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1

Bicyclic Phosphazenes Derived from (Amino)Cyclotetraphosphazenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amination reactions of 2,6-bis(primary amino)cyclotetraphosphazenes yield not only the expected (amino)cyclotetraphosphazenes but also novel trans-annular bridged bicyclic phosphazenes by an intramolecular substitution pathway. In addition, resins are formed in some reactions by an intermolecular condensation. The effect of substituents attached to the phosphazene ring, the attacking nucleophile and solvent on the formation of the trans-annular P-N-P bridge is considered in

S. S. Krishnamurthy

1989-01-01

2

The investigation of structural and thermosensitive properties of new phosphazene derivatives bearing glycol and amino acid.  

PubMed

In this study, hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, N(3)P(3)Cl(6) (cylotriphosphazene), was reacted with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups to synthesize amphiphilic phosphazene derivatives (4-12). Cylotriphosphazene was reacted triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGME), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DEGBE), (1 : 3 mole proportion) in the presence of sodium hydride and using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvent at -60 °C. Three isomers (nongeminal cis-2,4,6 (1a-3a); nongeminal trans-2,4,6 (1b-3b); geminal 2,2,4 (1c-3c)) were isolated from the reaction of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazatriene (trimer) (1) with TEGME, DPGME and DEGBE. The substitution reactions of cis-tris isomers (1a-3a) with 4-amino butyric acid, 5-amino valeric acid and 6-amino hexanoic acid were separately done to provide amphiphilic phosphazenes (4-12). All compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, (31)P NMR and mass spectroscopy. Thermosensitive properties of compounds were studied. The compounds (4-12) were soluble in both water and organic media that shows they are amphiphilic molecules. Concentration-dependent LCST (Lower Critical Solution Temperature) behaviours of new compounds (4-12) were measured in water. Compounds 7, 9, 11 and 12 exhibited a reversible and thermosensitive phase transition in aqueous medium, from soluble to insoluble states. PMID:20938539

Uslu, Aylin; Güvenalt?n, Sener

2010-11-28

3

Phosphazene additives  

DOEpatents

An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

2013-11-26

4

Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds. 21. Syntheses, structural investigations, biological activities, and DNA interactions of new N/O spirocyclic phosphazene derivatives. The NMR behaviors of chiral phosphazenes with stereogenic centers upon the addition of chiral solvating agents.  

PubMed

The reactions of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazatriene, N(3)P(3)Cl(6), with N/O-donor-type N-alkyl (or aryl)-o-hydroxybenzylamines (1a-1e) produce mono- (2a-2e), di- (3a-3d), and tri- (4a and 4b) spirocyclic phosphazenes. The tetrapyrrolidino monospirocyclic phosphazenes (2f-2i) are prepared from the reactions of partly substituted compounds (2a-2d) with excess pyrrolidine. The dispirodipyrrolidinophosphazenes (3e-3h) and trispirophosphazenes (3i-3k) are obtained from the reactions of trans-dispirophosphazenes with excess pyrrolidine and sodium (3-amino-1-propanoxide), respectively. Compounds 3a-3d have cis and trans geometric isomers. Only the trans isomers of these compounds are isolated. Compounds 3a-3h have two stereogenic P atoms. They are expected to be in cis (meso) and trans (racemic) geometric isomers. In the trans trispiro compounds (3i-3k), there are three stereogenic P atoms. They are expected to be in racemic mixtures. The stereogenic properties of 3a-3k are confirmed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy upon the addition of the chiral solvating agent; (S)-(+)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(9'-anthryl)ethanol. The molecular structures of 3i-3k, 4a, and 4b look similar to a propeller, where the chemical environment of one P atom is different from that of others. Additionally, 4a and 4b are also expected to exist as cis-trans-trans and cis-cis-cis geometric isomers, but both of them are found to be in cis-trans-trans geometries. The solid-state structures of 2a, 2e, 2f, 3e, and 3f are determined by X-ray crystallography. The compounds 2f-2i, 3e-3i, and 3k are screened for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and for antifungal activity against yeast strains. These compounds (except 3f) have shown a strong affinity against most of the bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are determined for 2f-2i, 3e-3i, and 3k. DNA binding and the nature of interaction with pUC18 plasmid DNA are studied. The compounds 2f-2i, 3e-3i, and 3k induce changes on the DNA mobility. The prevention of BamHI and HindIII digestion (except 2g) with compounds indicates that the compounds bind with nucleotides in DNA. PMID:20583756

I?iklan, Muhammet; Asmafiliz, Nuran; Ozalp, Ezgi Elif; Ilter, Elif Ece; Kiliç, Zeynel; Co?ut, Bünyemin; Ye?ilot, Serkan; Kiliç, Adem; Oztürk, Asli; Hökelek, Tuncer; Bilir, L Yasemin Koç; Açik, Leyla; Akyüz, Emel

2010-08-01

5

Novel fire-resistant polyphosphazenes and phosphazene-containing polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A functionalized polyphosphazene, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], was blended with a structural polyurethane via reactive mixing of the polymer with diisocyanate and diol prepolymers. The thermal stabilities of the resultant foams were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both qualitative and quantitative flame tests indicated an increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. Methods for the incorporation of phosphate and phosphonate units into the side groups of phosphazenes are described and evaluated. Halogenated organophosphates were used as the phosphorylating agents and were allowed to react with hydroxyl- or lithio-functionalized phosphazenes. Well defined phosphorylated cyclic trimers were synthesized from the hydroxyl-functionalized precursors, and these were examined as flame retardant additives to polystyrene. The thermal stabilities of the high polymers made by this route were analyzed by TGA. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of phosphazene-functionalized norbornenes was demonstrated with the use of the Grubbs catalyst. This allowed the incorporation of alkoxy-, fluoroalkoxy-, and aryloxy-derived cyclic phosphazenes as side groups linked to the organic polymer backbone. The polymers were obtained in moderate yields with the properties being dependent on the side groups present and on the molecular weight. In addition, cyclooctenes and norbornenes with cyclic phosphazene side units bearing trifluoroethoxy or phenoxy groups were polymerized via ROMP using a ruthenium based initiator. The same monomers were also copolymerized with 90--99 mole percent of cyclooctene, norbornene, dicyclopentadiene, or exo,exo-5,6-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. The presence of as little as 2 mol% of the cyclic phosphazene in the copolymers dramatically reduced the combustibility. Poly(diphenyl-p-styrylphosphine) and copolymers of diphenyl- p-styrylphosphine with either styrene or methyl methacrylate were functionalized via the Staudinger reaction with phosphazene cyclic trimers bearing an azide side group. The phosphazene rings bore trifluoroethoxy or phenoxy groups as the cosubstituents. All the polymers were characterized by multi-nuclear NMR, GPC, and DSC. The mechanisms of flame retardance were studied with TGA and OI methods. The chemical structures of the polymer backbone and of the phosphazene side groups affected the thermal stability and fire resistance of the final materials.

Taylor, Jonathan Paul

6

Phosphazene polymer containing composites and method for making phosphazene polymer containing composites  

DOEpatents

A composite is produced by first coating a reinforcing material with an inorganic phosphazene compound and then polymerizing the phosphazene compound so as to confer superior thermal, physical and chemical resistance qualities to the composite.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); McCaffrey, Robert R. (Milford, MA); Simpson, Brenda M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

7

Lithium Binding in Fluorinated Phosphazene Trimers  

SciTech Connect

Density functional theory is used to model a series of cyclic phosphazenes, with and without coordinated Li+. Two pendant groups are used, ethoxy and 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy, in varying combinations to generate phosphazenes with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 6 trifluoro groups. In all cases, Li+ sits in a pocket on the ring, always bonding to a ring nitrogen, and can be three- or four-coordinate, depending on the local environment. Three-coordinate occurs when no fluorines are close enough to interact, with the lithium bonding to a ring nitrogen and the two adjacent oxygens. When Li+ is four-coordinate, the bonding varies between the ring nitrogen, two adjacent oxygens, and one fluorine, or the ring nitrogen, one adjacent oxygen, and two fluorines. All of the possible symmetry unique structures have been calculated. The binding strength of Li+ steadily decreases, from 74.93 kcal/mol with no trifluoro groups, to 58.01 kcal/mol when 6 trifluoro groups are present. The decrease is attributed to the electron withdrawing effect of the trifluoro groups, and also to distortions in the geometry to accommodate Li-F interactions.

Michael T. Benson; Mason K. Harrup; Kevin L. Gering

2013-02-01

8

Thermal degradation chemistry of poly[bis(phenoxy)phosphazene  

E-print Network

of Department) D, E. Bergbrei r (Member) A. Le on (Member) December 1989 ABSTRACT Thermal Degradation Chemistry of Poly[bis(phenoxy)phosphazene] (December 1989) Shawn Joseph Maynard, B. S. , East Texas State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr... , . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 14 17 Mass spectra corresponding to the maximum evolution of the TIC profile shown in Figure 3 of a) PBPP-O. O, b) PBPP-2. 40, and c) PBPP-9. 90, respectively 18 81-MHz P solution-state NMR spectra of trimer samples isothermally degraded at 360...

Maynard, Shawn Joseph

2012-06-07

9

Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 28. Syntheses, structural characterizations, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and DNA interactions of new phosphazenes bearing vanillinato and pendant ferrocenyl groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gradually Cl replacement reactions of spirocyclic mono (1 and 2) and bisferrocenyl cyclotriphosphazenes (3-5) with the potassium salt of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (potassium vanillinate) gave mono (1a-5a), geminal (gem-1b-5b), non-geminal (cis-1b, cis-5b and trans-2b-5b), tri (1c-5c) and tetra-substituted phosphazenes (1d-5d). Some phosphazenes have stereogenic P-center(s). The chirality of 4c was verified using chiral HPLC column. Electrochemical behaviors were influenced only by the number of ferrocene groups, but not the length of the amine chains and the substituent(s). The structures of the new phosphazenes were determined by FTIR, MS, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectral data. The solid-state structures of cis-1b and 4d were examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The twelve phosphazene derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds 5a, cis-1b and 2c exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against G(+) and G(-) bacteria. In addition, it was found that overall gem-1b inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The compounds 1d, 2d and 4d were tested in HeLa cancer cell lines. Among these compounds, 2d had cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell in the first 48 h. Moreover, interactions between compounds 2a, gem-1b, gem-2b, cis-1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5c, 1d, 2d and 4d, and pBR322 plasmid DNA were investigated.

Tümer, Yasemin; Asmafiliz, Nuran; K?l?ç, Zeynel; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yasemin Koç, L.; Aç?k, Leyla; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Solak, Ali Osman; Öner, Ya?mur; Dündar, Devrim; Yavuz, Makbule

2013-10-01

10

Design, synthesis, and molecular recognition of phosphazene materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis represents several innovative approaches in the modification of polymers and solid-state hosts in order to obtain novel microstructures and properties. The first approach involves the use of cyclotriphosphazenes, a versatile class of hosts that generate tunnel clathrate adducts. Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene was found to form hexagonal host-guest inclusion adducts (clathrates) with the polymers: cis-1,4-polybutadiene, trans-1,4-polyisoprene, polyethylene, poly(ethylene oxide) and polytetrahydrofuran. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of both the polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide) inclusion adduct revealed the presence of individual polymer chains extended along tunnel-like voids within the host lattice. Tris(o-phenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene can entrap and separate various polymers and small molecules within its tunnels based on their microstructure, molecular weight, and end-group functionality. Inclusion adducts with various polymers show a preferential inclusion for the polymer that will best stabilize the hexagonal structure of the host. Separations based on end-groups show preferential inclusion of the species with the more hydrophobic end-groups. Polymers and small molecule hydrocarbons with higher molecular weights are preferentially included within the tunnel compared to analogues with lower molecular weights. The synthesis and inclusion properties of a new clathration host, tris(3,6-dimethylphenylenedioxy)cyclotriphosphazene, is described. The guest-free structure has a triclinic unit cell. The dioxane inclusion adduct crystallizes in a monoclinic system. The guest occupies a cage-like void located between the phosphazene rings. The poly(tetramethylene oxide) adduct crystallizes in a hexagonal system, with the guest located in tunnels created along the c-axis. Adduct formation also with tetrahydrofuran, methylene chloride, polyethylene and cis-polybutadiene. Modification of polymer properties is investigated by using a Staudinger reaction to attach cyclic phosphazene trimers bearing azide groups to phosphorus(III) atoms pendent to an organic polymer or co-polymer backbone. Diphenyl- p-styrylphosphine was polymerized via free radical or anionic methods and subsequently reacted with N3P3(OCH2CF 3)5(N3) and N3P3(OC 6H5)(N3). Fire retardance is improved these homopolymers, and also for polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) co-polymers after reaction with the azide cyclic trimers. The ability to control the molecular weight and architecture of poly[bis(methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene], a known solid polymer electrolyte, allows for a systematic study of the effect of molecular weight and architecture on conductivity. The mechanism of ion transport in these linear and star-branched systems is discussed.

Sunderland, Nicolas Jean

11

Phenalene-phosphazene complexes: Effect of exocyclic charge densities on the cyclotriphosphazene ring system  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and properties of a new series of 1,9-diamino-substituted phenalene complexes of the cyclotriphosphazene ring system is described. One of the compounds is shown to be amphoteric, and this behavior allows an examination of the response of the phosphazene linkage to variations in exocyclic charge density at the spiro center in a plane perpendicular to the cyclotriphosphazene ring system. /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy indicates that substituent lone pairs with this orientation are not effective in long-range delocalization within the phosphazene linkage (in accord with their theoretical model of spiro delocalization). An x-ray crystal structure of one compound (7) identifies the presence of clathrated molecules of chloroform together with doubly hydrogen-bonded pairs of the phenalene-phosphazene complexes in the lattice. Crystal data for 7 (C/sub 13/H/sub 8/Cl/sub 4/N/sub 5/P/sub 3/ /times/ CHCl/sub 3/): monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//c, a = 12.401 (4) /angstrom/, b = 28.404 (6) /angstrom/, c = 12.962 (3) /angstrom/, /beta/ = 91.76 (2)/degree/, V = 4564 (2) /angstrom//sup 3/, Z = 8, R = 0.050 for 4525 reflections. 24 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Haddon, R.C.; Chichester-Hicks, S.V.; Mayo, S.L.

1988-06-01

12

Synthesis and Characterization of Cyclic and Linear Phosphazenes with Phosphorus-Sulfur Linkages  

SciTech Connect

Recent research at the INEEL has focused on the versatility inherent in polyphosphazene chemistry to membrane separations involving water transport through polymer materials.1 Polyphosphazenes, a hybrid organic and inorganic polymer, have been shown to be effective membranes in gas separation2 and liquid pervaporation applications.3 These characteristics are due to the inorganic nature of the backbone that provides these materials with remarkable chemical and mechanical stability. Additionally, phosphazene materials can be tailored to specific applications depending on the type of pendant groups that are attached to the phosphorus atoms of the backbone.

Luther, Thomas Alan; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

2004-04-01

13

Pathways in the Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Halogenocyclophosphazenes and Subtle Aspects of the Mechanism of Formation of Bicyclic Phosphazenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both associative [SN2(P)] and dissociative [SN1(P) and E1CB] mechanisms have been established for the amination reactions of haloenocyclophosphazenes from synthetic and kinetic studies. Several intricate details concerning the formation of bicyclic phosphazenes have been unravelled.

P. Y. Narayana Swamy; S. Ganapathiappan; K. C. Kumara Swamy; S. S. Krishnamurthy

1987-01-01

14

Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

2011-10-01

15

Preparation of Coaxial-Electrospun Poly[bis(p-methylphenoxy)]phosphazene Nanofiber Membrane for Enzyme Immobilization  

PubMed Central

A core/sheath nanofiber membrane with poly[bis(p-methylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PMPPh) as the sheath and easily spinnable polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the core was prepared via a coaxial electrospinning process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the nanofiber membrane. It was found that the concentration of the PAN spinning solution and the ratio of the core/sheath solution flow rates played a decisive role in the coaxial electrospinning process. In addition, the stabilized core/sheath PMPPh nanofiber membrane was investigated as a support for enzyme immobilization because of its excellent biocompatibility, high surface/volume ratio, and large porosity. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized on the nanofiber membrane by adsorption. The properties of the immobilized lipase on the polyphosphazene nanofiber membrane were studied and compared with those of a PAN nanofiber membrane. The results showed that the adsorption capacity (20.4 ± 2.7 mg/g) and activity retention (63.7%) of the immobilized lipase on the polyphosphazene nanofiber membrane were higher than those on the PAN membrane. PMID:23203055

Wang, Shu-Gen; Jiang, Xin; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Yu, An-Guo; Huang, Xiao-Jun

2012-01-01

16

Section IV.D.3 for DOE 2013 Annual Report: Novel Phosphazene-based Compounds to Enhance Safety and Stability of Cell Chemistries for High Voltage Applications (INL)  

SciTech Connect

Electrolytes play a central role in performance and aging in most electrochemical systems. As automotive and grid applications place a higher reliance on electrochemical stored energy, it becomes more urgent to have electrolyte components that enable optimal battery performance while promoting battery safety and longevity. Safety remains a foremost concern for widespread utilization of Li-ion technology in electric-drive vehicles, especially as the focus turns to higher voltage systems (5V). This work capitalizes on the long established INL expertise regarding phosphazene chemistry, aimed at battery-viable compounds for electrolytes and electrodes that are highly tolerant to abusive conditions. This report showcases our 2013 work for the DOE applied battery research (ABR) program, wherein testing results are summarized for INL electrolytes and alternative anode materials.

Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Harry W. Rollins; David K. Jamison; Fred F. Stewart; John Burba

2013-09-01

17

Derivate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

18

Kinetic study of the proton transfer reaction between 1-nitro-1-(4-nitrophenyl)alkanes and P 1- t-Bu phosphazene base in THF solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rates of proton transfer reactions between C-acids of the series of nitroalkanes with increasing bulk of R=H, Me, Et, i-Pr substituents as 4-nitro-phenylnitromethane ( 1), 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-nitroethane ( 2), 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-nitropropane ( 3), 2-methyl-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-nitropropane ( 4) and the P 1- t-Bu phosphazene have been measured in THF at pseudo-first-order conditions. The product of the proton transfer reaction with P 1- t-Bu is associated into ion pair. The equilibrium constants decrease along with growing bulk of alkyl substituent in the reacting C-acid: >100 000, 1170, 590, and 11.8 for 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively. The second order rate constants ( k2H) for this very strong base and C-acids are rapidly declining: 9357, 2.31, 0.66, 0.09 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 for 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively, and could not be accounted for the small values of the enthalpies of activation ?HH?=6.1,18.0,20.7 and 11.1 kJ mol. The appropriate values of the entropies of activation were all negative and relatively large ?SH?=-149.7,-176.5,-178.7,-227.8 J mol deg indicating an importance of steric and ordering effects in forming the transition state. The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects are large showing tendency of reverse relation towards steric hindrance of the reacting C-acids, kH/ kD=15.8, 13.6, 13.2 for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The explanation of the unusual slow proton transfer abstraction caused by this extremely strong base is undertaken.

Wis?ocka, ?aneta; Nowak, Iwona; Jarczewski, Arnold

2006-05-01

19

Intramolecular cyclization of alkynyl ?-ketoanilide utilizing [1,2]-phospha-Brook rearrangement catalyzed by phosphazene base.  

PubMed

A novel catalytic cyclization reaction of alkynyl ?-ketoanilide was developed by utilizing the [1,2]-phospha-Brook rearrangement. This reaction involves the generation of an amide enolate via the umpolung process, that is the addition of dialkyl phosphite to a keto moiety followed by the [1,2]-phospha-Brook rearrangement, and the subsequent intramolecular addition of the enolate to an alkyne to afford 3,4-dihydro-2-quinolone derivatives. Under high-temperature reaction conditions, further rearrangement of the allylic phosphate moiety occurs to provide 2-quinolone derivatives. PMID:24955761

Kondoh, Azusa; Aoki, Takuma; Terada, Masahiro

2014-07-01

20

Derivatives Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

2007-03-22

21

Fractional Derivative as Fractional Power of Derivative  

E-print Network

Definitions of fractional derivatives as fractional powers of derivative operators are suggested. The Taylor series and Fourier series are used to define fractional power of self-adjoint derivative operator. The Fourier integrals and Weyl quantization procedure are applied to derive the definition of fractional derivative operator. Fractional generalization of concept of stability is considered.

Vasily E. Tarasov

2007-11-16

22

New dextran derivatives. I. Nitrogen containing derivatives.  

PubMed

Three new derivatives of dextran were obtained: 3-morpholine-2-hydroxypropyl ether of dextran (I), hydroxamic acid of carboxymethyl dextran (II), and oxime of ketodextran (III). All the three derivatives exhibited low toxicity at parenteral administration to laboratory animals. (I) and (II) showed the capability of weakening the activity of tetanus and malignant edema toxins. Additionally, (I) showed immunotropic activity. Biological activity was observed when the derivative (I) had been obtained from dextran of the molecular weight 4000. At the molecular weight 20,000 the activity did not appear. Similarly, no activity was observed under oral administration. PMID:6202271

Mioduszewski, J Z; Halski, L; Mioduszewska, M

1983-01-01

23

Partial Derivatives: Geometric Visualization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This write-pair-share activity presents Calculus III students with a worksheet containing several exercises that require them to find partial derivatives of functions of two variables. Afterwards, a series of Web-based animations are used to illustrate the surface of each function, the path of the indicated partial derivative for a specified value of the variable and the value of the derivative at each point along the path.

Rutledge, James

24

Nearly generalized Jordan derivations  

E-print Network

Let $A$ be an algebra and let $X$ be an $A$-bimodule. A $\\Bbb C-$linear mapping $d:A \\to X$ is called a generalized Jordan derivation if there exists a Jordan derivation (in the usual sense) $\\delta:A \\to X$ such that $d(a^2)=ad(a)+\\delta(a)a$ for all $a \\in A.$ The main purpose of this paper to prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability and superstability of the generalized Jordan derivations.

Gordji, M Eshaghi

2008-01-01

25

Endohedral Metallofullerene Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives and their preparation are described. The trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives have the general formula A(sub 3-n)X(sub n)@C(sub m)(R) where n ranges from 0 to 3, A and X may be trivalent metals and may be either rare earth metal or group IIIB metals, m is between about 60 and about 200, and R is preferably an organic group. Derivatives where the R group forms cyclized derivatives with the fullerene cage are also described.

Dorn, Harry C. (Inventor); Iezzi, Erick B. (Inventor); Duchamp, James (Inventor)

2008-01-01

26

The derivative of a function of one variable Partial derivatives  

E-print Network

The derivative of a function of one variable Partial derivatives Partial differential equations Partial Differential Equations Introduction Partial Differential Equations #12;The derivative of a function of one variable Partial derivatives Partial differential equations Review Check your understanding

Lega, Joceline

27

Partial Derivative Visualization Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a small gallery of demos for illustrating partial derivatives geometrically. These animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background for partial derivatives. Two file formats, gif and QuickTime files are used for the animations which can be downloaded.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2004-11-11

28

Irregularities in Imperfective Derivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses presentation of Russian conjugation via the one-stem system advocated by Lipson and Townsend, and attempts a more unified and complete presentation of irregularities in imperfect derivation. Two major irregularities are occurrence of an unexpected suffix and unpredictable alternation in the root of the derived imperfective.…

Levin, Maurice I.

1977-01-01

29

The Partial Derivative Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research has shown that students struggle to understand the use of partial derivatives in thermodynamics. We have designed an apparatus, which we have called a Partial Derivative Machine, that serves as a mechanical analogue of a thermodynamic system. Using this device, students have a tangible way to wrestle with issues related to partial derivatives and thermodynamics, such as which variables are held fixed, how many variables are independent, and how energy can be added to a system. In this paper, we present a description of the apparatus, an introduction to the associated activities, and an overview of how this apparatus can be connected to thermodynamic systems.

Sherer, Grant; Kustusch, Mary B.; Manogue, Corinne A.; Roundy, David J.

2014-01-31

30

Derivative Dispersion Relations  

E-print Network

We discuss some analytical and numerical aspects related to the replacement of integral dispersion relations by derivative relations and also the practical applicability of the derivative approach in the investigation of high-energy elastic hadron-hadron scattering. Making use of a Monopole Pomeron model and singly subtracted integral and derivative dispersion relations, we present the results of fits to the experimental data on the total cross sections and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude (proton-proton and antiproton-proton interactions). The emphasis is on the region of low energies and, in particular, we show that once the subtraction constant is used as a free fit parameter the derivative approach is equivalent to the integral approach even below the energy cutoff of the fitted data.

R. F. Avila; M. J. Menon

2004-11-30

31

Derivative Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.

2009-05-29

32

Derivative Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.

33

Credit derivatives in Brazil  

E-print Network

The amounts outstanding of credit derivatives have grown exponentially over the past years, and these financial intruments that allow market participants to trade credit risk have become very popular in Europe and in the ...

Rüther, Henrique

2007-01-01

34

Deriving Common Model Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

Momsen, Jennifer; Long, Tammy M.; Speth, Elena B.

35

Extended Derivative Dispersion Relations  

E-print Network

It is shown that, for a wide class of functions with physical interest as forward scattering amplitudes, integral dispersion relations can be replaced by derivative forms without any high-energy approximation. The applicability of these extended derivative relations, in the investigation of forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering, is exemplified by means of a Pomeron-Reggeon model with totally nondegenerate trajectories.

R. F. Avila; M. J. Menon

2006-01-24

36

Nearly generalized Jordan derivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $A$ be an algebra and let $X$ be an $A$-bimodule. A $\\\\Bbb C-$linear mapping $d:A \\\\to X$ is called a generalized Jordan derivation if there exists a Jordan derivation (in the usual sense) $\\\\delta:A \\\\to X$ such that $d(a^2)=ad(a)+\\\\delta(a)a$ for all $a \\\\in A.$ The main purpose of this paper to prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability and superstability of the

M. Eshaghi Gordji; N. Ghobadipour

2008-01-01

37

Nearly generalized Jordan derivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let A be an algebra and let X be an A-bimodule. A ?-linear mapping d: A ? X is called a generalized Jordan derivation if there exists a Jordan derivation (in the usual sense) ?: A ? X such that d(a\\u000a 2) = ad(a)+?(a)a for all a ? A. The main purpose of this paper is to prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias

M. Eshaghi Gordji; N. Ghobadipour

2011-01-01

38

Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

Altmann, Karl-Heinz

39

Credit Derivatives and Risk Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk...

M. S. Gibson

2007-01-01

40

Metal derivatives of tetrazoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data on the synthesis, structure, properties and applications of metal derivatives of tetrazoles are generalised and described systematically. Compounds based on the anionic and neutral tetrazole forms, C- and N-mono- and C,N-disubstituted tetrazoles are considered.

Gaponik, Pavel N.; Voitekhovich, Sergei V.; Ivashkevich, Oleg A.

2006-06-01

41

14-methyl epothilone derivatives  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Compounds of the invention include 14-mehtyl epothilone derivatives. More generally, preferred compounds of the invention are those that can be produced by altering the epothilone PKS genes as described herein and optionally by action of epothilone modification enzymes and/or by chemically modifying the resulting epothilones produces when those genes are expressed.

2003-06-24

42

Telomeric 30 Overhangs Derive  

E-print Network

Telomeric 30 Overhangs Derive from Resection by Exo1 and Apollo and Fill-In by POT1b-Associated CST and main- tenance of mammalian telomeres, but its synthesis must be regulated to avoid excessive resection of the 50 end, which could cause telomere shortening. How this balance is achieved in mammals has not been

de Lange, Titia

43

Iterative higher derivations: integrability Iterative higher derivations: axiomatization  

E-print Network

Multiplicatively iterative higher derivations D. Homann1 P. Kowalski2 1n/a 2Instytut Matematyczny Uniwersytetu Wrocªawskiego Logic Colloquium 2012, Manchester Homann, Kowalski Higher derivations #12;Iterative higher! = 0 !) Homann, Kowalski Higher derivations #12;Iterative higher derivations: integrability Iterative

Kowalski, Piotr

44

Fractional Derivative Cosmology  

E-print Network

The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

Mark D. Roberts

2009-09-07

45

A persistent diazaheptacene derivative.  

PubMed

We describe the synthesis of characterizable diazaheptacene derivatives. Diazaheptacenes need four silylethynyl protecting groups to be isolable. TIPS-ethynyl groups are not bulky enough to allow stabilization. Four Si(sec-Bu)3-ethynyl groups symmetrically attached to the acene core sufficiently protect the formed diazaheptacene from dimerization through Diels-Alder reaction. It was characterized by NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. PMID:25295844

Engelhart, Jens U; Tverskoy, Olena; Bunz, Uwe H F

2014-10-29

46

Functional Derivatives of Polyisobutene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of synthesis of isobutene polymers with end groups of different types are examined. It is shown that advances in the synthesis of these compounds are associated with the progress in the field of the regulation of the cationic polymerisation and copolymerisation of isobutene and the degradation of isobutene polymers and copolymers. Examples of the employment of functional derivatives of isobutene polymers in various branches of technology are presented. The bibliography includes 102 references.

Sangalov, Yu A.; Yasman, Yu B.

1985-07-01

47

Computation of Mie derivatives.  

PubMed

Analytical expressions are obtained for the derivatives of Mie scattering coefficients with respect to the electrical radius of the spherical scattering particle, and to the relative permittivity and permeability of both the particle and the surrounding medium. Their corresponding approximate expressions are developed to avoid numerical overflow based on the logarithmic derivative of Riccati-Bessel functions. The analytical expressions have been verified by comparing their results with those calculated by analytical expressions developed by Mathematica. Compared with the numerical derivative, the analytical expressions and approximate expressions show a higher accuracy and are 2.0 and 2.8 times, respectively, faster in the case of a single magnetodielectric sphere. Generally, for spheres with an electrical radius in a large range, the approximate expressions can yield acceptable accuracy and computation time up to a high order. This work can be used in the design of nonmetallic metamaterials, and in the retrieval of aerosol properties from remote sensing data. An example calculation is given for the design of an optical, all-dielectric, mu-negative metamaterial consisting of a simple cubic array of tellurium nanoparticles. PMID:23852216

Li, Yang; Bowler, Nicola

2013-07-10

48

Derivative computation by multiscale filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common problem to compute the derivative of a signal in image processing and computer vision. So far, in most of the computational methods, the nth order derivative of a noisy signal is obtained by filtering the signal by a nth Order Derivative Filter (NODF), which is the nth order derivative of a smooth filter. In order to

Song De Ma; Bingcheng Li

1998-01-01

49

Notion of a virtual derivative  

E-print Network

Diagrams as a graphic expresion of derivatives is proposed for calculation of derivatives for composed function. The concret diagram is understood as a virtual derivative in contrast of concret derivative. In polynomial expression of functions derivative the concret derivative will be every monomic member, and the virtual derivative represent the sum of similar monomic members. The word virtual denotes that we dont need to know every virtual derivative, we don't write all the sequence of these virtual derivatives, and simply pick the needed one. This is in contrast of tradition to write the whole algebraic expresion as a denotion of whole function's derivative. Such graphic expresion can be helpful in the problems of differential geometry, in the various asymptotic expantions, also in the solution of some differential equations.

Gintaras Valiukevicius

2011-01-04

50

Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

2012-01-01

51

Higher-derivative 3-algebras  

E-print Network

Starting with the N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on D2-branes and incorporating higher-derivative corrections to lowest nontrivial order, we perform a duality to derive the Lorentzian 3-algebra theory along with a set of derivative corrections. We find that these corrections can be expressed entirely in terms of intrinsic 3-algebra quantities: the 3-bracket and covariant derivatives. Our analysis is performed for both bosonic and fermionic terms. We conjecture that the derivative corrections we obtain are relevant for Euclidean 3-algebra theories as well.

Mohsen Alishahiha; Sunil Mukhi

2008-08-22

52

Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive labelling of guanidine-bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy—texaphyrin with selected radionuclides (166Ho and 90Y) is described. A basic characterisation of studied porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour in a wide range of pH values and data on holmium and yttrium complexation with these compounds was probed using UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The labelling yield of these macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal: ligand ratio and time of incubation. Optimal reaction conditions for formation of porphyrin and texaphyrin radioactive complexes were determined by thin layer chromatography with the detection of ?- activity. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was examined as well. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4 -) because radiopharmaceuticals labelled with isotopes 186Re and 188Re play an important role in therapy of numerous tumour diseases. The possibility of applying ReO4 - anion directly for labelling purposes, without the necessity of its reduction to lower oxidation state, was not proved.

Koní?ová, R.; Ernestová, M.; Jedináková-K?ížová, V.; Král, V.

2003-01-01

53

Vaccine-derived polioviruses.  

PubMed

The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847

Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M

2014-11-01

54

Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine  

E-print Network

Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

2014-01-01

55

Tetrahydropentalenyl-phosphazene constrained geometry complexes of rare-earth metal alkyls.  

PubMed

Reactions of Cp™HPPh2 (1, diphenyl(4,4,6,6-tetramethyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropentalen-2-yl)phosphane) with the organic azides AdN3 and DipN3 (Ad = 1-adamantyl; Dip = 2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl) led to the formation of two novel CpPN ligands: P-amino-cyclopentadienylidene-phosphorane (Cp™PPh2NHAd; L(Ad)H) and P-cyclopentadienyl-iminophosphorane (Cp™HPPh2NDip; L(Dip)H). Both were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray structure analysis. For both compounds only one isomer was observed. Neither possesses any detectable prototropic or elementotropic isomers. Reactions of these ligands with [Lu(CH2SiMe3)3(thf)2] or with rare-earth metal halides and three equivalents of LiCH2SiMe3 produced the desired bis(alkyl) Cp™PN complexes: [{Cp™PN}M(CH2SiMe3)2] (M = Sc (1(Ad), 1(Dip)), Lu (2(Ad), 2(Dip)), Y (3(Ad), 3(Dip)), Sm (4(Ad)), Nd (5(Ad)), Pr (6(Ad)), Yb (7(Ad))). These complexes were characterized by extensive NMR studies for the diamagnetic and the paramagnetic complexes with full signal assignment. An almost mirror inverted order of the paramagnetic shifts has been observed for ytterbium complex 7(Ad) compared to 4(Ad), 5(Ad) and 6(Ad). For the assignment of the NMR signals [{?(1)?:??(5)-C5Me4PMe2NAd}Yb(CH2SiMe3)2] 7 was synthesized, characterized and the (1)H NMR signals were compared to 7(Ad) and to other paramagnetic lanthanide complexes with the same ligand. 1(Ad), 2(Ad), 2(Dip), 3(Ad) and 3(Dip) were characterized by X-ray structure analysis revealing a sterically congested constrained geometry structure. PMID:24671310

Hangaly, Noa K; Petrov, Alexander R; Elfferding, Michael; Harms, Klaus; Sundermeyer, Jörg

2014-05-21

56

Functional Co-substituted Poly[(amino acid ester)phosphazene] Biomaterials.  

E-print Network

??The development of new and improved biomaterials is essential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Amino acid-based polyphosphazenes are being explored as scaffold materials… (more)

Baillargeon, Amanda L

2014-01-01

57

Limits and Derivatives: The Derivative as a Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sketch the graph of the derivative of a geometrically represented function;Explain the correspondence between the sign of the derivative on an interval and the monotonicity of the function on that interval. Classify the basic ways in which a function may fail to be differentiable.

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

58

Derivative-Discontinuous Electroheat Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electroheat processes such as induction furnaces, arc furnaces, radiant furnaces, plasma torches, fluidized beds, etc., that are usually discontinuously controlled (because of the large power ratings involved) a great deal of confusion has existed as to the effect of derivative signals in the primary feedback loop. This has resulted in empirical design rules for the derivative feedback in controllers

Willim K. Roots; Malayappan Shridhar

1969-01-01

59

12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks...Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2012-01-01

60

12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172 Banks...Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2014-01-01

61

12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172 Banks...Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2013-01-01

62

12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352 Banks...Associations-Operations § 390.352 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2012-01-01

63

12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352 Banks...Associations-Operations § 390.352 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2014-01-01

64

12 CFR 163.172 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 163.172 Section 163.172 Banks...Management Policies § 163.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2012-01-01

65

12 CFR 390.352 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 390.352 Section 390.352 Banks...Associations-Operations § 390.352 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2013-01-01

66

12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks...Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2011-01-01

67

12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks...Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2013-01-01

68

12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.  

...2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172 Banks...Management Policies § 563.172 Financial derivatives. (a) What is a financial derivative? A financial derivative is a...

2014-01-01

69

Complex higher order derivative theories  

SciTech Connect

In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-08-24

70

Elevation Derivatives for National Applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2005-01-01

71

Derivative Estimation with Local Polynomial Fitting Derivative Estimation with Local Polynomial Fitting  

E-print Network

Derivative Estimation with Local Polynomial Fitting Derivative Estimation with Local Polynomial derivatives nonparametrically with- out estimating the regression function. Derivative estimation plays of regression curves, analysis of human growth data, etc. Hence, the study of estimat- ing derivatives

72

Radiative $?$ decays with derivative interactions  

E-print Network

We study the line shapes of radiative $\\phi$-decays involving virtual $f_{0}(980)$ and $a_{0}(980)$ mesons which decay, via derivative couplings, to $\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ and $\\pi^{0}\\eta$ respectively. After developing the formalism for derivative interactions at one-loop level, we show that they can reproduce the measured peaked line shapes of $\\phi$-decays without including kaon loops.

Francesco Giacosa; Giuseppe Pagliara

2008-04-09

73

Polyaminopolycarboxylic Acids derived from Polyethyleneamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE effects of increasing length of the alkylene bridge on acid dissociation constants and metal chelate stability constants of homologues of ethylene-diaminetetra-acetic acid derived from polymethylene-diamines have been reported within recent years1. The effects of an increase in the polydentate and polyelectrolyte nature of polyaminopolycarboxylic acids derived from polyethylene polyamines have not been investigated except for a brief report on

Albert E. Frost

1956-01-01

74

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal  

E-print Network

Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Derivative-Free Optimization via Proximal Point Methods Yves Lucet & Warren Hare July 24, 2013 1 / 26 #12;Derivative-Free Optimization Proximal Point Methods Derivative-Free Proximal Point Conclusion Outline 1

75

Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-01-01

76

Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures  

DOEpatents

Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

1986-09-16

77

Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures  

DOEpatents

Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

1986-09-16

78

Canonical derivation of effective potentials  

E-print Network

A canonical formulation of effective equations describes quantum corrections by the back-reaction of moments on the dynamics of expectation values of a state. As a first step toward an extension to quantum-field theory, these methods are applied here to the derivation of effective potentials around a homogeneous vacuum expectation value of scalar fields. A comparison with the standard Coleman-Weinberg potential shows that the new methods correctly include all relevant quantum corrections. At the same time, the effective potential is shown to be correct also for non-Fock and mixed states. Several explicit results are derived in models of interacting scalars and fermions.

Bojowald, Martin

2014-01-01

79

40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721...721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with...

2010-07-01

80

40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721...721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with...

2012-07-01

81

40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

2013-07-01

82

40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

2011-07-01

83

40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...

2010-07-01

84

40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

2012-07-01

85

46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2013-10-01

86

46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2012-10-01

87

45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section...NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct...authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative classification markings...

2013-10-01

88

40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

2010-07-01

89

18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative classification. 1301.65 Section...Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2014-04-01

90

18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Derivative classification. 1301.65 Section...Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2013-04-01

91

40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...

2011-07-01

92

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2011-07-01

93

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2010-07-01

94

46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2010-10-01

95

45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section...NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct...authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative classification markings...

2012-10-01

96

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2014-07-01

97

18 CFR 1301.65 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative classification. 1301.65 Section...Classified Information § 1301.65 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2012-04-01

98

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2013-07-01

99

45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section...NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct...authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative classification markings...

2011-10-01

100

28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section...Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons...classification guides. (b) Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall...

2012-07-01

101

40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...

2013-07-01

102

46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...Information Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In...apply to the source information, is derivative classification. (1)...

2011-10-01

103

Quaternion Derivatives: The GHR Calculus  

E-print Network

Quaternion derivatives in the mathematical literature are typically defined only for analytic (regular) functions. However, in engineering problems, functions of interest are often real-valued and thus not analytic, such as the standard cost function. The HR calculus is a convenient way to calculate formal derivatives of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables, however, both the HR and other functional calculus in quaternion analysis have encountered an essential technical obstacle, that is, the traditional product rule is invalid due to the non- commutativity of the quaternion algebra. To address this issue, a generalized form of the HR derivative is proposed based on a general orthogonal system. The so introduced generalization, called the generalized HR (GHR) calculus, encompasses not just the left- and right-hand versions of quaternion derivative, but also enables solutions to some long standing problems, such as the novel product rule, the chain rule, the mean-valued theorem and Taylor's theorem. At the core of the proposed approach is the quaternion rotation, which can naturally be applied to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples on using the GHR calculus in adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

Dongpo Xu; Cyrus Jahanchahi; Clive C. Took; Danilo P. Mandic

2014-09-25

104

Program for IIB Derivative Corrections  

E-print Network

A Matlab program is presented that computes derivative corrections in the S-dual invariant formulation for IIB graviton scattering to any order in perturbation theory. The coefficients of the four-point function are produced, pertaining to the non-logarithmic terms. The program can be modified to find coefficients of the higher-point functions. Instantons have not explicitly been included.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-05

105

Electrochromism of photochromic diarylethene derivative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diarylethene may undergo photochemical ring-closing reaction and both photochemical and electrochemical ring-opening reaction. Irradiation of the open form with UV light results in essentially quantitative photocyclization to the deeply colored form. The dithienylcyclopentene derivative in their ring-closed forms can undergo ring-opening upon electrochemical oxidation.

Zhou, Xinhong; Pu, Shouzhi; Zhang, Fushi; Zhao, Fuqun; Liu, Xuedong; Xu, Fengying; Fan, Guifang

2005-01-01

106

Statistically Derived Static Process Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of occasions in most manufacturing processes where product quality is measured infrequently and often offline. In these cases statistically derived steady state models have proven adequate to identify important process variables which must be better controlled to improve product quality or to increase process throughput. This paper describes some of the important factors to be considered

Robert W. Mc Clure

1986-01-01

107

Quinuclidine Derivatives as Potential Antiparasitics?  

PubMed Central

There is an urgent need for the development of new drugs for the treatment of tropical parasitic diseases such as Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. One potential drug target in the organisms that cause these diseases is sterol biosynthesis. This paper describes the design and synthesis of quinuclidine derivatives as potential inhibitors of a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS). A number of compounds that were inhibitors of the recombinant Leishmania major SQS at submicromolar concentrations were discovered. Some of these compounds were also selective for the parasite enzyme rather than the homologous human enzyme. The compounds inhibited the growth of and sterol biosynthesis in Leishmania parasites. In addition, we identified other quinuclidine derivatives that inhibit the growth of Trypanosoma brucei (the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis) and Plasmodium falciparum (a causative agent of malaria), but through an unknown mode(s) of action. PMID:17709461

Cammerer, Simon B.; Jimenez, Carmen; Jones, Simon; Gros, Ludovic; Lorente, Silvia Orenes; Rodrigues, Carlos; Rodrigues, Juliany C. F.; Caldera, Aura; Ruiz Perez, Luis Miguel; da Souza, Wanderley; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Urbina, Julio A.; Gonzalez Pacanowska, Dolores; Gilbert, Ian H.

2007-01-01

108

Certain derivatives of aminomethylphosphonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Experiments on the acylatlon of aminomethylphosphonic acid show that it proceeds with greater difficulty than the acylation of glycine. Acetamidomethyl-, (chloroacetamido)methyl-, and phthalimidamethyl-phosphonic acids have been prepared.2.The methylation of aminomethylphosphonic acid has been effected by means of methyl iodide in a methanol mediums, and it has been shown that a quaternary iodide derived from the phosphonobetaine is formed. It

Me Io Kabachnik; T. Ya. Medved

1953-01-01

109

Weather Forecasting for Weather Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We take a nonstructural time-series approach to modeling and forecasting daily average temperature in ten U.S. cities, and we inquire systematically as to whether it may prove useful from the vantage point of participants in the weather derivatives market. The answer is, perhaps surprisingly, yes. Time series modeling reveals both strong conditional mean dynamics,and conditional variance dynamics in daily

Sean D. Campbell; Francis X. Diebold

2005-01-01

110

Parsing with the Shortest Derivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common wisdom has it that the bias of stochastic grammars in favor of shorter derivations of a sentence is harmful and should be redressed. We show that the common wisdom is wrong for stochastic grammars that use elementary trees instead of context-free rules, such as Stochastic Tree-Substitution Grammars used by Data-Oriented Parsing models. For such grammars a -probabilistic metric based

Rens Bod

2000-01-01

111

Deriving confinement via RG decimations  

E-print Network

We present the general framework and building blocks of a recent derivation of the fact that the SU(2) LGT is in a confining phase for all values of the coupling $0 < \\beta < \\infty$, for space-time dimension $d \\leq 4$. The method employs approximate but explicitly computable RG decimations that are shown to constrain the exact partition function and order parameters from above and below, and flow from the weak to the strong coupling regime without encountering a fixed point.

E. T. Tomboulis

2007-10-10

112

Newton's hypothetical orbits independently derived.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical results of four hypothetical orbital problems from the Principia are confirmed by an independent physical method. Each orbital problem that Newton posed and solved is characterized as follows. Given the shape of the orbit and the position of the force center, find the functional form of the central attractive force that will keep a body moving around the orbit. None of Newton's hypothetical orbital problems has so far found any apparent practical application, whereas the Kepler problem, also solved by Newton in the Principia, is of great importance to physics. The Kepler problem too can be derived easily by the present method. Newton used primarily geometrical constructions and logical deductions to arrive at his force functions. In contrast to this, the present (inverse) approach is based on a force balance: as a body moves along a curved path the outward centrifugal force always balances the component of the inward attractive force that is perpendicular to the orbit. Taking the functional form for the central force derived by Newton and inserting it into the force balance, the orbital shape can be derived by solving an ordinary second-order differential equation-the forced harmonic oscillator equation. Two of Newton's four force functions examined in this way lead to (different) fully nonlinear differential equations, which, surprisingly, can both be solved analytically and in closed form by means of the elementary functions that describe the shapes of the orbits.

Kenyon, K. E.

113

Nonparametric Derivative Estimation Kris De Brabanter a  

E-print Network

Nonparametric Derivative Estimation Kris De Brabanter a Jos De Brabanter a b Bart De Moor automated framework for estimating first order derivatives non- parametrically. Derivative estimation plays of regression curves, analysis of human growth data, etc. Hence, the study of estimating derivatives

114

Edge Detection Discrete approx. of a derivative  

E-print Network

Edge Detection #12;· Discrete approx. of a derivative · Threshold the derivative image · Second derivative, zero crossing detect ­ Weak edges (gradual variation) detected better, less chance of multiple edge responses · Derivative: enhances noise · Band-pass filtering: some smoothing followed

Vaswani, Namrata

115

An assessment of derived flood frequency distributions  

E-print Network

Flood Frequency Curve - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 9. Statistical Flood Frequency Curve - Halls Bayou . . . . . . 51 . . . 51 FIG. 10. Derived Flood Frequency Curves ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 53 FIG. 11. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Briar Creek... . . FIG. 12, Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Turtle Creek. . . FIG. 13. Derived Flood Frequency Curves - Halls Bayou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIG. 14. Simulation Flood Frequency Curve ? South Rocky Creek. . . . . . 54 . . . 56 FIG. 15. Simulation...

Raines, Timothy Howard

2012-06-07

116

Dynamical derivation of Bode's law  

E-print Network

In a planetary or satellite system, idealized as n small bodies in initially coplanar, concentric orbits around a large central body, obeying Newtonian point-particle mechanics, resonant perturbations will cause dynamical evolution of the orbital radii except under highly specific mutual relationships, here derived analytically apparently for the first time. In particular, the most stable situation is achieved (in this idealized model) only when each planetary orbit is roughly twice as far from the Sun as the preceding one, as observed empirically already by Titius (1766) and Bode (1778) and used in both the discoveries of Uranus (1781) and the Asteroid Belt (1801). ETC.

Bass, R W

2002-01-01

117

Dynamical derivation of Bode's law  

E-print Network

In a planetary or satellite system, idealized as n small bodies in initially coplanar, concentric orbits around a large central body, obeying Newtonian point-particle mechanics, resonant perturbations will cause dynamical evolution of the orbital radii except under highly specific mutual relationships, here derived analytically apparently for the first time. In particular, the most stable situation is achieved (in this idealized model) only when each planetary orbit is roughly twice as far from the Sun as the preceding one, as observed empirically already by Titius (1766) and Bode (1778) and used in both the discoveries of Uranus (1781) and the Asteroid Belt (1801). ETC.

Robert W. Bass

2002-09-13

118

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells  

PubMed Central

While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases. PMID:24427545

Chandra, Dinesh; Gravekamp, Claudia

2013-01-01

119

Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel  

DOEpatents

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01

120

Credit derivatives and sovereign debt  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER NO 23 CREDIT DERIVATIVES AND SOVERIEGN DEBT CRISES Benedikt Goderis & Wolf Wagner The Working Paper is intended as a means whereby researchers’ thoughts and findings may be communicated to interested readers... . © 2005 Benedikt Goderis & Wolf Wagner Comments and suggestions would be welcomed by the authors e-mail: w.wagner@cerf.cam.ac.uk #1;#2;#3;#4;#5;#6; #7;#3;#2;#5;#8; #6;#5;#8;#3; #11;#4; #12; #8;#3;#2;#3;#5;#14;#11; #7;#3;#15;#6; #1;#2;#5; #3; #1...

Goderis, Benedikt; Wagner, Wolf

121

Fourth order spatial derivative gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

2011-10-01

122

A study on real estate derivatives  

E-print Network

All major asset classes including stocks and bonds have a well developed derivative market. Derivatives enable counterparties to reflect a view on a particular market, without having to trade the underlying asset. This ...

Lim, Jong Yoon, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

123

17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200.506 Section 200.506 Commodity...National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

2010-04-01

124

17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200.506 Section 200.506 Commodity...National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

2011-04-01

125

17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.  

...Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200.506 Section 200.506 Commodity...National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

2014-04-01

126

5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative...PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves...

2011-01-01

127

5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.  

...Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative...PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves...

2014-01-01

128

5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative...PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves...

2010-01-01

129

12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that derives its classification from information...effective date of the Order, April 2, 1982...that derives its classification under prior orders shall be treated...material bears a classification date or event...

2010-01-01

130

12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that derives its classification from information...effective date of the Order, April 2, 1982...that derives its classification under prior orders shall be treated...material bears a classification date or event...

2011-01-01

131

Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

Schilling, Kenneth

2013-01-01

132

Stability derivatives of cones at supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic stability derivatives due to pitching velocity and vertical acceleration are derived for circular cones traveling at supersonic speeds. Both first-order and a combination of first and second order potential solutions are obtained, and in calculations for the forces, no approximations are made to the tangency condition or the isentropic pressure relation. In addition, expressions for the forces, moments, and stability derivatives of arbitrary bodies of revolution are derived from Newtonian impact theory.

Tobak, Murry; Wehrend, William R

1956-01-01

133

Thermodynamic Partial Derivatives and Experimentally Measurable Quantities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed is a flow-chart and related formulas to obtain expressions for the derivatives of the old thermodynamic function in terms of new variables, the new function and its derivatives, and derivatives of the old function, involving only measurable quantities. (CW)

Estevez, Gentil A.; And Others

1989-01-01

134

The Fourth Partial Derivative In Transport Dynamics  

E-print Network

A new fourth partial derivative is introduced for the study of transport dynamics. It is a Lagrangian partial derivative following the path of diffusion, not the path of convection. Use of this derivative decouples the effect of diffusion and convection and simplifies the analysis of transport processes.

Trinh Khanh Tuoc

2010-01-11

135

Improved Second Derivative Test for Relative Extrema  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note, a modified Second Derivative Test is introduced for the relative extrema of a single variable function. This improved test overcomes the difficulty of the second derivative vanishing at the critical point, while in contrast the traditional test fails for this case. A proof for this improved Second Derivative Test is presented,…

Wu, Yan

2007-01-01

136

A Relational Derivation of a Functional Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an introduction to the use of relational calculi in deriving programs. We present a derivation in a relational language of a functional program that adds one bit to a binary number. The resulting program is unsurprising, being the standard 'column of half{adders', but the derivation illustrates a number of points about working with relations rather than functions.

Graham Hutton

1992-01-01

137

Gruneisen parameter: measurement of the strain derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivatives of non-linear coupling coefficients in the Taylor expansion of thermodynamic potentials should play a major role in solids driven off equilibrium. A measurement is described of the derivatives of the Gruneisen thermomechanical state function gamma with respect to the imposed tensile deformation epsilon *. For alpha -Ti, these derivatives are found to be delta gamma \\/ delta epsilon

C. E. Bottani; G. Caglioti; P. M. Ossi

1981-01-01

138

Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high

Chi-Wei Lin; Janine R. Shulok; S. D. Kirley; Louis Cincotta; James W. Foley

1991-01-01

139

Do you trust derivatives or differences?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the relationship between the noise level of a function and the accuracy and reliability of derivatives and difference estimates. We derive and empirically validate measures of quality for both derivatives and difference estimates. Using these measures, we quantify the accuracy of derivatives and differences in terms of the noise level of the function. An interesting observation based on these results is that the derivative of a function is not likely to have working precision accuracy for functions with modest levels of noise.

Moré, Jorge J.; Wild, Stefan M.

2014-09-01

140

Structural design utilizing updated, approximate sensitivity derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method to improve the computational efficiency of structural optimization algorithms is investigated. In this method, the calculations of 'exact' sensitivity derivatives of constraint functions are performed only at selected iterations during the optimization process. The sensitivity derivatives utilized within other iterations are approximate derivatives which are calculated using an inexpensive derivative update formula. Optimization results are presented for an analytic optimization problem (i.e., one having simple polynomial expressions for the objective and constraint functions) and for two structural optimization problems. The structural optimization results indicate that up to a factor of three improvement in computation time is possible when using the updated sensitivity derivatives.

Scotti, Stephen J.

1993-01-01

141

Representations of partial derivatives in thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the mathematical objects that students become familiar with in thermodynamics, often for the first time, is the partial derivative of a multivariable function. The symbolic representation of a partial derivative and related quantities present difficulties for students in both mathematical and physical contexts, most notably what it means to keep one or more variables fixed while taking the derivative with respect to a different variable. Material properties are themselves written as partial derivatives of various state functions (e.g., compressibility is a partial derivative of volume with respect to pressure). Research in courses at the University of Maine and Oregon State University yields findings related to the many ways that partial derivatives can be represented and interpreted in thermodynamics. Research has informed curricular development that elicits many of the difficulties using different representations (e.g., geometric) and different contexts (e.g., connecting partial derivatives to specific experiments).

Thompson, John R.; Manogue, Corinne A.; Roundy, David J.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

2012-02-01

142

2-Methoxy-benzamide derivatives  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides novel 2-methoxy-benzamide derivatives of the formula: ##STR1## in which n is 1 or 2; R.sub.1 represents a cycloalkyl-alkyl radical of formula: ##STR2## a phenylalkyl radical of formula ##STR3## (in which m is an integer from 2 to 5, A is a linear or branched alkylene chain of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and R.sub.4 is hydrogen, halogen, especially fluorine or chlorine, trifluoromethyl, or alkyl or alkoxy of 1 to 3 carbon atoms), CNCH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --, CH.tbd.C--CH.sub.2 --, ##STR4## R.sub.2 is either chlorine, SO.sub.2 R.sub.5 (in which R.sub.5 is alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms), or SO.sub.2 NR.sub.6 R.sub.7 (in which, R.sub.6 and R.sub.7, which are identical or different, represent, independently of one another, hydrogen or alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms); and R.sub.3 is hydrogen or alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms; in the form of racemates or optical isomers, and their pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts, which are useful in the treatment of psychosomatic and pyschotic disturbances.

1980-02-19

143

Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

1995-09-01

144

Derivation of quantum theories symmetries and the exact solution of the derived system  

E-print Network

Based on the technique of derivation of a theory, presented in our recent paper, we investigate the properties of the derived quantum system. We show that the derived quantum system possesses the (nonanomalous) symmetries of the original one, and prove that the exact Green functions of the derived theory are expressed in terms of the semiclassically approximated Green functions of the original theory.

Khorrami, M; Alimohammadi, M

1996-01-01

145

Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem.  

PubMed

The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives should be considered: substances that can be created from a parent structure in a single chemical reaction. In other words, 'derivatives of derivatives' are excluded. However, some substances related to ecgonine (e.g. 2-carbomethoxytropinone) are clearly convertible to cocaine, even though this may require more than one reaction step. It follows that 2-carbomethoxytropinone is a controlled drug, a situation that most chemists would regard as perverse. A more extreme example of the complexity of 'derivative' is shown by the conversion of thebaine to buprenorphine. Even though this requires six or more stages, the US Drug Enforcement Administration successfully argued in a 1986 case that for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act, the number of steps required was irrelevant; buprenorphine was a derivative of thebaine. Because the term derivative is rarely defined in statutes, the legal status of some substances, such as 2-bromo-LSD, is uncertain. Although a number of definitions of derivative can be found in the chemical literature, no single definition is adequate to describe all situations where it occurs in legislation. Unless qualified, it is suggested that the term derivative should be avoided in any future legislation. PMID:23949903

King, Leslie A; Ujváry, István; Brandt, Simon D

2014-01-01

146

Variational Lie derivative and cohomology classes  

E-print Network

We relate cohomology defined by a system of local Lagrangian with the cohomology class of the system of local variational Lie derivative, which is in turn a local variational problem; we show that the latter cohomology class is zero, since the variational Lie derivative `trivializes' cohomology classes defined by variational forms. As a consequence, conservation laws associated with symmetries ensuring the vanishing of the second variational derivative of a local variational problem are globally defined.

Marcella Palese; Ekkehart Winterroth

2011-03-02

147

A nonlinear two compartmental fractional derivative model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new nonlinear two compartmental model and its application to the evaluation of valproic acid (VPA) pharmacokinetics\\u000a in human volunteers after oral administration. We have used literature VPA concentrations. In the model, the integer order\\u000a derivatives are replaced by derivatives of real order often called fractional order derivatives. Physically that means that\\u000a the history (memory) of a

Jovan K. Popovi?; Diana Doli?anin; Milan R. Rapai?; Stevan Pilipovic; Teodor M. Atanackovi?

148

Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1<\\/strong> of this thesis we discuss some applications of cellulose derivatives. Application of CMC in pelleting of iron ore and in papermaking and the role of adsorption

C. W. Hoogendam

1998-01-01

149

Anisotropic higher derivative gravity and inflationary universe  

E-print Network

Stability analysis of the Kantowski-Sachs type universe in pure higher derivative gravity theory is studied in details. The non-redundant generalized Friedmann equation of the system is derived by introducing a reduced one dimensional generalized KS type action. This method greatly reduces the labor in deriving field equations of any complicate models. Existence and stability of inflationary solution in the presence of higher derivative terms are also studied in details. Implications to the choice of physical theories are discussed in details in this paper.

W. F. Kao

2006-05-21

150

Synthesis of polyfluorene derivatives through polymer reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polyfluorene derivative with ester functional groups was synthesized with a high molecular weight and good solubility in common organic solvents through the Suzuki reaction. Efficient blue light emission and good electrochemical properties were demonstrated for this polymer with a decomposition temperature of 331 °C and a glass transition temperature of 111 °C. Due to the ester functional groups, the polymer could be further modified through polymer reactions. Hydrolysis of the polymer afforded a water-soluble carbonate functional polyfluorene derivative. While it underwent a reduction, a new polyfluorene derivative with hydroxy functional groups was obtained. Thermal and optical properties of the derivatives were also studied.

Liu, Bin; Yu, Wang-Lin; Lai, Yee-Hing; Huang, Wei

2003-01-01

151

Higher Derivatives in Geometry and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two related ways to invariantly study higher derivatives, new-tensors and derivative strings, are compared, and the idea of suppression operator, or multiplier, is introduced. It renders the formal expression of the new objects almost as simple as that of ordinary tensors. Jacobians as a subgroup of the full second-order group are identified, and the harmonic subgroup leaving Laplace's equation invariant

B. L. Foster

1989-01-01

152

Development of the beta-pressure derivative  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2006 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF THE ? -PRESSURE DERIVATIVE A Thesis by NIMA HOSSEINPOUR-ZONOOZI Submitted to the Office of Graduate..., Stephen A. Holditch December 2006 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering iii ABSTRACT Development of the ? -Pressure Derivative. (December 2006) Nima Hosseinpour-Zonoozi, B.S., Petroleum University of Technology...

Hosseinpour-Zoonozi, Nima

2007-04-25

153

Wavelets for computationally efficient hyperspectral derivative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoothing followed by a derivative operation is often used in the analysis of hyperspectral signatures. The width of the smoothing and\\/or derivative operator can greatly affect the utility of the method. If one is unsure of the appropriate width or would like to conduct analysis for several widths, scale-space images can be used. This paper shows how the wavelet transform

Lori Mann Bruce; Jiang Li

2001-01-01

154

Can material time derivative be objective?  

E-print Network

The concept of objectivity in classical field theories is traditionally based on time dependent Euclidean transformations. In this paper we treat objectivity in a four-dimensional setting, calculate Christoffel symbols of the spacetime transformations, and give covariant and material time derivatives. The usual objective time derivatives are investigated.

T. Matolcsi; P. Van

2005-10-10

155

Tilt/Integral/Derivative Compensators For Controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tilt/integral/derivative (TID) compensators for tunable feedback control systems offer advantages over proportional/integral/derivative compensators. Designed and adjusted more easily, and made to reject disturbances more strongly and less sensitive to variations in parameters of controlled system.

Lurie, Boris J.

1995-01-01

156

Few Fractional Order Derivatives and Their Computations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work presents an introductory development of fractional order derivatives and their computations. Historical development of fractional calculus is discussed. This paper presents how to obtain computational results of fractional order derivatives for some elementary functions. Computational results are illustrated in tabular and graphical…

Bhatta, D. D.

2007-01-01

157

Do You Trust Derivatives or Differences??  

E-print Network

central problem in computational science, most of the literature in this area is ... As we will see, answering these questions requires the development of tools for ... The derivative produced by the forward mode of automatic differentiation ... of the default derivative code that could be produced by a computational scientist.

2012-05-01

158

Understanding the Derivative through the Calculus Triangle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical treatments of the derivative do not clearly convey the idea that the derivative function represents the original function's rate of change. Revealing the relationship between a function and its rate-of-change function for static values of "x" does not facilitate productive ways of thinking about generating the rate-of-change function or…

Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael; Byerley, Cameron; Thompson, Patrick W.

2012-01-01

159

Design and synthesis of new vancomycin derivatives.  

PubMed

A set of vancomycin derivatives with lipid chain attached via a glyceric acid linker was designed and synthesized. A concise synthesis towards these derivatives was developed and the IC50s of these new lipoglycopeptides were tested. Some of them showed very potent activity against both vancomycin sensitive and resistant strains. PMID:24751442

Gu, Wen; Chen, Bei; Ge, Min

2014-05-15

160

On the stability of J?-derivations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we establish the stability and superstability of J?-derivations in J?-algebras for the generalized Jensen-type functional equation rf({x+y}/{r})+rf({x-y}/{r})=2f(x). Finally, we investigate the stability of J?-derivations by using the fixed point alternative.

Eshaghi Gordji, M.; Ghaemi, M. B.; Kaboli Gharetapeh, S.; Shams, S.; Ebadian, A.

2010-03-01

161

On the stability of J ? -derivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we establish the stability and superstability of J?-derivations in J?-algebras for the generalized Jensen–type functional equation rf(x+yr)+rf(x?yr)=2f(x). Finally, we investigate the stability of J?-derivations by using the fixed point alternative.

M. Eshaghi Gordji; M. B. Ghaemi; S. Kaboli Gharetapeh; S. Shams; A. Ebadian

2010-01-01

162

On the stability of J*-derivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we establish the stability and superstability of J*-derivations in J*-algebras for the generalized Jensen-type functional equation rf(x+yr)+rf(x-yr)=2f(x). Finally, we investigate the stability of J*-derivations by using the fixed point alternative.

M. Eshaghi Gordji; M. B. Ghaemi; S. Kaboli Gharetapeh; S. Shams; A. Ebadian

2010-01-01

163

Features of Derivative Continuity in Shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivative continuity is a distributed invariant relationship between parts of flowing shapes. The original techniques presented here were developed for making the behavioral dynamics of complex processes more recognizable, but are equally applicable to assisting in the recognition of shapes in images. Regularizing a sequence using a constraint of derivative continuity is equivalent to using a bimodal smoothing kernel, producing

Philip F. Henshaw

1999-01-01

164

Genetic Optimization Using Derivatives Jasjeet S. Sekhon  

E-print Network

entirely on derivatives can be unreliable and often are virtually unusable. Newton-Raphson and quasi-Newton that combines evolutionary algorithm methods with a derivative-based, quasi-Newton method to solve difficult of GENOUD to that of the Gauss-Newton algorithm in SAS's PROC MODEL. #12;Introduction We report

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

165

Derivation of Refraction Formulas Paul S. Heckbert  

E-print Network

Derivation of Refraction Formulas Paul S. Heckbert ABSTRACT We derive three alternative formulas for the refracted ray direction in ray tracing in order to prove their equivalence and to demonstrate the process refract when they strike an interface between two different transpar­ ent media, such as air­water, air

Treuille, Adrien

166

Derivational Morphology and Base Morpheme Frequency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morpheme frequency effects for derived words (e.g. an influence of the frequency of the base "dark" on responses to "darkness") have been interpreted as evidence of morphemic representation. However, it has been suggested that most derived words would not show these effects if family size (a type frequency count claimed to reflect semantic…

Ford, M. A.; Davis, M. H.; Marslen-Wilson, W. D.

2010-01-01

167

The simplest derivation of the Lorentz transformation  

E-print Network

Starting from the well-known light-clock thought experiment to derive time dilation and length contraction, it is shown that finding the Lorentz Transformation requires nothing more than the most trivial vector addition formula. The form which is obtaine for the L.T. allows an easy derivation of the velocity and acceleration transformations which are also given.

J. -M. Levy

2006-06-12

168

High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.

Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.

1990-01-01

169

17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...

2010-04-01

170

17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...

2013-04-01

171

17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...

2011-04-01

172

17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.  

... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...

2014-04-01

173

17 CFR 200.507 - Declassification dates on derivative documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Declassification dates on derivative documents. 200.507 Section 200...200.507 Declassification dates on derivative documents. (a) A document...need for classification. (b) A derivative document that derives its...

2012-04-01

174

Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Cyclooctene Derivatives with Chain Transfer Agents derived from Glycerol Carbonate  

E-print Network

derived from Glycerol Carbonate Abdou K. Diallo,a Liana Annunziata,a St�phane Fouquay,b Guillaume Michaud.1039/C3PY01639K #12;2 Abstract The synthesis of a variety of mono- and di-(glycerol carbonate) telechelic) of cyclooctene (COE) derivatives in the presence of a vinyl or acryloyl derivative of glycerol carbonate (GC

Boyer, Edmond

175

Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

2013-04-01

176

Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summarizing market data developments, some inspired by statistical physics, this book explains how to better predict the actual behavior of financial markets with respect to asset allocation, derivative pricing and hedging, and risk control. Risk control and derivative pricing are major concerns to financial institutions. The need for adequate statistical tools to measure and anticipate amplitude of potential moves of financial markets is clearly expressed, in particular for derivative markets. Classical theories, however, are based on assumptions leading to systematic (sometimes dramatic) underestimation of risks. First edition Hb (2000): 0-521-78232-5

Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

2004-02-01

177

An invariant derivation of flame stretch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flame stretch factor is derived using an invariant formulation in a consistent manner. The derived generalized expression has two terms and completely describes the flame area evolution with its movement. One term represents the stretch due to the nonuniform tangential velocity field and the other represents the effect of the curvature of the propagating flame. The effect of curvature for stationary flames is implicitly included in the former term through variations of the tangential velocity. The flame sheet assumption, and thereby the stretch factor, are uniquely defined. Another expression is derived under the assumption that the tangential velocity of the flame equals the tangential component of the fluid velocity.

Chung, S. H.; Law, C. K.

1984-01-01

178

Complex networks derived from cellular automata  

E-print Network

We propose a method for deriving networks from one-dimensional binary cellular automata. The derived networks are usually directed and have structural properties corresponding to the dynamical behaviors of their cellular automata. Network parameters, particularly the efficiency and the degree distribution, show that the dependence of efficiency on the grid size is characteristic and can be used to classify cellular automata and that derived networks exhibit various degree distributions. In particular, a class IV rule of Wolfram's classification produces a network having a scale-free distribution.

Yoshihiko Kayama

2010-09-23

179

45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATION...DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative...is the determination that information is in substance the same as information currently...

2010-10-01

180

32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...described in E.O. 12951, “Release of Imagery Acquired by Space-Based National Intelligence Reconnaissance Systems,” the derivative...as prescribed by the Director of National Intelligence. (4) When determining the most...

2010-07-01

181

32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.  

...described in E.O. 12951, “Release of Imagery Acquired by Space-Based National Intelligence Reconnaissance Systems,” the derivative...as prescribed by the Director of National Intelligence. (4) When determining the most...

2014-07-01

182

32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...described in E.O. 12951, “Release of Imagery Acquired by Space-Based National Intelligence Reconnaissance Systems,” the derivative...as prescribed by the Director of National Intelligence. (4) When determining the most...

2011-07-01

183

32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...described in E.O. 12951, “Release of Imagery Acquired by Space-Based National Intelligence Reconnaissance Systems,” the derivative...as prescribed by the Director of National Intelligence. (4) When determining the most...

2012-07-01

184

32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...described in E.O. 12951, “Release of Imagery Acquired by Space-Based National Intelligence Reconnaissance Systems,” the derivative...as prescribed by the Director of National Intelligence. (4) When determining the most...

2013-07-01

185

MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

186

Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives  

E-print Network

I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

2008-01-01

187

Real estate derivatives : products and prospects  

E-print Network

The paper reviews the development, structure and trade of past real estate equity hedging instruments. The reviewed products represent a wide array of real estate derivatives, covering multiple property types, index ...

Eisenberg, Oriel

2013-01-01

188

Some nitroimidazole derivatives as possible antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

In this study, six 1-[2(benzazol-2-yl)thioethyl]-2-methyl-5- nitroimidazole derivatives were synthesized. Antibacterial activities of the compounds obtained were examined and it was found that they are effective against aerobe bacteria. PMID:8323675

Demirayak, S; Kiraz, N

1993-03-01

189

Three pyrone glucosidic derivatives from Conyza albida.  

PubMed

Three new pyrone glucosidic derivatives, together with the known pyromeconic acid glucoside, three acytelenes and two eudesmanes, were obtained from the aerial parts of Conyza albida. The structures were elucidated by high field NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12143010

Ahmed, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Abou El-Hamd; Tzakou, Olga; Gani, Anastasia; Yannitsaros, Artemios; El-Maghraby, Mohamed A; Hassan, Mohamed E; Zeller, Klaus-Peter

2002-07-01

190

Tri and tetrahydroxycoumarin derivatives from Tetraphis pellucida  

Microsoft Academic Search

From gametophytes of Tetraphis pellucida have been isolated eight different tri- and tetrahydroxycoumarin derivatives; three of them are new natural products, the structures of which were elucidated spectroscopically. The taxonomic relevance of the results is discussed.

Marion Jung; Hans Geiger; Hans Dietmar Zinsmeister

1995-01-01

191

Choctaw Suppletive Verbs and Derivational Morphology  

E-print Network

etymological root. Full presentation of these alternations touches on almost all aspects of Choctaw derivational verbal morphology, and also leads to several internal reconstructions of pre-Choctaw lexical and phonological structure bearing on comparative...

Heath, Jeffrey

1980-01-01

192

A Note on Lie-Lorentz Derivatives  

E-print Network

The definition of ``Lie derivative'' of spinors with respect to Killing vectors is extended to all kinds of Lorentz tensors. This Lie-Lorentz derivative appears naturally in the commutator of two supersymmetry transformations generated by Killing spinors and vanishes for Vielbeins. It can be identified as the generator of the action of isometries on supergravity fields and its use for the calculation of supersymmetry algebras is revised and extended.

Tomas Ortin

2002-06-18

193

Endplate channel block by guanidine derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the n-alkyl derivatives of guanidine on the frog neuromuscular junction were studied using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp and other eleetrophysiological techniques. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl- guanidine stimulated the nerve-evoked release of transmitter. However, amyl- and octylguanidine had no apparent presynaptic action. All of the derivatives blocked the postsynaptic response to acetylcholine, the potency sequence being octyl- >

JERRY M. FARLEY; JAY Z. YEH; SHIGENORI WATANABE; TOSHIO NARAHASHI

1981-01-01

194

Chelate derivatives as protectors against tissue injury  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Derivatives useful in the protection of living organisms against damage due to free radical reactions derived from methoxypolyethylene glycols (MPEG), which are modified by chemically attaching chelating groups in an amide or amine linkage to the nonmethyl end of the polymer. Such chelating groups include ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and ethylene glycol aminoethyl ether tetraacetic acid (EGTA), and pharmacologically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

2000-02-01

195

Analytical Derivatives for Markov Switching Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper derives analytical gradients for a broad class of regime-switching models with Markovian state-transition probabilities. Such models are usually estimated by maximum likelihood methods, which require the derivatives of the likelihood function with respect to the parameter vector. These gradients are usually calculated by means of numerical techniques. The paper shows that analytical gradients considerably speed up maximum-likelihood estimation

Jeff Gable; Simon van Norden; Robert John Vigfusson

1998-01-01

196

Dependency Structures Derived from Minimalist Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an interpretation of Minimalist Grammars [16],[17] in terms of dependency structures. Under this interpretation, merge operations derive projective dependency structures, and movement operations introduce both non-projectivity and illnestedness. This new characterization of the generative capacity of Minimalist Grammar makes it possible to discuss the linguistic relevance of non-projectivity and illnestedness. This in turn provides insight into grammars that derive structures with these properties.

Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Hale, John T.; Kuhlmann, Marco

197

Functional Determinants in Higher Derivative Lagrangian Theories  

E-print Network

Motivated by the considerable success of alternative theories of gravity, we consider the toy model of a higher derivative Lagrangian theory, namely the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator studied in a recent paper by Hawking-Hertog. Its Euclidean Path Integral is studied with a certain detail and a pedagogical derivation of the propagator, which makes use of a Theorem due to Forman, is consequently proposed

Roberto Di Criscienzo; Sergio Zerbini

2009-07-24

198

Preferential maternal derivation in inv dup(15)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight patients are reported with a de nov extra inverted duplicated chromosome 15. The abnormal chromosome was considered to be the same in all cases, but its precise delineation remained uncertain and was defined as either 15qter?15q12::15q12?15pter or 15pter?15q11::15q13?15pter. Analysis with various techniques of the satellite regions of the bisatellited chromosomes demonstrated maternal derivation in six and paternal derivation in

Paola Maraschio; Orsetta Zuffardi; Franca Bernardi; M. Bozzola; C. De Paoli; Christa Fonatsch; Sibylle D. Flatz; Loretta Ghersini; G. Gimelli; M. Loi; Renata Lorini; Diletta Peretti; Lisa Poloni; Daniela Tonetti; Roberta Vanni; G. Zamboni

1981-01-01

199

Phytol derivatives as drug resistance reversal agents.  

PubMed

Phytol was chemically transformed into fifteen semi-synthetic derivatives, which were evaluated for their antibacterial and drug resistance reversal potential in combination with nalidixic acid against E.?coli strains CA8000 and DH5?. The pivaloyl (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl (9), 2,3-dichlorobenzoyl (10), cinnamoyl (11), and aldehyde (14) derivatives of phytol ((2E,7R,11R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol) were evaluated by using another antibiotic, tetracycline, against the MDREC-KG4 clinical isolate of E.?coli. Derivative 4 decreased the maximal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotics by 16-fold, while derivatives 9, 10, 11, and 14 reduced MIC values of the antibiotics up to eightfold against the E.?coli strains. Derivatives 4, 9, 10, 11, and 14 inhibited the ATP-dependent efflux pump; this was also supported by their in silico binding affinity and down-regulation of the efflux pump gene yojI, which encodes the multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporter protein. This study supports the possible use of phytol derivatives in the development of cost-effective antibacterial combinations. PMID:24891085

Upadhyay, Harish C; Dwivedi, Gaurav R; Roy, Sudeep; Sharma, Ashok; Darokar, Mahendra P; Srivastava, Santosh K

2014-08-01

200

Analytic computation of energy derivatives - Relationships among partial derivatives of a variationally determined function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulas are presented relating Taylor series expansion coefficients of three functions of several variables, the energy of the trial wave function (W), the energy computed using the optimized variational wave function (E), and the response function (lambda), under certain conditions. Partial derivatives of lambda are obtained through solution of a recursive system of linear equations, and solution through order n yields derivatives of E through order 2n + 1, extending Puley's application of Wigner's 2n + 1 rule to partial derivatives in couple perturbation theory. An examination of numerical accuracy shows that the usual two-term second derivative formula is less stable than an alternative four-term formula, and that previous claims that energy derivatives are stationary properties of the wave function are fallacious. The results have application to quantum theoretical methods for the computation of derivative properties such as infrared frequencies and intensities.

King, H. F.; Komornicki, A.

1986-01-01

201

Derivation of Completely Cell Culture-Derived Mice from Early-Passage Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several newly generated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were tested for their ability to produce completely ES cell-derived mice at early passage numbers by ES cell leftrightarrow tetraploid embryo aggregation. One line, designated R1, produced live offspring which were completely ES cell-derived as judged by isoenzyme analysis and coat color. These cell culture-derived animals were normal, viable, and fertile.

Andras Nagy; Janet Rossant; Reka Nagy; Wanda Abramow-Newerly; John C. Roder

1993-01-01

202

Numerical derivative techniques for trajectory optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adoption of robust numerical optimization techniques in trajectory simulation programs has resulted in powerful design and analysis tools. These trajectory simulation/optimization programs are widely used, and a representative list includes the GTS system, the POST program, and newer collocation methods such as OTIS and FONPAC. All of these programs rely on optimization algorithms which require objective function and constraint gradient data during the iteration process. However, most trajectory optimization problems lack simple analytical expressions for these derivatives. In the general case a function evaluation involves integrating aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces over multiple trajectory phases with complex control models. With the newer collocation methods, the integration is replaced by defect constraints and cubic approximations for the state. While analytic gradient expressions can sometimes be derived for trajectory optimization problems, the derivation is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes. Fortunately, an alternate method exists for the gradient evaluation, namely finite difference approximations. In this paper some finite difference gradient techniques developed for use with the GTS system are presented. These techniques include methods for computing first and second partial derivatives of single and multiple sets of functions. A key feature of these methods is an error control mechanism which automatically adjusts the perturbation size to obtain accurate derivative values.

Hallman, Wayne P.

1990-01-01

203

Gateaux and Frechet Derivative in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Linear spaces  

E-print Network

Intuitionistic Fuzzy derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are defined and a few of their properties are studied. The relation between Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are emphasized.

B. Dinda; T. K. Samanta; U. K. Bera

2010-09-11

204

Hadamard-like derivatives in Preisach modeling and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a concept of derivatives of the relative boundary of the active set, on the Preisach plane, with respect to the time variable, under a time-varying input of the piecewise monotone type. These derivatives are related to the set-valued derivatives previously introduced by these authors. This concept of derivatives, which is akin to the derivatives introduced by Hadamard in

S. A. Belbas; I. D. Mayergoyz

2006-01-01

205

A Derivation of Modified Newtonian Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a possible solution for the missing mass problem in galactic dynamics; its predictions are in good agreement with observations in the limit of weak accelerations. However, MOND does not derive from a physical mechanism and does not make predictions on the transitional regime from Newtonian to modified dynamics; rather, empirical transition functions have to be constructed from the boundary conditions and comparisons with observations. I compare the formalism of classical MOND to the scaling law derived from a toy model of gravity based on virtual massive gravitons (the ``graviton picture'') which I proposed recently. I conclude that MOND naturally derives from the ``graviton picture'' at least for the case of non-relativistic, highly symmetric dynamical systems. This suggests that -- to first order -- the ``graviton picture'' indeed provides a valid candidate for the physical mechanism behind MOND and gravity on galactic scales in general.

Trippe, Sascha

2013-04-01

206

Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole-Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them.

Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao

2014-09-01

207

Theorems About Derivatives Definition 4.1 (Derivative). The derivative is given by either of the following two  

E-print Network

(a) f(b) Theorem 4.2 (Mean Value Theorem (MVT)). If f is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a of the mean value theorem is as follows: there is at least one point in the interval [a, b] where the slope: September 17, 2011 #12;LESSON 4. THEOREMS ABOUT DERIVATIVES 21 Figure 4.3: Illustration of the Mean Value

Shapiro, Bruce E.

208

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOEpatents

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24

209

Effects of guanidine derivatives on mitochondrial function  

PubMed Central

Long chain free fatty acids interfere with the inhibitory action of phenethylbiguanide and related compounds on mitochondrial respiration in vitro. This interference depends on binding of fatty acids to mitochondria and diminishes with decreasing chain length. Reversal of guanidine-derivative inhibition by fatty acids differs from that caused by dinitrophenol in that the effect of fatty acid is achieved without alteration in coupling or respiratory control. The binding of phenethylbiguanide to mitochondria is inhibited by both fatty acid and dinitrophenol. Serum albumin potentiates the inhibitory potency of guanidine derivatives, probably by removing endogenous mitochondrial free fatty acids. PMID:5676528

Davidoff, Frank

1968-01-01

210

Cyclodextrin derivatives as anti-infectives  

PubMed Central

Cyclodextrin derivatives can be utilized as anti-infectives with pore-forming proteins as the targets. The highly efficient selection of potent inhibitors was achieved because per-substituted cyclodextrins have the same symmetry as the target pores. Inhibitors of several bacterial toxins produced by B. anthracis, S. aureus, C. perfringens, C. botulinum and C. difficile were identified from a library of ~200 CD derivatives. It was demonstrated that multi-targeted inhibitors can be found using this approach and could be utilized for the development of broad-spectrum drugs against various pathogens. PMID:24011515

Karginov, Vladimir A.

2013-01-01

211

62 FR 6044 - Disclosure of Accounting Policies for Derivative Financial Instruments and Derivative Commodity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...17 CFR Part 210, et al. Disclosure of Accounting Policies for Derivative...Derivative Commodity Instruments and Disclosure of Quantitative and Qualitative Information...S7-35-95] RIN 3235-AG42, 3235-AG77 Disclosure of Accounting Policies for...

1997-02-10

212

A Discrete Linear Adaptive Controller with a Linear Quadratic Regulator Derived Proportional Derivative Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a linear adaptive control strategy based on Discrete Disturbance Accommodating Control theory (DAC) has appeared in the literature. This approach permits an entirely linear controller with constant parameters. The adaptive DAC approach is combined with a Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) derived Proportional-Derivative (PD) controller for setpoint control of a simulated Thermal Control System on board the Space Station Freedom (SSF).

Steve Rogers; Haik Biglari

1992-01-01

213

Nonlinear Frechet derivative and its De Wolf approximation  

E-print Network

We introduce and derive the nonlinear Frechet derivative for the acoustic wave equation. It turns out that the high order Frechet derivatives can be realized by consecutive applications of the scattering operator and a ...

Wu, Ru-Shan

2012-01-01

214

21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food...275 Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives identified in this section may be...

2013-04-01

215

14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...

2011-01-01

216

17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 ...Securities Dealers § 240.16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and the...

2011-04-01

217

40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

2010-07-01

218

14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...

2014-01-01

219

40 CFR 721.10368 - Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). 721.10368 Section... § 721.10368 Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as triphenodioxazine derivatives (PMN P-10-84) is subject...

2013-07-01

220

40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

2010-07-01

221

40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

2010-07-01

222

21 CFR 172.275 - Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives.  

...false Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. 172.275 Section 172.275 Food...275 Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives. Synthetic paraffin and succinic derivatives identified in this section may be...

2014-04-01

223

17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...

2010-04-01

224

40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

2011-07-01

225

40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

2013-07-01

226

14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. (a)...

2014-01-01

227

40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

2012-07-01

228

40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721.10330 Section...Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN P-03-722) is subject...

2012-07-01

229

40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

2010-07-01

230

17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...

2012-04-01

231

76 FR 43957 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue...when there is an assignment of certain derivative contracts. The text of those regulations...that the transfer or assignment of a derivative contract in certain situations is...

2011-07-22

232

78 FR 66639 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue...the transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts. The final regulations provide...to the nonassigning counterparty to a derivative contract and an assignee on...

2013-11-06

233

40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

2011-07-01

234

40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

2012-07-01

235

18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...

2012-04-01

236

14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The...

2013-01-01

237

40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

2011-07-01

238

40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721.10330 Section...Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN P-03-722) is subject...

2013-07-01

239

40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317 Section...Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject...

2012-07-01

240

40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

2012-07-01

241

40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...

2012-07-01

242

18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750...Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...

2013-04-01

243

40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

2011-07-01

244

40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

2012-07-01

245

18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...

2011-04-01

246

14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...

2010-01-01

247

18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.  

...2014-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750...Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...

2014-04-01

248

40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

2010-07-01

249

14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...

2013-01-01

250

40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

2011-07-01

251

40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

2013-07-01

252

40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...

2013-07-01

253

18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...

2013-04-01

254

17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 ...Securities Dealers § 240.16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and the...

2012-04-01

255

14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings. 1203.501...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons...

2012-01-01

256

17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...

2013-04-01

257

17 CFR 240.16a-4 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16a-4 ...Securities Dealers § 240.16a-4 Derivative securities. (a) For purposes of section 16 of the Act, both derivative securities and the...

2010-04-01

258

40 CFR 721.10368 - Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). 721.10368 Section... § 721.10368 Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as triphenodioxazine derivatives (PMN P-10-84) is subject...

2012-07-01

259

40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

2012-07-01

260

18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750...Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...

2011-04-01

261

17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.  

...2014-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...

2014-04-01

262

40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

2013-07-01

263

76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...1001-4T Modifications of certain derivative contracts...

2011-08-19

264

18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440...Liabilities § 367.2440 Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. This account...the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not...

2010-04-01

265

40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

2013-07-01

266

14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The...

2010-01-01

267

40 CFR 721.10324 - Thionocarbamate derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Thionocarbamate derivative (generic). 721.10324 Section...Substances § 721.10324 Thionocarbamate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as thionocarbamate derivative (PMN P-03-362) is subject...

2013-07-01

268

14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The...

2012-01-01

269

76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...clearinghouse transfers or assigns a derivative contract to another dealer in...

2011-08-19

270

14 CFR 1203.500 - Use of derivative classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of derivative classification. 1203.500 Section...ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.500 Use of derivative classification. The...

2011-01-01

271

17 CFR 229.1115 - (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. 229.1115 Section 229... § 229.1115 (Item 1115) Certain derivatives instruments. This item relates to derivative instruments, such as interest...

2011-04-01

272

40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

2013-07-01

273

40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic...substance identified generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN...

2010-07-01

274

40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic...substance identified generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN...

2011-07-01

275

Barriers to growth in the US real estate derivatives market  

E-print Network

Commercial real estate is an important asset class but it does not yet have a well-developed derivatives market in the United States. A derivative is a contract that derives its value from an underlying index or asset. ...

Venter, Jani

2007-01-01

276

CYTOPATHOLOGY Computer-Derived Nuclear Features Compared  

E-print Network

Foundation Grant CCR-9322479. of the initial treatment of most breast carcinomas. Many medical and personal 1997 American Cancer Society #12;Breast Carcinoma Prognosis by Computer/Wolberg et al. 173 TABLE 1172 CANCER CYTOPATHOLOGY Computer-Derived Nuclear Features Compared with Axillary Lymph Node Status

Street, Nick

277

Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in…

Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R.

2010-01-01

278

Ecosystem Services Derived from Headwater Catchments  

EPA Science Inventory

We used data from the USEPA?s wadeable streams assessment (WSA), US Forest Service?s forest inventory and analysis (FIA), and select USFS experimental forests (EF) to investigate potential ecosystems services derived from headwater catchments. C, N, and P inputs to these catchmen...

279

Meteorological Products Derived from MSG Imagery  

E-print Network

Meteorological Products Derived from MSG Imagery MPEF and SAFs #12;Slide 2 SEVIRI Instrument June 2005 #12;Slide 3 The MSG MPEF: Meteorological Products Extraction Facility MPEF is part of the Meteorological Products provided by the MSG system The list of products to be extracted from the MSG imagery has

Kuligowski, Bob

280

High speed point derivative microseismic detector  

DOEpatents

A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

Uhl, James Eugene (Albuquerque, NM); Warpinski, Norman Raymond (Albuquerque, NM); Whetten, Ernest Blayne (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

281

High speed point derivative microseismic detector  

DOEpatents

A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

1998-06-30

282

Resorcinol-formaldehyde-derived carbon aerogel films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon aerogels derived from organic sol-gel process and supercritical drying are novel porous materials with interconnect structures and higher electrical conductivity, which are considered to be ideal electrode materials for supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries. The objective of the research was to synthesize carbon aerogel films at ambient conditions. Resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) and carbon aerogel films have been produced with extremely

Jun Shen; Jue Wang; Yanzhi Guo; S. M. Attia; Bin Zhou

2000-01-01

283

Edge Localization by Second Derivative Filters  

E-print Network

of curvature while the linear Laplace filter produces a shift in the opposite direction. Their sum called PLUSD), the Gaussian filter with variable cutoff point (DD), and Tepee filters or a-fold pillball41 Chapter 3 Edge Localization by Second Derivative Filters In our research we study the location

van Vliet, Lucas J.

284

Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

Tylee, J. Louis

1997-01-01

285

Imaging derivative spectroscopy for vegetation dysfunction assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical application of current airborne and future satellite or space station based high spectral resolution (hyperspectral) imagery to vegetative canopies (sparse or dense) and resulting derived bio-physical variables will depend upon our ability to rapidly apply scientifically based algorithms. Key to these rapid assessments is the selection of the best or optimal channels or bands for detection of plant

Charles R. Bostater

1998-01-01

286

Why Is There Money? Endogenous Derivation of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monetary character of trade, the existence of a common medium of exchange, is derived as an outcome of the economic general equilibrium in a class of examples. Two constructs are added to an Arrow-Debreu general equilibrium model: market segmentation with multiple budget constraints (one at each transaction) and transaction costs. The multiplicity of budget constraints creates a demand for

Ross M. Starr

2001-01-01

287

Three new bibenzyl derivatives from Dendrobium nobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new bibenzyl derivatives have been isolated from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (Orchidaceae). Their structures were established as 4,5-dihydroxy-3,3?,?-trimethoxybibenzyl (1), 4,4?-dihydroxy-3,3?,5,?-tetramethoxybibenzyl (2) and 4-hydroxy-3,3?,4?,5,?-pentamethoxybibenzyl (3) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

Xue Zhang; Hao Gao; Nai-Li Wang; Xin-Sheng Yao

2006-01-01

288

Biofuels and bio-products derived from  

E-print Network

NEED Biofuels and bio- products derived from lignocellulosic biomass (plant materials) are part improve the energy and carbon efficiencies of biofuels production from a barrel of biomass using chemical and thermal catalytic mechanisms. The Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels IMPACT

Ginzel, Matthew

289

UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

290

Infrared analysis of peptide succinimide derivatives.  

PubMed

In order to establish parameters to identify imide derivatives formed during in vitro aging of aspartyl-alanyl-containing proteins, a dipeptide and a tetrapeptide containing this sequence were acidified and heated in vacuo. The formation of succinimide derivatives could be confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Hereto, earlier assignments of succinimide vibrations had to be revised. FTIR absorbance spectra of the succinimide, derived from H-Asp-Ala-OH, in the solid state give five bands between 1700 and 1800 cm-1. In this case, owing to Fermi resonance, the anti-symmetric imide carbonyl stretching vibration gives rise to an apparent doublet, centered around 1715 cm-1. The symmetric stretching mode is found at 1793 cm-1. The other bands are assigned to carboxylic acid stretching modes (1728 cm-1; COOH dimer and 1751 cm-1: COOH monomer). Fermi resonance does not occur in succinimide derivatives occurring in larger peptides. As a consequence, the imide bands of the succinimide, generated from H-Val-Asp-Ala-Gly-OH, are observed at 1716 and 1791 cm-1 (anti-symmetric and symmetric stretching modes, respectively). PMID:8307688

Pistorius, A M; Groenen, P J; De Grip, W J

1993-12-01

291

Deriving Production Rules for Incremental View Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

. It is widely recognized that production rules indatabase systems can be used to automatically maintain deriveddata such as views. However, writing a correct set ofrules for efficiently maintaining a given view can be a difficultand ad-hoc process. We provide a facility whereby a userdefines a view as an SQL select expression, from which thesystem automatically derives set-oriented production rulesthat

Stefano Ceri; Jennifer Widom

1991-01-01

292

Derivatives and the Graphs of Functions Microworld  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this Microworld is to experiment with some of the general applications of the derivative to the study of the behavior of functions. This includes their critical behavior, their local extrema, regions of monotonicity (increasing or decreasing), and their inflection points.

White, James

2004-11-01

293

78 FR 76787 - Position Limits for Derivatives  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 15, 17, 19, 32, 37, 38, 140 and 150 RIN 3038-AD99 Position Limits for Derivatives Correction In proposed rule document 2013-27200 appearing on pages 75679 through 75842 in the issue of Thursday,...

2013-12-19

294

Regular-expression derivatives reexamined SCOTT OWENS  

E-print Network

Regular-expression derivatives reexamined SCOTT OWENS University of Cambridge Scott, c, etc., to represent symbols and u, v, w to represent strings. The empty string is denoted operations (Rabin & Scott, 1959)), we refer to them as regular expressions. Adding boolean operations

Strickland, Stevie

295

A Short History of Derivative Security Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contracts for future delivery of commodities spread from Mesopotamia to Hellenistic Egypt and the Roman world. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, contracts for future delivery continued to be used in the Byzantine Empire in the eastern Mediterranean and they survived in canon law in western Europe. It is likely that Sephardic Jews carried derivative trading from Mesopotamia to

Ernst Juerg Weber

2008-01-01

296

Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

2007-01-01

297

Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

298

Paper Chromatography of Nicotinic Acid Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEIFER et al.1 have reported the paper chromatography of nicotinic acid with the use of microbiological assay. While our work was in progress, Huebner2 described a spot test for detection of some pyridine derivatives. The present work describes sensitive qualitative techniques developed in this Laboratory for the detection of tertiary and quaternary pyridinium compounds. The laborious procedure involved in the

E. Kodicek; K. K. Reddi

1951-01-01

299

Four new hemiterpenoid derivatives from Taxillus chinensis.  

PubMed

Four new hemiterpenoid derivatives, taxilluside A-D (1-4), were isolated from the branches and leaves of Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Of these compounds, compounds 3 and 4 showed inhibition activity on Calcium concentration in myocardial cells evaluated by measuring the changes of fluorescence signal using Laser scanning confocal microscope. PMID:23376411

Ding, Bo; Dai, Yi; Hou, Yun-Long; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Xue; Yao, Xin-Sheng

2013-04-01

300

Alternative derivation of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with a straightforward formulation of electromagnetic 'cloaking' that reduces to a boundary value problem involving a single Maxwell first-order differential equation, explicit formulae for the relative permittivity permeability dyadic and fields of spherical and circular cylindrical annular cloaks are derived in terms of general compressed radial coordinate functions. The general formulation is based on the requirements that the cloaking

A. D. Yaghjian; Stefano Maci

2008-01-01

301

A Shuttle Derived Vehicle launch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) launch system presently being studied for the NASA by Martin Marietta Aerospace which capitalizes on existing Shuttle hardware elements to provide increased accommodations for payload weight, payload volume, or both. The SDV configuration utilizes the existing solid rocket boosters, external tank and the Space Shuttle main engines but replaces the manned orbiter

J. R. Tewell; D. N. Buell; E. S. Ewing

1982-01-01

302

DERIVATIONS AND PROJECTIONS ON JORDAN TRIPLES  

E-print Network

DERIVATIONS AND PROJECTIONS ON JORDAN TRIPLES Introduction to non-associative algebra, continuous and differential equations. #12;Pascual Jordan (1902­1980) Pascual Jordan was a German theoretical and mathematical in the Department of Mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is noted for his work with Michael

Russo, Bernard

303

Mathematical Relationships Derived from Biodiesel Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to estimate mathematical relationships derived from biodiesel fuels from various vegetable oils by non-catalytic supercritical methanol and ethanol method. The vegetable oils are all extremely viscous with viscosities ranging from 10 to 20 times greater than petroleum diesel fuel. The aim of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Methyl

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

304

Leading Edge Democracy Derived? New Trajectories  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Commentary Democracy Derived? New Trajectories in Pluripotent Stem Cell Research of stem cell research? Here, coauthorship networks of stem cell research articles and analysis of cell lines used in stem cell research indicate that hiPSCs are not replacing human embryonic stem cells

305

Deriving a Pedagogy of Educational Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sixth and last paper in the series describes four elements believed to be crucial to a high quality pedagogy for educational foundations. These four elements are derived from a close reading of the previous papers. The work of Osguthorpe, Sanger, Haniford, and Mucher, four of the authors in this series, is cited as both a source for these…

Fenstermacher, Gary D.

2007-01-01

306

High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Field Derived.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure for deriving high resolution sea surface temperature field from digital AVHRR/HRPT data is described. For the purpose of reducing the processing time, only the reflective threshold or near infrared channel is used for selecting data over clear...

S. Zhou, W. Chen, L. Zhang

1986-01-01

307

Spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum pyramidatum.  

PubMed

Five spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (1-5) have been isolated from a hexanes extract of the leaves of Hypericum pyramidatum. Pyramidatones A-D (1-3, 5) are new, and chipericumin C (4) has been previously reported. The acylphloroglucinols were characterized based on spectroscopic (NMR, IR, UV-VIS) and mass spectrometric data. PMID:25230504

Force, Rebecca; Chen, Shui Ling; Fortier, Emily; Rowlands, Emily; Heneks, Jean; Rovnyak, David; Henry, Geneive E

2014-07-01

308

Two-point derivative dispersion relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy E and separately at the reference point E = m that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-derivative dispersion relations (DDR). For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms (E/m)?[ln (E/m)]n that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with ? negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.

Ferreira, Erasmo; Sesma, Javier

2013-03-01

309

The Reduction Method for Valuing Derivative Securities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that derivative security valuation often reduces to solving a certain linear partial differential equation with variable coefficients. Wederive a complicated expression which the three coefficients must satisfy in order that this PDE can be transformed into the heat equation. We also present a technique for constructing a triplet of coefficients which solve this expression. We thereby

Peter Carr; Alex Lipton; Dilip Madan

2000-01-01

310

Wave function derivation of the JIMWLK equation  

E-print Network

Using the stationary lightcone perturbation theory, we propose the complete and careful derivation the JIMWLK equation. We show that the rigorous treatment requires the knowledge of a boosted wave function with second order accuracy. Previous wave function approaches are incomplete and implicitly used the time ordered perturbation theory, which requires a usage of an external target field.

Alexey V. Popov

2008-06-19

311

Derivative luminescence spectra in lanthanide analysis  

SciTech Connect

This communication presents the results of derivative spectroscopic study of luminescence of complex compounds of europium and terbium. Solutions of complexes of europium with ethylenediaminetetraacetate, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, dibenzoylmethane, salicylate and 1,10-phenanthroline, and of terbium with phenyl ester of salicyclic acid and nalidixic acid were investigated.

Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Poluektov, N.S.; Tochidlovskaya, T.L.; Kucher, A.A.

1987-06-01

312

Entropy theory for derivation of infiltration equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An entropy theory is formulated for modeling the potential rate of infiltration in unsaturated soils. The theory is composed of six parts: (1) Shannon entropy, (2) principle of maximum entropy (POME), (3) specification of information on infiltration in terms of constraints, (4) maximization of entropy in accordance with POME, (5) derivation of the probability distribution of infiltration, and (6) derivation of infiltration equations. The theory is illustrated with the derivation of six infiltration equations commonly used in hydrology, watershed management, and agricultural irrigation, including Horton, Kostiakov, Philip two-term, Green-Ampt, Overton, and Holtan equations, and the determination of the least biased probability distributions of these infiltration equations and their entropies. The theory leads to the expression of parameters of the derived infiltration equations in terms of measurable quantities (or information), called constraints, and in this sense these equations are rendered nonparametric. Furthermore, parameters of these infiltration equations can be expressed in terms of three measurable quantities: initial infiltration, steady infiltration, and soil moisture retention capacity. Using parameters so obtained, infiltration rates are computed using these six infiltration equations and are compared with field experimental observations reported in the hydrologic literature as well as the rates computed using parameters of these equations obtained by calibration. It is found that infiltration parameter values yielded by the entropy theory are good approximations.

Singh, Vijay P.

2010-03-01

313

Thiol and Thioacetate Derivatives of ?-Cadinene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical thioacetylation of (s?)- i -cadinene 1 afforded 5-acetylthio-cadinene 1a which was further reduced into 5-mercapto-cadinene 1b in good yield (80%). Thioepoxydation of trans -1,10-cadinene oxide 1c , prepared from m -CPBA oxidation of 1 , was also investigated. Structural determination of these derivatives was achieved by one- and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

Karine Candela; Roland Fellous; Daniel Joulain; Robert Faure

2002-01-01

314

Synthesis of hydroxy derivatives of limonene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic routes to mono-, di- and trihydroxy derivatives of limonene are presented. Emphasis is given to the problems of regio- and stereoselectivity of transformations. Data on the isolation from natural sources and on the biological activities of the title compounds are given. The bibliography includes 107 references.

Ardashov, O. V.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

2014-04-01

315

Approximate methods for derivation of covariance data  

SciTech Connect

Several approaches for the derivation of covariance information for evaluated nuclear data files (EFF2 and ENDF/B-VI) have been developed and used at IRK and ORNL respectively. Considerations, governing the choice of a distinct method depending on the quantity and quality of available data are presented, advantages/disadvantages are discussed and examples of results are given.

Tagesen, S. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik; Larson, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-12-31

316

Simple Derivation of the Lindblad Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lindblad equation is an evolution equation for the density matrix in quantum theory. It is the general linear, Markovian, form which ensures that the density matrix is Hermitian, trace 1, positive and completely positive. Some elementary examples of the Lindblad equation are given. The derivation of the Lindblad equation presented here is…

Pearle, Philip

2012-01-01

317

Two Structures for Compositionally Derived Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the phenomenon of event composition: the derivation of asingle event description expressed in one clause from two lexical heads which couldhave been used in the description of independent events, each expressed in a distinctclause. In English, this phenomenon is well attested with respect to sentences whoseverb is found in combination with an XP describing a result not

Beth Levin; Malka Rappaport Hovav

1999-01-01

318

Synthesis and Antidiabetic Evaluation of Benzenesulfonamide Derivatives  

PubMed Central

The complex metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, is a major human health concern in the world and is estimated to affect 300 million people by the year 2025. Several drugs such as sulfonylureas and biguanides are presently available to reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. These drugs have side effects and thus searching for a new class of compounds is essential to overcome this problems. A series of seven novel N-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamides derivatives were synthesized and assayed in-vivo to investigate their antidiabetic activities by streptozotocin-induced model in rat. These derivatives showed considerable biological efficacy when compared to glibenclamide, a potent and well-known antidiabetic agent, as a reference drug. Four of the compounds were effective, amongst which 13 show more prominent activity at 100 mg/Kg p.o. The experimental results are statistically significant at p < 0.05 level. PMID:24250607

Hosseinzadeh, Nouraddin; Seraj, Soodeh; Bakhshi-Dezffoli, Mohamad Ebrahim; Hasani, Mohammad; Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Fallah-Bonekohal, Saeed; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

2013-01-01

319

Hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods used to prepare and purify 19 hydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane are discussed. Of these hydrocarbons, 13 were synthesized for the first time. In addition to the hydrocarbons, six cyclopropylcarbinols, five alkyl cyclopropyl ketones, three cyclopropyl chlorides, and one cyclopropanedicarboxylate were prepared as synthesis intermediates. The melting points, boiling points, refractive indices, densities, and, in some instances, heats of combustion of both the hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon derivatives of cyclopropane were determined. These data and the infrared spectrum of each of the 34 cyclopropane compounds are presented in this report. The infrared absorption bands characteristic of the cyclopropyl ring are discussed, and some observations are made on the contribution of the cyclopropyl ring to the molecular refractions of cyclopropane compounds.

Slabey, Vernon A; Wise, Paul H; Gibbons, Louis C

1953-01-01

320

Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives.  

PubMed

Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. Bacterial degradation has been considered a cost-effective and eco-friendly method of removing CPs from the environment. Several bacteria that use CPs as their sole carbon and energy sources have been isolated and characterized. Additionally, the metabolic pathways for degradation of CPs have been studied in bacteria and the genes and enzymes involved in the degradation of various CPs have been identified and characterized. This review describes the biochemical and genetic basis of the degradation of CPs and their derivatives. PMID:24589366

Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

2014-01-01

321

Antitumor Activity of Bis-Indole Derivatives  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the synthesis of compounds formed by two indole systems separated by a heterocycle (pyridine or piperazine). As a primary screening, the new compounds were submitted to the National Cancer Institute for evaluation of antitumor activity in the human cell line screen. The pyridine derivatives were far more active than the piperazine derivatives. For the study of the mechanism of action, the most active compounds were subjected to COMPARE analysis and to further biological tests including proteasome inhibition and inhibition of plasma membrane electron transport. The compound bearing the 5-methoxy-2-indolinone moiety was subjected to the first in vivo experiment (hollow fiber assay) and was active. It was therefore selected for the second in vivo experiment (human tumor xenograft in mice). In conclusion we demonstrated that this approach was successful since some of the compounds described are much more active than the numerous, so far prepared and tested 3-indolylmethylene-2-indolinones. PMID:18598018

Andreani, Aldo; Burnelli, Silvia; Granaiola, Massimiliano; Leoni, Alberto; Locatelli, Alessandra; Morigi, Rita; Rambaldi, Mirella; Varoli, Lucilla; Landi, Laura; Prata, Cecilia; Berridge, Michael V.; Grasso, Carole; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert; Kelter, Gerhard; Burger, Angelika M.; Kunkel, Mark W.

2009-01-01

322

Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives  

PubMed Central

Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. Bacterial degradation has been considered a cost-effective and eco-friendly method of removing CPs from the environment. Several bacteria that use CPs as their sole carbon and energy sources have been isolated and characterized. Additionally, the metabolic pathways for degradation of CPs have been studied in bacteria and the genes and enzymes involved in the degradation of various CPs have been identified and characterized. This review describes the biochemical and genetic basis of the degradation of CPs and their derivatives. PMID:24589366

2014-01-01

323

Penetratin and derivatives acting as antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and conformational study of penetratin and structurally related derivatives acting as antibacterial agents are reported. Among the compounds evaluated here, two methionine sulphoxide derivatives (RQIKIWFQNRRM[O]KWKK-NH2 and RQIKIFFQNRRM[O]KFKK-NH2 ) exhibited the strongest antibacterial effect in this series. In order to better understand the antimicrobial activity obtained for these peptides, we performed an exhaustive conformational analysis using different approaches. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed using two different media (water and trifluoroethanol/water). The results of these theoretical calculations were corroborated using experimental CD measurements. The electronic study for these peptides was carried out using molecular electrostatic potentials obtained from RHF/6-31G(d) calculations. In addition, the non-apeptide RQIRRWWQR-NH2 showed strong inhibitory action against the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested in this study. PMID:23581817

Garro, Adriana D; Olivella, Mónica S; Bombasaro, José A; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela; Perczel, Andras; Somlai, Csaba; Penke, Botond; López Cascales, Javier; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

2013-08-01

324

Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives  

PubMed Central

The formazan derivatives (FM1–FM5) were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 ?g/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P<0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus. PMID:22247879

Mariappan, Gurusamy; Korim, Rejaul; Joshi, Nand Madhwa; Alam, Faruk; Hazarika, Rajib; Kumar, Deepak; Uriah, Tiewlasubon

2010-01-01

325

A derivative standard for polarimeter calibration  

SciTech Connect

A long-standing problem in polarized electron physics is the lack of a traceable standard for calibrating electron spin polarimeters. While several polarimeters are absolutely calibrated to better than 2%, the typical instrument has an inherent accuracy no better than 10%. This variability among polarimeters makes it difficult to compare advances in polarized electron sources between laboratories. The authors have undertaken an effort to establish 100 nm thick molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs(110) as a material which may be used as a derivative standard for calibrating systems possessing a solid state polarized electron source. The near-bandgap spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from this material has been characterized for a variety of conditions and several laboratories which possess well calibrated polarimeters have measured the photoelectron polarization of cathodes cut from a common wafer. Despite instrumentation differences, the spread in the measurements is sufficiently small that this material may be used as a derivative calibration standard.

Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Saez, P. [and others

1996-10-01

326

Antioxidant properties of 3-hydroxycoumarin derivatives.  

PubMed

A series of hydroxylated 3-hydroxycoumarins was synthesised by the reaction of 3-aryl-2-hydroxypropenoic derivatives with boron tribromide. They were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical and the peroxynitrite anion and to inhibit copper-induced human LDL peroxidation. The physicochemical results were in accordance to establish the compounds hydroxylated on C-6 and C-7 positions as the most active of the series with antioxidant potencies comparable to those of quercetin and vitamin C. These compounds form o- and p-quinonoid derivatives upon radical scavenging and may serve as new lead compounds for pharmacological investigations. PMID:15465339

Bailly, Fabrice; Maurin, Cédric; Teissier, Elisabeth; Vezin, Hervé; Cotelle, Philippe

2004-11-01

327

Canonical structure of higher derivative theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The canonical structure of theories whose Lagrangian contains higher powers of time derivatives is often obscured by the nonlinear relationship between the velocities and momenta. We use the Dirac formalism and define a generalized Legendre transform to overcome some of the difficulties associated with inverting the relation between velocities and momenta. We are then able to define a standard single valued symplectic structure on phase space and a compatible single valued Hamiltonian. We demonstrate the application of our formalism in several examples.

Avraham, Eran; Brustein, Ram

2014-07-01

328

Loss of derivatives in evolution Cauchy problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study relations between modulus of continuity of the coefficients and loss of derivatives in the Cauchy problem for evolution\\u000a operators with real characteristics in the Petrovsky sense. We also provide counterexamples to show that the obtained classification\\u000a is sharp.\\u000a \\u000a Keywords: Cauchy problem, Evolution equations, Loss of regularity of the solution

Massimo Cicognani; Ferruccio Colombini

2006-01-01

329

Bibenzyl derivatives from the orchid Dendrobium amoenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinvestigation of the orchid Dendrobium amoenum afforded two new bibenzyl derivatives, amoenylin and isoamoenylin, and their known structural analogues, 3,4?-dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl and 4,4?-dihydroxy-3,3?,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (moscatilin), besides the sesquiterpenoids, amotin, amoenin and flaccidin reported earlier from this orchid. The structures of amoenylin and isoamoenylin were established as 4-hydroxy-3,4?,5-trimethoxybibenzyl and 3?-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxybibenzyl, respectively, mainly from spectral evidence.

P. L Majumder; S. Guha; S. Sen

1999-01-01

330

Antioxidant properties of 3-hydroxycoumarin derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of hydroxylated 3-hydroxycoumarins was synthesised by the reaction of 3-aryl-2-hydroxypropenoic derivatives with boron tribromide. They were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical and the peroxynitrite anion and to inhibit copper-induced human LDL peroxidation. The physicochemical results were in accordance to establish the compounds hydroxylated on C-6 and C-7

Fabrice Bailly; Cédric Maurin; Elisabeth Teissier; Hervé Vezin; Philippe Cotelle

2004-01-01

331

A note on Lie Lorentz derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of ``Lie derivative'' of spinors with respect to Killing\\u000avectors is extended to all kinds of Lorentz tensors. This Lie-Lorentz\\u000aderivative appears naturally in the commutator of two supersymmetry\\u000atransformations generated by Killing spinors and vanishes for Vielbeins. It can\\u000abe identified as the generator of the action of isometries on supergravity\\u000afields and its use for the

2002-01-01

332

Rosmarinic acid derivatives from Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagerinic acid, a novel cyclobutane and salvianolic acid K, derived from rosmarinic acid,were isolated together with the parent compound from polar solvent extracts of Salvia officinalis.Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and, for sagerinic acid, the stereochemistry ofthe substituents on the cyclobutane moiety was established as 3?,4a-diaryl-1a,2?-dicarboxylicacid diester (m-truxinate form).

Yinrong Lu; L. Yeap Foo

1999-01-01

333

Eosinophil Secretion of Granule-Derived Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration, and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here, we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines. PMID:25386174

Spencer, Lisa A.; Bonjour, Kennedy; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Weller, Peter F.

2014-01-01

334

Deriving test plans from architectural descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an approach to derive test plansfor the conformance testing of a system implementationwith respect to the formal description of its SoftwareArchitecture (SA). The SA describes a system in termsof its components and connections, therefore the derivedtest plans address the integration testing phase.We base our approach on a Labelled Transition System(LTS) modeling the SA dynamics, and on suitable

Antonia Bertolino; Flavio Corradini; Henry Muccini

2000-01-01

335

Global impact of mutation-derived varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past seventy years, worldwide more than 2250 varieties have been released that have been derived either as direct\\u000a mutants or from their progenies. Induction of mutations with radiation has been the most frequently used method for directly\\u000a developed mutant varieties. The prime strategy in mutation-based breeding has been to upgrade the well-adapted plant varieties\\u000a by altering one or

B. S. Ahloowalia; M. Maluszynski; K. Nichterlein

2004-01-01

336

KPZ formula derived from Liouville heat kernel  

E-print Network

In this paper, we establish the Knizhnik--Polyakov--Zamolodchikov (KPZ) formula of Liouville quantum gravity, using the heat kernel of Liouville Brownian motion. This derivation of the KPZ formula was first suggested by F. David and M. Bauer in order to get a geometrically more intrinsic way of measuring the dimension of sets in Liouville quantum gravity. We also provide a careful study of the (no)-doubling behaviour of the Liouville measures in the appendix, which is of independent interest.

Nathanaël Berestycki; Christophe Garban; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas

2014-06-27

337

Dissolution of Human Teeth-Derived Hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been interested in human teeth which consist of hydroxyapatite (HA), but do not degrade for a long time. In order\\u000a to overcome dissolution and mechanical degradation of man-made HA, biologically derived hydroxyapatite (BHA) ceramics were\\u000a prepared from human teeth and their dissolving behavior was investigated in distilled water for 3–14 days and compared with\\u000a an artificial HA made of

Dong Seok Seo; Jong Kook Lee

2008-01-01

338

Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates  

DOEpatents

A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n, m, R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2 and L are defined in the specification.

Troutner, David E. (Phoenixville, PA); John, Christy S. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pillai, Maroor R. A. (Vashi, IN)

1995-01-01

339

Rare-earth diiodides and derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare-earth diiodides, MI2, may be synthesized from the corresponding triiodides, MI3, by reduction with their metals at elevated temperatures or, alternatively, through so-called metallothermic reduction reactions with alkaline or alkaline-earth metals. In these cases, ternary iodides may be obtained that may be derived from the binary diiodides by either formal addition or substitution. Prominent formula types that are thus

Gerd Meyer; Niels Gerlitzki; Stefanie Hammerich

2004-01-01

340

A pyrazole derivative of curcumin enhances memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced cognitive function is associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases as well as brain trauma and ischemia. However, there are few compounds that enhance memory and are also orally active. We recently synthesized a pyrazole derivative of curcumin called CNB-001 that enhances the activity of Ca2+\\/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Since CaMKII plays a central role in long-term potentiation

Pamela Maher; Tatsuhiro Akaishi; David Schubert; Kazuho Abe

2010-01-01

341

Hepatoprotective pyrrole derivatives of Lycium chinense fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our search for hepatoprotective compounds from Lycium chinense fruits, three new pyrrole derivatives (1–3) were isolated. These compounds and a related synthetic methylated compound (4) were evaluated for their biological activity and structure–activity relationship, and compounds 1 and 2 showed hepatoprotective effects comparable to silybin at the concentration of 0.1 ?M (64.4 and 65.8%, respectively).

Young-Won Chin; Song Won Lim; Seok-Ho Kim; Dong-Yun Shin; Young-Ger Suh; Yang-Bae Kim; Young Choong Kim; Jinwoong Kim

2003-01-01

342

Characterization Of Benzoporphyrin Derivative, A New Photosensitizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD), synthesized from protoporphyrin and involving the formation of Diels-Alder adducts, contains four components, mono and di-acid derivatives of either ring A or ring B fused porphyrins. These compounds have been isolated and tested individually as photosensitizers both in vitro and in vivo. All forms of BPD are potent photosensiters in vitro and have a strong absorption peak at about 690 nm. 3H-BPDs were tested for biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. Distribution appeared to be similar to distribution data published by others for dihematoporphyrin ethers, with the exception that levels in skin were lower for BPD. Extraction of 3H-BPD from tissue, followed by in vitro testing of extracts for photosensitizing activity, indicated that BPD is aTly degraded in vivo. When BPDs were compared to Photofrin II for causing skin photosensitivity following intravenous administration, it was found that monoacid derivatives caused photosensitivity at 3 hours but not after 24 hours. The diacid forms did not cause appreciable skin photosensitivity even at 3 hours. Photodynamic therapy of tumors in mice with BPD showed that these compounds had comparable efficacy to Photofrin II under the experimental conditions used here.

Richter, Anna; Sternberg, Ethan; Waterfield, Elizabeth; Dolphin, David; Levy, Julia G.

1989-03-01

343

Novel isoquinoline derivatives as antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

The wide variety of potent biological activities of natural and synthetic isoquinoline alkaloids encouraged us to develop novel antimicrobial isoquinoline compounds. We synthesized a variety of differently functionalized 1-pentyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs), including dihydroisoquinolinium salts (2 and 5), methyl pentanoate-THIQ (6), 1-pentanol-THIQ (7), ester derivatives (8-15) and carbamate derivatives (16-23). We employed classic intramolecular Bischler-Napieralski cyclodehydration to generate the isoquinoline core. All the structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bactericide and fungicide activities were evaluated for all the synthesized compounds and structure-activity relationships were established. Many compounds exhibited high and broad-range bactericidal activity. Fluorophenylpropanoate ester 13 and the halogenated phenyl- (17, 18) and phenethyl carbamates (21, 22) exerted the most remarkable bactericidal activity. However, few compounds displayed antifungal activity against most of the fungi tested. Among them, chlorinated derivatives like chlorobenzoate and chlorophenylpropanoate esters (10 and 14, respectively) and chlorophenethyl carbamate 22, exhibited the greatest antifungal activity. PMID:23601815

Galán, Abraham; Moreno, Laura; Párraga, Javier; Serrano, Ángel; Sanz, Ma Jesús; Cortes, Diego; Cabedo, Nuria

2013-06-01

344

Endplate channel block by guanidine derivatives  

PubMed Central

The effects of the n-alkyl derivatives of guanidine on the frog neuromuscular junction were studied using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp and other electrophysiological techniques. Methyl-, ethyl- , and propylguanidine stimulated the nerve-evoked release of transmitter. However, amyl-and octylguanidine had no apparent presynaptic action. All of the derivatives blocked the postsynaptic response to acetylcholine, the potency sequence being octyl-greater than amyl-greater than propyl-, methyl-greater than ethylguanidine. Methyl- and octylguanidine did not protect the receptor from alpha- bungarotoxin block, suggesting that these compounds do not bind to the receptor but probably block the ionic channel. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propylguanidine shortened inward endplate currents but prolonged outward currents. Amylguanidine prolonged both inward and outward endplate currents, and the currents became biphasic at negative membrane potentials. Octylguanidine increased the rate of decay of endplate currents at all potentials. All of the derivatives blocked inward endplate currents more markedly than outward currents, resulting in a highly nonlinear current-voltage relation. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propylguanidine reversed the voltage dependence of endplate current decay, while amyl-and octylguanidine reduced the voltage dependence of endplate current decay. Octylguanidine appears to block the ionic channel in both the open and the closed state. The block of the open channel follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with a forward rate constant of 4-6 X 10(7) M-1 s-1. PMID:6973006

1981-01-01

345

Endplate channel block by guanidine derivatives.  

PubMed

The effects of the n-alkyl derivatives of guanidine on the frog neuromuscular junction were studied using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp and other electrophysiological techniques. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propylguanidine stimulated the nerve-evoked release of transmitter. However, amyl-and octylguanidine had no apparent presynaptic action. All of the derivatives blocked the postsynaptic response to acetylcholine, the potency sequence being octyl-greater than amyl-greater than propyl-, methyl-greater than ethylguanidine. Methyl- and octylguanidine did not protect the receptor from alpha-bungarotoxin block, suggesting that these compounds do not bind to the receptor but probably block the ionic channel. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propylguanidine shortened inward endplate currents but prolonged outward currents. Amylguanidine prolonged both inward and outward endplate currents, and the currents became biphasic at negative membrane potentials. Octylguanidine increased the rate of decay of endplate currents at all potentials. All of the derivatives blocked inward endplate currents more markedly than outward currents, resulting in a highly nonlinear current-voltage relation. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propylguanidine reversed the voltage dependence of endplate current decay, while amyl-and octylguanidine reduced the voltage dependence of endplate current decay. Octylguanidine appears to block the ionic channel in both the open and the closed state. The block of the open channel follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with a forward rate constant of 4-6 X 10(7) M-1 s-1. PMID:6973006

Farley, J M; Yeh, J Z; Watanabe, S; Narahashi, T

1981-03-01

346

Perturbative unitarity of Higgs derivative interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the perturbative unitarity bound given by dimension six derivative interactions consisting of Higgs doublets. These interactions emerge from kinetic terms of composite Higgs models or integrating out heavy particles that interact with Higgs doublets. They lead to new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. One of characteristic contributions from derivative interactions appear in vector boson scattering processes. Longitudinal modes of massive vector bosons can be regarded as Nambu Goldstone bosons eaten by each vector field. Since their effects become larger and larger as the collision energy of vector bosons increases, vector boson scattering processes become important in the high energy region around the TeV scale. On the other hand, in such a high energy region, we have to take into account the unitarity of amplitudes. We have obtained the unitarity condition in terms of the parameter included in the effective Lagrangian for one Higgs doublet models. Applying it to some models, we have found that contributions of derivative interactions are not so large enough to clearly discriminate them from the Standard Model ones. We also study the unitarity bound in two Higgs doublet models. Because they are too complex to obtain it in the general effective Lagrangian, we have calculated it in explicit models. These analyses tell that the perturbative unitarity bounds are highly model dependent.

Kikuta, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

2013-05-01

347

Affinity of guanosine derivatives for polycytidylate revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is presented for complexation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with polycytidylate (poly(C)) at pH 8.0 and 23 degrees C in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl2 and 0.2 M MgCl2 in water. The association of 2-MeImpG with poly(C) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as by monitoring the kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the imidazole moiety by amines. The results of both methods are consistent with moderately strong poly(C) 2-MeImpG complexation and the spectrophotometric measurements allowed the construction of a binding isotherm with a concentration of 2-MeImpG equal to 5.55 +/- 0.15 mM at half occupancy. UV spectroscopy was employed to establish the binding of other guanosine derivatives on poly(C). These derivatives are guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'GMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), and guanosine 5'-monophosphate morpholidate (morpG). Within experimental error these guanosine derivatives exhibit the same affinity for poly(C) as 2-MeImpG.

Kanavarioti, A.; Hurley, T. B.; Baird, E. E.

1995-01-01

348

Antithyroid effects of coal-derived pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Endemic goiter in iodide-sufficient areas of the United States and Colombia has been linked to watersheds rich in coal and shale, which several reports suggest are the source of water-borne goitrogens. In this report the potential antithyroid activities of aqueous coal and shale extracts and of compounds identified in aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes were assayed in thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroid slice systems. Aqueous extracts of coal and black shale were potent inhibitors of TPO or [sup 125]I organification by thyroid slices. The most abundant water-soluble compounds derived from coal are dihydroxyphenols, thiocyanate, disulfides, and hydroxypyridines. The dihydroxyphenols resorcinol, 2-methylresorcinol, and 5-methylresorcinol (orcinol) were 26.7, 22.5, and 7.2 times more potent, respectively, than the antithyroid drug 6-propylthiouracil (PTU). Other dihydroxyphenols and thiocyanate were less potent but comparable in activity to PTU. All dihydroxypridines and 3-hydroxypridine produced inhibitory effects comparable to PTU. None of the disulfides inhibited TPO. The antiperoxidase effects of combinations of two dihydroxyphenols or one dihydroxyphenol and SCN were additive, whereas the effects of a combination of four dihydroxyphenols at threshold inhibitory concentrations were synergistic. Thus, antithyroid effects may be greatly amplified by exposure to multiple coal-derived goitrogens and could be many times that produced by any one of the contributing pollutants. These results demonstrate that potent water-borne goitrogens are derived from coal and shale and that their contamination of water supplies could pose a serious threat of thyroid disorders.

Lindsay, R.H.; Hill, J.B. (Univ. of Alabama Medical School, Birmingham (United States)); Gaitan, E.; Cooksey, R.C. (Univ. of Mississippi, Jackson (United States)); Jolley, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-12-01

349

Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.

Tan, Abby

2006-10-01

350

Neutrophil-Derived Cytokines: Facts Beyond Expression  

PubMed Central

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, besides their involvement in primary defense against infections – mainly through phagocytosis, generation of toxic molecules, release of enzymes, and formation of extracellular traps – are also becoming increasingly important for their contribution to the fine regulation in development of inflammatory and immune responses. These latter functions of neutrophils occur, in part, via their de novo production and release of a large variety of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines (chemokines). Accordingly, the improvement in technologies for molecular and functional cell analysis, along with concomitant advances in cell purification techniques, have allowed the identification of a continuously growing list of neutrophil-derived cytokines, as well as the characterization of their biological implications in vitro and/or in vivo. This short review summarizes crucial concepts regarding the modalities of expression, release, and regulation of neutrophil-derived cytokines. It also highlights examples illustrating the potential implications of neutrophil-derived cytokines according to recent observations made in humans and/or in experimental animal models. PMID:25374568

Tecchio, Cristina; Micheletti, Alessandra; Cassatella, Marco A.

2014-01-01

351

Fractional Derivative Reconstruction of Forced Oscillators University of Maryland  

E-print Network

Fractional Derivative Reconstruction of Forced Oscillators G. Lin University of Maryland Department of Mechanical Engineering East Lansing, MI 48824 USA Abstract Fractional derivatives are applied. The fractional derivatives of time series data are obtained in the frequency domain. The derivative fraction

Feeny, Brian

352

Pruning Derivative Partial Rules During Impact Rule Discovery  

E-print Network

Pruning Derivative Partial Rules During Impact Rule Discovery Shiying Huang and Geoffrey I. Webb with regard to its ancestors. We call such insignificant rules derivative extended rules. In this paper, we argue that there is another type of derivative exploratory rules, which is derivative with regard

Webb, Geoff

353

Stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate in  

E-print Network

Stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate in living mice Neurons derived from stem cells that, after transplantation into living animals, human stem cell-derived neurons can receive neuronal human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons engineered to be specifically activated by light

Fortuna, Miguel A.

354

The mutagenicities of seven coumarin derivatives and a furan derivative (nimbolide) isolated from three medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven coumarin derivatives (imperatorin, heraclenin, xanthotoxin, marmesin, chelepin, oxypeucedanin, esculin) and a furan derivative (nimbolide) were screened on 6 Ames tester strains (TA92, TA94, TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102). The eight compounds are chemicals isolated from three Nigerian medicinal plants: Afraegle paniculata, Clausena anisata, and Azadirachta indica. Different preparations of the former are taken by Nigerians for gut disturbances, and a

Anthony O. Uwaifo

1984-01-01

355

Higher Derivative Correction to the Hawking Flux via Trace Anomaly  

E-print Network

In this paper we derive Hawking radiation of black holes with higher derivative corrections by the method of trace anomaly. Firstly we derive Hawking radiation for general spherical black holes. We introduce a modified tortoise coordinate to it and find the analyticity of the coordinate. Secondly we apply its method to a black hole with a higher derivative correction and derive the Hawking radiation of it. We found that as an ordinary case the flux depends only on the surface gravity.

Akihide Shirasaka; Tomoyoshi Hirata

2008-04-11

356

Vibrational Relaxation in Several Derivatives of Benzene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustical spectroscopy at frequencies up to 10 GHz gives the possibility of the investigation of liquid substances, where the relaxation process observed is caused by energy transfer between translational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The compounds presented in this article belong to this group of liquids. The acoustic investigations in the group of benzene derivatives, particularly research of the dependencies of acoustic parameters and the structure of organic liquids, demonstrated some interesting regularities in the group of these compounds in gas and liquid states. In this article, the results of research on five cyclic liquids: bromo-, chloro-, fluoro-, iodo-, and nitrobenzene as well as toluene and aniline are discussed and compared to benzene. The acoustic relaxation observed in all these compounds was found to result from Kneser's processes (vibrational relaxation). Based on investigations reported in this article, as well as by other authors, and taking into account experimental and literature data concerning a great number of compounds, one can draw a conclusion that almost all acoustic relaxation (Kneser-type) processes in liquids can be described using a single relaxation time. It also seems that all vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecule take part in this process. It is known that the appearance of differences in transition probabilities could be caused by additional attraction in interactions of molecules having dipole moments. Halogen derivatives have higher values of dipole moments than benzene. This difference could be responsible for the difference of transition probabilities and changes in the relaxation times. However, benzene derivatives with amino, nitro, and methyl groups and halides show the other type of relaxation.

Linde, Bogumi? B. J.; Skrodzka, Ewa B.; Lezhnev, Niko?aj B.

2012-04-01

357

Ionic rhenocene derivatives with antitumor activity.  

PubMed

The antitumor activity of the three air-stable bis(cyclopentadienyl)rhenium derivatives [(C5H5)2-ReCl2]+Cl-,[(C5H5)2ReCl2]+[AsF6]- , and [(C5H5)2-ReCl2]+[SbF6]- was tested against Ehrlich ascites tumor in female CF1 mice. All three compounds contain the group-7 transition metal rhenium in the +5 oxidation state as their central metal atom. They are ionic, salt-like complexes that are composed of the cationic [(C5H5)2ReCl2]+ moiety and one of the negatively charged counterions Cl-, AsF6-, or SbF6-. Both the chloro and the hexafluoroarsenate complexes induced a maximal cure rate of 100% when given either in a dose range of 120-160 mg/kg (rhenocene trichloride) or at a single dose of 180 mg/kg (hexafluoroarsenate derivative). The hexafluoroantimonate complex effected a maximal cure rate of only 50% at 60 mg/kg. For the two former compounds, the values for the therapeutic index (TI) amounted to 1.7 and 2.1, respectively. No impairment of the general condition or pathologic symptoms in the viscera could be detected by observation of the animals during the days following treatment with therapeutic doses or by autopsy of the surviving animals on the key date (day 90). The rhenocene derivatives investigated in the present study represent a new class of antitumor metallocene compounds as well as the first rhenium(V) complexes exerting cytostatic activity. PMID:1551174

Köpf-Maier, P; Klapötke, T

1992-01-01

358

Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.  

PubMed

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

359

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

360

On the derivative discontinuity in molecular junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the wave and particle aspects of the electron play essential roles in transport through single-molecule junctions. The wave character is implicit both in the Landauer formula used to understand nanoscale transport and in the very chemical bonds holding the junction together, while the particle aspect is manifested in phenomena such as Coulomb blockade and shot noise. The dominant computational paradigm for transport in single-molecule junctions involves local or semilocal approximations to density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green's functions. This approach does exceptionally well at describing the wave aspect of the electron, but fails to describe the particle aspect---due to the omission of the derivative discontinuity in the exchange-correlation potential that arises in the limit of vanishing lead-molecule coupling. To understand the role of the derivative discontinuity in molecular junctions, we investigated the transport and occupancy of a simple Anderson model of a molecular junction. We showedootnotetextJustin P. Bergfield, Zhenfei Liu, Kieron Burke, Charles A. Stafford, arXiv:1106.3104v2 that the exact single-particle Kohn-Sham potential of density functional theory reproduces the linear-response transport of the Anderson model exactly, despite the lack of a Kondo peak in its spectral function. Using Bethe ansatz techniques, we calculated this potential exactly for all coupling strengths, including the cross-over from mean-field behavior to charge quantization caused by the derivative discontinuity. The implications of our results for more complex molecular junctions will be discussed.

Stafford, Charles

2012-02-01

361

Enhanced cubic optical nonlinearity of oligoazine derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a large positive third-order optical nonlinearity of synthesized oligoazine derivatives (OADs) using z-scan technique at 532 nm by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Optical band gap of OADs shrinks with increasing repeated units. Origin of large cubic nonlinearity is in the extensive ?-electron delocalization. We obtained the values of and in OADs. Moreover, values of optical nonlinearity of OADs show reasonable agreement with the theoretically predicted values. We have shown OADs could be used as good reverse saturable absorber and self-focusing materials. Optical limiting, due to reverse saturable absorption, has also been successfully demonstrated at 532 nm.

Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen; Malik, Rajesh Kumar

2014-06-01

362

Exact cosmological solutions with nonminimal derivative coupling  

SciTech Connect

We consider a gravitational theory of a scalar field {phi} with nonminimal derivative coupling to curvature. The coupling terms have the form {kappa}{sub 1}R{phi}{sub ,{mu}}{phi}{sup ,{mu}} and {kappa}{sub 2}R{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{phi}{sup ,{mu}}{phi}{sup ,{nu}}, where {kappa}{sub 1} and {kappa}{sub 2} are coupling parameters with dimensions of length squared. In general, field equations of the theory contain third derivatives of g{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} and {phi}. However, in the case -2{kappa}{sub 1}={kappa}{sub 2}{identical_to}{kappa}, the derivative coupling term reads {kappa}G{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{phi}{sup ,{mu}}{phi}{sup ,{nu}} and the order of corresponding field equations is reduced up to second one. Assuming -2{kappa}{sub 1}={kappa}{sub 2}, we study the spatially-flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker model with a scale factor a(t) and find new exact cosmological solutions. It is shown that properties of the model at early stages crucially depend on the sign of {kappa}. For negative {kappa}, the model has an initial cosmological singularity, i.e., a(t){approx}(t-t{sub i}){sup 2/3} in the limit t{yields}t{sub i}; and for positive {kappa}, the Universe at early stages has the quasi-de Sitter behavior, i.e., a(t){approx}e{sup Ht} in the limit t{yields}-{infinity}, where H=(3{radical}({kappa})){sup -1}. The corresponding scalar field {phi} is exponentially growing at t{yields}-{infinity}, i.e., {phi}(t){approx}e{sup -t/{radical}}{sup ({kappa})}. At late stages, the Universe evolution does not depend on {kappa} at all; namely, for any {kappa} one has a(t){approx}t{sup 1/3} at t{yields}{infinity}. Summarizing, we conclude that a cosmological model with nonminimal derivative coupling of the form {kappa}G{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{phi}{sup ,{mu}}{phi}{sup ,{nu}} is able to explain in a unique manner both a quasi-de Sitter phase and an exit from it without any fine-tuned potential.

Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Kazan State University, Kremlevskaya Str. 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation) and Department of Mathematics, Tatar State University of Humanities and Education, Tatarstan Str. 2, Kazan 420021 (Russian Federation)

2009-11-15

363

Cytotoxic apigenin derivatives from Chrysopogon aciculatis.  

PubMed

Four new apigenin derivatives, 7-de-O-methylaciculatin, 8-C-?-D-boivinopyranosylapigenin, aciculatinone, and 4'-O-glucosylaciculatin, along with eight known compounds, apigenin-8-carbaldehyde, kaempferol, tricin, taxifolin, 6,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone, trans-oxyresveratrol, aciculatin, and luteolin-7-sulfate, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of Chrysopogon aciculatis. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among the known compounds, the natural occurrence of apigenin-8-carbaldehyde and luteolin-7-sulfate is demonstrated for the first time. Some of the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines including MCF-7, H460, HT-29, and CEM. PMID:22272829

Shen, Chien-Chang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lay, Horng-Liang; Wu, Szu-Yuan; Ni, Ching-Li; Teng, Che-Ming; Chen, Chien-Chih

2012-02-24

364

Proca equations derived from first principles  

E-print Network

Gersten has shown how Maxwell equations can be derived from first principles, similar to those which have been used to obtain the Dirac relativistic electron equation. We show how Proca equations can be also deduced from first principles, similar to those which have been used to find Dirac and Maxwell equations. Contrary to Maxwell equations, it is necessary to introduce a potential in order to transform a second order differential equation, as the Klein-Gordon equation, into a first order differential equation, like Proca equations.

Michel Gondran

2009-01-21

365

Eight new bibenzyl derivatives from Dendrobium candidum.  

PubMed

Eight bibenzyl derivatives, namely dendrocandins J-Q (1-8), were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium candidum. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-8 were examined for antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay, and the IC50 values were 36.8, 70.2, 45.0, 60.5, 87.6, 50.4, 22.3, and 30.3 ?M, respectively. PMID:25355458

Li, Yan; Wang, Chun-Lan; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Guo, Shun-Xing

2014-11-01

366

Benchmarking derivative-free optimization algorithms.  

SciTech Connect

We propose data profiles as a tool for analyzing the performance of derivative-free optimization solvers when there are constraints on the computational budget. We use performance and data profiles, together with a convergence test that measures the decrease in function value, to analyze the performance of three solvers on sets of smooth, noisy, and piecewise-smooth problems. Our results provide estimates for the performance difference between these solvers, and show that on these problems, the model-based solver tested performs better than the two direct search solvers tested.

More', J. J.; Wild, S. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Cornell Univ.

2009-01-01

367

Quantum derivation of Manley Rowe type relations  

E-print Network

The Ermakov Lewis quantum invariant for the time dependent harmonic oscillator is expressed in terms of number and phase operators. The identification of these variables is made in accordance with the correspondence principle and the amplitude and phase representation of the classical orthogonal functions invariant. The relationship between the number and phase operators is established through this invariant as the system evolves from one frequency to another. In the specific case where the excitations represent the photon number, these relations are equivalent to the power density transport equations derived in nonlinear optical processes.

M. Fernández Guasti; H. Moya-Cessa

2013-09-05

368

Antibacterial anthranilic acid derivatives from Geijera parviflora.  

PubMed

Five anthranilic acid derivatives, a mixture I of three new compounds 11'-hexadecenoylanthranilic acid (1), 9'-hexadecenoylanthranilic acid (2), and 7'-hexadecenoylanthranilic acid (3), as well as a new compound 9,12,15-octadecatrienoylanthranilic acid (4) together with a new natural product, hexadecanoylanthranilic acid (5), were isolated from Geijera parviflora Lindl. (Rutaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic measurements, and the positions of the double bonds in compounds 1-3 of the mixture I were determined by tandem mass spectrometry employing ozone-induced dissociation. The mixture I and compound 5 showed good antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive strains. PMID:24370663

Shou, Qingyao; Banbury, Linda K; Maccarone, Alan T; Renshaw, Dane E; Mon, Htwe; Griesser, Stefani; Griesser, Hans J; Blanksby, Stephen J; Smith, Joshua E; Wohlmuth, Hans

2014-03-01

369

Synthesis and Biological Activities of 4-Aminoantipyrine Derivatives Derived from Betti-Type Reaction  

PubMed Central

The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from a three-component Betti reaction. The synthesis was initiated by the condensation of aromatic aldehyde, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline in presence of fluorite as catalyst in a simple one-step protocol. The reactions were stirred at room temperature for 10–15?min achieving 92–95% yield. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of spectroscopic and elemental analysis. All derivatives 4(a–h) were screened in vivo and in vitro for anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activity against a reference drug, Diclofenac and Albendazole, respectively. The screening results show that compounds 4c, 4d, 4f, and 4h were found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity while compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, and 4g are potent anthelmintic agents when compared with reference drugs, respectively. The bioactivity of these derivatives has also been evaluated with respect to Lipinski's rule of five using molinspiration cheminformatics software. PMID:24955256

Meshram, Jyotsna

2014-01-01

370

Tulczyjew Triples in Higher Derivative Field Theory  

E-print Network

The geometrical structure known as Tulczyjew triple has been used with success in analytical mechanics and first order field theory to describe a wide range of physical systems including Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems with constraints and/or sources, or with singular Lagrangian. Starting from the first principles of the variational calculus we derive Tulczyjew triples for classical field theories of arbitrary high order, i.e.~depending on arbitrary high derivatives of the fields. A first triple appears as the result of considering higher order theories as first order ones with configurations being constrained to be holonomic jets. A second triple is obtained after a reduction procedure aimed at getting rid of nonphysical degrees of freedom. This picture we present is fully covariant and complete: it contains both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, in particular the Euler-Lagrange equations. Notice that, the required Geometry of jet bundles is affine (as opposed to the linear Geometry of the tangent bundle). Accordinlgy, the notions of affine duality and affine phase space play a distinguished role in our picture. In particular the Tulczyjew triples in this paper consist of morphisms of double affine-vector bundles which, moreover, preserve suitable presymplectic structures.

Katarzyna Grabowska; Luca Vitagliano

2014-06-25

371

Biological activities of isatin and its derivatives.  

PubMed

Isatin is an endogenous compound identified in humans that possesses a wide range of biological activities. Isatin has anxiogenic, sedative, anticonvulsant activities and acts as a potent antagonist on atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in vitro. A series of p-substituted isatin semicarbazones have shown anticonvulsant activity in MES, scPTZ and scSTY tests. Various isatin-N-Mannich bases of isatin-3-thiosemicarbazones have shown antiviral and tuberculostatic activity. Methisazone is an effective compound against variola and vaccinia viruses. The N-dimethyl and morpholino derivative of 5-methyl isatin and trimethoprim exhibited an EC50 of more than 4.3 and 17.7 mg mL(-1), respectively. Isatin (3-o-nitrophenyl) hydrazone has shown activity against Walker carcinoma-256. Various substituted indolinones showed antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MIC ranging from 10-20 microg mL(-1). Isatin derivatives of Mannich bases had fibrinolytic, muscle relaxant, antiallergic, immunosuppressant, and antithrombotic activity. Isatin showed cardioinhibitory effect on frog heart, and hypotensive, respiratory depression and antidiuretic effects. PMID:15907222

Pandeya, Surendra Nath; Smitha, Sivakumar; Jyoti, Mayank; Sridhar, Seshaiah Krishnan

2005-03-01

372

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

SciTech Connect

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-07-01

373

New derivative of carnosine for nanoparticle assemblies.  

PubMed

Carnosine (?-alanyl-l-histidine) is an endogenous dipeptide, extensively studied owing to its multifunctional activity exhibited in tissues of several animal species. This natural compound may act as a physiological buffer, ion-chelating agent (especially for copper(II) and zinc(II)), antioxidant and antiglycating agent. The main limit for the therapeutical uses of carnosine is the rapid hydrolysis mostly in human plasma by carnosinase. The chemical derivatization of carnosine is a promising strategy to improve the bioavailability of the dipeptide and facilitating the site-specific transport to different tissues. On this basis, a new carnosine derivative with biotin was synthesized and structurally characterized by NMR and MS measurements, with aim of exploiting the avidin-biotin technology that offers a universal system for selective delivery of any biotinylated agent. The stability of the new carnosine derivative towards the hydrolytic action of serum carnosinase as well as the copper(II) binding ability of the carnosine-biotin conjugate were also assessed. The binding affinity of the new molecular entity to avidin and streptavidin, investigated by a spectrophotometric assay, was exploited to functionalize avidin- and streptavidin-gold nanoparticles with the carnosine-biotin conjugate. PMID:24158014

Bellia, Francesco; Oliveri, Valentina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Vecchio, Graziella

2013-01-01

374

Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)  

SciTech Connect

With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M. (McGill)

2004-12-17

375

Tetrahydrofurfuryloxide derivatives of alkyl aluminum species.  

SciTech Connect

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (H-OTHF) was successfully reacted with a series of aluminum alkyls (AlR{sub 3}) to yield compounds of the general formula [R{sub 2}Al({mu}-OTHF)]{sub 2} where R = CH{sub 3} (1), CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3} (2), and CH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} (3). Further, reactivity studies showed that the alkyls for 1 were easily exchanged, forming compounds of the general formula [Me(OR)Al({mu}-OTHF)]{sub 2} where OR = OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(Me){sub 2}-2,6 (4), OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}-2,6 (5a), and OSi(C{sub 6}H5){sub 3} (6). For 5a, reflux temperatures were required to get the full exchange; otherwise the asymmetric derivative [Me(OR)Al({mu}-OTHF){sub 2}AlMe{sub 2}] (5b) was isolated. The bulk powders of 1-6 were found to be in agreement with the crystal structures on the basis of elemental analyses and multinuclear solid state NMR studies. Multinuclear solution state NMR studies indicate that the alkyl OTHF derivatives have cis/trans isomers due to the chiral proton on the OTHF ligand.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Avilucea, Gabriel; Bunge, Scott D.; Alam, Todd Michael; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Cherry, Brian Ray; Tissot, Ralph George, Jr.; Segall, Judith M.

2004-12-01

376

PUFA-derived endocannabinoids: an overview.  

PubMed

Following on from the discovery of cannabinoid receptors, of their endogenous agonists (endocannabinoids) and of the biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoids, significant progress has been made towards the understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in both physiological and pathological conditions. Endocannabinoids are mainly n-6 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) derivatives that are synthesised by neuronal cells and inactivated via a two-step process that begins with their transport from the extracellular to the intracellular space and culminates in their intracellular degradation by hydrolysis or oxidation. Although the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis and metabolism of endocannabinoids have been well characterised, the processes involved in their cellular uptake are still a subject of debate. Moreover, little is yet known about the roles of endocannabinoids derived from n-3 LCPUFA such as EPA and DHA. Here, I provide an overview of what is currently known about the mechanisms for the biosynthesis and inactivation of endocannabinoids, together with a brief analysis of the involvement of the endocannabinoids in both food intake and obesity. Owing to limited space, recent reviews will be often cited instead of original papers. PMID:24020830

Cascio, Maria Grazia

2013-11-01

377

The fluorescence of indoles and aniline derivatives  

PubMed Central

1. The variations in the excitation and fluorescence wavelengths and fluorescence intensities of a number of indole and aniline derivatives over a wide range of acidity and alkalinity (36n-sulphuric acid to 10n-potassium hydroxide) have been studied. 2. The changes in fluorescence with pH of the indoles and anilines had many characteristics in common, and the most fluorescent species were found to be the non-ionized or neutral forms showing fluorescence maxima at about ? 350m?. 3. In 10n-potassium hydroxide most of the compounds examined, except those containing a tertiary nitrogen atom, showed a bathochromic shift in fluorescence wavelength attributable to an anion due to a negatively charged nitrogen, but in strong acid (3n-sulphuric acid) these compounds were non-fluorescent, except the anisidines and the 5-hydroxyindoles. 4. p-Anisidine but not the o- and m-isomers showed excited-state ionization in acid solution. 5. Of the hydroxyindoles only the 5-hydroxy derivatives showed a fluorescence (?max. 520–540m?) in acid solution. It is suggested that this fluorescence is due to a proton-transfer reaction in the excited state, and various arguments for this suggestion are given. 6. Stokes shifts for the various ionic and neutral species of the indoles and anilines have been calculated, and the large shifts found with indole and p-anisidine may be due to solvent–solute interaction. PMID:5641878

Bridges, J. W.; Williams, R. T.

1968-01-01

378

Anionic derivatives of uracil: fragmentation and reactivity.  

PubMed

Uracil is an essential biomolecule for terrestrial life, yet its prebiotic formation mechanisms have proven elusive for decades. Meteorites have been shown to contain uracil and the interstellar abundance of aromatic species and nitrogen-containing molecules is well established, providing support for uracil's presence in the interstellar medium (ISM). The ion chemistry of uracil may provide clues to its prebiotic synthesis and role in the origin of life. The fragmentation of biomolecules provides valuable insights into their formation. Previous research focused primarily on the fragmentation and reactivity of cations derived from uracil. In this study, we explore deprotonated uracil-5-carboxylic acid and its anionic fragments to elucidate novel reagents of uracil formation and to characterize the reactivity of uracil's anionic derivatives. The structures of these fragments are identified through theoretical calculations, further fragmentation, experimental acidity bracketing, and reactivity with several detected and potential interstellar species (SO2, OCS, CS2, NO, N2O, CO, NH3, O2, and C2H4). Fragmentation is achieved through collision induced dissociation (CID) in a commercial ion trap mass spectrometer, and all reaction rate constants are measured using a modification of this instrument. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Lastly, the astrochemical implications of the observed fragmentation and reaction processes are discussed. PMID:25036757

Cole, Callie A; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Snow, Theodore P; Bierbaum, Veronica M

2014-09-01

379

Antiviral properties of deazaadenine nucleoside derivatives.  

PubMed

Viral infections have menaced human beings since time immemorial, and even today new viral strains that cause lethal diseases are being discovered with alarming frequency. One major example is HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS, which spread up in the last two decades. Very recently, other virus based diseases such as avian flu have spread fear around the world, and hemorrhagic fevers from central Africa serious threaten human health because of their very deadly effects. New antiviral agents are still greatly needed to counter these menaces. Many scientists are involved in this field of research, and many of the recently discovered effective antiviral compounds are nucleoside analogues. Among those derivatives, deazapurine nucleoside analogues have demonstrated potent inhibitory effect of viral replication. This review reports on recently generated data from preparing and testing deazapurine nucleoside derivatives as inhibitors in virus replication systems. Although most of the reported data have been produced in antiHIV, antiHCMV, and antiHSV biological testing, very recently other new important fields of application have been discovered, all in topical subjects of strong interest. In fact, deazapurine nucleosides have been found to be active as chemotherapeutics for some veterinary systemic viral infections, for which no antiviral drugs are licensed yet. Furthermore, they demonstrated efficacy in the inhibition of Hepatitis C virus replication. Finally, these compounds showed high potency as virucides against Ebola Virus, curing Ebola infected mice with a single dose administration. PMID:17168721

Vittori, S; Dal Ben, D; Lambertucci, C; Marucci, G; Volpini, R; Cristalli, G

2006-01-01

380

Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives  

SciTech Connect

Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

1998-01-01

381

Antistaphylococcal activity of novel salicylanilide derivatives.  

PubMed

This study examined the antibacterial properties of nineteen benzoxazole, isoniazid, ethionamide and salicylanilide derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). It was found that three salicylanilide-derived compounds demonstrated antistaphylococcal activity: 5-Chloro-2-hydroxy-N-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)benzamide (5-Cl-4'-CF3- SAL), 4-chloro-2-(3-chlorophenylcarbamyoyl)phenyl)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)propanoate (AIM31) and 4-chloro-2- (4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl acetate (AIM33). Investigation of the chemical structures of these three compounds and comparison with a non-inhibitory salicylanilide compound (i.e. 5,3'-diCl-SAL) illustrated that different combinations of chemical groups at defined positions on the salicylanilide core structure had a marked influence on antistaphylococcal activity. The most effective compound was AIM33 which inhibited staphylococcal growth and displayed an initial MIC value of 3.12 ?g ml(-1) and subsequent investigation revealed that an MIC as low as of 0.5 ?g ml(-1) was achievable. In this case, the dual presence of a trifluoromethyl group and an acetylated phenolic hydroxyl to the salicylanilide core structure led to greatly enhanced activity. PMID:21644919

Mollaghan, Annmarie; Vinsova, Jarmila; Imramovsky, Ales; Cotter, Lesley; Lucey, Brigid; O'Mahony, Jim; Costelloe, Aisling; Coffey, Aidan

2012-03-01

382

Stemness is Derived from Thyroid Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Furthermore, EMT is a critical process for epithelial tumor progression, local invasion, and metastasis formation. In addition, stemness provides cells with therapeutic resistance and is the likely cause of tumor recurrence. However, the relevance of EMT and stemness in thyroid cancer progression has not been extensively studied. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer, we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E)/TPO-Cre). This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells, which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid-specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers, such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15, and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6-week-old BRAFV600E mice indicating the dedifferentiated status of the cells and the fact that stemness was derived in this model from differentiated thyroid cells. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-?1 and TGF-?3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a cancer thyroid cell line (named Marca cells) derived from one of the murine tumors. In this cell line, we also found that overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up-regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, and CD15, with enhanced migration ability of the cells. We also showed that TGF-?1 was able to induce Snail and vimentin expression in the Marca cell thyroid cancer line, indicating the induction of EMT in these cells, and this induction of EMT and stemness was significantly inhibited by celastro a natural inhibitor of neoplastic cells. Conclusion: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E)/TPO-Cre), the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells. Furthermore, celastrol suppressed TGF-?1 induced EMT in thyroid cancer cells and may have therapeutic potential. PMID:25076938

Ma, Risheng; Bonnefond, Simon; Morshed, Syed A.; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

2014-01-01

383

Generation of deletion derivatives by targeted transformation of human-derived yeast artificial chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian DNA segments cloned as yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) can be manipulated by DNA-mediated transformation when placed in an appropriate yeast genetic background. A fragmenting vector has been developed that can introduce a yeast telomere and selectable marker into human-derived YACs at specific sites by means of homologous recombination, deleting all sequences distal to the recombination site. A powerful application of the method uses a human Alu family repeat sequence to target recombination to multiple independent sites on a human-derived YAC. Sets of deletion derivatives generated by this procedure greatly facilitate restriction mapping of large genomic segments. Targeting recombination with single copy sequences, such as cDNAs, will have many additional applications. This approach establishes a paradigm for manipulation and characterization of mammalian DNA segments cloned as YACs.

Pavan, W.J.; Hieter, P.; Reeves, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-02-01

384

Cytotoxic anthranilic acid derivatives from deep sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44.  

PubMed

Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A-E (1-5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line. PMID:23966037

Li, Chun-Shun; Li, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Shu-Shan; Lu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Bin-Gui

2013-01-01

385

Tandem repeats derived from centromeric retrotransposons  

PubMed Central

Background Tandem repeats are ubiquitous and abundant in higher eukaryotic genomes and constitute, along with transposable elements, much of DNA underlying centromeres and other heterochromatic domains. In maize, centromeric satellite repeat (CentC) and centromeric retrotransposons (CR), a class of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, are enriched at centromeres. Some satellite repeats have homology to retrotransposons and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expansion, contraction as well as homogenization of tandem repeats. However, the origin and evolution of tandem repeat loci remain largely unknown. Results CRM1TR and CRM4TR are novel tandem repeats that we show to be entirely derived from CR elements belonging to two different subfamilies, CRM1 and CRM4. Although these tandem repeats clearly originated in at least two separate events, they are derived from similar regions of their respective parent element, namely the long terminal repeat (LTR) and untranslated region (UTR). The 5? ends of the monomer repeat units of CRM1TR and CRM4TR map to different locations within their respective LTRs, while their 3? ends map to the same relative position within a conserved region of their UTRs. Based on the insertion times of heterologous retrotransposons that have inserted into these tandem repeats, amplification of the repeats is estimated to have begun at least ~4 (CRM1TR) and ~1 (CRM4TR) million years ago. Distinct CRM1TR sequence variants occupy the two CRM1TR loci, indicating that there is little or no movement of repeats between loci, even though they are separated by only ~1.4 Mb. Conclusions The discovery of two novel retrotransposon derived tandem repeats supports the conclusions from earlier studies that retrotransposons can give rise to tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of monomers from two different CRM1TR loci shows that gene conversion is the major cause of sequence variation. We propose that successive intrastrand deletions generated the initial repeat structure, and gene conversions increased the size of each tandem repeat locus. PMID:23452340

2013-01-01

386

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Crivello, J.V.

1991-10-01

387

Uncertainties in derived temperature-height profiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed height profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-height increment Delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.

Minzner, R. A.

1974-01-01

388

Fluorescence spectral studies of some imidazole derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysical properties of imidazole derivatives namely 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1-p-tolyl-1H-imidazole and N,N-dimethyl-4-(4,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzenamine, synthesized from an unusual four components assembling, were studied in several solvents. Polarization also plays major role in the increase of excited-state dipole moment (?e). From the spectral results, it was found that there is equilibrium between neutral species and monocationic (MC) species in polar aprotic and polar protic solvents. The basicity of the solvent, C? or CSB has a negative value, suggesting that the absorption and fluorescence bands shift to lower energies with increasing electron-donating ability of the solvent. Therefore, resonance structures 1b and 2b has the positive charge located at the nitrogen atom stabilized in basic solvents.

Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Srinivasan, Natesan; Venkatesh Perumal, Marimuthu

2012-05-01

389

Overview of medically important antifungal azole derivatives.  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections are a major burden to the health and welfare of modern humans. They range from simply cosmetic, non-life-threatening skin infections to severe, systemic infections that may lead to significant debilitation or death. The selection of chemotherapeutic agents useful for the treatment of fungal infections is small. In this overview, a major chemical group with antifungal activity, the azole derivatives, is examined. Included are historical and state of the art information on the in vitro activity, experimental in vivo activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, and uses and adverse reactions of imidazoles currently marketed (clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole, ketoconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, croconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxiconazole, sulconazole, and tioconazole) and under development (aliconazole and omoconazole), as well as triazoles currently marketed (terconazole) and under development (fluconazole, itraconazole, vibunazole, alteconazole, and ICI 195,739). PMID:3069196

Fromtling, R A

1988-01-01

390

Optimal Rate List Decoding via Derivative Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The classical family of [n,k]\\u000a q\\u000a Reed-Solomon codes over a field \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\\\mathbbFq\\\\mathbb{F}_q consist of the evaluations of polynomials \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000af Î<\\/font\\u000a> \\\\mathbbFq[X]f \\\\in \\\\mathbb{F}_q[X] of degree k at n distinct field elements. In this work, we consider a closely related family of codes, called (order m) derivative codes and defined over fields of large characteristic, which consist of the evaluations

Venkatesan Guruswami; Carol Wang

2011-01-01

391

Thirty years of organometallic aryldiazenido arylazo derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aryldiazenido ligands provide the fourth member of the isoelectronic series CO, NO+, RNC, RN2+ of ligands for transition metal complexes. The first aryldiazenido metal complex was reported in 1964 when p-CH3OC6H4N2Mo(CO)2C5H5 was prepared by the reaction of NaMo(CO)3C5H5 with p-CH3OC6H4N2+BF4?. This review surveys the development of organometallic aryldiazenido chemistry since that time. Such organometallic aryldiazenido derivatives, including RN2M(CO)2C5H5, RN2M(CO)2(Pz3BH)

R. Bruce King

1995-01-01

392

Current-induced forces: a simple derivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the problem of forces on atoms under current in nanoscale conductors. We derive and discuss the five principal kinds of force under steady-state conditions from a simple standpoint that—with the help of background literature—should be accessible to physics undergraduates. The discussion aims at combining methodology with an emphasis on the underlying physics through examples. We discuss and compare two forces present only under current—the non-conservative electron wind force and a Lorentz-like velocity-dependent force. It is shown that in metallic nanowires both display significant features at the wire surface, making it a candidate for the nucleation of current-driven structural transformations and failure. Finally we discuss the problem of force noise and the limitations of Ehrenfest dynamics.

Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Dundas, Daniel; Lü, Jing-Tao; Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, Per

2014-11-01

393

Thiadiazole derivatives with nonlinear optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several potentially conducting polymers, optically nonlinear polymers, and biomaterials contain heterocyclic structures. Reduction of the energy band gap of a conjugated polymer is a topic of considerable interest due to the possible elimination of doping in the preparation of highly conductive polymers. Control of the energy gap value of a polymer by molecular design could modify its optical, electronic and optoelectronic properties. Thiadiazoles and their derivatives are the structural basis of some of these polymeric materials. The results of the calculation of the HOMO-LUMO gap, the dipole moment and polarizability of thiadiazole oligomers in vacuo and in the presence of solvents are reported. The calculations are based on density functional theory using a specially tailored model chemistry. The potential utility of these materials for the development of chemical sensors is discussed.

Marquez-Lucero, Alfredo

2005-04-01

394

Modeling diffusive phenomena using non integer derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate losses during energetical transfers, accurate battery models are needed in embedded power systems. The accuracy of those is all the more important as in hybrid vehicles, batteries are continuously charged and discharged. This paper deals with a dynamical model of NiMH battery, the originality of which lays on the use of non integer derivatives to model diffusion phenomena. With this method, we represent the battery by an equivalent electric scheme, whose components are identified by an experimental technique called “Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.)". This identification process has been applied to a commercially available NiMH cell and its relevance checked by comparing digital simulations and laboratory experiments.

Kuhn, E.; Forgez, C.; Friedrich, G.

2004-03-01

395

Generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.

Dey, Anshuman; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata

2014-06-01

396

Derivation of the Planetary Geostrophic Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we justify mathematically the derivation of the planetary geostrophic equations (PGE) from the hydrostatic Boussinesq equations with Coriolis force, usually named the primitive equations (PE). The planetary geostrophic equations, which are a classical model of thermohaline circulation, are obtained from the primitive equations as the Froude number Fr, the Rossby number \\varepsilon, and the Burger number Bu go to 0. These numbers are supposed to satisfy Fr = O(\\varepsilon^{1/2}) and Bu = O(\\varepsilon) which is relevant to the thermohaline planetary dynamics. The analysis performed here does not follow the same lines as previous asymptotic studies on rotating fluids. It involves a singular operator which is not skew symmetric, and prevents classical energy estimates. To handle such operator requires to put the primitive equations under normal form, together with an appropriate use of the viscous terms.

Bresch, Didier; Gérard-Varet, David; Grenier, Emmanuel

2006-11-01

397

Synthesis of sulphonic acids and sultam derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction of propane-1,3-sultone with amines gave N-substituted aminosulphonic acids2a?i. Dehydration of2a?c with POCl3 gave the corresponding sultams3a?c. Propane-1,3-sultone1 reacted with tertury amines to give the betaiene salts4–11. 2,4-Dimethyl-1,3-butadiene-1,4-sultone12 condensed with amines to give N-substituted-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene-1,4-sultams13a and13b. The reaction of3a, 13a with hydrazine hydrate gave acid hydrazides3d or13c. Compounds3d, 13c reacted with isocyanates to yield urea derivatives14a?c, 15a?c.

Ibrahim Imam Ismail

1990-01-01

398

Warped Phenomenology of Higher-Derivative Gravity  

SciTech Connect

We examine the phenomenological implications at colliders for the existence of higher-derivative gravity terms as extensions to the Randall-Sundrum model. Such terms are expected to arise on rather general grounds, e.g., from string theory. In 5-d, if we demand that the theory be unitary and ghost free, these new contributions to the bulk action are uniquely of the Gauss-Bonnet form. We demonstrate that the usual expectations for the production cross section and detailed properties of graviton Kaluza-Klein resonances and TeV-scale black holes can be substantially altered by existence of these additional contributions. It is shown that measurements at future colliders will be highly sensitive to the presence of such terms.

Rizzo, T.

2004-12-06

399

Novel Therapeutics: NSAIDs, Derivatives, and Phosphodiesterases  

PubMed Central

The chemopreventive efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for colorectal cancer has been well documented. However, long-term use of NSAIDs is precluded owing to potentially fatal toxicities associated with their mechanism of action involving cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. But studies have shown that their anticancer activity may be due, in part, to an off-target effect. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which are responsible for negative regulation of cGMP signaling, are an attractive COX-independent target. cGMP signaling is aberrantly suppressed in cancer cells and its activation appears to be sufficient to inhibit tumor cell growth. Chemically modifying sulindac has produced a series of new derivatives that lack COX-inhibitory activity but have improved cGMP PDE inhibitory activity. This approach is proving to be a promising strategy for the discovery of improved agents for the prevention and/or treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:23459242

Tinsley, Heather N.; Piazza, Gary A.

2012-01-01

400

[Osteoarthritic disease: therapy with oxicam derivatives].  

PubMed

Two groups, each composed of 20 elderly patients suffering from osteoarthritis characterised by intense pain, were treated for 4 weeks with the oral formulation of two modern oxicam derivatives (tenoxicam capsules and beta-cyclodextrin-piroxicam tablets respectively). The analysis of the results showed that both drugs have an excellent antalgic effect. After the first dose the action of beta-cyclodextrin-piroxican was quicker and more marked, with statistically significant differences between treatments for the first 4 hours. At the end of the study period the two drugs proved to be equally effective, with a more pronounced symptomatic effect of beta-cyclodextrin-piroxican. No side effects serious enough to warrant suspension of treatment were observed: the only side effects reported were gastric adverse events (pyrosis, gastralgia) in both groups, having an incidence of 50% (tenoxicam) and 15% (beta-cyclodextrin-piroxicam) respectively. PMID:2103968

Abate, G; Zito, M; Guarino, F; Di Peppe, M C; Troya, C

1990-01-01

401

Scrap tire derived fuel: Markets and issues  

SciTech Connect

More than 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the United States and their proper management continues to be a solid waste management concern. Sound markets for scrap tires are growing and are consuming an ever increasing percentage of annual generation, with market capacity reaching more than 75% of annual generation in 1996. Of the three major markets - fuel, civil engineering applications, and ground rubber markets - the use of tires as a fuel is by far the largest market. The major fuel users include cement kilns, pulp and paper mills, electrical generation facilities, and some industrial facilities. Current issues that may impact the tire fuel market include continued public concern over the use of tires as fuels, the new EPA PM 2.5 standard, possible additional Clean Air emissions standards, access to adequate supplies of scrap tires, quality of processed tire derived fuel, and the possibility of creating a commodity market through the development of ASTM TDF standards.

Serumgard, J. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-01

402

Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy. Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin. This failure of regeneration was rescued by reloading serotonin-free platelets with a serotonin precursor molecule. These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.

Lesurtel, Mickael; Graf, Rolf; Aleil, Boris; Walther, Diego J.; Tian, Yinghua; Jochum, Wolfram; Gachet, Christian; Bader, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2006-04-01

403

[A new eremophilane derivative from Ligularia intermedia].  

PubMed

A new eremophilane derivative, (3aR,4R,5S,7S,7aS)-2-acetyl-7,7a-dihydroxy-3a,4-dimethyl-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3H-inden-5-yl acetate (1) and three known compounds, 10beta-hydroxy-eremophil-7 (11)-en-12,8alpha-olide(2), beta-sitosterol (3) and beta-daucosterol(4) have been isolated from Ligularia intermedia. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20,and identified on the basis of spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). PMID:25244759

Li, Shu-Li; Liu, Yu-Heng; Hao, Qiu-Juan; Zhang, Xiang-Mei; Jia, Yue-Mei; Li, Na

2014-06-01

404

Isocorydine derivatives and their anticancer activities.  

PubMed

In order to improve the anticancer activity of isocorydine (ICD), ten isocorydine derivatives were prepared through chemical structure modifications, and their in vitro and in vivo activities were experimentally investigated. 8-Amino-isocorydine (8) and 6a,7-dihydrogen-isocorydione (10) could inhibit the growth of human lung (A549), gastric (SGC7901) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines in vitro. Isocorydione (2) could inhibit the tumor growth of murine sarcoma S180-bearing mice, and 8-acetamino-isocorydine (11), a pro-drug of 8-amino-isocorydine (8), which is instable in water solution at room temperature, had a good inhibitory effect on murine hepatoma H22-induced tumors. The results suggested that the isocorydine structural modifications at C-8 could significantly improve the biological activity of this alkaloid, indicating its suitability as a lead compound in the development of an effective anticancer agent. PMID:25120059

Zhong, Mei; Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Junxi; Di, Duolong; Xu, Mengrou; Yang, Yaya; Li, Wenguang; Chen, Yali; Liu, Jinxia

2014-01-01

405

A negative derivative feedback design algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration control logics based on the modal approach allow damping to be increased on a certain number of modes. The main limit associated with these strategies is represented by spillover on non-modelled modes. Negative derivative feedback (NDF) proves particularly robust against spillover since modal velocity is fed back through a band-pass filter so that undesired effects can be limited both at high and low frequencies. Unfortunately, the definition of the control gains for this logic is generally more difficult than other resonant controls owing to the lack of physical meaning. In this paper a design strategy for an NDF controller based on an optimal approach is proposed for single and multi-degrees of freedom systems and is tested on a cantilever beam finite element model.

Cola, F.; Resta, F.; Ripamonti, F.

2014-08-01

406

Postbiotic Activities of Lactobacilli-derived Factors.  

PubMed

Probiotics are alive nonpathogenic microorganisms present in the gut microbiota that confer benefits to the host for his health. They act through molecular and cellular mechanisms that contrast pathogen bacteria adhesion, enhance innate immunity, decrease pathogen-induced inflammation, and promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, barrier function, and protective responses. Some of these beneficial effects result to be determined by secreted probiotic-derived factors that recently have been identified as "postbiotic" mediators. They have been reported for several probiotic strains but most available literature concerns Lactobacilli. In this review, we focus on the reported actions of several secretory products of different Lactobacillus species highlighting the available mechanistic data. The identification of soluble factors mediating the beneficial effects of probiotics may present an opportunity not only to understand their fine mechanisms of action, but also to develop effective pharmacological strategies that could integrate the action of treatments with live bacteria. PMID:25291118

Cicenia, Alessia; Scirocco, Annunziata; Carabotti, Marilia; Pallotta, Lucia; Marignani, Massimo; Severi, Carola

2014-01-01

407

Bioactive Dihydronaphthoquinone Derivatives from Fusarium solani.  

PubMed

New dihydronaphthoquinone derivatives, karuquinone A (1), karuquinone B (2), and karuquinone C (3), were isolated from a fungal culture broth of Fusarium solani. The structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR, MS, and IR). Three known compounds, javanicin (4), 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2,4-dimethylnaphtho[1,2-b]furan-6,9-dione (5), and 5-hydroxydihydrofusarubin C (6), were also isolated. The six isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines and a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line. Of these, karuquinone A exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity. Karuquinone B did not affect the proliferation of the cancer cell lines but did inhibit the proliferation of HUVEC. Additionally, we demonstrated that karuquinone A induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25163667

Takemoto, Kenji; Kamisuki, Shinji; Chia, Pei Thing; Kuriyama, Isoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Fumio

2014-09-26

408

Towards Tartaric-Acid-Derived Asymmetric Organocatalysts  

PubMed Central

Tartaric acid is one of the most prominent naturally occurring chiral compounds. Whereas its application in the production of chiral ligands for metal-catalysed reactions has been exhaustively investigated, its potential to provide new organocatalysts has been less extensively explored. Nevertheless, some impressive results, such as the use of TADDOLs as chiral H-bonding catalysts or of tartrate-derived asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt catalysts, have been reported over the last decade. The goal of this article is to provide a representative overview of the potential and the limitations of tartaric acid or TADDOLs in the creation of new organocatalysts and to highlight some of the most spectacular applications of these catalysts, as well as to summarize case studies in which other classes of chiral backbones were better suited. PMID:24194674

Gratzer, Katharina; Gururaja, Guddeangadi N; Waser, Mario

2013-01-01

409

Acylation of dithiocarbamates derived from l -ephedrine and d -pseudoephedrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acylation of dithiocarbamates derived from l-ephedrine and d-pseudoephedrine gives, depending on the structure of the acylating agent, acyl derivatives of the dithiocarbamates or their\\u000a cyclic decomposition products, viz. oxazolidinethiones.

O. A. Nurkenov; M. K. Ibraev; D. M. Turdybekov; A. M. Gazaliev; Sh. T. Ibysheva; K. M. Turdybekov; M. B. Isabaeva

2006-01-01

410

21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...

2011-04-01

411

21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...

2013-04-01

412

21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.  

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...

2014-04-01

413

21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...

2010-04-01

414

21 CFR 173.110 - Amyloglucosidase derived from Rhizopus niveus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.110...derived from Rhizopus niveus. Amyloglucosidase enzyme product, consisting of enzyme derived from Rhizopus niveus, and...

2012-04-01

415

An Introduction To Error Propagation: Derivation, Meaning and Examples  

E-print Network

An Introduction To Error Propagation: Derivation, Meaning and Examples of Equation Kai Oliver Arras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Error Propagation: From the Beginning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 the error propagation law, can be explicitely derived and understood, being important for a comprehension

Arras, Kai O.

416

76 FR 51922 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG-109006-11] RIN 1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...nonassigning counterparty when there is an assignment of certain derivative contracts. It was published in the Federal Register on...

2011-08-19

417

76 FR 66011 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Hearing Cancellation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG-109006-11] RIN 1545-BK13 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue...nonassigning counterparty when there is an assignment of certain derivative contracts. DATES: The public hearing, originally...

2011-10-25

418

Mean value theorems for a matrix valued derivative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivative of a function defined on a set of matrices is given utilizing the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse, which yields a natural extension of differentiation in the univariate calculus. Several mean value theorems involving this derivative are established.

John S. McMath; S. E. Sims

1981-01-01

419

A general entry to C7-borono indole derivatives  

E-print Network

The development of a methodology to access C7 pinacolatoboron substituted indole derivatives is described. It has been applied to indole, tryptophan, and tryptamine derivatives. Further functionalization to a C7 phenolic ...

Fenton, Owen S. (Owen Shea)

2012-01-01

420

21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...

2012-04-01

421

21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...

2011-04-01

422

21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated bulb or cloves...

2010-04-01

423

Naphthylisopropylamine and N-benzylamphetamine derivatives as monoamine oxidase inhibitors .  

E-print Network

??A series of naphthylisopropylamine and N-benzyl-4-methylthioamphetamine derivatives were evaluated as monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Their potencies were compared with those of a series of amphetamine derivatives,… (more)

Vilches-Herrera, Marcelo

2009-01-01

424

New fluorescent nucleobases derived from 5-alkynylpyrimidines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent reporter groups are widely used in many areas of macromolecular science. In nucleic acid chemistry, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides find use in the study of nucleic acid conformations, as reporters of the state of hybridization and as probes of nucleic acid-protein interactions, as well as, probes and primers for the detection and quantification of desired sequences. Often, the fluorophore is a separate and independent entity covalently attached to an otherwise unmodified oligonucleotide. Another class of fluorophore is the nucleobase analog - a chemically modified nucleobase that is unable to base pair properly. Recently, we have become interested in pyrrolocytosine (pC) as an intrinsically fluorescent, pairing-competent nucleobase. It has previously been shown that incorporation of pyrrolocytidine into oligonucleotides gives a fluorescent molecule that responds to the state of hybridization. We have refined the syntheses of pyrrolocytosine derivatives and the related modified uracil derivatives, furanouracil (fU), from cytosine and uracil respectively via three sequential steps: iodination of the nucleobase; Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling with a terminal alkyne; and metal-catalyzed cyclization. The fluorescence properties of the 5-alkynyl nucleobases and the bicyclic pC and fU analogs have been characterized and depend on: 1) the nature of the substituent on the alkyne, 2) whether the nucleobase is 5-alkynyl or cyclized, and 3) the presence of a substituent on the N1-position of the nucleobase. The chemistry and properties of peptide nucleic acid oligomers incorporating these types of base modifications and their possible use in point-mutation detection is presented.

Hudson, Robert H. E.; Dambenieks, Andrew K.; Moszynski, Joanne M.

2005-09-01

425

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

426

Characterization of Transport Proteins for Aromatic Compounds Derived from Lignin: Benzoate Derivative Binding Proteins  

PubMed Central

In vitro growth experiments have demonstrated that aromatic compounds derived from lignin can be metabolized and represent a major carbon resource for many soil bacteria. However, the proteins that mediate the movement of these metabolites across the cell membrane have not been thoroughly characterized. To address this deficiency, we used a library representative of lignin degradation products and a thermal stability screen to determine ligand specificity for a set of solute-binding proteins (SBPs) from ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ligand mapping process identified a set of proteins from Alphaproteobacteria that recognize various benzoate derivatives. Seven high-resolution crystal structures of these proteins in complex with four different aromatic compounds were obtained. The protein–ligand complexes provide details of molecular recognition that can be used to infer binding specificity. This structure–function characterization provides new insight for the biological roles of these ABC transporters and their SBPs, which had been previously annotated as branched-chain amino-acid-binding proteins. The knowledge derived from the crystal structures provides a foundation for development of sequencebased methods to predict the ligand specificity of other uncharacterized transporters. These results also demonstrate that Alphaproteobacteria possess a diverse set of transport capabilities for lignin-derived compounds. Characterization of this new class of transporters improves genomic annotation projects and provides insight into the metabolic potential of soil bacteria. PMID:22925578

Michalska, Karolina; Chang, Changsoo; Mack, Jamey C.; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R.

2013-01-01

427

Novel celastrol derivatives inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenografts  

PubMed Central

The molecular co-chaperone CDC37 is over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it functions with HSP90 to regulate the activity of protein kinases in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways that contribute towards hepatocarcinogenesis. Disruption of these signaling pathways via inhibition of HSP90/CDC37 interaction is therefore a rational therapeutic approach. We evaluated the anti-tumor effects of celastrol, pristimerin, and two novel derivatives (cel-D2, and cel-D7) on HCC cell lines in vitro and on orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo. All four compounds preferentially inhibited viability of HCC cells in vitro, and significantly inhibited the growth of three orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo; with the novel derivatives cel-D2 and cel-D7 exhibiting lower toxicity. All four compounds also induced cell apoptosis; and promoted degradation and inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinases in the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. We demonstrated that HSP90/CDC37 antagonists are potentially broad spectrum agents that might be beneficial for treating the heterogeneous subtypes of HCC, either as monotherapy, or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25051375

Wei, Wei; Wu, Song; Wang, Xiaolin; Sun, Chris Kin-Wai; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yan, Xinrui; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel

2014-01-01

428

Tetrahydroanthraquinone and xanthone derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma aureoviride PSU-F95.  

PubMed

Trichodermaquinone (1) and trichodermaxanthone (2) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma aureoviride PSU-F95 together with eleven known compounds. The structures were interpreted by spectroscopic methods. Known coniothranthraquinone 1 and emodin displayed strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with the MIC values of 8 and 4 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:22477193

Khamthong, Nanthaphong; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Tadpetch, Kwanruthai; Kaewpet, Morakot; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Preedanon, Sita; Sakayaroj, Jariya

2012-03-01

429

Novel celastrol derivatives inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenografts.  

PubMed

The molecular co-chaperone CDC37 is over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it functions with HSP90 to regulate the activity of protein kinases in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways that contribute towards hepatocarcinogenesis. Disruption of these signaling pathways via inhibition of HSP90/CDC37 interaction is therefore a rational therapeutic approach. We evaluated the anti-tumor effects of celastrol, pristimerin, and two novel derivatives (cel-D2, and cel-D7) on HCC cell lines in vitro and on orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo. All four compounds preferentially inhibited viability of HCC cells in vitro,and significantly inhibited the growth of three orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo; with the novel derivatives cel-D2 and cel-D7 exhibiting lower toxicity. All four compounds also induced cell apoptosis; and promoted degradation and inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinases in the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. We demonstrated that HSP90/CDC37 antagonists are potentially broad spectrum agents that might be beneficial for treating the heterogeneous subtypes of HCC, either as monotherapy, or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25051375

Wei, Wei; Wu, Song; Wang, Xiaolin; Sun, Chris Kin-Wai; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yan, Xinrui; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel

2014-07-30

430

Computing derivatives of a gravity potential by using automatic differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method, based on automatic differentiation technique, has been proposed in this paper to compute the derivatives of the gravity potential. Using this method we can obtain derivatives up to any order. Instead of explicit expressions of the derivatives we use an iterative scheme to simultaneously compute the value of all the desired derivatives. The algorithm here presented can be easily parallelized by using OpenMP with the consequent improvement in CPU-time efficiency.

Abad, Alberto; Lacruz, Elvis

2013-10-01

431

MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOL-GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOL-GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIALS USING AN ACOUSTIC WAVE;#12;For my Terra........ iii #12;MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOL-GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIALS, New Mexico November 2006 #12;Mechanical Property Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Nanomaterials

Brinker, C. Jeffrey

432

THE TOPOLOGICAL DERIVATIVE IN ANISOTROPIC by Marc Bonneta  

E-print Network

THE TOPOLOGICAL DERIVATIVE IN ANISOTROPIC ELASTICITY by Marc Bonneta , Gabriel Delgadob,c (a POems A comprehensive treatment of the topological derivative for anisotropic elasticity is presented, with both properties. A formula for the topological derivative of any cost functional defined in terms of regular

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…

Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria

2011-01-01

434

Bounds on the Relative Entropy Derivative Pablo Zegers  

E-print Network

Bounds on the Relative Entropy Derivative Pablo Zegers pzegers@miuandes.cl Autonomous Machines on the Relative Entropy Derivative #12;Motivation Gravitational Forces: What Really Exists! A sun surrounded by N on the Relative Entropy Derivative #12;Motivation Gravitational Forces: Physics Says Model each gravitational pull

Slatton, Clint

435

40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

2010-07-01

436

17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...

2010-04-01

437

17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...

2013-04-01

438

Local Binary Patterns Calculated Over Gaussian Derivative Images  

E-print Network

Local Binary Patterns Calculated Over Gaussian Derivative Images Varun Jain James L. Crowley analysis. We combine Gaussian derivatives with Local Binary Patterns to provide a robust and powerful derivatives form the input to the Linear Binary Pattern(LBP) operator instead of the original image

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

Compact and low-power continuous-time derivative circuit  

E-print Network

Compact and low-power continuous-time derivative circuit A. Singireddy, K.R. McMillan and D.W. Graham A new circuit to compute a continuous-time derivative is introduced. Comprising onlyone capacitor and six to eight transistors, this derivative circuit occupies very little real estate and consumes

Graham, David W.

440

Dynamic Derivative Strategies Jun Liu and Jun Pan  

E-print Network

Dynamic Derivative Strategies Jun Liu and Jun Pan February 13, 2003 Abstract We study optimal investment strategies given investor access not only to bond and stock markets but also to the derivatives market. The problem is solved in closed form. Derivatives extend the risk and return tradeoffs associated

Gabrieli, John

441

A continuous derivative for real-valued functions Abbas Edalat  

E-print Network

A continuous derivative for real-valued functions Abbas Edalat Department of Computing, Imperial College London, UK Abstract We develop a notion of derivative of a real-valued function on a Banach space, called the L-derivative, which is constructed by introducing a gener- alization of Lipschitz constant

Edalat, Abbas

442

12 CFR 217.155 - Equity derivative contracts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity derivative contracts. 217.155 Section 217...Equity Exposures § 217.155 Equity derivative contracts. (a) Under the IMA...risk-based capital against an equity derivative contract under this part, a...

2014-01-01

443

17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...

2012-04-01

444

21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184.1317...GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated... a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils,...

2013-04-01

445

40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

2013-07-01

446

12 CFR 324.155 - Equity derivative contracts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity derivative contracts. 324.155 Section 324...Equity Exposures § 324.155 Equity derivative contracts. (a) Under the IMA...risk-based capital against an equity derivative contract under this part, an...

2014-01-01

447

Updating derived relations: detecting irrelevant and autonomously computable updates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a database containing not only base relations but also stored derived relations (also called materialized or concrete views). When a base relation is updated, it may also be necessary to update some of the derived relations. This paper gives sufficient and necessary conditions for detecting when an update of a base relation cannot affect a derived relation (an irrelevant

José A. Blakeley; Neil Coburn

1989-01-01

448

40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

2011-07-01

449

17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...

2011-04-01

450

12 CFR 3.155 - Equity derivative contracts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equity derivative contracts. 3.155 Section 3...Equity Exposures § 3.155 Equity derivative contracts. (a) Under the IMA...risk-based capital against an equity derivative contract under this part, a...

2014-01-01

451

17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section...Section 16(b) § 240.16b-6 Derivative securities. (a) The establishment...is fixed. (b) The closing of a derivative security position as a result...

2014-04-01

452

21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.  

...2014-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184.1317...GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the fresh or dehydrated... a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils,...

2014-04-01

453

40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

2012-07-01

454

Discrete-Time Fractional Differentiation from Integer Derivatives  

E-print Network

applications of fractional differential equations. As fractional derivatives find more applications1 Discrete-Time Fractional Differentiation from Integer Derivatives Hany Farid TR2004-528, Dartmouth College, Computer Science Abstract Discrete-time fractional derivative filters (1-D and 2-D

455

How Are Derivatives Used? Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate investment managers' use of derivatives by comparing return distributions for equity mutual funds that use and do not use derivatives. In contrast to public perception, derivative users have risk exposure and return performance that are similar to nonusers. We also analyze changes in fund risk in response to prior fund performance. Changes in risk are substantially less severe

Jennifer Lynch Koski; Jeffrey Pontiff

1999-01-01

456

Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)

Sobel, Michael I.

1980-01-01

457

Simplified Derivation of the Fokker-Planck Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an alternative derivation of the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of a random noise process, starting from the Langevin equation. The derivation makes use of the first two derivatives of the Dirac delta function. (Author/GA)

Siegman, A. E.

1979-01-01

458

A Methodology for the Derivation of Parallel Programs  

E-print Network

A Methodology for the Derivation of Parallel Programs Joy Goodman Department of Computer Science, University of Glasgow Abstract. I am currently developing a methodology for deriving paral­ lel programs from equational reasoning, a more efficient parallel program in a variety of languages and styles can be derived

Goodman, Joy

459

Designing Agents for Derivatives Markets: a preliminary framework  

E-print Network

derivatives mar- kets, that is, markets for products whose values derive from the values of other products framework for a model of agents which are able to trade in futures and options derivatives markets. We design a basic logical model for the exchange process and extend it to depict futures and options

McBurney, Peter

460

Five-parameter fractional derivative model for polymeric damping materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional derivative models offer a powerful tool to describe the dynamic behaviour of real viscoelastic materials. A version of the fractional derivative models characterized by five parameters is presented and investigated in this paper in order to describe asymmetrical loss factor peak and the high-frequency behaviour of polymeric damping materials. The speculative derivation of the model constitutive equation containing time

T. Pritz

2003-01-01

461

Synthesis and biological activities of thio-avarol derivatives.  

PubMed

Eleven new thio-avarol derivatives (3-13) were synthesized. Their antimicrobial, brine shrimp lethality, and free-radical scavenging activities and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, together with 12 already reported semisynthetic thio-avarol derivatives (14-25), were evaluated. Structure-activity relationships among these thio derivatives were determined. PMID:19007183

Pejin, Boris; Iodice, Carmine; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Rosa, Salvatore

2008-11-01

462

Synthesis of steroidal 17 beta-carboxamide derivatives.  

PubMed

Several 17 beta-carboxamide derivatives of natural and fluorinated glucocorticoids have been synthesized. The 17 beta-carboxylic derivatives were obtained by periodic acid oxidation of their side chains. They were then activated by N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT) and coupled to several primary amines. Using this method eleven 17 beta-carboxamide derivatives have been prepared in good yields. PMID:7376221

Formstecher, P; Lustenberger, P; Dautrevaux, M

1980-03-01

463

Morita Theory For Derived Categories: A Bicategorical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a bicategorical perspective on derived Morita theory for rings, DG algebras, and spectra. This perspective draws a connection between Morita theory and the bicategorical Yoneda Lemma, yielding a conceptual unification of Morita theory in derived and bicategorical contexts. This is motivated by study of Rickard's theorem for derived equivalences of rings and of Morita theory for ring spectra,

Niles Johnson

2008-01-01

464

Software Configuration Management for Product Derivation in Software Product Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key process in software product line (SPL) engineering is product derivation, which is the process of building software products from a base set of core assets. During product derivation, the components in both core assets and derived software products are modified to meet needs for different functionality, platforms, quality attributes, etc. However, existing software configuration management (SCM) systems do

Cheng Thao; Ethan V. Munson; Tien Nhut Nguyen

2008-01-01

465

Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…

Skopp, Joseph

2009-01-01

466

Resurgence, Stokes phenomenon and alien derivatives for levelone linear  

E-print Network

Resurgence, Stokes phenomenon and alien derivatives for level­one linear di#erential systems. Mich of alien derivatives. We make explicit the Stokes­Ramis matrices as functions of the connection constants, summability, resurgence, alien derivatives. AMS classification: 34M03, 34M30, 34M35, 34M40. 1 #12; Loday

467

Factorization of Integrals Defining the ?-Function into Integrals of Total Derivatives in N=1 SQED, Regularized by Higher Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some calculations in supersymmetric theories, made with the higher derivative regularization, show that the ?-function is given by integrals of total derivatives. This is qualitatively explained for the N=1 supersymmetric electrodynamics in all orders.

Stepanyantz, K. V.

2012-01-01

468

Metabolic effects of thyroid hormone derivatives.  

PubMed

The processes and pathways mediating the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all affected by thyroid hormones (THs) in almost all tissues. Particular attention has been devoted by scientists to the effects of THs on lipid metabolism. Among others, effects related to cholesterol, lipid handling, and cardiac performance have been the subject of study. Many reports are present in the literature concerning the calorigenic effect of THs, with most of them aimed at identifying the molecular basis of this effect. However, at the moment the mechanism(s) underlying the metabolic effects of THs remain to be elucidated. THs exert most of their effects though TH receptors (TRs). However, some effects of THs cannot be explained by a nuclear-mediated pathway, and recently an increasing number of nonnuclear actions have been described, which can provide a regulatory system of which the effects differ from those mediated on the transcriptional level by TRs. Some of the TH derivatives (naturally occurring metabolites and analogs) possess biological activities. TH-related biological effects have been described for physiological products such as tetraiodothyroacetic acid (Tetrac) and triiodothyroacetic acid (Triac) (via oxidative deamination and decarboxylation of thyroxine [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3] alanine chain), 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) (via T4 and T3 deiodination), 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) (via T4, T3, and rT3 deiodination), and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) and thyronamine (T0AM) (via T4 and T3 deiodination and amino acid decarboxylation), as well as for TH structural analogs, such as 3,5,3'-triiodothyropropionic acid (Triprop), 3,5-dibromo-3-pyridazinone-l-thyronine (L-940901), N-[3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroxy-3'-isopropylphenoxy)-phenyl]-oxamic acid (CGS 23425), 3,5-dimethyl-4[(4'-hydroxy-3'-isopropylbenzyl)-phenoxy] acetic acid (GC-1), 3,5-dichloro-4[(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenoxy)phenyl] acetic acid (KB-141), and 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA). Most of these compounds have interesting properties: counteracting lipid accumulation, reducing cholesterol level, and increasing lipid metabolism without cardiotoxic effects. Hopefully, further studies on basic mechanisms of such compounds will be harbingers of more knowledge on the metabolic effects of TH derivatives and on their possible clinical application. PMID:18279024

Moreno, Maria; de Lange, Pieter; Lombardi, Assunta; Silvestri, Elena; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

2008-02-01

469

Amino acids derived from Titan tholins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

1986-01-01

470

Amino acids derived from Titan Tholins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An organic heteropolymer(Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N 2/0.1 CH 4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6 N HCI yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivazation to N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and ?- and ?-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was ˜ 10 -2, approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC 2CN, and (CN) 2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat; Schram, Karl H.; Arakawa, Edward T.

1986-10-01

471

Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. PMID:25407120

Tevlin, Ruth; McArdle, Adrian; Chan, Charles K F; Pluvinage, John; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Hu, Michael S; Paik, Kevin J; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Atashroo, David A; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wan, Derrick C; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

2014-01-01

472

An Epistemological Derivation of Quantum Logic  

E-print Network

This paper deals with the foundations of quantum mechanics. We start by outlining the characterisation, due to Birkhoff and Von Neumann, of the logical structures of the theories of classical physics and quantum mechanics, as boolean and modular lattices respectively. We then derive these descriptions from what we claim are basic properties of any physical theory - i.e. the notion that a quantity in such a theory may be analysed into parts and that the results of this analysis may be treated in languages with an underlying boolean structure. We shall see that in the course of constructing a model of a theory with these properties different indistinguishable possibilities will arise for how the elements of the model may be named, that is to say different possibilities arise for how they can be associated with points from Set. Taking a particular collection of possibilities gives the usual boolean lattice of the propositions of classical physics. Taking all possibilities - in a sense, the set of all things that may be described by physical theories - gives the lattice of quantum mechanical propositions. This gives an interpretation of quantum mechanics as the complete set of such possible descriptions, the complete physical description of the world.

John Foy

2000-01-20

473

Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine  

PubMed Central

The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine. PMID:24771984

Siwetz, Monika; Blaschitz, Astrid; Kremshofer, Julia; Bilic, Jelena; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

2014-01-01

474

Polyimides Derived from Novel Asymmetric Dianhydrides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to the compositions and processes for preparing thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides derived from novel asymmetrical dianhydrides: specifically 2,3,3',4' benzophenone dianhydride (a-BTDA), and 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (a-6FDA). The a-BTDA anhydride is prepared by Suzuki coupling with catalysts from a mixed anhydride of 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid or 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid with 2,3-dimethylphenylboronic acid or 3,4-dimethylphenylboronic acid respectively, to form 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone which is oxidized to form 2,3,3',4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid followed by cyclodehydration to obtain a-BTDA. The a-6FDA is prepared by nucleophilic triflouoromethylation of 2,3,3',4'-tetramethylbenzophenone with trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane to form 3,4'-(trifluoromethylmethanol)-bis(o-xylene) which is converted to 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene-bis(o-xylene). The 3,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(o-xylene) is oxidized to the corresponding tetraacid followed by cyclodehydration to yield a-6FDA.

Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

2012-01-01

475

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research program is to understand the relationship between macroscopic thermodynamic properties and the various types of intermolecular forces. Since coal-derived liquids contain a wide variety of compounds, a theory capable of successfully predicting the thermophysical properties for coal processes must take into account the molecular shapes and all significant intermolecular forces: dispersion forces, anisotropic forces due to dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions. We have developed the Acid-Base-Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain Theory (ABPACT), a comprehensive theory that is capable of predicting the thermophysical properties for many systems where these different intermolecular forces are present. The ABPACT can treat non-polar compounds, polar compounds and compounds that associate through Lewis acid-base interactions. In addition to our theoretical work, we have used computer simulations to evaluate (and in some cases correct) the assumptions made in this theory. We also have conducted experiments to help us better understand the interplay of different kinds of interactions in multicomponent mixtures.

Donohue, M.D.

1990-09-01

476

Derived relations and generalized alteration of preferences.  

PubMed

The present study examined the role of derived relations in the generalizability of the evaluative conditioning effect. Healthy university students participated. Four geometrical shapes were first established as discriminative stimuli for the contingent presentation of pictograms (B1, B2, C1, and C2, respectively). We then assessed the reinforcing properties of B1 versus B2, and C1 versus C2 by using simultaneous discrimination tasks: at baseline (baseline assessment), after pairing B1 with aversive slides plus noise and B2 with pleasant slides (test I), and after employing equivalence training and testing to establish B1 as equivalent to C1 and B2 as equivalent to C2 (test II). Most participants (82%) in the experimental condition, as compared with the control conditions (17% and 10%), selected the discriminative shapes for B2 (test I) and C2 (test II) on most trials, replicating and extending previous findings. Subsequently, the geometrical shapes were established as equivalent to the letters X, Y, W, and Z, respectively, which then served as antecedent stimuli in simultaneous discrimination tasks as before (test III). As was expected, only participants in the experimental condition showed preference for the novel letters that were established as equivalent to B2-producing and C2-producing shapes. These findings suggest that the evaluative conditioning effect may extend far beyond the stimulus being de/valuated and narrow the behavioral repertoire. PMID:23242738

Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Dougher, Michael J; Luciano, Carmen

2013-06-01

477

Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle.  

PubMed

A method for quantitative measurement of 3-monochlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine in insect cuticles is described, and it is used for determination of their distribution in various cuticular regions in nymphs and adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The two chlorinated tyrosine derivatives were present in all analyzed regions in mature adult locusts, the highest concentrations were found in the sclerotized cuticle of femur and tibia, but significant amounts were also present in the unsclerotized arthrodial membranes. Small amounts of the two amino acids were obtained from pharate, not-yet sclerotized cuticle of adult femur and tibia, the amounts increased rapidly during the first 24 h after ecdysis and more slowly during the next two weeks. Control analyses using stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry have confirmed that the chlorinated tyrosines are not artifacts formed during sample hydrolysis. Mono- and dichlorotyrosine are also present in cuticular samples from other insect species, such as the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, the moth Hyalophora cecropia, the cockroach Blaberus craniifer, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus, but not in the sclerotized puparial cuticle of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, or in sclerotized ootheca from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Cuticular sclerotization and formation of chlorotyrosines occur simultaneously in locust legs; sclerotized cuticles tend to have a higher content of chlorotyrosines than unsclerotized cuticles, but it is concluded that the chlorotyrosines are not just a by-product from the sclerotization process. PMID:15475302

Andersen, Svend Olav

2004-10-01

478

Catanionic gels based on cholic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

In this paper, the preparation and characterization of an anionic and a cationic surfactant obtained by chemical modifications of a natural bile acid (cholic acid) are reported. The bile acid was modified by introducing a diamine or a dicarboxylic aromatic residue on the lateral chain. The pure cationic surfactant self-assembles in a network of fibers with a cross-section gyration radius of about 15.1 Å, providing hydrogels with a pH-dependent compactness. On the other hand, the anionic molecule gives rise to prolate ellipsoid micelles. Homogeneous catanionic mixtures have also been obtained, with molar fraction of each surfactant ranging from 0.125 to 0.875. At total surfactant concentration of 0.05% (w/v), the mixtures form gels of fibrils partially arranged in secondary twisted superstructures. Comparison of this concentration with the minimum gelation concentration of the pure cationic derivative (0.16% w/v) suggests that, in the mixtures, the presence of the electrostatic component in self-assembly of the molecules allows the formation of gels starting from more dilute samples. In view of these achievements, this work suggests that catanionic mixtures can be exploited to enhance the efficiency of gelators. PMID:24063307

di Gregorio, M Chiara; Pavel, N Viorel; Miragaya, Javier; Jover, Aida; Meijide, Francisco; Vázquez Tato, José; Tellini, Victor H Soto; Galantini, Luciano

2013-10-01

479

Plasma and plasma derivatives in therapeutic plasmapheresis.  

PubMed

In therapeutic plasmapheresis, patient plasma is withdrawn and a colloid replacement solution is infused in its place. A 4% to 5% human serum albumin solution in saline is the preferred replacement solution in most instances, even though this practice causes transient mild deficiencies of most plasma proteins. Albumin solutions are pasteurized for viral inactivation, are very unlikely to cause a febrile or allergic reaction, and are convenient to store and administer. Single-donor plasma must be type specific, which requires advance knowledge of patient blood type, and must be ordered and usually thawed before use. It also carries a higher risk of reactions. On the plus side, it replaces all plasma constituents and is appropriate for patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or an existing coagulopathy. Neither cryosupernatant plasma, which is relatively deficient in the proteins in cryoprecipitate, nor plasma derived from pools that have been virally inactivated with detergents and organic solvents has been shown to produce better outcomes than fresh frozen plasma for any indication. PMID:22578370

McLeod, Bruce C

2012-05-01

480

Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium  

SciTech Connect

For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

Killough, G. G.

1982-03-01

481

capture by carbide-derived carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) with different surface oxygen contents were prepared from TiC powder by chlorination and followed by HNO3 oxidation. The CDCs were characterized systematically by a variety of means such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultimate analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, and transmission electron microscopy. CO2 adsorption measurements showed that the oxidation process led to an increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of the porous carbons. Structural characterizations indicated that the adsorbability of the CDCs is not directly associated with its microporosity and specific surface area. As evidenced by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, the adsorbability of the CDCs has a linear correlation with their surface oxygen content. The adsorption mechanism was studied using quantum chemical calculation. It is found that the introduction of O atoms into the carbon surface facilitates the hydrogen bonding interactions between the carbon surface and CO2 molecules. This new finding demonstrated that not only the basic N-containing groups but also the acidic O-containing groups can enhance the CO2 adsorbability of porous carbon, thus providing a new approach to design porous materials with superior CO2 adsorption capacity.

Xing, Wei; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Ziyan; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Guiqiang; Zhuo, Shuping; Xue, Qingzhong; Song, Linhua; Yan, Zifeng

2014-04-01

482

Curdlan ester derivatives: synthesis, structure, and properties.  

PubMed

A series of ester derivatives of curdlan, which is a ?-(1 ? 3)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by microorganism, with varying alkyl chain lengths (C2-C12) were synthesized by the heterogeneous reaction using trifluoroacetic anhydride. As a result, high-molecular-weight (Mw ? 6 × 10(5)) and fully-acylated curdlan was obtained with relatively high yield (>70%). Thermal stability of curdlan was greatly improved by esterification. Crystallization was observed for curdlan esters with C2-C6 side chains. Both Tg (170 ? 50 °C) and Tm (290 ? 170 °C) of curdlan esters decreased with increasing the side-chain length. By the increase in the side-chain carbon number, curdlan esters showed lower Young's modulus and tensile strength, and larger elongation at break. Thus, material properties of curdlan esters can be controlled by changing the side-chain length. It was found that the increase of the side-chain length resulted in the decrease of crystallinity and the change of crystal structures. PMID:24528750

Marubayashi, Hironori; Yukinaka, Kazuyori; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Takemura, Akio; Iwata, Tadahisa

2014-03-15

483

Antiproliferative activity of new benzimidazole derivatives.  

PubMed

A series of new benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and tested in vitro for possible anticancer activity. Their effect of proliferation into selected tumor cell lines at normoxia and hypoxia conditions was determined by WST-1 test. Additionally, apoptosis test (caspase 3/7 assay) was used to check the mode caused by the agents of cell death. Four of the examined compounds (7, 8, 13, 11) showed a very good antiproliferative effect and three of them were specific for hypoxia conditions (8, 14, 11). Compound 8 was the most cytotoxic against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells at hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia/ normoxia cytotoxic coefficient of compound 14 (4.75) is close to hypoxia/normoxia cytotoxic coefficient of tirapazamine (5.59) - a reference compound in our experiments and this parameter locates it between mitomycin C and 2-nitroimidazole (misonidazole). Screening test of caspase-dependent apoptosis proved that exposure to A549 cells of compounds 7-8 and 13-14 for 48 h promote apoptotic cell death. These results supplement our earlier study of the activity of new potentialy cytotoxic heterocyclic compounds against selected tumor cells. PMID:23888297

B?aszczak-?wi?tkiewicz, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Paulina; Mikiciuk-Olasik, El?bieta

2013-01-01

484

Vasoactive Properties of Keratin-Derived Compounds  

PubMed Central

Objective Keratin proteins have been utilized as biomaterials for decades and are currently under investigation for a variety of tissue regeneration and trauma applications. It has been suggested that certain keratins may have the capacity to act as a colloid in fluid resuscitation applications, providing viscosity and oncotic properties that may be beneficial during acute ischemic events. Oxidized keratin derivatives, also known as keratoses, show good blood and cardiovascular compatibility and thus are the subject of this study. Methods The effects of Keratose compounds will be assessed using a topload intravenous infusion model and observation of changes in the microvasculature of the cremaster muscle of rats. Results Keratose resuscitation fluid (KRF) administration resulted in significant vasodilation in the cremaster muscle. This effect was blocked with pretreatment of L-NA to inhibit nitric oxide. Another keratin fraction, alpha keratose, which is the primary viscosic compound, was not found to induce vasodilation. Conclusions The apparent mechanism of vasodilation was found to be nitric oxide- mediated and isolated to a particular purified fraction, the keratin associated proteins (KAP). PMID:21977948

Nunez, Fiesky; Trach, Simon; Burnett, Luke; Handa, Rahul; Van Dyke, Mark; Callahan, Michael; Smith, Thomas

2011-01-01

485

Crystalline supramolecular nanofibers based on dehydrobenzoannulene derivatives.  

PubMed

Supramolecular nanofibers (SNFs) composed of low-molecular-weight ?-conjugated molecules exhibit attractive optical and electrical properties and are expected to be the next optoelectronic materials. In this work, five crystalline SNFs have been constructed from three dehydrobenzoannulene (DBA) derivatives. The DBAs were designed to assemble in one dimension in a strategy based on anisotropic crystal growth. The crystallinity of the SNFs allowed the molecular arrangements in the SNFs to be determined. Therefore the mechanism of construction and correlations between the molecular arrangements and optical and electrical properties could be considered. The results clearly indicate that the properties of the SNFs are affected by the chemical structures and molecular arrangements. Moreover, one of the SNFs exhibits a high charge-carrier mobility (??=0.61 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) because of its crystallinity and appropriate molecular arrangement. This systematic experimental study based on a proposed strategy has provided information for improving the electrical properties of SNFs. This strategy will lead to highly functional SNFs. PMID:24115390

Shigemitsu, Hajime; Hisaki, Ichiro; Kometani, Eriko; Yasumiya, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Yuu; Osaka, Keisuke; Thakur, Tejender S; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Tsunehisa; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Miyata, Mikiji

2013-11-01

486

Latent Heating Structures Derived from TRMM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rainfall is the fundamental variable within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it is both the main forcing term leading to variations in continental and oceanic surface water budgets. The vertical distribution of latent heat release, which is accompanied with rain, modulates large-scale meridional and zonal circulations within the tropics as well as modifying the energetic efficiency of mid-latitude weather systems. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water.This paper focuses on the retrieval of latent heat release from satellite measurements generated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 0. The TRMM observatory, whose development was a joint US-Japan space endeavor, was launched in November 1997. TRMM measurements provide an accurate account of rainfall over the global tropics, information which can be .used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of latent heating across the entire tropical and sub-tropical regions. Various algorithm methodologies for estimating latent heating based on rain rate measurements from TRMM observations are described. The strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms, as well as the latent heating products generated by these algorithms, are also discussed along with validation analyses of the products. The investigation paper provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, and concludes with remarks designed to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval

Tao, W.-K.; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R.; Hou, A.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T.; Kummerow, C.; Lang, S.; Olson, W.; Satoh, S.

2004-01-01

487

Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof [Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Agicolastrasse 4, 38 678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2009-04-15

488

Cerebrovascular and Neuroprotective Effects of Adamantane Derivative  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The influence of 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on was studied on the rats' brain blood flow and on morphological state of brain tissue under the condition of brain ischemia. The interaction of the substance with NMDA receptors was also studied. Methods. Study has been implemented using the methods of local blood flow registration by laser flowmeter, [3H]-MK-801binding, and morphological examination of the brain tissue. We used the models of global transient ischemia of the brain, occlusion of middle cerebral artery, and hypergravity ischemia of the brain. Results. Unlike memantine, antagonist of glutamatergic receptors, the 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on does not block NMDA receptors but enhances the cerebral blood flow of rats with brain ischemia. This effect is eliminated by bicuculline. Under conditions of permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery, 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on has recovered compensatory regeneration in neural cells, axons, and glial cells, and the number of microcirculatory vessels was increased. 5-Hydroxyadamantane-2-on was increasing the survival rate of animals with hypergravity ischemia. Conclusions. 5-Hydroxyadamantane-2-on, an adamantane derivative, which is not NMDA receptors antagonist, demonstrates significant cerebrovascular and neuroprotective activity in conditions of brain ischemia. Presumably, the GABA-ergic system of brain vessels is involved in mechanisms of cerebrovascular and neuroprotective activity of 5-hydroxyadamantane-2-on. PMID:24772429

Mirzoyan, Ruben S.; Gan'shina, Tamara S.; Maslennikov, Denis V.; Kovalev, Georgy I.; Zimin, Ivan A.; Pyatin, Boris M.; Avdyunina, Nina I.; Kukhtarova, Anna M.; Khostikyan, Nelly G.; Meliksetyan, Vahe S.; Alikhanyan, Cristina B.; Mirzoyan, Narine R.

2014-01-01

489

Derivatives and credit contagion in interconnected networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of adequately modeling credit risk has once again been highlighted in the recent financial crisis. Defaults tend to cluster around times of economic stress due to poor macro-economic conditions, but also by directly triggering each other through contagion. Although credit default swaps have radically altered the dynamics of contagion for more than a decade, models quantifying their impact on systemic risk are still missing. Here, we examine contagion through credit default swaps in a stylized economic network of corporates and financial institutions. We analyse such a system using a stochastic setting, which allows us to exploit limit theorems to exactly solve the contagion dynamics for the entire system. Our analysis shows that, by creating additional contagion channels, CDS can actually lead to greater instability of the entire network in times of economic stress. This is particularly pronounced when CDS are used by banks to expand their loan books (arguing that CDS would offload the additional risks from their balance sheets). Thus, even with complete hedging through CDS, a significant loan book expansion can lead to considerably enhanced probabilities for the occurrence of very large losses and very high default rates in the system. Our approach adds a new dimension to research on credit contagion, and could feed into a rational underpinning of an improved regulatory framework for credit derivatives.

Heise, S.; Kühn, R.

2012-04-01

490

Bioactive Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Mangrove-Derived Fungus Stemphylium sp. 33231.  

PubMed

Four new anthraquinone derivatives (1-4) and four new alterporriol-type anthranoid dimers (14-17), along with 17 analogues, were isolated from the solid rice fermentation of the fungus Stemphylium sp. 33231 obtained from the mangrove Bruguiera sexangula var. rhynchopetala collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 1, 3, and 4 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction of their derivatives (1a, 3b, and 4a). The absolute configurations of the chiral 17-19 were determined by comparing their CD spectra with 21. The inhibitory activities of most of the compounds against seven terrestrial pathogenic bacteria and two cancer cell lines were evaluated. PMID:25136754

Zhou, Xue-Ming; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Guang-Ying; Song, Xiao-Ping; Han, Chang-Ri; Li, Gao-Nan; Fu, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wen-Hao; Niu, Zhi-Gang

2014-09-26

491

Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances  

SciTech Connect

General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

1980-01-01

492

Cognitive effects of cell-derived and synthetically-derived A? oligomers  

PubMed Central

Soluble forms of amyloid-? peptide (A?) are a molecular focus in Alzheimer's disease research. Soluble A? dimers (? 8 kDa), timers (? 12 kDa), tetramers (? 16 kDa) and A?*56 (? 56 kDa) have shown biological activity. These A? molecules have been derived from diverse sources, including chemical synthesis, transfected cells, and mouse and human brain, leading to uncertainty about toxicity and potency. Herein, synthetic A? peptide-derived oligomers, cell- and brain-derived low-n oligomers, and A?*56, were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) into rats assayed under the Alternating Lever Cyclic Ratio (ALCR) cognitive assay. Cognitive deficits were detected at 1.3?M of synthetic A? oligomers and at low nanomolar concentrations of cell-secreted A? oligomers. Trimers, from transgenic mouse brain (Tg2576), did not cause cognitive impairment at any dose tested, whereas A?*56 induced concentration-dependent cognitive impairment at 0.9?M and 1.3?M. Thus, while multiple forms of A? have cognition impairing activity, there are significant differences in effective concentration and potency. PMID:20031278

Reed, Miranda N.; Hofmeister, Jacki J.; Jungbauer, Lisa; Welzel, Alfred T.; Yu, Chunjiang; Sherman, Mathew A.; Lesne, Sylvain; LaDu, Mary Jo; Walsh, Dominic M.; Ashe, Karen H.; Cleary, James P.

2010-01-01

493

Deriving Potential Fields from Vector Magnetograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minimum-energy state for the magnetic field above the solar photosphere is current-free. Since current is proportional to the magnetic field's curl, the minimum energy state is curl-free, and can therefore be represented as the gradient of a scalar potential. In addition, the divergence-free condition on the magnetic field implies this scalar potential obeys Laplace's equation. An appropriate boundary condition must be specified to determine the potential. Given a measurement of the full magnetic vector at the photosphere, it is possible to employ either Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions there. Typically, the Neumann condition is applied. Since either condition fully specifies the three-dimensional vector magnetic field, either choice will, in general, be inconsistent with some aspect of the observed field on the boundary, due to the presence of both currents and noise in the observed field. We present a method to derive a potential field that minimizes the integrated square of the residual between both boundary conditions, and show one way to incorporate weighting by spatially uniform measurement uncertainties in the minimization. We demonstrate each approach using HMI vector magnetic field observations of AR 11158. Residual discrepancies between the observed and potential fields are significantly larger than empirically determined noise levels, and can be interpreted as evidence of horizontal photospheric currents. The data provide clues about properties of these currents, but determining their spatial distribution will require additional constraints, e.g., simplifying assumptions about photospheric magnetic structure or observational input beyond single-height magnetograms. We also find that the energies of potential fields computed in different ways are significantly different --- by nearly 1e+33 ergs in some cases. This has substantial implications for estimates of the free magnetic energy in coronal field models that is available to power flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs.)

Welsch, Brian

2013-07-01

494

Metalloenzyme derivatives of the bacterial phosphotriesterase  

SciTech Connect

The bacterial phosphotriesterase requires zinc for its enzymatic activity. The transition metal chelating agents, 1,10-phenanthroline (OP), 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQSA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) inactivate the enzyme in a time-dependent manner. The second order rate constant for inactivation of the zinc-phosphotriesterase by OP, HQSA, and EDTA are 2.5 M[sup [minus]1]s[sup [minus]1], 2.02 M[sup [minus]1]s[sup [minus]1], and 0.0008 M[sup [minus]1]s[sup [minus]1] respectively. The paraoxon analog, diethyl-p-fluorophenylphosphate, fully projects the enzyme against inactivation by the chelators, and thus the metal ion is presumed to be at the active site. Two methods have been used to achieve substitution of zinc with other metal ions. Dialysis against EDTA and 2-mercaptoethanol results in the formation of inactive enzyme and atomic absorption spectroscopy indicates that the metal ion has been removed. This apoprotein can be reactivated by the addition of stoichiometric amounts of zinc, cobalt, manganese, cadmium or nickel. Reactivation by manganese can be stimulated further by the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol. Substitution of zinc by other metal ions in the protein has also been achieved by an in vivo method. The bacterial cells were grown in a medium supplemented with 1-1.5 mM of the desired metal ion and the enzyme isolated in buffer supplemented with 0.05 mM of the metal ion. This procedure reduced the zinc content of the purified enzyme to 0.05-0.2. Zn/phosphotriesterase molecule and the corresponding specific activities of the isolated enzymes were comparable to the metal substituted derivatives prepared directly from apoenzyme.

Omburo, G.; Kuo, J.; Raushel, F.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1992-01-01

495

Oxidative stress induced by a dihydropyrazine derivative.  

PubMed

The Maillard reaction contributes to the complications of diabetes and normal aging. Dihydropyrazines (DHPs), which are produced during the Maillard reaction, generate radicals and possess DNA strand-cleaving activities in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of a DHP derivative, cyclohexyl-DHP, which is obtained as a mixture of two isomers, 2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoxaline (endo-type) and 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexahydroquinoxaline (exo-type), fused with a cyclohexyl ring. Cyclohexyl-DHP caused DNA strand breaks in plasmid pUC18, especially in the presence of Cu(2+). By using Escherichia coli mutant strains, we observed that cyclohexyl-DHP exposure strongly reduced the survival rate of a cytosolic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SOD)-deficient strain (sodA sodB), significantly reduced the survival rates of DNA repair-deficient strains (recA and uvrB) and mildly reduced the survival rate of a catalase-deficient strain (katE katG) compared with the survival rate of the wild-type strain. Addition of Cu(2+) enhanced the cell killing ability of cyclohexyl-DHP. The frequency of mutations induced by cyclohexyl-DHP increased dose-dependently in the sodA sodB strain. Assays with the highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt WST-1 revealed that cyclohexyl-DHP strongly generated superoxide anions. Moreover, cyclohexyl-DHP elevated the protein carbonyl levels in E. coli. These findings indicate that cyclohexyl-DHP could potentially generate superoxide anions, and cause not only breakage of chromosomal DNA leading to mutagenic lesions but also induce damage to cellular proteins. PMID:19182373

Takechi, Shinji; Nakahara, Kazuhide; Adachi, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi

2009-02-01

496

Functionalized bacterial cellulose derivatives and nanocomposites.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a fascinating and renewable natural nanomaterial characterized by favorable properties such as remarkable mechanical properties, porosity, water absorbency, moldability, biodegradability and excellent biological affinity. Intensive research and exploration in the past few decades on BC nanomaterials mainly focused on their biosynthetic process to achieve the low-cost preparation and application in medical, food, advanced acoustic diaphragms, and other fields. These investigations have led to the emergence of more diverse potential applications exploiting the functionality of BC nanomaterials. This review gives a summary of construction strategies including biosynthetic modification, chemical modification, and different in situ and ex situ patterns of functionalization for the preparation of advanced BC-based functional nanomaterials. The major studies being directed toward elaborate designs of highly functionalized material systems for many-faceted prospective applications. Simple biosynthetic or chemical modification on BC surface can improve its compatibility with different matrix and expand its utilization in nano-related applications. Moreover, based on the construction strategies of functional nanomaterial system, different guest substrates including small molecules, inorganic nanoparticles or nanowires, and polymers can be incorporated onto the surfaces of BC nanofibers to prepare various functional nanocomposites with outstanding properties, or significantly improved physicochemical, catalytic, optoelectronic, as well as magnetic properties. We focus on the preparation methods, formation mechanisms, and unique performances of the different BC derivatives or BC-based nanocomposites. The special applications of the advanced BC-based functional nanomaterials, such as sensors, photocatalytic nanomaterials, optoelectronic devices, and magnetically responsive membranes are also critically and comprehensively reviewed. PMID:24299873

Hu, Weili; Chen, Shiyan; Yang, Jingxuan; Li, Zhe; Wang, Huaping

2014-01-30

497

Deriving motor primitives through action segmentation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics. PMID:21833296

Hemeren, Paul E; Thill, Serge

2010-01-01

498

Tachometers Derived From a Brushless DC Motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upper part of the figure illustrates the major functional blocks of a direction-sensitive analog tachometer circuit based on the use of an unexcited two-phase brushless dc motor as a rotation transducer. The primary advantages of this circuit over many older tachometer circuits include the following: Its output inherently varies linearly with the rate of rotation of the shaft. Unlike some tachometer circuits that rely on differentiation of voltages with respect to time, this circuit relies on integration, which results in signals that are less noisy. There is no need for an additional shaft-angle sensor, nor is there any need to supply electrical excitation to a shaft-angle sensor. There is no need for mechanical brushes (which tend to act as sources of electrical noise). The underlying concept and electrical design are relatively simple. This circuit processes the back-electromagnetic force (back-emf) outputs of the two motor phases into a voltage directly proportional to the instantaneous rate (sign magnitude) of rotation of the shaft. The processing in this circuit effects a straightforward combination of mathematical operations leading to a final operation based on the well-known trigonometric identity (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1 for any value of x. The principle of operation of this circuit is closely related to that of the tachometer circuit described in Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver (MFS-28845), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 1995), page 39. However, the present circuit is simpler in some respects because there is no need for sinusoidal excitation of shaftangle- resolver windings.

Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

2007-01-01

499

Derivative interactions for a spin-2 field at cubic order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lorentz invariant derivative interactions for a single spin-2 field are investigated, up to the cubic order. We start from the most general Lorentz invariant terms involving two spacetime derivatives, which are polynomials in the spin-2 field as well as its first derivatives. Using a perturbative Arnowitt-Deser-Misner analysis, we determined the parameters such that the corresponding Hamiltonian possesses a Lagrange multiplier, which would signify there are at most 5 degrees of freedom that are propagating. The resulting derivative terms are linear combinations of terms coming from the expansion of the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian around a Minkowski background, as well as the cubic "pseudolinear derivative term" identified in Hinterbichler [J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2013) 102]. We also derived the compatible potential terms, which are linear combinations of the expansions of the first two de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley mass terms in unitary gauge.

Gao, Xian

2014-09-01

500

Asteroid Thermal Properties Derived from Meteorite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal inertia of an asteroid’s surface determines its response to the various Yarkovsky effects, while its internal thermal diffusivity controls its thermal evolution. Each quantity is a function of the material’s thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and density. Over the past ten years we have conducted a detailed survey measuring density in meteorites and are currently in the early stages of similar surveys for thermal conductivity and heat capacity. While various meteorite types differ in small but significant ways, for asteroid studies typical average values of these quantities can be estimated to within about 10%. (Metallic asteroids would have significantly different behavior.) The most important variable controlling density and thermal conductivity is porosity, P, while heat capacity is a strong function of temperature, T. Most stony meteorite densities are within 10% of 3500*(1-P) (SI units); basaltic and volatile rich meteorites are 10% to 30% less dense. Thermal conductivity in the temperature range of interest in the asteroid belt is nearly constant with temperature but varies strongly with porosity; assuming the trend seen for meteorite porosities up to 25% can be extrapolated to higher porosities, with zero conductivity at 100% porosity, a typical conductivity (for porosities greater than 2%) can be approximated by k = 0.11/P - 0.11 (SI units). Heat capacity ranges from under 250 J/kgK at 100 K to over 600 J/kgK at 250 K; over these temperatures this variation can be fitted by a quadratic in T. From these formulae we can derive representative values for thermal inertia and diffusivity and see how they vary as a function of porosity and temperature values appropriate for most asteroids. The greatest variation is with porosity. Thermal diffusivity drops by nearly two orders of magnitude from 0 to 20% porosity, more slowly at higher porosities. Thermal inertia (at 200K) varies from 3000 (SI units) near zero porosity down to 3 as porosity approaches 100%; 10% porosity has a thermal inertia near 1000 while 90% porous is about 60. Literature asteroid thermal inertias range from as high as 1000 to below 30; asteroid thermal inertias below 100 demand an extremely porous (>80%) surface.

Consolmagno, Guy; Macke, R. J.; Britt, D. T.

2013-10-01