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Sample records for spitzer 24mic cosmos

  1. New Results from the Spitzer-COSMOS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David B.; COSMOS Team

    2009-05-01

    The Spitzer-COSMOS survey (S-COSMOS) is a Legacy program (Cycles 2+3) that was designed to carry out a uniform deep survey of the full 2-deg2 COSMOS field in all seven IRAC + MIPS bands. We present the final IRAC-1234 and MIPS24,70,160 catalogs and images, and compare our differential source counts for the COSMOS field with other deep fields observed by Spitzer. New results from a study of a complete 70micron-selected sample of 1200 sources are also presented, including the variation in spectral energy distributions, optical morphology, and spectral type of the host galaxies of these luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Our S-COSMOS results are compared with similar studies of the population of LIRGs in the local universe.

  2. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 < z < 11, 3) trace the growth of stellar mass at 1 < z < 8 and the co-evolution of galaxies and their dark matter halos, 4) identify (proto)clusters and large scale structures, and 5) reveal dust enshrouded starbursts and the first quiescent galaxies at 3 < z < 6. The Spitzer Legacy over COSMOS will enable a wide range of discoveries beyond these science goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  3. SPITZER 70 AND 160 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Frayer, D. T.; Huynh, M. T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Fadda, D.; Helou, G.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Lee, N.; Surace, J. A.; Capak, P.; Murphy, E.; Aussel, H.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Fu, H.; Afonso-Luis, A.; Sargent, M. T.

    2009-11-15

    We present Spitzer 70 and 160 {mu}m observations of the COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS). The data processing techniques are discussed for the publicly released products consisting of images and source catalogs. We present accurate 70 and 160 {mu}m source counts of the COSMOS field and find reasonable agreement with measurements in other fields and with model predictions. The previously reported counts for GOODS-North and the extragalactic First Look Survey are updated with the latest calibration, and counts are measured based on the large area SWIRE survey to constrain the bright source counts. We measure an extragalactic confusion noise level of {sigma} {sub c} = 9.4 {+-} 3.3 mJy (q = 5) for the MIPS 160 {mu}m band based on the deep S-COSMOS data and report an updated confusion noise level of {sigma} {sub c} = 0.35 {+-} 0.15 mJy (q = 5) for the MIPS 70 {mu}m band.

  4. DEEP SPITZER 24 {mu}m COSMOS IMAGING. I. THE EVOLUTION OF LUMINOUS DUSTY GALAXIES-CONFRONTING THE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Riguccini, Laurie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Sanders, David; Aussel, Herve; Feruglio, Chiara; Frayer, David T.; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Scoville, Nick; Arnouts, Stephane; Surace, Jason; Sheth, Kartik; Yan Lin; Rodighiero, Giulia; Heinis, Sebastien; McCracken, Henry Joy; Thompson, David; Koekemoer, Anton

    2009-09-20

    We present the first results obtained from the identification of {approx}30,000 sources in the Spitzer/24 {mu}m observations of the COSMOS field at S{sub 24{mu}m} {approx}> 80 {mu}Jy. Using accurate photometric redshifts ({sigma} {sub z} {approx} 0.12 at z {approx} 2 for 24 {mu}m sources with i {sup +} {approx}< 25 mag AB) and simple extrapolations of the number counts at faint fluxes, we resolve with unprecedented detail the buildup of the mid-infrared background across cosmic ages. We find that {approx}50% and {approx}80% of the 24 {mu}m background intensity originate from galaxies at z {approx}< 1 and z {approx}< 2, respectively, supporting the scenario where highly obscured sources at very high redshifts (z {approx}> 2) contribute only marginally to the cosmic infrared background. Assuming flux-limited selections at optical wavelengths, we also find that the fraction of i {sup +}-band sources with 24 {mu}m detection strongly increases up to z {approx} 2 as a consequence of the rapid evolution that star-forming galaxies have undergone with look-back time. Nonetheless, this rising trend shows a clear break at z {approx} 1.3, probably due to k-correction effects implied by the complexity of spectral energy distributions in the mid-infrared. Finally, we compare our results with the predictions from different models of galaxy formation. We note that semianalytical formalisms currently fail to reproduce the redshift distributions observed at 24 {mu}m. Furthermore, the simulated galaxies at S {sub 24{mu}m} > 80 {mu}Jy exhibit R-K colors much bluer than observed and the predicted K-band fluxes are systematically underestimated at z {approx}> 0.5. Unless these discrepancies mainly result from an incorrect treatment of extinction in the models they may reflect an underestimate of the predicted density of high-redshift massive sources with strong ongoing star formation, which would point to more fundamental processes and/or parameters (e.g., initial mass function

  5. THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF SPITZER 24 mum GALAXIES IN THE COSMIC EVOLUTION SURVEY FIELD. II. FAINT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE zCOSMOS-BRIGHT 10k CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Aussel, H.; Floc'h, E. Le; Frayer, D.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Coppa, G.; Bongiorno, A.

    2009-12-20

    We have used the zCOSMOS-bright 10k sample to identify 3244 Spitzer/MIPS 24 mum-selected galaxies with 0.06 mJy < S{sub 24{sub m}}u{sub m} approx< 0.50 mJy and I{sub AB} < 22.5, over 1.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, and studied different spectral properties, depending on redshift. At 0.2 < z < 0.3, we found that different reddening laws of common use in the literature explain the dust extinction properties of approx80% of our infrared (IR) sources, within the error bars. For up to 16% of objects, instead, the Halpha lambda6563/Hbeta lambda4861 ratios are too high for their IR/UV attenuations, which is probably a consequence of inhomogeneous dust distributions. In only a few of our galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.3, the IR emission could be mainly produced by dust heated by old rather than young stars. Besides, the line ratios of approx22% of our galaxies suggest that they might be star-formation/nuclear-activity composite systems. At 0.5 < z < 0.7, we estimated galaxy metallicities for 301 galaxies: at least 12% of them are securely below the upper-branch mass-metallicity trend, which is consistent with the local relation. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the H{sub d}elta equivalent width versus D{sub n} (4000) diagram for 1722 faint and bright 24 mum galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.0, spanning two decades in mid-IR luminosity. We found that, while secondary bursts of star formation are necessary to explain the position of the most luminous IR galaxies in that diagram, quiescent, exponentially declining star formation histories can well reproduce the spectral properties of approx40% of the less luminous sources. Our results suggest a transition in the possible modes of star formation at total IR luminosities L{sub TIR} approx (3 +- 2) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}.

  6. Association between the AUC0-24/MIC Ratio of Vancomycin and Its Clinical Effectiveness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Men, Peng; Li, Hui-Bo; Zhai, Suo-Di; Zhao, Rong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background A target AUC0-24/MIC ratio of 400 has been associated with its clinical success when treating Staphylococcus aureus infections but is not currently supported by state-of-the-art evidence-based research. Objective This current systematic review aimed to evaluate the available evidence for the association between the AUC0-24/MIC ratio of vancomycin and its clinical effectiveness on hospitalized patients and to confirm the existing target value of 400. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, the Cochrane Library and two Chinese literature databases (CNKI, CBM) were systematically searched. Manual searching was also applied. Both RCTs and observational studies comparing the clinical outcomes of high AUC0-24/MIC groups versus low AUC0-24/MIC groups were eligible. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. The primary outcomes were mortality and infection treatment failure. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. Results No RCTs were retrieved. Nine cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Mortality rates were significantly lower in high AUC0-24/MIC groups (RR = 0.47, 95%CI = 0.31–0.70, p<0.001). The rates of infection treatment failure were also significantly lower in high AUC/MIC groups and were consistent after correcting for heterogeneity (RR = 0.39, 95%CI = 0.28–0.55, p = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that results were consistent whether MIC values were determined by broth microdilution (BMD) method or Etest method. In studies using the BMD method, breakpoints of AUC0-24/MIC all fell within 85% to 115% of 400. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated that achieving a high AUC0-24/MIC of vancomycin could significantly decrease mortality rates by 53% and rates of infection treatment failure by 61%, with 400 being a reasonable target. PMID:26731739

  7. First Results from the Spitzer Exploration Program Spitzer-CANDELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Willner, Steven P.

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution, we introduce the Spitzer-Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (S-CANDELS), a Cycle 8 Spitzer Exploration program. S-CANDELS has recently completed a very deep survey of five premier extragalactic survey fields: COSMOS, the EGS, the UDS, HDF-N, and ECDFS. S-CANDELS benefits from coextensive imaging in multiple near-infrared bands by the Multi-Cycle HST Treasury Program CANDELS. The S-CANDELS observations reach to 27 AB mag in both bands of warm Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). Here we present the S-CANDELS survey strategy and parameters, and describe the deepest source counts ever measured at these wavelengths, surpassing the SEDS counts by a full magnitude. Finally, we touch upon the implications for source confusion for upcoming planned and proposed missions such as JWST and WISH.

  8. The Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Filippenko, Alex

    2013-10-01

    Preface; About the authors; 1. A grand tour of the heavens; 2. Light, matter and energy: powering the Universe; 3. Light and telescopes: extending our senses; 4. Observing the stars and planets: clockwork of the Universe; 5. Gravitation and motion: the early history of astronomy; 6. The terrestrial planets: Earth, Moon, and their relatives; 7. The Jovian planets: windswept giants; 8. Pluto, comets, and space debris; 9. Our Solar System and others; 10. Our star: the Sun; 11. Stars: distant suns; 12. How the stars shine: cosmic furnaces; 13. The death of stars: recycling; 14. Black holes: the end of space and time; 15. The Milky Way: our home in the Universe; 16. A Universe of galaxies; 17. Quasars and active galaxies; 18. Cosmology: the birth and life of the cosmos; 19. In the beginning; 20. Life in the Universe; Epilogue; Appendices; Selected readings; Glossary; Index.

  9. Cosmos 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.; Hodgson, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The 6 weeks preflight activities of the Cosmos project during 1993 included: modification of EMG connector to improve the reliability of EMG recording; 24 hour cage activity recording from all but two of the flight animals (monkeys); attempts to record from flight candidates during foot lever task; and force transducer calibrations on all flight candidate animals. The 4 week postflight recordings included: postflight recordings from flight animals; postflight recordings on 3 control (non-flight) animals; postflight recalibration of force transducers on 1 flight and 4 control (non-flight) animals; and attempts to record EMG and video data from the flight animals during postflight locomotion and postural activity. The flight EMG recordings suggest that significant changes in muscle control may occur in spaceflight. It is also clear from recordings that levels of EMG recorded during spaceflight can attain values similar to those measured on earth. Amplifier gain settings should therefore probably not be changed for spaceflight.

  10. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  11. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  12. First results from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Team

    2014-01-01

    The equatorial 2 deg2 COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, from an outstanding survey effort, and that all large telescopes can observe. During 2013, this pioneering and ambitious COSMOS survey had a major extension, pushing its frontiers via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved, plus new deep Spitzer, JVLA and NuSTAR surveys all aimed to study the formation of the structures in the high redshift Universe and the role of active super massive black holes. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 deg2 COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth. This project expands the deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). The survey consists of 56x50 ks tiles covering a total area of 2.2 deg2 yelding a sample of ~4000 X-ray sources. In this poster we present the first results on the survey and we concentrate on the high redshift z>3 sample.

  13. Carl Sagan Cosmos Voyager

    NASA Video Gallery

    Excerpt from "Cosmos", read by Carl Sagan, part of the NASA.gov multimedia piece celebrating NASA's 50th anniversary in 2008. Used by permission of Carl Sagan Associates. To see the whole interacti...

  14. Signals from the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  15. Visualizing the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Space, as Douglas Adams once wrote, is big. Really big. But just how big is it? And what else, aside from our own planet Earth, is out there in it? Cosmos: the Infographic Book of Space answers these questions in a stunning fashion, but to describe it as a beautiful book full of interesting facts does not do it justice.

  16. Engines for the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.; Reisz, Al; Wyckoff, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Galactic forces spiral across the cosmos fueled by nuclear fission and fusion and atoms in plasmatic states with throes of constraints of gravitational forces and magnetic fields, In their wanderings these galaxies spew light, radiation, atomic and subatomic particles throughout the universe. Throughout the ages of man visions of journeying through the stars have been wondered. If humans and human devices from Earth are to go beyond the Moon and journey into deep space, it must be accomplished with like forces of the cosmos such as electrical fields, magnetic fields, ions, electrons and energies generated from the manipulation of subatomic and atomic particles. Forms of electromagnetic waves such as light, radio waves and lasers must control deep space engines. We won't get far on our Earth accustomed hydrocarbon fuels.

  17. Cosmos: 1989 immunology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    The effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM were determined. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies performed on Cosmos 1887. Spleen and bone marrow cells were obtained from flown, vivarium control, synchronous control, and suspended rats. The cells were stained with a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against rat leukocyte cell surface antigens. Control cells were stained with a monoclonal antibody directed against an irrelevant species or were unstained. Cells were then analyzed for fluorescence using a FACSCAN flow cytometer. Bone marrow cells were placed in culture with GM-CSF in McCoy's 5a medium and incubated for 5 days. Cultures were then evaluated for the number of colonies of 50 cells or greater.

  18. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: A New Window to the Obscured and Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; Elvis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F.; Urry, C. M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Scoville, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Donley, J.; Allevato, V.; Silverman, J.; Treister, E.; Capak, P. L.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Alexander, D.; D'Abrusco, R.; Finoguenov, A.; Fruscione, A.; Glikman, E.; Hao, H.; Jahnke, K.; Karim, A.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Leauthaud, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Vignali, C.; Fiore, F.; Puccetti, S.; Ranalli, P.; Smolcic, V.; Riguccini, L.; Sargent, M.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Gilli, R.

    2013-01-01

    The equatorial 2 deg2 COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, from an outstanding survey effort, and that all large telescopes can observe. Now, this pioneering and ambitious COSMOS survey is undergoing major extension, pushing its frontiers via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved.'COSMOS-Legacy' will uniformly cover the 1.7 deg2 COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth. This project expands the current deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). This will be achieved with 56x50 ks tiles covering a total area of 2.2 deg2, which will be observed during Chandra Cycle 14. The area and depth of COSMOS Legacy are designed to detect ~40 z>4, and ~4 z>5 Large Scale Structures on >15 arcmin scales. These structures have proven to connect luminous AGN (over 200 at z>3 will be detected) and sub-mm galaxies. COSMOS Legacy will also probe mini-quasars at z>7, using anistotropies of the unresolved X-ray Background, and the masses of the Dark Matter halos hosting X-ray AGN up to 3, via autocorrelation functions on ~30arcmin scales. To fully achieve these goals, COSMOS Legacy is complemented by spectroscopic follow-up with DEIMOS and MOSFIRE at Keck and KMOS at the VLT and FMOS at Subaru, just approved observations with Spitzer and JVLA, and with harder (5-80 keV) X-ray imaging with NuSTAR. In the near future, observations with Subaru HyperSuprimeCam (grizY) to r(AB)=28.2 are planned.

  19. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  20. The New Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, David J.; Filippenko, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Foreword Alex Filippenko; 1. The awakening of astronomy; 2. How the Sun will die; 3. The end of life on Earth; 4. How the moon formed; 5. Where has all the water gone?; 6. Why did Venus turn inside-out?; 7. Is Pluto a planet?; 8. Planets everywhere; 9. The Milky Way as barred spiral; 10. Here comes Milkomeda; 11. The Big Bang's cosmic echo; 12. How large is the universe?; 13. The mystery of dark matter; 14. The bigger mystery of dark energy; 15. Black holes are ubiquitous; 16. What is the universe's fate?; 17. The meaning of life in the cosmos; Glossary; Bibliography; Index.

  1. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  2. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  3. Cosmos 1887 - Science overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty two groups of U.S. investigators participated in joint studies of ten male rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. A summary of these studies embracing skeletal muscle, bone, endocrine, neural, intestinal, metabolic, immunology, cardiac, and gonadal investigations is presented. Three general objectives of the rat experiments are outlined - verification of previous observations of the biological responses to microgravity; clarification of the effects of microgravity on both the tissues investigated and the measurements performed; and relation of biological responses to flight duration. It is concluded that the first objective is met fully and the second with a varying degree of success. The confounding effects of overshooting the designated landing site and delayed recovery of the animals largely precluded meeting the last objective. It is also noted that investigations were performed for the first time on brain and spinal cord enzymes, a neurotransmitter, transmitter receptors, hypothalamic regulatory factors, pineal metabolites, atrial granules, liver histology, and jejunal mitotic rate in spaceflight animals.

  4. Spitzer Spies Spectacular Sombrero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes on one of the most famous objects in the sky, Messier 104, also called the Sombrero galaxy. In this striking infrared picture, Spitzer sees an exciting new view of a galaxy that in visible light has been likened to a 'sombrero,' but here looks more like a 'bulls-eye.'

    Recent observations using Spitzer's infrared array camera uncovered the bright, smooth ring of dust circling the galaxy, seen in red. In visible light, because this galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, only the near rim of dust can be clearly seen in silhouette. Spitzer's full view shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star-forming regions.

    Spitzer's infrared view of the starlight from this galaxy, seen in blue, can pierce through obscuring murky dust that dominates in visible light. As a result, the full extent of the bulge of stars and an otherwise hidden disk of stars within the dust ring are easily seen.

    The Sombrero galaxy is located some 28 million light years away. Viewed from Earth, it is just six degrees south of its equatorial plane. Spitzer detected infrared emission not only from the ring, but from the center of the galaxy too, where there is a huge black hole, believed to be a billion times more massive than our Sun.

    This picture is composed of four images taken at 3.6 (blue), 4.5 (green), 5.8 (orange), and 8.0 (red) microns. The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8 and 8-micron images to enhance the visibility of the dust features.

    In figure 1, the new picture of Messier 104 combines a recent infrared observation from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope with a well

  5. Spitzer Spies Spectacular Sombrero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes on one of the most famous objects in the sky, Messier 104, also called the Sombrero galaxy. In this striking infrared picture, Spitzer sees an exciting new view of a galaxy that in visible light has been likened to a 'sombrero,' but here looks more like a 'bulls-eye.'

    Recent observations using Spitzer's infrared array camera uncovered the bright, smooth ring of dust circling the galaxy, seen in red. In visible light, because this galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, only the near rim of dust can be clearly seen in silhouette. Spitzer's full view shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star-forming regions.

    Spitzer's infrared view of the starlight from this galaxy, seen in blue, can pierce through obscuring murky dust that dominates in visible light. As a result, the full extent of the bulge of stars and an otherwise hidden disk of stars within the dust ring are easily seen.

    The Sombrero galaxy is located some 28 million light years away. Viewed from Earth, it is just six degrees south of its equatorial plane. Spitzer detected infrared emission not only from the ring, but from the center of the galaxy too, where there is a huge black hole, believed to be a billion times more massive than our Sun.

    This picture is composed of four images taken at 3.6 (blue), 4.5 (green), 5.8 (orange), and 8.0 (red) microns. The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8 and 8-micron images to enhance the visibility of the dust features.

    In figure 1, the new picture of Messier 104 combines a recent infrared observation from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope with a well

  6. SPLASH: Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Aussel, Herve; Bundy, Kevin; Bethermin, Matthieu; Carollo, Marcella; Ram-Chary, Ranga; Civano, Francesca; Coupon, Jean; Diener, Catrina; Donley, Jennifer; Dunlop, Jim; Elvis, Martin; Faisst, Andreas; Foucaud, Sebastien; Green, Jenny; Gunn, Jim; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hassinger, Gunther; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Huang, Lijin; Ilbert, Olivier; LeFloc'h, Emeric; LeFevre, Olivier; Lilly, Simon; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mobasher, Bahram; Moriya, Takashi; Nagao, Tohru; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Massami; Petric, Andrea; Pych, Wojtek; Quimby, Robert; Saito, Tomoki; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, Dave; Scarlata, Claudia; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick; Sheth, Kartik; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Silverman, John; Smolcic, Vernesa; Steinhardt, Charles; Strauss, Michael; Surace, Jason; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tanaka, Massayuki; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Teplitz, Harry; Toshida, Naoki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Urata, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    We propose 1650h to complete SPLASH, building a foundation for comprehensive investigations of the earliest stages of galaxy, AGN and large-scale structure formation on cosmologically important scales, providing deep mid-IR imaging for two major 1.8deg^2 fields (COSMOS and SXDS). These two fields have been the target of, and are scheduled for, unparalleled deep imaging in the optical, sub-mm and radio. The Spitzer data are essential for immediate science goals and the legacy of these unique equatorial fields. The major science enabled by the proposed Spitzer observations includes: the co-evolution of cosmic large scale structure and the assembly and growth of galaxies and AGN; understanding the relative importance of smooth gas accretion vs. mergers for galaxy growth in the early universe; probing re-ionization through Infrared Background Fluctuations; constraining the Initial Mass Function at high redshift, AGN activity in the early universe, and the physics of supernova through transient studies. None of these are possible with existing Spitzer surveys. The two fields proposed here will have unique, Hyper-Suprime-Cam (HSC) imaging (to ~27-28 magAB for broad bands across the 0.4-1.0um wavelength range) and science will be immediately enabled by Spitzer using pre-existing deep X-ray to radio multi-wavelength data, including: UV (Galex), X-ray (Chandra/XMM), optical (HST), near-infrared, mid-Infrared (Spitzer/Herschel), sub-mm, and radio. The COSMOS field is the primary deep field for the Nu-Star mission and both fields have been ranked as high priority deep-field targets for Euclid. These fields also have extensive spectroscopy with Keck (>50nt), Subaru-FMOS (>30nt), VLT (>1000h), and are the primary targets for the future Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) surveys. The legacy impact of these data will be enormous, and will provide a treasure trove of targets for JWST. This is part 1 (SXDS) of the awarded time.

  7. SPLASH: Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Aussel, Herve; Bundy, Kevin; Carollo, Marcella; Ram-Chary, Ranga; Civano, Francesca; Coupon, Jean; Diener, Catrina; Donley, Jenifer; Dunlop, Jim; Elvis, Martin; Foucaud, Sebastien; Green, Jenny; Gunn, Jim; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hassinger, Gunther; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Huang, Lijin; Ilbert, Olivier; LeFloc'h, Emeric; LeFevre, Olivier; Lilly, Simon; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mobasher, Bahram; Moriya, Takashi; Nagao, Tohru; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Massami; Quimby, Robert; Saito, Tomoki; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, Dave; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Silverman, John; Smolcic, Vernesa; Strauss, Michael; Surace, Jason; Tanaka, Massayuki; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Teplitz, Harry; Wang, Wei-Hao; Urata, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    We propose a 2475h survey to build the foundation for comprehensive investigations of the earliest stages of galaxy, AGN and large-scale structure formation on cosmologically important scales, providing deep mid-IR imaging for two major 1.8deg^2 fields (COSMOS and SXDS). These two fields have been the target of, and are scheduled for, unparalleled deep imaging in the optical, sub-mm and radio. The Spitzer data is essential for immediate science goals and the legacy of these unique equatorial fields. The major science enabled by the proposed Spitzer observations includes: the co-evolution of cosmic large scale structure and the assembly and growth of galaxies and AGN; understanding the relative importance of smooth gas accretion vs. mergers for galaxy growth in the early universe; probing re-ionization through Infrared Background Fluctuations; constraining the Initial Mass Function at high redshift, AGN activity in the early universe, and the physics of supernova through transient studies. None of these are possible with existing Spitzer surveys, which are limited by both insufficient contiguous area, insufficient depth of ancillary data and/or temporal cadence. The two fields proposed here will have unique, Hyper-Suprime-Cam (HSC) imaging (to ~27-28 magAB for broad bands across the 0.4?1.0um wavelength range) and science will be immediately enabled by Spitzer using pre-existing deep X-ray to radio multi-wavelength data, including: UV (Galex), X-ray (Chandra/XMM), optical (HST), near-infrared, mid-Infrared (Spitzer/Herschel), sub-mm, and radio. The COSMOS field is the primary deep field for the Nu-Star mission and both fields have been ranked as high priority deep-field targets for Euclid. These fields also have extensive spectroscopy with Keck (>50nt), Subaru-FMOS (>30nt), VLT (>1000h), and are the primary targets for the future Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) surveys. The legacy impact of these data will be enormous, and will provide a treasure trove of

  8. Featured Image: Spitzer Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    These three galaxies (click for a full view!) were imaged as a part of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), a recent survey of 2352 nearby galaxies with deep imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 m. The bottom panels show false-color near-UV and far-UV images previously obtained with GALEX. The top panels show the new images obtained with Spitzer as part of S4G. The three galaxies shown here represent three types of galaxies that have a high concentration of mass in their centers, yet still have a high specific star-formation rate (the star formation rate per unit stellar mass):Barred galaxies with a prominent ring around their nucleus, like NGC 7552Interacting systems, like NGC 2782Galaxies with compact bulges and smooth extended disks, like NGC 3642To learn why this is the case, and to see more results from S4G, see the original paper below.CitationJuan Carlos Muoz-Mateos et al 2015 ApJS 219 3. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/219/1/3

  9. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  10. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  11. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  12. First Results from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: A New Window on the High-z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey Team

    2013-04-01

    The 2 sq.deg. COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, thanks to an outstanding survey effort over nearly a decade. Now, the COSMOS survey is undergoing major extensions, via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey ('COSMOS-Legacy') and other programs. COSMOS-Legacy is the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved. COSMOS-Legacy will uniformly cover the 1.7 sq.deg. COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth, expanding the deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 erg/cm2/s (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). A total area of 2.2 deg2 will be covered. The first ten 50ks tiles (as of Jan 2013), out of 56 tiles, have been observed. At least other twenty are scheduled by the end of March 2013. At the same time NuSTAR is observing COSMOS for 3 Msec in the harder (5-80 keV) band to 5e-14 cgs (10-30 keV) complementing the Chandra observations. The area and depth of COSMOS Legacy are designed to detect ~40 z>4, and ~4 z>5 Large Scale Structures on >15 arcmin scales. These proto-structures have proven to connect luminous AGN and sub-mm galaxies in the early Universe. Over 200 z>3 X-ray AGN (below and above Lx=10^44) are expected, many of which should lie in these structures. To fully characterize the high-z X-ray sources in the structures, COSMOS Legacy is supported by spectroscopic follow-up observations (DEIMOS and MOSFIRE at Keck, KMOS at the VLT, FMOS at Subaru). New deep imaging surveys with Spitzer and JVLA are underway to define the properties of the galaxies in the structures up to 7. Extremely deep, r_{AB}=28.2, optical imaging in grizY are planned with the new HyperSuprimeCam on Subaru as well.

  13. Quasars in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. K. M.; Impey, C. D.; Cool, R. J.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2006-06-01

    We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 336 quasar candidates in the COSMOS HST Treasury field using the MMT 6.5 m telescope and the Hectospec multiobject spectrograph. Candidates were drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR1 catalog using quasar flags set by the SDSS multicolor quasar target selection algorithm. In this paper we present our discovery spectra from 1.39 deg2 (69.5% of the COSMOS field) and a discussion of the selection method and yields. We confirmed 95 quasars, including at least two BAL quasars; 80 of these are new quasars that do not appear in previous quasar confirmation follow-up studies. The candidates additionally included 184 compact emission-line galaxies, a third of which are likely type 2 AGNs, and 12 stars. The quasars span a range in magnitude of 18.3COSMOS field. This work is the first step toward the eventual goal of setting up a grid of quasar absorption line probes of the 2 deg2 field and of conducting a complete census of supermassive black holes in this well-studied survey region. The total quasar count at the conclusion of this study is 139, making COSMOS one of the most densely sampled regions of sky where a grid of quasar sight lines can be used to probe the intervening volume.

  14. The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1 < z < 6 Universe with Half a Million Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Hsieh, B. C.; Davidzon, I.; Capak, P.; Hasinger, G.; Silverman, J. D.; Pichon, C.; Coupon, J.; Aussel, H.; Le Borgne, D.; Caputi, K.; Cassata, P.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Civano, F.; Dunlop, J.; Fynbo, J.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Le Floc’h, E.; Leauthaud, A.; Lilly, S.; Lin, L.; Marchesi, S.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Smolcic, V.; Stockmann, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S.; Vaccari, Mattia; Zabl, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present the COSMOS201524 catalog, which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg2 COSMOS field. Including new {{YJHK}}{{s}} images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, Y-band images from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam, and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early universe. To maximize catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a χ 2 sum of the {{YJHK}}{{s}} and z ++ images. The catalog contains ∼ 6× {10}5 objects in the 1.5 deg2 UltraVISTA-DR2 region and ∼ 1.5× {10}5 objects are detected in the “ultra-deep stripes” (0.62 deg2) at {K}{{s}}≤slant 24.7 (3σ, 3″, AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift precision of {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.007 and a catastrophic failure fraction of η = 0.5%. At 3\\lt z\\lt 6, using the unique database of spectroscopic redshifts in COSMOS, we find {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.021 and η = 13.2 % . The deepest regions reach a 90% completeness limit of {10}10{M}ȯ to z = 4. Detailed comparisons of the color distributions, number counts, and clustering show excellent agreement with the literature in the same mass ranges. COSMOS2015 represents a unique, publicly available, valuable resource with which to investigate the evolution of galaxies within their environment back to the earliest stages of the history of the universe. The COSMOS2015 catalog is distributed via anonymous ftp and through the usual astronomical archive systems (CDS, ESO Phase 3, IRSA).

  15. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 < z < 2 is a key epoch in this respect: elliptical galaxies start to become the dominant population in cluster cores, and star formation in spiral galaxies is being quenched. Until recently, however, this redshift range was essentially unreachable with available instrumentation, with clusters at these redshifts exceedingly challenging to identify from either ground-based optical/nearinfrared imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys

  16. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version

    Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds.

    W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours.

    Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars.

    This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities.

    This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

  17. Seven Wonders of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1999-04-01

    Our cosmic tour begins here. As we leave the secure confines of the Earth and journey into space, we find a plethora of strange and unexpected phenomena. Little can we anticipate from the quiet, star-studded sky the violent events in the cosmos. Stars explode. Powerful radio sources eject matter in jets. The ever-changing Universe grows more beautiful and more complex the deeper into it we go. Professor Narlikar skillfully steers us through a cosmic journey of discovery, starting from the Earth and Solar System and stepping out to the farthest reaches of the Universe. Using simple analogies, humorous anecdotes, and a wealth of illustrations, he conveys the thrill of observing strange and surprising features of the Universe. The seven wonders represent a range of mysterious phenomena, a class of spectacular events, or remarkable cosmic objects that have challenged human curiosity and defied explanation. They concern the giants and dwarfs of the stellar world, the catastrophic explosion of massive stars, pulsars--the ultimate timekeepers of the cosmos, the strange effects of gravity, illusions of space, and the majestic expansion of the Universe as a whole. With lucid prose, the author weaves together a host of exciting recent discoveries in astronomy and shows us how these motivate astronomers to unravel the wonders of tomorrow.

  18. Station Astronauts Do Experiment for 'Cosmos'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 38 Commander Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA help 'Cosmos' host Neil deGrasse...

  19. Q&A: Creations from the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohn, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Artist Karel Nel works with astronomers from COSMOS, the global Cosmic Evolution Survey that is mapping galaxies and dark matter. Now exhibiting his work in London, he tells Nature how his view of the Universe has changed.

  20. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  1. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Stefano; Civano, Francesca M.; Elvis, Martin; Urry, C. Megan; Comastri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The COSMOS field is the only large (2 sq. deg.) field for which complete, deep, panchromatic data exist and which all large telescopes can observe due to its equatorial location. In 2013, the COSMOS survey was greatly extended, thanks to the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest extragalactic Chandra project ever approved. This survey is aimed at studying the formation of the structures in the high redshift Universe and understanding the role active super massive black holes played in their evolution. With 56 overlapping ACIS-I pointings of 50-ksec depth each, the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 sq. deg. COSMOS/HST field to ~160 ksec depth, with a total of 2.8 Ms exposure time. This triples the area of the earlier deep C-COSMOS survey (limiting flux ~3e-16 ergs/cm2/s in the 0.5-2 keV band), and together these two projects cover a total area of 2.2 sq. deg., yielding a sample of ~4200 X-ray sources. We present the survey properties, the procedure adopted to obtain our final catalog and the first scientific highlights, focusing on the high redshift (z>3) sample.

  2. Spitzer Digs Up Galactic Fossil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a globular cluster previously hidden in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy. Globular clusters are compact bundles of old stars that date back to the birth of our galaxy, 13 or so billion years ago. Astronomers use these galactic 'fossils' as tools for studying the age and formation of the Milky Way.

    Most clusters orbit around the center of the galaxy well above its dust-enshrouded disc, or plane, while making brief, repeated passes through the plane that each last about a million years. Spitzer, with infrared eyes that can see into the dusty galactic plane, first spotted the newfound cluster during its current pass. A visible-light image (inset of Figure 1) shows only a dark patch of sky.

    The red streak behind the core of the cluster is a dust cloud, which may indicate the cluster's interaction with the Milky Way. Alternatively, this cloud may lie coincidentally along Spitzer's line of sight.

    Follow-up observations with the University of Wyoming Infrared Observatory helped set the distance of the new cluster at about 9,000 light-years from Earth - closer than most clusters - and set the mass at the equivalent of 300,000 Suns. The cluster's apparent size, as viewed from Earth, is comparable to a grain of rice held at arm's length. It is located in the constellation Aquila.

    Astronomers believe that this cluster may be one of the last in our galaxy to be uncovered.

    This image composite was taken on April 21, 2004, by Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

    Galactic Fossil Found Behind Curtain of Dust In Figure 2, the image mosaic shows the same patch of sky in various wavelengths of light. While the

  3. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version

    Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming.

    W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours.

    Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars.

    This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities.

    This picture was taken with Spitzer's infrared array camera. It is a four-color composite, in which light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns is blue; 4.5-micron light is green; 5.8-micron light is orange; and 8-micron light is red.

  4. Muscle Feasibility for Cosmos Rhesus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie (Principal Investigator); Roland, Roy R.; Hodgson, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The following tasks were proposed for the Cosmos project: 1) Complete recordings of all preflight candidates during performance of a foot pedal motor control task while in the space capsule mock-up. 2) Complete recordings of all preflight candidates during locomotion and postural tasks. 3) Complete recordings of 24-hour spontaneous cage activity in the two flight monkeys before and after flight and of at least three control (non-flight) monkeys after the flight has been completed. 4) Complete recordings of the foot pedal and motor control tasks during flight and postflight as scheduled. 5) Complete recordings of the vertical drop test pre, during and postflight for the two flight and three control monkeys. 6) Complete recordings of locomotion and posture tests of the two flight monkeys postflight. 7) Complete recordings of locomotion and postural tests of at least three control (non-flight) monkeys during the postflight period. 8) Recalibrate buckles of the two flight and of at least three control monkeys postflight. 9) Complete analysis of the 24 hour EMG recordings of all monkeys. 10) Complete analysis of the foot pedal, locomotor and postural motor control tasks for the two flight and three control monkeys. It was proposed that efforts in the first postflight year be concentrated on the two flight animals and three postflight animals.

  5. Searching for Distant Galaxies with HST and Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senchyna, Peter; Ashby, Matthew; Hora, Joseph L.; Candels, S.-Candels

    2015-01-01

    The recently completed Spitzer-Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (S-CANDELS) provides an extremely deep NIR view of five extragalactic fields: COSMOS, EGS, UDS, HDF-N, and ECDFS. The addition of this deep near-infrared photometry to the existing CANDELS HST imaging is expected to improve redshift and stellar population parameter estimation, and enable selection of galaxies to higher redshift by capturing the 4000 Angstrom break out to 3.6 microns. Here we present an isolated galaxy sample based upon IRAC detection that is free from the effects of source confusion. The sample includes both objects for which CANDELS HST photometry is available, and a small number of objects detected by S-CANDELS but not by WFC3/F160W. We derive photometric redshifts for the matched objects, and demonstrate the efficacy of an IRAC color cut in selecting high-redshift sources. In addition, we apply aperture photometry to the HST images of apparent F160W dropouts. We explore the properties of the high-significance dropouts at other wavelengths, and attempt to distinguish between heavily-shrouded AGN and sources at redshift greater than 7.This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  6. Spitzer - Hot & Colorful Student Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, D.; Rebull, L. M.; DeWolf, C.; Guastella, P.; Johnson, C. H.; Schaefers, J.; Spuck, T.; McDonald, J. G., III; DeWolf, T.; Brock, S.; Boerma, J.; Bemis, G.; Paulsen, K.; Yueh, N.; Peter, A.; Wassmer, W.; Haber, R.; Scaramucci, A.; Butchart, J.; Holcomb, A.; Karns, B.; Kennedy, S.; Siegel, R.; Weiser, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this poster, we present the results of several activities developed for the general science student to explore infrared light. The first activity involved measuring infrared radiation using an updated version of Newton's experiment of splitting white light and finding IR radiation. The second used Leslie's cube to allow students to observe different radiators, while the third used a modern infrared thermometer to measure and identify IR sources in an enclosed box. The last activity involved students making false-color images from narrow-band filter images from data sets from Spitzer Space Telescope, STScI Digitized Sky Survey and other sources. Using computer programs like Adobe Photoshop and free software such as ds9, Spot and Leopard, poster-like images were created by the students. This research is funded by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Please see our companion poster, Johnson et al., on the science aspect of this program, and another poster on the educational aspects, Guastella et al.

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF IC 2118

    SciTech Connect

    Guieu, S.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Cole, D. M.; Flagey, N.; Laher, R.; Stolovy, S.; Spuck, T.; Roelofsen Moody, T.; Sepulveda, B.; Weehler, C.; Maranto, A.; Penprase, B.; Ramirez, S.

    2010-09-01

    IC 2118, also known as the Witch Head Nebula, is a wispy, roughly cometary, {approx}5 degree long reflection nebula, and is thought to be a site of triggered star formation. In order to search for new young stellar objects (YSOs), we have observed this region in seven mid- and far-infrared bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope and in four bands in the optical using the U. S. Naval Observatory 40 inch telescope. We find infrared excesses in four of the six previously known T Tauri stars in our combined infrared maps, and we find six entirely new candidate YSOs, one of which may be an edge-on disk. Most of the YSOs seen in the infrared are Class II objects, and they are all in the 'head' of the nebula, within the most massive molecular cloud of the region.

  8. Spitzer Observations of IC 2118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, S.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Vrba, F. J.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Spuck, T.; Roelofsen Moody, T.; Sepulveda, B.; Weehler, C.; Maranto, A.; Cole, D. M.; Flagey, N.; Laher, R.; Penprase, B.; Ramirez, S.; Stolovy, S.

    2010-09-01

    IC 2118, also known as the Witch Head Nebula, is a wispy, roughly cometary, ~5 degree long reflection nebula, and is thought to be a site of triggered star formation. In order to search for new young stellar objects (YSOs), we have observed this region in seven mid- and far-infrared bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope and in four bands in the optical using the U. S. Naval Observatory 40 inch telescope. We find infrared excesses in four of the six previously known T Tauri stars in our combined infrared maps, and we find six entirely new candidate YSOs, one of which may be an edge-on disk. Most of the YSOs seen in the infrared are Class II objects, and they are all in the "head" of the nebula, within the most massive molecular cloud of the region.

  9. Spitzer observations of adolescent novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Aneurin; Gehrz, Robert; Helton, Andrew; Krautter, Joachim; Lyke, James; Polomsky, Elisha; Rushton, Mark; Salama, Alberto; Shore, Steven; Starrfield, Sumner; Truran, James; Wagner, R. Mark; Woodward, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Classical novae (CNe) offer the best opportunity to observe many astrophysical processes (such as dust formation and processing, shaping of nebulae, gas cooling by IR fine structure lines) in `fast forward'. The CN eruption arises following a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a white dwarf in a semi-detached binary system, following which some 10^-4 Msun of material, enriched in metals, is explosively ejected at ~1000km/s. Following the eruption, CNe vary rapidly, on a timescale ~months, and this necessitates continuous monitoring. Several novae were observed in GO1 as targets-of-opportunity (ToO). We propose to use the Spitzer IRS to observe a sample of novae, including GO1 ToO and several recent (<20years) CNe, to provide us with a well-populated CN parameter space. We aim to determine (i) the ejecta masses, (ii) abundances in the ejected material, (iii) evolution and processing of the CN dust.

  10. Spitzer Digs Up Hidden Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 3-Panel Version Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible Light Figure 2 Infrared (IRAC) Figure 3 Combined Figure 4

    Two rambunctious young stars are destroying their natal dust cloud with powerful jets of radiation, in an infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The stars are located approximately 600 light-years away in a cosmic cloud called BHR 71. In visible light (left panel), BHR 71 is just a large black structure. The burst of yellow light toward the bottom of the cloud is the only indication that stars might be forming inside. In infrared light (center panel), the baby stars are shown as the bright yellow smudges toward the center. Both of these yellow spots have wisps of green shooting out of them. The green wisps reveal the beginning of a jet. Like a rainbow, the jet begins as green, then transitions to orange, and red toward the end. The combined visible-light and infrared composite (right panel) shows that a young star's powerful jet is responsible for the rupture at the bottom of the dense cloud in the visible-light image. Astronomers know this because burst of light in the visible-light image overlaps exactly with a jet spouting-out of the left star, in the infrared image.

    The jets' changing colors reveal a cooling effect, and may suggest that the young stars are spouting out radiation in regular bursts. The green tints at the beginning of the jet reveal really hot hydrogen gas, the orange shows warm gas, and the reddish wisps at the end represent the coolest gas. The fact that gas toward the beginning of the jet is hotter than gas near the middle suggests that the stars must give off regular bursts of energy -- and the material closest to the star is being heated by shockwaves from a recent stellar outburst. Meanwhile, the tints of orange reveal gas that is

  11. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  12. Spitzer Space Telescope : observatory desciption and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Keyur C.; Spath, Stuart R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, the last of the four Great Observatories commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was successfully launched on August 25, 2003 from Kennedy Space Center. The engineering systems for Spitzer were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, and Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. This paper provides an overview of Spitzer, a technical description of all the engineering subsystems, and the associated challenges involved in developing them to satisfy the mission requirements. In addition, this paper describes the performance of the engineering subsystems during the In-Orbit Checkout phase, the Science Verification phase, and the early portions of the Nominal Mission.

  13. NASA Facts, American Experiments on Cosmos 782.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is a summary report of the American experiments conducted on the Soviet Cosmos 782 satellite in November and December, l975. Each of the four passive and seven cooperating experiments developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are reviewed. (SL)

  14. Cosmos: An Information Retrieval System that Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Katherine; Grossman, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    Briefly described is the County of San Mateo Online System (COSMOS) which was developed and is used by the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC) to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Fugitive Information Data Organizer (FIDO) databases as well as the curriculum guides housed at SMERC. (TG)

  15. Education with Infrared Astronomy and Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemphill, Rosa; Blackwell, J. A.; Herrold, A.; Petroff, E.

    2007-12-01

    We present education and outreach results using our experiences involving the Spitzer Space Telescope project, Star Formation in High Redshift Clusters with Spitzer. The project is a collaboration between the Spitzer Science Center and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measured star formation rates in three galaxy clusters at intermediate redshifts. Six teachers were chosen for the program, each with an interest and involvement in astronomy education. From this project, lesson plans, public outreach, lectures and demonstrations were generated which better the understanding of infrared astronomy, multiwavelength astronomy, galaxy and star formation, and cosmology. The teacher mentors are Dr. Gregory Rudnick (NOAO), Dr. Rose Finn (Siena College), and Dr. Vandana Desai (Caltech). Please see the companion posters by Emily Petroff, Zak Schroeder, and Thomas Loughran, et al, for information concerning the science results.

  16. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. 1.75 h {sup -1} kpc SEPARATION DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z = 0.36 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Davis, Marc; Griffith, Roger L.; Stern, Daniel; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2009-09-01

    We present strong evidence for dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the z = 0.36 galaxy COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the galaxy shows a tidal tail, indicating that the galaxy recently underwent a merger, as well as two bright point sources near the galaxy's center. The luminosities of these sources (derived from the HST image) and their emission line flux ratios (derived from Keck/DEIMOS slit spectroscopy) suggest that both are AGNs and not star-forming regions or supernovae. Observations from zCOSMOS, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and the Very Large Array fortify the evidence for AGN activity. With HST imaging we measure a projected spatial offset between the two AGNs of 1.75 {+-} 0.03 h {sup -1} kpc, and with DEIMOS we measure a 150 {+-} 40 km s{sup -1} line-of-sight velocity offset between the two AGNs. Combined, these observations provide substantial evidence that COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a merger-remnant galaxy with dual AGNs.

  18. History of the Spitzer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    2006-12-01

    The Spitzer Telescope was launched more than 20 years after the original announcement of opportunity was released. During this long gestation period, the mission took a wide variety of forms and had to survive many political and managerial environments within NASA and in the US Government generally. Finally, approval to build the telescope was won at the height of the faster-better-cheaper era, but completing it extended beyond this phase. This poster shows the key steps in preserving the mission and why decision makers viewed it positively at critical points when it might have been killed. In the end, the scope of the mission was reduced by a factor of about five while still preserving much of its science capabilities. This reduction required a new way to streamline the science objectives by adopting a limited number of key programs and requiring that all features be justified in terms of those programs. This philosophy provided decision rules to carry out necessary descopes while preserving a coherent set of capabilities. In addition, the faster-better-cheaper guidelines requires use of a small launch vehicle, which was only possible by the invention of a new “warm launch” telescope concept, in which the telescope would cool primarily by radiation into space after launch. Both of these concepts are critical to the approach to future missions such as JWST. This work is partially supported by contract 1255094 from JPL/Caltech to the University of Arizona.

  19. Neptune Variability with SpitzerNeptune Variability with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John; Krick, Jessica; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean; Marley, Mark

    2015-12-01

    During Campaign 3 of the repurposed Kepler mission (dubbed K2), Kepler was used to obtain a long-duration, high-accuracy, fast cadence, optical light curve for Neptune. That light curve shows variability with peak-to-peak amplitude of order 2% and with remarkable structure due to the "beating" of several signals with similar periods. The data have been interpreted to be dominated by rotational modulation of discrete "clouds" in the planet's atmosphere, with the different periods corresponding to spots at different latitudes. Because approximately contemporaneous HST and Keck imaging of Neptune exists, it is possible to connect specific spots at specific latitudes to the specific periods identified in the periodogram. As a proof of concept for what could be a longer-duration observation that would be proposed in Cycle 13, we propose to obtain light curves for Neptune in both IRAC channels with the duration set equal to the planet's equatorial rate. Neptune has strong methane absorption bands that fall within Ch1 of IRAC; it also has strong emission lines from flourescently excited CO that fall in the Ch2 wavelength range. It is therefore possible that there could be rotational modulation of similar or larger amplitude in the IRAC channels as in the optical. If detected, the shape and amplitude of these variations could help constrain the vertical structure and composition of Neptune's atmosphere. Our proposed observation of Neptune is best done when Neptune shows as little apparent motion on the sky as possible. As seen from Spitzer, this next occurs on about Feb. 19 and Feb. 20, 2016.

  20. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  1. Cosmos 1129 - Spaceflight and bone changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

    1980-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were placed in orbit for an 18.5 day period aboard the Soviet Cosmos 1129 biological satellite. The skeletal changes which occurred during spaceflight were determined to be a reduced rate of periosteal bone formation in the tibial and humeral diaphyses, and a decreased trabecular bone volume and an increased fat content of the bone marrow in the proximal tibial metaphysis.

  2. Mining the Spitzer Legacy Science Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.; Squires, G.; Alexov, A.

    2005-12-01

    The original Spitzer Legacy Science Program is now approaching completion with the basic observations archived and the `enhanced' data products populating dedicated Spitzer and IRSA archives. To date the Legacy teams of C2D, FEPS, GLIMPSE, GOODS, SINGS and SWIRE have delivered more than half of the total planned `enhanced' data products to the public archives. The archives include fully reduced and calibrated imaging, spectra, and tabular data derived from the Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations, as well as ancillary ground-based imaging and spectroscopy. Science results are now flowing from the Legacy teams, addressing the fundamental questions that the Spitzer observations where designed and optimized to answer. However, the data archives are mostly untapped in their science potential, offering a rich resource for astronomical data mining. We describe the archives in detail, spanning their structure, content and accessibility. User friendly resources for mining the data are showcased, including the Spitzer Science Center archive tool Leopard and the Infrared Science Archive services Atlas and RADAR.

  3. Spitzer v. K2: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Crossfield (Deputy PI), Ian; Akeson, Rachel; Beichman, Charles; Benneke, Bjoern; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Deck, Katherine; Dressing, Courtney; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Livingston, John; Morales, Farisa; Petigura, Erik; Schlieder, Joshua; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2016-08-01

    We propose to build on our Cycles 11-12 program of Spitzer photometry of planets from the K2 survey by enlarging our sample to interesting exoplanets from the continuing K2 mission. Our team has shown that we can carry out this program end to end, starting with finding interesting candidate stars/planets in the K2 data stream, validating them using both proven Kepler techniques and ground-based observations, selecting and executing the Spitzer observations, and analyzing the Spitzer data in conjunction with the K2 data. To date we have observed or scheduled 38 transits/eclipses of 27 exoplanets. We will observe stars in K2 fields 0 through 15 and foresee executing over 60 AOR's on over 40 exoplanets. In the end, we expect to have a greatly improved characterization of exoplanets and their orbits than would be possible from the K2 data alone. This will be vital for JWST follow-up. In addition to improvements in ephemerides, these Spitzer observations will look for transit timing variations, analyze exoplanet atmospheres, study young exoplanets, and provde early TESS follow-up. This work will add substantially to the extensive exoplanet legacy of the Spitzer mission. This is a Generic Target proposal: The fields to be studied and their visibility windows are known, but until the K2 data is analyzed and the targets vetted, we cannot specify exact AORs.

  4. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized Community Earth System Models (COSMOS, version: COSMOS-landveg r2413, 2009) and document the procedures that we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo- and preindustrial (PI) time slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene, as simulated with our COSMOS setup and PRISM boundary conditions, is both warmer and wetter in the global mean than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  5. Spitzer Operations: Scheduling the Out Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, William A.; Effertz, Mark J.; Fisher, Mark E.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Mannings, Vincent; McElroy, Douglas B.; Scire, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Spitzer Warm Mission operations have remained robust and exceptionally efficient since the cryogenic mission ended in mid-2009. The distance to the now exceeds 1 AU, making telecommunications increasingly difficult; however, analysis has shown that two-way communication could be maintained through at least 2017 with minimal loss in observing efficiency. The science program continues to emphasize the characterization of exoplanets, time domain studies, and deep surveys, all of which can impose interesting scheduling constraints. Recent changes have significantly improved on-board data compression, which both enables certain high volume observations and reduces Spitzer's demand for competitive Deep Space Network resources.

  6. The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Feng, Y. Katherina; Fortney, Jonathan; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Michael; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Exoplanet phase curves are sure to be one of the main enduring legacies of Spitzer. They provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that will continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations for years to come. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions. Instead, a new potential trend is emerging, one that connects heat redistribution efficiency with planet rotation rate. We will test this hypothesis by performing Spitzer phase curve observations of seven exoplanets with physical properties that span the parameter space. We have identified high-contrast targets with short orbital periods around bright host stars to ensure the observations reveal robust phase curve results. Spitzer is uniquely suited for this program because we can achieve our primary goals using broadband photometry. Part of the phase curve legacy will be to combine our archived Spitzer data with transmission and dayside emission spectra from HST and JWST. Adding energy transport and cloud coverage constraints to the measured dayside abundances and thermal profiles will yield a fundamental understanding of these exoplanets' atmospheres that can be leveraged into new avenues of investigation.

  7. COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System). A Searcher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Superintendent of Schools, Redwood City, CA. Educational Resources Center.

    Operating procedures are explained for COSMOS (County of San Mateo Online System), a computerized information retrieval system designed for the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC), which provides interactive access to both ERIC and a local file of fugitive documents. COSMOS hardware and modem compatibility requirements are reviewed,…

  8. Photometric Redshift and Classification for the XMM-COSMOS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Rau, A.; Capak, P.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Buongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Caputi, K.; Civano, F.; Cook, R.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Impey, C. D.; Lamareille, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; McCarthy, P.; McCracken, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Murayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Schiminovich, D.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Silverman, J.; Smolčić, V.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Trump, J. R.; Urry, M.; Zamojski, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present photometric redshifts and spectral energy distribution (SED) classifications for a sample of 1542 optically identified sources detected with XMM in the COSMOS field. Our template fitting classifies 46 sources as stars and 464 as nonactive galaxies, while the remaining 1032 require templates with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution. High accuracy in the derived photometric redshifts was accomplished as the result of (1) photometry in up to 30 bands with high-significance detections, (2) a new set of SED templates, including 18 hybrids covering the far-UV to mid-infrared, which have been constructed by the combination of AGNs and nonactive galaxies templates, and (3) multiepoch observations that have been used to correct for variability (most important for type 1 AGNs). The reliability of the photometric redshifts is evaluated using the subsample of 442 sources with measured spectroscopic redshifts. We achieved an accuracy of σ _{Δ z/(1+z_spec)} = 0.014 for i* AB < 22.5 (σ _{Δ z/(1+z_spec)} ˜ 0.015 for i* AB < 24.5). The high accuracies were accomplished for both type 2 (where the SED is often dominated by the host galaxy) and type 1 AGNs and QSOs out to z = 4.5. The number of outliers is a large improvement over previous photometric redshift estimates for X-ray-selected sources (4.0% and 4.8% outliers for i* AB < 22.5 and i* AB < 24.5, respectively). We show that the intermediate band photometry is vital to achieving accurate photometric redshifts for AGNs, whereas the broad SED coverage provided by mid-infrared (Spitzer/IRAC) bands is important to reduce the number of outliers for normal galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion

  9. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to spaceflight: Cosmos rhesus project. Cosmos 2044 and 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1994-01-01

    The proposed experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medial gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These effects were assessed by examining the biochemical and morphological properties of muscle fibers obtained from biopsies in young Rhesus monkeys (3-4 Kg). Biopsies taken from ground base experiments were analyzed to determine: (1) the effects of chair restraint at 1 G on muscle properties and (2) the growth rate of flexor and extensor muscles in the Rhesus. In addition, two sets of biopsies were taken from monkeys which were in the flight pool and the four monkeys that flew on the Cosmos 2044 and 2229 biosatellite missions. Based on data collected in rats it is generally assumed that extensors atrophy to a greater extent than flexors in response to spaceflight or hindlimb suspension. Consequently, the finding that fibers in the TA (a fast flexor) of the flight monkeys atrophied, whereas fibers in the Sol (a predominantly slow extensor) and MG (a fast extensor) grew after a 14-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) and 12-day spaceflight (Cosmos 2229) was unexpected. In Cosmos 2044, the TA in both flight monkeys had a 21 percent decrease in fiber size, whereas the Sol and MG both had a 79 percent increase in fiber size. In Cosmos 2229, the TA in both flight monkeys showed significant atrophy, whereas the Sol and MG showed slight growth in one monkey (906) and slight atrophy in the other monkey (151).

  10. Sesquiterpene lactones and phenylpropanoids from Cosmos pringlei.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rachel; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, Blanca; Bye, Robert; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2002-07-01

    Activity-directed fractionation of a phytotoxic extract from Cosmos pringlei led to the isolation of three new compounds, namely, 1'-isovaleroyloxy-4-O-isobutyryleugenol (1), zaluzanin C isobutyrate (2), and zaluzanin C isovalerate (3). In addition, mokko lactone, 1'-isobutiroyloxy-4-O-isobutyryleugenol (4), dehydrocostus lactone (5), costunolide (6), 15-isovaleroyloxycostunolide (7), 15-isobutiroyloxycostunolide (8), 1',2'-epoxy-3',4'-di-isobutyryl-Z-coniferyl alcohol, and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one were obtained. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectral methods. Compounds 5-7 caused inhibition of radicle growth of seedlings of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. PMID:12141867

  11. Cosmos 1939 data processing for FIFE 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kozoderov, V.V.; Vandysheva, N.M.; Maslov, A.V.; Panfilov, A.S.; Vedeshin, L.A. Research Center Agroresources, Moscow Research Center Planeta, Moscow Intercosmos Council, Moscow )

    1992-11-01

    Some examples of multispectral image processing for the high-resolution optical-electronic scanning radiometer (MSU-E) of the Soviet Cosmos 1939 satellite are given for the FIFE 1989 data. Data processing algorithms are outlined, including satellite radiometer calibration, atmospheric correction of space images, and phytomass content retrieval using ground-based biophysical measurements for test sites. Spatial distribution of the phytomass content retrieved from the MSU-E image for August 9, 1989, using the normalized difference vegetation index is shown. Results of image processing for April 14, 1989, displaying the discrimination between burnt and unburnt classes of vegetation are also shown. 12 refs.

  12. Modelling mid-Pliocene climate with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this manuscript we describe the experimental procedure employed at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany in the preparation of the simulations for the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). We present a description of the utilized community earth system models (COSMOS) and document the procedures which we applied to transfer the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) mid-Pliocene reconstruction into model forcing fields. The model setup and spin-up procedure are described for both the paleo and preindustrial (PI) time-slices of PlioMIP experiments 1 and 2, and general results that depict the performance of our model setup for mid-Pliocene conditions are presented. The mid-Pliocene as simulated with our COSMOS-setup and PRISM boundary conditions is both warmer and wetter than the PI. The globally averaged annual mean surface air temperature in the mid-Pliocene standalone atmosphere (fully coupled atmosphere-ocean) simulation is 17.35 °C (17.82 °C), which implies a warming of 2.23 °C (3.40 °C) relative to the respective PI control simulation.

  13. SPS Fabric of the Cosmos Cafe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anish

    2012-02-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best-selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four- part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked-off by 30 ``Cosmic Cafes'' being held around the country funded by an NSF grant which allows SPS-NOVA to fund SPS chapters for these events. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick-off, reviewing and suggesting revisions of resources related to the NOVA series to make them relevant to an SPS audience. I also got to organize and moderate the first ``Cosmic Cafe.'' The Cosmic cafe that I organized was discussion based, with our speaker Dr. James Gates starting with a short talk and then opening the floor up for questions. By organizing a ``Cosmic cafe,'' I got real hand experience about the challenges an SPS chapter would face while organizing a cafe themselves. Based on my experience I shall also discuss the effectiveness of the first ever themed science cafe blitz. A science caf'e is an informal discussion with an expert in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. A science cafe is mostly discussion based, but has a lot of freedom for the format. A ``Cosmic'' cafe is a science cafe which is based around the topics discussed in the documentary ``The Fabric of the Cosmos.''

  14. The concept of a hierarchical cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, P. V.

    2003-10-01

    The idea of a hierachically structured cosmos can be traced back to the Presocratic Hellada. In the fifth century BC Anaxagoras from Clazomenae developed an idea of a sort of fractal material world, by introducing the concept of seeds (spermata), or homoeomeries as Aristotle dubbed it later (Grujić 2001). Anaxagoras ideas have been grossly neglected during the Middle Ages, to be invoked by a number of post-Renaissance thinkers, like Leibniz, Kant, etc, though neither of them referred to their Greek predecessor. But the real resurrections of the hierarchical paradigm started at the beginning of the last century, with Fournier and Charlier (Grujić 2002). Second half of the 20th century witnessed an intensive development of the theoretical models based on the (multi)fractal paradigm, as well as a considerable body of the observational evidence in favour of the hierarchical cosmos (Saar 1988). We overview the state of the art of the cosmological fractal concept, both within the astrophysical (Sylos Labini et al 1998), methodological (Ribeiro 2001) and epistemological (Ribeiro and Videira 1998) context.

  15. Lyman Spitzer: Astronomer, Physicist, Engineer, and Mountaineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's naming of the Spitzer Space Telescope after Lyman Spitzer was a most appropriate choice, recognizing an outstanding scientist who also contributed extensively to space astronomy. As an astronomer he was a leading authority in the physics of both the interstellar medium and stellar dynamics, wrote textbooks for both fields, and guided many research students. As a physicist he conceived the Stellarator for magnetic confinement, managed a laboratory for controlled fusion, and wrote a textbook on plasma physics. As an engineer he led the development of the payload for the successful Copernicus satellite, which fulfilled his 1946 proposal for an extraterrestrial observatory. His mountaineering included first ascents on Baffin Island and in the Canadian Rockies as well as the summit of the challenging Mt Waddington in the Coast Range.

  16. Spitzer IRS Pipelines for General Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narron, B.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Ardila, D.; Laher, R. R.

    2008-08-01

    An effort is underway to make the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) data-processing pipelines available for use by astronomers worldwide. This will allow users to reprocess raw data downloaded from the Spitzer archive with customized calibration files, updated operational parameters, and/or a modified list of processing steps. The pipelines will create all standard BCD (basic calibrated data) and post-BCD products, plus additional intermediate products. The pipelines will be made up of newly developed Perl and C-shell ``executive'' scripts, plus the binary-executable modules currently used in operations (the modules' source code will not be distributed, however). The scripts are being designed for ease of use and will facilitate user-customization. The operating systems targeted for support are Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, and possibly Windows.

  17. Spitzer IRAC Detection of Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Lada, E. A.; Balog, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We will discuss a method for detecting shocked H2 emission in IRAC band images and distinguishing H2 knots from stellar sources. Using this method we will present Spitzer IRAC imaging of a recently discovered parsec scale protostellar outflow. This outflow was detected in all four IRAC bands. The proposed source of the outflow is an embedded Class 0 object detected in the MIPS images. This work is based in part on archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by an award issued by JPL/Caltech and also a NASA LTSA Grant NNG05GD66G

  18. Software Architecture of the Spitzer Archive Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J.; Wu, X.; Roby, W.; Hoac, A.; Goldina, T.; Hartley, B.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) provides a set of user tools to support search and retrieval of Spitzer Archive (SA) data via the Internet. This presentation describes the software architecture and design principles that support the Archive Interface subsystem of the SA (Handley 2007). The Archive Interface is an extension of the core components of the Uplink subsystem and provides a set web services to allow open access to the SA data set. Web services technology provides a basis for searching the archive and retrieving data products. The archive interface provides three modes of access: a rich client, a Web browser, and scripts (via Web services). The rich client allows the user to perform complex queries and submit requests for data that are asynchronously down-loaded to the local workstation. Asynchronous down-load is a critical feature given the large volume of a typical data set (on the order of 40~GB). For basic queries and retrieval of data the Web browser interface is provided. For advanced users, scripting languages with web services capabilities (i.e. Perl) can used to query and down-load data from the SA. The archive interface subsystem is the primary means for searching and retrieving data from the SA and is critical to the success of the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  19. Stellar Jewels Shine in New Spitzer Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the most prolific birthing grounds in our Milky Way galaxy, a nebula called RCW 49, is exposed in superb detail for the first time in this new image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Located 13,700 light-years away in the southern constellation Centaurus, RCW 49 is a dark and dusty stellar nursery that houses more than 2,200 stars.

    Because many of the stars in RCW 49 are deeply embedded in plumes of dust, they cannot be seen at visible wavelengths. When viewed with Spitzer's infrared eyes, however, RCW 49 becomes transparent. Like cracking open a quartz rock to discover its jewels inside, the nebula's newborn stars have been dramatically exposed.

    This image taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera highlights the nebula's older stars (blue stars in center pocket), its gas filaments (green) and dusty tendrils (pink). Speckled throughout the murky clouds are more than 300 never-before-seen newborn stars.

    Astronomers are interested in further studying these newfound proto-stars because they offer a fresh look at star formation in our own galaxy.

    This image was taken on Dec. 23, 2003, and is composed of photographs obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

  20. Spitzer Survey of the Karin Cluster Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, M.; Lisse, C.; Cheng, A.; Osip, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Karin cluster is one of the youngest known families of main-belt asteroids, dating back to a collisional event only 5.8 Myr ago. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope we have sampled the thermal continua of 17 Karin cluster asteroids, down to the smallest members discovered so far, in order to derive accurate sizes and study the physical properties of their surfaces. The albedos of the observed Karins appear to be very similar. The albedos, pv, have a mean of 0.17 and a standard deviation of 0.04, compared to pv = 0.15 ± 0.05 for 832 Karin itself (for H = 11.2 ± 0.3). The derived diameters range from 20 km for 832 Karin to 1.9 km for 93690, with uncertainties of 10%. The Karins data show no evidence of albedo dependence on size, and the small range of albedos is consistent with all program targets being S-type bodies. There is some evidence for higher values of thermal inertia amongst the smaller family members, which may be indicative of coarser regolith. These results are preliminary, pending outstanding Spitzer observations and further analysis. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  1. Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation. PMID:24338421

  2. Antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of extracts from cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Jang, In-Cheol; Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmos bipinnatus has been used in a traditional herbal remedy for various diseases such as jaundice, intermittent fever, and splenomegaly. The present study describes the preliminary evaluation of antioxidant activities and antigenotoxic effect of Cosmos bipinnatus flowers according to four different colors (white, pink, orange, and violet). The antioxidants properties were evaluated by determining TPC, DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP. The highest TPC of methanolic CFE (at concentration of 1 mg/ml) showed in violet colored CF (1,013 microM), and IC(50) of DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP were also the lowest in violet colored CFE with values of 0.61, 1.48, and 0.82 mg/ml, respectively. The antigenotoxic effect of the CFE on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in human leukocytes was evaluated by Comet assay. Pretreatments with CFE produced significant reductions in oxidative DNA damage at the concentration of 500 microg/ml, except for violet colored CFE. The ED(50) value of white colored CFE has shown the highest inhibition (0.40 mg/ml) on H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage, followed by orange > pink > violet color. These results suggested that Cosmos bipinnatus has significant antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative DNA damage. PMID:18758962

  3. SERVS: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Afonso, Jose; Alexander, Dave; Best, Philip; Bonfield, David; Castro, Nieves; Cava, Antonio; Chapman, Scott; Dunlop, James; Dyke, Eleanor; Edge, Alastair; Farrah, Duncan; Ferguson, Harry; Foucaud, Sebastian; Franceschini, Alberto; Geach, Jim; Gonzales, Eduardo; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Hickey, Samantha; Ivison, Rob; Jarvis, Matt; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Lonsdale, Carol; Maraston, Claudia; McLure, Ross; Mortier, Angela; Oliver, Seb; Ouchi, Masami; Parish, Glen; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petric, Andreea; Pierre, Mauguerite; Readhead, Tony; Ridgway, Susan; Romer, Katherine; Rottgering, Huub; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Sajina, Anna; Seymour, Nick; Smail, Ian; Surace, Jason; Thomas, Peter; Trichas, Markos; Vaccari, Mattia; Verma, Aprajita; Xu, Kevin; van Kampen, Eelco

    2008-12-01

    We will use warm Spitzer to image 18deg^2 of sky to microJy depth. This is deep enough to undertake a complete census of massive galaxies from z~6 to ~1 in a volume ~0.8Gpc^3, large enough to overcome the effects of cosmic variance, which place severe limitations on the conclusions that can be drawn from smaller fields. We will greatly enhance the diagnostic power of the Spitzer data by performing most of this survey in the region covered by the near-IR VISTA-VIDEO survey, and in other areas covered by near-IR, Herschel and SCUBA2 surveys. We will build complete near-infrared spectral energy distributions using the superb datasets from VIDEO, in conjunction with our Spitzer data, to derive accurate photometric redshifts and the key properties of stellar mass and star formation rates for a large sample of high-z galaxies. Obscured star formation rates and dust-shrouded BH growth phases will be uncovered by combining the Spitzer data with the Herschel and SCUBA2 surveys. We will thus build a complete picture of the formation of massive galaxies from z~6, where only about 1% of the stars in massive galaxies have formed, to z~1 where ~50% of them haveE Our large volume will allow us to also find examples of rare objects such as high-z quasars (~10-100 at z>6.5), high-z galaxy clusters (~20 at z>1.5 with dark halo masses >10^14 solar masses), and evaluate how quasar activity and galaxy environment affect star formation. This survey makes nearly optimal use of warm Spitzer; (a) all of the complementary data is either taken or will be taken in the very near future, and will be immediately publicly accessible, (b) the slew overheads are relatively small, (c) the observations are deep enough to detect high redshift galaxies but not so deep that source confusion reduces the effective survey area.

  4. COSMOS: Python library for massively parallel workflows

    PubMed Central

    Gafni, Erik; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Lancaster, Alex K.; Hawkins, Jared B.; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Souilmi, Yassine; Wall, Dennis P.; Tonellato, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Efficient workflows to shepherd clinically generated genomic data through the multiple stages of a next-generation sequencing pipeline are of critical importance in translational biomedical science. Here we present COSMOS, a Python library for workflow management that allows formal description of pipelines and partitioning of jobs. In addition, it includes a user interface for tracking the progress of jobs, abstraction of the queuing system and fine-grained control over the workflow. Workflows can be created on traditional computing clusters as well as cloud-based services. Availability and implementation: Source code is available for academic non-commercial research purposes. Links to code and documentation are provided at http://lpm.hms.harvard.edu and http://wall-lab.stanford.edu. Contact: dpwall@stanford.edu or peter_tonellato@hms.harvard.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24982428

  5. Introduction to Particle Acceleration in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Horwitz, J. L.; Perez, J.; Quenby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated charged particles have been used on Earth since 1930 to explore the very essence of matter, for industrial applications, and for medical treatments. Throughout the universe nature employs a dizzying array of acceleration processes to produce particles spanning twenty orders of magnitude in energy range, while shaping our cosmic environment. Here, we introduce and review the basic physical processes causing particle acceleration, in astrophysical plasmas from geospace to the outer reaches of the cosmos. These processes are chiefly divided into four categories: adiabatic and other forms of non-stochastic acceleration, magnetic energy storage and stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, and plasma wave and turbulent acceleration. The purpose of this introduction is to set the stage and context for the individual papers comprising this monograph.

  6. Biological investigations aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairbekov, M. G.; Parfyonov, G. P.; Platonova, R. W.; Abramova, V. M.; Golov, V. K.; Rostopshina, A. V.; Lyubchenko, V. Yu.; Chuchkin, V. G.

    Experiments on insects, higher plants and lower fungi were carried out aboard the biological satellite Cosmos-1129, in Earth orbit, from 25 September to 14 October 1979. The main objective of these experiments was to gain more profound knowledge of the effect of weightlessness on living organisms and to study the mechanisms by which these various organisms with different life cycles can adjust and develop in weightlessness. Experiments on insects (Drosophila melanogaster) were made with a view towards understanding gravitational preference in flies, the life cycle of which took place on board the biosatellite under conditions of artificial gravity. Experiments on higher plants (Zea mays, Arabidopsis taliana, Lycopersicum esculentum) and lower fungi (Physarum polycephalum) were performed.

  7. Investigations onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, E. A.

    The program of the 7-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 launched in July 1985 included experiments on two rhesus monkeys, ten Wistar SPF rats, ten newts, Drosophila flies, maize seedlings, lettuce sprouts, and unicellular organisms - Tetrahymena. The primate study demonstrated that transition to orbital flight was accompanied by a greater excitability of the vestibular apparatus and an increased linear blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery. The rat studies showed that atrophy of antigravity muscles and osteoporosis of limb bones developed even during short-term exposure to microgravity. The experiments on other living systems revealed no microgravity effects on the cell division rate, proliferative activity of cells of regenerating tissues and organs, energy metabolism of developing insects, structure or chemical composition of higher plant seedlings.

  8. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, 1950, by Bernard Locroft, Civil Engineer (Showing Grounds as They Were at End of Sumner Welles Era) SITE PLAN - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. SMUVS: Spitzer Matching survey of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputi, Karina; Ashby, Matthew; Fazio, Giovanni; Huang, Jiasheng; Dunlop, James; Franx, Marijn; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Muzzin, Adam; Ilbert, Olivier; Somerville, Rachel; Wechsler, Risa; Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu

    2014-12-01

    We request 2026.5 hours to homogenize the matching ultra-deep IRAC data of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes, producing a final area of ~0.6 square degrees with the deepest near- and mid-IR coverage existing in any such large area of the sky (H, Ks, [3.6], [4.5] ~ 25.3-26.1 AB mag; 5 sigma). The UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes are contained within the larger COSMOS field, which has a rich collection of multi-wavelength, ancillary data, making it ideal to study different aspects of galaxy evolution with high statistical significance and excellent redshift accuracy. The UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes are the region of the COSMOS field where these studies can be pushed to the highest redshifts, but securely identifying high-z galaxies, and determining their stellar masses, will only be possible if ultra-deep mid-IR data are available. Our IRAC observations will allow us to: 1) extend the galaxy stellar mass function at redshifts z=3 to z=5 to the intermediate mass regime (M~5x10^9-10^10 Msun), which is critical to constrain galaxy formation models; 2) gain a factor of six in the area where it is possible to effectively search for z>=6 galaxies and study their properties; 3) measure, for the first time, the large-scale structure traced by an unbiased galaxy sample at z=5 to z=7, and make the link to their host dark matter haloes. This cannot be done in any other field of the sky, as the UltraVISTA ultra-deep stripes form a quasi-contiguous, regular-shape field, which has a unique combination of large area and photometric depth. 4) provide a unique resource for the selection of secure z>5 targets for JWST and ALMA follow up. Our observations will have an enormous legacy value which amply justifies this new observing-time investment in the COSMOS field. Spitzer cannot miss this unique opportunity to open up a large 0.6 square-degree window to the early Universe.

  10. Fingerprints of the first black holes? Crosscorrelationg the Near-Infrared and X-ray background in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasinger, Guenther

    Unresolved cosmic backgrounds carry information about the populations of stars and black holes not accessible by any other current observational technique. Studies using both Spitzer and AKARI have revealed large-scale fluctuations in the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) after subtracting resolved sources to faint levels. The signal, which is stronger than all foreground contributions, has been attributed to the earliest light in the universe. Other teams, by using Spitzer and CIBER, suggested that this signal could originate from stars tidally stripped from their parent galaxies at low redshift as a result of mergers. Only sensitive multi-wavelength observations can distinguish between these radically different interpretations. Recently our team discovered an intriguing cross-correlation signal between the unresolved CIB and X-ray background (CXB) suggesting significant black hole populations among the CIB sources (C13). The analysis used data from Spitzer and Chandra in an overlapping 8'x45' region of the All-Wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS), probing the clustering of the underlying sources to angular scales 20', but the experiment is limited by the size and the elongated configuration of the field. Here we propose to use the much more extended multiwavelength observations in the COSMOS field to obtain new constraints on this important debate. Spitzer has recently completed the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH), which observed the full 2 square degree COSMOS field to about half the depth of the AEGIS field, but a 20 times larger sky area. SPLASH, focusing on the COSMOS field with excellent multi-wavelength coverage from space and ground-based observatories, is ideally suited to study the CIB to better precision and at larger scales than available so far. We propose to cross-correlate the Spitzer unresolved CIB to the unresolved CXB observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Chandra has covered the full 2 deg2 COSMOS

  11. Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Spitzer Science Center

    2016-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, launched on 2003 August 25, continues to produce new and exciting views of the Universe as seen in infrared light. Spitzer is the fourth and final space telescope in NASA's Great Observatory series. Originally it consisted of a liquid-helium-cooled 85-cm telescope and three imaging and spectroscopic instruments capable of observing infrared light (3-160 micron wavelength) from regions of space invisible to optical telescopes. In mid-2009 Spitzer's cryogen was exhausted, leaving the observatory with two operating imaging arrays at 3.6 and 4.5 micron wavelength. "Warm" Spitzer, as it is now called, continues to match the sensitivity achieved at these wavelengths during the cryogenic mission and remains very much in demand. The Spitzer Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe. Spitzer's scientific results include the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early Universe, star formation and evolution, exoplanets, the structure and evolution of planetary disks around nearby stars, the cosmic distance scale, clusters of galaxies, near-Earth asteroids, and comets. After a brief description of the Spitzer mission, achievements of Spitzer's extragalactic and galactic observational programs will be presented, including many of Spitzer's very spectacular images.

  12. Spitzer Observations of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polomski, E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, C. E.; Boyer, M.; Roellig, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    We present new Spitzer observations of the well known supernova remnant, SN 1987A. Spitzer's milli-Jy spectroscopic sensitivity, paired with an imaging super-resolution of 0.3″ /pixel, offers a unique opportunity to study the thermal emission of SN 1987A across a large wavelength regime for the first time since its initial outburst. SN 1987A was the first supernova observed by naked eye in almost 400 years and has been intensely studied at all wavelengths with a wide array of telescopes and instrumentation. Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging of this object shows a triple-ringed structure spanning ≈5″ diameter (Burrows et al. 1995, ApJ 452, 680). These rings are believed to be material originating in an earlier stellar wind and mass-loss phase of the progenitor star and is now being heated by an expanding shock wave from the supernova remnant (SNR). Near-infrared imaging has shown that the remnant size is slowly increasing over time as the shock wave continues to expand outward. We present Spitzer IRAC imaging spanning the 3-8 μ m regime and IRS spectroscopy in the 5-25 μ m regime. Our observations are the first detections of the remnant in the 3-8 μ m regime since ISO observations in 1998 (Fischera et al. 2002, A&A 395, 189) and boad-band 10 μ m imaging in 2003 by Bouchet et al. (2004, ApJ 611, 394) and the first mid-IR spectroscopy since KAO measurements in 1988. We discuss the source of the IR emission and estimate a dust mass from our photometry. This work is suported in part by NASA (JPL/SSC-1256406, 1215746)

  13. Planetary system formation: The view from Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, D. E.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.

    2004-11-01

    In the past year, the Spitzer Space Telescope has returned thermal infrared (24, 70, 160 micron) images of unprecedented sensitivity, allowing searches for debris disks around stars. We will provide a brief overview of results from several ongoing Spitzer debris disk programs, highlighting results from three programs. First, we learn from our survey of more than 250 A stars that there is substantial variety in the intrinsic properties of debris disks, dating from their protoplanetary stages. We further argue that much of the dust we see today is generated from episodic planetesimal collisions. Second, our detailed study of Vega allows us to map a large debris disk and constrain particle size and dust dynamics. We find that very small dust grains are being blown out from the inner part of the Vega system, suggesting a recent dust-producing collision. Third, from a preliminary survey of nearby Sun-like stars, we find that the prevalence of debris disks around extrasolar planet-bearing stars is relatively high, implying the presence of dust-producing bodies (asteroids, comets) in those systems. The overall picture of planetary system formation from planetesimals is supported by all of these results. However, the observational signatures of dust disks (and consequently the late-stage evolution of those disks) may be alluding not to steady-state conditions but to large, individual, dust-producing events. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by JPL/Caltech under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through contract number 960785 issued by JPL/Caltech.

  14. THE SPITZER ATLAS OF STELLAR SPECTRA (SASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Song, Inseok

    2010-12-15

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra, which includes 159 stellar spectra (5-32 {mu}m; R {approx} 100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, such as blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All of the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, characterized by the presence of hydrogen lines in A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstellar gas and/or dust. The sample includes five M supergiant spectra, which show strong dust excesses and in some cases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. Sequences of WR stars present the well-known pattern of lines of He I and He II, as well as forbidden lines of ionized metals. The characteristic flat-top shape of the [Ne III] line is evident even at these low spectral resolutions. Several Luminous Blue Variables and other transition stars are present in the Atlas and show very diverse spectra, dominated by circumstellar gas and dust features. We show that the [8]-[24] Spitzer colors (IRAC and MIPS) are poor predictors of spectral type for most luminosity classes.

  15. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Lacy, M.; Farrah, D.; Surace, J.; Jarvis, M.; Oliver, S.; Maraston, C.; SERVS Team

    2012-01-01

    We present details of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), an 18 square degrees medium-deep survey at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope to ≈ 2 μJy (AB=23.1) depth of five highly observed astronomical fields (Elais-N1, Elais-S1, Lockman Hole, Chandra-Deep Fied South and XMM). Data will be made available to the community in the Spring of 2012. SERVS is designed to enable the study of galaxy evolution as a function of environment from z ≈ 5 to the present day, and is the first extragalactic survey both large enough and deep enough to put rare objects such as luminous quasars and galaxy clusters at z ≥ 1 into their cosmological context. SERVS is designed to overlap with several key surveys at optical, near- through far-infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths to provide a coherent picture of the formation of massive galaxies.

  16. The Euclid/WFIRST Spitzer Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Arendt, R.; Arnouts, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bouwens, R.; Brinchman, J.; Brodwin, M.; Carollo, M.; Castander, F.; Charlot, S.; Chary, R.-R.; Cohen, J.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C.; Coupon, J.; Cuby, J.-G.; Culliandre, J.; Davidzon, I.; Dole, H.; Dunlop, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ferrara, A.; Gardner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ho, S.; Ilbert, O.; Jouvel, S.; Kashlinsky, A.; LeFevre, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Maraston, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Mitchell-Wynn, K.; Moustakas, L.; Nayyeri, H.; Paltani, S.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J.; Speagle, J.; Stanford, S.; Stern, D.; Teplitz, H.; Toft, S.

    2016-08-01

    We propose 5286h of Spitzer Legacy Science Time to carry out a precursor survey for Euclid, WFIRST, and JWST. The primary goal is to enable definitive studies of reionization, z>7 galaxy formation, and the first massive black holes. The proposed data will also enhance the cosmological constraints provided by Euclid and WFIRST. The survey will cover 20 square degrees to 2h per pointing, split between the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the North Ecliptic Pole. These are some of the darkest and most observable fields on the sky and have existing multi-wavelength data that will enable immediate science. The survey parameters are designed to enable stellar mass measurement at 3Spitzer can probe this region of survey space at 3-5um, a wavelength range that uniquely enables stellar mass estimates at z>3 enabling a direct probe of galaxy growth during the epoch of re-ionization.

  17. Spitzer Sees Water Loud and Clear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This plot of infrared data, called a spectrum, shows the strong signature of water vapor deep within the core of an embryonic star system, called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B.

    The data were captured by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope using an instrument called a spectrograph. A spectrograph collects light and sorts it according to color, or wavelength. In this case, infrared light from NGC 1333-IRAS 4B was broken up into the wavelengths listed on the horizontal axis of the plot. The sharp spikes, called spectral lines, occur at wavelengths at which the stellar object is particularly bright. The signature of water vapor is revealed in the pattern of wavelengths at which the spikes appear.

    By comparing the observed data to a model (lower curve), astronomers can also determine the physical and chemical details of the region. For example, astronomers say these data suggest that ice in a cocoon surrounding the forming star is falling inward. The ice then smacks supersonically into a dusty planet-forming disk surrounding the stellar embryo, heats up and vaporizes quickly, releasing the infrared light that Spitzer collected.

  18. Optimal Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan; Brugarolas, Paul; Boussalis, Dhemetrio

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the focal-plane calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope by use of the instrument pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, which was described in Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane (NPO-40798), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 62. To recapitulate: In the IPF Kalman filter, optimal estimates of both engineering and scientific focal-plane parameters are obtained simultaneously, using data taken in each focalplane survey activity. The IPF Kalman filter offers greater efficiency and economy, relative to prior calibration practice in which scientific and engineering parameters were estimated by separate teams of scientists and engineers and iterated upon each other. In the Spitzer Space Telescope application, the IPF Kalman filter was used to calibrate 56 frames for precise telescope pointing, estimate >1,500 parameters associated with focal-plane mapping, and process calibration runs involving as many as 1,338 scientific image centroids. The final typical survey calibration accuracy was found to be 0.09 arc second. The use of the IPF Kalman filter enabled a team of only four analysts to complete the calibration processing in three months. An unanticipated benefit afforded by the IPF Kalman filter was the ability to monitor health and diagnose performance of the entire end-to-end telescope-pointing system.

  19. A Spitzer-based classification of TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. R.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Emery, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The outer reaches of the Solar System are residence to the icy bodies known as trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Implications such as low albedo and size have left this field relatively unexplored and in turn, encouraged the pursuit of these far-orbiting objects. A database of 48 objects was used by Fulchignoni et al. (2008) to cluster, model, and analyze the various spectra into classified taxa. The dataset adopted by Fulchignoni et al. (2008) was used as a baseline for visual colors to which Dalle Ore et al. (in prep) provided the significance of adding albedo measurements taken from Stansberry et al (2008). To further the classification accuracy, two near-infrared color bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope, centered at 3.55 and 4.50 microns, were supplemented with the previous 7-filter photometry. The 9-band compilation produced altered results from the previous studies; the addition of Spitzer data hopes to distinguish varying compositional properties of icy objects. We present a redefined taxonomy that may uncover clues to evolutionary trends of the TNO population.

  20. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    SciTech Connect

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-11-20

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 {mu}m and 5.8 {mu}m bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 {mu}m and 8.0 {mu}m bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% {+-} 0.02%, 0.39% {+-} 0.02%, 0.37% {+-} 0.03%, 0.41% {+-} 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 {+-} 90, 3310 {+-} 130, 3080 {+-} 140, and 3120 {+-} 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered-as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  1. Einstein's Cosmos (German Title: Einsteins Kosmos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Dick, Wolfgang R.

    The different contributions of the present volume illuminate the interaction between Einstein and his colleagues when the foundations of modern cosmology were laid: First, the relativistic effects in the solar system, the gravitational redshift in the solar spectrum, and Einstein's relations with Freundlich and Eddington. Second, the cosmological models of Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, and Lemaître, which were discussed controversely till the end of the 1920s. Other scientists have also widened or critically questioned Einstein's insight and knowledge: Schwarzschild, Selety, Silberstein, and Mandl, whose life and work is discussed in separate articles. In those days, politics more than ever in history had influenced the lifes of scientists. Therefore, some comments on the ``political cosmos'' that has influenced decisively Einstein's life are also given. A special role in popularizing Einstein's world view was played by Archenhold Observatory in Berlin. A list of Einstein memorial places and a bibliographic list conclude the present book. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.

  2. How Accurate are SuperCOSMOS Positions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Adam; Hunstead, Richard; Johnston, Helen

    2014-02-01

    Optical positions from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey have been compared in detail with accurate radio positions that define the second realisation of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2). The comparison was limited to the IIIaJ plates from the UK/AAO and Oschin (Palomar) Schmidt telescopes. A total of 1 373 ICRF2 sources was used, with the sample restricted to stellar objects brighter than BJ = 20 and Galactic latitudes |b| > 10°. Position differences showed an rms scatter of 0.16 arcsec in right ascension and declination. While overall systematic offsets were < 0.1 arcsec in each hemisphere, both the systematics and scatter were greater in the north.

  3. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Flower Pigments in Chocolate Cosmos, Cosmos atrosanguineus, and its Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Amamiya, Kotarou; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Two major anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside, were isolated from the black flowers of Cosmos atrosanguineus cultivar 'Choco Mocha', together with three minor anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-malonylglucoside, pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside and 3-O-rutinoside. A chalcone, butein 4'-O-glucoside and three minor flavanones were isolated from the red flowers of C. atrosanguineis x C. sulphureus cultivar 'Rouge Rouge'. The anthocyanins and chalcone accumulation of cultivar 'Choco Mocha' and its hybrid cultivars 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge', 'Rouge Rouge' and 'Noel Rouge' was surveyed by quantitative HPLC. Total anthocyanins of black flower cultivars 'Choco Mocha' and 'Brown Rouge' were 3-4-folds higher than that of the red flower cultivar 'Noel Rouge'. On the other hand, total chalcone of 'Noel Rouge' was 10-77-folds higher compared with those of other cultivars, 'Brown Rouge', 'Forte Rouge' and 'Rouge Rouge'. It was shown that the flower color variations from red to black of Chocolate Cosmos and its hybrids are due to the difference in the relative amounts of anthocyanins and chalcone. PMID:26996024

  5. The Subaru COSMOS 20: Subaru optical imaging of the HST COSMOS field with 20 filters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Capak, Peter L.; Aussel, Herve; Ichikawa, Akie; Murayama, Takashi; Scoville, Nick Z.; Ilbert, Olivier; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, David B. B.; Mobasher, Bahram; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Renzini, Alvio; Rich, Michael; Schinnerer, Eva; Kaifu, Norio; Karoji, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Nobuo; Okamura, Sadanori; Ohta, Kouji; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-12-01

    We present both the observations and the data reduction procedures of the Subaru COSMOS 20 project, an optical imaging survey of the HST COSMOS field, carried out by using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope with the following 20 optical filters: six broad-band (B, g', V, r', i', and z'), two narrow-band (NB711 and NB816), and 12 intermediate-band filters (IA427, IA464, IA484, IA505, IA527, IA574, IA624, IA679, IA709, IA738, IA767, and IA827). Part of this project is described in Taniguchi et al. (2007, ApJS, 172, 9) and Capak et al. (2007, ApJS, 172, 99) for the six broad-band and one narrow-band (NB816) filter data. In this paper, we present details of the observations and data reduction for the remaining 13 filters (the 12 IA filters and NB711). In particular, we describe the accuracy of both the photometry and astrometry in all the filter bands. We also present the optical properties of the Suprime-Cam IA filter system in appendices.

  6. 77 FR 23318 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “African Cosmos: Stellar Arts”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``African Cosmos: Stellar Arts... Cosmos: Stellar Arts,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

  7. The Cosmos Portal and the IYA2009 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Bernard M.; Sims, M.; Lindblom, J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the non-profit Digital Universe Foundation (DUF) launched the Earth Portal as a comprehensive resource for timely, objective, science-based information about the environment. There are currently over 1000 scholars from 60 countries engaged in this rapidly growing web-based collaboration. The Cosmos Portal is the second major DUF initiative (digitaluniverse.net/cosmos). In support of the IYA2009 effort, the Cosmos Portal is recruiting astronomy professionals to make use of easy online tools to publish articles, blogs, news items, image galleries, class notes, lectures, powerpoint presentations, links to other high quality websites or other educational material. In parallel we intend to bring hundreds of amateur astronomy organizations and thousands of amateur astronomers and telescope makers together in a community of portals (digitaluniverse.net/cosmoscommunity). This will allow vibrant online collaboration and information sharing. We encourage you to start a portal on your favorite topic or join an existing topic as a contributor.

  8. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  9. Compton Thick AGN in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Cosmos Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    I will present the results we published in a couple of recent papers (Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 573A 137, Lanzuisi et al. 2015, arXiv 1505.01153) on the properties of X-ray selected Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^24 cm^-2) AGN, in the COSMOS survey. We exploited the rich multi-wavelength dataset available in this field, to show that CT AGN tend to harbor smaller, rapidly growing SMBH with respect to unobscured AGN, and have a higher chance of being hosted by star-forming, merging and post-merger systems.We also demonstrated the detectability of even more heavily obscured AGN (NH>10^25 cm^-2), thanks to a truly multi-wavelength approach in the same field. The extreme source detected in this way shows strong evidences of ongoing powerful AGN feedback, detected as blue-shifted wings of high ionization optical emission lines such as [NeV] and [FeVII], as well as of the [OIII] emission line.The results obtained from these works point toward a scenario in which highly obscured AGN occupy a peculiar place in the galaxy-AGN co-evolution process, in which both the host and the SMBH rapidly evolve toward the local relations.We will also present estimates on the detectability of such extreme sources up to redshift ~6-7 with Athena. Combining the most up to date models for the Luminosity Function of CT AGN at high z, aggressive data analysis techniques on faint sources, and the current Athena survey design, we demonstrate that we will detect, and recognize as such, a small (few to ten) but incredibly valuable sample of CT AGN at such high redshift.

  10. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Conway Morris, Simon; Freeland, Stephen J.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2012-08-01

    Foreword: The improbability of life George M. Whitesides; Part I. The Fitness of 'Fitness' - Henderson in Context: 1. Locating 'fitness' and Lawrence J. Henderson Everett Mendelsohn; 2. Revisiting The Fitness of the Environment Owen Gingerich; 3. Is fine-tuning remarkable? John F. Haught; 4. Complexity in context: the metaphysical implications of evolutionary theory Edward T. Oakes; 5. Tuning fine-tuning Ernan Mcmullin; Part II. The Fitness of the Cosmic Environment: 6. Fitness and the cosmic environment Paul C. W. Davies; 7. The interconnections between cosmology and life Mario Livio; 8. Chemistry and sensitivity John D. Barrow; 9. Fitness of the cosmos for the origin and evolution of life: from biochemical fine-tuning to the Anthropic Principle Julian Chela-Flores; Part III. The Fitness of the Terrestrial Environment: 10. How biofriendly is the universe? Christian de Duve; 11. Tuning into the frequencies of life: a roar of static or a precise signal? Simon Conway Morris; 12. Life on earth: the role of proteins Jayanth R. Banavar and Amos Maritan; 13. Protein-based life as an emergent property of matter: the nature and biological fitness of the protein folds Michael J. Denton; 14. Could an intelligent alien predict earth's biochemistry? Stephen J. Freeland; 15. Would Venus evolve on Mars? Bioenergetic constraints, allometric trends, and the evolution of life-history invariants Jeffrey P. Schloss; Part IV. The Fitness of the Chemical Environment: 16. Creating a perspective for comparing Albert Eschenmoser; 17. Fine-tuning and interstellar chemistry William Klemperer; 18. Framing the question of fine-tuning for intermediary metabolism Eric Smith and Harold J. Morowitz; 19. Coarse-tuning the origin of life? Guy Ourisson; 20. Plausible lipid-like peptides: prebiotic molecular self-assembly in water Shuguang Zhang; 21. Evolution revisited by inorganic chemists R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva; Index.

  11. Fitness of the Cosmos for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Conway Morris, Simon; Freeland, Stephen J.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Foreword: The improbability of life George M. Whitesides; Part I. The Fitness of 'Fitness' - Henderson in Context: 1. Locating 'fitness' and Lawrence J. Henderson Everett Mendelsohn; 2. Revisiting The Fitness of the Environment Owen Gingerich; 3. Is fine-tuning remarkable? John F. Haught; 4. Complexity in context: the metaphysical implications of evolutionary theory Edward T. Oakes; 5. Tuning fine-tuning Ernan Mcmullin; Part II. The Fitness of the Cosmic Environment: 6. Fitness and the cosmic environment Paul C. W. Davies; 7. The interconnections between cosmology and life Mario Livio; 8. Chemistry and sensitivity John D. Barrow; 9. Fitness of the cosmos for the origin and evolution of life: from biochemical fine-tuning to the Anthropic Principle Julian Chela-Flores; Part III. The Fitness of the Terrestrial Environment: 10. How biofriendly is the universe? Christian de Duve; 11. Tuning into the frequencies of life: a roar of static or a precise signal? Simon Conway Morris; 12. Life on earth: the role of proteins Jayanth R. Banavar and Amos Maritan; 13. Protein-based life as an emergent property of matter: the nature and biological fitness of the protein folds Michael J. Denton; 14. Could an intelligent alien predict earth's biochemistry? Stephen J. Freeland; 15. Would Venus evolve on Mars? Bioenergetic constraints, allometric trends, and the evolution of life-history invariants Jeffrey P. Schloss; Part IV. The Fitness of the Chemical Environment: 16. Creating a perspective for comparing Albert Eschenmoser; 17. Fine-tuning and interstellar chemistry William Klemperer; 18. Framing the question of fine-tuning for intermediary metabolism Eric Smith and Harold J. Morowitz; 19. Coarse-tuning the origin of life? Guy Ourisson; 20. Plausible lipid-like peptides: prebiotic molecular self-assembly in water Shuguang Zhang; 21. Evolution revisited by inorganic chemists R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva; Index.

  12. Green Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu

    2013-10-01

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 "green valley" galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV-r + color is used to define "green valley"; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M 20 planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ10) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M * < 1010.0 M ⊙ green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M * < 1010.0 M ⊙ blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  13. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; SERVS Team

    2009-05-01

    The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) will image a total of 18 deg2 of sky to micro-Jansky depth in the [3.6] and [4.5] micron bands split amongst the SWIRE ELAIS-S1, ELAIS-N1, XMM-LSS, Lockman and CDFS fields. SERVS will have substantial overlap with the VISTA/VIDEO and UKIDSS DXS near-infrared surveys, and the Hermes far-infrared survey with Herschel. Key science goals include: understanding stellar mass assembly in massive galaxies from z 5 to the present across a wide range of environments, studying the effects of AGN feedback on the formation of massive galaxies, and finding quasars at z>6.5. In this talk I shall describe the science possible with SERVS, the data taking and analysis schedule, plans for bandmerging with other surveys, and eventual public release.

  14. Caltrans Keeps the Spitzer Pipelines Moving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Wen; Laher, Russ; Fowler, John; Moshir, Mehrdad

    2004-01-01

    The computer pipelines used to process digital infrared astronomical images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope require various input calibration-data files for characterizing the attributes and behaviors of the onboard focal-plane-arrays and their detector pixels, such as operability, dark-current offset, linearity, non- uniformity, muxbleed, droop, and point-response functions. The telescope has three very different science instruments, each with three or four spectral-band-pass channels, depending on the instrument. Moreover, each instrument has various operating modes (e-g., full array or sub-array in one case) and parameters (e.g., integration time). Calibration data that depend on these considerations are needed by pipelines for generating both science products (production pipelines) and higher-level calibration products (calibration pipelines). The calibration files are created in various formats either 'off-line' or by the aforementioned calibration pipelines, depending on the above configuration details. Also, the calibration files are generally applicable to a certain time period and therefore must be selected accordingly for a given raw input image to be correctly processed. All of this complexity in selecting and retrieving calibration files for pipeline processing is handled by a procedural software-program called 'caltrans' . This software, which is implemented in C and interacts with an Informix database, was developed at the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and is now deployed in SSC daily operations. The software is rule-based, very flexible, and, for efficiency, capable of retrieving multiple calibration files with a single software-execution command.

  15. Galactic Distribution of Planets Spitzer Microlens Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Carey, Sean; Yee, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    We will measure the Galactic distribution of planets by obtaining 'microlens parallaxes' of about 700 events, including 18 planetary events, from the comparison of microlens lightcurves observed from Spitzer and Earth, which are separated by 1 AU in projection. As we have demonstrated in two previous programs, the difference in these lightcurves yields both the 'microlens parallax' (ratio of the lens-source relative parallax) to the Einstein radius, and the direction of lens-source relative motion. For planetary events, this measurement directly yields the mass and distance of the planet. For non-planetary events it can be combined with a Galactic model to estimate these quantities with factor 1.4 precision. Hence, the cumulative distributions of planetary events and all events can be compared to determine the relative frequency of planets in the Galactic disk and bulge. The results will be combined with those of current/previous Spitzer campaigns and the current Kepler campaign. This proposal is significantly more sensitive to planets than previous work because it takes advantage of the new KMTNet observing strategy that covers 80 sq.deg at >0.4/hr cadence, 24/7 from 3 southern observatories. This same observing program also provides a unique probe of dark objects. It will yield the first mass-measurement based determination of the isolated-brown-dwarf mass function. Thirteen percent of the observations will specifically target binaries, which will probe systems with dark components (brown dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes) that are difficult or impossible to investigate by other methods. The observations and methods from this work are a test bed for WFIRST microlensing.

  16. The Chandra Cosmos Legacy Survey: Overview and Point Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; LaMassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-03-01

    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of ≃ 160 ks over the central 1.5 deg2 and of ≃ 80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2 × 10-5. We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft, and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 × 10-16, 1.5 × 10-15, and 8.9 × 10-16 {\\text{erg cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei with a column density >1022 cm-2 from the hardness ratio (HR) is ˜50{}-16+17%. Given the large sample we compute source number counts in the hard and soft bands, significantly reducing the uncertainties of 5%-10%. For the first time we compute number counts for obscured (HR > -0.2) and unobscured (HR < -0.2) sources and find significant differences between the two populations in the soft band. Due to the unprecedent large exposure, COSMOS-Legacy area is three times larger than surveys at similar depths and its depth is three times fainter than surveys covering similar areas. The area-flux region occupied by COSMOS-Legacy is likely to remain unsurpassed for years to come.

  17. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Mei, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Bartlett, J. G.

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  18. Candidate Clusters of Galaxies at z > 1.3 Identified in the Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettura, A.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Stern, D.; Mei, S.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Stanford, S. A.; Bartlett, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z <= 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density nc = (0.7+6.3-0.6) × 10-7 h3 {Mpc}-3 and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r 0 = (32 ± 7) h -1 Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M min, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than Mmin = 1.5+0.9-0.7 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ . We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to Mmean = 1.9+1.0-0.8 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ ; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of present-day massive galaxy clusters.

  19. Astrobiology: traces of life in the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.

    2002-07-01

    The discovery of traces of life in the ancient Mars meteorite triggered the development of the rapidly emerging field of Astrobiology. Astrobiologists are seeking to develop conclusive methods to recognize biosignatures and microfossils of bacteria and other microbiota as well as to understand the spatial, temporal, environmental and chemical limitations of microbial extremophiles. Recent discoveries have revealed the great distribution and diversity of microbial extremophiles on Earth and profoundly increased the probability that life may exist elsewhere in the Cosmos. The rapidly emerging science of Bacterial Paleontology has provided important new information critical to the recognition of fossil bacteria on Earth and in Astromaterials. We have recently conducted independent scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analysis investigations in the US and Russia in order to better understand the morphology and chemical composition of microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites. In this paper, we review some aspects of microbial extremophiles of Earth as modals for life on other bodies of the Solar System. We consider several of the important chemical, mineral and morphological biomarkers that provide definitive evidence of biogenic activity in ancient rocks and meteorites. We present Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope images of microfossils found in-situ in freshly fractured meteorite surfaces and describe Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and Link microprobe analysis of the chemical elements in the mineralized and/or kerogenous microfossils and meteorite rock matrix. We also discuss technqiues and methods that may be used to help discriminate indigenous microfosils from recent terrestrial contaminants. We will also present new data from our in-situ investigations of living cyanobacteria and bacteria and freshly broken surfaces of terrestrial rocks and meteorites. Comparative analysis of these images are interpreted as providing

  20. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Benford, Dominic J.; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin; Dey, Arjun; Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 - W2 {>=} 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]-[4.6] {>=}0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 {+-} 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg{sup 2} to a depth of W2 {approx} 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 {mu}Jy at 4.6 {mu}m, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  1. An Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for VLSI Built with COSMOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelides, Marios C.; Agius, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents Bigger Bits, an interactive multimedia learning environment that teaches students about VLSI within the context of computer electronics. The system was built with COSMOS (Content Oriented semantic Modelling Overlay Scheme), which is a modelling scheme that we developed for enabling the semantic content of multimedia to be used…

  2. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  3. Emerging Adolescence: Finding One's Place in the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses emerging characteristics of early adolescents from a Montessorian perspective. Considers adolescents' revelations related to cosmic education, their need to serve, their need to think and to feel, and their need to know the cosmos through finding one's place in it. Discusses samples from students' cosmic autobiographies. (KB)

  4. The impact of the cosmos on the human race.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A. E.

    1986-11-01

    The proposition is discussed that throughout its history, the development of the human race, physically, mentally and spiritually, has been shaped by the cosmos, never more so than at the present time when it engages in a search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

  5. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  6. US experiments flown on the Soviet satellite COSMOS 936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, S. N.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of spaceborne experiments onboard the Cosmos 936 satellite are reported. Alterations in normal bone chemistry, muscle structure, and general physiology resulting from spaceflight are covered along with measurements of cosmic radiation and its potential hazard to man during prolonged spaceflights. Postflight activities involving the seven U.S. experiments are emphasized.

  7. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy \\sigma _{\\Delta z/(1+z_{spec})}\\sim 0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 deg2 of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our updated photometric redshift differs from the previous release by Δz > 0.2. These changes are predominantly due to the inclusion of newly available deep H-band photometry (H AB = 24 mag). We illustrate once again the importance of a spectroscopic training sample and how an assumption about the nature of a source together, with the number and the depth of the available bands, influences the accuracy of the photometric redshifts determined for AGN. These considerations should be kept in mind when defining the observational strategies of upcoming large surveys targeting AGNs, such as eROSITA at X-ray energies and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Evolutionary Map of the Universe in the radio band. Based on observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under

  8. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of Two Hubble-observed Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjoern; Fraine, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole; Mandell, Avi; Sing, David; Todorov, Kamen

    2015-10-01

    We propose Spitzer secondary eclipse observations of two key exoplanets (WASP-76b and HAT-P-38b) that are approved for transmission spectroscopy by HST/WFC3 in our Large Cycle-23 program. Spitzer eclipse data will provide temperature information needed to determine their atmospheric scale heights, and thereby infer their atmospheric water abundances (proxy for metallicity) from the WFC3 spectra. Potential molecular absorption that falls within the Spitzer bandpasses will also help to measure the atmospheric metallicity of these planets, and will be minimally affected by clouds - that can often frustrate transmission spectroscopy. Beyond the utility to our Hubble analyses, both planets have high scientific value for Spitzer eclipse observations in their own right. WASP-76b is a strongly irradiated and very hot, large radius giant planet. Its combination of strong irradiation and large radius puts it in an atmospheric regime where few planets have been observed by Spitzer in eclipse. HAT-P-38b is a sub-Saturn mass planet in a relatively cool temperature regime (1080 Kelvins) where Kammer et al. recently found that the ratio of planetary brightness temperature in the two Spitzer bands is potentially correlated with planetary mass. The low mass of HAT-P-38b (0.27 Jupiters) gives it substantial leverage to test that correlation.

  9. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Cardamone, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; LaMassa, S. M.; Jahnke, K.; Ranalli, P.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Smolcic, V.; Suh, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2-10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  10. The Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and MIPS debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. We carried out two separate SED analyses. (1) For all targets, we modeled the IRS and MIPS 70 micron data (where available) assuming that the SEDs were well-described using, zero, one or two temperature black bodies. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. (2) For a subset of 120 targets with 10 and/or 20 micron silicate features, we modeled the data using spherical silicate (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) grains located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or two thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. We present a demographic analysis of the disk properties. For example, we find that the majority of debris disks are better fit using two dust components, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and that the size distribution of dust grains is consistent with a collisional cascade.

  11. Spitzer IRS Observations of FU Orionis Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. D.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Watson, D. M.; Ibrahimov, M.; Furlan, E.; Sargent, B.; Forrest, W. J.

    2006-09-01

    We present 5-35 μm spectra, taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, of five FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, BBW 76, and V346 Nor. All but V346 Nor reveal amorphous silicate grains in emission at 10 and 20 μm, and show water-vapor absorption bands at 5.8 and 6.8 μm and SiO or possibly methane absorption at 8 μm. These absorption features closely match these bands in model stellar photospheres-signs of the gaseous photospheres of the inner regions of these objects' accretion disks. The continuum emission at 5-8 μm is also consistent with such disks, and, for FU Orionis and BBW 76, longer wavelength emission may be fit by a model that includes moderate disk flaring. V1057 Cyg and V1515 Cyg have much more emission at longer wavelengths than the others, perhaps evidence of a substantial remnant of their natal, infalling envelopes.

  12. Spitzer Meets K2: Spitzer Studies of Candidate Exoplanets Identified by K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Spitzer/K2 Study Team

    2016-01-01

    We are in the midst of a ~450 hr program of Spitzer photometry of candidate transiting planets orbiting M dwarf stars, identified in the K2 fields. Whereas the Kepler prime mission eschewed M stars, they have become a major focus of the community-driven target selection for K2. M stars are the most common stars in the galaxy, and planets orbiting M stars can be very attractive candidates for transit and eclipse atmospheric studies, including studies aimed at exploring potentially habitable exoplanets. We will review and show the results of the observations planned and executed to date, which total 21 transits of 16 planets orbiting 13 stars. Our results greatly improve on the characterization of the exoplanets and their orbits over what is possible from the K2 data alone. In addition, the improved ephemerides we generate will facilitate studies of interesting K2 targets from JWST. __________________________________________This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer-CANDELS catalog within 5 deep fields (Ashby+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Hora, J. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Labbe, I.; Wang, Z.

    2015-08-01

    We chose to locate S-CANDELS inside the wider and shallower fields already covered by Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS), in regions that enjoy deep optical and NIR imaging from HST/CANDELS. These S-CANDELS fields are thus the Extended GOODS-south (aka the GEMS field, hereafter ECDFS; Rix et al. 2004ApJS..152..163R; Castellano et al. 2010A&A...511A..20C), the Extended GOODS-north (HDFN; Giavalisco et al. 2004, II/261; Wang et al. 2010, J/ApJS/187/251; Hathi et al. 2012ApJ...757...43H; Lin et al. 2012ApJ...756...71L), the UKIDSS UDS (aka the Subaru/XMM Deep Field, Ouchi et al. 2001ApJ...558L..83O; Lawrence et al. 2007, II/319), a narrow field within the EGS (Davis et al. 2007ApJ...660L...1D; Bielby et al. 2012A&A...545A..23B), and a strip within the UltraVista deep survey of the larger COSMOS field (Scoville et al. 2007ApJS..172...38S; McCracken et al. 2012, J/A+A/544/A156). The S-CANDELS observing strategy was designed to maximize the area covered to full depth within the CANDELS area. Each field was visited twice with six months separating the two visits. Table 1 lists the epochs for each field. All of the IRAC full-depth coverage is within the SEDS area (Ashby et al. 2013, J/ApJ/769/80), and almost all is within the area covered by HST for CANDELS. (6 data files).

  14. SEDS: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Survey Design, Photometry, and Deep IRAC Source Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Arendt, A.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Dave, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Illingworth, G.; Kashlinsky, A; Koekmoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Moseley, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg(exp 2) to a depth of 26 AB mag (3sigma) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 +/- 1.0 and 4.4 +/- 0.8 nW / square m/sr at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  15. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard E-mail: mlacy@nrao.edu E-mail: eilat.glikman@yale.edu E-mail: bschulz@ipac.caltech.edu

    2012-10-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 A emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  16. Panel Discussion: Life in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Water appears to be essential to all life on Earth. For this reason, "Follow the Water" has been adopted as a mantra for the search for Life in the Cosmos. Expeditions have helped to establish the limits and biodiversity of life in the most extreme environments on Earth. Microbial extremophiles inhabit acidic streams; hypersaline and hyperalkaline lakes and pools; the cold deep sea floor, permafrost, rocks, glaciers, and perennially ice-covered lakes of the polar environments; geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hydrothermal vents and hot rocks deep within the Earth's crust. The ESA Venus Express Spacecraft entered Venusian Orbit in 2006 and continues to produce exciting results. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument made the first detection of hydroxyl in the atmosphere of Venus, indicating it is much more similar to Earth and Mars than previously thought. Huge hurricane-like vortices have been found above the poles of the planet and as yet unidentified UV absorbers that form mysterious dark bands in the upper atmosphere. At 70 km and below, water vapor and sulfur dioxide combine to form sulfuric acid droplets that create a haze above the cloud tops. Thermophilic acidophiles, such as have recently been discovered on Earth, could possibly survive in the hot sulfuric acid droplets that exist in the upper atmosphere of Venus. In order to understand how to search for life elsewhere in the Solar System, over 40 VIRTIS images of Earth from Venus have been obtained to search for evidence of life on Earth. The signatures of water and molecular Oxygen were detected in the Earth s atmosphere, but the atmosphere of Venus also exhibits these signatures. The water and water ice are far more abundant on comet, the polar caps and permafrost of Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. These "frozen worlds" of our Solar System, are much more promising regimes where extant or extinct microbial life may exist. The ESA Mars Advanced Radar for

  17. Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) archives, and to receive training in infrared astronomy and observational techniques. The teachers also attended a workshop offered by the SSC to learn about the observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work on their data with SSC and NOAO scientists. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3.5 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. Leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the SSC is offering this program to teachers in the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing program at the NOAO. This NSF-sponsored program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers.

  18. Cardiac morphology after conditions of microgravity during Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Margaret A.; Edwards, Robert J.; Schroeter, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Light- and electron-microscopic studies were performed on cardiac muscle from rats flown on Cosmos 2044 and from four control groups. Average cross-sectional area of myofibers was measured by video analysis of the light-microscopic images of papillary and ventricular muscle samples from all animals. This cross-sectional area was significantly decreased in flight rats (P = 0.03) compared with synchronous controls. Additional findings at the electron microscopic level consistent with this atrophy were obtained by stereological analysis and optical diffraction analysis of papillary muscle samples. Slightly higher mitochondrial volume density values and mitochondria-to-myofibril ratios as well as normal A-band spacings (d1,0) and Z-band spacings of myofibrils were observed in the tail-suspension and flight groups. General morphological features similar to those in ventricular samples from the previous Cosmos 1887 flight were observed.

  19. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  20. 11th Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the most important international meeting in the field of nuclear astrophysics. It brings together nuclear experimentalists, nuclear theorists, astronomers, theoretical astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others interested in the scientific questions at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions concern, for example, the origin of the elements in the cosmos and the nuclear reactions that occur in the big bang, in stars, and in stellar explosions. Past meetings have been held in Mackinac Island - USA (2008), Geneva - Switzerland (2006), Vancouver - Canada (2004), Fuji-Yoshida - Japan (2002), Aarhus - Denmark (2000), Volos - Greece (1998), Notre Dame - USA (1996), Gran Sasso - Italy (1994), Karlsruhe - Germany (1992), Baden bei Wien - Austria (1990).

  1. XII International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzio, John; Karakas, Amanda; Lugaro, Maria; Dracoulis, George

    Nuclei in the Cosmos is the most important international meeting in the field of nuclear astrophysics. It brings together nuclear experimentalists, nuclear theorists, astronomers, theoretical astrophysicists, cosmochemists, and others interested in the scientific questions at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions concern, for example, the origin of the elements in the cosmos and the nuclear reactions that occur in the big bang, in stars, and in stellar explosions. Past meetings have been held in Heidelberg - Germany (2010), Mackinac Island - USA (2008), Geneva - Switzerland (2006), Vancouver - Canada (2004), Fuji-Yoshida - Japan (2002), Aarhus - Denmark (2000), Volos - Greece (1998), Notre Dame - USA (1996), Gran Sasso - Italy (1994), Karlsruhe - Germany (1992), Baden bei Wien - Austria (1990).

  2. THE zCOSMOS 10k-BRIGHT SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lilly, Simon J.; Maier, Christian; Carollo, Marcella; Caputi, Karina; Le Brun, Vincent; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Fevre, Olivier; De la Torre, Sylvain; De Ravel, Loic; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Mignoli, Marco; Zamorani, Gianni; Bardelli, Sandro; Bolzonella, Micol; Coppa, Graziano; Scodeggio, Marco; Contini, Thierry; Bongiorno, Angela; Cucciati, Olga

    2009-10-01

    We present spectroscopic redshifts of a large sample of galaxies with I {sub AB} < 22.5 in the COSMOS field, measured from spectra of 10,644 objects that have been obtained in the first two years of observations in the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey. These include a statistically complete subset of 10,109 objects. The average accuracy of individual redshifts is 110 km s{sup -1}, independent of redshift. The reliability of individual redshifts is described by a Confidence Class that has been empirically calibrated through repeat spectroscopic observations of over 600 galaxies. There is very good agreement between spectroscopic and photometric redshifts for the most secure Confidence Classes. For the less secure Confidence Classes, there is a good correspondence between the fraction of objects with a consistent photometric redshift and the spectroscopic repeatability, suggesting that the photometric redshifts can be used to indicate which of the less secure spectroscopic redshifts are likely right and which are probably wrong, and to give an indication of the nature of objects for which we failed to determine a redshift. Using this approach, we can construct a spectroscopic sample that is 99% reliable and which is 88% complete in the sample as a whole, and 95% complete in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8. The luminosity and mass completeness levels of the zCOSMOS-bright sample of galaxies is also discussed.

  3. Analysis and Consequences of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anz-Meador, P. D.; Liou, Jer-Chi

    2010-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251, on 10 February 2009, was the first known unintentional hypervelocity collision in space of intact satellites. Iridium 33 was an active commercial telecommunications satellite, while Cosmos 2251 was a derelict communication satellite of the Strela-2M class. The collision occurred at a relative velocity of 11.6 km/s at an altitude of approximately 790 km over the Great Siberian Plain and near the northern apex of Cosmos 2251 s orbit. This paper describes the physical and orbital characteristics of the relevant spacecraft classes and reports upon our analysis of the resulting debris clouds size, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and relative velocity/directionality distributions. We compare these distributions to those predicted by the NASA breakup model and notable recent fragmentation events; in particular, we compare the area-to-mass ratio distribution for each spacecraft to that exhibited by the FY-1C debris cloud for the purpose of assessing the relative contribution of modern aerospace materials to debris clouds resulting from energetic collisions. In addition, we examine the long-term consequences of this event for the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Finally, we discuss "lessons learned", which may be incorporated into NASA s environmental models.

  4. SPS 'Fabric of the Cosmos' Science Cafés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2011-12-01

    Hosted by Brian Greene and based on his best selling book of the same title, The Fabric of the Cosmos is a new four part NOVA series that explores the deepest mysteries of space and time. The program was kicked off by more than 30 'Cosmic Cafes' around the country, as part of a Society of Physics Students, NOVA outreach effort funded by an NSF grant. A Cosmic Café is a science café based on the topics discussed in The Fabric of the Cosmos. Science cafes are open events for non-scientists, where they can have an informal discussion with a scientist in a very casual location, usually a restaurant, coffee shop, or a bar. During the summer I assisted in planning this kick off, by reviewing science café and The Fabric of the Cosmos resources and suggesting revisions to make them more relevant for an SPS audience. I also organized and moderated the first Cosmic Café. The café that I organized was discussion based, with the speaker, Dr. James Gates, starting with a short talk and then opening up the floor for questions. Organizing a Cosmic Café gave me first-hand experience with the challenges an SPS chapter might face while organizing a café themselves. I will discuss lessons learned and the effectiveness of the first ever themed science café blitz.

  5. Investigating Space Weather Events Impacting the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Leo Y.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Stowers, Kennis; Lowrance, Patrick; Stewart, Andrzej; Travis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamical process in the space environment has increased dramatically. A relatively new field of study called "Space Weather" has emerged in the last few decades. Fundamental to the study of space weather is an understanding of how space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections impact spacecraft in varying orbits and distances around the Sun. Specialized space weather satellite monitoring systems operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allow scientists to predict space weather events affecting critical systems on and orbiting the Earth. However, the Spitzer Space Telescope is in an orbit far outside the areas covered by those space weather monitoring systems. This poses a challenge for the Spitzer's Mission Operations Team in determining whether space weather events affect Spitzer.

  6. Spitzer Orbit Determination During In-orbit Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Premkumar R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope was injected into heliocentric orbit on August 25, 2003 to observe and study astrophysical phenomena in the infrared range of frequencies. The initial 60 days was dedicated to Spitzer's "In-Orbit Checkout (IOC)" efforts. During this time high levels of Helium venting were used to cool down the telescope. Attitude control was done using reaction wheels, which in turn were de-saturated using cold gas Nitrogen thrusting. Dense tracking data (nearly continuous) by the Deep Space network (DSN) were used to perform orbit determination and to assess any possible venting imbalance. Only Doppler data were available for navigation. This paper deals with navigation efforts during the IOC phase. It includes Dust Cover Ejection (DCE) monitoring, orbit determination strategy validation and results and assessment of non-gravitational accelerations acting on Spitzer including that due to possible imbalance in Helium venting.

  7. Spitzer IRAC Photometry for Time Series in Crowded Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group

    2015-12-01

    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spitzer time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of Spitzer's instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by Kepler and WFIRST, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  8. Improving our understanding of the Spitzer Space Telescope's pointing drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, Carl J.; Carey, Sean J.; Stauffer, John R.; Ingalls, James G.

    2014-08-01

    Spitzer observations of exoplanets routinely yield photometric accuracies of better than one part in 10,000. However, the attainable precision is limited in part by pointing drifts, which have the effect of moving the target to less stable or less-well characterized regions of Spitzer's IRAC detector arrays. Here we examine a large sample of observing sequences in an effort to identify the causes of these pointing drifts. We find that short term and higher order drifts are correlated on various time scales to the temperatures of components in and around the spacecraft bus, and are most likely due to very slight angular displacements of the star trackers. Despite the constraints imposed by a limited pool of targets, such pointing drifts are best mitigated by optimal scheduling, minimizing large and/or lengthy excursions in telescope pitch angle within 24 hours of a high-precision photometry sequence. Such an effort is currently being initiated by the Spitzer Science Center.

  9. Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environments at z = 0.1-3 in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, N.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Benson, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Bundy, K.; Calvo, M. A. A.; Capak, P.; Carollo, M.; Civano, F.; Dunlop, J.; Elvis, M.; Faisst, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fu, Hai; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Q.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Kajisawa, M.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; LeFloch, E.; Lilly, S. J.; Liu, C. T.-C.; Manohar, S.; Massey, R.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Peng, Y.-J.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Sarvestani, B. D.; Scarlata, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Shopbell, P. L.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Taylor, J. E.; White, S. D. M.; Yan, L.

    2013-05-01

    Large-scale structures (LSSs) out to z < 3.0 are measured in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) using extremely accurate photometric redshifts (photoz). The Ks -band-selected sample (from Ultra-Vista) is comprised of 155,954 galaxies. Two techniques—adaptive smoothing and Voronoi tessellation—are used to estimate the environmental densities within 127 redshift slices. Approximately 250 statistically significant overdense structures are identified out to z = 3.0 with shapes varying from elongated filamentary structures to more circularly symmetric concentrations. We also compare the densities derived for COSMOS with those based on semi-analytic predictions for a ΛCDM simulation and find excellent overall agreement between the mean densities as a function of redshift and the range of densities. The galaxy properties (stellar mass, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and star formation rates (SFRs)) are strongly correlated with environmental density and redshift, particularly at z < 1.0-1.2. Classifying the spectral type of each galaxy using the rest-frame b - i color (from the photoz SED fitting), we find a strong correlation of early-type galaxies (E-Sa) with high-density environments, while the degree of environmental segregation varies systematically with redshift out to z ~ 1.3. In the highest density regions, 80% of the galaxies are early types at z = 0.2 compared to only 20% at z = 1.5. The SFRs and the star formation timescales exhibit clear environmental correlations. At z > 0.8, the SFR density is uniformly distributed over all environmental density percentiles, while at lower redshifts the dominant contribution is shifted to galaxies in lower density environments. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  10. Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K S

    2016-01-01

    Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932-December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard. PMID:27260820

  11. Galactic Distribution of Planets from Spitzer Microlens Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew; Carey, Sean; Yee, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We will measure the 'microlens parallaxes' of about 120 microlensing events that peak during Spitzer's 'bulge window' (2015 Jun 09 - Jul 19), by comparing simultaneous Spitzer and ground-based microlensing lightcurves, making use of Spitzer's location about 1 AU from Earth. These measurements will enable mass and distance measurements of about 4 microlensing planets. The ensemble of planet and non-planet distance measurements will yield the first probe of the Galactic distribution of planets Microlens planet mass measurements are very rare and have proved extremely interesting in every case. Microlensing identifies planets at and beyond the snowline, probing unique parameter space and providing vital information to constrain planet formation and migration theories. But the sample of ground-based microlens-parallax measurements is highly biased toward special systems. Spitzer would provide the first unbiased study. The same survey would provide a unique probe of brown dwarf binaries, and yield the first mass-based (not light-based) measurement of the stellar mass function (i.e., including dark objects such as black holes). A very successful 2014 'Pilot Program' demonstrates that this project is technically and scientifically viable. (As in the previous 'Pilot Program', we request zero day proprietary period.)

  12. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Hines, D. C.; Li, J.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 13.96 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance rh = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance ΔSpitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4o phase from SST, and distance ΔEarth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3o phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x105 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 105 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 ± 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 ± 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 µm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON’s discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 μm, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 μm. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these measurements of the comet made well outside the ice line.

  13. Spitzer Space Telescope Sequencing Operations Software, Strategies, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was launched in August, 2003, and renamed to the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2004. Two years of observing the universe in the wavelength range from 3 to 180 microns has yielded enormous scientific discoveries. Since this magnificent observatory has a limited lifetime, maximizing science viewing efficiency (ie, maximizing time spent executing activities directly related to science observations) was the key operational objective. The strategy employed for maximizing science viewing efficiency was to optimize spacecraft flexibility, adaptability, and use of observation time. The selected approach involved implementation of a multi-engine sequencing architecture coupled with nondeterministic spacecraft and science execution times. This approach, though effective, added much complexity to uplink operations and sequence development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages Spitzer s operations. As part of the uplink process, Spitzer s Mission Sequence Team (MST) was tasked with processing observatory inputs from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) into efficiently integrated, constraint-checked, and modeled review and command products which accommodated the complexity of non-deterministic spacecraft and science event executions without increasing operations costs. The MST developed processes, scripts, and participated in the adaptation of multi-mission core software to enable rapid processing of complex sequences. The MST was also tasked with developing a Downlink Keyword File (DKF) which could instruct Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on how and when to configure themselves to receive Spitzer science data. As MST and uplink operations developed, important lessons were learned that should be applied to future missions, especially those missions which employ command-intensive operations via a multi-engine sequence architecture.

  14. A Spitzer Census of the IC 348 Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August A.; Lada, Charles J.; Luhman, K. L.; Muzerolle, James; Young, Erick

    2007-07-01

    Spitzer mid-infrared surveys enable an accurate census of young stellar objects by sampling large spatial scales, revealing very embedded protostars, and detecting low-luminosity objects. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we present a Spitzer-based census of the IC 348 nebula and embedded star cluster, covering a 2.5 pc region and comparable in extent to the Orion Nebula. Our Spitzer census supplemented with ground-based spectra has added 42 Class II T Tauri sources to the cluster membership and identified ~20 Class 0/I protostars. The population of IC 348 likely exceeds 400 sources after accounting statistically for unidentified diskless members. Our Spitzer census of IC 348 reveals a population of Class I protostars that is anticorrelated spatially with the Class II/III T Tauri members, which comprise the centrally condensed cluster around a B star. The protostars are instead found mostly at the cluster periphery about ~1 pc from the B star and spread out along a filamentary ridge. We further find that the star formation rate in this protostellar ridge is consistent with that rate which built the older exposed cluster, while the presence of 15 cold, starless, millimeter cores intermingled with this protostellar population indicates that the IC 348 nebula has yet to finish forming stars. Moreover, we show that the IC 348 cluster is of order 3-5 crossing times old, and, as evidenced by its smooth radial profile and confirmed mass segregation, is likely relaxed. While it seems apparent that the current cluster configuration is the result of dynamical evolution and its primordial structure has been erased, our finding of a filamentary ridge of Class I protostars supports a model in which embedded clusters are built up from numerous smaller subclusters. Finally, the results of our Spitzer census indicate that the supposition that star formation must progress rapidly in a dark cloud should not preclude these observations that show it can be relatively long lived.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of the COSMOS Science Education Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Bogner, Franz X.; Neofotistos, George

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative method of mapping the web usage of an innovative educational portal is applied to analyze the behaviour of users of the COSMOS Science Education Portal. The COSMOS Portal contains user-generated resources (that are uploaded by its users). It has been designed to support a science teacher's search, retrieval and access to both,…

  16. Experiment K-7-41: Radiation Experiments on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.; Kovalev, E. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 degrees and altitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq. cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10-4 and 3.05 x 10(exp -4) cm(exp -2).s(exp -1).sr(exp -4) of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(infinity).H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micro-m. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mremld in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra have been compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 degrees) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCR's, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  17. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea. PMID:25774114

  18. THE CHANDRA COSMOS SURVEY. I. OVERVIEW AND POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Elvis, Martin; Civano, Francesca; Aldcroft, T. L.; Fruscione, Antonella; Vignali, Cristian; Puccetti, Simonetta; Fiore, Fabrizio; Cappelluti, Nico; Brusa, Marcella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Brunner, Hermann; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, Andrea; Gilli, Roberto; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Damiani, Francesco; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Urry, C.M.; Silverman, John; Mainieri, Vincenzo

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that has imaged the central 0.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field (centered at 10 {sup h}, +02 deg.) with an effective exposure of {approx}160 ks, and an outer 0.4 deg{sup 2} area with an effective exposure of {approx}80 ks. The limiting source detection depths are 1.9 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the soft (0.5-2 keV) band, 7.3 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the hard (2-10 keV) band, and 5.7 x 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the full (0.5-10 keV) band. Here we describe the strategy, design, and execution of the C-COSMOS survey, and present the catalog of 1761 point sources detected at a probability of being spurious of <2 x 10{sup -5} (1655 in the full, 1340 in the soft, and 1017 in the hard bands). By using a grid of 36 heavily ({approx}50%) overlapping pointing positions with the ACIS-I imager, a remarkably uniform ({+-}12%) exposure across the inner 0.5 deg{sup 2} field was obtained, leading to a sharply defined lower flux limit. The widely different point-spread functions obtained in each exposure at each point in the field required a novel source detection method, because of the overlapping tiling strategy, which is described in a companion paper. This method produced reliable sources down to a 7-12 counts, as verified by the resulting logN-logS curve, with subarcsecond positions, enabling optical and infrared identifications of virtually all sources, as reported in a second companion paper. The full catalog is described here in detail and is available online.

  19. COSMOS 2044: Lung morphology study, experiment K-7-28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Mathieu-Costello, Odile; West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers examined the effect of microgravity during spaceflight on lung tissue. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wister rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hour Cosmos 2044 mission was examined and compared to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail suspension. Pulmonary hemorrage and alveolar adema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control animals, and in the dorsal regions of the lung when compared with the vivarium controls. The cause of these changes, which are possibly due to an increase in pulmonary vascular pressure, requires further investigation.

  20. Islet in weightlessness: biological experiments on board COSMOS 1129 satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuk, Y.

    1980-09-01

    Biological experiments planned as an international venture for COSMOS 1129 satellite include tests of: (1) adaptation of rats to conditions of weightlessness, and readaption to Earth's gravity, (2) possibility of fertilization and embryonic development in weightlessness, (3) heat exchange processes, (4) amount of gravity force preferred by fruit flies for laying eggs (given a choice of three centrifugal zones), (5) growth of higher plants from seeds, (6) effects of weightlessness on cells in culture, and (7) radiation danger from heavy nuclei, and electrostatic protection from charged particles.

  1. Islet in weightlessness: Biological experiments on board COSMOS 1129 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuk, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Biological experiments planned as an international venture for COSMOS 1129 satellite include tests of: (1) adaptation of rats to conditions of weightlessness, and readaption to Earth's gravity; (2) possibility of fertilization and embryonic development in weightlessness; (3) heat exchange processes; (4) amount of gravity force preferred by fruit flies for laying eggs (given a choice of three centrifugal zones); (5) growth of higher plants from seeds; (6) effects of weightlessness on cells in culture and (7) radiation danger from heavy nuclei, and electrostatic protection from charged particles.

  2. Planets, Stars, and Orbs, The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edward

    Medieval cosmology was a fusion of pagan Greek ideas and biblical descriptions of the world, especially the creation account in Genesis. Planets, Stars, and Orbs describes medieval conceptions of the cosmos as understood by scholastic theologians and natural philosophers in the universities of western Europe from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Not only are the major ideas and arguments of medieval cosmology described and analysed, but much attention is paid to the responses of scholastic natural philosophers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the challenges posed by the new science and astronomy as represented by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo and Kepler.

  3. Spitzer Finds Clarity in the Inner Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    More than 800,000 frames from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope were stitched together to create this infrared portrait of dust and stars radiating in the inner Milky Way.

    As inhabitants of a flat galactic disk, Earth and its solar system have an edge-on view of their host galaxy, like looking at a glass dish from its edge. From our perspective, most of the galaxy is condensed into a blurry narrow band of light that stretches completely around the sky, also known as the galactic plane.

    In this mosaic the galactic plane is broken up into five components: the far-left side of the plane (top image); the area just left of the galactic center (second to top); galactic center (middle); the area to the right of galactic center (second to bottom); and the far-right side of the plane (bottom). From Earth, the top two panels are visible to the northern hemisphere, and the bottom two images to the southern hemisphere. Together, these panels represent more than 50 percent of our entire Milky Way galaxy.

    The swaths of green represent organic molecules, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are illuminated by light from nearby star formation, while the thermal emission, or heat, from warm dust is rendered in red. Star-forming regions appear as swirls of red and yellow, where the warm dust overlaps with the glowing organic molecules. The blue specks sprinkled throughout the photograph are Milky Way stars. The bluish-white haze that hovers heavily in the middle panel is starlight from the older stellar population towards the center of the galaxy.

    This is a three-color composite that shows infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

    The Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire team (GLIMPSE) used the telescope's infrared array

  4. Spitzer and DIRBE Studies of the Infrared Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Hauser, Michael; Wright, Edward; Arendt, Rick; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Levenson, Louis

    2011-05-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL), defined as the sky surface brightness of all radiation arising from outside the Milky Way, carries in the 1-5um region the imprint of the nearby Universe, of red-shifted light from the first galaxies, and of any possible pre-galactic contributions. The DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite has measured the total sky brightness, the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIRB), over the entire sky at 3.6um. The CIRB is the sum of the zodiacal light, galactic starlight, radiation from the ISM, and the EBL. Although the determinations of the EBL are presently limited by uncertainties in the zodiacal light model, experiments now under way can reduce those uncertainties. This Spitzer proposal prepares for that reduction by eliminating other uncertainties. We will use Spitzer to determine the point source components of CIRB at 3.6um, the wavelength of the minimum in the bright foreground from interplanetary dust. We will measure essentially all of the stellar contribution, and more than 80% of the integrated light from resolved galaxies; this can be extrapolated using other Spitzer data to determine IGL. The ultimate objective of this type of study is to search for a currently unknown diffuse component of EBL, DEBL. Symbolically, DEBL = EBL-IGL. In this program, we will execute the following steps aimed at reducing the uncertainties in DEBL once the zodiacal uncertainty in CIRB is minimized and a correction for ISM emission is applied: 1. Cross calibrating DIRBE and Spitzer so that EBL and IGL are on the same flux scale; 2. Reducing the uncertainties in EBL by measuring stars as faint as 19th mag at 3.6um. 3. Determining EBL and IGL at six widely separated positions so that the isotropy - and hence the cosmological significance - of any detection of DEBL can be assessed. We emphasize that this important investigation can be carried out only with Spitzer, and this scientific opportunity is perishable due to Spitzer's finite lifetime.

  5. Electro-Magnetic Fields and Plasma in the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Donald E.

    2006-03-21

    It is becoming widely recognized that a majority of baryons in the cosmos are in the plasma state. But, fundamental disagreements about the properties and behavior of electro-magnetic fields in these plasmas exist between the science of modern astronomy and the experimentally verified laws of electrical engineering and physics. Some astronomers claim that magnetic fields can be open-ended - that they begin on or beneath the Sun's surface and extend outward to infinity. Astrophysicists have claimed that galactic magnetic fields begin and end on molecular clouds. Electrical engineers, most physicists, and the pioneers in electromagnetic field theory disagree - magnetic fields have no beginning or end. Since these two viewpoints are mutually exclusive, both cannot be correct; one must be completely false. Many astrophysicists claim that magnetic fields are 'frozen into' electric plasma. We also examine the basis for this claim. It has been shown to be incorrect in the laboratory. The hypothetical 'magnetic merging' mechanism is also reviewed in light of both theoretical and experimental investigations. The cause of large-scale filamentation in the cosmos is also simply revealed by experimental results obtained in plasma laboratories.

  6. The Cosmos Portal and the IYA2009 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Bernard M.; Sims, M.; Lindblom, J.

    2009-05-01

    In 2007 the non-profit Digital Universe Foundation (DUF) launched the Earth Portal (earthportal.org) as a comprehensive resource for timely, objective, science-based information about the environment. There are currently over 1000 scholars from 60 countries engaged in this rapidly growing web-based collaboration. The Cosmos Portal is the second major DUF initiative (cosmosportal.org). In support of the IYA2009 effort, the Cosmos Portal is recruiting astronomy professionals to make use of easy online tools to publish articles, blogs, news items, image galleries, class notes, lectures, powerpoint presentations, links to other high quality websites or other educational material. A major difference between the Digital Universe and Wikipedia is that educational material is produced by identified experts, not anonymous contributors with unknown qualifications. The Digital Universe is a 501(c)(3) public charity whose goal is to evolve into a worldwide online community (a social network) whose centerpiece is an ever growing Asimov-Sagan Encyclopedia Galactica created by experts. We encourage you to write an encylopedia article or start a portal on your favorite topic or join an existing topic as an expert contributor.

  7. OBSCURED STAR FORMATION AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Feruglio, C.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N.; Fiore, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ideue, Y.

    2010-09-20

    We investigate the effects of the environment on star formation in a sample of massive luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) with S(24 {mu}m) >80 {mu}Jy and i {sup +} < 24 in the COSMOS field. We exploit the accurate photometric redshifts in COSMOS to characterize the galaxy environment and study the evolution of the fraction of LIRGs and ULIRGs in different environments in the redshift range z = 0.3-1.2 and in bins of stellar mass. We find that the environment plays a role in the star formation processes and evolution of LIRGs and ULIRGs. We find an overall increase of the ULIRG+LIRG fraction in an optically selected sample with increasing redshift, as expected from the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) density. We find that the ULIRG+LIRG fraction decreases with increasing density up to z {approx} 1, and that the dependence on density flattens with increasing redshift. We do not observe the reversal of the SFR density relation up to z = 1 in massive LIRGs and ULIRGs, suggesting that such reversal might occur at higher redshift in this infrared luminosity range.

  8. Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Kepler Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Onaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope was used for observations of the Kepler supernova remnant, with all four instrument modules targeted on the bright infrared knot located at 17h30m35.80s,-21d28m54.0s (J2000). The low spectral resolution modules data show a dust continuum spectrum consistent with dust grains heated by high-energy electrons, while the high resolution modules data show atomic emission line ratios consistent with excitation by a high velocity shock of greater than 100 kilometers per second and electron densities of approximately 1,000 per centimeter. The abundance ratios for the six detected elements show signs of heavy-element enhancement. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Support for this work was provided by NASA's Office of Space Science.

  9. TRACSSS-2: Tracing More Cold Stellar Streams with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, Carl; Kupper, Andreas; Sesar, Branimir; Pearson, Sarah; Rich, Jeffrey; Scowcroft, Vicky; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Johnston, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Stellar debris streams may be the most sensitive probes we have of the size and shape of the Milky Way's dark matter distribution. Using the remarkably precise infrared period-luminosity relation for RR Lyrae, Spitzer has already demonstrated the ability to measure distances to better than 2% over nearly the entire volume of the Galaxy. By measuring very accurate mean magnitudes for RR Lyrae in the Anticenter and Styx streams, we will immediately be able to put tighter constrains on the mass and shape of the Galactic halo. These measurements will become still more important in coming years, when they can be used to turn Gaia proper motion measurements into accurate transverse space velocities. These measurements are unlikely to be improved upon in the foreseeable future and may ultimately rank among Spitzer's most enduring legacies.

  10. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-07-10

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg{sup 2} for the EP-N and 1.28 deg{sup 2} for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 {mu}m, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of {approx}1.5 deg{sup 2} for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 {mu}m channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 {mu}m), W2 (4.6 {mu}m), W3 (12 {mu}m), and W4 (22 {mu}m), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the

  11. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Mudumba, Parthasarathy; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 147 explosive transients and 1948 eruptive variables. Of these 147 infrared transients, 35 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black-hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of only those 104 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEa. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 22 new SPRITEs and 6 new supernovae over the next two years. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  12. Spitzer, Gaia and the Potential of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn

    Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2% for individual RR Lyraes stars. This unprecedented precision surpasses even the most optimistic astrometric measurements (e.g. from ESA's upcoming Gaia mission) for the vast majority of our Galaxy (beyond 2kpc from the Sun). When combined with Gaia's promised proper motions, Spitzer can effectively extend the horizon where we might hope to obtain useful six-dimensional phase-space co-ordinates by more than an order of magnitude in distance (and three orders of magnitude in volume) compared to Gaia's own "horizon". In the proposed work we will examine what we might learn about our Galaxy using such accurate co-ordinates over such a large volume. In particular, we will develop and test an algorithm that maximizes the information from small, accurate samples (i.e. which might be observed with Spitzer on a feasible timescale) by using debris from satellite disruption to measure the Galactic potential. Mock observational samples will be generated by observing the end point of simulations of satellite destruction and the success of our algorithm in recovering the potential in which the simulation was actually run will be assessed. Preliminary tests suggest that we should be able to look at the 3-dimensional structure of the Galaxy's dark matter halo, constraining its shape, orientation and depth as a function of radius. The opportunity to examine a dark matter halo in such great detail is truly unique. It is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on our own Galaxy, and possible for no other galaxy in the Universe.

  13. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  14. COSMOS: accurate detection of somatic structural variations through asymmetric comparison between tumor and normal samples.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Koichi; Yamanishi, Ayako; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Sese, Jun

    2016-05-01

    An important challenge in cancer genomics is precise detection of structural variations (SVs) by high-throughput short-read sequencing, which is hampered by the high false discovery rates of existing analysis tools. Here, we propose an accurate SV detection method named COSMOS, which compares the statistics of the mapped read pairs in tumor samples with isogenic normal control samples in a distinct asymmetric manner. COSMOS also prioritizes the candidate SVs using strand-specific read-depth information. Performance tests on modeled tumor genomes revealed that COSMOS outperformed existing methods in terms of F-measure. We also applied COSMOS to an experimental mouse cell-based model, in which SVs were induced by genome engineering and gamma-ray irradiation, followed by polymerase chain reaction-based confirmation. The precision of COSMOS was 84.5%, while the next best existing method was 70.4%. Moreover, the sensitivity of COSMOS was the highest, indicating that COSMOS has great potential for cancer genome analysis. PMID:26833260

  15. A PUBLIC K{sub s} -SELECTED CATALOG IN THE COSMOS/ULTRAVISTA FIELD: PHOTOMETRY, PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Dunlop, James S.; Brammer, Gabriel; Van Dokkum, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog covering 1.62 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with point-spread function (PSF) matched photometry in 30 photometric bands. The catalog covers the wavelength range 0.15-24 {mu}m including the available GALEX, Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, VISTA, and Spitzer data. Catalog sources have been selected from the DR1 UltraVISTA K{sub s} band imaging that reaches a depth of K {sub s,tot} = 23.4 AB (90% completeness). The PSF-matched catalog is generated using position-dependent PSFs ensuring accurate colors across the entire field. Also included is a catalog of photometric redshifts (z {sub phot}) for all galaxies computed with the EAZY code. Comparison with spectroscopy from the zCOSMOS 10k bright sample shows that up to z {approx} 1.5 the z {sub phot} are accurate to {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.013, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of only 1.6%. The z {sub phot} also show good agreement with the z {sub phot} from the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey out to z {approx} 3. A catalog of stellar masses and stellar population parameters for galaxies determined using the FAST spectral energy distribution fitting code is provided for all galaxies. Also included are rest-frame U - V and V - J colors, L {sub 2800} and L {sub IR}. The UVJ color-color diagram confirms that the galaxy bi-modality is well-established out to z {approx} 2. Star-forming galaxies also obey a star-forming 'main sequence' out to z {approx} 2.5, and this sequence evolves in a manner consistent with previous measurements. The COSMOS/UltraVISTA K{sub s} -selected catalog covers a unique parameter space in both depth, area, and multi-wavelength coverage and promises to be a useful tool for studying the growth of the galaxy population out to z {approx} 3-4.

  16. Spitzer Pre Launch Mission Operations System - The Road to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Wilson, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Development of the Mission Operations System (MOS) portion prior to launch was very different from planetary missions from the stand point that the MOS teams and Ground Data System had to be ready to support all aspects of the mission at launch (i.e., no cruise period for finalizing the implementation). For Spitzer, all mission-critical events post launch happen in hours or days rather than months or years, as is traditional with deep space missions. At the end of 2000 the Project was dealt a major blow when the Mission Operations System (MOS) had an unsuccessful Critical Design Review (CDR). The project made major changes at the beginning of 2001 in an effort to get the MOS (and Project) back on track. The result for the Spitzer Space Telescope was a successful launch of the observatory followed by an extremely successful In Orbit Checkout (IOC) and operations phase. This paper describes how the project was able to recover the MOS to a successful Delta (CDR) by mid 2001, and what changes in philosophies, experiences, and lessons learned followed. It describes how projects must invest early or else invest heavily later in the development phase to achieve a successful operations phase.

  17. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  18. ALBEDOS OF SMALL HILDA GROUP ASTEROIDS AS REVEALED BY SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Erin Lee; Woodward, Charles E. E-mail: chelsea@astro.umn.edu

    2011-06-15

    We present thermal 24 {mu}m observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope of 62 Hilda asteroid group members with diameters ranging from 3 to 12 km. Measurements of the thermal emission, when combined with reported absolute magnitudes, allow us to constrain the albedo and diameter of each object. From our Spitzer sample, we find the mean geometric albedo, p{sub V} = 0.07 {+-} 0.05, for small (D < 10 km) Hilda group asteroids. This Spitzer-derived value of p{sub V} is greater than and spans a larger range in albedo space than the mean albedo of large (D {approx}> 10 km) Hilda group asteroids which is p{sub V} = 0.04 {+-} 0.01. Though this difference may be attributed to space weathering, the small Hilda group population reportedly displays greater taxonomic range from C-, D-, and X-type whose albedo distributions are commensurate with the range of determined albedos. We discuss the derived Hilda size-frequency distribution, color-color space, and geometric albedo for our survey sample in the context of the expected migration induced 'seeding' of the Hilda asteroid group with outer solar system proto-planetesimals as outlined in the 'Nice' formalism.

  19. Teacher-Student Education and Public Outreach Using Spitzer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeton, Adam; Mehta, S.; Butler, M.; Spuck, T.; Heller, M.; Sixel, W.; Cook, C.; Hutchinson, P.; Butler, M.; Abajian, M.; Gorjian, V.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the NASA-IPAC Teacher Archival Research Program (NITARP) astronomers, teachers, and students collaborated in using archival data from the Spitzer Space Telescope to identify galaxy clusters around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at a high redshift of z≈1. The team analyzed 168 fields around AGN to determine if an over density of sources existed. The team, including members from across the US, initially explored the idea at the 2011 Winter AAS Meeting. The initial meeting followed up with regular conference calls, and a 4-day face to face meeting at the Spitzer Science Center in Pasadena, CA. Throughout the process teachers and students gained a great deal of knowledge and experiences conducting authentic science research, and scientists gained a deeper understanding of education issues. The poster will present the processes used to engage students in this real-world experience, and the many benefits to all. In addition our team will present inquiry based activities using archival data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, APT photometry software, and an Excel spreadsheet template, to enrich their understanding of the structure of the universe. NITARP is a NASA funded program.

  20. SSGSS: THE SPITZER-SDSS-GALEX SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy M.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Seibert, Mark; Van der Hulst, J. M.

    2011-11-10

    The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) provides a new sample of 101 star-forming galaxies at z < 0.2 with unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage. New mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope is added to a rich suite of previous imaging and spectroscopy, including ROSAT, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Spitzer/SWIRE. Sample selection ensures an even coverage of the full range of normal galaxy properties, spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, color, and dust attenuation. In this paper we present the SSGSS data set, describe the science drivers, and detail the sample selection, observations, data reduction, and quality assessment. Also in this paper, we compare the shape of the thermal continuum and the degree of silicate absorption of these typical, star-forming galaxies to those of starburst galaxies. We investigate the link between star formation rate, infrared luminosity, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon luminosity, with a view to calibrating the latter for spectral energy distribution models in photometric samples and at high redshift. Last, we take advantage of the 5-40 {mu}m spectroscopic and far-infrared photometric coverage of this sample to perform detailed fitting of the Draine et al. dust models, and investigate the link between dust mass and star formation history and active galactic nucleus properties.

  1. Pointing History Engine for the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Ahmed, Asif; Brugarolas, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Pointing History Engine (PHE) is a computer program that provides mathematical transformations needed to reconstruct, from downlinked telemetry data, the attitude of the Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) as a function of time. The PHE also serves as an example for development of similar pointing reconstruction software for future space telescopes. The transformations implemented in the PHE take account of the unique geometry of the Spitzer telescope-pointing chain, including all data on relative alignments of components, and all information available from attitude-determination instruments. The PHE makes it possible to coordinate attitude data with observational data acquired at the same time, so that any observed astronomical object can be located for future reference and re-observation. The PHE is implemented as a subroutine used in conjunction with telemetry-formatting services of the Mission Image Processing Laboratory of NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to generate the Boresight Pointing History File (BPHF). The BPHF is an archival database designed to serve as Spitzer s primary astronomical reference documenting where the telescope was pointed at any time during its mission.

  2. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Stern, D.; Brodwin, M.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Gorjian, V.; Grogin, N.; Ivison, R.; Jacob, J.; Jannuzi, B.; Mainzer, A.; Moustakas, L.; Rottgering, H.; Seymour, N.; Smith, H.; Stanford, A.; Stauffer, J. R.; Sullivan, I.; van Breugel, W.; Wright, E. L.; Willner, S. P.

    2009-05-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The four epochs, which span the interval from 2003 to 2008, make it possible to identify nearby, high-proper-motion targets, as well as infrared-variable objects. SDWFS is a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy program (PID 40839). The SDWFS catalogs are publicly available, and contain roughly 7e5, 5e5, 1e5, and 1e5 distinct sources brighter than the 5-sigma survey limits of 19.8, 18.8, 16.5, and 15.8 Vega magnitudes at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns, respectively. In this contribution we describe the SDWFS survey and some initial findings. This work was supported by NASA grant number 1314516, administered by JPL.

  3. From Spitzer Galaxy photometry to Tully-Fisher distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, J. G.; Tully, R. B.; Courtois, H. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Neill, J. D.; Shaya, E. J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper involves a data release of the observational campaign: Cosmicflows with Spitzer (CFS). Surface photometry of the 1270 galaxies constituting the survey is presented. An additional ˜400 galaxies from various other Spitzer surveys are also analysed. CFS complements the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies, that provides photometry for an additional 2352 galaxies, by extending observations to low galactic latitudes (|b| < 30°). Among these galaxies are calibrators, selected in the K band, of the Tully-Fisher relation. The addition of new calibrators demonstrates the robustness of the previously released calibration. Our estimate of the Hubble constant using supernova host galaxies is unchanged, H0 = 75.2 ± 3.3 km s-1 Mpc-1. Distance-derived radial peculiar velocities, for the 1935 galaxies with all the available parameters, will be incorporated into a new data release of the Cosmicflows project. The size of the previous catalogue will be increased by 20 per cent, including spatial regions close to the Zone of Avoidance.

  4. Investigations on-board the biosatellite Cosmos-83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, Eu. A.

    The program of the 5day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 (December 1983) envisaged experimental investigations the purpose of which was to ascertain the effect of short-term microgravity on the physiology, growth and development of various animal and plant species. The study of Rhesus-monkeys has shown that they are an adequate model for exploring the mechanisms of physiological adaptation to weightlessness of the vestibular apparatus and the cardiovascular system. The rat experiment has demonstrated that mammalian embryos, at least during the last term of pregnancy, can develop in microgravity. This finding has been confirmed by fish studies. The experiment on germinating seeds and adult plants has given evidence that microgravity produces no effect on the metabolism of seedlings and on the flowering stage.

  5. MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Shizuka; Salmonson, Jay

    2010-10-01

    We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core-collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non-rotating 15 Msolar progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post-collapse environment is expected to be only ~200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. [1] and Obergaulinger et al. [2].

  6. ENVIRONMENT OF MAMBO GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.; Schinnerer, E.; McCracken, H. J.; Salvato, M.; Riechers, D.; Smolcic, V.; Sheth, K.; Capak, P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Menten, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) represent a dust-obscured high-redshift population undergoing massive star formation activity. Their properties and space density have suggested that they may evolve into spheroidal galaxies residing in galaxy clusters. In this Letter, we report the discovery of compact ({approx}10''-20'') galaxy overdensities centered at the position of three SMGs detected with the Max-Planck millimeter bolometer camera in the COSMOS field. These associations are statistically significant. The photometric redshifts of galaxies in these structures are consistent with their associated SMGs; all of them are between z = 1.4and2.5, implying projected physical sizes of {approx}170 kpc for the overdensities. Our results suggest that about 30% of the radio-identified bright SMGs in that redshift range form in galaxy density peaks in the crucial epoch when most stars formed.

  7. Starbursts and Galaxy Evolution: results from COSMOS survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Hinojosa Goñi, R.; Jairo Méndez Abreu, J.; Sánchez Alméida, J.

    2016-06-01

    The search for starbursts galaxies in COSMOS database by a tailored procedure that uses the photometry from SUBARU, results in 220 targets at z<0.5. The typical mass of the starburst is 10^8 and its distribution is similar to that of the quiescent galaxies in the survey at the same redshift range. From the detailed analysis of the galaxies images using the HST, the star forming clumps are characterized. The galaxies are of three different kinds, Snot, Snot and diffuse light and multiple knots. The mass of the knots are typically one order of magnitude below that of the host galaxy and the clumps in multiple knot galaxies are bigger the closer they are to the center. The sSFR however does not change with the particular position of the burst in their host galaxy, which suggests a similar process independently of their location. This result applies also to the galaxies at the largest z range (0.9). Our interpretation is that the star formation is happening at all possible locations on the galaxy discs, possibly from gas accreted from the halo or the IGM, with clumps which grow as they spiral and get to the centermost regions. Our previous work on nearby SF -tadpole galaxies of similar mass reported metallicity drops coinciding with the location of the burst what we have interpreted as SF driven by cold flows. Our results in COSMOS would be consistent with a similar interpretation and a scenario in which medium mass disks are growing by gas accretion that show up as scattered starbursts knots.

  8. The most obscured AGN in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzi, F.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-06-01

    Highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) are common in nearby galaxies, but are difficult to observe beyond the local Universe, where they are expected to significantly contribute to the black hole accretion rate density. Furthermore, Compton-thick (CT) absorbers (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) suppress even the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) AGN nuclear emission, and therefore the column density distribution above 1024 cm-2 is largely unknown. We present the identification and multi-wavelength properties of a heavily obscured (NH ≳ 1025 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 > 1044 erg s-1) AGN at z = 0.353 in the COSMOS field. Several independent indicators, such as the shape of the X-ray spectrum, the decomposition of the spectral energy distribution and X-ray/[NeV] and X-ray/6 μm luminosity ratios, agree on the fact that the nuclear emission must be suppressed by a ≳1025 cm-2 column density. The host galaxy properties show that this highly obscured AGN is hosted in a massive star-forming galaxy, showing a barred morphology, which is known to correlate with the presence of CT absorbers. Finally, asymmetric and blueshifted components in several optical high-ionization emission lines indicate the presence of a galactic outflow, possibly driven by the intense AGN activity (LBol/LEdd = 0.3-0.5). Such highly obscured, highly accreting AGN are intrinsically very rare at low redshift, whereas they are expected to be much more common at the peak of the star formation and BH accretion history, at z ~ 2-3. We demonstrate that a fully multi-wavelength approach can recover a sizable sample of such peculiar sources in large and deep surveys such as COSMOS.

  9. Stellar mass assembly and star formation history from z=0.2 out to z=6 in the COSMOS and VIPERS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    A clear and comprehensive picture describing the physical processes which regulate the stellar mass assembly is still missing in galaxy formation scenario. I will present a measurement of the galaxy stellar mass function and stellar mass density from z=0.2 out to z=6. Our study relies on deep near-infrared imaging over wide fields: the WIRCAM/CFHT coverage of the 20 sq-deg VIPERS fields combined with the new IRAC/Spitzer coverage (the SPLASH survey) of the 2 sq-deg COSMOS field. Our analysis is based on photometric redshifts of 1,5 million of galaxies reaching a precision around 4% at 4

  10. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  11. A Spitzer Survey for Dust in Type IIn Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (>100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low Type IIn rate (<10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. vVhile previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This article presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days post-discovery. The detection of late-time emission from ten targets (approx. 15 %) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests these SNe "turn off" at " approx. 1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable (LBV) progenitors having similar mass-loss histories.

  12. A Spitzer Survey for Dust in Type IIn Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (greater than 100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (less than 10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. While previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This article presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days postdiscovery. The detection of late-time emission from ten targets (approximately 15%) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests that these SNe decline at approximately 1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable (LBV) progenitors.

  13. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-09-20

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Halpha, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Halpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  14. NEOLegacy: The ultimate Spitzer survey of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs are valuable tracers of the evolution of our Solar System, and are also key components of current and future space exploration. Finally, the study of NEOs is relevant for civil defense through understanding the impact threat. We propose here an efficient and comprehensive survey to measure the diameters, albedos, and lightcurves of 1154 NEOs. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 3000 NEOs -- more than 20% of all known objects. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 13, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will calculate an independent estimate of the NEO size distribution, addressing a current controversy, and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We will increase by up to a factor of five the number of NEO lightcurves with relatively well known periods and amplitudes. The legacy value of this project is most evident in the fact that there will not ever in the foreseeable future be another opportunity to measure thousands of NEO diameters and carry out the type of science described above. Our online database will be the single most valuable resource of NEO diameters and albedos for years to come. Only Spitzer is sensitive and efficient enough to create such an important catalog of this scale. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

  15. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; de Jong, R. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, N.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G. J.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Marshall, J. L.; McLinden, E.; Mentuch Cooper, E.; Somerville, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Tran, K.-V.; Tuttle, S.; Viero, M.; Wechsler, R.; Zeimann, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Lyα emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 < z < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K-band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc3 at 1.9 < z < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1 μJy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm (1σ, for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Infrared Astrophysics with Spitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. This paper will focus on recent applications of the NASA Ames PAH IR spectral Database to interpret astronomical observations made by the Spitzer Space telescope and other space based infrared instruments. Examples will be given showing how changes in the spectral characteristics of different objects reveal interstellar PAH characteristics such as structure, size and composition, as well as provide insight into the chemical history and physical nature of the emission zones.

  17. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; de Jong, R. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, N.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G. J.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Marshall, J. L.; McLinden, E.; Mentuch Cooper, E.; Somerville, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Tran, K.-V.; Tuttle, S.; Viero, M.; Wechsler, R.; Zeimann, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ˜ 800 spectroscopy will produce ˜200,000 redshifts from the Lyα emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 < z < 3.5, and an additional ˜200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K-band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ˜0.5 Gpc3 at 1.9 < z < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1 μJy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm (1σ, for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  18. Spitzer ultra faint survey program (surfs up). I. An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Cain, Benjamin; Hall, Nicholas; Lubin, Lori; Ryan, Russell; Casertano, Stefano; Lemaux, Brian C.; Schrabback, Tim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Allen, Steve; Von der Linden, Anja; Gladders, Mike; Hinz, Joannah; Zaritsky, Dennis; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-04-20

    Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program is a joint Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Exploration Science program using 10 galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes to study z ≳ 7 galaxies at intrinsically lower luminosities, enabled by gravitational lensing, than blank field surveys of the same exposure time. Our main goal is to measure stellar masses and ages of these galaxies, which are the most likely sources of the ionizing photons that drive reionization. Accurate knowledge of the star formation density and star formation history at this epoch is necessary to determine whether these galaxies indeed reionized the universe. Determination of the stellar masses and ages requires measuring rest-frame optical light, which only Spitzer can probe for sources at z ≳ 7, for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. Our program consists of 550 hr of Spitzer/IRAC imaging covering 10 galaxy clusters with very well-known mass distributions, making them extremely precise cosmic telescopes. We combine our data with archival observations to obtain mosaics with ∼30 hr exposure time in both 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm in the central 4' × 4' field and ∼15 hr in the flanking fields. This results in 3σ sensitivity limits of ∼26.6 and ∼26.2 AB magnitudes for the central field in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands, respectively. To illustrate the survey strategy and characteristics we introduce the sample, present the details of the data reduction and demonstrate that these data are sufficient for in-depth studies of z ≳ 7 sources (using a z = 9.5 galaxy behind MACS J1149.5+2223 as an example). For the first cluster of the survey (the Bullet Cluster) we have released all high-level data mosaics and IRAC empirical point-spread function models. In the future we plan to release these data products for the entire survey.

  19. Spitzer Science operations: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Deborah A.

    2008-07-01

    We review the Spitzer Space Telescope Science Center operations teams and processes and their interfaces with other Project elements -- what we planned early in the development of the science center, what we had at a launch and what we have now and why. We also explore the checks and balances behind building an organizational structure that supports constructive airing of conflicts and a timely resolution that balances the inputs and provides for very efficient on-orbit operations. For example, what organizational roles are involved in reviewing observing schedules, what constituency do they represent and who has authority to approve or disapprove the schedule.

  20. Spitzer Observations Of HD 149026b, the Hottest Planet, and the Spitzer Exoplanet ToO Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Luszcz, S.; Seager, S.; Deming, D.; Richardson, L. J.; Horning, K.; Navarro, S.; Bowman, W.

    2007-10-01

    We observed a secondary eclipse of the transiting exoplanet HD 149026b using the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera at 8 µm. Previous reports of secondary eclipse brightness temperatures are roughly consistent with predictions based on thermal equilibrium with received radiation, assuming uniform, blackbody re-emission and a Bond albedo of 0.3. However, our study derives a brightness temperature of 2,300 ± 200 K, the hottest ever measured for a planet. This is well above the prediction of 1,741 K for even zero albedo. As models with non-zero albedo are cooler, this essentially eliminates uniform blackbody models, and may also require an albedo lower than any measured for a planet, very strong 8-µm emission, strong temporal variability, or a heat source other than stellar radiation. On the other hand, an instantaneous re-emission blackbody model, in which each patch of surface area instantly re-emits all received light, matches the data. This planet is known to be enriched in heavy elements, which may give rise to novel atmospheric properties yet to be investigated. The eclipse time is consistent with a circular orbit. We will also introduce our Spitzer Target of Opportunity program for observing new transiting planets, in which we invite planet hunters to participate. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This material is based upon work supported by the US National Science Foundation and by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of the COSMOS Science Education Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Bogner, Franz X.; Neofotistos, George

    2011-08-01

    A quantitative method of mapping the web usage of an innovative educational portal is applied to analyze the behaviour of users of the COSMOS Science Education Portal. The COSMOS Portal contains user-generated resources (that are uploaded by its users). It has been designed to support a science teacher's search, retrieval and access to both, scientific and educational resources. It also aims to introduce in and familiarize teachers with an innovative methodology for designing, expressing and representing educational practices in a commonly understandable way through the use of user-friendly authoring tools that are available through the portal. As a new science education portal that includes user-generated content, the COSMOS Portal encounters the well-known "new product/service challenge": to convince the users to use its tools, which facilitate quite fast lesson planning and lesson preparation activities. To respond to this challenge, the COSMOS Portal operators implemented a validation process by analyzing the usage data of the portal in a 10 month time-period. The data analyzed comprised: (a) the temporal evolution of the number of contributors and the amount of content uploaded to the COSMOS Portal; (b) the number of portal visitors (categorized as all-visitors, new-visitors, and returning-visitors) and (c) visitor loyalty parameters (such as page-views; pages/visit; average time on site; depth of visit; length of visit). The data is augmented with data associated with the usage context (e.g. the time of day when most of the activities in the portal take place). The quantitative results indicate that the exponential growth of the contributors to the COSMOS Portal is followed by an exponential growth of the uploaded content. Furthermore, the web usage statistics demonstrate significant changes in users' behaviour during the period under study, with returning visitors using the COSMOS Portal more frequently, mainly for lesson planning and preparation (in the

  2. Galaxy Stellar Mass Assembly Between 0.2 < z < 2 from the S-COSMOS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Kartaltepe, J.; Scoville, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Arnouts, S.; Bundy, K.; Cassata, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Surace, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Thompson, D.; Tresse, L.; Zamojski, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2010-02-01

    We follow the galaxy stellar mass assembly by morphological and spectral type in the COSMOS 2 deg2 field. We derive the stellar mass functions and stellar mass densities from z = 2 to z = 0.2 using 196,000 galaxies selected at F 3.6 μm > 1 μJy with accurate photometric redshifts (σ_{(z_phot-z_spec)/(1+z_spec)}=0.008 at i + < 22.5). Using a spectral classification, we find that z ~ 1 is an epoch of transition in the stellar mass assembly of quiescent galaxies. Their stellar mass density increases by 1.1 dex between z = 1.5-2 and z = 0.8-1 (Δt ~ 2.5 Gyr), but only by 0.3 dex between z = 0.8-1 and z ~ 0.1 (Δt ~ 6 Gyr). Then, we add the morphological information and find that 80%-90% of the massive quiescent galaxies (log M ˜ 11) have an elliptical morphology at z < 0.8. Therefore, a dominant mechanism links the shutdown of star formation and the acquisition of an elliptical morphology in massive galaxies. Still, a significant fraction of quiescent galaxies present a Spi/Irr morphology at low mass (40%-60% at log M˜ 9.5), but this fraction is smaller than predicted by semi-analytical models using a "halo quenching" recipe. We also analyze the evolution of star-forming galaxies and split them into "intermediate activity" and "high activity" galaxies. We find that the most massive "high activity" galaxies end their high star formation rate phase first. Finally, the space density of massive star-forming galaxies becomes lower than the space density of massive elliptical galaxies at z < 1. As a consequence, the rate of "wet mergers" involved in the formation of the most massive ellipticals must decline very rapidly at z < 1, which could explain the observed slow down in the assembly of these quiescent and massive sources. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope

  3. SPIRITS Discoveries of Recent Infrared Transients with Spitzer Early Release Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Tinyanont, S.; Cao, Y.; Prince, T.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; van Dyk, S.; Cody, A.; Boyer, M.; Khan, R.; Bond, H.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Levesque, E.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Fox, O.; Phillips, M.; Hsiao, E.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS; ATel #6644) is a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies for infrared transients with the IRAC camera on the warm Spitzer telescope to a depth of 20th mag (Vega) with varying cadences between a week to a year.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey (SIGS) (Brassington+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassington, N. J.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, H. A.; Willner, S. P.; Klein, C.

    2015-07-01

    All 103 galaxies in the Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey (SIGS) sample were observed with the IRAC and the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). These observations were obtained through both the archive and our observing program (PID 20140; PI A. Zezas). A log of all observations (between 2003 Nov and 2008 Aug) is presented in Table 2. (4 data files).

  5. Early-type galaxies in the Chandra cosmos survey

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Paggi, A.; Elvis, M.; Pellegrini, S.; Feder, R.

    2014-07-20

    We study a sample of 69 X-ray detected early-type galaxies (ETGs), selected from the Chandra COSMOS survey, to explore the relation between the X-ray luminosity of hot gaseous halos (L{sub X,{sub gas}}) and the integrated stellar luminosity (L{sub K} ) of the galaxies, in a range of redshift extending out to z = 1.5. In the local universe, a tight, steep relationship has been established between these two quantities (L{sub X,gas}∼L{sub K}{sup 4.5}), suggesting the presence of largely virialized halos in X-ray luminous systems. We use well-established relations from the study of local universe ETGs, together with the expected evolution of the X-ray emission, to subtract the contribution of low-mass X-ray binary populations from the X-ray luminosity of our sample. Our selection minimizes the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), yielding a sample representative of normal passive COSMOS ETGs; therefore, the resulting luminosity should be representative of gaseous halos, although we cannot exclude other sources such as obscured AGNs or enhanced X-ray emission connected with embedded star formation in the higher-z galaxies. We find that most of the galaxies with estimated L{sub X} < 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} and z < 0.55 follow the L{sub X,{sub gas}}-L{sub K} relation of local universe ETGs. For these galaxies, the gravitational mass can be estimated with a certain degree of confidence from the local virial relation. However, the more luminous (10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}

  6. Early-type Galaxies in the Chandra COSMOS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Fabbiano, G.; Pellegrini, S.; Kim, D.-W.; Paggi, A.; Feder, R.; Elvis, M.

    2014-07-01

    We study a sample of 69 X-ray detected early-type galaxies (ETGs), selected from the Chandra COSMOS survey, to explore the relation between the X-ray luminosity of hot gaseous halos (L X, gas) and the integrated stellar luminosity (LK ) of the galaxies, in a range of redshift extending out to z = 1.5. In the local universe, a tight, steep relationship has been established between these two quantities (L_{X,gas}\\sim L_K^{4.5}), suggesting the presence of largely virialized halos in X-ray luminous systems. We use well-established relations from the study of local universe ETGs, together with the expected evolution of the X-ray emission, to subtract the contribution of low-mass X-ray binary populations from the X-ray luminosity of our sample. Our selection minimizes the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), yielding a sample representative of normal passive COSMOS ETGs; therefore, the resulting luminosity should be representative of gaseous halos, although we cannot exclude other sources such as obscured AGNs or enhanced X-ray emission connected with embedded star formation in the higher-z galaxies. We find that most of the galaxies with estimated LX < 1042 erg s-1 and z < 0.55 follow the L X, gas-LK relation of local universe ETGs. For these galaxies, the gravitational mass can be estimated with a certain degree of confidence from the local virial relation. However, the more luminous (1042 erg s-1

  7. HiRes Deconvolution of Outflow Cavities Imaged by Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, Thangasamy; Langer, W. D.; Marsh, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    Circumstellar outflows are believed to play a central role in the dispersal of the envelope and the ejection of angular momentum from protostars and their associated disks. The opening angle of the outflow is an important indicator of the time evolution of the outflow and its effects on infall and accretion. The scattered light emission escaping out the outflow cavities can be observed in the deep Spitzer images in the IRAC bands. We present examples of HiRes deconvolved Spitzer IRAC images of outflow cavities. HiRes achieves sub-arcsec resolution (< 0.8") for IRAC channels at 3.6 and 4.5 microns and 1" at 5.8 and 8 microns. Furthermore, HiRes deconvolution removes all the diffraction lobes producing cleaner looking narrow image of the protostar and nearby bright stars. Thus HiRes analysis improves our ability to trace the outflow cavities. We also present geometric models of the outflow (inclination and deprojected opening angles) derived by fitting SEDs and images of the outflow cavities. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  8. Spitzer Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman Filter Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman Filter algorithm. The IPF Kalman filter is a high-order square-root iterated linearized Kalman filter, which is parametrized for calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane and aligning the science instrument arrays with respect to the telescope boresight. The most stringent calibration requirement specifies knowledge of certain instrument pointing frames to an accuracy of 0.1 arcseconds, per-axis, 1-sigma relative to the Telescope Pointing Frame. In order to achieve this level of accuracy, the filter carries 37 states to estimate desired parameters while also correcting for expected systematic errors due to: (1) optical distortions, (2) scanning mirror scale-factor and misalignment, (3) frame alignment variations due to thermomechanical distortion, and (4) gyro bias and bias-drift in all axes. The resulting estimated pointing frames and calibration parameters are essential for supporting on-board precision pointing capability, in addition to end-to-end 'pixels on the sky' ground pointing reconstruction efforts.

  9. Structure of the zodiacal emission by Spitzer archive data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebelyi, E.; Kiss, C.; Balog, Z.; Stansberry, J.

    2014-07-01

    Dust in the interplanetary dust cloud not just reflects the sunlight (known as zodiacal light) but also has its own thermal emission. At the heliocentric distance of the Earth, the peak of this emission (with particle size ˜ 100 μ m) is close to 20 μ m. In this study, we used the data of four programs completed with the MIPS camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 μ m to probe the large-scale brightness distribution as well as the small-scale (sub-arcmin) structure of the zodiacal cloud. The four programs were: - The Production of Zodiacal Dust by Asteroids and Comets (ID: 2317) - High Latitude Dust Bands in the Main Asteroid Belt: Fingerprints of Recent Breakup Events (ID: 20539) - A New Source of Interplanetary Dust: Type II Dust Trails (ID: 30545) - First Look Survey - Ecliptic Plane Component (ID: 98) We take into account that, when the Spitzer Space Telescope carried out the measurements, it was orbiting the Sun at an Earth-trailing orbit and looking at different parts of the zodiacal cloud, in many cases looking through the same parts of the cloud from different locations. This gives us the chance to investigate the 3D distribution of zodiacal dust in addition to large- and small-scale structure of the cloud.

  10. Structure of the Zodiacal Emission by Spitzer Archive Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Dust in the Interplanetary Dust Cloud not just reflects the sunlight (known as zodiacal light) but also has its own thermal emission. At the heliocentric distance of Earth the peak of this emission (with particle size 100 μm) is close to 20 μm. In this study we used the data of four programs completed with the MIPS camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 μm to probe the large scale brightness distribution as well as the small-scale (subarcmin) structure of the Zodiacal Could. The four programs were:1. The Production of Zodiacal Dust by Asteroids and Comets (ID: 2317)2. High Latitude Dust Bands in the Main Asteroid Belt: Fingerprints of Recent Breakup Events (ID: 20539)3. A New Source of Interplanetary Dust: Type II Dust Trails (ID: 30545)4. First Look Survey - Ecliptic Plane Component (ID: 98)We take into account that while the Spitzer Space Telescope carried out the measurements it was orbiting the Sun at an Earth-trailing orbit and looked at different parts of the Zodiacal Cloud, in many cases looking through the same parts of the cloud from different locations. This gives us the chance to investigate the 3D distribution of zodiacal dust in addition to its large and small scale structure.

  11. SMASH: Spitzer Merger History and Shape of the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn; Scowcroft, Vicky; Madore, Barry; Freedman, Wendy; Scowcroft, Victoria; Clementini, Gisella; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; van der Marel, Roeland; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Soszynski, Igor; Nidever, David; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Besla, Gurtina; Majewski, Steve; Monson, Andy; Seibert, Mark; Smith, Horace; Preston, George; Kollmeier, Juna; Bono, Giuseppe; Marengo, Massimo; Persson, Eric; Law, David; Grillmair, Carl; Cohen, Judy; Sesar, Branimir; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Fabrizio, Michele

    2013-10-01

    The existence of a period-luminosity relation for RR Lyrae variables as measured at IRAC mid-infrared wavelengths allows Spitzer to estimate distances to individual stars with 2% errors. The SMASH program will exploit this unprecedented opportunity to precisely map structures throughout the halo of our Galaxy. SMASH will construct the first 3-D map of one of the larger satellites of the Milky Way (Sagittarius), it will determine precise distances to four more satellites (Ursa Minor, Carina, Sculptor & Bootes) and make the only measurements of stars in tidal streams accurate enough to determine their individual positions within the debris. This proposal describes some of the ground-breaking science enabled by this program, from increased accuracy in determining the orbits of satellite galaxies, to revolutionary constraints on the mass, shape and orientation of our Milky Way's dark matter halo. The foundational importance of these data sets cannot be overstated. These Milky Way structures lie far beyond the reach of any current or proposed future direct parallax measurements. Moreover, the combination of the SMASH results with proper motions from ESA's upcoming astrometric mission, Gaia, can effectively stretch Gaia's horizon for full 6D phase-space maps of our Galaxy by nearly four orders of magnitude in volume! These data and the resulting distance measurements will become Spitzer's legacy to the Galactic Astronomy community for years to come.

  12. Spitzer, Gaia, and the Potential of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2013-11-01

    Near-future data from ESA's Gaia mission will provide precise, full phase-space information for hundreds of millions of stars out to heliocentric distances of ~10 kpc. This "horizon" for full phase-space measurements is imposed by the Gaia parallax errors degrading to worse than 10%, and could be significantly extended by an accurate distance indicator. Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations of RR Lyrae stars can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2%, effectively extending the Gaia, precise-data horizon by a factor of 10 in distance and a factor of 1000 in volume. This Letter presents one approach to exploit data of such accuracy to measure the Galactic potential using small samples of stars associated with debris from satellite destruction. The method is tested with synthetic observations of 100 stars from the end point of a simulation of satellite destruction: the shape, orientation, and depth of the potential used in the simulation are recovered to within a few percent. The success of this simple test with such a small sample in a single debris stream suggests that constraints from multiple streams could be combined to examine the Galaxy's dark matter halo in even more detail—a truly unique opportunity that is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on our own Galaxy.

  13. SPITZER, GAIA, AND THE POTENTIAL OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2013-11-20

    Near-future data from ESA's Gaia mission will provide precise, full phase-space information for hundreds of millions of stars out to heliocentric distances of ∼10 kpc. This ''horizon'' for full phase-space measurements is imposed by the Gaia parallax errors degrading to worse than 10%, and could be significantly extended by an accurate distance indicator. Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations of RR Lyrae stars can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2%, effectively extending the Gaia, precise-data horizon by a factor of 10 in distance and a factor of 1000 in volume. This Letter presents one approach to exploit data of such accuracy to measure the Galactic potential using small samples of stars associated with debris from satellite destruction. The method is tested with synthetic observations of 100 stars from the end point of a simulation of satellite destruction: the shape, orientation, and depth of the potential used in the simulation are recovered to within a few percent. The success of this simple test with such a small sample in a single debris stream suggests that constraints from multiple streams could be combined to examine the Galaxy's dark matter halo in even more detail—a truly unique opportunity that is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on our own Galaxy.

  14. Spitzer, Gaia, and the Potential of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, K. V.; Hogg, D. W.; Madore, B. F.; Majewski, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Near-future data from ESA's Gaia mission will provide precise, full phase-space information for hundreds of millions of stars out to heliocentric distances of ~10 kpc. This "horizon" for full phase-space measurements is imposed by the Gaia parallax errors degrading to worse than 10%, and could be significantly extended by an accurate distance indicator. Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations of RR Lyrae stars can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2%, effectively extending the Gaia, precise-data horizon by a factor of ten in distance and a factor of 1000 in volume. This Letter presents one approach to exploit data of such accuracy to measure the Galactic potential using small samples of stars associated with debris from satellite destruction. The method is tested with synthetic observations of 100 stars from the end point of a simulation of satellite destruction: the shape, orientation, and depth of the potential used in the simulation are recovered to within a few percent. The success of this simple test with such a small sample in a single debris stream suggests that constraints from multiple streams could be combined to examine the Galaxy's dark matter halo in even more detail --- a truly unique opportunity that is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on the Galaxy.

  15. Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, H.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Nigoche-Netro, A.; Toalá, J. A.; Fang, X.; Rubio, G.; Kemp, S. N.; Navarro, S. G.; Corral, L. J.

    2016-06-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of 11 planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃900 ± 70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar III], [S IV], and [Ne II] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features in a few cases. The decline of the [Ar III]/[Ne II] line ratio with the stellar effective temperature can be explained either by a true neon enrichment or by high density circumstellar regions of PNe that presumably descend from higher mass progenitor stars.

  16. SURVEY OF NEARBY FGK STARS AT 160 mum WITH SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Angelle; Beichman, Charles; Bryden, Geoff; Lisse, Carey

    2009-10-10

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has advanced debris disk science tremendously with a wealth of information on debris disks around nearby A, F, G, K, and M stars at 24 and 70 mum with the MIPS photometer and at 8-34 mum with IRS. Here we present 160 mum observations of a small subset of these stars. At this wavelength, the stellar photospheric emission is negligible and any detected emission corresponds to cold dust in extended Kuiper Belt analogs. However, the Spitzer 160 mum observations are limited in sensitivity by the large beam size which results in significant 'noise' due to cirrus and extragalactic confusion. In addition, the 160 mum measurements suffer from the added complication of a light leak next to the star's position whose flux is proportional to the near-infrared flux of the star. We are able to remove the contamination from the leak and report 160 mum measurements or upper limits for 24 stars. Three stars (HD 10647, HD 207129, and HD 115617) have excesses at 160 mum that we use to constrain the properties of the debris disks around them. A more detailed model of the spectral energy distribution of HD 10647 reveals that the 70 and 160 mum emission could be due to small water ice particles at a distance of 100 AU, consistent with Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging of circumstellar material in the system.

  17. Modeling IR SED of AGN with Spitzer and Herschel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltre, A.

    2012-12-01

    One of the remaining open issues in the context of the analysis of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is the evidence that nuclear gravitational accretion is often accompanied by a concurrent starburst (SB) activity. What is, in this picture, the role played by the obscur- ing dust around the nucleus and what do the state of the art AGN torus models have to say? Can the IR data provided by Spitzer and Herschel help us in extensively investigate both phenomena and, if so, how and with what limitations? In this paper we present our contribution to the efforts of answering these questions. We show some of the main results coming from a comparative study of various AGN SED modeling approaches, focusing mostly on the much-debated issue about the morphology of the dust distribution in the toroidal structure surrounding the AGN. We found that the properties of dust in AGN as measured by matching observations (be it broad band IR photometry or IR spectra) with models, strongly depend on the choice of the dust distribution. Then, we present the spec- tral energy distribution (SED) fitting procedure we developed, making make the best use of Spitzer and Herschel SPIRE mid- and far-IR observations, to dig into the role played by the possible presence of an AGN on the host galaxy's properties.

  18. Using The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonyan, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    I summarize my research studying details of the emission line profiles of the mid infrared [NeII] 12.8 microns and [NeIII] 15.6 microns emission lines. Observations are from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) (Houck et al. 2004), so I illustrate use of the archive of these spectra. The IRS team developed the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources (CASSIS) found at cassis.sirtf.com. At present, all low resolution (Lebouteiller et al. 2011) and high resolution (Lebouteiller et al. 2015) staring observations with the IRS are available (more than 20,000 spectra of about 15,000 distinct sources). Spectra are provided in various formats to enable easy viewing or measurements. Spectra cover 5 microns to 37 microns in low resolution (R ˜ 60 to 125) and 10 microns to 37 microns in high resolution (R ˜ 600) modes. CASSIS is intended as a long term resource for the astronomical community so that this fundamental data base of mid-infrared spectra will be easily usable perpetually, and I demonstrate some examples of its use.

  19. Spitzer IRS Spectra of Basaltic Asteroids: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nick; Stewart, Heather; Marchis, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a Spitzer program to observe the 5.2--38 micron spectra of small basaltic asteroids using the Spitzer IRS (Infrared Spectrograph). Our targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vestoids"), four outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 4055 Magellan. We will compare the compositions and thermophysical properties of the non-Vestoid objects with those of the dynamical vestoids to provide insight on the extent of metal-silicate differentiation on planetsimals during the epoch of planet formation in the early Solar System. As of this writing, spectra of asteroids 10537 (1991 RY16) and 2763 Jeans have been returned. Analysis of these data are ongolng. Observations of 956 Elisa, 2653 Principia, 4215 Kamo, 7472 Kumakiri, and 1459 Magnya have been scheduled and are expected to be available by the time of the DPS meeting. NIR spectra and lightcurves o f the target asteroids are also being observed in support of this program.

  20. Compton Thick AGN in the XMM-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Gruppioni, C.; Comastri, A.

    2016-06-01

    I will present results we published in two recent papers (Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 573A 137, Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 578A 120) on the properties of X-ray selected Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^{24} cm^{-2}) AGN, in the XMM-COSMOS survey. We exploited the rich multi-wavelength dataset available in this field, to show that CT AGN tend to harbor smaller, rapidly growing SMBH with respect to unobscured AGN, and have a higher chance of being hosted by star-forming, merging and post-merger systems. We also demonstrated the detectability of even more heavily obscured AGN (NH>10^{25} cm^{-2}), thanks to a truly multi-wavelength approach in the same field, and to the unrivaled XMM sensitivity. The extreme source detected in this way shows strong evidences of ongoing powerful AGN feedback, detected as blue-shifted wings of high ionization optical emission lines such as [NeV] and [FeVII], as well as of the [OIII] emission line. The results obtained from these works point toward a scenario in which highly obscured AGN occupy a peculiar place in the galaxy-AGN co-evolution process, in which both the host and the SMBH rapidly evolve toward the local relations.

  1. Weak Lensing : Ground vs. Space in the Cosmos Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Massey, R. J.; Ellis, R. S.; Rhodes, J.

    2006-12-01

    Weak lensing statistics are best for large numbers wide surveys with greater number of galaxies and deep surveys with a higher number density of galaxies. Although space-based surveys are unparalleled in their depth, ground-based surveys are the more cost-effective way to survey wide regions of the sky. We assess the relative merits of the two observing platforms, by using premier, multi-band, ground-based Subaru SuprimeCam data and space-based Hubble ACS data, in the 2 sq. degree COSMOS field in three ways. First, we compare shear measurements of individual galaxies and identify the relative calibration of the two datasets in terms of the largest subset in magnitude and size that is consistent. Second, we compare spaceand ground-based mass maps to quantify the relative completeness and contamination of the resulting cluster catalogs. We find that more clusters with XMM catalog counterparts are detected from space than ground and some ground-based clusters are possibly spurious detections. Third, we perform a detailed comparison of the precision with which it is possible to reconstruct the mass and size of four clusters at various redshifts identified from both ground and space. We find that the noise is much lower from space in all three investigations, but find no evidence for systematic overestimation or underestimation of the individual cluster properties by either survey.

  2. Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Technology Development Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, B. Thai; Clampin, M.; Werneth, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for PCOS Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the PCOS Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report include science missions and technology development for dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray, and inflation probe science.

  3. Cosmos 2229 immunology study (Experiment K-8-07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to further validate use of the rhesus monkey as a model for humans in future space flight testing. The areas of immunological importance examined in the Cosmos 2229 flight were represented by two sets of studies. The first set of studies determined the effect of space flight on the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF is an important regulator in the differentiation of bone marrow cells of both monocyte/macrophage and granulocyte lineages and any change in the ability of these cells to respond to GM-CSF can result in altered immune function. A second set of studies determined space flight effects on the expression of cell surface markers on both spleen and bone marrow cells. Immune cell markers included in this study were those for T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell, and interleukin-2 populations. Variations from a normal cell population percentage, as represented by these markers, can be correlated with alterations in immunological function. Cells were stained with fluorescein-labelled antibodies directed against the appropriate antigens, and then analyzed using a flow cytometer.

  4. Compton Thick AGN in the XMM-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Gruppioni, C.; Comastri, A.

    2016-06-01

    I will present results we published in two recent papers (Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A&A 573A 137, Lanzuisi et al. 2015, A≈A 578A 120) on the properties of X-ray selected Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^{24} cm^{-2}) AGN, in the XMM-COSMOS survey. We exploited the rich multi-wavelength dataset available in this field, to show that CT AGN tend to harbor smaller, rapidly growing SMBH with respect to unobscured AGN, and have a higher chance of being hosted by star-forming, merging and post-merger systems. We also demonstrated the detectability of even more heavily obscured AGN (NH>10^{25} cm^{-2}), thanks to a truly multi-wavelength approach in the same field, and to the unrivaled XMM sensitivity. The extreme source detected in this way shows strong evidences of ongoing powerful AGN feedback, detected as blue-shifted wings of high ionization optical emission lines such as [NeV] and [FeVII], as well as of the [OIII] emission line. The results obtained from these works point toward a scenario in which highly obscured AGN occupy a peculiar place in the galaxy-AGN co-evolution process, in which both the host and the SMBH rapidly evolve toward the local relations.

  5. THE NATURE OF OPTICALLY DULL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared M.; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Brusa, Marcella; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Kelly, Brandon C.; Huchra, John P.; Jahnke, Knud; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Scoville, Nick Z.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Maineri, Vincenzo

    2009-11-20

    We present infrared, optical, and X-ray data of 48 X-ray bright, optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. These objects exhibit the X-ray luminosity of an AGN but lack broad and narrow emission lines in their optical spectrum. We show that despite the lack of optical emission lines, most of these optically dull AGNs are not well described by a typical passive red galaxy spectrum: instead they exhibit weak but significant blue emission like an unobscured AGN. Photometric observations over several years additionally show significant variability in the blue emission of four optically dull AGNs. The nature of the blue and infrared emission suggest that the optically inactive appearance of these AGNs cannot be caused by obscuration intrinsic to the AGNs. Instead, up to approx70% of optically dull AGNs are diluted by their hosts, with bright or simply edge-on hosts lying preferentially within the spectroscopic aperture. The remaining approx30% of optically dull AGNs have anomalously high f{sub X} /f{sub O} ratios and are intrinsically weak, not obscured, in the optical. These optically dull AGNs are best described as a weakly accreting AGN with a truncated accretion disk from a radiatively inefficient accretion flow.

  6. The Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoon, Henrik

    During the cryogenic phase of the successful Spitzer mission the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) performed approximately 15,000 observations of galactic and extragalactic sources. Among these are low-resolution spectra of more than 4200 galaxies beyond the Local Group. Results have been published in a great number of papers, led not only by hardcore infrared observers but increasingly also by non-native infrared astronomers. As the PI team of the IRS instrument, we are especially proud of the achievements of the IRS spectrograph, and we feel a special obligation to enhance the legacy value of its many observations. Last Summer we completed the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer-IRS Sources (CASSIS), containing homogeneously, expert-reduced low-resolution IRS spectra for over 11,000 observations. The spectra are available for download from our newly created CASSIS web portal. Here we propose to continue these efforts by fitting the low-resolution extragalactic spectra in the CASSIS atlas and create an Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS) of homogeneously measured mid-infrared spectroscopic observables of more than 4200 galaxies beyond the Local Group. IDEOS will provide astronomers with widely varying scientific interests access to diagnostics that were previously available only for limited samples, or available on-the- fly only to expert users. The completion of IDEOS will coincide with the completion of ALMA. By their nature, CASSIS galaxies are attractive targets for high S/N ALMA observations. IDEOS will provide easily-accessible mid-IR selection criteria for compilation of ALMA target lists for probing significant questions on the AGN environment, the nature of starburst activity, or the AGN/starburst connection. The virtual observatory accessibility will also greatly automate the collation of synoptic results, particularly in the compilation of SEDs and in the cross-matching of targets for trend plots of spectroscopic observables. IDEOS will

  7. HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE HD 207129 DEBRIS RING

    SciTech Connect

    Krist, John E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Rieke, George H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gaspar, Andras; Chen, Christine C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Hines, Dean C.; Rebull, Luisa M.; Tanner, Angelle; Trilling, David E.; Clampin, Mark

    2010-10-15

    A debris ring around the star HD 207129 (G0V; d = 16.0 pc) has been imaged in scattered visible light with the ACS coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in thermal emission using MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope at {lambda} = 70 {mu}m (resolved) and 160 {mu}m (unresolved). Spitzer IRS ({lambda} = 7-35 {mu}m) and MIPS ({lambda} = 55-90 {mu}m) spectrographs measured disk emission at {lambda}> 28 {mu}m. In the HST image the disk appears as a {approx}30 AU wide ring with a mean radius of {approx}163 AU and is inclined by 60{sup 0} from pole-on. At 70 {mu}m, it appears partially resolved and is elongated in the same direction and with nearly the same size as seen with HST in scattered light. At 0.6 {mu}m, the ring shows no significant brightness asymmetry, implying little or no forward scattering by its constituent dust. With a mean surface brightness of V = 23.7 mag arcsec{sup -2}, it is the faintest disk imaged to date in scattered light. We model the ring's infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) using a dust population fixed at the location where HST detects the scattered light. The observed SED is well fit by this model, with no requirement for additional unseen debris zones. The firm constraint on the dust radial distance breaks the usual grain size-distance degeneracy that exists in modeling of spatially unresolved disks, and allows us to infer a minimum grain size of {approx}2.8 {mu}m and a dust size distribution power-law spectral index of -3.9. An albedo of {approx}5% is inferred from the integrated brightness of the ring in scattered light. The low-albedo and isotropic scattering properties are inconsistent with Mie theory for astronomical silicates with the inferred grain size and show the need for further modeling using more complex grain shapes or compositions. Brightness limits are also presented for six other main-sequence stars with strong Spitzer excess around which HST detects no circumstellar nebulosity (HD 10472, HD 21997, HD

  8. THE CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE COSMOS FIELD. II. SOURCE DETECTION AND PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Puccetti, S.; Vignali, C.; Cappelluti, N.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Fruscione, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Miyaji, T.; Damiani, F.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that covers the central contiguous {approx}0.92 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field. C-COSMOS is the result of a complex tiling, with every position being observed in up to six overlapping pointings (four overlapping pointings in most of the central {approx}0.45 deg{sup 2} area with the best exposure, and two overlapping pointings in most of the surrounding area, covering an additional {approx}0.47 deg{sup 2}). Therefore, the full exploitation of the C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the point-spread function (PSF) changes strongly among different observations of the same source (from {approx}1 arcsec up to {approx}10 arcsec half-power radius); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate. We present here our treatment of four key analysis items: source detection, localization, photometry, and survey sensitivity. Our final procedure consists of a two step procedure: (1) a wavelet detection algorithm to find source candidates and (2) a maximum likelihood PSF fitting algorithm to evaluate the source count rates and the probability that each source candidate is a fluctuation of the background. We discuss the main characteristics of this procedure, which was the result of detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools, calibrated with extensive and dedicated simulations.

  9. A 6 GHz Synoptic Survey of the COSMOS Deep Field with the JVLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sink, Joseph R.; Myers, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) covers two square degrees, and is observed over a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray to Radio. Key science goals of COSMOS include probing the evolution of galaxies, AGN, and large scale structures of the Universe. As well as constraining cosmological models and the star and structure formation history of the Universe. The wide range of frequencies and deep surveys are suitable for many astrophysical studies.Beginning in 2013, observations of the COSMOS field in C-band (4 - 8 GHz) using the JVLA have been carried out in every configuration spanning 21 months (April 2013 - Jan 2015) for a total of 13 observations. The observations are comprised of 1 hour time blocks using a technique called On-The-Fly Mosaicking (OTFM). Using OTFM we see an increased efficiency for an allotted observation block by collecting data as the array scans across the field, rather than a pointed mosaic which requires settle down time after each new pointing. Each observation consists of 2160 1-second integrations on 432 phase centers that require calibration and image processing before they can be mosaicked to create the final image of the entire COSMOS field.The primary science goal of this survey is to identify, catalog, and study the variable and transient radio sources in the COSMOS field, comparing these to other radio, optical, IR, and X-ray observations. The main class of variables we are interested in Active Galactic Nuclei.

  10. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE COSMOS SURVEY. I. THE XMM-COSMOS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Civano, F.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Capak, P.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Jahnke, K.; Lusso, E.; Cisternas, M.; Mainieri, V.; Trump, J. R.; Ho, L. C.; Aussel, H.; Frayer, D.; Hasinger, G. E-mail: hhao@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2012-11-01

    The 'Cosmic Evolution Survey' (COSMOS) enables the study of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) because of the deep coverage and rich sampling of frequencies from X-ray to radio. Here we present an SED catalog of 413 X-ray (XMM-Newton)-selected type 1 (emission line FWHM > 2000 km s{sup -1}) AGNs with Magellan, SDSS, or VLT spectrum. The SEDs are corrected for Galactic extinction, broad emission line contributions, constrained variability, and host galaxy contribution. We present the mean SED and the dispersion SEDs after the above corrections in the rest-frame 1.4 GHz to 40 keV, and show examples of the variety of SEDs encountered. In the near-infrared to optical (rest frame {approx}8 {mu}m-4000 A), the photometry is complete for the whole sample and the mean SED is derived from detections only. Reddening and host galaxy contamination could account for a large fraction of the observed SED variety. The SEDs are all available online.

  11. Warm Spitzer: Effects of Major Operational Changes on Publication Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scire, E.

    2014-05-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope transitioned from the cryogenic mission to the warm mission in 2009. The transition involved changes to observatory operations in order to run the mission on a budget totaling less than 1/3 that of the cryogenic mission. These changes included decreasing the number of approved programs and funding to the community while removing the cap in hours for any one program. This increased the maximum program size to encourage observers to think in terms of ambitious experiments that require > 500 hours to accomplish (Exploration Science (ES) Programs). After 4 years of warm operations, this paper will discuss the how these changes have affected the way observers are publishing data in refereed journal articles.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Infrared Astrophysics with Spitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role that carbon-rich plays in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the possible existence of an abundant population of large, carbon-rich molecules in the ISM was unthinkable. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - shockingly large molecules by the standards of traditional interstellar chemistry -are recognized throughout the Universe. In this presentation, we will examine the current state of the interstellar PAH model and explore how this data, in conjunction with the unparalleled observational data provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope, can be used to draw ever-deeper insights into the physical and chemical natures of a wide range of astrophysical environments.

  13. Spitzer Space Telescope's View of Galaxy Messier 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version

    The galaxy Messier 101 is a swirling spiral of stars, gas, and dust. Messier 101 is nearly twice as wide as our Milky Way galaxy. Spitzer's view, taken in infrared light, reveals the galaxy's delicate dust lanes as yellow-green filaments. Such dense dust clouds are where new stars can form. In this image, dust warmed by the light of hot, young stars glows red. The rest of the galaxy's hundreds of billions of stars are less prominent and form a blue haze. Astronomers can use infrared light to examine the dust clouds where stars are born.

  14. Spitzer's View of NGC2264's Circumstellar Disk Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.; Marengo, Massimo; Lada, Elizabeth

    We present a Spitzer study of the pre-main sequence population of the young cluster NGC 2264. The disk population is divided into three classes, based on individual spectral energy distributions: optically thick disks, in a homologous manner depleted or anemic disks, and radially depleted transition disks. Our analysis indicated that there may be two distinct evolutionary paths; disks evolve from optically thick to anemic via the first path, and from optically thick to transition in the second. Most of the disks seem to follow the first path. It is yet unknown what physical mechanism triggers this evolutionary differentiation - it could be directly connected to the nature of planet formation within the disk.

  15. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of WASP-14b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Carey, Sean; von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David; Kane, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    We present a new technique of sparsely sampling phase curves of hot jupiters with Spitzer IRAC. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances of precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of ~2 more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are easy to schedule. We present the first results from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. As our pilot study, this planet has data taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring mode phase curve as proof of technique. We successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot jupiter.

  16. Spitzer Observatory Operations -- Increasing Efficiency in Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element.

  17. Spitzer Observations of Extraplanar PAH Emission from Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, N.; Howk, J.

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from interstellar material in the thick disks of normal spiral galaxies. These data show PAHs to be a common constituent of extraplanar material in spirals. The processes that displace this material from the interstellar disks of these systems do not destroy these very small grains. The dust emission features are present far above the galactic planes, extended up to about 2-4 kpc above the midplanes of the galaxies presented in this work. The total extent for which dust can be traced is about half the extent of the DIG. If it is not a sensitivity effect, this suggests that PAHs may be associated with a cold neutral medium that can not be supported at high z.

  18. Spitzer spectral observations of the deep impact ejecta.

    PubMed

    Lisse, C M; Vancleve, J; Adams, A C; A'hearn, M F; Fernández, Y R; Farnham, T L; Armus, L; Grillmair, C J; Ingalls, J; Belton, M J S; Groussin, O; McFadden, L A; Meech, K J; Schultz, P H; Clark, B C; Feaga, L M; Sunshine, J M

    2006-08-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope imaging spectrometer observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact encounter returned detailed, highly structured, 5- to 35-micrometer spectra of the ejecta. Emission signatures due to amorphous and crystalline silicates, amorphous carbon, carbonates, phyllosilicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water gas and ice, and sulfides were found. Good agreement is seen between the ejecta spectra and the material emitted from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and the circumstellar material around the young stellar object HD100546. The atomic abundance of the observed material is consistent with solar and C1 chondritic abundances, and the dust-to-gas ratio was determined to be greater than or equal to 1.3. The presence of the observed mix of materials requires efficient methods of annealing amorphous silicates and mixing of high- and low-temperature phases over large distances in the early protosolar nebula. PMID:16840662

  19. Ultradeep Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy in the GOODS Southern Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Armus, L.; Chary, R.; Colbert, J. W.; Frayer, D.; Desai, V.; Blain, A.; Spoon, H.; Charmandaris, V.; Pope, A.; Scott, D.

    2005-12-01

    We present the deepest spectra taken to date by the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We targeted two faint ( ˜ 0.15 mJy) sources in the Southern GOODS field, at z=1.09 and z=2.69, as likely star-forming galaxies. Spectra of the lower redshift target were taken in 8-21 micron range (short-low first order and long-low second order), while the higher redshift target was observed from 21-37 microns (long-low first order). Observing times were 3 and 9 hours on-source for SL-1 and LL-2, respectively, and 12 hours for LL-1. We detect strong PAH emission in both targets. We compare the spectra to those of local galaxies observed by the IRS.

  20. On-Orbit Performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas; Werner, Michael; Gallagher, David; Irace, William; Fazio, Giovanni; Houck, James; Rieke, George; Wilson, Robert; Soifer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope (formally known as SIRTF) was successfully launched on August 25, 2003, and has completed its initial in-orbit checkout and science validation and calibration period. The measured performance of the observatory has met or exceeded all of its high-level requirements, it has entered normal operations, and is beginning to return high-quality science data. A superfluid-helium cooled 85 cm diameter telescope provides extremely low infrared backgrounds and feeds three science instruments covering wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 180 microns. The telescope optical quality is excellent, providing diffraction-limited performance down to wavelengths below 6.5 microns. Based on the first helium mass and boil-off rate measurements, a cryogenic lifetime in excess of 5 years is expected. This presentation will provide a summary of the overall performance of the observatory, with an emphasis on those performance parameters that have the greatest impact on its ultimate science return.

  1. GLIMPSE360: Completing the Spitzer Galactic Plane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Barbara; GLIMPSE360 Team

    2009-05-01

    GLIMPSE360 will map the remaining 187 degrees of the Galactic Plane that have not been previously observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Thus the survey will cover longitude l=65-265.5 degrees excluding l 102-109 and l 76-82. The latitude range will be 3.1 degrees, wider than the previous GLIMPSE surveys (2 degrees) because the disk flares more in the Outer Galaxy. The latitude center will follow the CO/HI warp at a Galactocentric radius of 13 kpc. Three visits on each sky position with 0.6&12s HDR frames will provide a high dynamic range of sensitivity that exceeds GLIMPSE at both ends. This will allow us to determine the edge of the Galactic stellar disk, study low- and high-mass star formation in both the nearby Perseus arm and the Far Outer Galaxy, and study evolved stars throughout the Galaxy. Following the tradition of the previous GLIMPSE Legacy programs, we will deliver enhanced data products for the survey --- source lists and cleaned mosaics --- to the community. The science goals are as encompassing as the survey and include: determining the star formation rate of the Galaxy, the stellar disk scale heights and lengths across the Galaxy, how the dust extinction law varies with location in the disk; and cataloging stars, star clusters, PAH bubbles, supernova remnants, infrared dark clouds, outflows from massive protostars, planetary nebulae, external galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance, and many other types of objects. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech

  2. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF WASP-4b WITH WARM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Beerer, Ingrid M.; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Langton, Jonathan; Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.

    2011-01-20

    We present photometry of the giant extrasolar planet WASP-4b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m taken with the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of Spitzer's extended warm mission. We find secondary eclipse depths of 0.319% {+-} 0.031% and 0.343% {+-} 0.027% for the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, respectively, and show model emission spectra and pressure-temperature profiles for the planetary atmosphere. These eclipse depths are well fit by model emission spectra with water and other molecules in absorption, similar to those used for TrES-3 and HD 189733b. Depending on our choice of model, these results indicate that this planet has either a weak dayside temperature inversion or no inversion at all. The absence of a strong thermal inversion on this highly irradiated planet is contrary to the idea that highly irradiated planets are expected to have inversions, perhaps due the presence of an unknown absorber in the upper atmosphere. This result might be explained by the modestly enhanced activity level of WASP-4b's G7V host star, which could increase the amount of UV flux received by the planet, therefore reducing the abundance of the unknown stratospheric absorber in the planetary atmosphere as suggested in Knutson et al. We also find no evidence for an offset in the timing of the secondary eclipse and place a 2{sigma} upper limit on |ecos {omega}| of 0.0024, which constrains the range of tidal heating models that could explain this planet's inflated radius.

  3. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ∼115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (∼98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (∼55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ∼6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ∼6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ∼5.4 million sources.

  4. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  5. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ˜115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (˜98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (˜55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ˜5.4 million sources.

  6. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b with Warm Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    The short-period planet WASP-12b is among the hottest known transiting planets. Space- and ground-based secondary eclipse depths imply that this planet has a C/O ratio greater than 1 (Madhusudhan et al. 2011), in stark contrast to the chemistry in the Solar System and the assumed chemistry of other planets. These same eclipse data put the planet's day-side effective temperature at ~3000 K. This indicates a low albedo and poor recirculation of heat to the night-side, as has been found for all of the hottest transiting giant planets (Cowan & Agol 2011). But these trends were based solely on day-side observations (eclipse depths) rather than full phase variations, which directly probe night-side temperature. The short period (1.1 day) and inflated radius (1.8 R_J) of WASP-12b has led to speculation that the planet is severely prolate in shape, and undergoing Roche-lobe overflow (Li et al. 2010, Lai et al. 2010). UV observations by Fossati et al. (2010) seem to support this idea. We have recently obtained thermal phase curves of this planet with Warm Spitzer (PI:Machalek; PID 70060). Our data include two eclipses, a transit, and full phase coverage at each of 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of the planet's high temperature and large size, this is one of the highest S/N phase curves yet obtained with Spitzer. These data allow us to directly measure the planet's night-side temperature and the longitudinal offset of its day-side hot-spot, as well as constrain the planet's shape. Since the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands probe different depths in the atmosphere, we will strongly constrain climate models for the hottest gas giants.

  7. The Spitzer Space Telescope's performance: getting the most out of a great observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R.; Levine, Deborah A.

    2006-06-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25 th, 2003, and has been operating virtually flawlessly for over two years. The projected cryogenic lifetime for Spitzer is currently 5.5 years, substantially exceeding the required lifetime of 2.5 years and the pre-launch prediction of 5 years. The Spitzer Project has made a singular effort to extend Spitzer's lifetime through operational changes to conserve helium. Additionally, many updates to calibration and scheduling activities have been made in order to maximum the scientific return from Spitzer. Spitzer has met its level one science time requirement of 90%, and routinely exceeds it today. All this has been achieved with an operating budget that is substantially smaller than that of NASA's other Great Observatories. This paper will describe the overall performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope Science Operations System and detail the modifications made to increase both the helium lifetime and the science data return. It will also discuss trades made between performance improvements and cost. Lessons learned which can be applied to future observatory operations will be included in the paper. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-03-15

    We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

  9. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Laroque, Regina; Mullins, Richard E.; Morgan, Edward T.; Hargrove, James L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from Cosmos 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for Cosmos 2044.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The COSMOS-Legacy Survey (CLS) catalog (Civano+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; Lamassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The half-a-field shift tiling strategy was designed to uniformly cover the COSMOS Hubble area in depth and point-spread function (PSF) size by combining the old C-COSMOS (Elvis+, 2009, J/ApJS/184/158) observations with the new Chandra ones (see Figure 1). We summarize the main properties of the new ACIS-I Chandra COSMOS-Legacy observations in Table 1. The observations took place in four blocks: 2012 November to 2013 January; 2013 March to July; 2013 October to 2014 January; and 2014 March. The mean net effective exposure time per field was 48.8ks after all the cleaning and reduction operations. (2 data files).

  11. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: The z>3 Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 < z < 6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z phot). In this work, we treat z phot as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z phot < 3 but z phot probability distribution >0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5–2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s‑1), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ˜20 from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 6. The observed decline is ˜80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s‑1 < logL(2–10 keV) < 44.1 erg s‑1) from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At logL(2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s‑1, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ˜ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s‑1 with respect to our data.

  12. NASA and IYA: Bringing the Cosmos to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Denise A.; Summers, F.; Hasan, H.; Steel, S.; Dussault, M.; Lestition, K.; Arcand, K.; Watzke, M.; Squires, G.; Hurt, R.; Thaller, M.; Gurton, S.; Berendsen, M.; White, V.; Lowes, L.; Mendez, B.; Thieman, J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate missions and research programs share the wonders of the universe with students, educators, and the public through a wide array of award-winning education and public outreach programs. During 2009, these programs are providing a variety of professional development experiences for educators, observing opportunities, and community-based events to advance the U.S. goal for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). This presentation highlights examples of NASA-supported IYA activities that use imagery, amateur astronomer networks, and online telescopes to empower learners of all ages to discover the universe for themselves. To help "kick-off” the year, NASA's Great Observatories, Hubble, Chandra, and Spitzer, are providing large image prints to science centers, museums, and planetaria nationwide to illustrate the contributions of multi-wavelength observations to astronomy. The Task Group for the "From Earth to the Universe” Global Cornerstone Project has assembled a collection of more than 90 high-resolution images that individual communities are using to create their own image exhibitions in "non-traditional” settings. The "Visions of the Universe: Four Centuries of Discovery” traveling exhibit will use a spectacular arrangement of historic sketches and contemporary images to show library audiences how our view of the universe has changed since the time of Galileo. NASA's IYA Web site will contain a collection of articles on hot topics in space science - one for each month of 2009 - and a celestial object that can be observed through the unaided eye, binoculars, or a small telescope. The Night Sky Network provides a Cosmic Calendar of related observing opportunities and educational activities offered through amateur astronomy clubs. Through the MicroObservatory online telescope network, users can be Galileo for a night to celebrate IYA, and use a telescope to observe the same objects as Galileo.

  13. Cicero's Cosmos: Somnium Scipionis ("The Dream of Scipio")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N.

    2011-06-01

    The Dream of Scipio (b. 185 BCE) is the concluding excerpt of Cicero's dialogue in his De Republica ("On the Republic"), which has survived in the neo-Platonic commentaries on the text by Macrobius in the 4th century CE. A variation of its model Plato's Republic, the dialogue is set in 129 BCE. Parallels exist between Plato's closing with the myth of Er, recounting the structure of the cosmos and ordering of the planets and Cicero's cosmology updated by post-Hellenistic astronomical speculation. The Dream begins with his adoptive grandfather Cornelius Scipio Africanus appearing to his son Scipio in heaven as he looks down on Earth, a distant sphere amidst spheres of the universe. The deceased father presents the conditions of his legacy-to do upon Earth as his ancestors have done: "love justice and wisdom", and be devoted to your country, the highest form of virtue. Gazing on the stars-the Milky Way, home of the departed souls, Scipio realizes the relative insignificance of the Earth compared to the stars (analogy with the Roman Empire, a "pinpoint […] of this small Earth"). Africanus orders Scipio to look at the universe, the nine concentric spheres at the very center. Thus, fixed in place, the Earth does not move. Scipio then hears sounds-the music of the spheres in motion, its basis in mathematics and harmonic proportions. Comparisons between the works of Plato and Cicero are revealing. Both stress the relationship of city and state, and both share concern with justice and moral behavior. Whereas Plato focuses on the journey of the soul in the afterlife, Cicero's purpose is to show how public service, the importance of civic life, is a divinely sanctioned activity: "And remember that the most splendid deeds you can do are those which serve your country". The two major themes are the immortality of the soul and the relationship between human society and the divine order of the universe. Scipio must "contemplate the heavens in order to act rightly on Earth". The

  14. Analysis and Implications of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.

    On 2009 February 10, Iridium 33--an operational US communications satellite in low-Earth orbit--was struck and destroyed by Cosmos 2251--a long-defunct Russian communications satellite. This is the first time since the dawn of the Space Age that two satellites have collided in orbit. To better understand the circumstances of this event and the ramifications for avoiding similar events in the future, this paper provides a detailed analysis of the predictions leading up to the collision, using various data sources, and looks in detail at the collision, the evolution of the debris clouds, and the long-term implications for satellite operations. The only publicly available system available to satellite operators for screening for close approaches, SOCRATES, did predict this close approach, but it certainly wasn't the closest approach predicted for the week of February 10. In fact, at the time of the collision, SOCRATES ranked this close approach 152 of the 11,428 within 5 km of any payload. A detailed breakdown is provided to help understand the limitations of screening for close approaches using the two-line orbital element sets. Information is also provided specifically for the Iridium constellation to provide an understanding of how these limitations affect decision making for satellite operators. Post-event analysis using high-accuracy orbital data sources will be presented to show how that information might have been used to prevent this collision, had it been available and used. Analysis of the collision event, along with the distribution of the debris relative to the original orbits, will be presented to help develop an understanding of the geometry of the collision and the near-term evolution of the resulting debris clouds. Additional analysis will be presented to show the long-term evolution of the debris clouds, including orbital lifetimes, and estimate the increased risk for operations conducted by Iridium and other satellite operators in the low-Earth orbit

  15. Spectacular Results from Recent Spitzer Observations of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Tracey

    2006-02-01

    I will present an overview of some of the exciting results from Spitzer observations of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The images from the MIPS instrument at 24 and 70 microns are dominated by thermal emission from dust within the remnant and clearly show the counterjet extending in the opposite direction from the well-known North-East jet. One of the most surprising results from the 24 micron observations is the presence of infrared light echoes in the vicinity of Cas A. These are thought to result from interstellar dust heated by the explosion and by flares from the compact central object. Images taken in the four IRAC bands show the presence of synchrotron emission. The spectral indices measured between 6cm and IRAC channel 1 at 3.6 micron are flatter than those measured between 6 cm and 20 cm indicating a curved synchrotron spectrum consistent with cosmic-ray-modified shocks. We have also used the IRS instrument in mapping mode to obtainlow-resolution spectra over nearly the entire extent of Cas A. This is the largest single spectral map yet constructed with Spitzer. The spectra, in conjunction with the IRAC images, show that different dust components are associated with different ejecta/circumstellar media components of the remnant. The distribution and composition of the inhomogeneous ejecta and the associated dust indicate that in each direction different nucleosynthetic layers have reached the reverse shock. We have identified diffuse Si and S emission near the center of the remnant that matches the morphology of the absorption seen in the radio at 74 MHz. This material is thought to be ejecta that has not yet encountered the reverse shock but has been photoionized by X-ray and ultraviolet radiation from the remnant. We are able to identify [Ni II] in the remnant. Since the half-life of 56Ni is only 6 days, this material may not be the remains of the Ni synthesized in the supernova explosion. Finally, we have identified strong Ne emission from

  16. Non-LTE analysis of Uranus Observations from Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Martin-Torres, F.; Yung, Y. L.; Orton, G. S.; Fletcher, L. N.

    2009-12-01

    Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) observations of the disk of Uranus between 5.2 and 32 microns (1920 cm-1-270 cm-1) contain a wealth of information about the its cold atmosphere. In particular, they enable the retrieval of temperature and the abundances of several gaseous species as a function of pressure. They can also be used to study the energetics of radiatively active species in regions of Uranus’ atmosphere where Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) is expected to break down. Care must be taken in atmospheric sounding not to assume that the atmospheric compounds emit according to the Planck function at the local kinetic temperature. Many of the ro-vibrational states of atmospheric constituents responsible for infrared emissions have excitation temperatures that differ from the local kinetic temperature. While non-LTE emission has been extensively considered for remote sensing of the Earth, only one study by Appleby (Icarus, 85, p355-379, 1990), who examined the radiative equilibrium temperatures of methane (CH4) in the upper atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, has estimated the influence of non-LTE effects in Uranus' upper atmosphere. Uranus is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Helium is radiatively inactive, and hydrogen is active only in its weak collision-induced absorption, and its quadrupole lines. At low pressures, non-LTE processes involve the quantum levels of the more abundant minor constituents become important. In the case of Uranus the most important gas in the latter category is CH4, which has a role rather analogous to that of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere. Since the work by Appleby, the spectroscopic and kinetics information of methane and other hydrocarbons has greatly improved and computer capabilities allow avoiding previous simplifications. For example, the full coupling between CH4 v4 and the higher-energy vibrational states emitting/absorbing in the near-IR is now possible. In this presentation we

  17. Spitzer observations of two mission-accessible, tiny asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, M.; Hora, J.; Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Trilling, D.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A.; Smith, H.; Fazio, G.

    2014-07-01

    Small asteroids are most likely collisional fragments of larger objects and make up a large fraction of the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. Despite their abundance, little is known about the physical properties of these objects, which is mainly due to their faintness, which also impedes their discovery. We report on Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two small NEOs, both of which are of interest as potential spacecraft targets. We observed NEOs 2009 BD using 25 hrs and 2011 MD using ˜20 hrs of Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Channel 2 time. For each target, we have combined the data into maps in the moving frame of the target, minimizing the background confusion. We did not detect 2009 BD and place an upper limit on its flux density, but we detected 2011 MD as a 2.2σ detection. We have analyzed the data on both objects in a combined model approach, using an asteroid thermophysical model and a model of non-gravitational forces acting on the object. As a result, we are able to constrain the physical properties of both objects. In the case of 2009 BD (Mommert et al. 2014), a wealth of existing astrometry data significantly constrains the physical properties of the object. We find two physically possible solutions. The first solution shows 2009 BD as a 2.9±0.3 m-sized massive rock body (bulk density ρ=2.9±0.5 g cm^{-3}) with an extremely high albedo of 0.85_{-0.10}^{+0.20} that is covered with regolith-like material, causing it to exhibit a low thermal inertia (thermal inertia Γ=30_{-10}^{+20} SI units). The second solution suggests 2009 BD to be a 4±1 m-sized asteroid with p_{V}=0.45_{-0.15}^{+0.35} that consists of a collection of individual bare rock slabs (Γ = 2000±1000 SI units, ρ = 1.7_{-0.4}^{+0.7} g cm^{-3}). We are unable to rule out either solution based on physical reasoning. The preliminary analysis of 2011 MD shows this object as a ˜6 m-sized asteroid with an albedo of ˜0.3. Additional constraints on the physical properties of these

  18. A statistical study of gaseous environment of Spitzer interstellar bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L. G.; Gao, X. Y.

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of interstellar bubbles is suggested to be an important mechanism of triggering material accumulation and star formation. In this work, we investigate the gaseous environment of a large sample of interstellar bubbles identified by the Spitzer space telescope, aiming to explore the possible evidence of triggered gas accumulation and star formation in a statistical sense. By cross-matching 6124 Spitzer interstellar bubbles from the Milky Way Project (MWP) and more than 2500 Galactic H II regions collected by us, we obtain the velocity information for 818 MWP bubbles. To study the gaseous environment of the interstellar bubbles and get rid of the projection effect as much as possible, we constrain the velocity difference between the bubbles and the 13CO(1-0) emission extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS). Three methods: the mean azimuthally averaged radial profile of 13CO emission, the surface number density of molecular clumps and the angular cross-correlation function of MWP bubbles and the GRS molecular clumps are adopted. Significant over density of molecular gas is found to be close to the bubble rims. 60 per cent of the studied bubbles were found to have associated molecular clumps. By comparing the clump-associated and the clump-unassociated MWP interstellar bubbles, we reveal that the bubbles in associations tend to be larger and thicker in physical sizes. From the different properties shown by the bubble-associated and bubble-unassociated clumps, we speculate that some of the bubble-associated clumps result from the expansion of bubbles. The fraction of the molecular clumps associated with the MWP bubbles is estimated to be about 20 per cent after considering the projection effect. For the bubble-clump complexes, we found that the bubbles in the complexes with associated massive young stellar object(s) (MYSO(s)) have larger physical sizes, hence the complexes tend to be older. We propose that an evolutionary sequence might exist between

  19. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionatos, O.; Nisini, B.; Cabrit, S.; Kristensen, L.; Pineau Des Forêts, G.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Jets from the youngest protostars are often detected only at mm wavelengths, by means of line emission of CO and SiO. However, it is not yet clear whether these jets are mostly molecular or atomic, nor whether they trace ejected gas or an entrained layer around an embedded atomic jet. Aims: We investigate the warm gas content of the HH211 protostellar outflow to assess the jet mass-flux in the form of H2 and investigate the existence of an embedded atomic jet. Methods: We employ archival Spitzer slit-scan observations of the HH211 outflow over 5.2-37 μm obtained with the low resolution IRS modules. Detected molecular and atomic lines are interpreted by means of emission line diagnostics and an existing grid of molecular shock models. The physical properties of the warm gas are compared with those of other molecular jet tracers and to the results of a similar study towards the L1448-C outflow. Results: We detected and mapped the v = 0-0 S(0)-S(7) H2 lines as well as fine-structure lines of S, Fe+, and Si+. The H2 is detected to 5" from the source and is characterized by a “cool” T ~ 300 K and a “warm” T ~ 1000 ± 300 K component, with an extinction AV ~ 8 mag. The amount of cool H2 towards the jet agrees with that estimated from CO assuming fully molecular gas. The warm component is well fitted by C-type shocks with a low beam filling factor ~0.01-0.04 and a mass-flux similar to the cool H2. The fine-structure line emission arises from dense gas with ionization fraction ~0.5-5 × 10-3, and is indicative of dissociative shocks. Line ratios with respect to sulfur indicate that iron and silicon are depleted relative to solar abundances by a factor ~10-50. Conclusions: Spitzer spectral mapping observations reveal for the first time a cool H2 component towards the CO jet of HH211 consistent with the CO material being fully molecular and warm at ≃300 K. These maps detect also for the first time an embedded atomic jet in the HH211 outflow that can be

  20. The Vega Debris Disk: A Surprise from Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Misselt, K. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Moro-Martin, A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Bendo, G. J.; Gordon, K. D.; Hines, D. C.; Wyatt, M. C.; Holland, W. S.; Marengo, M.; Megeath, S. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2005-07-01

    We present high spatial resolution mid- and far-infrared images of the Vega debris disk obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The disk is well resolved, and its angular size is much larger than found previously. The radius of the disk is at least 43" (330 AU), 70" (543 AU), and 105" (815 AU) in extent at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. The disk images are circular, smooth, and without clumpiness at all three wavelengths. The radial surface brightness profiles follow radial power laws of r-3 or r-4 and imply an inner boundary at a radius of 11''+/-2'' (86 AU). Assuming an amalgam of amorphous silicate and carbonaceous grains, the disk can be modeled as an axially symmetric and geometrically thin disk, viewed face-on, with the surface particle number density following an inverse radial power law. The disk radiometric properties are consistent with a range of models using grains of sizes ~1 to ~50 μm. The exact minimum and maximum grain size limits depend on the adopted grain composition. However, all of these models require an r-1 surface number density profile and a total mass of (3+/-1.5)×10-3M⊕ in grains. We find that a ring, containing grains larger than 180 μm and at radii of 86-200 AU from the star, can reproduce the observed 850 μm flux, while its emission does not violate the observed MIPS profiles. This ring could be associated with a population of larger asteroidal bodies analogous to our own Kuiper Belt. Cascades of collisions starting with encounters among these large bodies in the ring produce the small debris that is blown outward by radiation pressure to much larger distances, where we detect its thermal emission. The relatively short lifetime (<1000 yr) of these small grains and the observed total mass, ~3×10-3M⊕, set a lower limit on the dust production rate, ~1015 g s-1. This rate would require a very massive asteroidal reservoir for the dust to be produced in a steady state throughout Vega's life. Instead

  1. SINFONI spectra of heavily obscured AGNs in COSMOS: Evidence of outflows in a MIR/O target at z ~ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, M.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Cresci, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Berta, S.; Delvecchio, I.; Fiore, F.; Lutz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Riguccini, L.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We present new data for four candidate obscured Compton-Thick (CT) quasars at z ~ 1-2.5 observed with the SINFONI VLT spectrograph in adaptive optics (AO) mode. These sources were selected from a 24 μm Spitzer MIPS survey of the COSMOS field, on the basis of red mid-infrared to optical and optical to near-infrared colours, with the intention of identifying active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dust enshrouded environments, where most of the black hole mass is assembled. Methods: Near-infrared spectra were analysed to check for emission line features and to search for broad components in the [OIII]-Hβ and Hα-[NII] regions. We also employed X-ray spectral analysis, radio and MIR diagnostics, and SED fitting to study the nature of the sources. Results: We successfully identified three objects for which we had only a photometric redshift estimate. Based on their emission line diagnostics and on ancillary multi-wavelength constraints, we find that all four targets harbour obscured AGNs. Broad profiles, which could be attributed to the effects of outflows, are revealed in only one target, MIRO20581. In particular, we clearly resolved a fast (~1600 km s-1) and extended (~5 kpc) outflow in the [OIII]5007 emission line. This feature, the commonly used indicator for ionised outflowing gas, was only sampled and detected for this target; hence, we cannot exclude the presence of outflows in the other sources. Overall, the constraints we obtain from our targets and from other comparative samples from the literature suggest that these optically faint luminous infrared galaxies, hosting obscured AGNs, may represent a brief evolutionary phase between the post-merger starburst and the unobscured quasar phases. Based on observations with SINFONI VLT spectrograph, ESO program 092.A-0884(A).

  2. Rest-frame Optical Emission Lines in Far-infrared-selected Galaxies at z < 1.7 from the FMOS-COSMOS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Silverman, J. D.; Kashino, D.; Chu, J.; Zahid, H.; Hasinger, G.; Kewley, L.; Matsuoka, K.; Nagao, T.; Riguccini, L.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Treister, E.; Capak, P.; Daddi, E.; Ohta, K.

    2015-06-01

    We have used FMOS on Subaru to obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 123 far-infrared-selected galaxies in COSMOS and the key rest-frame optical emission lines. This is the largest sample of infrared galaxies with near-infrared spectroscopy at these redshifts. The far-infrared selection results in a sample of galaxies that are massive systems that span a range of metallicities in comparison with previous optically selected surveys, and thus has a higher active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction and better samples the AGN branch. We establish the presence of AGNs and starbursts in this sample of (U)LIRGs selected as Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-MIPS detections in two redshift bins (z∼ 0.7 and z∼ 1.5) and test the redshift dependence of diagnostics used to separate AGNs from star formation dominated galaxies. In addition, we construct a low-redshift (z∼ 0.1) comparison sample of infrared-selected galaxies and find that the evolution from z∼ 1.5 to today is consistent with an evolving AGN selection line and a range of ISM conditions and metallicities from the models of Kewley et al. We find that a large fraction of (U)LIRGs are BPT-selected AGNs using their new redshift-dependent classification line. We compare the position of known X-ray-detected AGNs (67 in total) with the BPT selection and find that the new classification line accurately selects most of these objects (\\gt 70%). Furthermore, we identify 35 new (likely obscured) AGNs not selected as such by their X-ray emission. Our results have direct implications for AGN selection at higher redshift with either current (MOSFIRE, KMOS) or future (PFS, MOONS) spectroscopic efforts with near-infrared spectral coverage.

  3. Narrow-line X-Ray-selected Galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Field. I. Optical Spectroscopic Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, E.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Watson, M. G.

    2016-04-01

    The COSMOS survey is a large and deep survey with multiwavelength observations of sources from X-rays to the UV, allowing an extensive study of their properties. The central 0.9 deg2 of the COSMOS field have been observed by Chandra with a sensitivity up to 1.9 × 10‑16 erg cm‑2 s‑1 in the full (0.5–10 keV) band. Photometric and spectroscopic identification of the Chandra-COSMOS (C-COSMOS) sources is available from several catalogs and campaigns. Despite the fact that the C-COSMOS galaxies have a reliable spectroscopic redshift in addition to a spectroscopic classification, the emission-line properties of this sample have not yet been measured. We present here the creation of an emission-line catalog of 453 narrow-line sources from the C-COSMOS spectroscopic sample. We have performed spectral fitting for the more common lines in galaxies ([O ii] λ3727, [Ne iii] λ3869, Hβ, [O iii] λλ4959, 5007, Hα, and [N ii] λλ6548, 6584). These data provide an optical classification for 151 (i.e., 33%) of the C-COSMOS narrow-line galaxies based on emission-line diagnostic diagrams.

  4. COSMOS-rice technology abrogates the biotoxic effects of municipal solid waste incinerator residues.

    PubMed

    Guarienti, Michela; Cardozo, Sdenka Moscoso; Borgese, Laura; Lira, Gloria Rodrigo; Depero, Laura E; Bontempi, Elza; Presta, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Fly ashes generated by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) are classified as hazardous waste and usually landfilled. For the sustainable reuse of these materials is necessary to reduce the resulting impact on human health and environment. The COSMOS-rice technology has been recently proposed for the treatment of fly ashes mixed with rice husk ash, to obtain a low-cost composite material with significant performances. Here, aquatic biotoxicity assays, including daphnidae and zebrafish embryo-based tests, were used to assess the biosafety efficacy of this technology. Exposure to lixiviated MSWI fly ash caused dose-dependent biotoxic effects on daphnidae and zebrafish embryos with alterations of embryonic development, teratogenous defects and apoptotic events. On the contrary, no biotoxic effects were observed in daphnidae and zebrafish embryos exposed to lixiviated COSMOS-rice material. Accordingly, whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of the expression of various tissue-specific genes in zebrafish embryos provided genetic evidence about the ability of COSMOS-rice stabilization process to minimize the biotoxic effects of MSWI fly ash. These results demonstrate at the biological level that the newly developed COSMOS-rice technology is an efficient and cost-effective method to process MSWI fly ash, producing a biologically safe and reusable material. PMID:27149148

  5. A GROUP-GALAXY CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTION ANALYSIS IN zCOSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; and others

    2012-08-10

    We present a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis using a group catalog produced from the 16,500 spectra from the optical zCOSMOS galaxy survey. Our aim is to perform a consistency test in the redshift range 0.2 {<=} z {<=} 0.8 between the clustering strength of the groups and mass estimates that are based on the richness of the groups. We measure the linear bias of the groups by means of a group-galaxy cross-correlation analysis and convert it into mass using the bias-mass relation for a given cosmology, checking the systematic errors using realistic group and galaxy mock catalogs. The measured bias for the zCOSMOS groups increases with group richness as expected by the theory of cosmic structure formation and yields masses that are reasonably consistent with the masses estimated from the richness directly, considering the scatter that is obtained from the 24 mock catalogs. Some exceptions are the richest groups at high redshift (estimated to be more massive than 10{sup 13.5} M{sub Sun }), for which the measured bias is significantly larger than for any of the 24 mock catalogs (corresponding to a 3{sigma} effect), which is attributed to the extremely large structure that is present in the COSMOS field at z {approx} 0.7. Our results are in general agreement with previous studies that reported unusually strong clustering in the COSMOS field.

  6. From Tripod to Cosmos: A New Metaphor for the Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the contemporary language arts curriculum encompasses eight areas: literature, language, composition, speech and drama, critical thinking, technology, media literacy, and interdisciplinary studies. Offers a rationale for "cosmos" as a new metaphor for the language arts. Discusses the content of each of the eight curricular areas, and…

  7. The US/USSR Biological Satellite Program: COSMOS 936 Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    On August 3, 1977, the Soviet Union launched Cosmos 936, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biology and physics experiments from 9 countries, including both the Soviet Union and U.S. The launch marked the second time the Soviet Union has flown U.S. experiments aboard one of its spacecraft, the first being Cosmos 782 launched Nov. 25, 1975, which remained in orbit 19.5 days. Aboard Cosmos 936 were: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats, 20 of which was exposed to hypogravity during flight while the remainder were subjected to a l x g acceleration by continuous configuration; 2) experiments with plants and fruit flies; 3) radiation physics experiments; and 4) a heat convection experiment. After 18.5 days in orbit, the spacecraft landed in central Asia where a Soviet recovery team began experiment operations, including animal autopsies, within 4.5 hr of landing. Half of the animals were autopsied at the recovery site and the remainder returned to Moscow and allowed to readapt to terrestrial gravity for 25 days after which they, too, were autopsied. Specimens for U.S. were initially prepared at the recovery site or Soviet laboratories and transferred to U.S. laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the seven U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos 936 will be presented.

  8. US monkey and rat experiments flown on the Soviet Satellite Cosmos 1514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mains, R. C. (Editor); Gomersall, E. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    On December 14, 1983, the U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos 1514, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biological and radiation physics experiments from nine countries, including five from the United States. This was the fourth flight with U.S. experiments aboard one of the Soviet unmanned spacecraft. The Cosmos 1514 flight was limited to five days duration because it was the first nonhuman primate flight. Cosmos 1514 marked a significant departure from earlier flights both in terms of Soviet goals and the degree of cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the United States. This flight included more than 60 experiments on fish, crawfish eggs, plants and seeds, 10 Wistar pregnant rats, and 2 young adult rhesus monkeys as human surrogates. United States specialist participated in postflight data transfer and specimen transfer, and conducted rat neonatal behavioral studies. An overview of the mission is presented focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activites pertinent to the five U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos.

  9. Calibration and validation of the COSMOS rover for surface soil moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobile COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) rover may be useful for validating satellite-based estimates of near surface soil moisture, but the accuracy with which the rover can measure 0-5 cm soil moisture has not been previously determined. Our objectives were to calibrate and va...

  10. Applying Gaussian processes to Spitzer/IRAC transit lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    For the past decade, transit and eclipse measurements made with Spitzer/IRAC have been used to characterize dozens of exoplanet atmospheres. However, lightcurves obtained with IRAC are affected by systematics that swamp the faint atmosphere signals being sought, as the instrument was not designed for ~100ppm photometry over >3hr timescales. Robustly quantifying the degeneracies between these systematics and the planet signal is therefore crucial for obtaining realistic uncertainty estimates, to avoid over-interpreting what the data have to tell us. This is challenging, because the nature of the instrumental systematics are not well-understood from a first principles standpoint. I will describe the application of Gaussian process (GPs) models to this problem, which is a relatively new approach in the exoplanet literature. Specifically, I will present transmission and emission results for the hot Jupiter HD209458b, and summarise how the new GP analysis draws into question a number of previous results, including inferences of strong water absorption in transmission and an inverted pressure-temperature profile for the dayside hemisphere. I will also outline the main challenges in applying GP models to datasets like the IRAC lightcurves, which typically contain well over 1000 data points and exhibit non-stationary systematics.

  11. Debris Disks Among the Shell Stars: Insights from Spitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki; Weinberger, Alycia; Teske, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Shell stars are a class of early-type stars that show narrow absorption lines in their spectra that appear to arise from circumstellar class. This observationally defined class contains a variety of objects, including evolved stars and classical Be stars. However, some of the main sequence shell stars harbor debris disks and younger protoplanetary disks, though this aspect of the class has been largely overlooked. We surveyed a set of main sequence stars for cool dust using Spitzer MIPS and found four additional systems with IR excesses at both 24 and 70 microns. This indicates that the stars have both circumstellar gas and dust, and are likely to be edge-on debris disks. Our estimate of the disk fraction among nearby main sequence shell stars is 48% +/- 14%. We discuss here the nature of the shell stars and present preliminary results from ground-based optical spectra of the survey target stars. We will also outline our planned studies aimed at further characterization of the shell star class.

  12. Spitzer's Last Look at the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Greg; Kraemer, Kathleen; Kraemer, K. E.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Gordon, K. D.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Groenewegen, M.; Jones, O. C.; Kemper, F.; Lloyd, J. P.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewilo, M.; Srinivasan, S.; van Loon, J. Th.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We will map 30 square degrees of sky covering the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Bridge toward the LMC at 3.6 and 4.5 um, in two epochs in late 2017. Coupled with similar maps obtained in 2008 and surveys in the core of the SMC starting in 2005, the new epochs will give us a temporal baseline of 12 years in the heart of the SMC and 9 years in its outer regions. The Spitzer observations probe deeper than WISE and at higher resolution, allowing us to study fainter sources and sources in more crowded regions in this nearby metal-poor dwarf galaxy. We will use these data to better characterize how variability and dust production are intertwined in the final evolutionary stages of a star's lifetime. The long temporal baseline also enables searches for brown dwarfs near the Sun which are undetectable with Gaia or WISE, and the crowded background formed by the SMC makes any newly discovered brown dwarfs excellent candidates for microlensing studies which would reveal their masses. The long baseline may also reveal transients in star-forming regions in the SMC and in the population of background galaxies. We request 172.1 hours, with no proprietary period, to complete this project.

  13. Spitzer observatory operations: increasing efficiency in mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element. Adaptation to tighter spacecraft margins has facilitated continuous operational improvements via automated and autonomous software coupled with improved human analysis. Based upon what we now know and what we need to improve, adapt, or fix, the projected mission lifetime continues to grow - as does the opportunity for numerous scientific discoveries.

  14. Estimation Filter for Alignment of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David

    2007-01-01

    A document presents a summary of an onboard estimation algorithm now being used to calibrate the alignment of the Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility). The algorithm, denoted the S2P calibration filter, recursively generates estimates of the alignment angles between a telescope reference frame and a star-tracker reference frame. At several discrete times during the day, the filter accepts, as input, attitude estimates from the star tracker and observations taken by the Pointing Control Reference Sensor (a sensor in the field of view of the telescope). The output of the filter is a calibrated quaternion that represents the best current mean-square estimate of the alignment angles between the telescope and the star tracker. The S2P calibration filter incorporates a Kalman filter that tracks six states - two for each of three orthogonal coordinate axes. Although, in principle, one state per axis is sufficient, the use of two states per axis makes it possible to model both short- and long-term behaviors. Specifically, the filter properly models transient learning, characteristic times and bounds of thermomechanical drift, and long-term steady-state statistics, whether calibration measurements are taken frequently or infrequently. These properties ensure that the S2P filter performance is optimal over a broad range of flight conditions, and can be confidently run autonomously over several years of in-flight operation without human intervention.

  15. On circumstellar disks: Spitzer identifies two possible evolutionary paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.; Marengo, Massimo; Lada, Elizabeth

    Multi-wavelength surveys have vastly improved our understanding of many astrophysical objects, in particular, circumstellar disks. We present our results for the disk population of the young cluster NGC 2264. Our study was based on data obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope combined with previously published optical data. We divide the disk population into 3 classes based on their spectral energy distribution shapes: optically thick disks, homologously depleted anemic disks, and radially depleted transition disks. We find that there are two distinct evolutionary paths for disks: a homologous one, where the disk emission decreases uniformly in NIR and mid-infrared wavelengths (anemic disks) and throughout which most sources pass, and a radially differential one where the emission from the inner region of the disk decreases more rapidly than from the outer region (transition disks). Whether a disk evolves in a homologously or radially depleted fashion is still unknown and may depend on the nature of planet formation in the disk.

  16. S5: The Spitzer SDSS Statistical Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiminovich, David; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Hogg, David; Johnson, Benjamin; Martin, Christopher; O'Dowd, Matt; Treyer, Marie; Wu, Ronin; Wyder, Ted; da Cunha, Elisabete

    2008-03-01

    We propose the Spitzer SDSS Statistical Spectroscopic Survey (S5), a unique and unprecedented legacy survey to obtain low and high resolution mid-infrared (MIR) IRS spectra of a large optically selected, statistical sample of 300 star-forming galaxies with available UV photometry, selected from the SDSS at redshifts 0.05

  17. S5: The Spitzer SDSS Statistical Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiminovich, David; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Hogg, David; Johnson, Benjamin; Martin, Christopher; O'Dowd, Matt; Treyer, Marie; Wu, Ronin; Wyder, Ted; da Cunha, Elisabete

    2008-03-01

    We propose the Spitzer SDSS Statistical Spectroscopic Survey (S5), a unique and unprecedented legacy survey to obtain low and high resolution mid-infrared (MIR) IRS spectra of a large optically selected, statistical sample of 300 star-forming galaxies with available UV photometry, selected from the SDSS at redshifts 0.05

  18. A SPITZER/IRAC MEASURE OF THE ZODIACAL LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, Jessica E.; Glaccum, William J.; Carey, Sean J.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Surace, Jason A.; Ingalls, James G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Reach, William T.

    2012-07-20

    The dominant non-instrumental background source for space-based infrared observatories is the zodiacal light (ZL). We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) measurements of the ZL at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m, taken as part of the instrument calibrations. We measure the changing surface brightness levels in approximately weekly IRAC observations near the north ecliptic pole over a period of roughly 8.5 years. This long time baseline is crucial for measuring the annual sinusoidal variation in the signal levels due to the tilt of the dust disk with respect to the ecliptic, which is the true signal of the ZL. This is compared to both Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment data and a ZL model based thereon. Our data show a few-percent discrepancy from the Kelsall et al. model including a potential warping of the interplanetary dust disk and a previously detected overdensity in the dust cloud directly behind the Earth in its orbit. Accurate knowledge of the ZL is important for both extragalactic and Galactic astronomy including measurements of the cosmic infrared background, absolute measures of extended sources, and comparison to extrasolar interplanetary dust models. IRAC data can be used to further inform and test future ZL models.

  19. Kernel Regression Techniques for Enhancing Spitzer Photometric Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica; Carey, Sean; Grillmair, Carl J.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope has been used to measure < 0.01% temporal variations in the fluxes of exoplanet systems. The IRAC PSF at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm is undersampled and thus the detector arrays show variations of as much as 8% in sensitivity as the center of the PSF moves across a pixel due to normal spacecraft motions. This is the largest source of correlated noise in IRAC photometry. We describe the latest progress towards an independent calibration of the intra-pixel gain that does not rely on the measurements to be calibrated. The technique begins with: (1) localizing the sub-pixel position of a point source using Spitzer’s Pointing Calibration and Reference Sensor (PCRS); and (2) harnessing a “training set” of many thousands of densely spaced photometric measurements of a non-variable star. Kernel regression, where the training data are nonlinearly combined based on a distance metric for each data point, leads to significant improvements in photometric precision over our previous gridded method. The distance metric we use was derived from a supervised learning algorithm to minimize regression error. We conclude that these results rival the precision obtained with self-calibration techniques, but do not risk the removal of astrophysical signals.

  20. CASSIS: The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D. J.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Weedman, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    We present the spectral atlas of sources observed in low resolution with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. More than 11,000 distinct sources were extracted using a dedicated algorithm based on the SMART software with an optimal extraction (AdOpt package). These correspond to all 13,000 low-resolution observations of fixed objects (both single source and cluster observations). The pipeline includes image cleaning, individual exposure combination, and background subtraction. Particular attention is given to bad pixel and outlier rejection at the image and spectra levels. Most sources are spatially unresolved so that optimal extraction reaches the highest possible signal-to-noise ratio. For all sources, an alternative extraction is also provided that accounts for all of the source flux within the aperture. CASSIS provides publishable quality spectra through an online database together with several important diagnostics, such as the source spatial extent and a quantitative measure of detection level. Ancillary data such as available spectroscopic redshifts are also provided. The database interface will eventually provide various ways to interact with the spectra, such as on-the-fly measurements of spectral features or comparisons among spectra.

  1. GNIRS + SPITZER ToO Novae in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Chick; Spitzer Too Team

    2005-02-01

    Novae are important contributors to galactic chemical enrichment on local scales. IR spectroscopy of novae provides information about the elemental abundances of the gas and dust in the ejecta dispersing into the interstellar medium as well as kinematic information related to the outburst. We propose to obtain GNIRS `Quick-Response' spectra of Target of Opportunity (ToO) novae in the Magellanic Clouds (MC) to study the dynamics of the ejecta, to determine the temporal evolution of coronal lines and recombination lines (measuring their strength and velocity profiles), and to determine abundances. Being all equidistant, MC nova permit a more robust intepretation of distant-dependent physical parameters of outburst than is generally possible for Galactic novae. The GNIRS data will provide critical spectral coverage and contemporaneous data to support our Cycle 1 Spitzer nova program (PID 2333). Triggering of the GNIRS program will occur when a MC nova becomes brighter than V=12 mag, (assuming that adequate PWFS guide stars exist) as reported in the IAUC or by observers on our team.

  2. CASSIS: THE CORNELL ATLAS OF SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D. J.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.; Weedman, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    We present the spectral atlas of sources observed in low resolution with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. More than 11,000 distinct sources were extracted using a dedicated algorithm based on the SMART software with an optimal extraction (AdOpt package). These correspond to all 13,000 low-resolution observations of fixed objects (both single source and cluster observations). The pipeline includes image cleaning, individual exposure combination, and background subtraction. Particular attention is given to bad pixel and outlier rejection at the image and spectra levels. Most sources are spatially unresolved so that optimal extraction reaches the highest possible signal-to-noise ratio. For all sources, an alternative extraction is also provided that accounts for all of the source flux within the aperture. CASSIS provides publishable quality spectra through an online database together with several important diagnostics, such as the source spatial extent and a quantitative measure of detection level. Ancillary data such as available spectroscopic redshifts are also provided. The database interface will eventually provide various ways to interact with the spectra, such as on-the-fly measurements of spectral features or comparisons among spectra.

  3. Leveraging Spitzer's Legacy: Quasars and Feedback at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Bauer, Franz; Deo, Rajesh; Fan, Xiaohui; Gallagher, Sarah; Myers, Adam; Strauss, Michael; Zakamska, Nadia

    2009-04-01

    Recent research efforts to understand the evolution of galaxies and quasars are beginning to form a consistent picture. Galaxies and their supermassive black holes grow through mergers, but with decreasing characteristic mass scales over time. Much less, however, is known about the evolution of galaxies at high redshifts and the role played by energy injection from the onset of active black hole growth. Understanding these events requires investigating a statistically significant number of high-redshift quasars and crossing the L* boundary in luminosity. To construct an appropriate data set requires both relatively wide-areas (to find these rare objects) and moderate-depth imaging (to probe below L* in luminosity). Unfortunately, existing optical and MIR surveys fail to meet both of these requirements. Furthermore, both optical and MIR quasar selection are blindest at the most crucial redshifts. Here we propose to address these gaps with targeted IRAC observations of a few hundred high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Such a sample will enable the construction of a proper training set for the discovery of 2.5COSMOS). With a large sample of high-redshift quasars spanning a large range in luminosity, we can turn the quasar luminosity function and quasar clustering analysis into tools for distinguishing between different evolutionary models and feedback prescriptions. In all, we will observe 330 SDSS quasars using 307 pointings/AORs, totaling 48.5 hours of IRAC time.

  4. COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS): an overview and recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zreda, M.; Zweck, C.; Franz, T.; Rosolem, R.; Chrisman, B.; Shuttleworth, J.; Zeng, X.; Ferre, T.

    2012-04-01

    Area-average soil moisture at the horizontal scale of hectometers and vertical scale of decimeters can be inferred from measurements of cosmic-ray fast neutron intensity in air above the ground surface. Hydrogen is very efficient at moderating (or removing) fast neutrons, and therefore emission of neutrons from soil and their concentration in the atmosphere are inversely correlated with the soil moisture content. Fast neutrons are measured using a gas-filled thermal neutron detector surrounded by plastic. Such detectors can be stationary or mobile. Stationary cosmic-ray detectors are being used to form the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) that provides continental-scale soil moisture data in the USA. Mobile detector, called the COSMOS rover, can be used to map neutrons and infer soil moisture content over large areas or along long lines. Recent advances have been made on calibration of COSMOS probes, conversion of neutron intensity to soil moisture, and mobile measurements. Correction factors have been developed to account for variations in the incoming cosmic-ray intensity, soil mineral chemistry and atmospheric water content; additional corrections, for example for topography and surface water, need to be developed. With these corrections a "universal" calibration function can be developed. Mobile measurements using the car-mounted COSMOS rover have previously been shown to produce reasonable soil moisture fields. New simultaneous measurements using car-mounted and helicopter-mounted rovers gave comparable results, extending the rover capability to low-flying aircraft and permitting rapid measurements over difficult areas that are inaccessible to ground vehicles. Acknowledgements: The COSMOS project is supported by the National Science Foundation (USA).

  5. Compton thick AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ranalli, P.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Georgakakis, A.; Delvecchio, I.; Akylas, T.; Berta, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Hasinger, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Koekemoer, A.; Lusso, E.; Marchesi, S.; Mainieri, V.; Merloni, A.; Mignoli, M.; Piconcelli, E.; Pozzi, F.; Rosario, D. J.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-01-01

    Heavily obscured, Compton thick (CT, NH> 1024 cm-2) active galactic nuclei (AGN) may represent an important phase in AGN/galaxy co-evolution and are expected to provide a significant contribution to the cosmic X-ray background at its peak. However, unambiguously identifying CT AGN beyond the local Universe is a challenging task even in the deepest X-ray surveys, and given the expected low spatial density of these sources in the 2-10 keV band, large area surveys are needed to collect sizable samples. Through direct X-ray spectra analysis, we selected 39 heavily obscured AGN (NH>3 × 1023 cm-2) at bright X-ray fluxes (F2-10 ≳ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2) in the 2 deg2 XMM-COSMOS survey. After selecting CT AGN based on the fit of a simple absorbed two power law model to the shallow XMM-Newton data, the presence of bona fide CT AGN was confirmed in 80% of the sources using deeper Chandra data and more complex models. The final sample comprises ten CT AGN (six of them also have a detected Fe Kα line with EW ~ 1 keV), spanning a wide range of redshifts (z ~ 0.1-2.5) and luminosity (L2-10 ~ 1043.5-1045 erg s-1) and is complemented by 29 heavily obscured AGN spanning the same redshift and luminosity range. We collected the rich multi-wavelength information available for all these sources, in order to study the distribution of super massive black hole and host properties, such as black hole mass (MBH), Eddington ratio (λEdd), stellar mass (M∗), specific star formation rate (sSFR) in comparison with a sample of unobscured AGN. We find that highly obscured sources tend to have significantly smaller MBH and higher λEdd with respect to unobscured sources, while a weaker evolution in M∗ is observed. The sSFR of highly obscured sources is consistent with the one observed in the main sequence of star forming galaxies, at all redshifts. We also present and briefly discuss optical spectra, broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and morphology for the sample of ten CT AGN. Both

  6. Hα kinematics of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, I.; Carignan, C.; Amram, P.; Hernandez, O.; Chemin, L.; Daigle, O.; de Denus-Baillargeon, M.-M.; Balkowski, C.; Boselli, A.; Fathi, K.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2008-04-01

    This is the second part of an Hα kinematics follow-up survey of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The aim of this paper is to shed new light on the role of baryons and their kinematics and on the dark/luminous matter relation in the star-forming regions of galaxies, in relation with studies at other wavelengths. The data for 37 galaxies are presented. The observations were made using Fabry-Perot interferometry with the photon-counting camera FaNTOmM on four different telescopes, namely the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m, the ESO La Silla 3.6-m, the William Herschel 4.2-m and the Observatoire du mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescopes. The velocity fields are computed using custom IDL routines designed for an optimal use of the data. The kinematical parameters and rotation curves are derived using the GIPSY software. It is shown that non-circular motions associated with galactic bars affect the kinematical parameters fitting and the velocity gradient of the rotation curves. This leads to incorrect determinations of the baryonic and dark matter distributions in the mass models derived from those rotation curves. Based on observations made with the ESO 3.60-m telescope at La Silla Observatories under programme ID 076.B-0859 and on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii. E-mail: isabelle@astro.umontreal.ca (ID);claude.carignan@umontreal.ca (CC) ‡ Visiting Astronomer, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France and the University of Hawaii.

  7. GALACTIC CEPHEIDS WITH SPITZER. II. SEARCH FOR EXTENDED INFRARED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Barmby, P.; Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Huelsman, D.; Fazio, G. G.; Bono, G.; Su, K. Y. L.; Welch, D. L.

    2011-02-15

    A deep and detailed examination of 29 classical Cepheids with the Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed three stars with strong nearby extended emission detected in multiple bands which appears to be physically associated with the stars. RS Pup was already known to possess extended infrared emission, while the extended emission around the other two stars (S Mus and {delta} Cep) is newly discovered in our observations. Four other stars (GH Lup, l Car, T Mon, and X Cyg) show tentative evidence for extended infrared emission. An unusual elongated extended object next to SZ Tau appears to be a background or foreground object in a chance alignment with the Cepheid. The inferred mass-loss rate upper limits for S Mus and {delta} Cep are in the range from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, with the upper limit for RS Pup as high as 10{sup -6} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Mass loss during post-main-sequence evolution has been proposed as a resolution to the discrepancy between pulsational and dynamical masses of Cepheid variable stars: dust in the lost material would make itself known by the presence of an infrared bright nebula or unresolved infrared excess. The observed frequency of infrared circumstellar emission (<24%) and the mass-loss rate we estimate for our sources show that dusty mass loss can only account for part of the Cepheid mass-loss discrepancy. Nevertheless, our direct evidence that mass loss is active during the Cepheid phase is an important confirmation that these processes need to be included in evolutionary and pulsation models of these stars and should be taken into account in the calibration of the Cepheid distance scale.

  8. Spitzer/IRAC Photometry Of The Four Largest Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Richard; Emery, J.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.

    2012-10-01

    The surfaces of the four largest Uranian satellites are dominated by water ice and a spectrally neutral constituent that is likely carbonaceous in composition. CO2 ice has been detected on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, with no detection on the furthest regular Uranian satellite, Oberon (Grundy et al., 2003, 2006). Whether CO2 ice is primordial or is actively produced in the Uranian system is unclear; however, it seems unlikely that primordial CO2 ice would remain exposed on an icy satellite surface over the age of the Solar System. One possible mechanism for producing CO2 ice is bombardment of water ice and carbonaceous material by charged particles caught in Uranus’ magnetic field. Unlike the other large Uranian satellites, Oberon spends part of its orbit outside the confines of Uranus’ magnetic field, which might help explain why CO2 ice has yet to be detected on Oberon. We are using photometric data gathered by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), in order to search for the signature of CO2 ice on Oberon, and confirm its presence on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania at longer wavelengths than previous studies. IRAC collects data in four different channels, which are centered roughly at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 µm. Additionally, we are gathering spectroscopic data using SpeX on IRTF, at similar longitudes to the IRAC observations, in order to characterize the distribution of CO2 ice on these icy satellites over a wide range of near-infrared wavelengths. Our preliminary photometry results for Oberon indicate that there is a steep reduction in reflected solar flux from channel 1 to channel 2, suggesting that surface materials are absorbing photons at wavelengths within the bandpass of channel 2. We will present the results of our photometric analysis of the four largest Uranian moons.

  9. Spitzer IR Colors and ISM Distributions of Virgo Cluster Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D.; Wong, I.; Kenney, Z.; Murphy, E.; Helou, G.; Howell, J.

    2012-01-01

    IRAC infrared images of 44 spiral and peculiar galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of the Virgo Cluster help reveal the interactions which transform galaxies in clusters. We explore how the location of galaxies in the IR 3.6-8μm color-magnitude diagram is related to the spatial distributions of ISM/star formation, as traced by PAH emission in the 8μm band. Based on their 8μm/PAH radial distributions, we divide the galaxies into 4 groups: normal, truncated, truncated/compact, and anemic. Normal galaxies have relatively normal PAH distributions. They are the "bluest" galaxies, with the largest 8/3.6μm ratios. They are relatively unaffected by the cluster environment, and have probably never passed through the cluster core. Truncated galaxies have a relatively normal 8μm/PAH surface brightness in the inner disk, but are abruptly truncated with little or no emission in the outer disk. They have intermediate ("green") colors, while those which are more severely truncated are "redder". Most truncated galaxies have undisturbed stellar disks and many show direct evidence of active ram pressure stripping. Truncated/compact galaxies have high 8μm/PAH surface brightness in the very inner disk (central 1 kpc) but are abruptly truncated close to center with little or no emission in the outer disk. They have intermediate global colors, similar to the other truncated galaxies. While they have the most extreme ISM truncation, they have vigorous circumnuclear star formation. Most of these have disturbed stellar disks, and they are probably produced by a combination of gravitational interaction plus ram pressure stripping. Anemic galaxies have a low 8μm/PAH surface brightness even in the inner disk. These are the "reddest" galaxies, with the smallest 8/3.6μm ratios. The origin of the anemics seems to a combination of starvation, gravitational interactions, and long-ago ram pressure stripping.

  10. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    SciTech Connect

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Cameron, Andrew Collier

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  11. A Spitzer legacy view on high-z QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarli, Roberto; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian; Jiang, Linhua; Riechers, Dominik; Banados, Eduardo; Venemans, Bram; Walter, Fabian; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara

    2014-12-01

    Very high-redshift (z>5.5) QSOs are formidable probes of the early universe, and unveil crucial phases in the formation and evolution of galaxies, the build-up of supermassive black holes, and the conditions of the intergalactic medium throughout the epoch of reionization. The number of known z>5.5 QSOs has nearly doubled in the last 2 years, thanks to the advent of surveys like Pan-STARRS and VIKING, which allowed us to substantially expand the parameter space of known high-z QSOs and provided unprecedented statistical power. A critical piece of information that we are still missing is the rest-frame optical luminosities and colors of these sources. We propose to use Spitzer/IRAC to systematically survey all the 81 z>5.5 QSOs for which this information is not available yet (i.e., 2/3 of the entire known population) in only 30 hr. This will allow us to put direct constraints on the spectral energy distributions of these sources, disentangling the rest-frame UV slopes and the contribution of the underlying host galaxy. These observations will allow us to address the diversity in the phenomenology of high-z QSOs. In particular, by combining the proposed observations with our JVLA program, we will directly measure the radio loudness parameter, defined as ratio between radio and (rest-frame) optical fluxes. This will circumvent the typically high uncertainties due to extrapolations from UV bands. These results will allow us to better understand the build-up histories of QSOs within 1 Gyr from the Big Bang. Moreover, these observations will pave the way to a plethora of follow-up studies using HST, ALMA, JVLA, and, eventually, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. A New Spitzer IRAC Technique to Characterize Exoplanet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.

    2012-05-01

    Spitzer’s extended warm mission gives us the opportunity to contribute to its legacy by performing comparative science on atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Observation of phase curves produce maps of the longitudinal brightness/temperature distributions in the planetary atmospheres, which are then used to calculate energy redistribution efficiencies between the hot dayside and cooler nightside - exoplanetary weather. Recent improvements in the calibration of IRAC make possible a new observing technique which will be much more efficient than standard staring mode observations by using snapshot observations to emulate a full phase curve. The challenge with using snapshot observations is in making sure all observing epochs can be tied together with high enough photometric precision. The dominant source of error in this task is intrapixel gain variations on sub pixel levels. We have effectively removed this source of error by using the Pointing Calibration and Reference Sensor (PCRS) onboard Spitzer for pointing repeatability that is significantly better than random pointing. Because we have achieved this excellent repeatability, we are able to build up a map of the intrapixel gain, which is then used to independently correct IRAC photometry as a function of position on the pixel. We discuss additional sources of noise below the gain variations, at the sub percent level, such as pixel-wise nonlinearities, and our efforts to remove them. We present preliminary 4.5 micron data of HD209458 where we compare staring mode observations to snapshots taken with this new technique, corrected by the gain and residual nonlinearity map, and comment on the scientific implications of the resultant phase curve.

  13. Ultradeep Spectroscopy with the Spitzer^1 IRS^2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Chary, R.; Colbert, J. W.; Frayer, D. T.; Pope, A.; Blain, A.; Spoon, H.; Charmandaris, V.; Scott, D.; Antonucci, S.

    2008-03-01

    Mid-IR spectroscopy has detected the signatures of star-formation (PAH emission) in high redshift (z>1) ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. However, the study of the dominant population of IR-luminous galaxies (10^{11} - 10^{12} Lsun at 1Spitzer Space Telescope. We targeted two faint (˜ 0.15 mJy) sources in the Southern GOODS field at z=1.09 and z=2.69 as likely star-forming galaxies. Spectra of the lower redshift target were taken in 8-21 micron range (short-low first order and long-low second order), while the higher redshift target was observed from 21-37 microns (long-low first order). Observing times were 3 and 9 hours on-source for SL-1 and LL-2, respectively, and 12 hours for LL-1. We also present the spectra of two serendipitous sources. We detect strong PAH emission in four targets. We compare the spectra to those of local galaxies observed by the IRS. The z=1.09 source appears to be a typical, star-formation dominated LIRG, while the z=2.69 source is a composite source with strong star formation and a prominent AGN. The AGN component dominates the IRAC colors of this source, obscuring the 1.6 micron ``bump.'' Such sources would be excluded from IRAC surveys for starbursts which might then underestimate the star formation density.

  14. SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE TRANSITION OBJECT TW Hya

    SciTech Connect

    Najita, Joan R.; Strom, Stephen E.; Carr, John S.; Watson, Dan M.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Hollenbach, David; Gorti, Uma; Keller, Luke

    2010-03-20

    We report sensitive Spitzer IRS spectroscopy in the 10-20 {mu}m region of TW Hya, a nearby T Tauri star. The unusual spectral energy distribution of the source, that of a 'transition object', indicates that the circumstellar disk in the system has experienced significant evolution, possibly as a result of planet formation. The spectrum we measure is strikingly different from that of other classical T Tauri stars reported in the literature, displaying no strong emission features of H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, or HCN. The difference suggests that the inner planet formation region ({approx}<5 AU) of the gaseous disk has evolved physically and/or chemically away from the classical T Tauri norm. Nevertheless, TW Hya does show a rich spectrum of emission features of atoms (H I, [Ne II], and [Ne III]) and molecules (H{sub 2}, OH, CO{sub 2}, HCO{sup +}, and possibly CH{sub 3}), some of which are also detected in classical T Tauri spectra. The properties of the neon emission are consistent with an origin for the emission in a disk irradiated by X-rays (with a possible role for additional irradiation by stellar EUV). The OH emission we detect, which also likely originates in the disk, is hot, arising from energy levels up to 23,000 K above ground, and may be produced by the UV photodissociation of water. The H I emission is surprisingly strong, with relative strengths that are consistent with case B recombination. While the absence of strong molecular emission in the 10-20 {mu}m region may indicate that the inner region of the gaseous disk has been partly cleared by an orbiting giant planet, chemical and/or excitation effects may be responsible instead. We discuss these issues and how our results bear on our understanding of the evolutionary state of the TW Hya disk.

  15. PSF subtraction to search for distant Jupiters with SPITZER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Artigau, Etienne; Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Naud, Marie-Eve; Delorme, Philippe; Janson, Markus; Albert, Loic; Gagné, Jonathan; Beichman, Charles

    2015-12-01

    In the course of the search for extrasolar planets, a focus has been made towards rocky planets very close (within few AUs) to their parent stars. However, planetary systems might host gas giants as well, possibly at larger separation from the central star. Direct imaging is the only technique able to probe the outer part of planetary systems. With the advent of the new generation of planet finders like GPI and SPHERE, extrasolar systems are now studied at the solar system scale. Nevertheless, very extended planetary systems do exist and have been found (Gu Ps, AB Pic b, etc.). They are easier to detect and characterize. They are also excellent proxy for close-in gas giants that are detected from the ground. These planets have no equivalent in our solar system and their origin remain a matter of speculation. In this sense, studying planetary systems from its innermost to its outermost part is therefore mandatory to have a clear understanding of its architecture, hence hints of its formation and evolution. We are carrying out a space-based survey using SPITZER to search for distant companions around a well-characterized sample of 120 young and nearby stars. We designed an observing strategy that allows building a very homogeneous PSF library. With this library, we perform a PSF subtraction to search for planets from 10’’ down to 1’’. In this poster, I will present the library, the different algorithms used to subtract the PSF, and the promising detection sensitivity that we are able to reach with this survey. This project to search for the most extreme planetary systems is unique in the exoplanet community. It is also the only realistic mean of directly imaging and subsequently obtaining spectroscopy of young Saturn or Jupiter mass planets in the JWST-era.

  16. The scale invariant power spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbations from the coupled scalar tachyon bounce cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E. E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified parameter space for a systematic study of inflationary and bounce cosmologies. The CSTB cosmos is dual-in Wands's sense-to slow-roll inflation as can be visualized with the aid of this parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of the CSTB Cosmos, the scale invariance of its power spectrum is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.

  17. Spitzer Student Research Project: Summary for Z Cha research and data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Virginia; Tetler, J.; Thomas, B.; Zielinski, L.; Carter, B.; Dzakovich, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kong, C.; McDunn, M.; Mendoza, M.; Milos, W.; Rice, L.

    2009-01-01

    Z Cha is an eclipsing cataclysmic variable star with some unusual features. This binary system consists of a white dwarf, which pulls a stream of mass away from its red dwarf companion, resulting to the formation of an accretion disk around the white dwarf. We hereby present the first mid-infrared (Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 and 8 micron) light curves of the system and compare it with the optical counterpart. Scientists, students and teachers involved with the Spitzer Teacher Observing Program obtained data of the eclipsing cataclysmic variable Z Cha with the Spitzer Space Telescope, May 14, 2008. These observations yielded a light curve for Z Cha in channels 2 (4.493 microns) and 4 (7.872 microns) from IRAC. Photometric observations were also made in March of 2008 with the 0.9-meter telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, located in Chile, and light curves were constructed from these data as well. Data reduction of both the Spitzer and ground-based photometric observations completed by the students and analyzed by our team using the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) package. The scientific results of these observations will be presented in a separate poster. The teachers and students developed inquiry-based educational materials and activities that convey the conceptual background necessary to interpret these light curves, cataclysmic variables, and stellar evolution. The Spitzer Science Center, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory supported this work.

  18. The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Gorjian, V.; Hermans, L.; Howell, S.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.; Rudnick, G.; Thaller, M.; Spitzer Teacher Program Team

    2007-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with Spitzer and work with Spitzer archival data. This program allows a team of teachers and their students to use Director's Discretionary Time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations, thereby getting scientific research into the classroom. More than fifteen conference posters or journal articles have resulted from this project, with more being presented at this AAS meeting. We have won a NASA group achievement award in 2007. We believe that this project provides a potential model for outreach efforts on other NASA missions, including particularly WISE, where plans are already underway to follow this model. For more information, please see our companion poster (Spuck et al.) or visit the wiki on which we are sharing materials developed by our teacher-scientist teams: https://coolwiki.ipac.caltech.edu/

  19. Quiescent Compact Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the COSMOS Field. II. The Fundamental Plane of Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Damjanov, Ivana; Geller, Margaret J.; Chilingarian, Igor

    2015-06-01

    We examine the relation between surface brightness, velocity dispersion, and size—the fundamental plane (FP)—for quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts in the COSMOS field. The COSMOS sample consists of ˜150 massive quiescent galaxies with an average velocity dispersion of σ ˜ 250 km s-1 and redshifts between 0.2 < z < 0.8. More than half of the galaxies in the sample are compact. The COSMOS galaxies exhibit a tight relation (˜0.1 dex scatter) between surface brightness, velocity dispersion, and size. At a fixed combination of velocity dispersion and size, the COSMOS galaxies are brighter than galaxies in the local universe. These surface brightness offsets are correlated with the rest-frame g - z color and Dn4000 index; bluer galaxies and those with smaller Dn4000 indices have larger offsets. Stellar population synthesis models indicate that the massive COSMOS galaxies are younger and therefore brighter than similarly massive quiescent galaxies in the local universe. Passive evolution alone brings the massive compact quiescent (MCQ) COSMOS galaxies onto the local FP at z = 0. Therefore, evolution in size or velocity dispersion for MCQ galaxies since z ˜ 1 is constrained by the small scatter observed in the FP. We conclude that MCQ galaxies at z ≲ 1 are not a special class of objects but rather the tail of the mass and size distribution of the normal quiescent galaxy population.

  20. A Morphological Study of Compact Narrow Emission Line Galaxies In The COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne; Feldman, D.; Greenbaum, A.; Hasan, I.; Mahalchick, S.; Liu, C.; COSMOS Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a morphological study of 139 spectroscopically selected compact narrow emission line galaxies (CNELGs) from the COSMOS HST Treasury Survey, using a comparison sample of field galaxies of similar magnitude obtained from the COSMOS field. The CNELGs range in magnitude from 18.13 < V < 21.95 and in redshift from 0 < z < 0.9. Preliminary results indicate that, whereas statistically the CNELGs are clearly morphologically distinct from our comparison sample, at HST resolution they are also clearly not all - or even predominantly - "compact." This work was supported by an NSF REU Site grant to The City University of New York and American Museum of Natural History; an NSF STEAM grant to the College of Staten Island; the NASA New York Space Grant program; Barnard College; and the CUNY Macaulay Honors College.

  1. COSMOS 5921+0638: characterization and analysis of a new strong gravitationally lensed AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, T.; Faure, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Wambsganss, J.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Limousin, M.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Strong lens candidates have been newly identified within the COSMOS field. We present VLT/FORS1 spectroscopic follow-up observations and HST/WFPC2 imaging of the system COSMOS 5921+0638, which exhibits quadruply lensed images and a perfect Einstein ring. Aims: We investigate the nature of COSMOS 5921+0638 by studying its photometric, spectroscopic and physical properties. Methods: By analyzing our VLT/FORS1 spectroscopy and Subaru/CFHT/HST imaging of COSMOS 5921+0638, we completed both an environmental analysis and detailed analytical and grid-based mass modeling to determine it properties. Results: We measured the redshifts of the lensing galaxy in COSMOS 5921+0638 (zl = 0.551 ± 0.001) and 9 additional galaxies in the field (5 of them at z ~ 0.35). The redshift of the lensed source was inferred by identifying a candidate Lyα line at zs = 3.14 ± 0.05. The mass modeling reveals the requirement of a small external shear (γ = 0.038), which is slightly larger than the lensing contribution expected by galaxy groups along the line-of-sight obtained from the zCOSMOS optical group catalog (κ_groups ~ 0.01 and γ_groups ~ 0.005). The estimated time-delays between the different images are of the order of hours to half a week and the total magnification of the background source is μ ≈ 150. The measured mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy within the Einstein ring is M/LB ≈ 8.5 ± 1.6. Anomalies are observed between the measured and expected flux ratios of the images of the background AGN. Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that the ring and point-like structures in COSMOS 5921+0638 consist of a lensed high redshift galaxy hosting a low luminosity AGN (LLAGN). The observed flux ratio anomalies are probably due to microlensing by stars in the lensing galaxy and/or a combination of static phenomena. Multi-epoch, multi-band space-based observations would allow us to differentiate between the possible causes of these anomalies, since static and/or dynamic

  2. Cool White Dwarfs from the SuperCOSMOS and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambly, N. C.; Digby, A. P.; Oppenheimer, B. R.

    2005-07-01

    We have used datamining techniques in the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive (http://surveys.roe.ac.uk/ssa) to obtain a large, well defined proper motion and magnitude selected sample of cool white dwarfs. Using accurate 5-colour photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR1 and SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey photometry and astrometry, we demonstrate the power of reduced proper motion in obtaining a sample of >700 white dwarfs. We examine the characteristics of these objects in various two-colour diagrams in conjunction with new model atmosphere predictions recently computed in the SDSS photometric system. Ultimately, we intend to analyse these data with techniques similar to those already used to examine the subdwarf luminosity function (Digby et al. 2003). In this way, we aim to decompose the contribution of thin disk, thick disk and spheroid white dwarfs in the sample to enable computation of accurate luminosity functions for those respective populations.

  3. The UCI COSMOS Astronomy & Astrophysics Program for Talented High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Kuzio de Naray, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COSMOS program is a month-long, residential, summer program for talented high school students held at four University of California campuses (Davis, Irvine, Santa Cruz, and San Diego). Since the program's inception in 2000, we have offered the Astronomy & Astrophysics Cluster in the UCI COSMOS program. Our high school students take classes and laboratories in astronomy & astrophysics and complete a research project in small groups under the supervision of faculty and teaching assistants. Students take data for their research projects with telescopes at the UCI Observatory or use data that we already have obtained at other observatories in the course of our research. In this poster, we discuss the curriculum, the research projects, highlighting one of the newest labs we developed involving measuring dark matter with galaxy rotation curves, and discuss many of the lessons we have learn working with these talented students over the past 10 years.

  4. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  5. Optically Elusive AGN in the 3XMM Catalog and the Chandra-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Estelle; Watson, Mike; Elvis, Martin; Civano, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    'Optically elusive AGN' are powerful X-ray sources (LHX > 1042 erg/s), but are not detected as AGN in the optical. Pons and Watson (2014) showed that in XMM these AGNs are a mix of Narrow Line Seyfert 1s, True Seyfert 2's and weak Seyfert 2s. The nature of these objects, coming from the cross-match of 3XMM with the SDSS-DR9 spectroscopic catalog, has been investigated through a detailed analysis of their IR/optical and X-ray properties. The fainter Chandra-COSMOS field should be rich in optically elusive AGNs as ¾ of the AGNs there are narrow-lined. There are ~850 Chandra-COSMOS galaxy spectra, mainly from five different telescopes (SDSS, Magellan, MMT, VLT and Keck). To find optically elusive objects, we investigate the optical classification using emission line diagnostic diagrams. For low redshift galaxies (z~<0.7) the standard BPT diagram ([OIII

  6. Does thermodynamics require a new expansion after the Big Crunch of our cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, E.; Tonin-Zanchin, V.

    Recently, a unifield geometrical approach to gravitational and strong interactions was proposed, based on the methods of General Relativity. According to it, hadrons can be regarded as black-hole type solutions of new field equations describing two tensorial metric-fields (the ordinary gravitational, and the strong one). By extending the Bekenstein-Hawking thermodynamics to those strong black-holes (SBH), it is shown: (1) that SBH thermodynamics seems to require a new expansion of our cosmos after its Big Crunch (this thermodynamical indication being rather unique, up to now, in showing that a recontraction of our cosmos has to be followed by a new creation); and (2) that a collapsing star with mass 2M sub(sun) less than = M less than 15M(sun), once overtaken the neutron-star phase, must re-explode reaching a diameter of at least a few light-days, thus failing to reach the black-hole state.

  7. Does thermodynamics require a new expansion after the ``big crunch'' of our cosmos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo; Zanchin, Vilson Tonin

    1986-09-01

    Recently, a unified geometrical approach to gravitational and strong interactions was proposed, based on the methods of general relativity. According to it, hadrons can be regarded as ``black-hole type'' solutions of new field equations describing two tensorial metric fields (the ordinary gravitational, and the ``strong'' one). By extending the Bekenstein-Hawking thermodynamics to those ``strong black holes'' (SBH), we show that (i) SBH thermodynamics seems to require a new expansion of our cosmos after its ``Big Crunch''. (This thermodynamical indication being rather unique, up to now, in showing that a recontraction of our cosmos has to be followed by a new ``creation'') (ii) a collapsing star with masses approximately in the range 3-5 solar masses, once reaching the neutron-star density, could re-explode tending to form a (radiating) object with a diameter of the order of 1 light-day: thus failing to create a gravitational black hole.

  8. Spitzer Observations of Exoplanets Discovered with the Kepler K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, Charles; Livingston, John; Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Krick, Jessica; Deck, Katherine; Knutson, Heather; Wong, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Greene, Thomas P.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Line, Mike; Crossfield, Ian; Howard, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2016-05-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe two transiting planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars discovered in the Kepler K2 mission. The system K2-3 (EPIC 201367065) hosts three planets, while K2-26 (EPIC 202083828) hosts a single planet. Observations of all four objects in these two systems confirm and refine the orbital and physical parameters of the planets. The refined orbital information and more precise planet radii possible with Spitzer will be critical for future observations of these and other K2 targets. For K2-3b we find marginally significant evidence for a transit timing variation between the K2 and Spitzer epochs.

  9. Investigating the long-lived clouds of early L dwarfs with Spitzer and K2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizis, John; Lowrance, Patrick; Paudel, Rishi

    2016-08-01

    We propose to monitor two bright L0 dwarfs with Spitzer. Unlike cooler brown dwarfs whose clouds evolve on timescales of hours and days, the best studied L1 dwarf star has a cloud feature that lasted for over two years. This discovery was enabled by Kepler optical photometry combined with Spitzer mid-infrared photometry. The upcoming K2 Campaign 10 happens to include two bright L0 dwarfs, and they will repeated in K2 Campaign 17, providing two uniquely accurate optical light curves that sample timescales from minutes to years. By probing higher altitudes in the L dwarf atmospheres, the Spitzer IRAC photometry would enable us to test whether the optical variability in these two objects also come from long-lived clouds. This would establish whether the Kepler field L1 dwarf is a fluke or whether the weather and cloud lifetimes in warm (~2300K) atmospheres are qualititatively different than in cooler brown dwarfs.

  10. Non-Spitzer heat flow in a steadily ablating laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    Electron energy transport in a laser-produced ablating plasma is modeled by the Vlasov--Fokker--Planck equation for electrons and the fluid equations for cold ions. These equations are solved using approximations which maintain good accuracy but allow faster computational solution than was previously possible. It is found that the spatial profiles for temperature and density in planar geometry differ very little from those calculated from the Spitzer conductivity. At high laser intensities, the plasma flow diverges as it flows away from the solid target and the effects of nonplanar flow are important. This is modeled by the adoption of spherical geometry, and it is found that the Spitzer conductivity breaks down and the temperature and density profiles differ significantly from those calculated using the Spitzer conductivity.

  11. Spitzer/IRS Observations of Uranus at Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean; Burgdorf, Martin; Hammel, Heidi; Mainzer, Amy; Moses, Julianne; Orton, Glenn

    2007-11-01

    The next apparition of the view of Uranus on the Equinox, occurs this year on UT 2007 December 7 (the last equinox was 1965; the next will be in 2049). Because of its unique (in the solar system) axis tilt with respect to its orbit, Uranus offers us a spectacular opportunity to witness the dramatic changes in a giant planetary atmosphere caused by the transition from hemispheric heating to pole-to-pole diurnal heating. Based on recent ground-based and space-based (Hubble Space Telescope) images and spectra, we know that the atmosphere has developed complex structures that change on week timescales and were not present at all during the southern hemisphere solstice in 1986! Despite this unique and exciting development, mid-IR spectra covering sufficient wavelengths to fully probe the evolution of molecular chemistry in the atmosphere are extremely rare. Many major observatories across the world and HST plan to observe Uranus at equinox. However, there are currently no plans to observe this event with Spitzer. Even though a moderate S/N spectrum taken across the entire 5-35 micron band-pass with IRS was obtained in 2005, this observation is too remote in time from the equinox for direct comparison with the flood of data to be obtained at other wavelengths within the next couple of months. Therefore, we propose to obtain IRS low- and high-resolution spectra of Uranus at its equinox. The DDT mechanism is appropriate for this proposal, since a Cycle 5 program, even if selected, could not be scheduled until mid-2008 at best. The proposed IRS spectra, contemporaneous with the other efforts, will provide a multi-wavelength picture of the state of the Uranus atmosphere at equinox. This legacy-class data set will provide a lasting contribution for comparison with historical and future observations. This opportunity will not come again for 42 years, and given the recent development of exo-solar comparative planetology, can provide crucial data for modeling the atmosphere of

  12. THE SPITZER ICE LEGACY: ICE EVOLUTION FROM CORES TO PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Van den Broek, Saskia; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2011-10-20

    Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d Legacy ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}:CH{sub 4}:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H{sub 2}O of CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, and the component of CO{sub 2} mixed with H{sub 2}O typically vary by <25%, indicative of co-formation with H{sub 2}O. In contrast, some CO and CO{sub 2} ice components, XCN, and CH{sub 3}OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN{sup -} identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are constrained by comparing ice inventories toward different types of protostars and background stars, through ice mapping, analysis of cloud-to-cloud variations, and ice (anti-)correlations. Based on the analysis, the first ice formation phase is driven by hydrogenation of atoms, which results in an H{sub 2}O-dominated ice. At later prestellar times, CO freezes out and variations in CO freezeout levels and the subsequent CO-based chemistry can explain most of the observed ice abundance variations. The last important ice evolution stage is thermal and UV processing around protostars, resulting in CO desorption, ice segregation, and the formation of complex organic molecules. The distribution of cometary ice abundances is consistent with the idea that most cometary ices have a protostellar origin.

  13. [Experiments with cultures of mammalian cells aboard the biosatellite "Cosmos-782"].

    PubMed

    Sushkov, F V; Rudneva, S V; Nadtocheĭ, G A; Polikarpova, S I; Portugalov, V V

    1977-10-01

    A considerable contribution to the investigation on biological importance of weightlessness was made by the experiments with animals in the artificial Earth satelites (AES) of "Cosmos" type. Cell cultures can serve as an ideal model to get a direct cell response to the effect of external factors. For the experiment in the AES "Cosmos-782", two thoroughly examined cell strains (L and 237) were chosen, which differed in a number of parameters (for example, duration of their mitotic cycles). Density of cell seeding and temperature of their cultivation in the laboratory experiment were calculated in such a way that the whole cycle of the culture development should take place under the conditions of weightlessness: the beginning of lag-phase--before launching and the stationary phase--after landing. The weightlessness was not shown to result in any genetical shifts revealed at chromosomal level. When cultivated after the flight, the cells do not change their mitotic cycle parameters, mitotic course and structural organization. The data obtained in the experiments with AES "Cosmos-368" and "Cosmos-782" (increase of mitotic index, some forms of mitotic pathology during the first terms of cultivation after the flight and enlargement of cellular nuclei) demonstrate the changes in the cell population which have formed under the conditions of weightlessness. Similar changes are observed while the cells propagate in the laboratory conditions. Indirect data on an earlier cell culture aging during the flight do not exclued the possibility that under weightlessness the rate of cell propagation could differ from that under gravitation. PMID:563224

  14. Potential SPOT-1 R/B-Cosmos 1680 R/B collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, Karl G.; Rast, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed NORAD data have revealed updated orbital elements for the Ariane third-stage rocket body that underwent breakup on November 13, 1986, as well as for the Cosmos 1680 rocket body. Applying the maximum expected error due to the extrapolation of orbital elements to the date of the possible collision between the two bodies shows the smallest possible distance between bodies to have been 380 km, thereby precluding collision.

  15. Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG) Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousek, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG) serves as a forum for soliciting and coordinating input and analysis from the scientific community in support of the PCOS program objectives. I will outline the activities of the PhysPAG over the past year, since the last meeting during the AAS meeting in National Harbor, and mention the activities of the PhysPAG related Scientific Interest Groups.

  16. THE zCOSMOS-SINFONI PROJECT. I. SAMPLE SELECTION AND NATURAL-SEEING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; Davies, R.; Cresci, G.; Peng, Y.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, M.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Daddi, E.; McCracken, H. J.; Bouche, N.; Shapiro, K.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The zCOSMOS-SINFONI project is aimed at studying the physical and kinematical properties of a sample of massive z {approx} 1.4-2.5 star-forming galaxies, through SINFONI near-infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFS), combined with the multiwavelength information from the zCOSMOS (COSMOS) survey. The project is based on one hour of natural-seeing observations per target, and adaptive optics (AO) follow-up for a major part of the sample, which includes 30 galaxies selected from the zCOSMOS/VIMOS spectroscopic survey. This first paper presents the sample selection, and the global physical characterization of the target galaxies from multicolor photometry, i.e., star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age, etc. The H{alpha} integrated properties, such as, flux, velocity dispersion, and size, are derived from the natural-seeing observations, while the follow-up AO observations will be presented in the next paper of this series. Our sample appears to be well representative of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, covering a wide range in mass and SFR. The H{alpha} integrated properties of the 25 H{alpha} detected galaxies are similar to those of other IFS samples at the same redshifts. Good agreement is found among the SFRs derived from H{alpha} luminosity and other diagnostic methods, provided the extinction affecting the H{alpha} luminosity is about twice that affecting the continuum. A preliminary kinematic analysis, based on the maximum observed velocity difference across the source and on the integrated velocity dispersion, indicates that the sample splits nearly 50-50 into rotation-dominated and velocity-dispersion-dominated galaxies, in good agreement with previous surveys.

  17. Creating a Teacher-Student Research Program Using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.; Pompea, S.; Thaller, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have created a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) archives, and to receive training in infrared astronomy and observational techniques. The teachers will also attend a workshop offered by the SSC to learn about the observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the SST and work with the SST archival data. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. Leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the SSC is offering this program to teachers in the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing program at the NOAO. This NSF-sponsored program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers. The Spitzer educational research program also reaches an additional national audience of students through an informal education program based at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, directed by Dr. Don McCarthy. During this camp, the teachers and their students will learn about the SST through the vast amount of data available in the Spitzer archives.

  18. Bulgarian Activities in the Project COSMOS: An Advanced Scientific Repository for Science Teaching and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchev, D.; Kyurkchieva, D.; Borisov, B.; Radeva, V.

    2010-09-01

    One of the main purposes of the European educational project COSMOS (co-funded by the European Commission under the program eContentplus), is to create an experimental laboratory for the school of tomorrow in order to improve the education in astronomy by expanding the resources for teaching and learning in schools and universities and by providing more challenging and authentic learning experiences for students. A large educational database was created as a result of the project activities made by 15 partner institutions. The unusual electronic "library" offers to students and teachers unique educational resources: learning scenarios, images, presentations, videos and animations (most of them are impossible to produce in any scientific laboratory). It is freely accessible to anyone, anywhere, anytime. Our poster presents the contribution of the Shumen university (the only partner from Bulgaria) in the project: uploading more than 12000 astronomical images in the COSMOS portal; creation of 45 learning scenarios; holding 5 teaching workshops at different places for more than 100 Bulgarian teachers to use the possibilities of the COSMOS portal (including creation of their own learning scenarios). Our analysis of the questionnaires filled-in by the participating teachers shows the necessity of such projects and workshops.

  19. Commissioning COSMOS: Detection of Lithium in Young Stars in Lupus 3 through Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Kyle; Briceno, Cesar; Elias, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    COSMOS, a multi-object spectrograph and imager, is a new instrument on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In order to demonstrate the instrument's operations during commissioning, we used COSMOS, its red grism and three custom slit masks to conduct a spectroscopic survey of the star-forming core of the Lupus 3 dark cloud in an effort to detect the presence of Lithium in the T Tauri stars that have been previously identified in that region. We detected the Li I 6708 Angstrom resonance transition in several (but not all) stars that were observed, consistent with prior studies that have observed Lithium in other young stars at the center of the Lupus 3 dark cloud and in other star-forming regions. These results also demonstrate the ability of COSMOS to significantly reduce the time required to complete spectroscopic surveys, relative to single-object instruments.Lackey was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  20. Activity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system in rats after space flight on the COSMOS biosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, Š.; Macho, L.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    The indicators of adrenomedullary activity (catecholamine content (CA) and the activity of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)) were measured in the adrenal glands of rats living in a state of weightlessness for 18.5-19.5 days on board the biosatellites COSMOS 936 and COSMOS 1129. None of these indicators was significantly changed by space flight, neither in the group living in a state of weightlessness nor in the group living in a centrifuge on board the spacecraft and exposed to artificial gravity of 1 g (COSMOS 936). Animals exposed after space flight to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal adrenaline and an appreciable increase in adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. These results suggest that a prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight does not by itself represent an intensive stressful stimulus for the adrenomedullary system but potentiates the response of cosmonauts to stress after return to Earth.

  1. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  2. KOSMOS and COSMOS: new facility instruments for the NOAO 4-meter telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paul; Elias, J.; Points, S.; Sprayberry, D.; Derwent, Mark A.; Gonzalez, Raymond; Mason, J. A.; O'Brien, T. P.; Pappalardo, D. P.; Pogge, Richard W.; Stoll, R.; Zhelem, R.; Daly, Phil; Fitzpatrick, M.; George, J. R.; Hunten, M.; Marshall, R.; Poczulp, Gary; Rath, S.; Seaman, R.; Trueblood, M.; Zelaya, K.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the design, construction and measured performance of the Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) for the 4-m Mayall telescope and the Cerro Tololo Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (COSMOS) for the 4-m Blanco telescope. These nearly identical imaging spectrographs are modified versions of the OSMOS instrument; they provide a pair of new, high-efficiency instruments to the NOAO user community. KOSMOS and COSMOS may be used for imaging, long-slit, and multi-slit spectroscopy over a 100 square arcminute field of view with a pixel scale of 0.29 arcseconds. Each contains two VPH grisms that provide R~2500 with a one arcsecond slit and their wavelengths of peak diffraction efficiency are approximately 510nm and 750nm. Both may also be used with either a thin, blue-optimized CCD from e2v or a thick, fully depleted, red-optimized CCD from LBNL. These instruments were developed in response to the ReSTAR process. KOSMOS was commissioned in 2013B and COSMOS was commissioned in 2014A.

  3. THE VLA-COSMOS SURVEY. IV. DEEP DATA AND JOINT CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Bondi, M.; Smolcic, V.; Bertoldi, F.; Datta, A.; Carilli, C. L.; Blain, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Ciliegi, P.; Koekemoer, A.

    2010-06-15

    In the context of the VLA-COSMOS Deep project, additional VLA A array observations at 1.4 GHz were obtained for the central degree of the COSMOS field and combined with the existing data from the VLA-COSMOS Large project. A newly constructed Deep mosaic with a resolution of 2.''5 was used to search for sources down to 4{sigma} with 1{sigma} {approx} 12 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} in the central 50' x 50'. This new catalog is combined with the catalog from the Large project (obtained at 1.''5 x 1.''4 resolution) to construct a new Joint catalog. All sources listed in the new Joint catalog have peak flux densities of {>=}5{sigma} at 1.''5 and/or 2.''5 resolution to account for the fact that a significant fraction of sources at these low flux levels are expected to be slightly resolved at 1.''5 resolution. All properties listed in the Joint catalog, such as peak flux density, integrated flux density, and source size, are determined in the 2.''5 resolution Deep image. In addition, the Joint catalog contains 43 newly identified multi-component sources.

  4. Spitzer mid-IR detection of optical transient in NGC 3344 and candidate progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    We report on analysis of archival Spitzer data of the recent optical transient discovered and reported in the CBAT TOCP by M. Tsuboi at RA = 10:43:34.05 and DEC = +24:53:29.0 in the nearby galaxy NGC 3344 at 6.4 Mpc (from Virgo-corrected recession velocity via NED). The host galaxy has been observed with Spitzer IRAC (Apr. 2004 and Jul. 2012) and MIPS (Jan. 2008) instruments by different programs: 69 (PI: Fazio), 40204 (PI: Kennicutt), and 80025 (PI: van Zee).

  5. Design of a Teacher-Student Research Program Using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Daou, D.; Thaller, M.

    2004-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the NASA Spitzer Science Center, we have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Science Center Archives, observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities in order to plan observations. They also received fundamental training in infrared astronomy and infrared observational techniques, before they began planning their observing program. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the OSS/NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work with infrared archival data. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. With the goal of leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the program serves teachers in the NSF-sponsored Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing Public Affairs and Educational Outreach Department program at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson. The program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers. There are currently 68 teachers (and their students) participating in TLRBSE with an additional 57 teachers in the still-supported precursor RBSE program. The Spitzer educational research program also reaches an additional national audience

  6. Diogenite-like Features in the Spitzer IRS (5-35 micrometers) Spectrum of 956 ELISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2009-01-01

    We report preliminary results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the V-type asteroid 956 Elisa. Elisa was observed as part of a campaign to measure the 5.2-38 micron spectra of small basaltic asteroids with the Spitzer IRS. Targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vesroids"), several outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid 4055 Magellan.

  7. Hunting Coreshine with (Warm) Spitzer: From Grain Growth to Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Roberta

    "Hunting Coreshine with Spitzer" (P.I. R. Paladini) is the largest (165.5 h) approved Cycle-8 Warm Spitzer Mission proposal in the Galactic science category. The goal of the survey is an unbiased investigation of the coreshine effect, which is thought to provide direct evidence for grain growth in cold, dense environments. The survey has now been fully executed: 90 sources, selected from the Planck Early Cold Cores Catalog, have been observed with IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using long (i.e. deep) exposures. Here we present the rationale of the survey.

  8. Evolution of the Fraction of Clumpy Galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, K. L.; Kajisawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Shioya, Y.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2014-05-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys data in the COSMOS field, we systematically searched clumpy galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 and investigated the fraction of clumpy galaxies and its evolution as a function of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and specific SFR (SSFR). The fraction of clumpy galaxies in star-forming galaxies with M star > 109.5 M ⊙ decreases with time from ~0.35 at 0.8 < z < 1.0 to ~0.05 at 0.2 < z < 0.4, irrespective of the stellar mass, although the fraction tends to be slightly lower for massive galaxies with M star > 1010.5 M ⊙ at each redshift. On the other hand, the fraction of clumpy galaxies increases with increasing both SFR and SSFR in all the redshift ranges we investigated. In particular, we found that the SSFR dependences of the fractions are similar among galaxies with different stellar masses, and the fraction at a given SSFR does not depend on the stellar mass in each redshift bin. The evolution of the fraction of clumpy galaxies from z ~ 0.9 to z ~ 0.3 seems to be explained by such SSFR dependence of the fraction and the evolution of SSFRs of star-forming galaxies. The fraction at a given SSFR also appears to decrease with time, but this can be due to the effect of the morphological k correction. We suggest that these results are understood by the gravitational fragmentation model for the formation of giant clumps in disk galaxies, where the gas mass fraction is a crucial parameter. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407. Also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with

  9. An Analysis of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 Fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the year 2013 marks the sixth anniversary of the destruction of the Fengyun-1C (FY-1C) weather satellite as the result of an anti-satellite test conducted by China in January 2007 and the fourth anniversary of the accidental collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in February 2009. These two events represent the worst satellite breakups in history. A total of 5579 fragments have been cataloged by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), and almost 5000 of them were still in orbit in January 2013. In addition to these cataloged objects, hundreds of thousands (or more) of fragments down to the millimeter size regime were also generated during the breakups. These fragments are too small to be tracked by the SSN, but are large enough to be a safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Like their cataloged siblings, many of them remain in orbit today. These two breakup events dramatically changed the landscape of the orbital debris environment in LEO. The spatial density of the cataloged population in January 2013 is shown as the top blue curve. The combined FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments (black curve) account for about 50 percent of the cataloged population below an altitude of 1000 km. They are also responsible for the concentrations at 770 km and 850 km, altitudes at which the collisions occurred. The effects of the FY-1C, Iridium 33, and Cosmos 2251 fragments will continue to be felt for decades to come. For example, approximately half of the generated FY-1C fragments will remain in orbit 20 years from now. In general, the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments will decay faster than the FY-1C fragments because of their lower altitudes. Of the Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 fragments, the former have much shorter orbital lifetimes than the latter, because lightweight composite materials were heavily used in the construction of the Iridium

  10. A high definition view of the COSMOS Wall at z ~ 0.73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; Petropoulou, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Cucciati, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Tasca, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Finoguenov, A.; Ilbert, O.; Tanaka, M.; Salvato, M.; Kovač, K.; Cassata, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We present a study of a large filamentary structure at z ~ 0.73 in the field of the COSMOS survey, the so-called COSMOS Wall. This structure encompasses a comprehensive range of environments from a dense cluster and a number of galaxy groups to filaments, less dense regions, and adjacent voids. It thus provides a valuable laboratory for the accurate mapping of environmental effects on galaxy evolution at a look-back time of ~6.5 Gyr, when the Universe was roughly half its present age. Methods: We performed deep spectroscopic observations with VIMOS at VLT of a K-band selected sample of galaxies in this complex structure, building a sample of galaxies complete in galaxy stellar mass down to a lower limit of log(ℳ∗/ℳ⊙) ~ 9.8, which is significantly deeper than previously available data. Thanks to its location within the COSMOS survey, each galaxy benefits from a wealth of ancillary information: HST-ACS data with I-band exposures down to IAB ~ 28 complemented by extensive multiwavelength ground- and space-based observations spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Results: In this paper we detail the survey strategy and weighting scheme adopted to account for the biases introduced by the photometric preselection of our targets. We present our galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame magnitudes estimates together with a group catalog obtained with our new data and their member galaxies color/mass distribution. Conclusions: Owing to our new sample we can perform a detailed, high definition mapping of the complex COSMOS Wall structure. The sharp environmental information, coupled with high quality spectroscopic information and rich ancillary data available in the COSMOS field, enables a detailed study of galaxy properties as a function of local environment in a redshift slice where environmental effects are important, and in a stellar mass range where mass and environment driven effects are both at work. Based on observations collected at the European

  11. Hot Jupiter atmospheres with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Kamen O.

    I analyze Spitzer Space Telescope observations of seven transiting hot Jupiters during the time of secondary eclipse, the portion of the planet's orbit when it is behind the star from the point of view of a Solar System observer. For six of them, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b, HAT-P-6b, HAT-P-8b, HAT-P-12b and XO-4b, I analyze broadband photometric light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microm. I compare the resulting eclipse depths, which are a measure of the planets' dayside emission, to model emergent spectra by Burrows et al. and Fortney et al. The atmosphere of XO-4b has a strong temperature inversion, HAT-P-6b has weak or no temperature inversion, HAT-P-8 has a non-inverted atmosphere. The models are inconclusive about the temperature structure of the atmospheres of HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b. I find that HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-8b have relatively inefficient heat transport from their day sides to their night sides. The models suggest moderate to low heat transport for XO-4b and HAT-P-6b. I discuss the physical implications of my results in the context of theoretical and empirical hypotheses on correlations related to the temperature-pressure structures of the atmospheres and the efficiency of energy transfer to the night side of the planet. In particular, I focus on the idea by Knutson et al. that planets with chromospherically active host stars may in general not have a stratosphere-like temperature inversions, while a quiet host star may lead to an inverted atmosphere. Another hypothesis I examine is that by Cowan and Agol and Perna et al. who suggest that the hottest planets have a narrow range of permitted heat redistribution efficiencies and, thus, high day-night contrasts. The seventh object I study is HD 189733b. I examine the time series spectroscopy during 18 eclipses between wavelengths of 5 and 14 microm. This is the most extensive data set observed for the emission spectrum of any exoplanet to date. Some of these data sets have been analyzed in the past by Grillmair

  12. The ESO-Spitzer Imaging extragalactic Survey (ESIS). I. WFIB, V, R deep observations of ELAIS-S1 and comparison to Spitzer and GALEX data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Rubele, S.; Franceschini, A.; Held, E. V.; Rizzi, L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Rodighiero, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Dias, J. E.; Buttery, H. J.; Fiore, F.; La Franca, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fang, F.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.; Gruppioni, C.

    2006-06-01

    Context.The ESO-Spitzer extragalactic Imaging Survey (ESIS) is the optical follow up of the Spitzer Wide-Area InfraRed Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey in the ELAIS-S1 area. Aims.The multiwavelength study of galaxy emission is the key to understand the interplay of the various components of galaxies and to trace their role in cosmic evolution. ESIS provides optical identification and colors of Spitzer IR galaxies and builds the bases for photometric redshift estimates. Methods.This paper presents B, V, R Wide Field Imager observations of the first 1.5 square degree of the ESIS survey. Data reduction is described including astrometric calibration, illumination and color corrections. Synthetic sources are simulated in scientific and super-sky-flat images, with the purpose of estimating completeness and photometric accuracy for the survey. Number counts and color distributions are compared to literature observational and theoretical data, including non-evolutionary, PLE, evolutionary and semi-analytic ΛCDM galaxy models, as well as Milky Way stellar predictions. The ELAIS-S1 area benefits from extensive follow-up from X-ray to radio frequencies: some potential uses of the multi-wavelength observations are illustrated. Results.Object coordinates are defined with an accuracy as good as ~0.15 [arcsec] rms with respect to GSC 2.2; flux uncertainties are ~2, 10, 20% at mag. 20, 23, 24 respectively (Vega); we reach 95% completeness at B, V˜ 25 and R˜ 24.5. ESIS galaxy number counts are in good agreement with previous works and are best reproduced by evolutionary and hierarchical ΛCDM scenarios. Optical-Spitzer color-color plots promise to be very powerful tools to disentangle different classes of sources (e.g. AGNs, starbursts, quiescent galaxies). Ultraviolet GALEX data are matched to optical and Spitzer samples, leading to a discussion of galaxy properties in the UV-to-24 μm color space. The spectral energy distribution of a few objects, from the X-rays to the far-IR are

  13. Spitzer to the Rescue! Improved Ephemerides Preserve K2 Planets for Future Studies With JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Werner, Michael W.; Beichman, Charles A.; Benneke, Björn; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Gorjian, Varoujan; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Livingston, John H.; Petigura, Erik; Spitzer/K2 Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The NASA K2 mission has detected hundreds of planet candidates, including dozens of tantalizing targets for future atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. However, the future transit windows for the longest period planet candidates are poorly constrained because these planets transit only a few times during a 70-80 day K2 observing campaign. We are reducing the uncertainties in the transit times of these planets by conducting follow-up transit observations with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition to reducing the typical timing uncertainty by a factor of five, our Spitzer/IRAC observations allow us to place coarse limits on possible color-dependent differences in transit depth. I will discuss our target selection process and present the results of our ongoing 450-hr Spitzer program. We have already observed 26 transit opportunities of 21 planets and we have an additional three stars scheduled for observation this spring.This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  14. Impact Summary: The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Timothy; Pompea, S.; Rebull, L.; Gorjian, V.; Howell, S.; Johnson, C.; Kennedy, S.; Thomas, B.; Walentosky, M.; Wheeler, S.; Spitzer Teacher Program Team

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students was a four-year joint project between the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) that concluded in 2009. Through the program, teams of teachers and students were provided with unique opportunities to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work with Spitzer and NOAO scientists. This study finds evidence of significant success. From the eleven major research projects sponsored by the program, 31 scientific posters have been presented, and a number of scientific papers have been published. Records indicate there have been nearly 100 newspaper, radio, and TV reports, and numerous Internet articles reporting on various aspects of teacher and student involvement in the project, and over 100 students feel the program has influenced them to pursue careers in science. This highly successful program has now become the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP), with funding from the NASA ADP program and the archives at IPAC.

  15. Spitzer Light Curves of Dusty AGB Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Meixner, Margaret; Riebel, David; Vijh, Uma; Hora, Joe; Boyer, Martha; Cook, Kem; Groenewegen, Martin; Whitelock, Patricia; Ita, Yoshifusa; Feast, Michael; Kemper, Ciska; Marengo, Massimo; Otsuka, Masaaki; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2014-12-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) variable stars are, together with supernovae, the main sources of enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) in processed material, particularly carbon, nitrogen and heavy s-process elements. The dustiest, extreme AGB stars contribute the largest enrichment per star. We propose to measure the first light curves for 32 of the dustiest AGB variable stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the warm Spitzer mission's IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging for monthly imaging measurements. We know most are variable based on dual-epoch observations from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) surveys of the SMC and ground-based near-infrared observations, but we have not observed these dusty SMC stars at the mid-infrared wavelengths available to Spitzer. Only Spitzer will be able to measure the light curve of this key phase of the AGB: the dustiest and indeed final stage of the AGB. Without this information, our developing picture of AGB evolution is decidedly incomplete. The observations we propose will test the validity of AGB evolution models, and, thus, their predictions of the return of mass and nucleosynthetic products to the ISM. A value-added component to this study is that we will obtain variability information on other AGB stars that lie within the fields of view of our observations. This proposal continues the studies we have begun with our Cycle 9 program (pid 90219) and our Cycle 10 program (pid 10154).

  16. On-orbit performance testing of the Pointing Calibration & Reference Sensor for the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Young, Erick T.; Swanson, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    We present the on-orbit performance results of the Pointing Calibration and Reference Sensor (PCRS) for the Spitzer Space Telescope. A cryogenic optical (center wavelength 0.55 mu) imager, the PCRS serves as the Observatory's fine guidance sensor by providing an alignment reference between the telescope boresight and the external spacecraft attitude determination system. The PCRS makes precision measurements of the positions of known guide stars; these are used to calibrate measurements from Spitzer's star tracker and gyroscopes to obtain the actual pointing of the Spitzer telescope. The PCRS calibrates out thermomoechanical drifts between the 300 K spacecraft bus and the 5.5 K telescope. By using only 16 pixels, the PCRS provides high precision centroiding with extremely low (`64 mu W) power dissipation, resulting in minimal impact to Spritzer's helium lifetime. We have demonstrated that the PCRS meets its centroiding accuracy requirement of 0.14 arcsec 1-sigma radial, which represents about1/100 pixel centroiding. The Spitzer Space Telescope was launched in 25 August, 2003 and completed its In-Orbit Checkout phase two months later; the PCRS has been operating failure free ever since.

  17. THE MID-INFRARED TULLY-FISHER RELATION: SPITZER SURFACE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Courtois, Helene M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2012-11-01

    The availability of photometric imaging of several thousand galaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope enables a mid-infrared calibration of the correlation between luminosity and rotation in spiral galaxies. The most important advantage of the new calibration in the 3.6 {mu}m band, IRAC Channel 1, is photometric consistency across the entire sky. Additional advantages are minimal obscuration, observations of flux dominated by old stars, and sensitivity to low surface brightness levels due to favorable backgrounds. Roughly 3000 galaxies have been observed through Spitzer cycle 7 and images of these are available from the Spitzer archive. In cycle 8, a program called Cosmic Flows with Spitzer was initiated, which will increase the available sample of spiral galaxies with inclinations greater than 45 Degree-Sign from face-on that are suitable for distance measurements by 1274. This paper describes procedures, based on the photometry package Archangel, that are being employed to analyze both the archival and new data in a uniform way. We give results for 235 galaxies, our calibrator sample for the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxy magnitudes are determined with uncertainties held below 0.05 mag for normal spiral systems. A subsequent paper will describe the calibration of the [3.6] luminosity-rotation relation.

  18. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  19. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): curation and reanalysis of 16.6k redshifts in the G10/COSMOS region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Lange, R.; Liske, J.; Meyer, M.; Popping, A.; Wilkins, S. M.; Wright, A. H.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the construction of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) 10h region (G10) using publicly available data in the Cosmic Evolution Survey region (COSMOS) in order to extend the GAMA survey to z ˜ 1 in a single deg2 field. In order to obtain the maximum number of high precision spectroscopic redshifts we re-reduce all archival zCOSMOS-bright data and use the GAMA automatic cross-correlation redshift fitting code AUTOZ. We use all available redshift information (AUTOZ, zCOSMOS-bright 10k, PRIMUS, VVDS, SDSS and photometric redshifts) to calculate robust best-fitting redshifts for all galaxies and visually inspect all 1D and 2D spectra to obtain 16 583 robust redshifts in the full COSMOS region. We then define the G10 region to be the central ˜1 deg2 of COSMOS, which has relatively high spectroscopic completeness, and encompasses the CHILES VLA region. We define a combined r < 23.0 mag and i < 22.0 mag G10 sample (selected to have the highest bijective overlap) with which to perform future analysis, containing 9861 sources with reliable high-precision VLT-VIMOS spectra. All tables, spectra and imaging are available at http://ict.icrar.org/cutout/G10.

  20. Field-scale moisture estimates using COSMOS sensors: A validation study with temporary networks and Leaf-Area-Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2014-11-01

    The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is a new and innovative method for estimating surface and near-surface soil moisture at large (∼700 m) scales. This system accounts for liquid water within its measurement volume. Many of the sites used in the early validation of the system had low and stable vegetation water content. It is necessary to perform validation of COSMOS in a landscape with a significant change in vegetation water content to estimate its impact on the COSMOS estimate, and potentially, correct the estimate to account for the dynamic vegetation cover. A COSMOS station was installed in Beltsville, MD in the spring of 2012, within the domain of a long-term experimental station on USDA property. This station has a large array of soil moisture sensors in profile across the field, which is approximately 700 m in diameter. Frequent estimates of Leaf Area Index (LAI) were made throughout the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (May through September). COSMOS readings, with a simple linear adjustment, were able to produce estimates of area-weighted averages of the existing in situ network with root-mean-squared-errors (RMSE) of soil-water content well below 0.04 m3/m3 and with additional modeling to account for Leaf Area Index (LAI) values, RMSE values less than 0.03 m3/m3 were achieved.

  1. Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: Young Stars in IC2118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weehler, C. R.; Herrera, J. M.; Maranto, A. R.; Greer, M. T.; Preis, J. V.; Weston, P. D.; Rebull, L. M.; Roelofsen, T. E.; Sepulveda, B.; Hughes, A. S.; Sharma, N. D.; Spuck, T. S.; Bowser, D. H., II; Ehrhart, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Teacher Program is a collaboration between the Spitzer Science Center and National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Through the program, twelve teachers were selected to submit observing proposals for time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Young Stars in IC 2118 Project was one of those selected and awarded 62 minutes of Director's discretionary observing time to study a small region of IC 2118 (the Witch Head Nebula), a star forming region of small-mass stars embedded in their natal cloud. The five teachers involved in this project met at the Spitzer Science Center in August and September 2005 to analyze the data received from IRAC and MIPS observations. Six high school students were included in these visits, and several more are working on data analysis at their home schools. We are making tri-color images to identify structure in the ISM, Spectral Energy Distributions to identify cluster members and color plots to determine their stage of development, thereby estimating their ages. We are working toward adapting lessons that can use software that is readily available in public schools to do the data analysis. As teachers develop lesson plans for these activities, they will apply them in their science classes and provide professional development on infrared astronomy and the use of astronomical data to other teachers through in-service training around the country. The team is being mentored by Dr. Luisa Rebull from the Spitzer Science Center. Please see our companion poster, Spuck et al., on our science results using these data.

  2. Near-Infrared photometry of BOs and Centaurs in support of Spitzer Space Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Emery, Josh P.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We propose to measure near-infrared broadband colors of Centaurs and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). The proposed ground-based observations will complement 3.6 and 4.5 microns photometry of these bodies obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Extending reflectances past 2.5 micron with Spitzer enables sensitive searches for absorptions in the 3 to 5 micron region, where relevant species (e.g., complex organics, H2O, CO2, CH4, hydrated silicates) have their fundamental absorption bands. In order to assess the presence of absorptions, however, the Spitzer photometry must be tied to shorter wavelength near-infrared reflectances. Recently, Wright et al. (2012) combined IRAC/Spitzer and NIR colors for a sample of cold KBOs and showed how powerful this technique is detecting the presence of volatiles. In semester 2011B we obtained Gemini NIR data for 12 KBOs (results were presented in the DPS Meeting 2012 and part is included in the Master Dissertation of D. Wright, under the supervision of J.P. Emery). In semester 2011B and 2013A we obtained Gemini NIR data for 12 and 7 KBOs respectively (part of these results were presented in the DPS Meeting 2012 and part is included in the Master Dissertation of D. Wright, under the supervision of J.P. Emery). But our sample is not yet completed and we need more time to complete our study and cover a larger number of targets from our sample of Spitzer data. Approximately 54 objects in our sample that lack NIR colors are visible from GEMINI South in 2014B semester, we propose here to observe 16 of these objects.

  3. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, C. M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Li, J.; Hines, D. C.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 23.12 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance r_h = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance Δ_Spitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4 deg phase from SST, and distance Δ_Earth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3 deg phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x10**5 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 10**5 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 × 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 × 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 μm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON's discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 μm, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 μm. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these observations of the comet made well outside the water ice line.

  4. A warm Spitzer survey of the LSST/DES 'Deep drilling' fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Farrah, Duncan; Brandt, Niel; Sako, Masao; Richards, Gordon; Norris, Ray; Ridgway, Susan; Afonso, Jose; Brunner, Robert; Clements, Dave; Cooray, Asantha; Covone, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Chris; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Harry; Frieman, Joshua; Gupta, Ravi; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Jarvis, Matt; Kimball, Amy; Lubin, Lori; Mao, Minnie; Marchetti, Lucia; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Mei, Simona; Newman, Jeffrey; Nichol, Robert; Oliver, Seb; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Pierre, Marguerite; Rottgering, Huub; Seymour, Nick; Smail, Ian; Surace, Jason; Thorman, Paul; Vaccari, Mattia; Verma, Aprajita; Wilson, Gillian; Wood-Vasey, Michael; Cane, Rachel; Wechsler, Risa; Martini, Paul; Evrard, August; McMahon, Richard; Borne, Kirk; Capozzi, Diego; Huang, Jiashang; Lagos, Claudia; Lidman, Chris; Maraston, Claudia; Pforr, Janine; Sajina, Anna; Somerville, Rachel; Strauss, Michael; Jones, Kristen; Barkhouse, Wayne; Cooper, Michael; Ballantyne, David; Jagannathan, Preshanth; Murphy, Eric; Pradoni, Isabella; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Spitler, Lee

    2014-12-01

    We propose a warm Spitzer survey to microJy depth of the four predefined Deep Drilling Fields (DDFs) for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) (three of which are also deep drilling fields for the Dark Energy Survey (DES)). Imaging these fields with warm Spitzer is a key component of the overall success of these projects, that address the 'Physics of the Universe' theme of the Astro2010 decadal survey. With deep, accurate, near-infrared photometry from Spitzer in the DDFs, we will generate photometric redshift distributions to apply to the surveys as a whole. The DDFs are also the areas where the supernova searches of DES and LSST are concentrated, and deep Spitzer data is essential to obtain photometric redshifts, stellar masses and constraints on ages and metallicities for the >10000 supernova host galaxies these surveys will find. This 'DEEPDRILL' survey will also address the 'Cosmic Dawn' goal of Astro2010 through being deep enough to find all the >10^11 solar mass galaxies within the survey area out to z~6. DEEPDRILL will complete the final 24.4 square degrees of imaging in the DDFs, which, when added to the 14 square degrees already imaged to this depth, will map a volume of 1-Gpc^3 at z>2. It will find ~100 > 10^11 solar mass galaxies at z~5 and ~40 protoclusters at z>2, providing targets for JWST that can be found in no other way. The Spitzer data, in conjunction with the multiwavelength surveys in these fields, ranging from X-ray through far-infrared and cm-radio, will comprise a unique legacy dataset for studies of galaxy evolution.

  5. Development Of International Data Standards For The COSMOS/PEER-LL Virtual Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    The COSMOS -PEER Lifelines Project 2L02 completed a Pilot Geotechnical Virtual Data Center (GVDC) system capable of both archiving geotechnical data and of disseminating data from multiple linked geotechnical databases. The Pilot GVDC system links geotechnical databases of four organizations: the California Geological Survey, Caltrans, PG&E, and the U. S. Geological Survey The System was presented and reviewed in the COSMOS-PEER Lifelines workshop on June 21 - 23, 2004, which was co-sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and included participation by the United Kingdom Highways Agency (UKHA) , the Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists in the United Kingdom (AGS), the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACOE), Caltrans, United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Geological Survey (CGS), a number of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), county building code officials, and representatives of academic institutions and private sector geotechnical companies. As of February 2005 COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Project 2L03 is currently funded to accomplish the following tasks: 1) expand the Pilot GVDC Geotechnical Data Dictionary and XML Schema to include data definitions and structures to describe in-situ measurements such as shear wave velocity profiles, and additional laboratory geotechnical test types; 2) participate in an international cooperative working group developing a single geotechnical data exchange standard that has broad international acceptance; and 3) upgrade the GVDC system to support corresponding exchange standard data dictionary and schema improvements. The new geophysical data structures being developed will include PS-logs, downhole geophysical logs, cross-hole velocity data, and velocity profiles derived using surface waves. A COSMOS-PEER Lifelines Geophysical Data Dictionary Working Committee constituted of experts in the development of data dictionary standards and experts in the specific data to be

  6. Experimental and calculated LET distributions in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Dudkin, V. E.; Karpov, O. N.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Moiseenko, A. A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    During the flight of the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. investigations of different characteristics of cosmic radiation (CR) in the near-Earth environment were carried out. The U.S. dielectric track detectors CR-39 and Soviet BYa- and BR-type nuclear photo-emulsions were used as detectors. The present work shows some results of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of CR particles obtained with the use of these detectors, which were placed both inside and outside the satellite. The LET spectra measurements with plastic detectors is composed of two parts: the measurement of galactic cosmos rays (GCR) particles, and of short-range particles. The contributions of these components to the total LET distribution at various thicknesses of the shielding were analyzed and the results of these studies are presented. Calculated LET spectra in the Cosmos-2044 orbit were compared with experimental data. On the basis of experimental and calculated values of the LET spectra, absorbed and equivalent CR doses were calculated. In the shielding range of 1-1.5 g cm(exp -2), outside the spacecraft, the photo-emulsions yielded 10.3 mrad d(exp -1) and 13.4 mrem d(exp -1) (LET greater than or equal to 40 MeV cm(exp -1)). Inside the spacecraft (greater than or equal to 10 g cm(exp -2) the photo-emulsions yielded 8.9 mrad d(exp -1) and 14.5 mrem d(exp -1).

  7. Radiation experiments on Cosmos 2044: K-7-41, parts A, B, C, D, E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 deg and attitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10(exp -4) and 3.05 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm/s/sr, of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(sub infinity)-H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mrem/d in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra were compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 deg) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCRs, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  8. DISSECTING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS USING XMM- AND CHANDRA-COSMOS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Rau, A.; Brusa, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.; Comastri, A.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Aussel, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; and others

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric redshifts comparable to the highest quality results presently available for normal galaxies. We demonstrate that morphologically extended, faint X-ray sources without optical variability are more accurately described by a library of normal galaxies (corrected for emission lines) than by active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated templates, even if these sources have AGN-like X-ray luminosities. Preselecting the library on the bases of the source properties allowed us to reach an accuracy {sigma}{sub {Delta}z/(1+z{sub s{sub p{sub e{sub c)}}}}}{approx}0.015 with a fraction of outliers of 5.8% for the entire Chandra-COSMOS sample. In addition, we release revised photometric redshifts for the 1735 optical counterparts of the XMM-detected sources over the entire 2 deg{sup 2} of COSMOS. For 248 sources, our updated photometric redshift differs from the previous release by {Delta}z > 0.2. These changes are predominantly due to the inclusion of newly available deep H-band photometry (H{sub AB} = 24 mag). We illustrate once again the importance of a spectroscopic training sample and how an assumption about the nature of a source together, with the number and the depth of the available bands, influences the accuracy of the photometric redshifts determined for AGN. These considerations should be kept in mind when defining the observational strategies of upcoming large surveys targeting AGNs, such as eROSITA at X-ray energies and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Evolutionary Map of the Universe in the radio band.

  9. Catecholamines and their enzymes in discrete brain areas of rats after space flight on biosatellites Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetǹanskỳ, R.; Čulman, J.; Serova, L. V.; Tigranjan, R. A.; Torda, T.; Macho, L.

    The activity of the catecholaminergic system was measured in the hypothalamus of rats which had experienced an 18.5-19.5-day-long stay in the state of weightlessness during space flights on board Soviet biosatellites of the type Cosmos. In the first two experiments, Cosmos 782 and 936, the concentration of norepinephrine and the activities of synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase and of the degrading enzyme monoamine oxidase were measured in the total hypothalamus. None of the given parameters was changed after space flight. In the light of the changes of these parameters recorded after exposure to acute stress on Earth, this finding indicates that long-term state of weightlessness does not represent an intensive stressogenic stimulus for the system studied. In the space experiment Cosmos 1129, the concentration of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine was studied in isolated nuclei of the hypothalamus of rats within 6-10 hr following return from space. Norepinephrine was found to be significantly reduced in the arcuate nucleus, median eminence and periventricular nucleus, epinephrine in the median eminence, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, whereas dopamine was not significantly changed after space flight. The decreased catecholamine levels found in some hypothalamic nuclei of rats which had undergone space flight indicate that no chronic intensive stressor could have acted during the flight, otherwise the catecholamine concentration would have been increased in the nuclei. The decreased levels must have been induced by the effect of a stressogenic factor acting for a short time only, and that either during the landing maneuver or immediately after landing. Thus long-term exposure of the organism to the state of weightlessness does not represent a stressogenic stimulus for the catecholaminergic system in the hypothalamus, which is one of the regulators of the activation of neuroendocrine reactions under stress.

  10. A spectral energy distribution analysis of AGN host galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Civano, Francesca M.; Hasinger, Guenther; Elvis, Martin; Marchesi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We present the host galaxy properties of a large sample of ~ 4000 X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey to investigate the connection between BH accretion and host galaxy. The COSMOS Legacy survey reaching X-ray fluxes of 2x10-16 (cgs) in the 0.5-2 keV band, bridges the gap between large area shallow surveys and pencil beamed one. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available for 96.6% of the sources, COSMOS Legacy survey provides a uniquely large sample to derive host galaxy properties for both obscured and unobscured sources. We perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared (500 μm) when available to UV (1500 Å) using a 3-component fitting (nuclear hot dust, galaxy and starburst components) for obscured AGN and a 4-component fitting (nuclear hot dust, AGN big blue bump, galaxy, and starburst components) for unobscured AGN. Galaxy templates are from the stellar population synthesis models of Bruzual & Charlot (2003), nuclear hot dust templates are taken from Silva et al. (2004), and AGN big blue bump templates are from Richards et al. (2006). We use the column density information measured in the X-ray to constrain the AGN in the infrared band when available. Through detailed analysis of the broad-band spectral energy distribution, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates of the host galaxy as well as the nuclear and galaxy contribution at each frequency. We study the dependence of host galaxy properties on redshifts, luminosities, and black hole masses to infer the growth history of galaxies and black holes and we compare with a sample of inactive galaxies.

  11. Cosmos 1887 mission overview - Effects of microgravity on rat body and adrenal weights and plasma constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Vasques, M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Popova, I. A.

    1990-01-01

    Tissues of male, specific pathogen-free Wistar rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite are studied. First the mission is described, and then analytical methods are outlined. It is noted that flight rats grew more slowly and had larger adrenal glands than earth gravity controls. Analysis of plasma reveals increased concentrations of hepatic alkaline phosphatase, glucose, urea nitrogen, and creatinine in flight rats. In contrast, electrolytes, total protein, albumin, corticosteron, prolactin, and immunoreactive growth hormone levels are unchanged. However, testosterone concentration is marginally decreased after flight and thyroid hormone levels are suggestive of reduced thyroid function.

  12. Gamma-Ray Detectors: From Homeland Security to the Cosmos (443rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2008-12-03

    Many radiation detectors are first developed for homeland security or industrial applications. Scientists, however, are continuously realizing new roles that these detectors can play in high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments. On Wednesday, December 3, join presenter Aleksey Bolotnikov, a physicist in the Nonproliferation and National Security Department (NNSD) and a co-inventor of the cadmium-zinc-telluride Frisch-ring (CdZnTe) detector, for the 443rd Brookhaven Lecture, entitled Gamma-Ray Detectors: From Homeland Security to the Cosmos. In his lecture, Bolotnikov will highlight two primary radiation-detector technologies: CdZnTe detectors and fluid-Xeon (Xe) detectors.

  13. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  14. The Collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251: The Shape of Things to Come

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 was the most severe accidental fragmentation on record. More than 1800 debris approx. 10 cm and larger were produced. If solar activity returns to normal, half of the tracked debris will reenter within five years. Less than 60 cataloged debris had reentered by 1 October 2009. Some debris from both satellites will remain in orbit through the end of the century. The collision rate of one every five years will increase without future removal of large derelict spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages.

  15. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  16. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  17. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. R. (Editor); Souza, K. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  18. Flying U.S. science on the U.S.S.R. Cosmos biosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. W.; Rossberg Walker, K.

    1992-01-01

    The USSR Cosmos Biosatellites are unmanned missions with durations of approximately 14 days. They are capable of carrying a wide variety of biological specimens such as cells, tissues, plants, and animals, including rodents and rhesus monkeys. The absence of a crew is an advantage with respect to the use of radioisotopes or other toxic materials and contaminants, but a disadvantage with respect to the performance of inflight procedures or repair of hardware failures. Thus, experiments hardware and procedures must be either completely automated or remotely controlled from the ground. A serious limiting factor for experiments is the amount of electrical powers available, so when possible experiments should be self-contained with their own batteries and data recording devices. Late loading is restricted to approximately 48 hours before launch and access time upon recovery is not precise since there is a ballistic reentry and the capsule must first be located and recovery vehicles dispatched to the site. Launches are quite reliable and there is a proven track record of nine previous Biosatellite flights. This paper will present data and experience from the seven previous Cosmos flights in which the US has participated as well as the key areas of consideration in planning a flight investigation aboard this Biosatellite platform.

  19. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Y. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Parnell, T. A.; Schopper, E.; Baican, B.; et, a. l.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the LET spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (approximately 20 g cm-2 shielding) and outside (1 g cm-2) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d-1, respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d-1. The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from, the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of CR flux is discussed.

  20. Destiny or chance : our solar system and its place in the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross

    Written by a leading planetary scientist, this book tells the remarkable story of how our solar system came into existence. It provides a fast-paced and expert tour of our new understanding of the Earth, its planetary neighbours and other planetary systems. In a whirlwind adventure, we are shown how the formation of mighty Jupiter dominated the solar system, why Mars is so small, where comets come from, how rings form around planets, why asteroids exist and why Pluto isn't a planet at all. En route we discover that chance events have shaped the course of the history of our solar system. Dramatic collisions, for example, have caused the tilts and spins of the planets, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the rise of man. Finally, we look at how suitable Earth is for harbouring life, what other planetary systems look like and whether we are alone in the cosmos. For all those interested in understanding our solar system and its plac e in the cosmos, this is a lucid and compelling read.

  1. OBSERVATIONAL LIMITS ON TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACCRETION RATE IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared; Kelly, Brandon C.; Elvis, Martin; Hao Heng; Huchra, John P.; Merloni, Andrea; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Cappelluti, Nico; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Koekemoer, Anton; Nagao, Tohru; Salvato, Mara; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2009-07-20

    We present black hole masses and accretion rates for 182 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in COSMOS. We estimate masses using the scaling relations for the broad H {beta}, Mg II, and C IV emission lines in the redshift ranges 0.16 < z < 0.88, 1 < z < 2.4, and 2.7 < z < 4.9. We estimate the accretion rate using an Eddington ratio L{sub I}/L{sub Edd} estimated from optical and X-ray data. We find that very few Type 1 AGNs accrete below L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.01, despite simulations of synthetic spectra which show that the survey is sensitive to such Type 1 AGNs. At lower accretion rates the broad-line region may become obscured, diluted, or nonexistent. We find evidence that Type 1 AGNs at higher accretion rates have higher optical luminosities, as more of their emission comes from the cool (optical) accretion disk with respect to shorter wavelengths. We measure a larger range in accretion rate than previous works, suggesting that COSMOS is more efficient at finding low accretion rate Type 1 AGNs. However, the measured range in accretion rate is still comparable to the intrinsic scatter from the scaling relations, suggesting that Type 1 AGNs accrete at a narrow range of Eddington ratio, with L{sub I} /L{sub Edd} {approx} 0.1.

  2. COSMOS: COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System planned for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweck, C.; Zreda, M.; Shuttleworth, J.; Zeng, X.

    2008-12-01

    Because soil water exerts a critical control on weather, climate, ecosystem, and water cycle, understanding soil moisture changes in time and space is crucial for many fields within natural sciences. A serious handicap in soil moisture measurements is the mismatch between limited point measurements using contact methods and remote sensing estimates over large areas. We present a novel method to measure soil moisture non- invasively at an intermediate spatial scale that will alleviate this problem. The method takes advantage of the dependence of cosmic-ray neutron intensity on the hydrogen content of soils (Zreda et al., Geophysical Research Letters, accepted). Low-energy cosmic-ray neutrons are produced and moderated in the soil, transported from the soil into the atmosphere where they are measured with a cosmic-ray neutron probe to provide integrated soil moisture content over a footprint of several hundred meters and a depth of a few decimeters. The method and the instrument are intended for deployment in the continental-scale COSMOS network that is designed to cover the contiguous region of the USA. Fully deployed, the COSMOS network will consist of up to 500 probes, and will provide continuous soil moisture content (together with atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity) measured and reported hourly. These data will be used for initialization and assimilation of soil moisture conditions in weather and short-term (seasonal) climate forecasting, and for other land-surface applications.

  3. Flying U.S. science on the U.S.S.R. Cosmos biosatellites.

    PubMed

    Ballard, R W; Rossberg Walker, K

    1992-10-01

    The USSR Cosmos Biosatellites are unmanned missions with durations of approximately 14 days. They are capable of carrying a wide variety of biological specimens such as cells, tissues, plants, and animals, including rodents and rhesus monkeys. The absence of a crew is an advantage with respect to the use of radioisotopes or other toxic materials and contaminants, but a disadvantage with respect to the performance of inflight procedures or repair of hardware failures. Thus, experiments hardware and procedures must be either completely automated or remotely controlled from the ground. A serious limiting factor for experiments is the amount of electrical powers available, so when possible experiments should be self-contained with their own batteries and data recording devices. Late loading is restricted to approximately 48 hours before launch and access time upon recovery is not precise since there is a ballistic reentry and the capsule must first be located and recovery vehicles dispatched to the site. Launches are quite reliable and there is a proven track record of nine previous Biosatellite flights. This paper will present data and experience from the seven previous Cosmos flights in which the US has participated as well as the key areas of consideration in planning a flight investigation aboard this Biosatellite platform. PMID:11537653

  4. Using COSMOS sensors to measure snow water equivalent on the ground and in the forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desilets, Darin

    2014-05-01

    Recent data from the southern Rocky Mountains demonstrate how a COSMOS sensor can be used in two different modes, invasive and non-invasive, for measuring snow. The non-invasive mode provides an average snow water equivalent (SWE) depth over an area of approximately 40 ha, but only up to a depth of about 10 cm SWE. Using two different energy channels, the non-invasive technique can also be used to infer the presence of canopy intercepted snow, and shows promise for quantifying SWE in the canopy. Because of its large footprint, the non-invasive sensor can also measure SWE from a moving motor vehicle. The invasive mode provides a much greater depth range, theoretically at least several meters of SWE, but over only a few square meters. SWE measured with the invasive COSMOS sensor correlates closely (R2 > 0.96) with SWE measured by an adjacent snow pillow during the snow accumulation season. In summer, both invasive and non-invasive sensors can be used to monitor soil water content, thus constraining another key variable in hydrologic forecasting models.

  5. High-Performance Computer Modeling of the Cosmos-Iridium Collision

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S; Cook, K; Fasenfest, B; Jefferson, D; Jiang, M; Leek, J; Levatin, J; Nikolaev, S; Pertica, A; Phillion, D; Springer, K; De Vries, W

    2009-08-28

    This paper describes the application of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness (SSA) enterprise, to the recent Cosmos-Iridium collision. This framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel, high-performance computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will describe the application of this framework to the recent collision of the Cosmos and Iridium satellites, including (1) detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the satellite collision and resulting debris generation, (2) orbital propagation of the simulated debris and analysis of the increased risk to other satellites (3) calculation of the radar and optical signatures of the simulated debris and modeling of debris detection with space surveillance radar and optical systems (4) determination of simulated debris orbits from modeled space surveillance observations and analysis of the resulting orbital accuracy, (5) comparison of these modeling and simulation results with Space Surveillance Network observations. We will also discuss the use of this integrated modeling and simulation framework to analyze the risks and consequences of future satellite collisions and to assess strategies for mitigating or avoiding future incidents, including the addition of new sensor systems, used in conjunction with the Space Surveillance Network, for improving space situational awareness.

  6. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  7. Radio-Optical Galaxy Shape Correlations in theCOSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunbridge, Ben; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the correlations in galaxy shapes between optical and radio wavelengths using archival observations of the COSMOS field. Cross-correlation studies between different wavebands will become increasingly important for precision cosmology as future large surveys may be dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors. In the case of weak lensing, galaxy shapes must be measured to extraordinary accuracy (shear systematics of <0.01%) in order to achieve good constraints on dark energy parameters. By using shape information from overlapping surveys in optical and radio bands, robustness to systematics may be significantly improved without loss of constraining power. Here we use HST-ACS optical data, VLA radio data, and extensive simulations to investigate both our ability to make precision measurements of source shapes from realistic radio data, and to constrain the intrinsic astrophysical scatter between the shapes of galaxies as measured in the optical and radio wavebands. By producing a new image from the VLA-COSMOS L-band radio visibility data that is well suited to galaxy shape measurements, we are able to extract precise measurements of galaxy position angles. Comparing to corresponding measurements from the HST optical image, we set a lower limit on the intrinsic astrophysical scatter in position angles, between the optical and radio bands, of σα > 0.212π radians (or 38.2°) at a 95% confidence level.

  8. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (approximately 20 g cm (exp -2) shielding) and outside (1 g cm(exp -2) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d (exp -1), respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d(exp -1). The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of CR flux is discussed.

  9. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  10. Weak lensing calibrated M-T scaling relation of galaxy groups in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-11-20

    The scaling between X-ray observables and mass for galaxy clusters and groups is instrumental for cluster-based cosmology and an important probe for the thermodynamics of the intracluster gas. We calibrate a scaling relation between the weak lensing mass and X-ray spectroscopic temperature for 10 galaxy groups in the COSMOS field, combined with 55 higher-mass clusters from the literature. The COSMOS data includes Hubble Space Telescope imaging and redshift measurements of 46 source galaxies per arcminute{sup 2}, enabling us to perform unique weak lensing measurements of low-mass systems. Our sample extends the mass range of the lensing calibrated M-T relation an order of magnitude lower than any previous study, resulting in a power-law slope of 1.48{sub −0.09}{sup +0.13}. The slope is consistent with the self-similar model, predictions from simulations, and observations of clusters. However, X-ray observations relying on mass measurements derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium have indicated that masses at group scales are lower than expected. Both simulations and observations suggest that hydrostatic mass measurements can be biased low. Our external weak lensing masses provide the first observational support for hydrostatic mass bias at group level, showing an increasing bias with decreasing temperature and reaching a level of 30%-50% at 1 keV.

  11. New Software for Ensemble Creation in the Spitzer-Space-Telescope Operations Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laher, Russ; Rector, John

    2004-01-01

    Some of the computer pipelines used to process digital astronomical images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope require multiple input images, in order to generate high-level science and calibration products. The images are grouped into ensembles according to well documented ensemble-creation rules by making explicit associations in the operations Informix database at the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). The advantage of this approach is that a simple database query can retrieve the required ensemble of pipeline input images. New and improved software for ensemble creation has been developed. The new software is much faster than the existing software because it uses pre-compiled database stored-procedures written in Informix SPL (SQL programming language). The new software is also more flexible because the ensemble creation rules are now stored in and read from newly defined database tables. This table-driven approach was implemented so that ensemble rules can be inserted, updated, or deleted without modifying software.

  12. A SPITZER SEARCH FOR PLANETARY-MASS BROWN DWARFS WITH CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: CANDIDATE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Paul M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Allers, Katelyn; Liu, Michael E-mail: dtj@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: mliu@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-09-10

    We report on initial results from a Spitzer program to search for very low mass brown dwarfs in Ophiuchus. This program is an extension of an earlier study by Allers et al. which had resulted in an extraordinary success rate, 18 confirmed out of 19 candidates. Their program combined near-infrared and Spitzer photometry to identify objects with very cool photospheres together with circumstellar disk emission to indicate youth. Our new program has obtained deep IRAC photometry of a 0.5 deg{sup 2} field that was part of the original Allers et al. study. We report 18 new candidates whose luminosities extend down to 10{sup -4} L{sub sun}, which suggests masses down to {approx}2 M{sub J} if confirmed. We describe our selection techniques, likely contamination issues, and follow-on photometry and spectroscopy that are in progress.

  13. Support for Spitzer observations of tremendous outburst amplitude dwarf novae (TOADs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2008-05-01

    Dr. Steve Howell (NOAO) requests monitoring of a subset of the known and suspected tremendous outburst amplitude dwarf novae (TOADs) in support of Spitzer Space Telescope observations of these objects. The campaign will run from May 16, 2008, through May 2009. Once an object has been verified in superoutburst, Spitzer observations will be scheduled within 2-4 weeks of maximum, and will be repeated twice -- 4-6 weeks and 6-10 weeks later. Observers are asked to provide nightly monitoring of these stars, and to begin intensive observations if and when any of them go into outburst to determine whether the star is in superoutburst. We note that several of these objects -- notably the WZ Sge stars WZ Sge, GW Lib, and V455 And -- are not expected to superoutburst during the next year, but observations are still encouraged in case they exhibit unexpected behavior. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  14. Hunting Coreshine with (Warm) Spitzer: from grain growth to planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Roberta; Pagani, Laurent; Steinacker, Jurgen; Lefevre, Charlene; Andersen, Morten; Carey, Sean; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Juvela, Mika; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Bacmann, Aurore; McGehee, Peregrine; Montier, Ludovic; Marshall, Doug

    2013-07-01

    "Hunting Coreshine with Spitzer" (P.I. R. Paladini) is the largest (165.5hrs) approved Cycle-8 Warm Spitzer proposal in the Galactic science category. Goal of the 3.6 mm and 4.5 mm observations of 90 cold cores randomly selected from the Planck Early Cold Cores Catalog is an unbiased investigation of the coreshine effect which is thought to provide direct evidence for grain growth in cold, dense environments. A preliminary results indicates that 50% of the sources are characterized by coreshine. In Cycle 9, we requested an additional 42.5 hrs for a deep 4.5 mm follow-up of 10 sources included in the original sample. The analysis on the data -\\ currently on-going -\\ shows a positive detection for > 70% of the sources.

  15. SPITZER IRAC COLOR DIAGNOSTICS FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth A.

    2014-10-20

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study, we calculate the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color space of UV fluorescent H{sub 2} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine and Li. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV-excited and shock-excited H{sub 2} emission. To test this method, we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster.

  16. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A Cold Neptune in the Galactic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Zhu, W.; Gould, A.; Yee, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; RoboNet Project, The; Consortium, MiNDSTEp; Jørgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Andersen, M. I.; Bachelet, E.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Cassan, A.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Dong, Subo; Evans, D. F.; Gu, Sheng-hong; Harkonnen, H.; Hinse, T. C.; Horne, Keith; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Menzies, J.; Mao, S.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Ranc, C.; Tronsgaard Rasmussen, R.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Steele, I. A.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Verma, P.; von Essen, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Wang, Yi-Bo.; Wertz, O.; OGLE Project, The; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Spitzer Team; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; MOA Collaboration; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; KMTNet Modeling Team; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near to mid-disk and are clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  17. The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: The Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Timothy; Rebull, L.; Roelofsen Moody, T.; Sepulveda, B.; Weehler, C.; Kelley, N.; Sibble, Y.; Walentosky, M.; Weiser, S.; Yeager, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. (For more information on this program, please see our companion poster, Rebull et al.) As part of this program, we are developing a wiki, where the scientists, teachers, and students can share the materials they have developed and interact with each other. The wiki currently has background information, some general lessons and discussion pages; it also provides a place for the teams to continue working on their specific research projects. This poster will describe some of the wiki contents, and our plans for future development.

  18. COSMOS 1: the Attempt to Fly the First Solar Sail Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, L.; Pichkhadze, K.; Kudryashov, V.; Rogovsky, G.; Linkin, V.; Gotlib, V.; Lipatov, A.; Cantrell, J.; Garvey, J.

    Cosmos 1 is a privately funded mission, the first ever attempted by a space interest organization. Sponsored by Cosmos Studios and the Arts and Entertainment Network, it is being carried out by The Planetary Society. The spacecraft is being developed and will be launched in Russia by a team headed by the Babakin Space Center and the Space Research Institute. The goal is to provide the first demonstration of solar sailing. It is hoped that such a technology demonstration mission that will open the way for solar sailing to reach its documented potential for low cost and round trip interplanetary missions, (Friedman et. al., 1978) and eventually for interstellar flight. Cosmos 1's mission success is defined as the spacecraft's orbital period (energy or semi-major axis) being measurably increased by controlled flight using sunlight pressure to increase orbital velocity. To achieve this goal, the spacecraft must fly above the sensible atmosphere so that atmospheric drag is inconsequential compared to the solar radiation pressure. Normally, a solar sail is designed to fly in deep space away from planetary gravity wells such as Earth's. The complexity of our task of demonstrating the flight of the solar sail is dramatically increased by the need to re-orient the sails several times per orbit and the presence of Earth's atmosphere. Further complicating matters is our launch date in 2002, which is near a time of solar maximum when the atmosphere extends to higher altitudes than normal. To avoid being trapped by the Earth's atmosphere, we have to go to at least 800 kilometers altitude to begin our orbital flight. This can be achieved with our planned launch on a Volna rocket from the Barents Sea in Russia. Volna is a converted submarine launched ballistic missile, the SS-N-18, developed and operated by the Makeev Rocket Design Bureau, within RosAviaKosmos, the Russian space agency. In addition to the 3-stage Volna, an orbit insertion motor is required. Babakin Space Center

  19. THE CHANDRA COSMOS SURVEY. III. OPTICAL AND INFRARED IDENTIFICATION OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Aldcroft, T.; Fruscione, A.; Hao, H.; Lanzuisi, G.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Gilli, R.; Lusso, E.; Capak, P.; Cisternas, M.; Fiore, F.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Impey, C. D.; and others

    2012-08-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that has imaged the central 0.9 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field down to limiting depths of 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the soft (0.5-2 keV) band, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the hard (2-10 keV) band, and 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the full (0.5-10 keV) band. In this paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 {mu}m identifications of the 1761 X-ray point sources. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. For most of the remaining 3%, the presence of multiple counterparts or the faintness of the possible counterpart prevented a unique association. For only 10 X-ray sources we were not able to associate a counterpart, mostly due to the presence of a very bright field source close by. Only two sources are truly empty fields. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and classification described here in detail, is available online. Making use of the large number of X-ray sources, we update the 'classic locus' of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) defined 20 years ago in soft X-ray surveys and define a new locus containing 90% of the AGNs in the survey with full-band luminosity >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. We present the linear fit between the total i-band magnitude and the X-ray flux in the soft and hard bands, drawn over two orders of magnitude in X-ray flux, obtained using the combined C-COSMOS and XMM-COSMOS samples. We focus on the X-ray to optical flux ratio (X/O) and we test its known correlation with redshift and luminosity, and a recently introduced anti-correlation with the concentration index (C). We find a strong anti-correlation (though the dispersion is of the order of 0.5 dex) between X/O computed in the hard band and C and that 90% of the obscured AGNs in the sample with morphological

  20. Spitzer Spectra of 2MASS/MSX Selected Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, M. P.; van Dyk, S. D.; Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Price, S. D.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our Spitzer Space Telescope study of late type stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The source selection and tentative identification of spectral type had been made using color-color data derived fromTwo-micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) measurements and the source identification model previously developed by Egan, van Dyk, and Price (2001) for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Results of the Spitzer SMC spectral survey show surprises in that many stars expected to be oxygen-rich, high-luminosity asymptotic giants turned out to have carbon-rich envelopes. Overpopulations in the Magellanic Cloud carbon star population, relative to Milky Way samples, have been noted by other research teams. Similar results for a 2MASS/MSX selected sample in the LMC have been found by the Spitzer team led by J. Kastner (Buchanan et al., in press). These results imply that the lower metallicity in the SMC (and LMC) allows much easier evolution to carbon-rich envelope chemistries across all mass ranges for AGB stars than is seen in the Milky Way. This fact has implications for the future use of color-color diagrams for classifying stars in other galaxies. In order to distinguish between C-rich and O-rich AGB stars by color, correct spectral bands must be chosen, and the metallicity and color relationship well understood. We will present the spectra from the Spitzer SMC sample in this paper, and compare 2MASS/MSX colors for the SMC with similar Milky Way samples. We will also examine the theoretical implications of the dearth of OH/IR stars found in the SMC versus previous expectations.

  1. Spitzer Space Telescope: Focal Plane Survey Final Report. Appendix B:; IRAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios

    2004-01-01

    This final report summarizes the results and accuracies of the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane survey. Accuracies achieved are compared to the focal plane survey calibration requirements put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [14] and pre-flight predictions made in [2]. The results of this focal plane survey are presently being used to support in-flight precision pointing, precision incremental offsets, IRS peakup array calibration, and ground pointing reconstruction...

  2. Measuring High-Precision Astrometry with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Main Belt asteroids observed by Spitzer (Ryan+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. L.; Mizuno, D. R.; Shenoy, S. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Carey, S. J.; Noriego-Crespo, A.; Kraemer, K. E.; Price, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Mid-infrared photometry at 24 microns of 1865 asteroids are presented. For each asteroid detection, the equatorial J2000 coordinates, time of observation, heliocentric and geocentric distance, visual absolute magnitude and 24 micron flux is reported. Photometry was obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and photometry tool MOPEX. Thermal fitting is used to determine asteroid diameters and albedos using the Near Earth Asteroid Model for objects on a single detection basis and average values are also reported. (3 data files).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer interstellar bubbles (Hou+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, L. G.; Gao, X. Y.

    2014-11-01

    The interstellar bubble catalogue adopted in this work is from the recently released MWP (Simpson et al., 2012MNRAS.424.2442S, Cat. J/MNRAS/424/2442), containing 5106 bubbles identified by visual inspection of the Spitzer/GLIMPSE (Benjamin et al., 2003PASP..115..953B, Cat. II/293) and MIPSGAL (Carey et al., 2009PASP..121...76C) survey images. (2 data files).

  5. Serendipitous discovery of an infrared bow shock near PSR J1549–4848 with Spitzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Kaplan, David L.; Slane, Patrick; Morrell, Nidia; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an infrared cometary nebula around PSR J1549–4848 in our Spitzer survey of a few middle-aged radio pulsars. Following the discovery, multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula were carried out. We detected the nebula in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 8.0, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 and 70 μm imaging, and in Spitzer IRS 7.5-14.4 μm spectroscopic observations, and also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey at 12 and 22 μm. These data were analyzed in detail, and we find that the nebula can be described with a standard bow shock shape, and that its spectrum contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and H{sub 2} emission features. However, it is not certain which object drives the nebula. We analyze the field stars and conclude that none of them can be the associated object because stars with a strong wind or mass ejection that usually produce bow shocks are much brighter than the field stars. The pulsar is approximately 15'' away from the region in which the associated object is expected to be located. In order to resolve the discrepancy, we suggest that a highly collimated wind could be emitted from the pulsar and produce the bow shock. X-ray imaging to detect the interaction of the wind with the ambient medium- and high-spatial resolution radio imaging to determine the proper motion of the pulsar should be carried out, which will help verify the association of the pulsar with the bow shock nebula.

  6. Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the slow classical nova V1186 Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, G. J.; Woodward, C. E.; Lynch, D. K.; Rudy, R.; Ruch, G.; Helton, A.; Venturini, C. C.; Lyke, J. E.; Bode, M. F.; Spitzer CY1 GO ToO Nova Team

    2005-12-01

    The first classical nova observed in our Spitzer Cycle 1 ToO program (PID 2333) was V1186 Sco. This slow nova exhibited a light curve with multiple secondary peaks similar to PW Vul. Visual maximum occurred on 9 July 2004 while the time to decline 2 magnitudes, t2, was 25 days. However, the erratic nature of the light curve makes any determination of intrinsic properties based on the decline times (e.g. luminosity) problematic. Spitzer 5-37 micron spectra were obtained of V1186 Sco and V1187 Sco in late September 2004 and March 2005. V1187 Sco was a very fast nova that was discovered only a few days after V1186 Sco. The first spectra of V1187 Sco showed strong forbidden lines, primarily of neon and magnesium, superimposed on a weak hydrogen recombination spectrum (Lynch et al. 2005, ApJ in press). Both the early and late evolutionary epoch spectra of V1186 Sco were dominated by hydrogen lines. Not unexpected due to its extreme decline time and likely ONeMg white dwarf progenitor, V1187 Sco was dominated by very high ionization "coronal" lines of [Mg V], [Mg VII], [Ar V], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] when Spitzer observations resumed in March 2005. Due to its much slower evolution, the Spitzer data of V1186 Sco obtained the same month showed a greatly weakened hydrogen recombination spectrum with a surprising emergence of the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) as the strongest line. It is not clear if the V1186 Sco outburst occurred on a an ONeMg white dwarf as our complementary ground based optical and near-IR spectroscopy obtained during this later epoch show none of the typical characteristics of an ONeMg nova. However, given the rather slow development of this object it might be too early to make any determination of the white dwarf progenitor.

  7. Understanding Other Worlds with Spitzer: From Hot Jupiters to Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Michael; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Queloz, Didier; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Pollacco, Don; Wheatley, Peter; Rostron, John; Smalley, Barry; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre; Mahtani, Deepak; Smith, Alexis; Bonfils, Xavier; Dragomir, Diana

    2012-09-01

    The intense study of transiting exoplanets over the past decade has begun to unveil the vast diversity of planetary systems in the Milky Way and to place our own solar system in perspective. Notably, ground-based Doppler and transit surveys are finding at an increasing pace planets suitable for detailed characterization. These planets around bright stars fall into two distinct families providing exciting new avenues at the frontiers of exoplanetary science. On one hand are the numerous highly irradiated gas giants whose atmospheres can be studied in great detail with a wide range of existing instruments from space and ground, notably their temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy transport efficiencies, and atmospheric circulation patterns. On the other hand are the small but growing list of `super-Earths' around bright stars for which the first detections of transits and atmospheric signatures are becoming available. The Spitzer space telescope has played a prominent role in both these areas through a plethora of ground-breaking results, many involving members of our team. Our proposed Exploration Science program with Spitzer aims to pursue major advancements in the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology with a two-pronged approach focused on these two exoplanet families. On the one hand, we will use Spitzer to thoroughly characterize a large and diverse sample of new giant exoplanets, chosen for their ability to place unprecedented constraints on the classification of irradiated giant planets, and stringent constraints on the planets' atmospheric thermal, chemical, and dynamical properties. On the other hand, we will search for the transits of 15 low-mass planets detected by our HARPS Doppler survey, both to constrain their compositions and to increase the small sample of low-mass planets amenable for atmospheric studies with future facilities like JWST. Together, these two complementary parts of our program will form a new major legacy of Spitzer

  8. The most distant galaxy clusters in the SPT Spitzer Deep Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettura, Alessandro; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Mei, S.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gettings, D.; Ashby, M.; Bartlett, J.; Rosati, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of more than 300 galaxy cluster candidates at z>1.3 selected within 94 deg2 from the Spitzer SPT Deep Field (SSDF) survey. To discover distant clusters at z>1.3, we have used a three-filter algorithm based upon Spitzer/IRAC color ([3.6]-[4.5]>-0.1,AB) combined with a non-detection in shallow optical data. Our sample is selected to be a complete stellar mass-limited sample at z>1.3 and therefore has a well defined survey volume. The uniqueness of SSDF resides not just in its area, one of the very largest with Spitzer, but also in its coverage by deep observations for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Deeper observations are also planned with the new SPT camera, SPTpol, that will reach, for the first time, SZ clusters up to 2 (George et al., 2012). This field also has deep X-ray observations from the XMM XXL Survey (Pierre et al., 2012). Thanks to this rich data set, we will be able to determine accurate cluster masses for the vast majority of our SSDF clusters at 1.3

  9. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and Infrared Array Camera Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Dey, A.; Dressler, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Marrone, D. P.; Mei, S.; Muzzin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Stern, D.; Vieira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 deg2 of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at (α, δ) = (23:30, -55:00), in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs, one for each of the two warm IRAC selection bands. They contain roughly 5.5 and 3.7 million distinct sources, the vast majority of which are galaxies, down to the SSDF 5σ sensitivity limits of 19.0 and 18.2 Vega mag (7.0 and 9.4 μJy) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively.

  10. The infrared database of extragalactic observables from Spitzer - I. The redshift catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Rupke, David S. N.; Barry, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers on the Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS). In this work, we describe the identification of optical counterparts of the infrared sources detected in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations, and the acquisition and validation of redshifts. The IDEOS sample includes all the spectra from the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) of galaxies beyond the Local Group. Optical counterparts were identified from correlation of the extraction coordinates with the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). To confirm the optical association and validate NED redshifts, we measure redshifts with unprecedented accuracy on the IRS spectra (σ(Δz/(1+z)) ˜ 0.0011) by using an improved version of the maximum combined pseudo-likelihood method (MCPL). We perform a multistage verification of redshifts that considers alternate NED redshifts, the MCPL redshift, and visual inspection of the IRS spectrum. The statistics is as follows: the IDEOS sample contains 3361 galaxies at redshift 0 < z < 6.42 (mean: 0.48, median: 0.14). We confirm the default NED redshift for 2429 sources and identify 124 with incorrect NED redshifts. We obtain IRS-based redshifts for 568 IDEOS sources without optical spectroscopic redshifts, including 228 with no previous redshift measurements. We provide the entire IDEOS redshift catalogue in machine-readable formats. The catalogue condenses our compilation and verification effort, and includes our final evaluation on the most likely redshift for each source, its origin, and reliability estimates.

  11. Joint Spitzer and AGILE observations of the blazar 3C 454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnarumma, Immacolata; D'Ammando, Filippo

    2007-12-01

    We require SPITZER IRAC and MIPS observations for multifrequency follow-up of the blazar 3C 454.3. During the last three days AGILE is revealing a strong activity in the gamma-rays band. Joint Spitzer and AGILE observations offers the unprecedented great opportunity to study the correlated variability in the low and high energy peaks. This will contribute to improve the understanding of the structure of the inner jet, the origin of the seed photons for the IC process and then discriminating the different emission models in the red blazars during their high gamma-rays activity. The AGILE Team is going to activate a similar ToO to Swift, while a monitoring in the optical energy band is occurring thanks to WEBT. Therefore Spitzer observation of this blazar will give a unique and extraordinary opportunity to investigate its electromagnetic emission on a wide energy range in its strong flaring activity and then to determine its Spectral Energy Distribution.

  12. Spitzer IRS Spectra of Debris Disks in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Manoj, P.; Watson, Dan; Lisse, Carey M.; Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc

    2015-08-01

    We analyze spectra obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of 110 B-, A-, F-, and G-type stars with optically thin infrared excess in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The ages of these stars range from 11 to 17 Myr. We fit the infrared excesses observed in these sources by Spitzer IRS and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) to simple dust models according to Mie theory. We find that nearly all of the objects in our study can be fit by one or two belts of dust. Dust around lower mass stars appears to be closer in than around higher mass stars, particularly for the warm dust component in the two-belt systems, suggesting a mass-dependent evolution of debris disks around young stars. For those objects with stellar companions, all dust distances are consistent with truncation of the debris disk by the binary companion. The gaps between several of the two-belt systems can place limits on the planets that might lie between the belts, potentially constraining the mass and locations of planets that may be forming around these stars.

  13. Supersized: A Spitzer Survey of Dusty Disks around B[e] Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel; Buchanan, Catherine; Forrest, Bill; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sargent, Ben

    2006-05-01

    The enigmatic class of B[e] super/hypergiants include among the most luminous individual stars known. These stars are of great interest and importance to the study of massive stars and their environments. Via Cycle 1 Spitzer IRS observations, we discovered that two Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) B[e] hypergiants, R 126 and R 66, display similar, flat IR spectral enegy distributions indicative of the presence of massive, dusty circumstellar disks; R 66 displays, in addition, spectral evidence for crystalline grains and PAHs. This Spitzer/IRS discovery of ``fraternal twin'' disks around R 126 and R 66 has provided new insight into the origin and composition of dusty disks around the most massive stars. We now propose to build on these results via a comprehensive Spitzer IRS and photometric survey of thermal dust emission from a complete sample of all B[e] supergiants and hypergiants in the Magellanic Clouds. The IRS spectra and IRAC/MIPS photometry data will establish the fraction of B[e] supergiants that are encircled by dusty disks and, through modeling, will yield the range of masses, radii, and scale heights that characterize B[e] star dust disks. These results will provide crucial constraints on models of the origin of disks around massive stars , as well as on mechanisms for the production of crystalline silicate grains and for the shaping of supernova remnants.

  14. DISK EVOLUTION IN OB ASSOCIATIONS: DEEP SPITZER/IRAC OBSERVATIONS OF IC 1795

    SciTech Connect

    Roccatagliata, Veronica; Bouwman, Jeroen; Henning, Thomas; Gennaro, Mario; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Feigelson, Eric; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Lawson, Warrick A.

    2011-06-01

    We present a deep Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) survey of the OB association IC 1795 carried out to investigate the evolution of protoplanetary disks in regions of massive star formation. Combining Spitzer/IRAC data with Chandra/Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations, we find 289 cluster members. An additional 340 sources with an infrared excess, but without X-ray counterpart, are classified as cluster member candidates. Both surveys are complete down to stellar masses of about 1 M{sub sun}. We present pre-main-sequence isochrones computed for the first time in the Spitzer/IRAC colors. The age of the cluster, determined via the location of the Class III sources in the [3.6]-[4.5]/[3.6] color-magnitude diagram, is in the range of 3-5 Myr. As theoretically expected, we do not find any systematic variation in the spatial distribution of disks within 0.6 pc of either O-type star in the association. However, the disk fraction in IC 1795 does depend on the stellar mass: sources with masses >2 M{sub sun} have a disk fraction of {approx}20%, while lower mass objects (2-0.8 M{sub sun}) have a disk fraction of {approx}50%. This implies that disks around massive stars have a shorter dissipation timescale.

  15. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic Survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, I.; Scarlata, C.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Capak, P. L.; Mei, S.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Hibon, P.; Sedgwick, C.; Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Salvato, M.; Malkan, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Hayes, M.; Colbert, J.; Papovich, C.; Devlin, M.; Kovacs, A.; Scott, K. S.; Surace, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Atek, H.; Urrutia, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field. The large area covered (7.7 deg2), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area (≈4:1), allowing for significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches depths of 1.93 and 1.75 μJy (1σ) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC-based catalog, completed with optical, mid-, and far-IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with {F}3.6μ {{m}}≥slant 3σ . Of these, 10% have an associated 24 μm counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Two scientific applications of these IRAC data are presented in this paper. First, we compute integral number counts at 3.6 μm. Second, we use the [3.6]-[4.5] color index to identify galaxy clusters at z > 1.3. We select 27 clusters in the full area, a result consistent with previous studies at similar depth.

  16. Hot Science With A "warm" Telescope: Galactic Studies With The Spitzer "warm" Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Carey, S.; Helou, G.; Hurt, R.; Rebull, L.; Soifer, B. T.; Squires, G.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the capabilities for Galactic science in the Spitzer Space Telescope "warm" mission phase. The unique capabilities of IRAC in this mission will allow to: complete the census of the Galactic plane by mapping it over the entire longitude range; measure extinction in conjunction with existing near-infrared surveys such as 2MASS, and at higher spatial resolution than other long wavelength surveys; observe heavily extincted Galactic areas such as bars, interacting dwarf satellites, and spiral arms, with superior penetration than near-infrared data; study larger regions of star formation surrounding massive molecular clouds, such as the outer regions of OB associations and distant GMCs, to augment present studies of clouds within 500 pc; conduct wide angle surveys of cool T and Y dwarfs, and AGB stars in the halo. In spring 2009, the liquid helium cryogen on-board Spitzer will be expended, but the observatory will remain operative with 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging capabilities over two 5 arcmin X 5 arcmin fields-of-view. Sensitivity in these channels will remain unchanged from the cryogenic mission. During the warm mission, Spitzer can operate until early 2014 with extremely high-efficiency, providing up to 35,000 hours of science observing time. This enables several unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental and key scientific questions requiring large allocations of observing time, while maintaining opportunities for broad community use with more traditional time allocations.

  17. Optimal Extraction of High-Resolution Spectra From the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Gregory

    We propose to develop optimal extraction for the high-resolution modules on the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, apply it to the full archive of IRS data, and post the results on a publicly available website. The currently used extraction algorithm sums everything in the slit, both source and backgrond emission. The new scheme will separate the source from its background, making it possible to analyze spectra taken in complex fields and generally improving the signal/noise quality of the data by a factor of nearly two. Most of the currently available high-resolution spectra require further reduction before they can be analyzed. Our improvements to the data will open the science contained in the thousands of high-resolution IRS observations to the full astronomy community. We will test our algorithm on high-resolution IRS spectra of young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which will ensure both an immediate science return, a polished extraction algorithm, and a reliable archive of optimally extracted spectra from all of the high-resolution IRS observations available to the astronomical community. The result will build on the momentum of CASSIS, the Cornell Atlas of of Spitzer/IRS Sources, which curently contains over 12,000 optimally extracted low-resolution spectra from the IRS. It will be a valuable addition to the legacy of the IRS and Spitzer.

  18. WATER IN COMETS 71P/CLARK AND C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) WITH SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S.; Wooden, Diane H. E-mail: chelsea@astro.umn.edu E-mail: d.h.wooden@nasa.gov

    2009-05-10

    We present 5.5-7.6 {mu}m spectra of comets 71P/Clark (2006 May 27.56 UT, r{sub h} = 1.57 AU pre-perihelion) and C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) (2005 October 15.22 UT, r{sub h} = 2.21 AU pre-perihelion and 2006 May 16.22 UT, r{sub h} = 2.06 AU post-perihelion) obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The {nu}{sub 2} vibrational band of water is detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 11-50. Fitting the spectra using a fluorescence model of water emission yields a water rotational temperature of < 18 K for 71P/Clark and {approx_equal}14 {+-} 2 K (pre-perihelion) and 23 {+-} 4 K (post-perihelion) for C/2004 B1 (LINEAR). The water ortho-to-para ratio in C/2004 B1 (LINEAR) is measured to be 2.31 {+-} 0.18, which corresponds to a spin temperature of 26{sup +3} {sub -2} K. Water production rates are derived. The agreement between the water model and the measurements is good, as previously found for Spitzer spectra of C/2003 K4 (LINEAR). The Spitzer spectra of these three comets do not show any evidence for emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonate minerals, in contrast to results reported for comets 9P/Tempel 1 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)

  19. The Atmosphere of WASP-14b Revealed by Three Spitzer Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, J.; Stevenson, K. B.; Madhusudhan, N.; Hardy, R. A.; Campo, C. J.; Bowman, W. C.; Nymeyer, S.; Cubbillos, P.; WASP Consortium

    2010-10-01

    WASP-14b is a hot Jupiter planet (Y. C. Joshy et al. 2009, MNRAS 392, 1532-1538) with mass (7.3 Jupiter masses) and density (4.6 g/cm3) that exceed those of most known extrasolar planets. It is very close to its host star (semimajor axis = 0.036 AU), giving it a typical equilibrium temperature of 1800 K for 0 albedo, circular orbit, and uniform reemission. In addition, its significant orbital eccentricity (0.09) suggests the possibility of a companion planet. All of the above makes this object very interesting for atmospheric study. Spitzer program 60021 (H. Knutson, PI) obtained a secondary eclipse light curve at 3.6 microns on 2010-03-19 and the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program (program 50517, J. Harrington, PI) obtained eclipse data at 4.5 and 8.0 microns on 2009-03-18. Analytic light curve models fit the data using a Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that incorporates corrections for systematic effects. We present estimates of infrared brightness temperatures and constraints on atmospheric composition and thermal structure. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  20. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create a catalog of NEO diameters and albedos that can be used for a wide range of science goals. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We include in our target list only objects that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs (including results from our previous Spitzer program, ExploreNEOs, as well as objects observed by NEOWISE). We will present the status of the program and results to date, some nine months into the execution of the program. All observational and model results are published immediately online at nearearthobjects.nau.edu . Support for this work is provided by the Spitzer Science Center.

  1. SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS PROBED BY ANNEALING EXPERIMENTS REFLECTING SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Gillot, Jessy; Leroux, Hugues; Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Pyroxenes and olivines are the dominant crystalline silicates observed in protoplanetary disks. Recent spectral observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the abundance of olivine, generally associated with silica polymorphs, relative to pyroxene is higher in the outer cold part of the disk than in the inner warmer part. The interpretation of these unexpected results requires a comprehensive knowledge of the thermal processing of Mg-rich silicate dust. In this respect, amorphous analogs were thermally annealed to identify microscopic crystallization mechanisms. We show that pyroxenes are not produced in significant proportions below the glass transition temperature of the amorphous precursor. The annealing of amorphous enstatite leads to a mineralogical assemblage dominated by forsterite, with only minute amounts of pyroxenes at temperatures as high as the glass transition temperature of enstatite (1050 K). The decoupling of cation mobility in amorphous silicates, favors the crystallization of the most Mg-enriched silicates. These results are consistent with Spitzer observations of silicate dust and also with the documented mineralogy of presolar silicates, making the low-temperature annealing a likely formation process for these objects. Based on these laboratory experiments and Spitzer observations, it appears that the reported zoned mineralogy may directly records and calibrates the thermal gradient at the scale of protoplanetary disks.

  2. Surface Temperature of Protoplanetary Disks Probed by Annealing Experiments Reflecting Spitzer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Gillot, Jessy; Capet, Frédéric; Roussel, Pascal; Leroux, Hugues

    2009-12-01

    Pyroxenes and olivines are the dominant crystalline silicates observed in protoplanetary disks. Recent spectral observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the abundance of olivine, generally associated with silica polymorphs, relative to pyroxene is higher in the outer cold part of the disk than in the inner warmer part. The interpretation of these unexpected results requires a comprehensive knowledge of the thermal processing of Mg-rich silicate dust. In this respect, amorphous analogs were thermally annealed to identify microscopic crystallization mechanisms. We show that pyroxenes are not produced in significant proportions below the glass transition temperature of the amorphous precursor. The annealing of amorphous enstatite leads to a mineralogical assemblage dominated by forsterite, with only minute amounts of pyroxenes at temperatures as high as the glass transition temperature of enstatite (1050 K). The decoupling of cation mobility in amorphous silicates, favors the crystallization of the most Mg-enriched silicates. These results are consistent with Spitzer observations of silicate dust and also with the documented mineralogy of presolar silicates, making the low-temperature annealing a likely formation process for these objects. Based on these laboratory experiments and Spitzer observations, it appears that the reported zoned mineralogy may directly records and calibrates the thermal gradient at the scale of protoplanetary disks.

  3. MEASURING ORGANIC MOLECULAR EMISSION IN DISKS WITH LOW-RESOLUTION SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Teske, Johanna K.; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel; Henning, Thomas E-mail: najita@noao.edu E-mail: pascucci@stsci.edu E-mail: henning@mpia.de

    2011-06-10

    We explore the extent to which Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra taken at low spectral resolution can be used in quantitative studies of organic molecular emission from disks surrounding low-mass young stars. We use Spitzer IRS spectra taken in both the high- and low-resolution modules for the same sources to investigate whether it is possible to define line indices that can measure trends in the strength of the molecular features in low-resolution data. We find that trends in the HCN emission strength seen in the high-resolution data can be recovered in low-resolution data. In examining the factors that influence the HCN emission strength, we find that the low-resolution HCN flux is modestly correlated with stellar accretion rate and X-ray luminosity. Correlations of this kind are perhaps expected based on recent observational and theoretical studies of inner disk atmospheres. Our results demonstrate the potential of using the large number of low-resolution disk spectra that reside in the Spitzer archive to study the factors that influence the strength of molecular emission from disks. Such studies would complement results for the much smaller number of circumstellar disks that have been observed at high resolution with IRS.

  4. Statistics Of 24 Micron Field Asteroids In Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Science Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Hines, D. C.; Padgett, D. L.; Brooke, T. Y.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Shupe, D.; Rebull, L.; Spiesman, W.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Evans, N. J., II; Lonsdale, C. J.

    2006-09-01

    We report on field asteroids detected in MIPS 24 micron scan maps of 50 square degrees from three separate surveys near the ecliptic plane. The data were acquired in two observation epochs separated by 3-6 hours, and reach a 5-sigma sensitivity near 1 mJy - sufficient to detect main-belt objects with diameters below 1 km. We find a source density of about 250 and 50 asteroids per square degree at ecliptic latitudes of 0 and 10 degrees, respectively. The cumulative brightness distribution follows a -1.2 power law in flux density. We relate this to the intrinsic asteroid size distribution using a Monte Carlo model of the main belt population and the standard thermal model to predict the observed flux density distribution. An intrinsic size distribution with power-law slope of -2.3 with radius produces an observed brightness distribution that matches the Spitzer results. This result is in good agreement with previous determinations from the Sloan survey for objects in this size range. Ongoing work with these data will allow us to characterize the source counts and size distributions in a third field at 18 degrees ecliptic latitude, and to search for radial differences within the main belt. Support for this work was provided by NASA to the Spitzer GO-1 Taurus survey project (PID 3584), and the c2d and SWIRE Legacy Science projects. The Spitzer Space Telescope is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  5. Results of the 2015 Spitzer Exoplanet Data Challenge: Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Carey, Sean J.; Stauffer, John R.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Lowrance, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. At infrared wavelengths secondary eclipses and phase curves are powerful tools for studying a planet’s atmosphere. Extracting information about atmospheres, however, is extremely challenging due to the small differential signals, which are often at the level of 100 parts per million (ppm) or smaller, and require the removal of significant instrumental systematics. For the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5μm InSb detectors that remain active on post-cryogenic Spitzer, the interplay of residual telescope pointing fluctuations with intrapixel gain variations in the moderately under sampled camera is the largest source of time-correlated noise. Over the past decade, a suite of techniques for removing this noise from IRAC data has been developed independently by various investigators. In summer 2015, the Spitzer Science Center hosted a Data Challenge in which seven exoplanet expert teams, each using a different noise-removal method, were invited to analyze 10 eclipse measurements of the hot Jupiter XO-3 b, as well as a complementary set of 10 simulated measurements. In this contribution we review the results of the Challenge. We describe statistical tools to assess the repeatability, reliability, and validity of data reduction techniques, and to compare and (perhaps) choose between techniques.

  6. THE XMM-NEWTON WIDE-FIELD SURVEY IN THE COSMOS FIELD (XMM-COSMOS): DEMOGRAPHY AND MULTIWAVELENGTH PROPERTIES OF OBSCURED AND UNOBSCURED LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Hasinger, G.; Fiore, F.; Mainieri, V.; Capak, P.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.

    2010-06-10

    We report the final optical identifications of the medium-depth ({approx}60 ks), contiguous (2 deg{sup 2}) XMM-Newton survey of the COSMOS field. XMM-Newton has detected {approx}1800 X-ray sources down to limiting fluxes of {approx}5 x 10{sup -16}, {approx}3 x 10{sup -15}, and {approx}7 x 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, and 5-10 keV bands, respectively ({approx}1 x 10{sup -15}, {approx}6 x 10{sup -15}, and {approx}1 x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, in the three bands, respectively, over 50% of the area). The work is complemented by an extensive collection of multiwavelength data from 24 {mu}m to UV, available from the COSMOS survey, for each of the X-ray sources, including spectroscopic redshifts for {approx}>50% of the sample, and high-quality photometric redshifts for the rest. The XMM and multiwavelength flux limits are well matched: 1760 (98%) of the X-ray sources have optical counterparts, 1711 ({approx}95%) have IRAC counterparts, and 1394 ({approx}78%) have MIPS 24 {mu}m detections. Thanks to the redshift completeness (almost 100%) we were able to constrain the high-luminosity tail of the X-ray luminosity function confirming that the peak of the number density of log L{sub X} > 44.5 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at z {approx} 2. Spectroscopically identified obscured and unobscured AGNs, as well as normal and star-forming galaxies, present well-defined optical and infrared properties. We devised a robust method to identify a sample of {approx}150 high-redshift (z > 1), obscured AGN candidates for which optical spectroscopy is not available. We were able to determine that the fraction of the obscured AGN population at the highest (L{sub X} > 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) X-ray luminosity is {approx}15%-30% when selection effects are taken into account, providing an important observational constraint for X-ray background synthesis. We studied in detail the optical spectrum and the overall spectral energy distribution of a

  7. Thinking Problems of the Present Collision Warning Work by Analyzing the Intersection Between Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. L.; Liu, W.; Yan, R. D.; Gong, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    After Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 collision breakup event, the institutions at home and abroad began the collision warning analysis for the event. This paper compared the results from the different research units and discussed the problems of the current collision warning work, then gave the suggestions of further study.

  8. Field-scale moisture estimates using COSMOS sensors: a validation study with temporary networks and leaf-area-indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is a new and innovative method for estimating surface and near surface soil moisture at large (~700 m) scales. This system accounts for liquid water within its measurement volume. Many of the sites used in the early validation of the system had...

  9. Effect of HF Emission of the topside sounder transmitter aboard the COSMOS-1809 satellite on the ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranets, N. V.; Gladyshev, V. A.; Afonin, V. V.

    The experiment on investigation of effect of the HF emission (300 W) by the dipole antenna on the ionospheric plasma was carried out onboard the COSMOS-1809 satellite (1987). The sounder accelerated particles (SAP) at the electron cyclotron harmonics n x omegace and in the frequency region of antenna resonance were detected by the charged particle spectrometer.

  10. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and electrolyte metabolism in rat blood after flight aboard Cosmos-1129 biosatellite

    SciTech Connect

    Kvetnansky, R.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Jindra, A.; Viting, T.A.

    1982-08-01

    Blood plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity were studied in rats flow in space on the Cosmos 1129 satellite using radioimmunoassay techniques. Immediately after the flight, the animals presented significant decreases in plasma renin activity, as compared to rats in the vivarium control and animals in the synchronous experiment. R. J.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS) (Ardila+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, D. R.; van Dyk, S. D.; Makowiecki, W.; Stauffer, J.; Song, I.; Rho, J.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-11-01

    From IRS Staring observations in the Spitzer archive we selected those stellar targets that had been observed with all the low-resolution IRS modules. We did not include known young stars with circumstellar material, stars known to harbor debris disks, or objects classified in SIMBAD as RS CVn, Be stars, or eclipsing binaries. We have also avoided classes already fully described with IRAS, ISO, or Spitzer, such as Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and rejected targets presenting IR excesses. However, note that in the case of very massive and/or evolved stars there are few objects presenting a pure photospheric spectrum. A few stars are specifically selected for their intrinsic interest regardless of their IR excess and even if the Atlas already contained another star with the same spectral type. The spectral coverage only reaches to 14um in the case of very late spectral classes (late M, L and T dwarfs) and some WR stars for which the long wavelength modules are unusable or not present in the archive. The spectral types have been taken from (in order of priority): * NStED (http://nsted.ipac.caltech.edu/), * NStars (http://nstars.nau.edu/nau_nstars/about.htm), * the Tycho-2 Spectral Type Catalog (Cat. III/231) * SIMBAD. For certain types of objects, we have used specialized catalogs as the source of the spectral types. The data were processed with the Spitzer Science Center S18.7.0 pipelined and corrected for teardrop effects, slit position uncertainties, residual flat-field errors, residual model errors, 24um flux deficit (1), fringing, and order mismatches. The Atlas files contain an error value for each wavelength, intended to represent the random 1sig error at that wavelength. This is the error provided by the SSC's S18.7.0 pipeline and propagated along the reduction procedure. The treatment of errors remains incomplete in this pipeline (2). The errors provided here should be considered carefully, before propagating them into further calculations. However, the

  12. Spitzer Follow-up of HST Observations of Star Formation in H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Jeff; Bally, John; Desch, Steve; Healy, Kevin; Snider, Keely

    2005-06-01

    Images of regions of star formation taken with HST have given us an extraordinary view of young stellar objects and their natal environments. These views differ tremendously between low-mass YSOs seen in regions of isolated low-mass star formation such as Taurus-Auriga, and the proplyds, EGGs, and other structures seen in regions of massive star formation. While YSOs in Taurus spend their adolescence buried in the dark interiors of molecular clouds, YSOs near massive stars quickly find themselves overrun by ionization fronts and exposed to the intense UV radiation from nearby massive stars. This difference in environment has a profound effect on the way in which the protoplanetary disk around a star evolves -- a fact that is of great importance to us, given the strength of the evidence suggesting that the Sun formed near a massive star. But HST while HST can inform us about the evolution of YSOs in HII region environments once they are overrun by ionization fronts, it cannot show us the birth of the stars themselves. These remain hidden in the dense molecular material beyond the ionized volumes of these regions. Only Spitzer can show us the properties of the YSOs that lie hidden in the dark shadows of HST images of HII regions, and only Spitzer can provide us with information about PDRs, warm dust, and other tracers of the interaction of massive stars with their surroundings. The combination of HST and Spitzer observations of star forming regions is far greater than the sum of its parts. If we are to build a complete picture of low-mass star formation and the evolution of disks near massive stars, we need to combine HST and Spitzer observations of the same regions. In this proposal we request time to obtain both IRAC and MIPS 24 micron images of each HII region that has been observed by HST, but has yet to be observed with Spitzer. Together with previous images obtained from the archives, this will comprise an indispensible data set for testing hypotheses about

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS Multi-Wavelength Photometry Catalog (Capak+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Aussel, H.; Ajiki, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Tribiano, S.; Sasaki, S.; Blain, A. W.; Brusa, M.; Carilli, C.; Comastri, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Colbert, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Komiyama, Y.; Leauthaud, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C.; Massey, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Pickles, A.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scarlata, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Taylor, J. E.; Yan, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-03-01

    The present COSMOS data were collected on a variety of telescopes and instruments, as well as from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) second data release (DR2) archive (u, g, r, i, z) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST, F814W). This paper covers the processing of the data obtained with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.3m telescope (Bj, Vj, g+, r+, i+, z+, NB816), Megaprime on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT, u*, i*), FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO, Ks) 4m telescope, and the Infrared Side Port Imager on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Ks) 4m telescope during the 2004-2005 observing season. The COSMOS I band catalog is an I band selected multi-color catalog for 2 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21. The total magnitude (SExtractor mag_auto) for a source must have an AB magnitude of less than i+<25 to appear in the archival catalog. All photometry is in the AB magnitude system and measured in a 3 arc second aperture on PSF-matched images unless otherwise noted. A magnitude of -99 indicates a photometric measurement was not possible due to lack of data, a large number of bad pixels, or saturation. A magnitude of 99.0 indicates no detection. In the case of no detection the error given for the object is the 1 sigma limiting magnitude at the position of the souce. The photometry is as measured on the images with no corrections applied. We recommend applying the magnitude offsets in the paper to obtain the best possible photometry. More details on the photometry are available in the paper. The Photometric Redshifts included in this catalog are described in Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M) and have an accuracy of dz/(1+z)<0.031 at z<1.2 and I<24. It is important to pay attention to the flag columns at the end of the catalog. The cleanest catalog will have all flags set to 0. The photometry flags indicate the area of the photometry aperture, in square arc seconds, which is in a masked

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS Multi-Wavelength Photometry Catalog (Capak+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Aussel, H.; Ajiki, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Tribiano, S.; Sasaki, S.; Blain, A. W.; Brusa, M.; Carilli, C.; Comastri, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Colbert, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Komiyama, Y.; Leauthaud, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C.; Massey, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Pickles, A.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scarlata, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Taylor, J. E.; Yan, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-03-01

    The present COSMOS data were collected on a variety of telescopes and instruments, as well as from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) second data release (DR2) archive (u, g, r, i, z) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST, F814W). This paper covers the processing of the data obtained with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.3m telescope (Bj, Vj, g+, r+, i+, z+, NB816), Megaprime on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT, u*, i*), FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO, Ks) 4m telescope, and the Infrared Side Port Imager on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Ks) 4m telescope during the 2004-2005 observing season. The COSMOS I band catalog is an I band selected multi-color catalog for 2 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21. The total magnitude (SExtractor mag_auto) for a source must have an AB magnitude of less than i+<25 to appear in the archival catalog. All photometry is in the AB magnitude system and measured in a 3" aperture on PSF-matched images unless otherwise noted. A magnitude of -99 indicates a photometric measurement was not possible due to lack of data, a large number of bad pixels, or saturation. A magnitude of 99.0 indicates no detection. In the case of no detection the error given for the object is the 1 sigma limiting magnitude at the position of the source. The photometry is as measured on the images with no corrections applied. We recommend applying the magnitude offsets in the paper to obtain the best possible photometry. More details on the photometry are available in the paper. The Photometric Redshifts included in this catalog are described in Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M) and have an accuracy of dz/(1+z)<0.031 at z<1.2 and I<24. It is important to pay attention to the flag columns at the end of the catalog. The cleanest catalog will have all flags set to 0. The photometry flags indicate the area of the photometry aperture, in square arc seconds, which is in a masked region. A

  15. Inquiry-based Science Activities Using The Infrared Zoo and Infrared Yellowstone Resources at Cool Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.; Gauthier, A.

    2003-12-01

    Inquiry-based activities that utilize the Cool Cosmos image galleries have been designed and developed by K12 teachers enrolled in The Invisible Universe Online for Teachers course. The exploration activities integrate the Our Infrared World Gallery (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/image_galleries/our_ir_world_gallery.html) with either the Infrared Zoo gallery (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/image_galleries/ir_zoo/index.html) or the Infrared Yellowstone image http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/image_galleries/ir_yellowstone/index.html) and video (http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/videos/ir_yellowstone/index.html) galleries. Complete instructor guides have been developed for the activities and will be presented by the authors in poster and CD form. Although the activities are written for middle and highschool learners, they can easily be adapted for college audiences. The Our Infrared World Gallery exploration helps learners think critically about visible light and infrared light as they compare sets of images (IR and visible light) of known objects. For example: by taking a regular photograph of a running faucet, can you tell if it is running hot or cold water? What new information does the IR image give you? The Infrared Zoo activities encourage learners to investigate the differences between warm and cold blooded animals by comparing sets of IR and visible images. In one activity, learners take on the role of a pit viper seeking prey in various desert and woodland settings. The main activities are extended into the real world by discussing and researching industrial, medical, and societal applications of infrared technologies. The Infrared Yellowstone lessons give learners a unique perspective on Yellowstone National Park and it's spectacular geologic and geothermal features. Infrared video technology is highlighted as learners make detailed observations about the visible and infrared views of the natural phenomena. The "Cool Cosmos" EPO activities are

  16. Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrabback, T.; Hartlap, J.; Joachimi, B.; Kilbinger, M.; Simon, P.; Benabed, K.; Bradač, M.; Eifler, T.; Erben, T.; Fassnacht, C. D.; High, F. William; Hilbert, S.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Kuijken, K.; Marshall, P. J.; Mellier, Y.; Morganson, E.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally varying ACS point-spread function, and improved modelling of charge-transfer inefficiency, we measured a lensing signal that is consistent with pure gravitational modes and no significant shape systematics. We carefully estimated the statistical uncertainty from simulated COSMOS-like fields obtained from ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation, including the full non-Gaussian sampling variance. We tested our lensing pipeline on simulated space-based data, recalibrated non-linear power spectrum corrections using the ray-tracing analysis, employed photometric redshift information to reduce potential contamination by intrinsic galaxy alignments, and marginalized over systematic uncertainties. We find that the weak lensing signal scales with redshift as expected from general relativity for a concordance ΛCDM cosmology, including the full cross-correlations between different redshift bins. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology, we measure σ_8(Ω_m/0.3)0.51 = 0.75±0.08 from lensing, in perfect agreement with WMAP-5, yielding joint constraints Ω_m = 0.266+0.025-0.023, σ_8 = 0.802+0.028-0.029 (all 68.3% conf.). Dropping the assumption of flatness and using priors from the HST Key Project and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis only, we find a negative deceleration parameter q0 at 94.3% confidence from the tomographic lensing analysis, providing independent evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. For a flat wCDM cosmology and prior w ∈ [-2,0], we obtain w <-0.41 (90% conf.). Our dark energy

  17. Can a COSMOS probe measure other environmental variables other than water content in the soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, R.; Zreda, M. G.; Zweck, C.; Franz, T. E.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zeng, X.; Desilets, D.; Ferre, P. A.; Stillman, S.; Cosmos Team

    2011-12-01

    Water present in the soils plays a key role in weather and climate prediction via its direct contribution to the partitioning of precipitation to infiltration or runoff as well as the partitioning of net radiative flux into sensible, latent, and ground heat fluxes at the surface. In addition, biogeochemical cycles are also affected by soil moisture conditions since vegetation depends on the water and nutrients available in the soil. Although recognized as a major component in weather and climate, measurements of soil water content need yet to be improved, especially at intermediate horizontal scales (i.e., on the order of 1 km), due to its large spatial heterogeneity. Satellite remote sensing provides measurements at larger spatial scales but with low temporal resolution. More localized sensors such as TDR probes have higher temporal resolution but their installation are destructive, and their support volume is too small, which makes the methodology extremely costly and practically unfeasible to be implemented at intermediate scales discussed here. However, newly developed cosmic-ray sensors can measure hourly integrated volumetric water content within a radius of 300-400 m. These sensors are being deployed in the USA as part of the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS). The neutron intensity (i.e., counts per time period) captured by these sensors is inversely related to the amount of hydrogen in the soil (a result that was usually classified as "noise" by nuclear physicists in the mid-1900's). These responses to soil moisture are simulated using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX) usually assuming no vegetation cover and dry atmosphere. Given the broad range of vegetation cover types and climatic regions these probes are being deployed, we perform sensitivity analyses using MCNPX to determine whether signals can be detected for variations of water vapor content in the atmosphere as well as the presence of trees within the footprint of the

  18. Accreting supermassive black holes in the COSMOS field and the connection to their host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Magnelli, B.; Salvato, M.; Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Fiore, F.; Rosario, D.; Mainieri, V.; Hao, H.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Berta, S.; Civano, F.; Kampczyk, P.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lusso, E.; Lutz, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Shankar, F.; Silverman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Using the wide multiband photometry available in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, we explore the host galaxy properties of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs; ˜1700 objects) with Lbol ranging from 1043 to 1047 erg s-1, obtained by combining X-ray and optical spectroscopic selections. Based on a careful study of their spectral energy distributions, which have been parametrized using a two-component (AGN+galaxy) model fit, we have derived dust-corrected rest-frame magnitudes, colours and stellar masses of the obscured and unobscured AGN hosts up to high redshift (z≲3). Moreover, for the sample of obscured AGNs, we have also derived reliable star formation rates (SFRs). We find that AGN hosts span a large range of stellar masses and SFRs. No colour-bimodality is seen at any redshift in the AGN hosts, which are found to be mainly massive, red galaxies. Once we have accounted for the colour-mass degeneracy in well-defined mass-matched samples, we find a residual (marginal) enhancement of the incidence of AGNs in redder galaxies with lower specific SFRs. We argue that this result might emerge because of our ability to properly account for AGN light contamination and dust extinction, compared to surveys with a more limited multiwavelength coverage. However, because these colour shifts are relatively small, systematic effects could still be considered responsible for some of the observed trends. Interestingly, we find that the probability for a galaxy to host a black hole that is growing at any given 'specific accretion rate' (i.e. the ratio of X-ray luminosity to the host stellar mass) is almost independent of the host galaxy mass, while it decreases as a power law with LX/M*. By analysing the normalization of such a probability distribution, we show how the incidence of AGNs increases with redshift as rapidly as (1 + z)4, which closely resembles the overall evolution of the specific SFR of the entire galaxy population. We provide analytical

  19. Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Oliver H.; Krasnov, Igor; Kakueva, E. Ilyina; Nemeth, Patti M.; Mcdougal, David B., Jr.; Choksi, Rati; Carter, Joyce G.; Chi, Maggie M. Y.; Manchester, Jill K.; Pusateri, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns are assessed within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior). Studies were made on 95 soleus fibers and about 300 tibialis anterior (TA) fibers. Over 2200 individual enzyme measurements were made. Six key metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinease, citrate kinase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate, and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight, and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution of each enzyme and amine acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  20. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  1. DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, T.F.; Inan, U.S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Sobolev, Ya.P.; Chmyrev, V.M.; Gonzalez, S.

    1994-04-15

    Past work demonstrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength {lambda}. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which {lambda} {le} 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of {approximately} 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H{sup +} ions with energy {le} 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  2. A comparative study of seminiferous tubular epithelium from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and SL3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, Walter J.; Williams, Carol S.; Kato, K.; Philpott, Delbert E.; Stevenson, J.; Serova, L. V.

    1989-01-01

    Space flight, with its unique environmental constraints such as immobilization, decreased and increased pressures, and radiation, is known to affect testicular morphology and spermatogenesis. Among the several biological experiments and animals on board COSMOS 1887 Biosputnik flight were 10 rats, from which were collected testicular tissue. Average weights of flight tests were 6.4 pct. below that of the vivarium control when normalized for weight loss/100 grams body weight. Counts of surviving spermatogonia per tubule cross section indicated an average of 39 spermatogonia for flight animals, 40 for synchronous controls and 44 for the vivarium controls. Serum testosterone was significantly decreased when compared to basal controls but the decrease was not significant when compared in vivarium and synchronous control groups. The significant decrease in spermatogonia and the decrease in serum testosterone are similar to that in animals flown on Space Lab 3 (Challenger Shuttle).

  3. DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 observations of lower hybrid waves excited by VLF whistler mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F; Inan, U. S.; Lauben, D.; Sonwalkar, V. S.; Helliwell, R. A.; Sobolev, Ya. P.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Gonzalez, S.

    1994-01-01

    Past work demostrates that strong lower hybrid (LH) waves can be excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves throughout large regions of the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere. The effects of the excited LH waves upon the suprathermal ion population in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere depend upon the distribution of LH wave amplitude with wavelength lambda. The present work reports plasma wave data from the DE-1 and COSMOS 1809 spacecraft which suggests that the excited LH wave spectrum has components for which lambda less than or equal to 3.5 m when excitation occurs at a frequency roughly equal to the local lower hybrid resonance frequency. This wavelength limit is a factor of approximately 3 below that reported in past work and suggests that the excited LH waves can interact with suprathermal H(+) ions with energy less than or equal to 6 eV. This finding supports recent work concerning the heating of suprathermal ions above thunderstorm cells.

  4. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Parnell, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day-1 have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) of U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. manufacture. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  5. A Ly{alpha} GALAXY AT REDSHIFT z = 6.944 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Hibon, Pascale; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cooper, Michael; Weiner, Benjamin E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu

    2012-06-20

    Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies can be used to study cosmological reionization, because a neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) scatters Ly{alpha} photons into diffuse halos whose surface brightness falls below typical survey detection limits. Here, we present the Ly{alpha} emitting galaxy LAE J095950.99+021219.1, identified at redshift z = 6.944 in the COSMOS field using narrowband imaging and follow-up spectroscopy with the IMACS instrument on the Magellan I Baade telescope. With a single object spectroscopically confirmed so far, our survey remains consistent with a wide range of IGM neutral fraction at z Almost-Equal-To 7, but further observations are planned and will help clarify the situation. Meantime, the object we present here is only the third Ly{alpha}-selected galaxy to be spectroscopically confirmed at z {approx}> 7, and is {approx}2-3 times fainter than the previously confirmed z Almost-Equal-To 7 Ly{alpha} galaxies.

  6. Alterations in erythrocyte survival parameters in rats after 19.5 days aboard Cosmos 782

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Cummins, J.; Landaw, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were subjected to 19.5 days of weightless space flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite, Cosmos 782. Based on the output of CO-14, survival parameters of a cohort of erythrocytes labeled 15.5 days preflight were evaluated upon return from orbit. These were compared to vivarium control rats injected at the same time. Statistical evaluation indicates that all survival factors were altered by the space flight. The mean potential lifespan, which was 63.0 days in the control rats, was decreased to 59.0 days in the flight rats, and random hemolysis was increased three-fold in the flight rats. The measured size of the cohort was decreased, lending further support to the idea that hemolysis was accelerated during some portion of the flight. A number of factors that might be contributory to these changes are discussed, including forces associated with launch and reentry, atmospheric and environmental parameters, dietary factors, radiation, and weightlessness.

  7. Cosmic ray effects on the eyes of rats flown on Cosmos no. 782, Experiment K-007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R.; Turnbill, C.; Harrison, G.; Leaffer, D.; Black, S.; Sapp, W.; Klein, G.; Savik, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if, and to what extent, pathological damage results from high-energy particles (HZE) transversing the eye. Light flashes experienced by space travellers indicate that HZE do indeed pass through and activate the retina, but whether actual biological damage occurs has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, autopsies were performed on the eyes of rats which has been flown in Cosmos 782 satellite for 19.5 days. Comparisons with a control sample subjected to 1000 rads of Ar and Ne radiation show that pathological damage, when it occurs, affects the nucleus of the retina; simple light flashes are not thought to indicate a pathology, and result from activation of (but not damage to) the retina's outer segments.

  8. Retinal changes in rats flown on Cosmos 936 - A cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.; Dayhoff, D.; Mcgourty, J.; Lee, R.; Harrison, G.; Savik, L.

    1980-01-01

    Ten rats, five centrifuged during flight to simulate gravity and five stationary in flight and experiencing hypogravity, orbited the Earth. No differences were noted between flight-stationary and flight-centrifuged animals, but changes were seen between these two groups and ground controls. Morphological alterations were observed comparable to those in the experiment flown on Cosmos 782 and to the retinal cells exposed to high-energy particles at Berkeley. Affected cells in the outer nuclear layer showed swelling, clearing of cytoplasm, and disruption of the membranes. Tissue channels were again found, similar to those seen on 782. After space flight, preliminary data indicated an increase in cell size in montages of the nuclear layer of both groups of flight animals. This experiment shows that weightlessness and environmental conditions other than cosmic radiation do not contribute to the observed damage of retinal cells.

  9. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  10. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  11. The UCI COSMOS Astronomy and Astrophysics Cluster: A Summer Program for Talented High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    COSMOS is a month-long, summer residential program in science and engineering for high school students held each year at four University of California (UC) campuses. Its goals are to expand the scientific horizons of our most talented students by exposing them to exciting fields of research and encouraging them to pursue STEM careers. Students live on campus and choose to study one of seven or eight different subject areas called “clusters.” We run the extremely successful Astronomy & Astrophysics Cluster at UC Irvine (UCI). Over four weeks, students take lecture courses in astrophysics, perform computer lab experiments, and complete a research project conducted in a small group under the supervision of a faculty member or teaching assistant (TA). Here we discuss our curriculum, lessons learned, and quantify student outcomes. We find that putting on a summer program for high school students is highly rewarding for the students as well as the faculty and graduate students.

  12. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-07

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  13. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLA-COSMOS survey. IV. (Schinnerer+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Bondi, M.; Smolcic, V.; Datta, A.; Carilli, C. L.; Bertoldi, F.; Blain, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Koekemoer, A.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2010-07-01

    The central seven pointings of the mosaic for the VLA-COSMOS Large project (pointing numbers: F07, F08, F11, F12, F13, F16, F17) were observed using the VLA A configuration in 2006 February and March. The observations were executed on 11 days. ------------------------------------ Pointing RA (J2000) DE (J2000) ------------------------------------ F07 10 00 58.62 +02 25 20.42 F08 09 59 58.58 +02 25 20.42 F11 10 01 28.64 +02 12 21.00 F12 10 00 28.60 +02 12 21.00 F13 09 59 28.56 +02 12 21.00 F16 10 00 58.62 +01 59 21.58 F17 09 59 58.58 +01 59 21.58 ------------------------------------ (1 data file).

  15. Process development of beam-lead silicon-gate COS/MOS integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baptiste, B.; Boesenberg, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two processes for the fabrication of beam-leaded COS/MOS integrated circuits are described. The first process utilizes a composite gate dielectric of 800 A of silicon dioxide and 450 A of pyrolytically deposited A12O3 as an impurity barrier. The second process utilizes polysilicon gate metallization over which a sealing layer of 1000 A of pyrolytic Si3N4 is deposited. Three beam-lead integrated circuits have been implemented with the first process: (1) CD4000BL - three-input NOR gate; (2) CD4007BL - triple inverter; and (3) CD4013BL - dual D flip flop. An arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) integrated circuit was designed and implemented with the second process. The ALU chip allows addition with four bit accuracy. Processing details, device design and device characterization, circuit performance and life data are presented.

  16. Simulating the Cosmos: The Fraction of Merging Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampczyk, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Scarlata, C.; Feldmann, R.; Koekemoer, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Sargent, M. T.; Taniguchi, Y.; Capak, P.

    2007-09-01

    Simulations of nearby (0.015COSMOS ACS images if they had been observed at z~0.7 and ~1.2. These simulations include surface brightness dimming, the effects of bandpass shifting, the changing spatial resolution, and the increased noise. By adding the SDSS galaxies to random locations in the COSMOS images, we also simulate the effects of chance superpositions of high-redshift galaxies with unrelated foreground or background objects. We have used these simulated images, together with those of real COSMOS galaxies at these same redshifts, to undertake a ``blind'' morphological classification of galaxies to identify those that appear to be undergoing mergers and thus to estimate the change in merger fraction with redshift. We find that real mergers are harder to recognize at high redshift, and also that the chance superposition of unrelated galaxies often produces the appearance of mergers where in reality none exist. In particular, we estimate that 1.5%-2.0% of objects randomly added to ACS images are misclassified as mergers due to projection with unrelated objects and, as a result, that 40% of the apparent mergers in COSMOS at z=0.7 are likely to be spurious. Correcting for these two competing effects, we find that the fraction of galaxies undergoing mergers increases as (1+z)3.8+/-1.2 to z~0.7 and that this trend appears to continue to z=1.2. Merger candidates at z~0.7 are bluer than the parent population, especially when the statistical effects of the chance projections are accounted for. The automated nonparametric measures of morphology from the 2007 work of Scarlata et al. show that the underlying galaxies of our merger candidates are more asymmetric than the population as a whole, and are often associated with irregular morphology. Nevertheless, the majority (~60%) of the merger candidates appear to be associated with spiral galaxies, although

  17. Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

    The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

  18. Cardiovascular results from a rhesus monkey flown aboard the Cosmos 1514 spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Hines, J.; Benjamin, B. A.; Halpryn, B. M.; Krotov, V. P.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Cosmos 1514 cardiovascular experiment, in which the blood flow to the head and the carotid pressure of a rhesus monkey were measured during the 5-d spaceflight, are reported. A single cylindrical probe containing both pressure and flow transducers was chronically implanted as a cuff around the left common carotid artery; measurements were obtained for 4 min every 2 h and compared to identical recordings obtained during a preflight control period and during 12 h on a launch pad. Immediately on its insertion into orbit, mean arterial pressure increased by 10 percent and has maintained a 16-27 percent increase over the first few hours of flight before returning to baseline level. Blood flow showed reciprocal changes to pressure on orbital insertion. Cardiovascular system changes persisted into the second day of flight, with the signs of adaptation appearing on days 3-5.

  19. Study of basic electrostatic radiation shield characteristics on board the Cosmos 605 satellite.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E; Riabova, T Y

    1976-01-01

    Direct measurement of conduction currents in the electrostatic radiation shield model carried out on board the Cosmos 605 satellite yielded additional information on the dose, weight and size characteristics and helped to evaluate the power requirements for a real electrostatic radiation shield. It was found that the electrostatic shield power requirements (at an electric field strength of 10(7)V m-1 and total shielded surface of 10(2) m2) did not exceed 10 watts, i.e. it was at least one order of magnitude lower than had been assumed from data obtained in ground-based studies. These results show the feasibility of protective electric fields of the required strength, with the space vacuum around the vehicle being used as an insulating medium. PMID:12678110

  20. Lemaître's Prescience: The Beginning and End of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    Lemaître anticipated what are now assumed to be the most plausible models for both the beginning and the end of cosmos. He was also prescient in forging a link between microphysics and macrophysics, a process which is only culminating today, and his solutions with a cosmological constant provide a particularly interesting version of the modern-day multiverse scenario. Although some of his ideas were at first regarded sceptically by mainstream physics, their later reception illustrates that the boundary between cosmology and meta-cosmology is always evolving. He was generally reluctant to link cosmological and theological ideas but I will argue that cosmology offers some scope for productive science-religion dialogue and suggest that mind may be a fundamental rather than incidental feature of the universe.

  1. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  2. Biological role of gravity: Hypotheses and results of experiments on ``Cosmos'' biosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpatov, Alexey M.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Tairbekov, Murad G.

    In order to reveal the biological significance of gravity, microgravity effects have been studied at the cellular, organism and population levels. The following questions arise. Do any gravity - dependent processes exist in a cell? Is cell adaptation to weightlessness possible; if so, what role may cytoskeleton, the genetic apparatus play in it? What are the consequences of the lack of convection in weightlessness for the performance of morphogenesis? Do the integral characteristics of living beings change in weightlessness? Is there any change in ``biological capacity'' of space, its resistance to expansion of life? What are the direction and intensity of microgravity action as a factor of natural selection, the driving force of evolution? These problems are discussed from a theoretical point of view, and in the light of results obtained in experiments flown aboard biosatellites ``Cosmos''.

  3. Does thermodynamics require our cosmos to undergo a series of contraction/expansion cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, E.; Martinez, J. M.; Zanchin, V. T.

    A unified geometrical approach to strong and gravitational interactions has been recently proposed, based on the classical methods of general relativity. According to it, hadrons can be regarded as "black-hole type" solutions of new field equations describing two tensorial metric-fields (the ordinary gravitational field, and the "strong" one). In this paper, the authors seize the opportunity for an improved exposition of some elements of the theory relevant to our present scope, and they extend the Bekenstein-Hawking thermodynamics to the "strong black holes" (SBH). They show (1) that SBH thermodynamics seems to require a new expansion of our cosmos after its "big crunch"; (2) that a collapsing star with a mass 3 - 5 M_sun;, once reached the neutron-star density, could re-explode tending to form a (radiating) object with a diameter of the order of 1 light-day.

  4. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  5. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  6. Serotonin in individual hypothalamic nuclei of rats after space flight on biosatellite cosmos 1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čulman, J.; Kvetňansky, T.; Serova, L. V.; Tigranjan, R. A.; Macho, L.

    The experiment on Cosmos 1129 was based on our results obtained in rats exposed to single or repeated restrain stress in the laboratory. These results have convincingly demonstrated a significant increase of serotonin concentration (5-HT) in the hypothalamus in acutely stressed rats. This response, which was found also in the isolated hypothalamic nuclei, was diminished in repeatedly (40 times) immobilized rats. While the concentration of 5-HT was unchanged in the majority of the hypothalamic nuclei of animals subjected to cosmic flight, an increase was recorded only in the supraoptic nucleus (NSO) and a decrease in the periventricular nucleus. These findings demonstrate that only few areas of the hypothalamus respond to cosmic flight with changes of 5-HT concentration and suggest either that long-term cosmic flight cannot be an intensive stressor or that during the flight the rats became already adapted to its long-term effect. However, the exposure of flight rats to repeated immobilization stress resulted in a significant increase of 5-HT in the NSO, paraventricular and dorsomedial (NDM) nuclei. It should be noted that we have never seen any changes of 5-HT concentration, tryptophan hydroxylase and monoamineoxidase activities in repeatedly (40 times) immobilized rats. On the other hand, the increase of 5-HT concentration in the NDM is a typical finding after seven exposures of rats to immobilization on Earth, daily for 150 min. In the experiment COSMOS 1129 such an increase of 5-HT concentration in the NDM was found not only in the flight group but also in the control group of rats subjected to five daily exposures of immobilization stress. With respect to these findings, the increased 5-HT concentrations observed in some isolated hypothalamic nuclei in the flight group of rats exposed after landing to repeated immobilization stress suggest that long-term space flight and the state of weightlessness do not represent a stressogenic factor with respect to the

  7. Experimental and calculated LET distributions in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudkin, V. E.; Karpov, O. N.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Moiseenko, A. A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr

    1992-01-01

    During the flight of the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. investigations of different characteristics of cosmic radiation (CR) in the near-Earth environment were carried out. The U.S. dielectric track detectors CR-39 and Soviet BYa- and BR-type nuclear photo-emulsions were used as detectors. The present work shows some results of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of CR particles obtained with the use of these detectors, which were placed both inside and outside the satellite. The LET spectra measurement with plastic detectors is composed of two parts: the measurement of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) particles, and of short-range particles. The contributions of these components to the total LET distribution at various thicknesses of the shielding were analyzed and the results of these studies are presented. Calculated LET spectra in the Cosmos-2044 orbit were compared with experimental data. On the basis of experimental and calculated values of the LET spectra, absorbed and equivalent CR doses were calculated. In the shielding range of 1-1.5 g cm-2, outside the spacecraft, the photo-emulsions yielded 10.3 mrad d-1 and 27.5 mrem d-1 (LET > or = 2 MeV cm-1) while the CR-39 yielded averages of 1.43 mrad d-1 and 13.4 mrem d-1 (LET > or = 40 MeV cm-1). Inside the spacecraft (> or = 10 g cm-2) the photo-emulsions yielded 8.9 mrad d-1 and 14.5 mrem d-1.

  8. Cosmos Education: Under African Skies and other Youth Initiatives for hands-on Education using Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.; Hand, K.; Delegates, Sgs

    2002-01-01

    'Under African Skies', a project of the charity organization Cosmos Education, undertook an excursion to sub-Saharan Africa to teach science and technology to children in primary and secondary schools. The role of science and technology for the purpose of development was emphasized, and the project directly addresses one of the recommendations of UNISPACE-III Vienna Declaration. Teaching primarily focused on astronomy and space science. Over 3500 primary and secondary school students in 5 different countries were reached. Although it is hard to quantify the impact of the teaching, the students' enthusiasm and questions demonstrated that they acquired knowledge and interest in science. In this talk we will summarize the objectives and achievements of the trip and future planned trips by Cosmos Education. We will also show coverage of the trip by the BBC program 'Final Frontier'. The youth perspective on education is outlined in the Global Space Education Curriculum, a project initiated at the UNISPACE III Space Generation Forum (SGF). This initiative is being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) that will unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11-13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the results of these discussions.

  9. Cluster candidates around low-power radio galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 in cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Castignani, G.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Chiaberge, M.; Norman, C.

    2014-09-10

    We search for high-redshift (z ∼1-2) galaxy clusters using low power radio galaxies (FR I) as beacons and our newly developed Poisson probability method based on photometric redshift information and galaxy number counts. We use a sample of 32 FR Is within the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field from the Chiaberge et al. catalog. We derive a reliable subsample of 21 bona fide low luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs) and a subsample of 11 high luminosity radio galaxies (HLRGs), on the basis of photometric redshift information and NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio fluxes. The LLRGs are selected to have 1.4 GHz rest frame luminosities lower than the fiducial FR I/FR II divide. This also allows us to estimate the comoving space density of sources with L {sub 1.4} ≅ 10{sup 32.3} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} at z ≅ 1.1, which strengthens the case for a strong cosmological evolution of these sources. In the fields of the LLRGs and HLRGs we find evidence that 14 and 8 of them reside in rich groups or galaxy clusters, respectively. Thus, overdensities are found around ∼70% of the FR Is, independently of the considered subsample. This rate is in agreement with the fraction found for low redshift FR Is and it is significantly higher than that for FR IIs at all redshifts. Although our method is primarily introduced for the COSMOS survey, it may be applied to both present and future wide field surveys such as Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, LSST, and Euclid. Furthermore, cluster candidates found with our method are excellent targets for next generation space telescopes such as James Webb Space Telescope.

  10. The Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool: Charting Galaxies over Cosmic Times in The Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogee, Shardha; Hemenway, M. K.; Miller, S.; Smith, A.; Augustine, A.; Worhatch, R.; Preston, S.; Lester, D.; Fricke, K.

    2007-12-01

    Recent large galaxy surveys conducted with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have provided unprecedented legacy datasets, which allow astronomers to charter the evolution of galaxies over a large fraction of the age of the Universe. The Galaxies and Cosmos Explorer Tool (GCET; http://www.as.utexas.edu/gcet/) is an online web-based tool that allows the general public and students to actively participate in this exciting adventure through quantitative analyses of HST images from the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs (GEMS) survey, one of the widest-area galaxy surveys conducted in two filters with ACS to date. The tool allows users to surf the vast cosmos and access ACS images of over 8,000 galaxies over the last eight billion years. For galaxies of interest, users can measure the size, determine the lookback time for concordance cosmology, perform morphological classification on images at two rest-frame wavelengths, and gauge the different stellar populations present. Users can record their measurements, as well as reference information, such as coordinates and redshift, of each galaxy into Excel spreadsheets for further analysis. The celestial coordinates can be used to extract further multiwavelength data from existing archives and upcoming virtual observatories. For undergraduate classes, more advanced IDL or C-based analyses that employ the full samples, can be combined with the visualization capabilities of GCET in order to explore the nature of interesting objects, such as the most massive galaxies, starbursting systems, interacting and merging galaxies. GCET provides a powerful tool for discovery learning in undergraduate science and introductory classes, as well as high schools. We thank the GEMS collaboration, and acknowledge support from NASA grants NAG5-13063 and NASA NNG 06GB99G, NSF grant AST-0607748, and the Faculty And Student Teams for Technology (FAST Tex) award from the University of Texas Division of

  11. EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 0.1-3 IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Scoville, N.; Benson, A.; Fu, Hai; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bongiorno, A.; Bundy, K.; Calvo, M. A. A.; Capak, P.; Carollo, M.; Faisst, A.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Dunlop, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Guo, Q.; Giavalisco, M.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Kajisawa, M.; and others

    2013-05-01

    Large-scale structures (LSSs) out to z < 3.0 are measured in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) using extremely accurate photometric redshifts (photoz). The K{sub s} -band-selected sample (from Ultra-Vista) is comprised of 155,954 galaxies. Two techniques-adaptive smoothing and Voronoi tessellation-are used to estimate the environmental densities within 127 redshift slices. Approximately 250 statistically significant overdense structures are identified out to z = 3.0 with shapes varying from elongated filamentary structures to more circularly symmetric concentrations. We also compare the densities derived for COSMOS with those based on semi-analytic predictions for a {Lambda}CDM simulation and find excellent overall agreement between the mean densities as a function of redshift and the range of densities. The galaxy properties (stellar mass, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and star formation rates (SFRs)) are strongly correlated with environmental density and redshift, particularly at z < 1.0-1.2. Classifying the spectral type of each galaxy using the rest-frame b - i color (from the photoz SED fitting), we find a strong correlation of early-type galaxies (E-Sa) with high-density environments, while the degree of environmental segregation varies systematically with redshift out to z {approx} 1.3. In the highest density regions, 80% of the galaxies are early types at z = 0.2 compared to only 20% at z = 1.5. The SFRs and the star formation timescales exhibit clear environmental correlations. At z > 0.8, the SFR density is uniformly distributed over all environmental density percentiles, while at lower redshifts the dominant contribution is shifted to galaxies in lower density environments.

  12. Refinement of the Spitzer Space Telescope Pointing History Based on Image Registration Corrections from Multiple Data Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallon, Howard L.; Fowler, John W.; Laher, Russ R.; Masci, Frank J.; Moshir, Mehrdad

    2007-11-01

    Position reconstruction for images acquired by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), one of the science instruments onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, is a multistep procedure that is part of the routine processing done at the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). The IRAC instrument simultaneously images two different sky footprints, each with two independent infrared passbands (channels). The accuracy of the initial Spitzer pointing reconstruction is typically slightly better than 1". The well-known technique of position matching imaged point sources to even more accurate star catalogs to refine the pointing further is implemented for SSC processing of IRAC data as well. Beyond that, the optimal processing of redundant pointing information from multiple instrument channels to yield an even better solution is also performed at the SSC. Our multichannel data processing approach is particularly beneficial when the star-catalog matches are sparse in one channel but copious in others. A thorough review of the algorithm as implemented for the Spitzer mission reveals that the mathematical formalism can be fairly easily generalized for application to other astronomy missions. The computation of pointing uncertainties, the interpolation of pointing corrections and their uncertainties between measurements, and the estimation of random-walk deviations from linearity are special areas of importance when implementing the method. After performing the operations described in this paper on the initial Spitzer pointing, the uncertainty in the observatory pointing history file is reduced 10-15 fold.

  13. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4

  14. Multi-wavelength properties of Spitzer selected starbursts at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiolet, N.; Omont, A.; Polletta, M.; Owen, F.; Berta, S.; Shupe, D.; Siana, B.; Lonsdale, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Pannella, M.; Baker, A. J.; Beelen, A.; Biggs, A.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Ivison, R.; Lagache, G.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zylka, R.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Wide-field Spitzer surveys allow identification of thousands of potentially high-z submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) through their bright 24 μm emission and their mid-IR colors. Aims: We want to determine the average properties of such z˜2 Spitzer-selected SMGs by combining millimeter, radio, and infrared photometry for a representative IR-flux (λ_rest˜ 8 μm) limited sample of SMG candidates. Methods: A complete sample of 33 sources believed to be starbursts (“5.8 μm-peakers”) was selected in the (0.5 deg^2) J1046+56 field with selection criteria F24 μ m > 400 μJy, the presence of a redshifted stellar emission peak at 5.8 μm, and r^prime_Vega > 23. The field, part of the SWIRE Lockman Hole field, benefits from very deep VLA/GMRT 20 cm, 50 cm, and 90 cm radio data (all 33 sources are detected at 50 cm), and deep 160 μm and 70 μm Spitzer data. The 33 sources, with photometric redshifts 1.5-2.5, were observed at 1.2 mm with IRAM-30m/MAMBO to an rms 0.7-0.8 mJy in most cases. Their millimeter, radio, 7-band Spitzer, and near-IR properties were jointly analyzed. Results: The entire sample of 33 sources has an average 1.2 mm flux density of 1.56 ± 0.22 mJy and a median of 1.61 mJy, so the majority of the sources can be considered SMGs. Four sources have confirmed 4σ detections, and nine were tentatively detected at the 3σ level. Because of its 24 μm selection, our sample shows systematically lower F_1.2 mm/F24 μ m flux ratios than classical SMGs, probably because of enhanced PAH emission. A median FIR SED was built by stacking images at the positions of 21 sources in the region of deepest Spitzer coverage. Its parameters are T_dust = 37 ± 8 K, L_FIR = 2.5 × 1012 L⊙, and SFR = 450 M⊙ yr-1. The FIR-radio correlation provides another estimate of L_FIR for each source, with an average value of 4.1 × 1012 L⊙; however, this value may be overestimated because of some AGN contribution. Most of our targets are also luminous star-forming Bz

  15. A Spitzer view of the giant molecular cloud Mon OB1 East/NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Rapson, V. A.; Pipher, J. L.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S.; Myers, P. C.; Allen, L. E.

    2014-10-20

    We present Spitzer 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm images of the Mon OB1 East giant molecular cloud, which contains the young star forming region NGC 2264, as well as more extended star formation. With Spitzer data and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs) with dusty circumstellar disks and/or envelopes in Mon OB1 East by their infrared-excess emission and study their distribution with respect to cloud material. We find a correlation between the local surface density of YSOs and column density of molecular gas as traced by dust extinction that is roughly described as a power law in these quantities. NGC 2264 follows a power-law index of ∼2.7, exhibiting a large YSO surface density for a given gas column density. Outside of NGC 2264 where the surface density of YSOs is lower, the power law is shallower and the region exhibits a larger gas column density for a YSO surface density, suggesting the star formation is more recent. In order to measure the fraction of cloud members with circumstellar disks/envelopes, we estimate the number of diskless pre-main-sequence stars by statistical removal of background star detections. We find that the disk fraction of the NGC 2264 region is 45%, while the surrounding, more distributed regions show a disk fraction of 19%. This may be explained by the presence of an older, more dispersed population of stars. In total, the Spitzer observations provide evidence for heterogenous, non-coeval star formation throughout the Mon OB1 cloud.

  16. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake; Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  17. CHANDRA AND SPITZER IMAGING OF THE INFRARED CLUSTER IN NGC 2071

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Guedel, Manuel; Audard, Marc; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Meyer, Michael R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2009-08-10

    We present results of a sensitive Chandra X-ray observation and Spitzer mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations of the IR cluster lying north of the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B molecular cloud. We focus on the dense cluster core known as NGC 2071-IR, which contains at least nine IR sources within a 40'' x 40'' region. This region shows clear signs of active star formation including powerful molecular outflows, Herbig-Haro objects, and both OH and H{sub 2}O masers. We use Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images to aid in X-ray source identification and to determine young stellar object (YSO) classes using mid-IR colors. Spitzer IRAC colors show that the luminous source IRS 1 is a class I protostar. IRS 1 is believed to be driving a powerful bipolar molecular outflow and may be an embedded B-type star or its progenitor. Its X-ray spectrum reveals a fluorescent Fe emission line at 6.4 keV, arising in cold material near the protostar. The line is present even in the absence of large flares, raising questions about the nature of the ionizing mechanism responsible for producing the 6.4 keV fluorescent line. Chandra also detects X-ray sources at or near the positions of IRS 2, IRS 3, IRS 4, and IRS 6 and a variable X-ray source coincident with the radio source VLA 1, located just 2'' north of IRS 1. No IR data are yet available to determine a YSO classification for VLA 1, but its high X-ray absorption shows that it is even more deeply embedded than IRS 1, suggesting that it could be an even younger, less-evolved protostar.

  18. Reverberation mapping the dusty torus in Active Galactic Nuclei using Spitzer and optical light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew

    Dusty molecular tori play a central role in unification models for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and are also the dominant source of their mid-IR emission. Our limited knowledge of the size and structure of AGN tori and how these properties vary with luminosity hinders our ability to understand the observed spectral energy distribution and hence AGN demographics. Ultimately this inhibits our ability to understand the obscured AGN population and the cosmic evolution of super-massive black holes. Although the torus is, in general, inaccessible to direct imaging, its properties can be studied by analyzing the time response of the dust emission from the torus with respect to variations in the AGN continuum luminosity; a technique known as reverberation mapping. With this goal, we have completed a 2.5-year monitoring campaign on 12 broad-line AGN, using the Spitzer Space Telescope supported by ground-based optical observations, to measure the temporal response of thetorus 3.5 and 4.6μm mid-IR dust emission to variations in the AGN UV/optical continuum. The data obtained from the first 1.5 years in Spitzer Cycle 8 have been analysed. The aim of this project is to complete the time series analysis of the complete 2.5 year light curves, and to model these light curves in order extract structural and physical information contained in data, such as the size of the torus, its radial depth, opening angle, inclination and dust composition. This project will help to maximize the scientific returns on a significant investment of Spitzer Space Telescope time and supports the NASA strategic goal to "explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe".

  19. A SPITZER-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.62

    SciTech Connect

    Papovich, C.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Tran, K.-V.; Momcheva, I.; McCarthy, P.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Rieke, M.; Sivanandam, S.; Brodwin, M.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Farrah, D.; Khan, S. A.; Lotz, J.; Rudnick, G.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.

    2010-06-20

    We report the discovery of a galaxy cluster at z = 1.62 located in the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey XMM-LSS field. This structure was selected solely as an overdensity of galaxies with red Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera colors, satisfying ([3.6] - [4.5]){sub AB}> - 0.1 mag. Photometric redshifts derived from the Subaru XMM Deep Survey (BViz bands), the UKIRT Infrared Deep Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UKIDSS-UDS, JK bands), and from the Spitzer Public UDS survey (3.6-8.0 {mu}m) show that this cluster corresponds to a surface density of galaxies at z {approx} 1.6 that is >20{sigma} above the mean at this redshift. We obtained optical spectroscopic observations of galaxies in the cluster region using IMACS on the Magellan telescope. We measured redshifts for seven galaxies in the range z = 1.62-1.63 within 2.8 arcmin (<1.4 Mpc) of the astrometric center of the cluster. A posteriori analysis of the XMM data in this field reveal a weak (4{sigma}) detection in the [0.5-2 keV] band compatible with the expected thermal emission from such a cluster. The color-magnitude diagram of the galaxies in this cluster shows a prominent red sequence, dominated by a population of red galaxies with (z - J)>1.7 mag. The photometric-redshift probability distributions for the red galaxies are strongly peaked at z = 1.62, coincident with the spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. The rest-frame (U - B) color and scatter of galaxies on the red sequence are consistent with a mean luminosity-weighted age of 1.2 {+-} 0.1 Gyr, yielding a formation redshift z-bar{sub f}=2.35{+-}0.10, and corresponding to the last significant star formation period in these galaxies.

  20. Spitzer/IRS Observations Of Multiple Main-Belt And Binary Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Im, S.

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of Ida's companion in 1993, 195 companions of asteroids have been discovered. To understand the formation process of these interesting bodies, their physical properties such as their bulk density, size, shape, and surface roughness need to be determined. During the Spitzer Cycle-4, we obtained IRS thermal emission spectra (5-42 um) of 23 known binary systems. The majority of asteroids are from the main-belt (16), while the rest are NEOs (7). After extracting the thermal spectra, we used a modified Standard Thermal Model (STM) to calculate their equivalent diameter (from 0.8 km to 237 km), their albedo (from 0.04 for C-type to 0.394 for a V-type) and their beaming factor related to the surface roughness and thermal inertia. We derive their emissivity spectra, which is useful to detect silicate features. Combining these measurements with 3D-models of these multiple asteroid systems obtained by lightcurve inversion, we should be able to derive an accurate estimate of their bulk-density and contrast them with their taxonomic classes. Preliminary studies by Marchis et al. (2008)1, suggested a relationship between bulk density and the taxonomic class of asteroids, which varies from 0.9 g/cc for C-complex to 2.4 g/cc for S-complex asteroids. The National Science Foundation supported this research under award number AAG-0807468. It was conducted with the Spitzer space telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. 1 Marchis et al. , 2008, "Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS", 40th DPS Meeting, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 40, 508

  1. Multiple asteroid systems: Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-11-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each of these asteroids, representing three main taxonomic groups: C, S, and X. For large (volume-equivalent system diameter Deq > 130 km) binary asteroids, the TPM analysis indicates a low thermal inertia (Γ ⩽ ∼100 J s-1/2 K-1 m-2) and their emissivity spectra display strong mineral features, implying that they are covered with a thick layer of thermally insulating regolith. The smaller (surface-equivalent system diameter Deff < 17 km) asteroids also show some emission lines of minerals, but they are significantly weaker, consistent with regoliths with coarser grains, than those of the large binary asteroids. The average bulk densities of these multiple asteroids vary from 0.7-1.7 g/cm3 (P-, C-type) to ∼2 g/cm3 (S-type). The highest density is estimated for the M-type (22) Kalliope (3.2 ± 0.9 g/cm3). The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and emissivity spectra, made available as a supplement document, could help to constrain the surface compositions of these asteroids.

  2. Using Spitzer to Estimate the Kepler False Positive Rate and to Validate Kepler Candidates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, D.; Fressin, F.; Torres, G.

    2012-01-01

    I present the results from an ongoing large campaign with the Spitzer Space Telescope to gather near-infrared photometric measurements of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI). Our goals are (1) to validate the planetary status of these Kepler candidates, (2) to estimate observationally the false positive rate, and (3) to study the atmospheres of confirmed planets through measurements of their secondary eclipses. Our target list spans of wide range of candidate sizes and periods orbiting various spectral type stars. The Spitzer observations provide constraints on the possibility of astrophysical false positives resulting from stellar blends, including eclipsing binaries and hierarchical triples. The number of possible blends per star is estimated using stellar population synthesis models and observational probes of the KOI close environments from direct imaging (e.g. Adaptive Optics, Speckle images, Kepler centroids). Combining all the above information with the shape of the transit lightcurves from the Kepler photometry, we compute odd ratios for the 34 candidates we observed in order to determine their false positive probability. Our results suggest that the Kepler false positive rate in this subset of candidates is low. I finally present a new list of Kepler candidates that we were able to validate using this method. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer, which is operated by JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. Support was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  3. A SPITZER c2d LEGACY SURVEY TO IDENTIFY AND CHARACTERIZE DISKS WITH INNER DUST HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Merin, Bruno; Brown, Joanna M.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Oliveira, Isa; Lahuis, Fred; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Olofsson, Johan; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Cieza, Lucas; Spezzi, Loredana; Prusti, Timo; Alcala, Juan M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Bayo, Amelia; Geers, Vincent G.; Walter, Frederick M.; Chiu, Kuenley

    2010-08-01

    Understanding how disks dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation. However, identifying exactly how dust and gas dissipate is complicated due to the difficulty of finding objects that are clearly in the transition phase of losing their surrounding material. We use Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra to examine 35 photometrically selected candidate cold disks (disks with large inner dust holes). The infrared spectra are supplemented with optical spectra to determine stellar and accretion properties and 1.3 mm photometry to measure disk masses. Based on detailed spectral energy distribution modeling, we identify 15 new cold disks. The remaining 20 objects have IRS spectra that are consistent with disks without holes, disks that are observed close to edge-on, or stars with background emission. Based on these results, we determine reliable criteria to identify disks with inner holes from Spitzer photometry, and examine criteria already in the literature. Applying these criteria to the c2d surveyed star-forming regions gives a frequency of such objects of at least 4% and most likely of order 12% of the young stellar object population identified by Spitzer. We also examine the properties of these new cold disks in combination with cold disks from the literature. Hole sizes in this sample are generally smaller than in previously discovered disks and reflect a distribution in better agreement with exoplanet orbit radii. We find correlations between hole size and both disk and stellar masses. Silicate features, including crystalline features, are present in the overwhelming majority of the sample, although the 10 {mu}m feature strength above the continuum declines for holes with radii larger than {approx}7 AU. In contrast, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are only detected in 2 out of 15 sources. Only a quarter of the cold disk sample shows no signs of accretion, making it unlikely that photoevaporation is the dominant hole-forming process in most cases.

  4. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A Detailed Look at the Circumstellar Dust Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2007-06-01

    We present 3.6-160 μm infrared images of Kepler's supernova remnant (SN 1604) obtained with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We also present MIPS SED low-resolution spectra in the 55-95 μm region. The observed emission in the MIPS 24 μm band shows the entire shell. Emission in the MIPS 70 μm and IRAC 8 μm bands is seen only from the brightest regions of 24 μm emission, which also correspond to the regions seen in optical Hα images. Shorter wavelength IRAC images are increasingly dominated by stars, although faint filaments are discernible. The SED spectrum of shows a faint continuum dropping off to longer wavelengths and confirms that strong line emission does not dominate the mid-IR spectral region. The emission we see is due primarily to warm dust emission from dust heated by the primary blast wave; no excess infrared emission is observed in regions where supernova ejecta are seen in X-rays. We use models of the dust to interpret the observed 70/24 μm ratio and constrain the allowed range of temperatures and densities. We estimate the current mass of dust in the warm dust component to be 5.4×10-4 Msolar, and infer an original mass of about 3×10-3 Msolar before grain sputtering. The MIPS 160 μm band shows no emission belonging to the remnant. We place a conservative but temperature-dependent upper limit on any cold dust component roughly a factor of 10 below the cold dust mass inferred from SCUBA observations. Finally, we comment on issues relevant to the possible precursor star and the supernova type. Based on observations made with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Spitzer is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Lab.

  5. Multiple Asteroid Systems: Dimensions and Thermal Properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and Ground-based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Matins, R. Vieira; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 microns using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric light curves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each of these asteroids, representing three main taxonomic groups: C, S, and X. For large (volume-equivalent system diameter Deq > 130 km) binary asteroids, the TPM analysis indicates a low thermal inertia (Lambda < or = approx.100 J/1/2 s/K/sq m2) and their emissivity spectra display strong mineral features, implying that they are covered with a thick layer of thermally insulating regolith. The smaller (surface-equivalent system diameter Deff < 17 km) asteroids also show some emission lines of minerals, but they are significantly weaker, consistent with regoliths with coarser grains, than those of the large binary asteroids. The average bulk densities of these multiple asteroids vary from 0.7-1.7 g/cu cm (P-, C-type) to approx. 2 g/cu cm (S-type). The highest density is estimated for the M-type (22) Kalliope (3.2 +/- 0.9 g/cu cm). The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and emissivity spectra, made available as a supplement document, could help to constrain the surface compositions of these asteroids.

  6. Hot electron transport modelling in fast ignition relevant targets with non-Spitzer resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. A.; Hughes, S. J.; Hoarty, D. J.; Swatton, D. J. R.

    2010-08-01

    The simple Lee-More model for electrical resistivity is implemented in the hybrid fast electron transport code THOR. The model is shown to reproduce experimental data across a wide range of temperatures using a small number of parameters. The effect of this model on the heating of simple Al targets by a short-pulse laser is studied and compared to the predictions of the classical Spitzer-Härm resistivity. The model is then used in simulations of hot electron transport experiments using buried layer targets.

  7. Spitzer Search for Dust Disks around Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilíková, Jana; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Su, Kate Y. L.; De Marco, Orsola

    2012-05-01

    Two types of dust disks have been discovered around white dwarfs (WDs): small dust disks within the Roche limits of their WDs and large dust disks around hot WDs extending to radial distances of 10-102 AU. The majority of the latter WDs are central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). We have therefore used archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of PNs to search for CSPNs with IR excesses and to make a comparative investigation of dust disks around stars at different evolutionary stages. We have examined available images of 72 resolved PNs in the Spitzer archive and found 56 of them large enough for the CSPN to be resolved from the PN. Among these, only 42 CSPNs are visible in IRAC and/or MIPS images and selected for photometric measurements. From the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these CSPNs, we find 19 cases with clear IR excess. Of these, seven are [WC]-type stars, two have apparent visual companions that account for the observed excess emission, two are symbiotic CSPNs, and in eight cases the IR excess originates from an extended emitter, likely a dust disk. For some of these CSPNs, we have acquired follow-up Spitzer MIPS images, Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and Gemini NIRI and Michelle spectroscopic observations. The SEDs and spectra show a great diversity in the emission characteristics of the IR excesses, which may imply different mechanisms responsible for the excess emission. For CSPNs whose IR excesses originate from dust continuum, the most likely dust production mechanisms are (1) breakup of bodies in planetesimal belts through collisions and (2) formation of circumstellar dust disks through binary interactions. A better understanding of post-asymptotic giant branch binary evolution as well as debris disk evolution along with its parent star is needed to distinguish between these different origins. Future observations to better establish the physical parameters of the

  8. SPITZER SEARCH FOR DUST DISKS AROUND CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Bilikova, Jana; Chu Youhua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Su, Kate Y. L.; De Marco, Orsola

    2012-05-01

    Two types of dust disks have been discovered around white dwarfs (WDs): small dust disks within the Roche limits of their WDs and large dust disks around hot WDs extending to radial distances of 10-10{sup 2} AU. The majority of the latter WDs are central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). We have therefore used archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of PNs to search for CSPNs with IR excesses and to make a comparative investigation of dust disks around stars at different evolutionary stages. We have examined available images of 72 resolved PNs in the Spitzer archive and found 56 of them large enough for the CSPN to be resolved from the PN. Among these, only 42 CSPNs are visible in IRAC and/or MIPS images and selected for photometric measurements. From the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these CSPNs, we find 19 cases with clear IR excess. Of these, seven are [WC]-type stars, two have apparent visual companions that account for the observed excess emission, two are symbiotic CSPNs, and in eight cases the IR excess originates from an extended emitter, likely a dust disk. For some of these CSPNs, we have acquired follow-up Spitzer MIPS images, Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and Gemini NIRI and Michelle spectroscopic observations. The SEDs and spectra show a great diversity in the emission characteristics of the IR excesses, which may imply different mechanisms responsible for the excess emission. For CSPNs whose IR excesses originate from dust continuum, the most likely dust production mechanisms are (1) breakup of bodies in planetesimal belts through collisions and (2) formation of circumstellar dust disks through binary interactions. A better understanding of post-asymptotic giant branch binary evolution as well as debris disk evolution along with its parent star is needed to distinguish between these different origins. Future observations to better establish the physical parameters of

  9. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  10. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Bond, I. A.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp; Maoz, D.; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group

    2016-03-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  11. Repeatability of Spitzer/IRAC Exoplanetary Eclipses with Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.

    2016-04-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths >3 μm, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same data sets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. (2014, 2015) proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to the pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-signal-to-noise-ratio cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over 12 eclipses of the exoplanet XO3b observed during the “Warm Spitzer” era in the 4.5 μm band. The final results are reported, in part, also in Ingalls et al. (2016), together with results obtained with other detrending methods, and over 10 synthetic eclipses that were analyzed for the “IRAC Data Challenge 2015.” Our results are consistent within 1σ with the ones reported in Wong et al. (2014) and with most of the results reported in Ingalls et al. (2016), which appeared on arXiv while this paper was under review. Based on many statistical tests discussed in Ingalls et al. (2016), the wavelet pixel-ICA method performs as well as or better than other state-of-art methods recently developed by other teams to analyze Spitzer/IRAC data, and, in particular, it appears to be the most repeatable and the most reliable, while reaching the photon noise limit, at least for the particular data set analyzed. Another strength of the ICA approach is its highest

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAGE-Spec Spitzer legacy program (Kemper+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, F.; Woods, P. M.; Antoniou, V.; Bernard, J.-P.; Blum, R. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Chan, J.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Cohen, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Engelbracht, C.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gielen, C.; Gordon, K. D.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Hony, S.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Jones, O.; Kawamura, A.; Lagadec, E.; Lawton, B.; Leisenring, J. M.; Madden, S. C.; Marengo, M.; Matsuura, M.; McDonald, I.; McGuire, C.; Meixner, M.; Mulia, A. J.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliveira, J. M.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Reach, W. T.; Rubin, D.; Sandstrom, K.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Sloan, G. C.; Speck, A. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Szczerba, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Aarle, E.; van Dyk, S. D.; van Loon, J. T.; van Winckel, H.; Vijh, U. P.; Volk, K.; Whitney, B. A.; Wilkins, A. N.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    The Spitzer SAGE-Spec program (PID: 40159) consists of 224.6hr of spectroscopic observations of targets in the LMC. The targets included point sources and extended regions, both of which were observed using the IRS low-resolution and MIPS SED modes. Observations were done in the IRS staring mode for 196 point sources, and 48 point sources were observed in MIPS SED mode. In addition, 10 extended regions were mapped in both the MIPS SED and IRS observing modes. (4 data files).

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Tully-Fisher distances for Spitzer galaxies (Sorce+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, J. G.; Tully, R. B.; Courtois, H. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Neill, J. D.; Shaya, E. J.

    2015-04-01

    The post-basic calibrated data of the 1270 observed galaxies for the CFS programme are available at the Spitzer Heritage Archive. Every galaxy has been observed with the first channel of the IRAC instrument where a point spread function with a FWHM=1.66arcsec is sampled with 1.2arcsec/pixels. The field of view is 5.2x5.2arcmin2 which is adequate to include most galaxies beyond twice their diameter at the 25th isophote (mag/arcsec2) in the B band. (2 data files).

  14. Rest-Frame Mid-Infrared Detection of an Extremely Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Houck, J. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Weedman, D.; Brandl, B. R.; vanCleve, J.; Grillmair, C.; Uchid, K. I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first rest-frame of approximately 4 microns detection of a Lyman break galaxy. The data were obtained using the 16 microns imaging capability of the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. The target object, J134026.44+634433.2, is an extremely luminous Lyman break galaxy at z=2.79, first identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra (as reported by Bentz et al.). The source is strongly detected with a flux of 0.94 +/- 0.02 mJy. Combining Spitzer and SDSS photometry with supporting ground-based J- and K-band data, we show that the spectral energy distribution is consistent with an actively star-forming galaxy. We also detect other objects in the Spitzer field of view, including a very red mid-infrared source. We find no evidence of a strong lens among the mid-infrared sources.

  15. Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2015-09-01

    We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.

  16. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) - next step after Spitzer/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, Hans

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747B fitted with a powerful 2.5m infrared telescope that operates at altitudes of 12-14km and observes light from the near-IR to the far-IR wavelength range that is blocked to reach the ground by the Earth's atmosphere (mainly due to water vapor). SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Agency (DLR). This new airborne Observatory started early science observations in 2010 and has recently reached full operational capability, with a suite fo currently 4 instruments (and two more to be commissioned) in Cycle 2. Scientific highlights will be presented which include mid-IR broad-band imaging and far-IR high-resolution spectroscopic results which go beyond those of Spitzer and Herschel (star formation studies and astrochemistry). SOFIA will have a projected lifetime of 20 yrs and will be the premier mid- and far-infrared facility in the post-Spitzer and post-Herschel era for many years to come.

  17. Spitzer Point-source Catalogs of ~ 300,000 Stars in Seven Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Sonneborn, G.

    2015-08-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC 3.6-8 μ {{m}} and Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 μ {{m}} point-source catalogs for seven galaxies: NGC 6822, M33, NGC 300, NGC 2403, M81, NGC 0247, and NGC 7793. The catalogs contain a total of ˜300,000 sources and were created by dual-band selection of sources with \\gt 3σ detections at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ {{m}}. The source lists become significantly incomplete near {m}3.6={m}4.5≃ 18. We complement the 3.6 and 4.5 μ {{m}} fluxes with 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μ {{m}} fluxes or 3σ upper limits using a combination of PSF and aperture photometry. This catalog is a resource as an archive for studying mid-infrared transients and for planning observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  18. Spitzer Observations of Dust Destruction in the Puppis A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dweek, Eli; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hwang, Una; Long, Knox X.; Petre, Robert; Rho, Jeonghee; Winkler, P. Frank

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the Puppis A supernova remnant (SNR) with a neighboring molecular cloud provides a unique opportunity to measure the amount of grain destruction in an SNR shock. Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS imaging of the entire SNR at 24, 70, and 160 micrometers shows an extremely good correlation with X-ray emission, indicating that the SNR's IR radiation is dominated by the thermal emission of swept-up interstellar dust, collisionally heated by the hot shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectral observations targeted both the Bright Eastern Knot (BEK) of the SNR where a small cloud has been engulfed by the supernova blast wave and outlying portions of the associated molecular cloud that are yet to be hit by the shock front. Modeling the spectra from both regions reveals the composition and the grain size distribution of the interstellar dust, both in front of and behind the SNR shock front. The comparison shows that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the interstellar medium are destroyed within the BEK, along with nearly 25% of the mass of graphite and silicate dust grains.

  19. Spitzer Space Telescope and Visible/IR Spectrophotometry of V574 Pupis (Nova Pupis 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, Richard J.; Lynch, D. K.; Mazuk, S. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Russell, R. W.; Puetter, R. C.; Perry, R. B.; Woodward, C. E.; Schwarz, G. J.; Bode, M. F.; Evans, A.; Geballe, T. R.; Gehrz, R. D.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Hauschildt, P. A.; Helton, L. A.; Lyke, J. E.; Salama, A.; Shore, S. N.; Starrfield, S. G.; Truran, J. W.; Wagner, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    V574 Pup was a nova whose observational properties were intermediate between those typical of explosions on a carbon/oxygen (CO) or a oxygen/magnesium/neon (OMgNe) white dwarf. A strong Fe II emitter shortly after outburst, V574 Pup’s light curve had a slow decline rate (t2 20 days) and emission lines of moderate width ( 1800 km/sec) characteristic of a high mass ejection from a CO white dwarf. However, V574 Pup did not form dust and its spectrum developed the strong nitrogen and helium lines and the fairly high excitation coronal lines (e.g., [S IX], [Si X]) more representative of the energetic outburst from an OMgNe white dwarf. Data will be presented from two epochs_0.43-2.5 micron spectroscopy from two months after outburst, and Spitzer observations from 5-20 microns together with simultaneous visible and near-infrared measurements one year past outburst. Spitzer makes possible the study of nova spectra to unprecedented faintness levels and in V574 Pup reveals the strong coronal lines of Mg and Ne ions (but no [Ne II] at 12.8 microns), behavior that is again suggestive of an explosion on the surface of a OMgNe white dwarf. Support for this work was provided by NASA and by the The Aerospace Corporation’s Independent Research and Development progam.

  20. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS): Survey Definition and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauduit, J.-C.; Lacy, M.; Farrah, D.; Surace, J. A.; Jarvis, M.; Oliver, S.; Maraston, C.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Zeimann, G.; Gonzáles-Solares, E. A.; Pforr, J.; Petric, A. O.; Henriques, B.; Thomas, P. A.; Afonso, J.; Rettura, A.; Wilson, G.; Falder, J. T.; Geach, J. E.; Huynh, M.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.; Richards, G. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Alexander, D. M.; Becker, R. H.; Best, P. N.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bonfield, D.; Castro, N.; Cava, A.; Chapman, S.; Christopher, N.; Clements, D. L.; Covone, G.; Dubois, N.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dyke, E.; Edge, A.; Ferguson, H. C.; Foucaud, S.; Franceschini, A.; Gal, R. R.; Grant, J. K.; Grossi, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hickey, S.; Hodge, J. A.; Huang, J.-S.; Ivison, R. J.; Kim, M.; LeFevre, O.; Lehnert, M.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lubin, L. M.; McLure, R. J.; Messias, H.; Martínez-Sansigre, A.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Nielsen, D. M.; Ouchi, M.; Parish, G.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierre, M.; Rawlings, S.; Readhead, A.; Ridgway, S. E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Romer, A. K.; Rosebloom, I. G.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sajina, A.; Simpson, C. J.; Smail, I.; Squires, G. K.; Stevens, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Trichas, M.; Urrutia, T.; van Kampen, E.; Verma, A.; Xu, C. K.

    2012-07-01

    We present the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), an 18 deg2 medium-deep survey at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the postcryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope to ≈2 μJy (AB = 23.1) depth of five highly observed astronomical fields (ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-S1, Lockman Hole, Chandra Deep Field South, and XMM-LSS). SERVS is designed to enable the study of galaxy evolution as a function of environment from z ~ 5 to the present day and is the first extragalactic survey that is both large enough and deep enough to put rare objects such as luminous quasars and galaxy clusters at z gsim 1 into their cosmological context. SERVS is designed to overlap with several key surveys at optical, near- through far-infrared, submillimeter, and radio wavelengths to provide an unprecedented view of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies. In this article, we discuss the SERVS survey design, the data processing flow from image reduction and mosaicking to catalogs, and coverage of ancillary data from other surveys in the SERVS fields. We also highlight a variety of early science results from the survey. Since this article was published online on 4 August 2012, corrections have been made. An erratum appears in the October 2012 issue of the journal. The current online version was corrected on 10 October 2012.

  1. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok E-mail: sunkwok@hku.h

    2009-11-20

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 mum, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 mum band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Halpha images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  2. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet Wasp-14B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, J. E.; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.; Ciardi, D.; Plavchan, P.; Wong, I.; Lowrance, P.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling the phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of approximately two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring-mode phase curve. Both data sets, as well as snapshot-style observations of a calibration star, are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot data set, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as the amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot Jupiter. We place a limit on the potential phase to phase variation of these parameters since our data are taken over many phases over the course of a year. We see no evidence for eclipse depth variations compared to other published WASP-14b eclipse depths over a 3.5 year baseline.

  3. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet WASP-14b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, Jessica

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling phase curves of hot jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of roughly two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easy to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring mode phase curve. Both datasets as well as snapshot style observations of a calibration star are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot dataset, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot jupiter. We place a limit on the potential phase to phase variation of these parameters since our data are taken over many phases over the course of a year. We see no evidence for eclipse depth variations over a 3.5 year baseline in a comparison with literature values.

  4. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  5. SPITZER AND HEINRICH HERTZ TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF STARLESS CORES: MASSES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Balog, Zoltan; Rieke, George H.; Bieging, John H.; Kang, Miju; Peters, William L.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Heitsch, Fabian; Werner, Michael W.

    2009-12-10

    We present Spitzer observations of a sample of 12 starless cores selected to have prominent 24 mum shadows. The Spitzer images show 8 mum and 24 mum shadows and in some cases 70 mum shadows; these spatially resolved absorption features trace the densest regions of the cores. We have carried out a {sup 12}CO (2-1) and {sup 13}CO (2-1) mapping survey of these cores with the Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT). We use the shadow features to derive optical depth maps. We derive molecular masses for the cores and the surrounding environment; we find that the 24 mum shadow masses are always greater than or equal to the molecular masses derived in the same region, a discrepancy likely caused by CO freezeout onto dust grains. We combine this sample with two additional cores that we studied previously to bring the total sample to 14 cores. Using a simple Jeans mass criterion, we find that approx2/3 of the cores selected to have prominent 24 mum shadows are collapsing or near collapse, a result that is supported by millimeter line observations. Of this subset at least half have indications of 70 mum shadows. All cores observed to produce absorption features at 70 mum are close to collapse. We conclude that 24 mum shadows, and even more so the 70 mum ones, are useful markers of cloud cores that are approaching collapse.

  6. Spitzer Observations of Mutual Events in the Binary System (617) Patroclus-Menoetius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Berthier, J.; Hestroffer, D.; Harris, A.; Descamps, P.; Vachier, F.; Mottola, S.

    2007-10-01

    We report Spitzer observations of the binary Trojan system (617) Patroclus-Menoetius during two mutual events, when respectively one component shadowed and occulted the other. Observing the thermal response to mutual shadowing with spectral ( 8--33 µm) and temporal resolution allowed us to determine the system's thermal inertia in a uniquely direct way. Furthermore, our analysis provided an accurate determination of the system's size which is methodologically independent of the estimate by Berthier et al. (this session). Our results allow a more reliable estimate of the system's bulk density (the total mass was determined from the system's mutual orbit; Marchis et al., 2006; Berthier et al., this session). This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This material is partly based upon work supported by the national Aeronautics and Space Administration issue through the Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs number NNG05GF09G.

  7. Spitzer Microlens Measurement of a Massive Remnant in a Well-separated Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Bozza, V.; Friedmann, M.; Hundertmark, M.; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Calchi Novati, S.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Kerr, T.; Pogge, R. W.; Varricatt, W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bachelet, E.; Dominik, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, Keith; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Menzies, J.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Wambsganss, J.; Schmidt, R.; Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.; Mao, S.; Dong, Subo; RoboNet; D'Ago, G.; Scarpetta, G.; Verma, P.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kerins, E.; Skottfelt, J.; MiNDSTEp

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection and mass measurement of a binary lens OGLE-2015-BLG-1285La,b, with the more massive component having M1 > 1.35 M⊙ (80% probability). A main-sequence star in this mass range is ruled out by limits on blue light, meaning that a primary in this mass range must be a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH). The system has a projected separation r⊥ = 6.1 ± 0.4 AU and lies in the Galactic bulge. These measurements are based on the “microlens parallax” effect, i.e., comparing the microlensing light curve as seen from Spitzer, which lay at 1.25 AU projected from Earth, to the light curves from four ground-based surveys, three in the optical and one in the near-infrared. Future adaptive optics imaging of the companion by 30 m class telescopes will yield a much more accurate measurement of the primary mass. This discovery both opens the path and defines the challenges to detecting and characterizing BHs and NSs in wide binaries, with either dark or luminous companions. In particular, we discuss lessons that can be applied to future Spitzer and Kepler K2 microlensing parallax observations.

  8. VLT/X-shooter Spectroscopy of a dusty planetary nebula discovered with Spitzer/IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, I.; Overzier, R. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Spezzi, L.

    2011-02-01

    As part of a mid-infrared spectroscopic survey of young stars with the Spitzer Space Telescope, an unclassified red emission line object was discovered. Based on its high ionization state indicated by the Spitzer spectrum, this object could either be a dusty supernova remnant (SNR) or a planetary nebula (PN). In this research note, the object is classified and the available spectroscopic data are presented to the community for further analysis. UV/optical/NIR spectra were obtained during the science verification run of the VLT/X-shooter. A large number of emission lines are identified allowing the determination of the nature of this object. The presence of strong, narrow (Δv ~8 - 74 km s-1) emission lines, combined with very low line ratios of, e.g., [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα show that the object is a PN that lies at an undetermined distance behind the Serpens Molecular Cloud. This illustrates the potential of X-shooter as an efficient tool for constraining the nature of faint sources with unknown spectral properties or colors.

  9. A Search for Faint, Diffuse Halo Emission in Edge-On Galaxies with Spitzer/IRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Arendt, R. G.; Pipher, J. L.; Forrest, W. J.; Marengo, M.; Barmby, P.; Willner, S. P.; Stauffer, J. R.; Fazio, G. G.

    2006-12-01

    We present deep infrared mosaics of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 891, 4244, 4565, and 5907. These data were acquired at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns using the Infrared Array Camera aboard Spitzer as part of GTO program number 3. This effort is designed to detect the putative faint, diffuse emission from halos and thick disks of spiral galaxies in the near-mid infrared under the thermally stable, low-background conditions of space. These conditions in combination with the advantageous viewing angles presented by these well-known edge-on spirals provide arguably the best opportunity to characterize the halo/thick disk components of such galaxies in the infrared. In this contribution we describe our observations, data reduction techniques, corrections for artifacts in the data, and the modeling approach we applied to analyze this unique dataset. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  10. EXPLORENEOs. I. DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2010-09-15

    We have begun the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe some 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its Warm Spitzer mode. From these measurements and catalog optical photometry we derive albedos and diameters of the observed targets. The overall goal of our ExploreNEOs program is to study the history of near-Earth space by deriving the physical properties of a large number of NEOs. In this paper, we describe both the scientific and technical construction of our ExploreNEOs program. We present our observational, photometric, and thermal modeling techniques. We present results from the first 101 targets observed in this program. We find that the distribution of albedos in this first sample is quite broad, probably indicating a wide range of compositions within the NEO population. Many objects smaller than 1 km have high albedos ({approx}>0.35), but few objects larger than 1 km have high albedos. This result is consistent with the idea that these larger objects are collisionally older, and therefore possess surfaces that are more space weathered and therefore darker, or are not subject to other surface rejuvenating events as frequently as smaller NEOs.

  11. The Ice Star and the Smog Star: Spitzer Observations of Two FU Orionis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polomski, E.; Ruch, G. T.; Woodward, C. E.; Gehrz, R. D.

    2005-05-01

    RNO 1B/C and Parsamian 21 are classified as FU Ori systems based upon similarities to the optical spectra of other known FU Ori systems. FU Ori systems are believed to be actively accreting circumstellar disk systems and exhibit many phenomena associated with the early stages of disk/star evolution. We have obtained infrared imaging and spectroscopy of RNO 1B, RNO 1C and Parsamian 21 with the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations reveal a wealth of infrared features from ices, silicates, hydrocarbons, and molecular hydrogen. RNO 1B/C and Parsamian 21 show extremely different mineralogy; the RNO 1B and 1C systems are dominated by ices and silicates, whereas Parsamian 21 is dominated by emission from hydrocarbon grains similar to those found in smog. These features are indicative of the grain sizes, extinction, and composition of the dust in the circumstellar environments of these stars. We present 3-70 micron imaging and infrared and optical spectroscopy of these objects and explore the relationship of the spectral features to the FU Ori phenomena and circumstellar disk evolution. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. The authors were supported in part through contracts 1256406 and 1215746 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.

  12. A Spitzer Infrared Radius for the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458 b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the infrared transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observed two primary eclipse events (one partial and one complete transit) using the 24 micrometer array of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We analyzed a total of 2392 individual images (10-second integrations) of the planetary system, recorded before, during, and after transit. We perform optimal photometry on the images and use the local zodiacal light as a short-term flux reference. At this long wavelength, the transit curve has a simple box-like shape, allowing robust solutions for the stellar and planetary radii independent of stellar limb darkening, which is negligible at 24 micrometers. We derive a stellar radius of R(sub *) = 1.06 plus or minus 0.07 solar radius, a planetary radius of R(sub p) = 1.26 plus or minus 0.08 R(sub J), and a stellar mass of 1.17 solar mass. Within the errors, our results agree with the measurements at visible wavelengths. The 24 micrometer radius of the planet therefore does not differ significantly compared to the visible result. We point out the potential for deriving extrasolar transiting planet radii to high accuracy using transit photometry at slightly shorter IR wavelengths where greater photometric precision is possible.

  13. Spitzer Observations of Young Stars in the Witch Head Nebula (IC2118)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, T. S.; Bowser, D. H., II; Ehrhart, B. R.; Maranto, A. R.; Greer, M. T.; Preis, J. V.; Weston, P. D.; Rebull, L. M.; Roelofsen, T. E.; Sepulveda, B.; Hughes, A. S.; Sharma, N. D.; Weehler, C. R.; Herrera, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Two high-Galactic latitude molecular clouds (HLC) in the region of IC 2118, the Witch Head Nebula, appear to be forming stars (Kun et al. 2004). Star formation in HLCs, while rare, may be the origin of some of the apparently isolated T Tauri stars revealed by ROSAT. At only ˜210 pc away, the clouds in IC 2118 are thought to be excited by Rigel. Kun et al. (2004) reported the discovery of several T Tauri stars in this region and estimated their ages to be 2.5 Myr. We observed a ˜15'}×15{' region centered on the head of the northernmost cloud with Spitzer, using IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 microns) and MIPS (24, 70, and 160 microns). We have approximately quadrupled the number of known or suspected young objects in this region. In this poster, we will present color-color plots and SEDs of these stars, and we will compare the properties of these stars to those of other star-forming regions. These observations are part of the Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students, so these data are also being used for educational purposes; please see our companion educational poster by Weehler et al.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  15. Spitzer infrared spectrograph point source classification in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffle, Paul M. E.; Kemper, F.; Jones, O. C.; Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Woods, Paul M.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Antoniou, V.; Lagadec, E.; Matsuura, M.; McDonald, I.; Oliveira, J. M.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewiło, M.; Szczerba, R.; van Loon, J. Th.; Volk, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are uniquely placed to study the stellar contribution to dust emission. Individual stars can be resolved in these systems even in the mid-infrared, and they are close enough to allow detection of infrared excess caused by dust. We have searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for all Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) staring-mode observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and found that 209 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) point sources within the footprint of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy programme were targeted, within a total of 311 staring-mode observations. We classify these point sources using a decision tree method of object classification, based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information. We find 58 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 51 young stellar objects, 4 post-AGB objects, 22 red supergiants, 27 stars (of which 23 are dusty OB stars), 24 planetary nebulae (PNe), 10 Wolf-Rayet stars, 3 H II regions, 3 R Coronae Borealis stars, 1 Blue Supergiant and 6 other objects, including 2 foreground AGB stars. We use these classifications to evaluate the success of photometric classification methods reported in the literature.

  16. The Spitzer Ultra-Deep Survey of the HST/ERS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Soifer, Tom; Willner, Steven; Ashby, Matt; Hora, Joseph; Huang, Jiasheng; Wang, Zhong

    2011-02-01

    The HST WFC3 Early Release Science (ERS) observations in the GOODS South field, together with the existing HST ACS observations provide a panchromatic 10-band survey of the ERS field that cover 40-50 square arcmin over the wavelength interval 0.2 to 1.7 microns to WFC3/IR depths of AB ~ 27.3 mag (5 sigma) for point sources. Such a deep, multiwavelegth survey provides a unique opportunity to study galaxy evolution out to z ~ 8 and even possibly to z ~ 10. These early galaxies are important because they serve as beacons of the first sites of star formation, as a constraint on galaxy formation models, and as probes of reionization. The only limitation to even further progress in exploring the early universe using the ERS data is the current depth of Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data in this field. IRAC adds the unique and important capability of tracing early galaxy stellar mass growth, stellar ages, and star formation rates back to z ~ 7 - 10. In this DDT program we propose significantly increasing the IRAC depth achieved in a 5'x5' area in the ERS field to ~ 27 AB mag (5 sigma, 3.6 micron). This probe of the early Universe to such a depth by HST and Spitzer/IRAC, will have a major impact on our knowledge of the galaxy evolution and leave an important legacy for years to come.

  17. Execution of the Spitzer In-orbit Checkout and Science Verification Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, John W.; Linick, Susan H.; Long, Stacia; Gilbert, John; Garcia, Mark; Boyles, Carole; Werner, Michael; Wilson, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope is an 85-cm telescope with three cryogenically cooled instruments. Following launch, the observatory was initialized and commissioned for science operations during the in-orbit checkout (IOC) and science verification (SV) phases, carried out over a total of 98.3 days. The execution of the IOC/SV mission plan progressively established Spitzer capabilities taking into consideration thermal, cryogenic, optical, pointing, communications, and operational designs and constraints. The plan was carried out with high efficiency, making effective use of cryogen-limited flight time. One key component to the success of the plan was the pre-launch allocation of schedule reserve in the timeline of IOC/SV activities, and how it was used in flight both to cover activity redesign and growth due to continually improving spacecraft and instrument knowledge, and to recover from anomalies. This paper describes the adaptive system design and evolution, implementation, and lessons learned from IOC/SV operations. It is hoped that this information will provide guidance to future missions with similar engineering challenges

  18. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Photometry of 500 - 750 K Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Burningham, B.; Delfosse, X.; Delorme, P.; Forveille, T.; Lucas, P. W.; Marley, M. S.; Pinfield, D. J.; Reylé, C.; Saumon, D.; Smart, R. L.; Warren, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (Teff) drops from 800 K to 400 K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3μm increases rapidly, from about 40% to >75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with typ