to sample similar conformers. This work demonstrates that the conductance of bithiophene displays a strong dependence on the conformational fluctuations accessible within a given junction configuration, and that the symmetry of such small molecules can significantly influence their conductance behavior. Next, the single-molecule conductance of a family of oligothiophenes comprising one to six thiophene units was measured. An anomalous behavior was found: the peak of the conductance histogram distribution did not follow a clear exponential decay with increasing number of thiophene units in the chain. The electronic properties of the materials were characterized by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry to gain an understanding of the factors affecting the conductance of these molecules. Different conformers in the junction were postulated to be a contributing factor to the anomalous trend in the observed conductance as a function of molecule length. Then, the electronic properties of the thiophene-1,1-dioxide unit were investigated. These motifs have become synthetically accessible in the last decade, due to Rozen's unprecedentedly potent oxidizing reagent - HOF?CH 3CN - which has been shown to be powerful yet selective enough to oxidize thiophenes in various environments. The resulting thiophene-1,1-dioxides show great promise for electronic devices. The oxidation chemistry of thiophenes was expanded and tuning of the frontier energy levels was demonstrated through combining electron poor and electron rich units. Finally, charge carriers in single-molecule junctions were shown to be tunable within a family of molecules containing these thiophene-1,1-dioxide (TDO) building blocks. Oligomers of TDO were designed in order to increase electron affinity, maintain delocalized frontier orbitals, while significantly decreasing the transport gap. Through thermopower measurements, the dominant charge carriers were shown to change from holes to electrons as the number of TDO units was increased. This resulted in a unique system in which the charge carrier depends on ba
Zheng, Cai-Juan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wu, Lu-Yong; Chen, Min; Wang, Kai-Ling; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Sun, Xue-Ping; Chen, Guang-Ying; Wang, Chang-Yun
2013-01-01
One new phenylalanine derivative 4?-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfey’s method. All isolated metabolites (1–12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. PMID:23752358
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazi?, Vedrana; Jurkovi?, Mihaela; Jedna?ak, Tomislav; Hrenar, Tomica; Vukovi?, Jelena Parlov; Novak, Predrag
2015-01-01
The structure and hydrogen bonding in solution of acetylacetone and benzoylacetone derived enaminone derivatives, 1a-1d and 2a-2d, have been studied by a combination of experimental (NMR and UV spectroscopies) and theoretical (PM6 and DFT) methods. It has been shown that all studied compounds predominantly existed in the localised keto-amine tautomeric form in solution as found also in the solid state. Significant line-broadening and down-field chemical shifts of NH and OH protons have strongly indicated that both groups formed hydrogen bonds, which has further been supported by quantum chemical calculations. Temperature and concentration dependent NMR measurements have pointed towards the fact that NH protons are engaged in strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the NH⋯Odbnd C type in both solvents. On the other hand, OH protons are involved in weaker intermolecular hydrogen bonding with solvent molecules in DMSO, while in chloroform intermolecular interactions between two molecules dominate. The results presented in this paper can be used for better understanding and further exploiting properties these ligands possess, especially their bioactivity.
Zengerle, Michael; Brandhuber, Florian; Schneider, Christian; Worek, Franz; Reiter, Georg
2011-01-01
Summary The potential of appropriately substituted cyclodextrins to act as scavengers for neurotoxic organophosphonates under physiological conditions was evaluated. To this end, a series of derivatives containing substituents with an aldoxime or a ketoxime moiety along the narrow opening of the ?-cyclodextrin cavity was synthesized, and the ability of these compounds to reduce the inhibitory effect of the neurotoxic organophosphonate cyclosarin on its key target, acetylcholinesterase, was assessed in vitro. All compounds exhibited a larger effect than native ?-cyclodextrin, and characteristic differences were noted. These differences in activity were correlated with the structural and electronic parameters of the substituents. In addition, the relatively strong effect of the cyclodextrin derivatives on cyclosarin degradation and, in particular, the observed enantioselectivity are good indications that noncovalent interactions between the cyclodextrin ring and the substrate, presumably involving the inclusion of the cyclohexyl moiety of cyclosarin into the cyclodextrin cavity, contribute to the mode of action. Among the nine compounds investigated, one exhibited remarkable activity, completely preventing acetylcholinesterase inhibition by the (?)-enantiomer of cyclosarin within seconds under the conditions of the assay. Thus, these investigations demonstrate that decoration of cyclodextrins with appropriate substituents represents a promising approach for the development of scavengers able to detoxify highly toxic nerve agents. PMID:22238531
17 CFR 37.8 - Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES ...Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution...
17 CFR 37.8 - Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES ...Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution...
17 CFR 39.5 - Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... false Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.5 Information relating to derivatives clearing organization...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...false Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.4 Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...false Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.4 Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules...
17 CFR 39.5 - Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... false Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations...COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.5 Information relating to derivatives clearing organization...
Activation of the retina's regenerative potential by embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles
Katsman, Diana
2012-01-01
liver stem cell?derived microvesicles accelerate hepatic regenerationliver stem cell?derived microvesicles accelerate hepatic regenerationliver stem cell?derived microvesicles accelerate hepatic regeneration
Shear Viscosity to Entropy Density Ratio in Six Derivative Gravity
Nabamita Banerjee; Suvankar Dutta
2009-04-01
We calculate shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in presence of four derivative (with coefficient $\\alpha'$) and six derivative (with coefficient $\\alpha'^2$) terms in bulk action. In general, there can be three possible four derivative terms and ten possible six derivative terms in the Lagrangian. Among them two four derivative and eight six derivative terms are ambiguous, i.e., these terms can be removed from the action by suitable field redefinitions. Rest are unambiguous. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence all the unambiguous coefficients (coefficients of unambiguous terms) can be fixed in terms of field theory parameters. Therefore, any measurable quantities of boundary theory, for example shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, when calculated holographically can be expressed in terms of unambiguous coefficients in the bulk theory (or equivalently in terms of boundary parameters). We calculate $\\eta/s$ for generic six derivative gravity and find that apparently it depends on few ambiguous coefficients at order $\\alpha'^2$. We calculate six derivative corrections to central charges $a$ and $c$ and express $\\eta/s$ in terms of these central charges and unambiguous coefficients in the bulk theory.