Science.gov

Sample records for spixii rodentia caviomorpha

  1. Hematologic and plasma biochemical values of Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    PubMed

    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Borjal, Raffy Jim; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Taha, Abid Sharif; Watson, Ryan William; Steinmetz, Hanspeter; Bürkle, Marcellus; Hammer, Sven

    2007-12-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is considered the world's most endangered parrot, with the last wild bird disappearing in 2001 and only 74 birds in captivity. To establish hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges and to look for differences relative to sex, age, and season, we obtained blood samples from 46 captive Spix's macaws (23 male, 23 female) housed in aviaries at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. No significant differences in hematologic or plasma biochemical values were found between females and males. Adult and juvenile birds differed in mean concentrations of glucose, total protein, amylase, cholesterol, and phosphorus; in percentages of heterophils and lymphocytes; and in the absolute lymphocyte count. Total protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus concentrations; hematocrit; and heterophil and lymphocyte counts differed significantly by season. Baseline hematologic and plasma biochemical ranges were established, which may be useful as reference values for clinicians working with this highly endangered species. PMID:18351006

  2. Radiographic measurement of internal organs in Spix's macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii).

    PubMed

    Rettmer, Helen; Deb, Amrita; Watson, Ryan; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2011-12-01

    Radiology is an important diagnostic instrument in avian medicine, but standard measurement ranges for the objective evaluation of radiographs of birds are rare. To establish radiographic reference ranges for the critically endangered Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), we measured radiographic silhouettes of the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, proventriculus, and keel of the sternum on 29 radiographs taken under standardized conditions in adult and juvenile, clinically healthy birds. Ratios were determined for the proventricular diameter-to-keel height, the width of the heart to the width of the thorax, and for the "hourglass shape" (ratio of the width of the heart to the width of the liver). No significant differences were found between the sexes among the adult birds. Compared with adult birds, juvenile females had a significantly larger heart width (19.8 +/- 1.4 mm versus 21.2 +/- 0.7 mm), ratio of the heart width to the thorax width (0.86 +/- 0.08 versus 0.94 +/- 0.09), and horizontal width of the spleen (7.7 +/- 0.6 mm versus 8.5 +/- 0.4 mm). Results of radiographic measurements in the Spix's macaws were comparable to those published from other psittacine species. These reference ranges will facilitate a more objective radiographic evaluation of captive Spix's macaws. PMID:22458180

  3. Biological characterization of the Amazon coral Micrurus spixii snake venom: Isolation of a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Terra, Angelo L C; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Monteiro, José Roniele N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Gallacci, Márcia; Barros, Neuza B; Nicolete, Roberto; Teles, Carolina B G; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Zanchi, Fernando B; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-09-01

    The Micrurus genus is the American representative of Elapidae family. Micrurus spixii is endemic of South America and northern states of Brazil. Elapidic venoms contain neurotoxins that promote curare-mimetic neuromuscular blockage. In this study, biochemical and functional characterizations of M. spixii crude venom were performed and a new neurotoxic phospholipase A2 called MsPLA2-I was isolated. M. spixii crude venom caused severe swelling in the legs of tested mice and significant release of creatine kinase (CK) showing its myotoxic activity. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 1.24 ?g/mL) was also observed, along with antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, which are unprecedented for Micrurus venoms. MsPLA2-I with a Mr 12,809.4 Da was isolated from the crude venom of M. spixii. The N-terminal sequencing of a fragment of 60 amino acids showed 80% similarity with another PLA2 from Micrurus altirostris. This toxin and the crude venom showed phospholipase activity. In a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, M. spixii venom and MsPLA2-I induced the blockage of both direct and indirect twitches. While the venom presented a pronounced myotoxic activity, MsPLA2-I expressed a summation of neurotoxic activity. The results of this study make M. spixii crude venom promising compounds in the exploration of molecules with microbicidal potential. PMID:26095535

  4. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    E-print Network

    Horacek, Ivan

    Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe Ivan Hora´cek1, Nadachowski A (2013) Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe. PLo

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Crassostrea rhizophorae and Cathorops spixii from the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Gobin, Judith F; Beckles, Denise M; Lauckner, Bruce; Mohammed, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may pose serious threats to human health. However, within the Caribbean, quantitative assessments regarding the risks associated with dietary PAH exposure remain sparse. This study investigated PAH presence in edible biota from the Caroni Swamp and quantitatively assessed the potential health threat to human consumers. Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and Madamango sea catfish (Cathorops spixii) collected from seven sites in the Caroni Swamp were analysed for 16 priority PAHs. Total PAH levels ranged from 109?±?18.4 to 362?±?63.0 ng/g dry wt. in Crassostrea rhizophorae and 7.5?±?0.9 to 43.5?±?25.5 ng/g dry wt. in Cathorops spixii (average?±?standard deviation). Benzo[a]pyrene levels in Crassostrea rhizophorae at all sites exceeded international guidelines from British Colombia (Canada) and the European Union (EU). Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values based on the ingestion of Crassostrea rhizophorae ranged from 8.4?×?10(-6) to 1.6?×?10(-5) and slightly exceeded the commonly used 1?×?10(-6) acceptable level of risk. Information from this study is important in understanding the potential health risks posed by PAHs, it is critical towards the protection of public health, and it serves as a useful baseline for comparison with future work. PMID:25142345

  6. Population Dynamics and Diet of the Madamango Sea Catfish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in a Tropical Bight in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Denadai, Márcia; Pombo, Maíra; Santos, Flávia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adriana; Turra, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Siluriformes: Ariidae), is often among the most abundant fishes on the South American Atlantic coast. In the present study, conducted in shallow, non-estuarine coastal areas of Caraguatatuba Bight in southeastern Brazil, collections of this species, the most abundant member of the ichthyofauna, included primarily medium-sized individuals, indicating that the area may play a specific role in their development. Although studies of the local ichthyofauna have been much neglected, the area is economically important and its ecological significance is undervalued. This study primarily treats habitat use by C. spixii, assessing certain population parameters and the dietary composition. Monthly samples were taken from August 2003 through October 2004, with three trawls in two areas, corresponding to depths of about 1 to 4 m. The catfish showed two main peaks of abundance in the area, in April/May and July 2004. A mode around 9 cm SL persisted through time, and the entrance of younger recruits peaked from January to April. The low estimate for body-growth parameters (K?=?0.16) corroborates some K-strategist characteristics of the species. The asymptotic length was 27.3 cm SL and total mortality (Z) was 1.01 yr?1. Cathorops spixii showed an omnivorous feeding habit, preying mainly upon polychaetes, copepods and bivalves, with considerable seasonality in its diet. PMID:24282575

  7. Analysis of growth rate variables and postfeeding regurgitation in hand-reared Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) chicks.

    PubMed

    Groffen, Heidi; Watson, Ryan; Hammer, Sven; Raidal, Shane R

    2008-09-01

    The Spix's macaw, or little blue macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), is one of the most critically endangered bird species in the world. In 1990, the Brazilian Nature Conservation Authority established a permanent committee to oversee the captive breeding of about 20 individual Spix's macaws held in various locations throughout the world. Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) successfully bred 10 Spix's macaws in the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons but intermittent episodes of postfeeding regurgitation in hand-raised chicks prompted the need to better understand and monitor the nutritional and physiologic requirements of growing nestlings. To ascertain and rank the possible causes of regurgitation in chicks, we undertook a critical analysis of the feeding, growth, and health data recorded for each individual hand-raised chick. Factors such as the total daily food intake (TDFI), growth curves, nursery room climate (temperature and humidity), and nutritional requirements were investigated as well as any health issues. Chicks attained a maximum body weight of 375 +/- 25 g at 45 days and then gradually lost weight until they reached a weaning weight of 300 +/- 30 g. The maximum daily volume of food that each chick received was 101 +/- 29 g at 42 days of age, which was also the age at which a peak in postfeeding regurgitation episodes occurred. The TDFI as a percentage of body weight peaked (83.1 +/- 12.3%) at day 3 of age and dropped to 30.1 +/- 2.3% by day 45 and then to 19.6 +/- 1.1% at day 92. Detailed analyses of the 2005 and 2006 records indicate that the regurgitation episodes may be primarily the result of overfeeding during the second trimester of hand-rearing. Our results indicate that smaller meals during the period when chicks are attaining their maximum body weights may contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of regurgitation episodes in hand-reared Spix's macaws. PMID:19014091

  8. Acariform mites (Acariformes) - permanent symbionts of Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia, Muridae) in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bochkov, Andre V.; Abramov, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of parasitic acariform mites (Acariformes) are described from the Delacour’s marmoset rat Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae) in Vietnam: Afrolistrophorus (Afrolistrophorus) hapalomys sp. n. (Listrophoridae) and Radfordia (Radfordia) mirabilis sp. n. (Myobiidae). Based on morphological evidences, we show that species of both mite genera associated with Hapalomys Blyth do not demonstrate clear phylogenetic links with respective congeners from rodents of the closest genus Chiropodomys Peters (Rodentia: Muridae). PMID:25561857

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Marmota himalayana (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and phylogenetic analysis within Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Chao, Q J; Li, Y D; Geng, X X; Zhang, L; Dai, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Zhang, H J

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana, class Marmota). We determined the M. himalayana mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence by using long-PCR methods and a primer-walking sequencing strategy with genus-specific primers. The complete mt genome of M. himalayana was 16,443 bp in length and comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a typical control region (CR). Gene order and orientation were identical to those in mt genomes of most vertebrates. The heavy strand showed an overall A+T content of 63.49%. AT and GC skews for the mt genome of the M. himalayana were 0.012 and -0.300, respectively, indicating a nucleotide bias against T and G. The control region was 997 bp in size and displayed some unusual features, including absence of repeated motifs and two conserved sequence blocks (CSB2 and CSB3), which is consistent with observations from two other rodent species, Sciurus vulgaris and Myoxus glis. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mt DNA sequences without the control region including 30 taxa of Rodentia was performed with Maximum-Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods and provided strong support for Sciurognathi polyphyly and Hystricognathi monophyly. This analysis also provided evidence that M. himalayana mt DNA was closely related to that from Sciurus vulgaris (Sciuridae) and was similar to mt DNA from Myoxus glis. PMID:24782088

  10. DNA barcoding of Murinae (Rodentia: Muridae) and Arvicolinae (Rodentia: Cricetidae) distributed in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Cai, Yansen; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yang, Min; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Identification of rodents is very difficult mainly due to high similarities in morphology and controversial taxonomy. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as DNA barcode to identify the Murinae and Arvicolinae species distributed in China and to facilitate the systematics studies of Rodentia. In total, 242 sequences (31 species, 11 genera) from Murinae and 130 sequences (23 species, 6 genera) from Arvicolinae were investigated, of which 90 individuals were novel. Genetic distance, threshold method, tree-based method, online BLAST and BLOG were employed to analyse the data sets. There was no obvious barcode gap. The average K2P distance within species and genera was 2.10% and 12.61% in Murinae, and 2.86% and 11.80% in Arvicolinae, respectively. The optimal threshold was 5.62% for Murinae and 3.34% for Arvicolinae. All phylogenetic trees exhibited similar topology and could distinguish 90.32% of surveyed species in Murinae and 82.60% in Arvicolinae with high support values. BLAST analyses yielded similar results with identification success rates of 92.15% and 93.85% for Murinae and Arvicolinae, respectively. BLOG successfully authenticated 100% of detected species except Leopoldamys edwardsi based on the latest taxonomic revision. Our results support the species status of recently recognized Micromys erythrotis, Eothenomys tarquinius and E. hintoni and confirm the important roles of comprehensive taxonomy and accurate morphological identification in DNA barcoding studies. We believe that, when proper analytic methods are applied or combined, DNA barcoding could serve as an accurate and effective species identification approach for Murinae and Arvicolinae based on a proper taxonomic framework. PMID:24838015

  11. Marmota caligata (Rodentia: Sciuridae) JANET K. BRAUN, T. SCOTT EATON, JR., AND MICHAEL A. MARES

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    Marmota caligata (Rodentia: Sciuridae) JANET K. BRAUN, T. SCOTT EATON, JR., AND MICHAEL A. MARES pruinosa Richardson, 1828:518. Not Arctomys pruinosa Gmelin, 1788. Arctomys caligata Eschscholtz, 1829 to ``near Bristol Bay,'' Dillingham County, Alaska by J. A. Allen (1877:927). Arctomys? pruinosus Richardson

  12. A newly recognized clade of trans-Andean Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Cricetidae), with description of a new genus.

    E-print Network

    Pine, Ronald H.; Timm, Robert M.; Weksler, Marcelo

    2012-06-01

    clade of trans-Andean Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Cricetidae), with description of a new genus RONALD H. PINE, ROBERT M. TIMM,* AND MARCELO WEKSLER Division of Mammals, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA (RHP...

  13. Identification of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus in house mouse (Mus musculus, Rodentia) in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Anne; de Thoisy, Benoît; Tirera, Sourakhata; Donato, Damien; Bouchier, Christiane; Catzeflis, François; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-seven house mice (Mus musculus, Rodentia) caught in different localities in French Guiana were screened to investigate the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV). Two animals trapped in an urban area were found positive, hosting a new strain of LCMV, that we tentatively named LCMV "Comou". The complete sequence was determined using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this strain is related to genetic lineage I composed of strains inducing severe disease in humans. These results emphasize the need for active surveillance in humans as well as in house mouse populations, which is a rather common rodent in French Guianese cities and settlements. PMID:26631809

  14. First Molecular Characterization of Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae) from Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) in India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Urvashi; Chaudhary, Anshu; Verma, Chandni; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2015-09-01

    Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) were infected by a nematode belonging to the order Oxyurida. According to external morphological characters it was found to be Aspiculuris tetraptera Schulz, 1924. Present communication deals with molecular characterization of A. tetraptera infecting intestine of Mus musculus in Meerut (U.P.), India. A partial sequence of 18S ribosomal and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox 1) mitochondrial DNA analyses were performed. Sequence corresponding to 18S rRNA and mt Cox 1 gene was identical to sequences reported for A. tetraptera on GenBank. These results confirm the taxonomic validation of A. tetraptera parasitizing Mus musculus. This is the first report of molecular study of A. tetraptera in India. PMID:26204196

  15. Mites of the subgenus Neotomobia n. subg. (Acariformes: Myobiidae: Radfordia), parasites of the subfamily Neotominae (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    A new subgenus Neotomobia n. subg. (Acariformes: Myobiidae: Radfordia) is established for species parasitising rodents of the subfamily Neotominae (Rodentia: Cricetidae): Radfordia subuliger Ewing, 1938 (type-species), Radfordia eremici Fain & Bochkov, 2002, Radfordia neotomae Jameson & Whitaker, 1975 and Radfordia hamiltoni Jameson & Whitaker, 1975. Three new species are described: Radfordia peromyscus n. sp. from Peromyscus megalops Merriam from Mexico, Radfordia onychomys n. sp. from Onychomys leucogaster (Wied-Neuwied) from the USA and Radfordia megadontomys n. sp. from Megadontomys thomasi (Merriam) from Mexico. PMID:25204596

  16. Hidden heterochromatin: Characterization in the Rodentia species Cricetus cricetus, Peromyscus eremicus (Cricetidae) and Praomys tullbergi (Muridae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The use of in situ restriction endonuclease (RE) (which cleaves DNA at specific sequences) digestion has proven to be a useful technique in improving the dissection of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), and in the understanding of the CH evolution in different genomes. In the present work we describe in detail the CH of the three Rodentia species, Cricetus cricetus, Peromyscus eremicus (family Cricetidae) and Praomys tullbergi (family Muridae) using a panel of seven REs followed by C-banding. Comparison of the amount, distribution and molecular nature of C-positive heterochromatin revealed molecular heterogeneity in the heterochromatin of the three species. The large number of subclasses of CH identified in Praomys tullbergi chromosomes indicated that the karyotype of this species is the more derived when compared with the other two genomes analyzed, probably originated by a great number of complex chromosomal rearrangements. The high level of sequence heterogeneity identified in the CH of the three genomes suggests the coexistence of different satellite DNA families, or variants of these families in these genomes. PMID:21637647

  17. The tubular compartment and the spermatogenic dynamics of the wild rodent Oxymycterus nasutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Morais, Ana Carolina Torre; Balarini, Maytê Koch; Lopes, Elizabeth Oliveira; Menezes, Tatiana Prata; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Morais, Danielle Barbosa; Gomes, Marcos de Lucca M; Matta, Sérgio Luis P da

    2014-10-01

    Despite the order Rodentia present worldwide distribution and large number of species in the Brazilian fauna, detailed studies on testicular morphophysiology are still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the dynamics of the spermatogenic process of Oxymycterus nasutus using morphometrical and stereological tools. Testicles from ten sexually mature males were used, showing a gonadosomatic index of 0.89%. The testicular parenchyma showed one of the highest tubulesomatic indexes reported among wild rodents - 0.82% - from which 65.12% was allocated into seminiferous epithelium. The average tubular diameter was 249.89 ?m, whereas the epithelium height was 62.47 ?m and the total length was 18.62 m per gram of testis. Eight different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were described. Stage 1 was used for counting the germ cell population as well as the Sertoli cells. On average, 3.47 type-A spermatogonia, 24.39 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 24.13 primary spermatocytes in pachytene, 68.38 round spermatids and 7.33 Sertoli cells were found per tubular cross section. There were 91.02 × 10(6) Sertoli cells per gram of testis and each cell was able to support 9.33 spermatids and 16.43 germ cells. The coefficient of spermatogonial mitosis was 7.02, while 2.83 spermatids were produced for each primary spermatocyte in pachytene. The overall efficiency of spermatogenesis was 19.70 cells, whereas the sperm reserve per gram of testis totalized 849.63 × 10(6) spermatids. Therefore, the presented data showed that O. nasutus shows a high energetic investment in reproduction, corroborating the findings for other species of the Cricetidae family. PMID:25037444

  18. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Naiff, Roberto Daibes; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3-8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice. PMID:24309069

  19. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3–8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice. PMID:24309069

  20. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 843 specimens bearing names of 820 species group taxa of Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) as of July 2011. This catalog presents a list of these holdings, which comprise 798 holotypes, 14 lectotypes, seven syntypes (30 specimens), and one neotype. In addition, we include three holotypes and 10 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found and three syntypes that were originally in this collection but are now known to be in other collections. One specimen that no longer has name-bearing status is included for the record. Forty-one of the names are new since the last type catalog. One new lectotype is designated. Suborders and families are listed as in Wilson and Reeder. Within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically. Within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, type locality, date of collection and name of collector, collector’s original number, and comments or additional information as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen serve as a condition report and will be linked to each electronic specimen record.

  1. Body Shape and Life Style of the Extinct Balearic Dormouse Hypnomys (Rodentia, Gliridae): New Evidence from the Study of Associated Skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep A.; Michaux, Jacques J.; Hautier, Lionel; Hutterer, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Hypnomys is a genus of Gliridae (Rodentia) that occurred in the Balearic Islands until Late Holocene. Recent finding of a complete skeleton of the chronospecies H. morpheus (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) and two articulated skeletons of H. cf. onicensis (Late Pliocene) allowed the inference of body size and the calculation of several postcranial indexes. We also performed a Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA) in order to evaluate locomotory behaviour and body shape of the taxa. Using allometric models based on skull and tooth measurements, we calculated a body weight between 173 and 284 g for H. morpheus, and direct measurements of articulated skeletons yielded a Head and Body Length (HBL) of 179 mm and a Total Body Length of 295 mm for this species. In addition to the generally higher robustness of postcranial bones already recorded by previous authors, H. morpheus, similar to Canariomys tamarani, another extinct island species, displayed elongated zygopodium bones of the limbs and a wider distal humerus and femur than in an extant related taxon, Eliomys quercinus. Indexes indicated that Hypnomys was more terrestrial and had greater fossorial abilities than E. quercinus. This was also corroborated by a Discriminant Analysis, although no clear additional inference of locomotory abilities could be calculated. PMID:21209820

  2. Rediscovery and New Morphological Data on Two Hassalstrongylus (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) Coparasitic in the Marsh Rat Holochilus chacarius (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Digiani, María Celina; Notarnicola, Juliana; Navone, Graciela T

    2015-10-01

    Two species of Hassalstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1971 , coparasitic in Holochilus chacarius Thomas (Rodentia, Cricetidae) and not recorded since their original description in 1937, were newly found in their type host and locality. Hassalstrongylus mazzai ( Freitas, Lent and Almeida, 1937 ) and Hassalstrongylus argentinus ( Freitas, Lent and Almeida, 1937 ) were obtained from Ho. chacarius from 2 different populations: one from Salta Province (northwest Argentina) and another from Chaco Province (northeast Argentina). The species described as Heligmonoides mazzai Freitas, Lent and Almeida, 1937 had been transferred to Hassalstrongylus even though its synlophe had never been studied. We provide the first descriptions and illustrations of the synlophe of males and females of Hassalstrongylus mazzai and the female of H. argentinus and account for morphological and metrical variability. We confirm, through the study of the synlophe, the placement of Hassalstrongylus mazzai in the genus Hassalstrongylus and designate neotypes for the species because the type material deposited by the authors could not be found. Females of both species were morphologically very similar, and a principal components analysis (PCA) performed on some morphometrical characters showed that the body length, uterus length, and an unexpected character as the number of eggs were useful characters in the discrimination of both species. PMID:26193068

  3. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  4. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 945 specimens bearing names of 931 species-group taxa of Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) as of August 2013. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 905 holotypes, 16 lectotypes, 8 syntypes (48 specimens), and 2 neotypes. In addition, we include 44 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and ten of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these suborders A lectotype for Mus peruvianus Peale, 1848, is newly designated herein. Nine specimens previously reported were subsequently sent to the vertebrate paleontology collection and are not included here. Suborders and families are ordered as in Carleton and Musser; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  5. Rodentia and lagomorpha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffield, S.R.; Sawicka-Kapusta, K.; Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive review examines the extensive literature on wild rodents and lagomorphs as biomonitors of environmental contamination. This chapter covers studies dealing with exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on rodent and lagomorph species, including pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, herbicides, plant growth regulators, fungicides, and rodenticides), other organic chemicals, metals, radionuclides, and other miscellaneous contaminants. Many research needs become evident when reviewing ecotoxicological data for rodents and lagomorphs, the most striking being the paucity of information on rodent families other than Muridae (mice and rats). While our ability to qualitatively extrapolate effects observed in laboratory studies to field situations is good for a variety of contaminants, quantitative predictions of dose-response relationships are poor because inter-specific variation and differences in exposure patterns between laboratory and wild species to toxicants are for the most part unknown. More sophisticated comparative toxicity studies need to be undertaken that build on previous work in order to develop a database of information, to account for and model differences in exposure pathways, to document interactions among multiple stressors, to generate data establishing thresholds, critical concentrations, and diagnostic guidelines, and even to develop physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. Such efforts may enhance our ability to predict effects on wild populations, including threatened and endangered species.

  6. A Golgi study of the sixth layer of the cerebral cortex. I. The lissencephalic brain of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora and Chiroptera.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Fabregues, I; Condom, E

    1986-04-01

    A study of the morphological characteristics of the neurons in layer VI of the cerebral cortex was carried out using the rapid Golgi method in several lissencephalic species including Rodentia (rat, mouse, vole (Microtus agrestis) and hamster), Lagomorpha (rabbit), Insectivora (hedgehog) and in the Chiroptera the dwarf bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus). There was a basic uniformity in the structure of the sixth layer. Main neuronal types in lamina VIa were large pyramidal neurons, triangular or atypical pyramidal cells, multiapical pyramidal neurons, inverted pyramids, fusiform neurons, Martinotti cells and bi-tufted cells. Main neuronal types in lamina VIb were medium sized, flattened pyramids, large and small horizontal neurons, horizontal pyramidal cells, fan shaped neurons and multipolar spinous neurons with long descending axons. Sparsely spinous and spine-free multipolar neurons with short axons were present in the two laminae of layer VI, but sparsely spinous neurons with axons similar to those found in basket cells of other layers of the cortex were observed mainly in lamina VIa. Neuronal subsystems were tentatively classified on the basis of the course of the axons. Pyramidal neurons, fusiform neurons, multiapical pyramidal cells, inverted pyramidal cells, fan shaped neurons and multipolar neurons with large descending axons were interpreted as being the main source of long projection and association connections. Large horizontal neurons were interpreted as possible ipsilateral association neurons because the horizontal course of the axons over long distances followed the boundary of the deeper region of the sixth layer. Three intracortical (association) subsystems were included. Axons of Martinotti cells and collateral ascending axons of pyramidal neurons (including multiapical pyramidal neurons) formed the ascending interlaminar fibrillary subsystem. Axons of small horizontal cells and horizontal collaterals of pyramidal neurons formed the horizontal intracortical subsystem. Sparsely spinous and spine-free multipolar neurons and bi-tufted cells were the main source of the local, non-horizontal fibrillary subsystem. PMID:3429306

  7. Molecular Identification of Food Sources in Triatomines in the Brazilian Northeast: Roles of Goats and Rodents in Chagas Disease Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Fernandes, Fabiano Araújo; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro; Sarquis, Otília; Harry, Myriam; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Marli Maria

    2015-11-01

    We used the gut contents of triatomines collected from rural areas of Ceará State, northeastern Brazil, to identify their putative hosts via vertebrate cytb gene sequencing. Successful direct sequencing was obtained for 48% of insects, comprising 50 Triatoma brasiliensis, 7 Triatoma pseudomaculata, and 1 Rhodnius nasutus. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) procedure revealed that domestic animals, such as chickens (Gallus gallus) and goats (Capra hircus), are the main food source, including in sylvatic environment. Native hosts were also detected in peridomestic environment such as reptiles (Tropidurus sp. and Iguana iguana) and the Galea spixii (Rodentia: Caviidae). The role of goats and Galea spixii in Chagas disease epidemiology calls for further studies, because these mammals likely link the sylvatic and domestic Trypanosoma cruzi cycles. PMID:26350453

  8. Capture of syncytin-Mar1, a fusogenic endogenous retroviral envelope gene involved in placentation in the Rodentia squirrel-related clade.

    PubMed

    Redelsperger, François; Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Tennant, Bud C; Catzeflis, François; Mulot, Baptiste; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry; Dupressoir, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Syncytin genes are fusogenic envelope protein (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Within rodents, two such genes have previously been identified in the mouse-related clade, allowing a demonstration of their essential role via knockout mice. Here, we searched for similar genes in a second major clade of the Rodentia order, the squirrel-related clade, taking advantage of the complete sequencing of the ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus genome. In silico search for env genes with full coding capacity identified several candidate genes with one displaying placenta-specific expression, as revealed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of a large panel of tissues. This gene belongs to a degenerate endogenous retroviral element, with recognizable hallmarks of an integrated provirus. Cloning of the gene in an expression vector for ex vivo cell-cell fusion and pseudotype assays demonstrated fusogenicity on a large panel of mammalian cells. In situ hybridization on placenta sections showed specific expression in domains where trophoblast cells fuse into a syncytiotrophoblast at the fetomaternal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. Finally, we show that the gene is conserved among the tribe Marmotini, thus dating its capture back to about at least 25 million years ago, with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. This gene that we named syncytin-Mar1 is distinct from all seven Syncytin genes identified to date in eutherian mammals and is likely to be a major effector of placentation in its related clade. Importance: Syncytin genes are fusogenic envelope genes of retroviral origin, ancestrally captured for a function in placentation. Within rodents, two such genes had been previously identified in the mouse-related clade. Here, in the squirrel-related rodent clade, we identified the envelope gene of an endogenous retrovirus with all the features of a Syncytin: it is specifically expressed in the placenta of the woodchuck Marmota monax, at the level of cells fusing into a syncytium; it can trigger cell-cell and virus-cell fusion ex vivo; and it has been conserved for >25 million years of evolution, suggesting an essential role in its host physiology. Remarkably, syncytin-Mar1 is unrelated to all other Syncytin genes identified thus far in mammals (primates, muroids, carnivores, and ruminants). These results extend the range of retroviral envelope gene "domestication" in mammals and show that these events occurred independently, on multiple occasions during evolution to improve placental development in a process of convergent evolution. PMID:24789792

  9. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents. PMID:23734597

  10. Population Genetics of Kangaroo Mice, Microdipodops (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) 

    E-print Network

    Andersen, John

    2012-07-16

    also want to extend my gratitude to everyone in the lab during the course of this project. I would especially like to thank M. A. Renshaw for helping teach me all of the laboratory methods and D. S. Portnoy for his patience in all data analysis... .............................................................................. 11 Data analysis ........................................................................................ 13 3. RESULTS ............................................................................................................ 17...

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lasiopodomys mandarinus mandarinus (Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Li, Yangwei; Lu, Jiqi; Wang, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    Mandarin voles (Lasiopodomys mandarinus) is a subterranean rodent species that are often used as a model for studying subterranean hypoxic stress in mammals. Its subspecies L. m. mandarinus span in cropland in most area of north China and is regarded as an agricultural pest. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of L. m. mandarinus has been determined. Our results showed that the mitochondrial genome of L. m. mandarinus is a circular molecule of 16?367?bp, which contents 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 32.47% A, 27.04% T, 27.01% C, and 13.47% G. with an AT content of 59.51%. PMID:26258511

  12. Phylogeographic Study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, C. William; Liu, Shao-Ying; Yu, Fa-Hong; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2012-01-01

    Background The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp) were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. Conclusions Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:22347481

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cricetulus kamensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunlan; Yue, Hao; Liu, Mengyao; Huang, Ting; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Shaoying

    2016-03-01

    The Cricetulus kamensis is endemic to China and is popular as pet. In the present study, the complete mitogenome of C. kamensis was first determined. It was 16,270?bp in length and the composition and arrangement of its genes are analogous to most other mammals. The overall base composition of heavy strand is 33.2% A, 26.8% T, 27.2% C and 12.7% G. The sequence is highly G-C poor (?40%) and A is the most numerous nucleotide followed by T?>C?>G, which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. It is notable that three extra bases "CAT" were inserted in cytb at the 3' end position and no stop codon was found for this coding region. The mitogenome sequence of C. kamensis could contribute to a better solution of its phylogenetic position and phylogenetic relationship within Cricetinae in the future. PMID:24963764

  14. Dietary Ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): A Geometric Morphometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

  15. Chromosome Polymorphism in Microtus(Alexandromys)mujanensis (Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kartavtseva, Irina V; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Golenishchev, Fedor N; Sheremetyeva, Irina N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    The Muya Valley vole (Microtus mujanensis) has a constant diploid chromosome number of 2n = 38, but an unstable karyotype with polymorphic chromosome pairs. Here, we describe 4 karyotypic variants involving 2 polymorphic chromosome pairs, MMUJ8 and MMUJ14, in 6 animals from Buryatia using a combination of GTG-banding and chromosome painting with M. agrestis probes. We suggest that the polymorphic pairs MMUJ8 and MMUJ14 were formed through pericentric inversions that played a major role during karyotype evolution of the species. We also propose that the stable diploid number with some ongoing polymorphism in the number of chromosome arms indicates that this evolutionarily young endemic species of Russian Far East is on the way to karyotype and likely species stabilization. PMID:26314555

  16. 44(896):5963 Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae)

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    , 1842:360. Type locality ``Bor- ba,'' Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil. Sciurus tricolor Tschudi, 1844],'' Amazonas, Brazil. Macroxus fumigatus Gray, 1867:428. Type locality ``Upper Amazons, Brazil.'' Macroxus, [Amazonas,] Venezuela,'' dismissed as a composite specimen by Lawrence (1988). Sciurus langsdorffii urucumus

  17. Children's Attitudes towards Animals: Evidence from the RODENTIA Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Franco, Nuno H.; Brosseron, Francis; Tavares, Fernando; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Borlido-Santos, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The instructional use of animals is a popular strategy to engage students with science, enhance their motivation, and promote values such as respect, tolerance, and empathy for all living beings. Although these beneficial outcomes are widely acknowledged, research has not provided reliable indicators of their efficiency. Therefore, it is essential…

  18. Molecular Diversity Within Melanomys caliginosus (Rodentia: Oryzomyini): Evidence for Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, J. Delton; Bradley, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-b gene were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and estimate genetic distances from 10 individuals of Melanomys caliginosus and to explore the hypothesis that this taxon is comprised of multiple species. Individuals of four geographic populations of M. caliginosus from Central America (Nicaragua and Costa Rica), Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador, respectively, were included in this analysis. Topologies obtained from maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were identical and produced clades referable to each of the geographic populations. Genetic distances between any pair-wise comparisons of the four groups (except between Panamanian and Venezuelan samples) were comparable to values estimated from comparisons of sister species in the closely related genus Nectomys. Distances between samples from Panama and Venezuela were greater than those of samples within the Ecuadorian and Central American clades, but less than that between species of Nectomys. Based on results from the sequence data, it appears that all four of the populations should be elevated to species level; however, additional data are needed to resolve the nomenclature of the Panamanian and Venezuelan populations. PMID:21614136

  19. Glaciation Effects on the Phylogeographic Structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) in the Southern Andes

    PubMed Central

    Palma, R. Eduardo; Boric-Bargetto, Dusan; Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández, Cristián E.; Yates, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae), the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, Bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000–13,000 years ago). Neutrality tests and the “g” parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia). From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats. PMID:22396751

  20. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Horá?ek, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4–4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6–0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European – C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

  1. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Sonia; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Guzmán-Aguirre, Carlos César

    2012-09-01

    Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP) using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old) who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study. PMID:23025103

  2. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-06-22

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion. PMID:26019162

  3. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  4. West Nile virus infection in tree squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in California, 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Kerry A; Reisen, William K; Kahl-Purcell, Nicole; Fang, Ying; Cahoon-Young, Barbara; Carney, Ryan; Anderson, Nancy; Zucca, Lynda; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki L

    2007-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) transmission generally involves a mosquito vector and an avian reservoir host, with mammals as incidental hosts. Although most mammalian WNV infections cause low or no morbidity or mortality, tree squirrels are susceptible to WNV-associated neurologic disease with infection prevalence comparable to that in dead birds. Positive species included fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), western gray squirrel (S. griseus), and eastern gray squirrel (S. carolinensis). Kidney tissue (dissected and swabbed), and oropharyngeal (oral) swab samples from tree squirrels submitted by California vector control and rehabilitation agencies were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; cycle threshold values were similar for all three samples, ranging from 21.9 to 26.5. Kidney tissue was more sensitive than oral swabs for detecting WNV in squirrels. Three of 36 live neurologic tree squirrels had viremia approximately 5 log(10) plaque-forming units/mL or greater, similar to WNV-infected birds. Tree squirrels are useful in WNV surveillance and provide localized evidence of WNV transmission to mammals. PMID:17488896

  5. Two new species of fossil Leggadina (Rodentia: Muridae) from Northwestern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Godthelp, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Only three species of fossil murine have been described to date in Australia even though they are often found in fossil deposits and can be highly useful in understanding environmental change over time. Until now the genus Leggadina, a group of short-tailed mice that is particularly well adapted to an arid environment, was only known from two extant species: L. forresti and L. lakedownensis. Here two new fossil species of the genus are described from sites in northwestern Queensland. Leggadina gregoriensis sp. nov. comes from the Early Pleistocene Rackham’s Roost Site in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area and Leggadina macrodonta sp. nov. is from the Plio-Pleistocene Site 5C at Floraville Station. The evolution of the genus Leggadina and the lineage’s response to palaeoecological factors is considered. Taphonomy of the two fossil deposits is examined and shows marked differences in both faunal composition of the assemblages and preservation. Description of L. gregoriensis and L. macrodonta extends the known temporal range of the Leggadina lineage by over 2 million years. PMID:26207193

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mandarin vole Lasiopodomys mandarinus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Cong, Haiyan; Kong, Lingming; Liu, Zexin; Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Li, Yuchun

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the mandarin vole (Lasiopodomys mandarinus) was completed and annotated in this study. The circular genome is 16,375?bp in length and contains the typical 37 genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of vertebrate, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. This study will provide genetic resource to clarify the taxonomic position of genus Lasiopodomys. PMID:24845440

  7. Species groups in Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae) as indicated by karyology and bullar morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Emmons, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The genus Proechimys is divisible into four groups of species on the basis of bullar septal patterns. Each of the four groups can be further characterized by distinctive distributions and karyotypes. The subgenus Trinomys and the guatrae species group each are comprised of phylogenetically closely-related species. The semispinosus- and brevicauda-groups, although generally distinctive on the basis of bullar septa, are not phylogenetically equivalent to the first two groups. The brevicauda-group, for example, consists of at least three separate species complexes. The taxonomy used in this report reflects several nomenclatural changes from that used in the recent literature. In addition, previously unreported karyotypes are described for P. quadruplicatus, P. gularis, P. decumanus, P. oris, P. oconnelli, and P. mincae.

  8. Reservoir competence of Microtus pennsylvanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markowski, D.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reservoir competence of the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord, for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner was established on Patience Island, RI. Meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout Rhode Island. At 4 of the field sites, M. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. However, on Patience Island, M. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). Of the larval Ixodes scapularis Say obtained from the meadow voles on Patience Island, 62% (n = 78) was infected with B. burgdorferi. Meadow voles from all 5 locations were successfully infected with B. burgdorferi in the laboratory and were capable of passing the infection to xenodiagnostic I. scapularis larvae for 9 wk. We concluded that M. pennsylvanicus was physiologically capable of maintaining B. burgdorferi infection. However, in locations where Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque) is abundant, the role of M. pennsylvanicus as a primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi was reduced.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Bendová, Karolína; Marková, Silvia; Searle, Jeremy B; Kotlík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present the first complete sequence of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KF918859). The bank vole mitogenome is 16,353 base pairs long and shows the gene content, genome architecture and gene strand asymmetry typical for mammals. The sequence provides an important new genomic resource for the bank vole, which is a popular study species in ecological and evolutionary research. PMID:24438307

  10. Cryptic Speciation and Chromosomal Repatterning in the South African Climbing Mice Dendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Emanuela; Taylor, Peter J.; Rautenbach, Anita; Ropiquet, Anne; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the intra- and interspecific diversity in the four South African rodent species of the genus Dendromus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis on twenty-three individuals have been conducted on a combined dataset of nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Moreover, the extent and processes underlying chromosomal variation, have been investigated on three species by mean of G-, C-bands, NORs and Zoo-FISH analysis. The molecular analysis shows the presence of six monophyletic lineages corresponding to D. mesomelas, D. mystacalis and four lineages within D. cfr. melanotis with high divergence values (ranges: 10.6% – 18.3%) that raises the question of the possible presence of cryptic species. The first description of the karyotype for D. mesomelas and D. mystacalis and C- and G- banding for one lineage of D. cfr. melanotis are reported highlighting an extended karyotype reorganization in the genus. Furthermore, the G-banding and Zoo-FISH evidenced an autosome-sex chromosome translocation characterizing all the species and our timing estimates this mutation date back 7.4 mya (Late Miocene). Finally, the molecular clock suggests that cladogenesis took place since the end of Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene, probably due to ecological factors, isolation in refugia followed by differential adaptation to the mesic or dry habitat. PMID:24551165

  11. Spermophilus xanthoprymnus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) MUTLU KART GU R AND HAKAN GU R

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    Anatolia and adjacent Armenia and northwestern Iran. Its preferred elevation appears to range from about List of Threatened Species because of large-scale agricultural activities that result in habitat

  12. Clues on Syntenic Relationship among Some Species of Oryzomyini and Akodontini Tribes (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Pablo; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Lanzone, Cecilia; Malleret, Matias Maximiliano; O’Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Sigmodontinae rodents represent one of the most diverse and complex components of the mammalian fauna of South America. Among them most species belongs to Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes. The highly specific diversification observed in both tribes is characterized by diploid complements, which vary from 2n = 10 to 86. Given this diversity, a consistent hypothesis about the origin and evolution of chromosomes depends on the correct establishment of synteny analyzed in a suitable phylogenetic framework. The chromosome painting technique has been particularly useful for identifying chromosomal synteny. In order to extend our knowledge of the homeological relationships between Akodontini and Oryzomyini species, we analyzed the species Akodon montensis (2n = 24) and Thaptomys nigrita (2n = 52) both from the tribe Akodontini, with chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (2n = 54) of the tribe Oryzomyini. The results indicate that at least 12 of the 26 autosomes of H. megacephalus show conserved synteny in A. montensis and 14 in T. nigrita. The karyotype of Akodon montensis, as well as some species of the Akodon cursor species group, results from many chromosomal fusions and therefore the syntenic associations observed probably represent synapomorphies. Our finding of a set of such associations revealed by H. megacephalus chromosome probes (6/21; 3/25; 11/16/17; and, 14/19) provides phylogenetic information for both tribes. An extension of these observations to other members of Akodontini and Oryzomyini tribes should improve our knowledge about chromosome evolution in both these groups. PMID:26642204

  13. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae) from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Tremaine; Lunde, Darrin; Zamora-Meza, Hugo Tomás; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos) gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights), including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record), discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension. PMID:26175605

  14. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

    2015-04-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

  15. Ecology of the interaction between Ixodes loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Criceridae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-10-01

    The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics. PMID:26122994

  16. A new species of spiny pocket mouse (Rodentia: Heteromyidae: Heteromys) from northwestern Costa Rica

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Robert P.; Timm, Robert M.

    2006-03-01

    occur in three highland areas (Monteverde, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja–Volcán Santa María, and Cerro Cacao), but populations in these areas are probably disjunct, being separated by intervening lowlands. Heteromys nubicolens is likely widespread throughout...

  17. Morphological Chronoclines among Late Pleistocene Muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus: Muridae, Rodentia) from Northern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C.; Hemmings, C. Andrew; Webb, S. David

    2002-11-01

    The muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus) is presumed to have undergone a rapid phyletic size decrease near the end of the Pleistocene. Evolutionary changes in the size of middle to late Wisconsinan (ca. 32,000-12,300 14C yr B.P.) muskrats from the Aucilla River, Jefferson County, Florida, were reconstructed by examining length and width of the lower first molar (m1). Body mass, estimated from m1 length, was relatively stable from 32,000 to 16,000 14C yr B.P. and decreased only slightly by 12,300 14C yr B.P. If the size trend found in the Aucilla River material is characteristic of the southeastern United States, a body size decrease after 12,300 14C yr B.P. is needed to explain the smaller size of modern populations. It was previously thought that the length/width (l/w) ratio of the muskrat m1 was a paleoenvironmental indicator based on its presumed correlation with latitude in modern populations. We examined the length and width of modern muskrats from several geographic regions and found only a very weak trend in the size of the m1 between northern and southern populations; however, highly significant differences were found between regions of similar latitude. Our data indicate that chronoclines in the m1 of the Aucilla muskrat material and other such documented trends among fossil muskrats have paleoenvironmental significance, but it is not yet clear which environmental variables can best be predicted from them.

  18. Dental microwear patterns of extant and extinct Muridae (Rodentia, Mammalia): ecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Merceron, Gildas; Viriot, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    Extant species of Muridae occupy a wide array of habitats and have diverse dietary habits. Consequently, their dental microwear patterns represent a potential clue to better understand the paleoecology of their extinct relatives, which are abundant in many Old World Neogene localities. In this study, dental microwear is investigated for specimens of 17 extant species of murine and deomyine rodents in order to test the reliability of this method and infer dietary preferences on the fossil species Saïdomys afarensis. This extinct form comes from a mid-Pliocene site (AL 327) located at the Hadar Formation (Ethiopia) known to have delivered many hominid specimens of Australopithecus afarensis. A significant correlation between microwear patterns and diet is detected. Thus, grass, fruit, and insect eaters display, respectively, high amounts of fine scratches, wide scratches, and large pits. Moreover, some aspects of the paleoecology of S. afarensis, including feeding habits, could be assessed in regard to its dental microwear pattern. Indeed, it probably had feeding habits similar to that of living grass eaters. These results concur with the presence of open to woodland areas covered by an herbaceous vegetal layer, including monocotyledons, in the vicinity of this mid-Pliocene locality.

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans in the respiratory tract of squirrels, Callosciurus finlaysonii (Rodentia, Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Iatta, Roberta; Immediato, Davide; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Danesi, Patrizia; Passantino, Giuseppe; Parisi, Antonio; Mallia, Egidio; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease acquired from the environment, for which animals may serve as sentinels for human exposure. The occurrence of Cryptococcus spp. in the respiratory tract of 125 squirrels, Callosciurus finlaysonii, trapped in Southern Italy, was assessed. Upon examination of nasal swabs and lung tissue from each individual, a total of 13 (10.4%) animals scored positive for yeasts, 7 for Cryptococcus neoformans (C.n.) (5.6%) and 6 for other yeasts (4.8%). C.n. was isolated from the nostrils and lungs, with a high population size in nostrils. Two C.n. molecular types, VNI and VNIV, were identified, with C.n. var. grubii VNI the most prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS+ and URA5 sequences revealed that C.n. isolates were genetically similar to isolates from a range of geographical areas and hosts. Results suggest that C.n. can colonize or infect the respiratory tract of C. finlaysonii. The high occurrence and level of colonization of nasal cavities might be an indicator of environmental exposure to high levels of airborne microorganism. The close phylogenetic relationship of C.n. strains from squirrels with those from human and other animal hosts suggests a potential role for these animals as "sentinels" for human exposure. PMID:26229151

  20. Re-evaluation of Sinocastor (Rodentia: Castoridae) with implications on the origin of modern beavers.

    PubMed

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Ross, Elizabeth M; Samuels, Joshua X; Korth, William W

    2010-01-01

    The extant beaver, Castor, has played an important role shaping landscapes and ecosystems in Eurasia and North America, yet the origins and early evolution of this lineage remain poorly understood. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach to help re-evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of a fossil skull from the Late Miocene of China. This specimen was originally considered Sinocastor, and later transferred to Castor. The aim of this study was to determine whether this form is an early member of Castor, or if it represents a lineage outside of Castor. The specimen was compared to 38 specimens of modern Castor (both C. canadensis and C. fiber) as well as fossil specimens of C. fiber (Pleistocene), C. californicus (Pliocene) and the early castorids Steneofiber eseri (early Miocene). The results show that the specimen falls outside the Castor morphospace and that compared to Castor, Sinocastor possesses a: 1) narrower post-orbital constriction, 2) anteroposteriorly shortened basioccipital depression, 3) shortened incisive foramen, 4) more posteriorly located palatine foramen, 5) longer rostrum, and 6) longer braincase. Also the specimen shows a much shallower basiocciptal depression than what is seen in living Castor, as well as prominently rooted molars. We conclude that Sinocastor is a valid genus. Given the prevalence of apparently primitive traits, Sinocastor might be a near relative of the lineage that gave rise to Castor, implying a possible Asiatic origin for Castor. PMID:21085579

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of a chipmunk species, Tamias sibiricus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-10-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (KF668525) of Tamias sibiricus in South Korea. The mitogenome of the Korean chipmunk T. sibiricus was 16,558?bp long with base composition of 33.8% A, 31.1% T, 22.9% C and 12.2% G. Total nucleotide similarity of T. sibiricus and Marmota himalayana (JX069958) genomes was 80.4% ranging from 66.9% (D-loop region) to 97.3% (tRNA(Leu)((CUN))). The present study will contribute to understanding taxonomic status and genetic divergence of Northeast Asian T. sibiricus populations. PMID:24228685

  2. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. PMID:26334823

  3. Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boeskorov, G.G.; Kartavtseva, I.V.; Zagorodnyuk, I.V.; Belyanin, A.N.; Lyapunova, E.A.

    1995-02-01

    Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluation of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) as ecologically significant hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E

    2008-07-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a potentially fatal, emerging rickettsial disease of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sciurids from multiple areas of northern California were infested with ticks or exposed to or infected with A. phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect-fluorescent antibody (IFA) serology. Sciurids of nine different tree- and ground-dwelling species were assessed: arboreal squirrels (western and eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus and S. carolinensis, and Douglas squirrels, Tamiasciurus douglasii) but not northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) had greater evidence of exposure and current infection than did semiarboreal or ground dwelling sciurids (California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi, and chipmunks, Tamias spp.). Western gray squirrels had the most extensive exposure (70.7% seroprevalence and 12.1% PCR prevalence). Positive squirrels were identified in all regions where squirrels were collected. A logistic regression identified being a western gray squirrel (OR = 20.5, P = 2.95 X 10(-8)) and from the north coastal region of California (OR = 9.052, P = 1.41 X 10(-6)) as having the highest risk of exposure to A. phagocytophilum. Five of nine sciurid species had evidence of infestation with Ixodes pacificus or I. spinipalpis that could vector A. phagocytophilum. Extensive exposure from multiple areas suggests sciurids may be important in the maintenance of GA in California and indicates that studies of reservoir competence of these species are warranted. PMID:18714881

  5. Phylogenetic Relationships among Asian species of Petaurista (Rodentia, Sciuridae), Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Oshida, T; Lin, L K; Masuda, R; Yoshida, M C

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among four species belonging to the genus Petaurista (P. alborufus castaneus, P. alborufus lena, P. leucogenys leucogenys, P. leucogenys nikkonis, P. petaurista melanotus, and P. philippensis grandis), we investigated the partial sequences (1,068 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for these giant flying squirrels. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP, and ML trees) constructed from cytochrome b sequences indicated that P. leucogenys was grouped independently with other species, and that P. philippensis was most closely related to P. petaurista with 99-100% bootstrap values. In addition, two subspecies of P. alborufus did not form a single clade: P. alborufus castaneus from China was most distantly related to the other species, whereas P. alborufus lena from Taiwan was closely related to P. petaurista and P. philippensis with 82-90% bootstrap values. This result suggests that it is reasonable to regard P. alborufus lena as a distinct species from P. alborufus castaneus. PMID:18494567

  6. Innervation of propatagial musculature in a flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans (Rodentia, Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Chickering, J G; Sokoloff, A J

    1996-01-01

    The propatagium of gliding and flying mammals is of both functional and phylogenetic interest. The innervation of the propatagial muscle, platysma II, was studied with the axonal tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) in a flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Injections of WGA-HRP into the proximal third of platysma II labeled motoneurons in the lateral part of the medial subdivision of the ipsilateral facial nucleus and in the ipsilateral ventral horn of the brachial enlargement. Injections into distal regions of platysma II labeled motoneurons in the ipsilateral ventral horn of spinal segments C5-C8 but not in the facial nucleus. Injections along the whole length of the muscle labeled afferent axons in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of spinal segments C4-T1. These results demonstrate a mixed facial and spinal motor innervation of propatagial musculature in the flying squirrel and indicate that this pattern of mixed innervation is more widespread among flying and gliding mammals than previously reported. Mixed facial and cervical propatagial innervation, independently derived in different flying and gliding mammals, may represent a common solution in the design of the propatagium. These findings complicate the use of propatagial muscle innervation patterns for the establishment of phylogenetic relationships among flying and gliding mammals. PMID:8834780

  7. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Hainan giant flying squirrel Petaurista hainana (Rodentia: Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingming; Wang, Yanlu; Cong, Haiyan; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Yuchun

    2015-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Petaurista hainana from Hainan Island of China is 16,502?bp in length. Similar to most other mammals, it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 31.77% A, 26.31% C, 13.31% G and 28.61% T. The base composition clearly showed the A-T skew. The mitochondrial genome of P. hainana presented in this report will be useful for species designation, conservation and phylogenetic study in Sciuridae. PMID:24409919

  8. Cranial morphometric study of four giant flying squirrels (Petaurista) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Yu, Fa-Hong; Lv, Xue-Fei

    2012-04-01

    The present study revisited the controversial taxonomic status of Petaurista yunanensis, P. philippensis, P. hainana, and P. petaurista by using a considerably extended set of morphometrical characters (26 cranial variables from 60 adult specimen skulls). The results revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the four species but confirmed significant craniometric differences among the four species in both the principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA), with the greatest distinction observed between P. petaurista and other Petaurista species. Both univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that the morphological differences between P. yunanensis and P. philippensis were less than that between P. philippensis and P. hainana. The morphometric results were concordant in geographic patterns with mtDNA data from previous studies and indicated that P. petaurista, P. hainana, P. philippensis, and P. yunanensis could be recognized as valid species. PMID:22467385

  9. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases. PMID:19288073

  10. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  11. Distinct Leishmania Species Infecting Wild Caviomorph Rodents (Rodentia: Hystricognathi) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cássia-Pires, Renata; Boité, Mariana C.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.; Herrera, Heitor M.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Jansen, Ana Maria; Roque, André Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Caviomorph rodents, some of the oldest Leishmania spp. hosts, are widely dispersed in Brazil. Despite both experimental and field studies having suggested that these rodents are potential reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, not more than 88 specimens were analyzed in the few studies of natural infection. Our hypothesis was that caviomorph rodents are inserted in the transmission cycles of Leishmania in different regions, more so than is currently recognized. Methodology We investigated the Leishmania infection in spleen fragments of 373 caviomorph rodents from 20 different species collected in five Brazilian biomes in a period of 13 years. PCR reactions targeting kDNA of Leishmania sp. were used to diagnose infection, while Leishmania species identification was performed by DNA sequencing of the amplified products obtained in the HSP70 (234) targeting. Serology by IFAT was performed on the available serum of these rodents. Principal findings In 13 caviomorph rodents, DNA sequencing analyses allowed the identification of 4 species of the subgenus L. (Viannia): L. shawi, L. guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. braziliensis; and 1 species of the subgenus L. (Leishmania): L. infantum. These include the description of parasite species in areas not previously included in their known distribution: L. shawi in Thrichomys inermis from Northeastern Brazil and L. naiffi in T. fosteri from Western Brazil. From the four other positive rodents, two were positive for HSP70 (234) targeting but did not generate sequences that enabled the species identification, and another two were positive only in kDNA targeting. Conclusions/Significance The infection rate demonstrated by the serology (51.3%) points out that the natural Leishmania infection in caviomorph rodents is much higher than that observed in the molecular diagnosis (4.6%), highlighting that, in terms of the host species responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild, our current knowledge represents only the “tip of the iceberg.” PMID:25503973

  12. TWO NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOLEPIS (CESTODA: HYMENOLEPIDIDAE) FROM MURID RODENTS (RODENTIA: MURIDAE) IN THE PHILIPPINES

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    of Animals, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Frunze Street 11, 630091 Novosibirsk, Russia, the large Luzon forest rat Bullimus luzonicus (Thomas, 1895), the small Luzon forest mouse Apomys microdon

  13. Unique Regulation of the Melatonin Synthetic Pathway in the Retina of Diurnal Female Arvicanthis ansorgei (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Gianesini, Coralie; Clesse, Daniel; Tosini, Gianluca; Hicks, David; Laurent, Virginie

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge about melatonin synthesis and its potential roles within the retina remains fragmented, especially in mammals where studies have focused on the penultimate enzyme of melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), whereas the final enzyme necessary for melatonin production is hydroxyindole-O-methytransferase (HIOMT). We explored multiple parameters of the melatonin synthetic pathway in the cone-rich retina of a diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis ansorgei, cones being previously implicated as probable reservoirs of melatonin production. We analyzed the temporal and spatial expression of Aa-nat mRNA and AA-NAT protein and enzymatic activity of AA-NAT, HIOMT, as well as the melatonin receptor type 1 and melatonin itself. We report that Aa-nat mRNA was localized principally to cones and ganglion cells (retinal ganglion cell [RGC]) with opposing cyclic expression, being maximal in cones during the night, and maximal in RGC in the daytime. AA-NAT protein was also immunolocalized to these same populations, and was present and active throughout the 24-hour period. HIOMT immunolocalization mirrored that of AA-NAT, but expression levels and activity were extremely low and remained uniform throughout the 24-hour period. MT1 showed a complementary expression pattern to the synthetic enzymes, present in rod photoreceptors, some inner retinal neurons and RGC. Surprisingly, melatonin levels were consistently low throughout the day/night cycle, in accordance with the low activity levels of HIOMT. These data demonstrate that the melatonin synthetic pathway in a diurnal rodent differs from that described for other tissues and species (nocturnal and diurnal), the contrasting phase expression in photoreceptors and RGC, suggesting distinct roles in these populations. PMID:26153723

  14. Ontogenetic allometry in the foot size of Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    Maestri, R; Fornel, R; Freitas, T R O; Marinho, J R

    2015-05-01

    Ontogenetic allometry is the study of how the size or shape of certain structures changes over the course of an animal's development. In this study, using Huxley's formula of allometric growth (1932), we assessed the changes in the rate of growth of the feet size of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens during its ontogeny and compared differences between males and females. We find evidence of a change of polarity during the ontogenetic development of the species, with the presence of positive allometry during pregnancy and negative allometry in adulthood. Moreover, we note the presence of sexual dimorphism in the size of the feet, in which males of the species have a higher rate of growth than females. This growth pattern is positively related to escape from predators in childhood in both sexes and, in adulthood, provides a higher encounter rate of females by males, due to the larger displacement of the latter. We suggest that both the forces of natural selection and sexual selection have acted to shape the evolution of foot size in this species. PMID:26132029

  15. Evolutionary Story of a Satellite DNA from Phodopus sungorus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Paço, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Meštrovi?, Nevenka; Plohl, Miroslav; Chaves, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in P. sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric region of five autosomal pairs and Y-chromosome. The presence of orthologous PSUcentSat sequences in the genomes of other Cricetidae and Muridae rodents was also verified, presenting however, an interspersed chromosomal distribution. This distribution pattern suggests a PSUcentSat-scattered location in an ancestor of Muridae/Cricetidae families, that assumed afterwards, in the descendant genome of P. sungorus a restricted localization to few chromosomes in the (peri)centromeric region. We believe that after the divergence of the studied species, PSUcentSat was most probably highly amplified in the (peri)centromeric region of some chromosome pairs of this hamster by recombinational mechanisms. The bouquet chromosome configuration (prophase I) possibly displays an important role in this selective amplification, providing physical proximity of centromeric regions between chromosomes with similar size and/or morphology. This seems particularly evident for the acrocentric chromosomes of P. sungorus (including the Y-chromosome), all presenting large PSUcentSat arrays at the (peri)centromeric region. The conservation of this sequence in the studied genomes and its (peri)centromeric amplification in P. sungorus strongly suggests functional significance, possibly displaying this satellite family different functions in the different genomes. The verification of PSUcentSat transcriptional activity in normal proliferative cells suggests that its transcription is not stage-limited, as described for some other satellites. PMID:25336681

  16. First Miocene rodent from Lebanon provides the 'missing link' between Asian and African gundis (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Knoll, Fabien; Maksoud, Sibelle; Azar, Dany

    2015-01-01

    Ctenodactylinae (gundis) is a clade of rodents that experienced, in Miocene time, their greatest diversification and widest distribution. They expanded from the Far East, their area of origin, to Africa, which they entered from what would become the Arabian Peninsula. Questions concerning the origin of African Ctenodactylinae persist essentially because of a poor fossil record from the Miocene of Afro-Arabia. However, recent excavations in the Late Miocene of Lebanon have yielded a key taxon for our understanding of these issues. Proafricanomys libanensis nov. gen. nov. sp. shares a variety of dental characters with both the most primitive and derived members of the subfamily. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that this species is the sister taxon to a clade encompassing all but one of the African ctenodactylines, plus a southern European species of obvious African extraction. As such, Proafricanomys provides the 'missing link' between the Asian and African gundis. PMID:26250050

  17. Field evaluation of some bait additives against Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Rodentia: Hystricidae).

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Hussain, Iftikhar; Mian, Afsar; Munir, Shahid; Ahmed, Irfan; Khan, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    This research study evaluated the effect of different additives on the bait consumption by Indian crested porcupine, a serious forest and agricultural pest, under field conditions. Different additives (saccharin, common salt, bone meal, fish meal, peanut butter, egg yolk, egg shell powder, yeast powder, mineral oil and coconut oil) at 2 and 5% each were tested for their relative preference, using groundnut-maize (1:1) as basic bait. All the additives were tested under a no-choice test pattern. For control tests, no additive was mixed with the basic bait. Saccharin at 5% concentration significantly enhanced the consumption of bait over the basic bait, while 2% saccharin supplemented bait resulted in a non-significant bait consumption. All other additives did not enhance the consumption of the bait material; rather, these worked as repellents. However, the repellency was lowest with the common salt, followed by egg yolk, egg shell powder, bone meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, fish meal and yeast powder, while coconut remained the most repellent compound. The present study suggested that groundnut-maize (1:1) supplemented with 5% saccharin was the preferred bait combination, and can be used with different rodenticides for the management of Indian crested porcupine. PMID:24020467

  18. Maternal dietary protein intake and sex-specic investment in Mastomys coucha (Rodentia: Muridae)

    E-print Network

    Pretoria, University of

    Didelphis marsu- pialis (Austad & Sunquist, 1986), and southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina (Arnbom Arctocephalus gazella (Arnould, Boyd & Socha, 1996) or northern elephant seals Mirounga angustirostris to individual sons than daughters (Maynard Smith, 1980). In grey seals Hali- choerus grypus (Anderson & Fedak

  19. Revision of the chewing louse genus Eutrichophilus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from the New World porcupines (Rodentia: Erethizontidae)

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.; Price, Roger D.

    1994-03-01

    . andersoni, n. sp., E. australis Ewing, E. duellmani, n. sp., y E. maximus Bedford; (2) el grupo minor incluyendo E. minor, E. emersoni, n. sp., y E. claytoni, n. sp.; (3) el grupo cordiceps incluyendo E. cordiceps y E. paraguayensis, n. sp.; y (4) el grupo...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus (Rodentia: Muridae: Gerbillinae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bae; Lee, Sang-Goo

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, was sequenced. The 16,360?bp long genome has 37 genes typical for rodent mitogenomes, including 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes. The total GC content of the mitochondrial genome is 36.96% with the base composition of 32.61% A, 23.71% C, 13.24% G, and 30.44% T. Translational terminators of three genes (cytb, cox3, and nad4) were generated by the addition of 3' A residues to the mRNA. This novel rodent mitochondrial genome will provide comparable information for understanding the rodent mitochondrial evolution. PMID:25185794

  1. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae) Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn. Le. chagasi) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Lopes, Maria Olímpia Garcia; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was also captured at high proportion (12.8%). Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares. PMID:24707492

  2. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in ?1,2, ?1,3, and ?1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents. PMID:26105998

  3. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2015-11-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  4. Phylogenetic relationships in the Niviventer-Chiromyscus complex (Rodentia, Muridae) inferred from molecular data, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Balakirev, Alexander E.; Abramov, Alexei V.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI) and nuclear (IRBP, GHR) genes, and morphological examinations of museum specimens, we examined diversity, species boundaries, and relationships within and between the murine genera Chiromyscus and Niviventer. Phylogenetic patterns recovered demonstrate that Niviventer sensu lato is not monophyletic but instead includes Chiromyscus chiropus, the only previously recognized species of Chiropus. To maintain the genera Niviventer and Chiropus as monophyletic lineages, the scope and definition of the genus Chiromyscus is revised to include at least three distinct species: Chiromyscus chiropus (the type species of Chiromyscus), Chiromyscus langbianis (previously regarded as a species of Niviventer), and a new species, described in this paper under the name Chiromyscus thomasi sp. n. PMID:25493050

  5. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    DEWI, Kartika; HASEGAWA, Hideo; FITRIANA, Yuli Sulistya; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  6. Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to “Rensch’s rule”, which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in the structural body size of ground squirrels, an otherwise ecologically relatively homogenous group of terrestrial rodents. Results We found the general trend of male-biased SSD in ground squirrels, however, male size increases nearly perfectly isometrically with female size among species and sociality does not explain departures from this relationship. Species with different sociality grades significantly differ in body size, with the most social species tending to be the largest. Conclusions We suggest that lack of conformity with Rensch´s rule in ground squirrels may be attributed to their low variation in SSD, and briefly discuss three potential causes of small magnitude of SSD in the structural size in rodents: low selection on SSD in structural dimensions, ontogenetic and genetic constraints and the existence of ecological/selection factors preventing the evolution of extensive SSD. PMID:23672689

  7. Comparison between Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens by RAPD and genetic diversity in O. nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Mossi, A J; Coppini, V J; Slaviero, L B; Kubiak, G B; Lerin, L A; Oliveira, J V; Cherem, J J; Marinho, J R; Cansian, R L

    2014-08-01

    The genus of Oligoryzomys includes species of small size, morphologically similar, which may impede taxonomic identification, mainly between O. flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837) and O. nigripes (Olfers, 1818). The main objective of this work was to investigate whether the RAPD markers are capable of genetically differentiating the specimens O. nigripes and O. flavescens, coming from Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) states, and also to estimate the genetic variability among populations of O. nigripes, with the Uruguay River as a geographical barrier. For this purpose, samples were collected in fragments of forests situated in the North of RS, at FLONA (Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo) and in fragments from SC, close to the Uruguay River. The karyotyping of two samples for each species was carried out and compared using the RAPD technique together with non- karyotyped individuals. Samples of O. nigripes presented 2n = 62; NA = 82, with submetacentric arms on the largest chromosomes, while samples of O. flavescens showed 2n = 64; NA = 66, with the largest chromosomes presenting acrocentric morphology, making such a result the main difference between the species. The analysis was able to detect two distinct groups, being the first one with karyotyped O. flavescens and the second with karyotyped O. nigripes. Identification afforded 211 loci, among them 181 (85.78%) polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was in the range of 0.45 to 0.87. The UPGMA and Main Coordinate Analysis techniques demonstrated the existence of heterogeneous genetics among populations, but did not separate them completely in terms of geographical standards, and they are not influenced by the Uruguay River, which did not act as an efficient barrier. PMID:25296222

  8. Phylogeography and molecular systematics of the Peromyscus aztecus species group (Rodentia: Muridae) inferred using parsimony and likelihood.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J; Markert, J A; Kilpatrick, C W

    1997-09-01

    Mice of the Peromyscus aztecus species group occur at mid to high elevations in several mountain ranges in the highlands of Middle America (Mexico and Central America), a region of high endemicity. We examined the biogeography of this group by conducting phylogenetic analyses of 668 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. Phylogenetic analyses under both parsimony and likelihood frameworks produced the same topologies, but estimates of nodal support were artificially high in weighted parsimony analyses. This difference is attributed to the inability of parsimony to optimize branch lengths when evaluating topologies. These data indicate that the P. aztecus-like populations from south and east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec currently assigned to P. a. oaxacensis represent a distinct species, with genetic distances as high as 0.091. In addition, P. hylocetes is strongly divergent from Mexican populations of P. aztecus (genetic distances of 0.044-0.069), supporting the recognition of this taxon as a distinct species. The history of divergence in this group can be explained by a series of apparently early to middle Pleistocene vicariance events associated with glacial cycles. The Sierra Madre Occidental and Cordillera Transvolcanica each appear to be faunistically isolated, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec appears to have been a strong Pleistocene barrier, and the Sierra Madre Oriental has affinities with the Sierra Madre del Sur and the highlands of central Oaxaca. PMID:11975329

  9. Eimeria lancasterensis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger (Rodentia: Sciuridae), in north-central Texas.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J

    1989-08-01

    Eimeria lancasterensis Joseph, 1969, is reported for the first time from the feces of 10 of 11 (91%) eastern fox squirrels, Sciurus niger ludovicianus, in Dallas and Johnson counties, Texas. Oocyst measurements were similar to those reported previously from the eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis carolinensis, in Massachusetts. Except for our observation of a substieda body, oocyst morphology was identical to the original description of E. lancasterensis. PMID:2760777

  10. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ? 0.0 or ? 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ? 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning through the first year was comparable to adult annual rates. The fertility rate was 3.75 young • female-1 • yr-1. The energy supply and demand analyses indicate that the growth of Thomomys talpoides populations in the early seral stages is seldom directly limited by the amount of food present. From our demographic, environmental, and autecological studies we conclude that stochastic events associated with weather affect energy acquisition (burrowing) rates, and thus survivorship. In montane environments, such events may prevent populations from attaining sizes at which territorial behavior would hypothetically limit further increases. The energy flow through the meadow population at moderate to high )1976-1977) densities (at least 1100 MJ • ha-1 • yr-1) indicates that pocket gophers are proficient energy movers relative to non-fossorial small mammals. Subalpine T. talpoides populations appear commonly to attain such densities. More than 30% of the annual primary productivity allocated to belowground parts of meadow forbs may be consumed by gophers.

  11. Shippingport, Kentucky, is the type locality for the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818) (Mammalia: Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The white-footed mouse, Musculus leucopus Rafinesque, 1818 (= Peromyscus leucopus), is a common small mammal that is widespread in the eastern and central United States. Its abundance in many habitats renders it ecologically important, and its status as a reservoir for hantavirus and Lyme disease gives the species medical and economic significance. The recognition of two cytotypes and up to 17 morphological subspecies of P. leucopus indicates considerable variation in the species, and to understand this variation, it is important that the nominate subspecies be adequately defined so as to act as a standard for comparison. Relevant to this standard for the white-footed mouse is its type locality, which has generally been accepted to be either the vague "pine barrens of Kentucky" or the mouth of the Ohio River. Newly assembled information regarding the life and travels of Constantine S. Rafinesque, the North American naturalist who described P. leucopus, establishes that Rafinesque observed this species in July 1818 while visiting Shippingport, Kentucky, which is now within the city limits of Louisville, Jefferson Co., Kentucky. Shippingport is therefore the actual type locality for this species.

  12. Revision of the Wind River faunas, early Eocene of central Wyoming. IX - The oldest known hystricomorphous rodent (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Mary R.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    The rostral portion of the skull of a new genus and species of rodent, Armintomys tullbergi, from the earliest middle Eocene of the Wind River Basin (Wyoming) provides the geologically oldest known record of the hystricomorphous zygomasseteric structure. Armintomys also preserves the oldest known occurrence of incisor enamel that is transitional from pauciserial to uniserial. Other dental characters include: anteriorly grooved incisor, small premolars, and relatively primitive sciuravidlike molars. Analysis of this unique combination of characters implies that Armintomys is the oldest known myomorph rodent and the only known representative of a new family. Armintomyidae, which is referred, with question, to the myomorph superfamily Dipodoidea. Armintomys is more primitive, especially in premolar retention and structure, than the Bridgerian zapodid Elymys from Nevada, but adds to evidence from the latter for an early origin and radiation of dipodoid rodents.

  13. Comparative Chromosome Painting in Six Species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) and the Karyotype Evolution of the Genus

    PubMed Central

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Ventura, Karen; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; O’Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2015-01-01

    Oligoryzomys belongs to the tribe Oryzomyini, and contains about 22 species. Diploid numbers range from 2n = 44 in Oligoryzomys sp. 2 to 2n = 72 in O. utiaritensis and phylogenetic relationships are not well defined. The high morphological convergence leads to misidentification of taxonomic entities and the species are often identified by chromosomal characters. Until now, the genus has been studied only by classical cytogenetic approaches. To understand the chromosomal evolution of Oligoryzomys, we developed chromosome probes from a female of Oligoryzomys moojeni (OMO) with 2n = 70 and hybridized to other five Oligoryzomys species. The probes painted 31 segments on O. fornesi (OFO) with 2n = 62; 32 segments on O. microtis (OMI), 2n = 64; 33 segments on O. nigripes (ONI), 2n = 62 and on O. rupestris (ORU), 2n = 46; and 34 on Oligoryzomys sp. 2 (OSP), 2n = 44. OMO probes 4 and 5 showed a syntenic association in O. fornesi, O. microtis and O. nigripes and were also presented in the same pair, although disrupted, in O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2. Concerning O. rupestris and Oligoryzomys sp. 2, species with the lowest diploid numbers of the genus, a total of 8 probes hybridized to 11 segments on the largest pair of ORU 1 and 9 probes hybridized to 12 segments on OSP 1. Also, OMO 6 painted three segments in ORU, corresponding to the proximal segment of ORU 2q, and the whole of ORU 19 and 20. In OSP, the segment corresponding to ORU 20 was homologous to OSP 1p. OMO X showed signals of hybridization in both X and Y chromosomes. Extensive chromosomal rearrangements, that could not be detected by classical cytogenetic techniques, such as pericentric inversions or repositioning of centromeres, Robertsonian rearrangements and tandem fusions/fissions, as well as gain/activation or loss/inactivation of centromeres and telomeric sequences have driven the huge genome reshuffling in these closely related species. PMID:25658766

  14. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

  15. In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Rafael N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Almeida, Francisca C.; Werneck, Fernanda P.; Rogers, Duke S.; Weksler, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle–late Miocene (ca. 12–9 Ma). Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI. PMID:24963664

  16. New data on recently described rodent species Paulina's Limestone Rat Saxatilomys paulinae Musser, Smith, Robinson & Lunde, 2005 (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nghia Xuan; Ngo, Tuong Xuan; Nguyen, Duy Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Paulina's Limestone Rat Saxatilomys paulinae Musser et al., 2005 was first discovered by Musser et al. (2005) based on specimens from the Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA) in Khammouane Province in central Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). This tower karst landscape is part of the Central Indochina Limestone massif, which extends eastward into north-central Vietnam in Quang Binh and Quang Tri Provinces. New information In April 2014, we conducted a rodent survey and collected four (4) whole specimens of Saxatilomys paulinae in Quang Binh province. This is the first record of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam. External and craniodental characteristics of all specimens clearly exhibit the characters of Saxatilomys paulinae as described in Musser et al. (2005)?. The rats are of medium size (HB: 160.3 ± 2.03 mm, T: 192.3 ± 6.69 mm) with some specific morpological characteristics. The external and craniodental measurement of the specimens from Vietnam tend to be larger than those of specimens from Lao. However, this needs to be verified by more studies in future. The habitat of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam is characterized by complicated terrain comprising low karst towers (around 400 m) with steep slopes covered under limestone humid evergreen forest. The forest has been affected by selected timber logging in the past, but still has a complex 4-layer structure. The population of Saxatilomys paulinae in Vietnam is threatened by rodent trapping/snaring and habitat disturbance. More status surveys should be conducted to assess the species distributional range and its population status for undertaking relevant conservation measures. PMID:26023285

  17. Explosive chromosome evolution and speciation in the gerbil genus Taterillus (Rodentia, Gerbillinae): a case of two new cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Dobigny, G; Aniskin, V; Volobouev, V

    2002-01-01

    The five morphologically sibling gerbil species of the genus Taterillus in West Africa were first identified from karyotypes. These species possess an XX/XY(1)Y(2) sex-chromosome system and are characterized by significant karyotypic reorganization, thus making them a suitable model for studying the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the speciation process. We present here a description of two new cytotypes, Taterillus sp. 1 and Taterillus sp. 2, from the Lake Chad area, the former having a 2n = 22/23, NFa = 40, and the latter 2n = 24/25, NFa = 44. Comparison of their G- and C- banding patterns with those of T. pygargus (2n = 22/23, NFa = 38/40), examined in an earlier paper, revealed that all three species differ from each other by 7 to 11 chromosomal rearrangements, comprising tandem translocations, pericentric inversions, and Robertsonian metacentrics displaying monobrachial homology. Meiotic configurations formed in potential hybrids among any of these three forms would consist of complex rings and chains, alone or in combination, resulting, as expected, in a significant disruption of gametogenesis. These results provide support for assigning Taterillus sp. 1 and Taterillus sp. 2 to two different biological species, which, as demonstrated by our preliminary molecular studies, would have emerged recently. Possible factors responsible for the rapid karyotypic evolution and speciation in this West African gerbil complex are discussed. PMID:12438787

  18. The Eastern Beringian vole Microtus deceitensis (Rodentia, Muridae, Arvicolinae) in Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene faunas of Alaska and Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storer, John E.

    2003-07-01

    The fossil vole Microtus deceitensis occurs in Early Pleistocene deposits at Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory, and Late Pliocene beds at the type locality, Cape Deceit, Alaska. Analyses of simple vs complex morphotypes in the cheek teeth, and of differentiation of tooth enamel, show that the Cape Deceit sample of M. deceitensis is less derived, and thus appears to be older, than the Fort Selkirk sample. The fossiliferous deposits at Fort Selkirk are well constrained by fission-track and radiometric dates and are 1.5 to 1.7 myr. Sediments at Cape Deceit bear a normal magnetic polarity, are correlated with the Olduvai subchron, and probably are latest Pliocene.

  19. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius coreae (Muridae, Rodentia) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ri; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-11-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius coreae in Korea. The Korean A. a. coreae is characterized by high levels of haplotype diversity (Hd=0.967) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (?=0.00683). Haplogroup 1 is well separated from the haplotypes of the neighboring regions of the Korean Peninsula, while the other haplogroups are closely related to those from the Russian Far East. Thus, further investigations are required to confirm the validity of the subspecies status of A. a. coreae by implementing additional morphological characters as well as genetic data from the populations present in the Korean Peninsula and its neighboring countries. Haplogroup 1 includes most Korean haplotypes and forms a star-like haplotype network structure, which reveals relatively low levels of sequence divergence and high frequency of unique mutations (only few mutations are shared in most of the haplotype nodes). The results indicate that the haplotypes of Haplogroup 1 might have experienced population expansion since their migration into Korea, which was further corroborated with negative results of neutrality tests for Korean population of A. a. coreae. PMID:26263836

  20. [Allozyme variability of the European bean Castor fiber 1758 (Castoridae, Rodentia) from the Voronezh State Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Milishnikov, A N; Likhnova, O P; Nikonova, O A; Lavrov, V L; Orlov, V N

    1994-04-01

    Electrophoretic methods were used to study protein products of 32 gene loci in the blood of European and Canadian beavers held in captivity at the Voronezh State Nature Reserve. In the studied samples, the levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity exceeded the average values of corresponding indices determined for beavers that inhabit temperate zones. To what extent the studied samples represent the state of the gene pool of parental populations is discussed. A comparison between allozyme spectra of samples of European and Canadian beavers revealed many coinciding polymorphic loci, on the one hand, and pronounced genetic divergence of these species, on the other. PMID:8045400

  1. [Morphological diversity in the postnatal skull development in representatives of two families of rodents (Spalacidae, Castoridae, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Puzachenko, A Iu; Korablev, N P

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to describe the results of measurement of three information parameters of morphological diversity (entropy, the measure of organization, and the Kullback-Leibler divergence) in the course of postnatal development of the skull in the populations of two rodent species (greater mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus Guld.) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber (L.)). The terms "morphosystem" and "morphological space" and its structure are introduced. Within the framework of the developed approach, "morphological diversity" is considered as a variable associated with the morphological space structure. Testing the hypothesis of the dominance of self-organization processes and an increase in the organization of the morphological diversity of the skull in the course ofontogeny showed its inconsistency. The morphosystem of the skull of the studied species undergoes transitions between more organized and less organized states, periodically approaching and departing from the "steady state." Such dynamics characterizes the morphosystem of the skull as a dynamic and nonlinear system. PMID:25720278

  2. Striking coat colour variation in tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae): a role for the melanocortin-1 receptor?

    E-print Network

    Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    ). Targeting genes that are known to control hair colour in labo- ratory populations may provide insights of epidermal cells and hair follicles (Jackson, 1997). Mc1r acts as a pigmentary switch in the production of). One promising candidate gene is the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r). Hair and skin colour in mammals

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of woolly flying squirrel (Rodentia: Sciuridae), inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fahong; Yu, Farong; McGuire, Peter M; Kilpatrick, C William; Pang, Junfeng; Wang, Yingxiang; Lu, Shunqing; Woods, Charles A

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity between the populations of woolly flying squirrels (Eupetaurus) from the eastern and western extremes of the Himalayas, partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (390-810 bp) that were determined from the museum specimens were analyzed using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. The molecular data reveal that the two specimens that were collected in northwestern Yunnan (China) are members of the genus Eupetaurus. Reconstructed phylogenetic relationships show that the populations of Eupetaurus in the eastern and western extremes of the Himalayas are two distinct species with significant genetic differences (12%) and diverged about 10.8 million years ago. Eupetaurus is significantly different from Petaurista and Pteromys. The level of estimated pairwise-sequence divergence observed between Eupetaurus and Petaurista or Pteromys is greater than that observed between Eupetaurus and Trogopterus, Belomys, Glaucomys, or Hylopetes. Considering the divergence time of the two Eupetaurus groups, the glaciations and the uplift of the Himalayas and Qinghai-Tibet plateau during the Pliocene-Pleistocene period might be the major factors affecting the present distribution of Eupetaurus along the Himalayas. PMID:15522800

  4. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Petaurista philippensis complex (Rodentia: Sciuridae), inter- and intraspecific relationships inferred from molecular and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Farong; Yu, Fahong; Pang, Junfeng; Kilpatrick, C William; McGuire, Peter M; Wang, Yingxiang; Lu, Shunqing; Woods, Charles A

    2006-03-01

    With modified DNA extraction and purification protocols, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1140 bp) were determined from degraded museum specimens. Molecular analysis and morphological examination of cranial characteristics of the giant flying squirrels of Petaurista philippensis complex (P. grandis, P. hainana, and P. yunanensis) and other Petaurista species yielded new insights into long-standing controversies in the Petaurista systematics. Patterns of genetic variations and morphological differences observed in this study indicate that P. hainana, P. albiventer, and P. yunanensis can be recognized as distinct species, and P. grandis and P. petaurista are conspecific populations. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods reveal that, with P. leucogenys as the basal branch, all Petaurista groups formed two distinct clades. Petaurista philippensis, P. hainana, P. yunanensis, and P. albiventer are clustered in the same clade, while P. grandis shows a close relationship to P. petaurista. Deduced divergence times based on Bayesian analysis and the transversional substitution at the third codon suggest that the retreating of glaciers and upheavals or movements of tectonic plates in the Pliocene-Pleistocene were the major factors responsible for the present geographical distributions of Petaurista groups. PMID:16414285

  5. Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1

    E-print Network

    Steppan, Scott

    squirrels (Pteromyinae) to subfamily status. Instead, flying squirrels are derived from one of the tree, whether gliding evolved more than once, and the relationships of flying squirrels to other groups. Until subfamilies: Sciurinae, the tree and ground squirrels, and Pteromyinae, the flying squirrels (Hoffmann et al

  6. Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1.

    PubMed

    Steppan, Scott J; Storz, Brian L; Hoffmann, Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Although the family Sciuridae is large and well known, phylogenetic analyses are scarce. We report on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the family. Two nuclear genes (c-myc and RAG1) comprising approximately 4500 bp of data (most in exons) are applied for the first time to rodent phylogenetics. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of the separate gene regions and combined data reveal five major lineages and refute the conventional elevation of the flying squirrels (Pteromyinae) to subfamily status. Instead, flying squirrels are derived from one of the tree squirrel lineages. C-myc indels corroborate the sequence-based topologies. The common ancestor of extant squirrels appears to have been arboreal, confirming the fossil evidence. The results also reveal an unexpected clade of mostly terrestrial squirrels with African and Holarctic centers of diversity. We present a revised classification of squirrels. Our results demonstrate the phylogenetic utility of relatively slowly evolving nuclear exonic data even for relatively recent clades. PMID:15012949

  7. Rediscovery of Biswamoyopterus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae: Pteromyini) in Asia, with the description of a new species from Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sanamxay, Daosavanh; Douangboubpha, Bounsavane; Bumrungsri, Sara; Xayavong, Sysouphanh; Xayaphet, Vilakhan; Satasook, Chutamas; Bates, Paul J J

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the flying squirrel genus Biswamoyopterus is described from Lao PDR. It is based on a single specimen collected from a local food market at Ban Thongnami, Pak Kading District, Bolikhamxai Province. The new taxon shows close affinities to Biswamoyopterus biswasi, which is only known from the holotype collected in 1981, 1250 km from the current locality, in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. However, it differs substantially in pelage colour, most particularly on the ventral surfaces of the body, patagia, tail membrane, and tail. The single specimen was found in an area of central Lao PDR, which is characterised by its extensive limestone karst formations and which is home to other rare endemic rodents, including the Khanyou (Laonastes aenigmamus) nd the Lao limestone rat (Saxatilomyspaulinae). PMID:26473234

  8. Chronology and causes of the extinction of the Lava Mouse, Malpaisomys insularis (Rodentia: Muridae) from the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Navarro, Juan Francisco; García-Talavera, Francisco; Hutterer, Rainer; Michaux, Jacques

    2008-09-01

    Understanding late Holocene extinctions on islands requires accurate chronologies for all relevant events, including multiple colonisations by humans and the introduction of alien species. The most widely held hypothesis on the causes of Holocene island vertebrate extinctions incorporates human impacts, although climatic-related hypotheses cannot be excluded. Both hypotheses have been suggested to account for the extinction of the endemic Lava Mouse, Malpaisomys insularis from the Canary Islands. Here we present the first accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C ages from collagen of M. insularis bones from ancient owl pellets collected at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic Ocean). These new dates contribute to an understanding of the extinction of this species. We are able to exclude climatic causes, predation by invasive species, and competition with the house mouse, Mus musculus. The arrival of Europeans in the Canary Islands correlates with the extinction of Malpaisomys. The introduction of rats, Rattus spp., together with their parasites and diseases, emerges as the most reasonable hypothesis explaining the extinction of M. insularis.

  9. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone. PMID:25773245

  10. Bathyergus suillus (Rodentia: Bathyergidae) NIGEL C. BENNETT, CHRIS G. FAULKES, LEANNE HART, AND JENNIFER U. M. JARVIS

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    (about 775­950 g) than B. janetta (about 750 g). Also, B. suillus has cinnamon-brown­colored pelage is the largest (up to 2 kg) of all bathyergids in Africa. Dorsal pelage is cinnamon-brown, sometimes or gray at the base becoming cinnamon at the tip. Pelage is thick and woolly, with longer, pale

  11. NEW SPECIES OF AROSTRILEPIS (EUCESTODA: HYMENOLEPIDIAE) IN MEMBERS OF CRICETIDAE AND GEOMYIDAE (RODENTIA) FROM THE WESTERN NEARCTIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimens originally identified as Arostrilepis horrida from the Nearctic are revised, contributing to the recognition of a complex of cryptic species distributed across the Holarctic region. Previously unrecognized species are described based on specimens in rodents of the families Cricetidae (Neot...

  12. On the Origin and Evolution of the Extant System of B Chromosomes in Oryzomyini Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Karen; O’Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; do Nascimento Moreira, Camila; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous supernumerary chromosomes (Bs) are recognized in the oryzomyines Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus, N. squamipes, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Sooretamys angouya, representing about 10% of all known B-containing rodent species. They provide an outstanding model for understanding the origin, evolution and diversity of Bs in a phylogenetic context. Therefore, whole chromosome-specific probes were generated from flow-sorted Holochilus brasiliensis (HBR) autosomes 11 and 25+26 and chromosomes X, Y and Bs. Hybridizations were performed on male metaphases of 15 Oryzomyini species of which 3 are B-containing species. The results reveal that among the species sampled, 12 of them, belonging to a monophyletic Oryzomiyini subclade, are positive for an anonymous Oryzomyini shared heterochromatic region (OSHR) on both sex chromosomes. The OSHR is also present on Bs of Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus and N. squamipes but not on Bs of O. flavescens and S. angouya. Two distinct additional OSHR/autosome associations are observed on S. angouya. The three species that are OSHR negative belong to an outgroup. Molecular dating suggests that the OSHR originated between 7.8 and 3 Mya on ancestral sex chromosomes. A tentative explanation for the OSHR-positive nature of B regions in three species could be that transposable elements (TEs) from this specific sex chromosome region may have invaded existing B chromosomes. The presence of the OSHR on entire Xp and Yp adjacent to interstitial telomeric sequences at pericentromeric positions, as observed in Drymoreomys albimaculatus, show a similar organization as on B chromosomes in Nectomys squamipes. The diversity of the Oryzomyini Bs in number, size, morphology and genetic content may be explained by the independent origin of B chromosomes in different subgroups of species, with Bs in Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys squamipes and N. rattus sharing the OSHR with sex chromosomes, and those in Oligoryzomys flavescens and Sooretamys angouya lacking OSHR in Bs. The species-specific pattern of Bs is probably a consequence of their independent evolutionary origin. PMID:26305702

  13. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an “out of Tibet” hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an “into Tibet” scenario–earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the later the lineage became extinct in southwestern Tibet. PMID:26658457

  14. A new form of the mole vole Ellobius tancrei Blasius, 1884 (Mammalia, Rodentia) with the lowest chromosome number

    PubMed Central

    Bakloushinskaya, Irina; Romanenko, Svetlana A.; Serdukova, Natalia A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Lyapunova, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The subterranean mole vole, Ellobius tancrei, with aspecific variability in autosomes (2n = 31–54) and unusual sex chromosomes (XX in males and females), represents an amazing model for studying the role of chromosome changes in speciation. New materials from the upper reaches of the Surkhob River in the Pamiro-Alay mountains resulted in the discovery of a new form with 2n = 30. The application of Zoo-FISH and G-banding methods allowed the detection of 13 pairs of autosomes as Robertsonian metacentrics originated after fusions of acrocentrics of an assumed ancestral karyotype of Ellobius tancrei with 2n = 54. The sex chromosomes (XX, in both sexes) and one pair of acrocentric autosomes are the only acrocentrics in this karyotype, and the set with 2n = 30 possesses the lowest possible chromosome number among populations of Ellobius tancrei. PMID:24260698

  15. Pyriproxyfen bait for control of plague vector fleas (Siphonaptera:Ceratophyllidae) on rock squirrels (Rodentia:Sciuridae) 

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Erin Bess Gabrielle

    2001-01-01

    , Spermophilus variegatus (Erxleben). Pyriproxyfen, accumulated in the squirrel blood, was ingested by feeding adult fleas, and was absorbed in the developing eggs preventing maturation of oocytes or hatching of larvae. Initially bait cubes containing another...

  16. Genetic Pool Information Reflects Highly Suitable Areas: The Case of Two Parapatric Endangered Species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae)

    PubMed Central

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

  17. A new species of Spirura Blanchard, 1849 (Nematoda: Spiruridae) parasite of Heliosciurus gambianus and Xerus erythropus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Malick; Seck, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    A new species of Spirura is described from the stomach of Heliosciurus gambianus and Xerus erythropus (Sciuridae). Considering the number of preanal papillae of males, Babero (1973 ) and Giannetto and Canestri Trotti (1995) proposed the subdivision of the genus into 2 groups; those with 4 pairs of preanal papillae (25 species) and with more than 4 pairs of preanal papillae (4 species). Spirura mounporti n. sp. belongs to the second, with 5 pairs of preanal papillae, and differs from Spirura infundibuliformis (McLeod, 1933) Anderson et al., 1993 , Spirura zapi ( Erickson, 1938 ) Chabaud et al., 1965 , Spirura leiperi Gupta and Trivedi, 1985, and Spirura michiganensis Sandground, 1935 in the number of pairs of pre-cloacal papillae. The new species further differs from other species of the genus in having 21 caudal papillae, in the ratio of spicules:body length, and in its morpho-anatomical characters. PMID:23795669

  18. Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) niameyensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834) (Rodentia: Muridae) from Niger.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Malick; Diagne, Christophe Amidi; Quilichini, Yann; Dobigny, Gauthier; Garba, Madougou; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) niameyensis n. sp. is described from Mastomys natalensis in Niamey/Niger (West Africa). It differs from other species of same subgenus by the morphology of the head, which presents 4 simple cephalic papillae and nearly axial oral opening, a number of caudal papillae, precloacal cuticular formations, and the spicule length/body length ratio. Scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of 2 pairs of lateral sensory structures for male worms. PMID:23902298

  19. Distribution and habitat of the Laotian Rock Rat Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005 (Rodentia: Diatomyidae) in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nghia Xuan; Nguyen, Duy Dinh; Dinh, Tri Huy; Le, Dinh Thuc; Dinh, Duong Hai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Laotian Rock Rat Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005 was originally discovered in Lao People's Democratic Republic in 2005. This species has been recognized as the sole surviving member of the otherwise extinct rodent family Diatomyidae. Laonastes aenigmamus was initially reported only in limestone forests of Khammouane Province, Central Lao. A second population was recently discovered in Phong Nha Ke Bang National Park (PNKB NP), Quang Binh Province, Central Vietnam in 2011. The confirmed distribution range of L. aenigmamus in Vietnam is very small, approximately 150 km2, covering low karst mountains in five communes of Minh Hoa District, Quang Binh Province, at elevations between 250 and 400 m asl. The Laotian Rock Rat inhabits the lower part of steep karst towers with many rock boulders and crevices under tall limestone evergreen forest. They use small rock crevices for their dens. The natural habitat of this species in PNKB NP has been affected by selected timber harvesting, however, a complex 3-4 layer forest structure is retained. The Laotian Rock Rat is omnivorous, feeding on parts (leaves, buds, fruits and roots) of 18 plant species and also some insects (cicada, mantis, grasshopper). The population of this species in PNKB NP is seriously threatened with extinction due to its very restricted distribution, high hunting pressure, and habitat disturbance. Laonastes aenigmamus is listed in the IUCN Red List as endangered and in the Wildlife and Aquatic Red List of Lao, however, this species has not been listed in the Red Data Book or any conservation legislative documents of Vietnam. PMID:25589873

  20. Assessment of Three Mitochondrial Genes (16S, Cytb, CO1) for Identifying Species in the Praomyini Tribe (Rodentia: Muridae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Violaine; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Missoup, Alain Didier; Kennis, Jan; Colyn, Marc; Denys, Christiane; Tatard, Caroline; Cruaud, Corinne; Laredo, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The Praomyini tribe is one of the most diverse and abundant groups of Old World rodents. Several species are known to be involved in crop damage and in the epidemiology of several human and cattle diseases. Due to the existence of sibling species their identification is often problematic. Thus an easy, fast and accurate species identification tool is needed for non-systematicians to correctly identify Praomyini species. In this study we compare the usefulness of three genes (16S, Cytb, CO1) for identifying species of this tribe. A total of 426 specimens representing 40 species (sampled across their geographical range) were sequenced for the three genes. Nearly all of the species included in our study are monophyletic in the neighbour joining trees. The degree of intra-specific variability tends to be lower than the divergence between species, but no barcoding gap is detected. The success rate of the statistical methods of species identification is excellent (up to 99% or 100% for statistical supervised classification methods as the k-Nearest Neighbour or Random Forest). The 16S gene is 2.5 less variable than the Cytb and CO1 genes. As a result its discriminatory power is smaller. To sum up, our results suggest that using DNA markers for identifying species in the Praomyini tribe is a largely valid approach, and that the CO1 and Cytb genes are better DNA markers than the 16S gene. Our results confirm the usefulness of statistical methods such as the Random Forest and the 1-NN methods to assign a sequence to a species, even when the number of species is relatively large. Based on our NJ trees and the distribution of all intraspecific and interspecific pairwise nucleotide distances, we highlight the presence of several potentially new species within the Praomyini tribe that should be subject to corroboration assessments. PMID:22574186

  1. Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Solé, Floréal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

  2. Graphical Models in Computational Molecular

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Nir

    -tailed bat Jamaican fruit-eating bat Asiatic shrew Long-clawed shrew Mole Small Madagascar hedgehog Aardvark Elephant Armadillo Rabbit Pika Tree shrew Bonobo Chimpanzee Man Gorilla Sumatran orangutan Bornean Cetartiodactyla Rodentia 1 Hedgehogs Rodentia 2 Primates Chiroptera Moles+Shrews Afrotheria Xenarthra Lagomorpha

  3. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2014-10-01

    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs. PMID:25236269

  4. Nematodes of Heligmonellidae (Strongylida) of Pogonomys championi Flannery and Pogonomys sylvestris Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua New Guinea with descriptions of five new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2015-10-01

    Eight species of heligmonellid nematodes including five new species and a putative new species were identified from the digestive tracts of 12 Pogonomys championi Flannery and 27 P. sylvestris Thomas (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua Indonesia. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos Smales, 2014 had been previously described from P. loriae Thomas and P. macrourus (Milne-Edwards) and Odilia mackerrasae (Mawson, 1961) from several endemic rodent species. Bunomystrongylus ilami n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of rounded ridges in the synlophe; Hasanuddinia hasegawai n. sp. by the number of ridges, three ventral being hypertrophied, in the synlophe; Montistrongylus kaindiensis n. sp. by the number of ridges in the synlophe and the length of the spicules; Odilia helgeni n. sp. in the characters of the synlophe ridges; Odilia whittingtoni n. sp. in the characters of the synlophe ridges and the length of the spicules. Species richness of the nematode assemblage of P. sylvestris, nine species and a juvenile heligmonellid, was comparable to those of P. loriae and P. macrourus but that of P. championi, five species, was considered depauperate. Species composition showed both commonalities between the host species as well as distinctive features. Three of five species in the assemblage were unique to P. championi and five of nine species to P. sylvestris. PMID:26358071

  5. Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and analysis of the ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Oliver, Clinton E; Hofmann, Danielle L; Smith, Arik W

    2009-02-01

    During the winter of 2004, 48 fecal samples were collected from live-trapped fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) from central Wyoming (Natrona County) and examined for species of Eimeria. Two species, Eimeria lancasterensis (prevalence, 65%) and Eimeria ontarioensis (prevalence, 27%), were identified. Genomic DNA sequences ITS1 and ITS2 were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Additional sequences from E. lancasterensis isolated from a Delmarva fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus) collected on Chincoteague Island, Virginia, were also identified. Comparison of pairwise distances suggests that E. lancasterensis from Wyoming and Virginia are conspecific. Maximum Parsimony tree construction identified 2 lineages, one E. ontarioensis and one E. lancasterensis; and both lineages had a strong bootstrap support (100%). The Maximum Parsimony analysis was unable to resolve the Wyoming and Virginia strains. PMID:19245280

  6. Observations and larval descriptions of fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Ishnopsyllidae) of the southern flying squirrel, little brown bat, and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Mammalia: Rodentia, Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Elbel, Robert E; Bossard, Robert L

    2007-11-01

    Larvae of the four fleas infesting nests of the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans colans (L.) [Conorhinopsylla stanfordi Stewart, Epitedia faceta (Rothschild), Opisodasys pseudarctomys (Baker), and Orchopeas howardi (Baker)], and of the bat fleas Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild) and Sternopsylla distincta texana (C. Fox), associated with the bats Myotis lcifuigus (Le Conte) and Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geof. St. Hilaire), respectively, are described. C. stanfordi has the second posterior-row seta on abdominal segments 1-5 at most one fourth the length of the first and third setae, but it is unique among the Leptopsyllini with five short setae in abdominal segment 9 anterior row. E. faceta has the straight line of anterior-row setae 2-5 on abdominal segment 1, which is diagnostic for Phalacropsyllini. O. howardi and O. pseudarctomys have three anterior-row setae on the anal comb, three ventrolateral setae on the anal segment (abdominal segment 10), and a narrow mandible with five or more teeth as other Ceratopyllinae, but O. pseudarctomys is distinguishable from O. howardi because the first setae on the posterior row of the head is long (greater than one half the length of the third posterior-row setae), the ventral setae on abdominal segment 7 are different sizes, and the third anterior-row setae on abdominal segment 8 does not extend past the spiracle posterior to it. Bat flea larvae have six posterior-row setae on abdominal segments 1-9 with the anal comb anterior row with two or more setae; M. insignis has eight mandible teeth and S. distincta texana three to four. PMID:18047188

  7. [Gene-geographical variation and genetic differentiation in red-backed voles of the genus Clethrionomys (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in the Okhotskii region].

    PubMed

    Frisman, L V; Kartavtseva, I V; Pavlenko, M V; Kostenko, V A; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ivasa, Masahiro; Nakata, Keisuke; Cherniavski?, F B

    2002-05-01

    Thirteen enzyme systems and three nonenzyme proteins were electrophoretically analyzed in red-backed voles of the genus Clethrionomys. In total, 25 loci were interpreted. Gene-geographic variation was studied and indices of genetic variability and differentiation were determined. By the distribution of electrophoretic variants of hemoglobin, C. rutilus was shown to be divided into two geographical groups (northern and southern). A low level of genetic differentiation was revealed in the island isolates of C. rutilus and C. rufocanus. Separation of C. rufocanus, C. rex, and C. sicotanensis into a superspecies complex was confirmed. A study of differential G- and C-banding on C. rutilus and C. rufocanus chromosomes did not reveal intraspecific variation of autosomes. In these species, karyotypes of voles from Kamchatka Peninsula were studied for the first time. They appeared to be morphologically similar to the karyotypes continental voles by both autosomes and sex chromosomes. PMID:12068550

  8. A small, new gerbil-mouse Eligmodontia (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from dunes at the coasts and deserts of north-central Chile: molecular, chromosomic, and morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Spotorno, Angel E; Zuleta, Carlos; Walker, Laura I; Manriquez, German; Valladares, Pablo; Marin, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    A small, new species of gerbil rodents of the genus Eligmodontia from the southwestern dunes of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile is described; the genus had not been reported for this western lowland region. Our description is based on cytogenetic and molecular data, as well as cranial and external morphology. In order to support this hypothesis, we studied 27 specimens captured in Playa Los Choros (Coquimbo) and Copiapó (Atacama), comparing them with samples of all the extant species of the genus. Nineteen individuals consistently showed 2N=50, FN=48, with telocentric chromosomes and G-bands identical to those of the geographically northeastern E. hirtipes; these two groups were geographically separated by E. puerulus (2N = 34, FN = 48). The phylogenetic analysis of 56 Eligmodontia cytochrome-b gene sequences yielded a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree where the new species formed a divergent and well-supported clade within the genus, which was also confirmed by unweighted parsimony, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analyses. The new species has K2P genetic distances of 12.8% from the geographically distant E. hirtipes, and 10.3% from E. puerulus. Axes 1 and 2 of Principal Component Analysis based on 12 body and skull measurements clearly separated the new species, the latter having a smaller head+body length (70.6 +/- 3.4 mm, n = 17) and lower weight (11.9 +/- 1.9 g, n = 20). We provide strong evidence to recognize a distinct new western lineage within Eligmodontia genus, Eligmodontia dunaris sp. nov., for which we give a complete taxonomic description and a hypothetical biogeographic scenario. The new species should be considered endangered, due to its level of endemism, its low population numbers (which can be occasionally increased after a blooming desert) and its fragile dry habitat patchily distributed near the Atacama Desert. PMID:25250459

  9. The evolution of nuclear microsatellite DNA markers and their flanking regions using reciprocal comparisons within the African mole-rats (Rodentia: Bathyergidae) 

    E-print Network

    Ingram, Colleen Marie

    2006-10-30

    a suite of suitable phylogenetic characters. v v DEDICATION I dedicate this body of work to my parents, who have always encouraged me to explore my interests, no matter what direction I decided to take, and opening up the world to me... information on the value of microsatellites as informative genetic markers, each was limited to few loci, analogous to earlier work with single locus mtDNA gene trees (Avise, 1994). The goal of this study is to investigate the evolutionary processes...

  10. [A modular approach to studying of fluctuating asymmetry of complex morphological structures in rodents with the mandible of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicolinae, Rodentia) as an example].

    PubMed

    Ialkovskaia, L É; Borodin, A V; Fominykh, M A

    2014-01-01

    The expediency of a modular approach to estimating fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of complex morphological structures was shown using the mandible of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780) as an example. FA of the shape of two mandibular regions (modules) defined developmentally and functionally, was assessed by means of geometric morphometrics. The differences between mandibular regions in the FA levels were found for both individual landmarks and integral indices of asymmetry. Regardless of age, gender or sampling year, FA estimates obtained for posterior region including part of the ramus and processes were higher than those for anterior region including the diastemal area. The results suggest that modularity of complex morphological structures should be taken into account when analyzing FA. PMID:25782276

  11. Characterization of the Kidney Transcriptome of the Long-Haired Mouse Abrothrix hirta (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) and Comparison with That of the Olive Mouse A. olivacea

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Lourdes; Giorello, Facundo; Feijoo, Matías; Opazo, Juan C.; Lessa, Enrique P.; Naya, Daniel E.; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    To understand how small mammals cope with the challenge of water homeostasis is a matter of interest for ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Here we take a step towards the understanding of the transcriptomic functional response of kidney using as a model the long–haired mouse (Abrothrix hirta) a species that distributes across Patagonian steppes and Austral temperate rainforests in Argentina and Chile. Specifically, we i) characterize the renal transcriptome of A. hirta, and ii) compare it with that—already available—of the co-generic and co-distributed A. olivacea. Renal mRNA transcripts from 16 specimens of A. hirta from natural populations were analyzed. Over 500 million Illumina paired-end reads were assembled de novo under two approaches, an individual assembly for each specimen, and a single in-silico normalized joint assembly including all reads from all specimens. The total number of annotated genes was similar with both strategies: an average of 14,956 in individual assemblies and 14,410 in the joint assembly. Overall, 15,463 distinct genes express in the kidney of A. hirta. Transcriptomes of A. hirta and A. olivacea were similar in terms of gene abundance and composition: 95.6% of the genes of A. hirta were also found in A. olivacea making their functional profiles also similar. However, differences in the transcriptome of these two species were observed in the set of highly expressed genes, in terms of private genes for each species and the functional profiles of highly expressed genes. As part of the novel transcriptome characterization, we provide distinct gene lists with their functional annotation that would constitute the basis for further research on these or any other species of the subfamily Sigmodontinae, which includes about 400 living species distributed from Tierra del Fuego to southern United States. PMID:25860131

  12. Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rodentia, Mammalia), nouveau Muridae d'affinité incertaine du Pliocène inférieur d'Afrique du Sud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sénégas, Frank; Michaux, Jacques

    2000-04-01

    Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov., a Muridae of uncertain affinity in the Early Pliocene of South Africa. Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. is reported from the Early Pliocene fauna of Waypoint 160, a fossiliferous locality in the area of Bolt's Farm (Province of Gauteng) near Krugersdorp in South Africa. The occlusal surface of the jugal teeth is characterized by a basin-shaped aspect due to the coalescence of the cusps which make the lobes of the molars. An accessory inner cusp is present on the first and second upper molars. A faint longitudinal crest is present only in the first lower molar. The new rodent is tentatively referred to the subfamily Myocricetodontinae.

  13. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelz-Serrano, K.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Piaggio, A.J.; Neubaum, M.; Munclinger, P.; PArtl, A.; van Riper, Charles, III; Culver, M.

    2009-01-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Patterns of morphological variability in reintroduced populations with two beaver subspecies Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus (Castoridae, Rodentia) as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2012-01-01

    Taking as an example two beaver subspecies (Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus) with documented history of population formation, the patterns of morphological variability in translocated groups of mammals are studied. The variability of quantitative and qualitative traits in the formed populations is not characterized by a single direction. The main trend consists in increasing of adaptive norms diversity as related to body size. There observed a slight increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry, reduction in polymorphism of nonmetric traits, and increase in fraction of rare aberrations. All these may be caused by inbreeding taking place during the period of prapopulations formation. The results of the study allow for considering the intraspecific differentiation as a consequence of adaptive variability (adaptatiogenesis) or subspecies hybridization. As for stochastic processes (genetic drift, founder effect), they seem to not influence the morphological variability significantly. The differences between discrete and dimensional traits are indicative of population groups' peculiarity. PMID:22834167

  15. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber.

    PubMed

    Pelz-Serrano, Karla; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Neubaum, Melissa; Munclinger, Pavel; Pártl, Adam; VAN Riper Iii, Charles; Culver, Melanie

    2009-03-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. PMID:21564690

  16. Biochronological implications of the Arvicolidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Lower Pleistocene hominid-bearing level of Trinchera Dolina 6 (TD6, Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana, C; Canudo, J I

    1999-01-01

    Level TD6 of the Trinchera Dolina Section in the railway cutting of the Sierre de Atapuerca (Trinchera del Ferrocarril) has yielded a rich small mammal assemblage (26 species) in association with fossil human remains of Homo antecessor. The arvicolids of TD6 are identified as: Mimomys savini, Microtus seseae, Stenocranius gregaloides, Terricola arvalidens, Iberomys huescarensis, Allophaiomys chalinei, and Pliomys episcopalis. The rodent association also includes large rodents (i.e., Castor fiber, Marmota sp., and Hystrix refossa) and the small Allocricetus sp., Eliomys helleri, Micromys minutus, and Apodemus aff. flavicollis. The small vertebrate remains also include Insectivora (Beremendia fissidens, Sorex sp, Neomys sp., Crocidura sp., Galemys sp., Talpa sp., Erinaceus sp.), Chiroptera (Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis sp., Rhinolophus sp.), and Lagomorpha (Oryctolagus sp., Lepus sp.), as well as lizards, birds and amphibians. The H. antecessor remains are derived from a 15 cm thick layer at the top of TD6 (TD6-T36-43), where A. chalinei, H. refossa and Marmota sp. do not occur. The paleomagnetic Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is found in the overlying level TD7 of the Gran Dolina Section. On the basis of the arvicolids, TD6 can be referred to the Biharian biochron. The Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is fixed in the late Biharian (Microtus-Mimomys rodent Superzone). The species M. savini (without M. pusillus), as well as the evolutionary stage of Microtus s.l., are characteristic of the Late Biharian. The evolutionary level of the species M. savini, T. arvalidens, S. gregaloides indicates that TD6 is older than West Runton (type Cromerian). In the Trinchera Dolina Section we are able to calibrate, for the first time, the evolutionary level of important biochronological markers with magnetostratigraphy. We propose that a radiation of Microtus s.l., along with the first appearance of primitive S. gregaloides, T. arvalidens and Iberomys, took place just before the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary. These species can be considered as characteristic elements of early Pleistocene faunas. PMID:10496992

  17. Parasitic protozoa of the blood of rodents. VI. Two new hemogregarines of the pygmy flying squirrel Idiurus macrotis (Rodentia: Theridomyomorpha: Anomaluridae) in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Killick-Kendrick, R

    1984-11-01

    Descriptions are given of two new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 found in the pygmy squirrel, Idiurus macrotis, in the Ivory Coast. Gamonts of both are parasites of monocytes. The size and shape of the gamonts of one, H. normani n. sp., are similar to those of a number of gamonts of other species of rodent hemogregarines and the separate identity of the parasite is based on the host restriction of mammalian hemogregarines. The gamonts of the other species, H. dolichomorphon n. sp., are remarkably long and slender and are unlike those of any other known hemogregarine of mammals. Schizonts of this species were found in a smear prepared from heart blood. PMID:6096538

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among Japanese species of the family Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia), inferred from nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Oshida, T; Masuda, R; Yoshida, M C

    1996-08-01

    In order to investigate phylogenetic relationships of the family Sciuridae living in Japan, we sequenced partial regions (379 bases) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes in six species of Japanese and other Asian squirrels. Phylogenetic trees constructed by sequence data indicated that two genera of flying squirrels (Petaurista and Pteromys) were clustered in a group distinct from non-flying squirrels, suggesting a possible monophyletic relationships of these flying squirrels. The evolutionary distance between the Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis) from Honshu island and the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) from Hokkaido island was comparable to intraspecific distances of the remaining species examined. PMID:8940915

  19. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (?n) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential cor- ridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (?n = -2.9), transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011) in semi-deciduous (?n = -0.87) and tropical dry (?n = -0.89) forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs), of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85) followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71), Dalbergia glabra (18.05), and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02). The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas) to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6 ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines' habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conserva- tion and management have to be taken urgently. PMID:25720182

  20. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae) in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm.

    PubMed

    Bain, Odile; Junker, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts?) near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165-200 ?m. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae) that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters. PMID:23369432

  1. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae) in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Odile; Junker, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts?) near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 ?m. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae) that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters. PMID:23369432

  2. [Experimental hybridization of voies of the genus Microtus s.l. M. socialis with species of the group arvalis (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Koval'skaia, Iu M; Savinetskaia, L E; Aksenova, T G

    2014-01-01

    The results of interspecific crosses of the social vole Microtus socialis with the Altai vole M. obscurus, the East European vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, and the Transcaspian vole M. transcaspicus are presented. The role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. Hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. It is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not prevent fertilization. The sterility of hybrids indicates the existence of postcopulative mechanisms of reproductive isolation. PMID:25739313

  3. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 776, pp. 16, 3 figs. Cacajao melanocephalus. By Adrian A. Barnett

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    . Type locality ``San Francisco Solano Mission, Ri´o Casi´quiare, Venezuela,'' Amazonas State, Venezuela,'' Amazo^nas State, Brazil. Cacajao melanocephalus: Lesson, 1840:182. Name combination. Ouakaria spixii Humboldt at San Francisco Solano Mission on the Ri´o Casiquiare, Amazonas, Venezuela, and illustrated after

  4. A glimpse on the pattern of rodent diversification: a phylogenetic approach

    E-print Network

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Hautier, Lionel; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Douzery, Emmanuel J. P.

    2012-06-14

    , no synthesis has addressed the case of the most diversified mammalian clade: the Rodentia. Results Here we present a rodent maximum likelihood phylogeny inferred from a molecular supermatrix. It is based on 11 mitochondrial and nuclear genes that covers 1...

  5. Two new species of Gliricola (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus, in Peru.

    E-print Network

    Price, Roger D.; Timm, Robert M.

    1993-06-01

    Two new species of Gliricola, G. woodmani and G. halli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), are described and illustrated for specimens from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Peru. Resumen--Se describe ...

  6. Testing Synchrony in Historical Biogeography: The Case of New World Primates and Hystricognathi Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Aguiar, Barbara O.; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The abrupt appearance of primates and hystricognath rodents in early Oligocene deposits of South America has puzzled mastozoologists for decades. Based on the geoclimatic changes that occurred during the Eocene/Oligocene transition period that may have favoured their dispersal, researchers have proposed the hypothesis that these groups arrived in synchrony. Nevertheless, the hypothesis of synchronous origins of platyrrhine and caviomorph in South America has not been explicitly evaluated. Our aim in this work was to apply a formal test for synchronous divergence times to the Platyrrhini and Caviomorpha splits. We have examined a previous work on platyrrhine and hystricognath origins, applied the test to a case where synchrony is known to occur and conducted simulations to show that it is possible to formally test the age of synchronous nodes. We show that the absolute ages of Platyrrhini/Catarrhini and Caviomorpha/Phiomorpha splits depend on data partitioning and that the test applied consistently detected synchronous events when they were known to have happened. The hypothesis that the arrival of primates and hystricognaths to the New World consisted of a unique event cannot be rejected PMID:22346342

  7. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877) - Rodentia, Echimyidae - population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) abundances.

    PubMed

    Mello, J H F; Moulton, T P; Raíces, D S L; Bergallo, H G

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i) to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii) propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii) determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present. PMID:25945639

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths (Cestoda, Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae) of Pogonomys loriae and Pogonomys macrourus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2014-01-01

    Pieces of cestode, not indentified further, and 12 species of nematode including 1 new genus, 3 new species and 7 putative new species from the Families Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae were collected from the digestive tracts of 16 Pogonomys loriae and 19 P. macrurous (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi and the heligmonellid Odilia mackerrasae have been described previously from endemic murids. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of ridges in the synlophe, length of spicules and having a vagina with a dorsal diverticulum. Odilia dividua n. sp. is larger than its congeners, has a longer oesophagus, relatively shorter spicules and larger eggs. Pogonomystrongylus domaensis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 7-10 ridges oriented sub frontally with a single left ventral ridge hypertrophied. Species richness of the nematode assemblages of P. loriae and P. macrourus are comparable to those of Abeomelomys sevia, Chiruromys vates and Coccymys rummleri when numbers of hosts examined are considered. Species composition was distinctive with 12, including the 7 putative species, of 14 species presently known only from species of Pogonomys. Similarities between the nematode fauna of endemic rodent hosts from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea were noted. PMID:25544134

  9. Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the oldfield mouse Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Neotominae) from the southeastern Nearctic with comments on tapeworm faunal diversity among deer mice.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Nims, Todd N; Galbreath, Kurt E; Hoberg, Eric P

    2015-06-01

    A previously unrecognized species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Hymenolepis is described based on specimens in Peromyscus polionotus, oldfield mouse, from Georgia near the southeastern coast of continental North America. Specimens of Hymenolepis folkertsi n. sp. differ from those attributed to most other species in the genus by having testes arranged in a triangle and a scolex with a prominent rostrum-like protrusion. The newly recognized species is further distinguished by the relative position and length of the cirrus sac, shape of seminal receptacle, and relative size of external seminal vesicle and seminal receptacle. Hymenolepidid cestodes have sporadically been reported among the highly diverse assemblage of Peromyscus which includes 56 distinct species in the Nearctic. Although the host genus has a great temporal duration and is endemic to the Nearctic, current evidence suggests that tapeworm faunal diversity reflects relatively recent assembly through bouts of host switching among other cricetid, murid, and geomyid rodents in sympatry. PMID:25762188

  10. Monophyly of the Order Rodentia Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences of the Genes for 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and tRNA-Valine

    E-print Network

    Hedges, Blair

    , such as the guinea pig, represent an independent evolutionary lineage within mammals, separate from the sciurognath of the guinea pig containing the complete 12s ribosomal RNA, 16s ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNAVAL genes (Wilson and Reeder 1993). Among these, the guinea pigs, chinchillas, porcupines, and their rela- tives

  11. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  12. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation.

    PubMed

    Presti, Flavia T; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-04-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

  13. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Presti, Flavia T.; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R.; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

  14. Comparative genetics of longevity and cancer: insights from long-lived rodents

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mammals have evolved a dramatic diversity of aging rates. Within the single order of Rodentia maximum lifespans differ from four years in mice to 32 years in naked mole rats. Cancer rates also differ significantly, from cancer-prone mice to virtually cancer-proof naked and blind mole rats. Recent progress in rodent comparative biology, in combination with the emergence of whole genome sequence information, has opened opportunities for the discovery of genetic factors controlling longevity and cancer susceptibility. PMID:24981598

  15. Mites of the genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) from the North American beavers (Castor canadensis) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Saveljev, A P

    2014-01-01

    Four native species of parasitic mites belonging to the genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) are recorded on the North American beaver Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 (Rodentia: Castoridae) from Russia. Totally ten beavers from all three main geographically isolated populations of in Russia (Leningrad Province, Voronezh Biosphere Reserve (beaver farm) and Khabarovsk Territory) were examined. Additionally, in captivity (Voronezh beaver farm) eight species were recorded switched from the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 on C. canadensis. PMID:25936168

  16. Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria

    2013-05-01

    The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra had a villous, haemochorial placenta, from which the labyrinthine, endotheliochorial placenta of sloths later evolved. Placentation in Caviomorpha follows an extraordinary stable pattern, characterized by a haemomonochorial, labyrinthine and highly lobed structure with specialized growing areas. This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys and may have been present in the founder generation on arrival in South America. In conclusion, there is a dichotomy within Xenarthra but otherwise the ancient South American mammals do not show much variation in principal placental characters. Thus, the successful radiation of these three groups, and their adaptation to diverse ecological niches, did not require substantial alterations in placentation. PMID:23355381

  17. Pre-Wisconsinan mammals from Jamaica and models of late Quaternary extinction in the greater Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPhee, R. D. E.; Ford, Derek C.; McFarlane, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    The vertebrate fauna recovered from indurated conglomerates at Wallingford Roadside Cave (central Jamaica) is shown to be in excess of 100,000 yr old according to uranium series and electron spin resonance dating. The Wallingford local fauna is therefore pre-Wisconsinan in age, and Roadside Cave is now the oldest radiometrically dated locality in the West Indies containing identifiable species of land mammals. In the absence of a good radiometric record for Quaternary paleontological sites in the Caribbean, there is no satisfactory basis for determining whether most extinct Antillean mammals died out in a "blitzkrieg"-like event immediately following initial human colonization in the mid-Holocene. Fossils of Clidomys (Heptaxodontidae, Caviomorpha), the giant Wallingford rodent, have never been found in situ in sediments of demonstrably Holocene age, and its extinction may antedate the middle Holocene. This is also a possibility for the primate Xenothrix mcgregori, although its remains have been found in loose cave earth. A major, climate-driven bout of terrestrial vertebrate extinction at about 14,000-12,000 yr B.P. has been hypothesized for the West Indies by G. Pregill and S. L. Olson ( Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics12, 75-98, 1981), but at present there is nothing to connect the disappearance of Clidomys with this event either. Quaternary extinctions in the Caribbean may prove to be of critical significance for evaluating the reality of New World blitzkrieg, but not until an effort is mounted to constrain them rigorously using modern radiometric approaches.

  18. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-08-22

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25165976

  19. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; de Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-01-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  20. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  1. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  2. Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  3. Morphological and histochemical studies on the parotid gland of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Gross, S A; Di Dio, L J; Allen, D J; Perra, M T

    1984-01-01

    The parotid gland of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis follows the same anatomical pattern of Rodentia since no peculiar morphological and histochemical features were found in the present study that differentiate it from homologous glands in other rodents. It consists of serous secreting components and intralobular ducts that demonstrate no sexual dimorphism. Histochemical studies reveal that the glandular cells of the Praomys' parotid gland contain no acid mucosubstance, but that material of a neutral glycoprotein nature can be found in the secreting cells of acini, epithelium of the ducts, and the ductal lumina. PMID:6083776

  4. In Vitro Function of Frozen-Thawed Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Spermatozoa Undergoing Sorting and Recyopreservation 

    E-print Network

    Montano Pedroso, Gisele 1981-

    2010-08-19

    ]. The DNA content varies among species and even breeds; cattle 3.7% (Brahman) and 4.22% (Jersey); possum (Trichosurus sp.) 2.3%, chinchilla (Chinchilla sp.) 7.5% and bottlenose dolphins 4.1% X-Y difference in DNA content [34]. This difference has been... elephant (Elephas maximus) 3.4 African elephant (Loxodonta africana) 3.9 Rodentia Rabbit (Oryctolagus Cuniculas) 3.0 Mouse (Mus musculus) 3.3 Plains rat (Pseudomys australis) 4.2 Chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) 7.5 Sperm sexing technology...

  5. An Examination of the Generation-Time Effect on Molecular Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Tomoko

    1993-11-01

    By using DNA sequences of 17 mammalian genes, the generation-time effect is estimated separately for synonymous substitutions and nonsynonymous substitutions. Star phylogenies composed of rodentia, artiodactyla, and primates are examined. The generation-time effect is found to be more conspicuous for synonymous substitutions than for non-synonymous substitutions, by using the methods of (i) Nei and Gojobori, (ii) Li, and (iii) Ina. The proportion of accepted amino acid substitutions in evolution is estimated to be about twice as large in the primate lineage as in the rodent lineage. This result is in accord with the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution.

  6. Feed-through insecticides for the control of the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes.

    PubMed

    Ingenloff, K; Garlapati, R; Poché, D; Singh, M I; Remmers, J L; Poché, R M

    2013-03-01

    Three rodent feed-through studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae). The initial test evaluated diflubenzuron, eprinomectin, fipronil and ivermectin as feed-through treatments in Rattus rattus (Rodentia: Muridae). In the preliminary trial, all four insecticides yielded 100% mortality of P. argentipes larvae within 20 days of exposure to treated rodent faeces. Based upon the initial results, fipronil was evaluated further as a feed-through utilizing Bandicota bengalensis (Rodentia: Muridae). The B. bengalensis trial evaluated fipronil against both adult and larval sandflies at 250 p.p.m., 100 p.p.m. and 50 p.p.m. The results showed the fipronil treatment to have 100% efficacy against larvae up to 20 days post-treatment and over 74% efficacy against adult sandflies presented with B. bengalensis faeces up to 10 days post-treatment at all three dosage levels. The results of the three studies suggest that all four insecticides may be useful tools with which to control Leishmania vector populations. PMID:23278322

  7. Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  8. Rodent phylogeny and a timescale for the evolution of Glires: evidence from an extensive taxon sampling using three nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Huchon, Dorothée; Madsen, Ole; Sibbald, Mark J J B; Ament, Kai; Stanhope, Michael J; Catzeflis, François; de Jong, Wilfried W; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2002-07-01

    Rodentia is the largest order of placental mammals, with approximately 2,050 species divided into 28 families. It is also one of the most controversial with respect to its monophyly, relationships between families, and divergence dates. Here, we have analyzed and compared the performance of three nuclear genes (von Willebrand Factor, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, and Alpha 2B adrenergic receptor) for a large taxonomic sampling, covering the whole rodent and placental diversity. The phylogenetic results significantly support rodent monophyly, the association of Rodentia with Lagomorpha (the Glires clade), and a Glires + Euarchonta (Primates, Dermoptera, and Scandentia) clade. The resolution of relationships among rodents is also greatly improved. The currently recognized families are divided here into seven well-defined clades (Anomaluromorpha, Castoridae, Ctenohystrica, Geomyoidea, Gliridae, Myodonta, and Sciuroidea) that can be grouped into three major clades: Ctenohystrica, Gliridae + Sciuroidea, and a mouse-related clade (Anomaluromorpha, Castoridae + Geomyoidea, and Myodonta). Molecular datings based on these three genes suggest that the rodent radiation took place at the transition between Paleocene and Eocene. The divergence between rodents and lagomorphs is placed just at the K-T boundary and the first splits among placentals in the Late Cretaceous. Our results thus tend to reconcile molecular and morphological-paleontological insights. PMID:12082125

  9. Reconstruction of karyotype evolution in core Glires. I. The genome homology revealed by comparative chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Romanenko, Svetlana A; Biltueva, Larisa S; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Serdukova, Natalya A; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Brandler, Oleg V; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Yang, Fentang; Stanyon, Roscoe; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2011-05-01

    Glires represent a eutherian clade consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (hares, rabbits, and pikas). Chromosome evolution of Glires is known to have variable rates in different groups: from slowly evolving lagomorphs and squirrels to extremely rapidly evolving muroids. Previous interordinal homology maps between slowly evolving Glires were based on comparison with humans. Here, we used sets of chromosome-specific probes from Tamias sibiricus (Sciuridae), Castor fiber (Castoridae) and humans to study karyotypes of six ground squirrels (genera Marmota and Spermophilus) and one tree squirrel (genus Sciurus), mountain hare (genus Lepus), and rabbit (genus Oryctolagus). These data supplemented with GTG banding comparisons allowed us to build comparative chromosome maps. Our data showed the absence of previously found squirrel associations HSA 1/8 and 2/17 in the Eurasian ground squirrels--sousliks and woodchucks, and disruptions of squirrel HSA 10/13 and HSA 8/4/8/12/22 syntenies in the four Spermophilus species studied here. We found that the karyotypes of Sciuridae and Leporidae are highly conserved and close to the Rodentia ancestral karyotype, while Castoridae chromosomes underwent many more changes. We suggest that Lagomorpha and Sciuridae (in contrast to all other rodent families) should be considered as core Glires lineages, characterized by cytogenetically conserved karyotypes which contain chromosomal elements inherent to karyotype of common Glires ancestor. Our data allowed us to further refine the putative ancestral karyotypes of Rodentia. We also describe here the putative ancestral karyotypes of Glires and lagomorphs. PMID:21559983

  10. Karyotypic evolution of the family Sciuridae: inferences from the genome organizations of ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Wang, J; Su, W; Nie, W; Yang, F

    2006-01-01

    Cross-species chromosome painting has made a great contribution to our understanding of the evolution of karyotypes and genome organizations of mammals. Several recent papers of comparative painting between tree and flying squirrels have shed some light on the evolution of the family Sciuridae and the order Rodentia. In the present study we have extended the comparative painting to the Himalayan marmot (Marmotahimalayana) and the African ground squirrel (Xerus cf. erythropus), i.e. representative species from another important squirrel group--the ground squirrels--, and have established genome-wide comparative chromosome maps between human, eastern gray squirrel, and these two ground squirrels. The results show that 1) the squirrels so far studied all have conserved karyotypes that resemble the ancestral karyotype of the order Rodentia; 2) the African ground squirrels could have retained the ancestral karyotype of the family Sciuridae. Furthermore, we have mapped the evolutionary rearrangements onto a molecular-based consensus phylogenetic tree of the family Sciuridae. PMID:16484783

  11. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    PubMed

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; de Sousa Abessa, Denis Moledo; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA. PMID:26174980

  12. Cyclodontostomum purvisi (syn. Ancistronema coronatum) (Nematoda: Strongyloidea: Chabertiidae) from rats of Kalimantan and Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, H; Syafruddin

    1994-08-01

    Cyclodontostomum purvisi Adams, 1933 (Nematoda: Strongyloidea: Chabertiidae) was collected from the ceca of Maxomys whiteheadi, Leopoldamys sabanus, and Niviventer cremoniventer of East Kalimantan and Eropeplus canus, Paruromys dominator, and Rattus hoffmanni (Rodentia: Muridae: Murinae) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Kalimantan and Sulawesi are new localities for this nematode, and each of the Sulawesian rats are new hosts. Presence of the external corona radiata consisting of 8 bifid elements was confirmed in Cyclodontostomum. Ancistronema coronatum Smales, 1992 is synonymized with C. purvisi. The cephalic end of Kalimantan specimens tilted dorsally more strongly than C. purvisi from Sulawesi. Cyclodontostomum purvisi seems to have a wide host range in the Murinae, being distributed widely in the area from India to Australia. PMID:8064538

  13. Linking fishery management and conservation in a tropical estuarine lagoon: biological and physical effects of an artisanal fishing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, M.; Defeo, O.

    2003-04-01

    Information coming from fishery monitoring, surveys and experimental fishing with participation of fishers was employed to determine the impact of an artisanal gear, 'boliche', on the biodiversity of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), an estuarine lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Fishery monitoring (catch data) included landings before (1968 and 1978) and after (1994-1996) the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM (1985), whereas surveys were conducted seasonally during 1993-1994. Fishing experiments involved evaluating different mesh sizes and the short-term effect of physical disturbance by the boliche. Monitoring suggested potential trophic effects of this fishing gear: the catch of large, long-lived, carnivorous species declined after the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM, whereas catch rates of smaller, shorter-lived, and lower trophic level species increased. Surveys revealed that the boliche retained 41 species. The by-catch made up 62% of the total catch and the remaining 38% involved the three target species Eugerres plumieri, Mugil incilis and Cathorops spixii. Selectivity experiments showed that 2.5 in. stretched mesh size gill nets caught more species than the 3.0-in. mesh. The smaller mesh also increased the risk of a critical reduction in the spawning stock of target species (notably E. plumieri); a situation that could affect the fish community if mesh sizes lower than 2.5 in. were intensively used. Suspended particulate matter significantly increased after fishing activity, with higher resuspension on mud-shells and mud substrata, whereas dissolved oxygen showed no appreciable changes after fishing operations. Notwithstanding, the activity of the boliche would generate sediment resuspension between 382 and 470 t day -1, which could lead to potential cascade impacts on water quality. We propose a framework of redundancy in management measures in order to simultaneously reach management and conservation goals.

  14. The use of semen evaluation and assisted reproduction in Spix's macaws in terms of species conservation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Neumann, Daniel; Purchase, Cromwell; Bouts, Tim; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Wehrend, Axel; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is the rarest parrot on earth. The remaining captive population consists of 79 individuals. Captive propagation is ongoing to increase the number of individuals for future reintroduction back into the wild. Unfortunately, from 2004 to 2012, only 33 chicks hatched from 331 eggs. Semen evaluation and assisted reproduction might help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a recently developed electro-stimulated semen collection technique was used in Spix's macaws. Semen collection was successful in 39 of 78 attempts in 10 out of 17 males. Examination of the semen included evaluation of volume, color, consistency, contaminations and pH, as well as determination of motility, viability, morphology, concentration, and total count of spermatozoa. The median volume of semen samples was 5.6 µl. On average, 34.7 ± 21.9% (median 30%) of the sperm were motile and 23.1 ± 22.1% (median 16.5%) were progressively motile. In addition to spermatozoa, round cells were detected in the samples. Median sperm concentration was 15,500/µl (range 500-97,500/µl) and median viability was 50% (range 5-87%). Morphological examination revealed in 26.5% normal spermatozoa, high numbers of malformations of the head (50.2%) and tail region (20.5%), with 29% of all sperm showing multiple abnormalities. Artificial insemination was performed in three females; two eggs laid after artificial insemination had spermatozoa present on the perivitelline layer, suggesting the possible success of the insemination technique. Although no fertilization could be demonstrated, these preliminary results are promising, as they indicate that assisted reproduction might be a tool for species conservation in the Spix's macaw. PMID:24752991

  15. Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Gabriela D.; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, few hours after envenomation. The specific treatment for coral snake envenomation is the intravenous application of heterologous antivenom and, in Brazil, it is produced by horse immunization with a mixture of M. corallinus and M. frontalis venoms, snakes that inhabit the South and Southeastern regions of the country. However, this antivenom might be inefficient, considering the existence of intra- and inter-specific variations in the composition of the venoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic properties of venoms from nine species of Micrurus: eight present in different geographic regions of Brazil (M. frontalis, M. corallinus, M. hemprichii, M. spixii, M. altirostris, M. surinamensis, M. ibiboboca, M. lemniscatus) and one (M. fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of protein composition and toxicity revealed a large diversity of venoms from the nine Micrurus species. ELISA and Western blot assays showed a varied capability of the therapeutic antivenom to recognize the diverse species venom components. In vivo and in vitro neutralization assays indicated that the antivenom is not able to fully neutralize the toxic activities of all venoms. Conclusion These results indicate the existence of a large range of both qualitative and quantitative variations in Micrurus venoms, probably reflecting the adaptation of the snakes from this genus to vastly dissimilar habitats. The data also show that the antivenom used for human therapy in Brazil is not fully able to neutralize the main toxic activities present in the venoms from all Micrurus species occurring in the country. It suggests that modifications in the immunization scheme, with the inclusion of other venoms in the antigenic mixture, should occur in order to generate effective therapeutic coral snake antivenom. PMID:20231886

  16. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can calculate a sturdiness factor value so that an individual animal’s BMR and body mass can be simultaneously computed given its characteristic length awaits analysis of a data set that simultaneously reports all three of these items for individual animals. However for many of the addressed MMLE homogeneous groups, MMLE can predict the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the BMR and mass data using the exponent obtained by regression analysis of the mass and length data. This argues that MMLE may be able to accurately simultaneously compute BMR and mass for an individual animal. PMID:26355655

  17. Evolution of recombination in eutherian mammals: insights into mechanisms that affect recombination rates and crossover interference

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Joana; Ferretti, Luca; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián; Capilla, Laia; Farré, Marta; Reis, Fernanda; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Fernández-Bellón, Hugo; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J.; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Recombination allows faithful chromosomal segregation during meiosis and contributes to the production of new heritable allelic variants that are essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Therefore, an appreciation of how this variation is created and maintained is of critical importance to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary change. Here, we analysed the recombination features from species representing the major eutherian taxonomic groups Afrotheria, Rodentia, Primates and Carnivora to better understand the dynamics of mammalian recombination. Our results suggest a phylogenetic component in recombination rates (RRs), which appears to be directional, strongly punctuated and subject to selection. Species that diversified earlier in the evolutionary tree have lower RRs than those from more derived phylogenetic branches. Furthermore, chromosome-specific recombination maps in distantly related taxa show that crossover interference is especially weak in the species with highest RRs detected thus far, the tiger. This is the first example of a mammalian species exhibiting such low levels of crossover interference, highlighting the uniqueness of this species and its relevance for the study of the mechanisms controlling crossover formation, distribution and resolution. PMID:24068360

  18. Analysis of ectoparasites (chigger mites, gamasid mites, fleas and sucking lice) of the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) sampled throughout its range in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, P-Y; Guo, X-G; Song, W-Y; Hou, P; Zou, Y-J; Fan, R; He, X-S

    2015-12-01

    The Yunnan red-backed vole Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an endemic rodent species and reservoir host of zoonoses in southwest China. Based on a large host sample (2463 voles collected from 39 localities between 2001 and 2013), a general analysis of four categories of ectoparasite (fleas, sucking lice, chigger mites and gamasid mites) on E. miletus across its entire range of distribution was made. This analysis identified a total of 71 895 ectoparasites belonging to 320 species (30 species of flea, 9 of sucking louse, 106 of gamasid mite and 175 of chigger mite) with a high prevalence (87%), mean abundance (29.19) and mean intensity (33.69). Of the 18 vector species of zoonoses found on E. miletus, the flea Ctenophthalmus quadratus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and chigger mite Leptotrombidium scutellare (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) were the dominant species; these are the main vectors of zoonoses in China. All of the dominant parasite species showed an aggregated distribution pattern. Male voles harboured more species of parasite than females. Chigger mites represented the most abundant species group on voles and their prevalence was positively correlated with mean abundance (r = 0.73; P < 0.05). As a single rodent species, E. miletus has a high potential to harbour abundant ectoparasites with high species diversity and high rates of infestation. The sex of the vole affects ectoparasite infestation. PMID:26345365

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of lesser long-tailed Hamster Cricetulus longicaudatus (Milne-Edwards, 1867) and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziqi; Sun, Tong; Kang, Chunlan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cricetulus longicaudatus (Rodentia Cricetidae: Cricetinae) was determined and was deposited in GenBank (GenBank accession no. KM067270). The mitochondrial genome of C. longicaudatus was 16,302?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of other rodents' mitochondrial genomes. The phylogenetic analysis was performed with Bayesian inference based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result showed that these species from Cricetidae and its two subfamilies (Cricetinae and Arvicolines) formed solid monophyletic group, respectively. The Cricetulus had close phylogenetic relationship with Tscherskia among three genera (Cricetulus, Cricetulus and Mesocricetus). Neodon irene and Myodes regulus were embedded in Microtus and Eothenomys, respectively. The unusual phylogenetic positions of Neodon irene and Myodes regulus remain further study in the future. PMID:25090399

  20. Evolution of hantaviruses: co-speciation with reservoir hosts for more than 100 MYR.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, Alexander; Sironen, Tarja

    2014-07-17

    The most recent (9th) Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) lists 23 established and 30 provisional species in the genus Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) (Plyusnin et al., 2012). These virus species are harbored by altogether 51 species of rodents, shrews and moles and thus in most cases it is a relationship of "one hantavirus-one host". Such a tight bond between the two, in combination with the observed association between whole groups of hantaviruses and (sub)families of rodents, helped to develop the widely accepted view of a long-term co-evolution (co-speciation) of these viruses with their hosts. Accumulating evidence of host-switching events, both recent and ancient, however challenged some of the earlier views on hantavirus evolution. In this paper we discuss the concept of hantavirus-host co-speciation and propose a scenario of hantavirus evolution based on the currently available genetic information. This scenario is based on the hypothesis that hantaviruses are very ancient viruses which already existed at the estimated diversification point of major placental clades, of which one includes the ancestors of the order Rodentia and another the ancestors of both orders Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera; the diversification occurred approximately at 90-100 MYA. We also speculate that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses extents even deeper in the past, beyond this time-point, and included the transmission of a (pre)bunyavirus from an insect host to a mammal host. PMID:24463501

  1. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  2. Genome sizes in afrotheria, xenarthra, euarchontoglires, and laurasiatheria.

    PubMed

    Redi, C A; Zacharias, H; Merani, S; Oliveira-Miranda, M; Aguilera, M; Zuccotti, M; Garagna, S; Capanna, E

    2005-01-01

    Topical literature and Web site databases provide genome sizes for approximately 4,000 animal species, invertebrates and vertebrates, 330 of which are mammals. We provide the genome size for 67 mammalian species, including 51 never reported before. Knowledge of genome size facilitates sequencing projects. The data presented here encompassed 5 Metatheria (order Didelphimorphia) and 62 Eutheria: 15 Xenarthra, 24 Euarchontoglires (Rodentia), as well as 23 Laurasiatheria (22 Chiroptera and 1 species from Perissodactyla). Already available karyotypes supplement the haploid nuclear DNA contents of the respective species. Thus, we established the first comprehensive set of genome size measurements for 15 Xenarthra species (armadillos) and for 12 house-mouse species; each group was previously represented by only one species. The Xenarthra exhibited much larger genomes than the modal 3 pg DNA known for mammals. Within the genus Mus, genome sizes varied between 2.98 pg and 3.68 pg. The 22 bat species we measured support the low 2.63 pg modal value for Chiroptera. In general, the genomes of Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria were found being smaller than those of (Afrotheria and) Xenarthra. Interspecific variation in genome sizes is discussed with particular attention to repetitive elements, which probably promoted the adaptation of extant mammals to their environment. PMID:15994420

  3. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

  4. Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Roque, André Luiz R.; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild. PMID:25426421

  5. Seed predation and fruit damage of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) by rodents in the cerrado of central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briani and, Denis C., Jr.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2007-01-01

    Although neotropical savannas and grasslands, collectively referred to as cerrado, are rich in seed-eating species of rodents, little is known about seed predation and its determinants in this habitat. In this study, we investigated seed predation and damage to fruits of the widespread shrub Solanum lycocarpum. In addition, the influence of two possible determinants (distance from the parental plant and total crop size) on the feeding behaviour of Oryzomys scotti (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) was also examined. O. scotti were captured more frequently close to the shrubs or on shrub crops, indicating that these rodents were attracted to the shrubs and that seed predation was probably distance-dependent. Moreover, the proportion of damaged fruit on the plant decreased as the total crop size increased; consequently, more productive plants were attacked proportionally less by rodents. This pattern of fruit damage may reflect predator satiation caused by the consumption of a large amount of pulp. Alternatively, secondary metabolites in S. lycocarpum fruits may reduce the pulp consumption per feeding event, thereby limiting the number of fruits damaged.

  6. Parentage analysis of Ansell's mole-rat family groups indicates a high reproductive skew despite relatively relaxed ecological constraints on dispersal.

    PubMed

    Patzenhauerová, Hana; Šklíba, Jan; Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, Radim

    2013-10-01

    To better understand evolutionary pathways leading to eusociality, interspecific comparisons are needed, which would use a common axis, such as that of reproductive skew, to array species. African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) provide an outstanding model of social evolution because of a wide range of social organizations within a single family; however, their reproductive skew is difficult to estimate, due to their cryptic lifestyle. A maximum skew could theoretically be reached in groups where reproduction is monopolized by a stable breeding pair, but the value could be decreased by breeding-male and breeding-female turnover, shared reproduction and extra-group mating. The frequency of such events should be higher in species or populations inhabiting mesic environments with relaxed ecological constraints on dispersal. To test this prediction, we studied patterns of parentage and relatedness within 16 groups of Ansell's mole-rat (Fukomys anselli) in mesic miombo woodland. Contrary to expectation, there was no shared reproduction (more than one breeder of a particular sex) within the studied groups, and proportion of immigrants and offspring not assigned to current breeding males was low. The within-group parentage and relatedness patterns observed resemble arid populations of 'eusocial' Fukomys damarensis, rather than a mesic population of 'social' Cryptomys hottentotus. As a possible explanation, we propose that the extent ecological conditions affect reproductive skew may be markedly affected by life history and natural history traits of the particular species and genera. PMID:23992451

  7. New Species of Rotundomys (Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene of Spain and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Cricetulodon and Rotundomys

    PubMed Central

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Álvarez-Sierra, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The material of Rotundomys (Rodentia, Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene fossiliferous complex of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid, Spain) is described and compared with all species currently placed in the genera Rotundomys and Cricetulodon. Both the morphology and size variation encompassed in the collection of specimens from Batallones suggest they belong to a single taxon different from the other known species of these genera. A new species Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is, therefore, named for it. A cladistic analysis, which is the first ever published concernig these taxa, has been conducted to clear up the phylogenetic position of the new species. Our results suggest that Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. inserts between R. mundi and R. sabatieri as a relatively primitive taxon inside the clade Rotundomys. The new taxon is more derived than R. mundi in having a transversal connection between the metalophulid and the anterolophulid on some m1 but more primitive than R. sabatieri and the most evolved species of Rotundomys (R. montisrotuni +R.bressanus) in its less developed lophodonty showing distinct cusps, shallower valleys, and the presence of a subdivided anteroloph on the M1. The species of Cricetulodon do not form a monophyletic group. As a member of Rotundomys, Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is more derived than all of these taxa in its greater lophodonty and the complete loss of the anterior protolophule, mesolophs, and mesolophids. PMID:25389967

  8. The power of social structure: how we became an intelligent lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa António, Marina Resendes; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    New findings pertinent to the human lineage origin (Ardipithecus ramidus) prompt a new analysis of the extrapolation of the social behavior of our closest relatives, the great apes, into human ‘natural social behavior’. With the new findings it becomes clear that human ancestors had very divergent social arrangements from the ones we observe today in our closest genetic relatives. The social structure of chimpanzees and gorillas is characterized by male competition. Aggression and the instigation of fear are common place. The morphology of A. ramidus points in the direction of a social system characterized by female-choice instead of male-male competition. This system tends to be characterized by reduced aggression levels, leading to more stable arrangements. It is postulated here that the social stability with accompanying group cohesion propitiated by this setting is favorable to the investment in more complex behaviors, the development of innovative approaches to solve familiar problems, an increase in exploratory behavior, and eventually higher intelligence and the use of sophisticated tools and technology. The concentration of research efforts into the study of social animals with similar social systems (e.g., New World social monkeys (Callitrichidae), social canids (Canidae) and social rodents (Rodentia)) are likely to provide new insights into the understanding of what factors determined our evolution into an intelligent species capable of advanced technology.

  9. Physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-05-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  10. Isolation and genomic characterization of the first Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) papillomavirus and its phylogenetic position within Pipapillomavirus, primarily infecting rodents.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Eric; Gottschling, Marc; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2009-11-01

    A series of papillomavirus (PV) types have been isolated from different rodent species, and most of them belong to the genus Pipapillomavirus. We isolated and sequenced the complete genome of a novel PV type (designated RnPV) from the oral cavity of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), as well as an L1 gene fragment from hair-follicle cells of the European beaver (Castor fiber). As inferred from amino acid sequence data, RnPV clustered within the beta+gamma+pi+Xi-PV supertaxon as a member of the genus Pipapillomavirus. The closest relatives of RnPV were McPV-2 and MmPV, and time estimates indicated that the genus Pipapillomavirus originated in the late Cenozoic era. The close relationship of RnPV to other murid PV types supports the hypothesis of co-divergence between members of the genus Pipapillomavirus and their hosts. However, the derived Neogene origin of the genus Pipapillomavirus is much younger than has been considered for the Rodentia as the primary hosts, indicating that alternative interpretations of the phylogenetic trees should be conceived. PMID:19605590

  11. Gas chromatographic quantification of free D-amino acids in higher vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pätzold, Ralf; Schieber, Andreas; Brückner, Hans

    2005-07-01

    D-amino acids were determined in brain, body fluids (urine, blood coagulate, serum, plasma) and faeces of animals belonging to nine out of 11 taxonomic orders of vertebrates (Artiodactyla, Aves, Carnivora, Lagomorpha, Marsupalia, Osteichthyes, Primates, Rodentia, Tubilidentata). Free amino acids were isolated by means of cation exchangers and converted into volatile N(O)-perfluoroacylamino acid propyl esters. Derivatives of amino acids were separated into D- and L-enantiomers using Chirasil-L-Val capillary columns and detected by selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. Quantification of amino acids was achieved by comparison of analytes with amino acid standards using L-norleucine as internal standard. Large relative amounts of D-serine were determined in brains of mammals but not of birds. In body fluids the D-enantiomers of most proteinogenic L-amino acids were detected, largest absolute and relative amounts were found in urine. Therein quantities of D-Ala and D-Ser exceeded 50% relative to the L-enantiomers in many instances. Feeding animals with diet fortified with DL-Met resulted in excretion of almost racemic Met in urine. D-Amino acids were also abundant in faeces of rodents. The data confirm that d-amino acids are common in body fluids and certain tissues of vertebrates. PMID:16037932

  12. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies. PMID:26623857

  13. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  14. Evolution of genome organizations of squirrels (Sciuridae) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Li, Tangliang; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Biltueva, Larisa; Fu, Beiyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Nie, Wenhui; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2004-01-01

    With complete sets of chromosome-specific painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human and grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), the whole genome homologies between human and representatives of tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, Callosciurus erythraeus), flying squirrels (Petaurista albiventer) and chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) have been defined by cross-species chromosome painting. The results show that, unlike the highly rearranged karyotypes of mouse and rat, the karyotypes of squirrels are highly conserved. Two methods have been used to reconstruct the genome phylogeny of squirrels with the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as the out-group: (1) phylogenetic analysis by parsimony using chromosomal characters identified by comparative cytogenetic approaches; (2) mapping the genome rearrangements onto recently published sequence-based molecular trees. Our chromosome painting results, in combination with molecular data, show that flying squirrels are phylogenetically close to New World tree squirrels. Chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons place chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus ), with a derived karyotype, outside the clade comprising tree and flying squirrels. The superorder Glires (orde Rodentia + order Lagomorpha) is firmly supported by two conserved syntenic associations between human chromosomes 1 and 10p homologues, and between 9 and 11 homologues. PMID:15241012

  15. Microsatellite-encoded domain in rodent Sry functions as a genetic capacitor to enable the rapid evolution of biological novelty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Sequeira, Paul W; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-08-13

    The male program of therian mammals is determined by Sry, a transcription factor encoded by the Y chromosome. Specific DNA binding is mediated by a high mobility group (HMG) box. Expression of Sry in the gonadal ridge activates a Sox9-dependent gene regulatory network leading to testis formation. A subset of Sry alleles in superfamily Muroidea (order Rodentia) is remarkable for insertion of an unstable DNA microsatellite, most commonly encoding (as in mice) a CAG repeat-associated glutamine-rich domain. We provide evidence, based on an embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, that this domain functions at a threshold length as a genetic capacitor to facilitate accumulation of variation elsewhere in the protein, including the HMG box. The glutamine-rich domain compensates for otherwise deleterious substitutions in the box and absence of nonbox phosphorylation sites to ensure occupancy of DNA target sites. Such compensation enables activation of a male transcriptional program despite perturbations to the box. Whereas human SRY requires nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and coupled phosphorylation, mouse Sry contains a defective nuclear export signal analogous to a variant human SRY associated with inherited sex reversal. We propose that the rodent glutamine-rich domain has (i) fostered accumulation of cryptic intragenic variation and (ii) enabled unmasking of such variation due to DNA replicative slippage. This model highlights genomic contingency as a source of protein novelty at the edge of developmental ambiguity and may underlie emergence of non-Sry-dependent sex determination in the radiation of Muroidea. PMID:23901118

  16. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus.

    PubMed

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; N?mec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedlá?ek, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species-the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents. PMID:24913128

  17. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; N?mec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedlá?ek, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

  18. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified. PMID:26254002

  19. Differentiated evolutionary relationships among chordates from comparative alignments of multiple sequences of MyoD and MyoG myogenic regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Oliani, L C; Lidani, K C F; Gabriel, J E

    2015-01-01

    MyoD and MyoG are transcription factors that have essential roles in myogenic lineage determination and muscle differentiation. The purpose of this study was to compare multiple amino acid sequences of myogenic regulatory proteins to infer evolutionary relationships among chordates. Protein sequences from Mus musculus (P10085 and P12979), human Homo sapiens (P15172 and P15173), bovine Bos taurus (Q7YS82 and Q7YS81), wild pig Sus scrofa (P49811 and P49812), quail Coturnix coturnix (P21572 and P34060), chicken Gallus gallus (P16075 and P17920), rat Rattus norvegicus (Q02346 and P20428), domestic water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (D2SP11 and A7L034), and sheep Ovis aries (Q90477 and D3YKV7) were searched from a non-redundant protein sequence database UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and subsequently analyzed using the Mega6.0 software. MyoD evolutionary analyses revealed the presence of three main clusters with all mammals branched in one cluster, members of the order Rodentia (mouse and rat) in a second branch linked to the first, and birds of the order Galliformes (chicken and quail) remaining isolated in a third. MyoG evolutionary analyses aligned sequences in two main clusters, all mammalian specimens grouped in different sub-branches, and birds clustered in a second branch. These analyses suggest that the evolution of MyoD and MyoG was driven by different pathways. PMID:26505406

  20. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    PubMed Central

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  1. A novel satellite DNA sequence in the Peromyscus genome (PMSat): Evolution via copy number fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Sandra; Vieira-da-Silva, Ana; Mendes-da-Silva, Ana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri; Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Satellite DNAs (satDNA) are tandemly arrayed repeated sequences largely present in eukaryotic genomes, which play important roles in genome evolution and function, and therefore, their analysis is vital. Here, we describe the isolation of a novel satellite DNA family (PMSat) from the rodent Peromyscus eremicus (Cricetidae, Rodentia), which is located in pericentromeric regions and exhibits a typical satellite DNA genome organization. Orthologous PMSat sequences were isolated and characterized from three species belonging to Cricetidae: Cricetus cricetus, Phodopus sungorus and Microtus arvalis. In these species, PMSat is highly conserved, with the absence of fixed species-specific mutations. Strikingly, different numbers of copies of this sequence were found among the species, suggesting evolution by copy number fluctuation. Repeat units of PMSat were also found in the Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii BioProject, but our results suggest that these repeat units are from genome regions outside the pericentromere. The remarkably high evolutionary sequence conservation along with the preservation of a few numbers of copies of this sequence in the analyzed genomes may suggest functional significance but a different sequence nature/organization. Our data highlight that repeats are difficult to analyze due to the limited tools available to dissect genomes and the fact that assemblies do not cover regions of constitutive heterochromatin. PMID:26103000

  2. The first description of eggs in the male reproductive system of Physaloptera bispiculata (Nematoda: Spiruroidaea).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Menezes, A; Lanfredi-Rangel, A; Lanfredi, R M

    2011-06-01

    Physaloptera bispiculata (Nematoda: Spiruroidaea) is a parasite of Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Cricetidae), a water rat that only occurs in Brazil. Naturally infected rodents were captured in the municipality of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Adult P. bispiculata worms were collected, prepared and analysed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Under scanning electron microscopy, several eggs were seen glued by cement to the cloacal aperture. Light microscopy revealed that some male worms had an uncountable number of embryonated eggs in the ejaculatory duct, cloaca and also in the posterior portion of the intestine. The probable explanation is that the eggs developing in the female uterus are pumped by the female or sucked by the male to the cloacal opening and from this point to the intestine and ejaculatory duct. The male probably does not have the ability to expel the eggs and for this reason a large number were found in these organs. On the other hand, this could be an important adaptation for the parasite, i.e. male worms expelled by the host can carry a large number of eggs and spread them to intermediate hosts when ingested by these hosts. As far as we know this is the first record of a physalopterid nematode harbouring eggs in the cloacal region, ejaculatory duct or intestine. PMID:20653989

  3. Implications of Hybridization, NUMTs, and Overlooked Diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Oleg A.; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergey V.; Brandler, Oleg V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Borisenko, Alex V.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5–4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic ‘mini-barcodes’. PMID:25617768

  4. Evolution of C, D and S-Type Cystatins in Mammals: An Extensive Gene Duplication in Primates

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa-Pereira, Patrícia; Abrantes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ana; Colaço, Bruno; Vitorino, Rui; Esteves, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    Cystatins are a family of inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that comprises the salivary cystatins (D and S-type cystatins) and cystatin C. These cystatins are encoded by a multigene family (CST3, CST5, CST4, CST1 and CST2) organized in tandem in the human genome. Their presence and functional importance in human saliva has been reported, however the distribution of these proteins in other mammals is still unclear. Here, we performed a proteomic analysis of the saliva of several mammals and studied the evolution of this multigene family. The proteomic analysis detected S-type cystatins (S, SA, and SN) in human saliva and cystatin D in rat saliva. The evolutionary analysis showed that the cystatin C encoding gene is present in species of the most representative mammalian groups, i.e. Artiodactyla, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Primates. On the other hand, D and S-type cystatins are mainly retrieved from Primates, and especially the evolution of S-type cystatins seems to be a dynamic process as seen in Pongo abelii genome where several copies of CST1-like gene (cystatin SN) were found. In Rodents, a group of cystatins previously identified as D and S has also evolved. Despite the high divergence of the amino acid sequence, their position in the phylogenetic tree and their genome organization suggests a common origin with those of the Primates. These results suggest that the D and S type cystatins have emerged before the mammalian radiation and were retained only in Primates and Rodents. Although the mechanisms driving the evolution of cystatins are unknown, it seems to be a dynamic process with several gene duplications evolving according to the birth-and-death model of evolution. The factors that led to the appearance of a group of saliva-specific cystatins in Primates and its rapid evolution remain undetermined, but may be associated with an adaptive advantage. PMID:25329717

  5. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Svetlana A.; Perelman, Polina L.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Serdyukova, Natalia A.; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O’Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ng, Bee L.; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents. PMID:26010445

  6. Spatial and Temporal Activity Patterns of the Free-Living Giant Mole-Rat (Fukomys mechowii), the Largest Social Bathyergid

    PubMed Central

    Lövy, Mat?j; Šklíba, Jan; Šumbera, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia), knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest) 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels). Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males) contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions. PMID:23383166

  7. Deterioration of the G?o Vomeronasal Pathway in Sexually Dimorphic Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Fernández-Aburto, Pedro; Manger, Paul R.; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, social and sexual behaviours are largely mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS). The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first synaptic locus of the VNS and ranges from very large in Caviomorph rodents, small in carnivores and ungulates, to its complete absence in apes, elephants, most bats and aquatic species. Two pathways have been described in the VNS of mammals. In mice, vomeronasal neurons expressing G?i2 protein project to the rostral portion of the AOB and respond mostly to small volatile molecules, whereas neurons expressing G?o project to the caudal AOB and respond mostly to large non-volatile molecules. However, the G?o-expressing pathway is absent in several species (horses, dogs, musk shrews, goats and marmosets) but no hypotheses have been proposed to date to explain the loss of that pathway. We noted that the species that lost the G?o pathway belong to Laurasiatheria and Primates lineages, both clades with ubiquitous sexual dimorphisms across species. To assess whether similar events of G?o pathway loss could have occurred convergently in dimorphic species we studied G-protein expression in the AOB of two species that independently evolved sexually dimorphic traits: the California ground squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi (Rodentia; Sciurognathi) and the cape hyrax Procavia capensis (Afrotheria; Hyracoidea). We found that both species show uniform expression of G?i2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while G?o expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the G?o-expressing vomeronasal pathway has occurred independently at least four times in Eutheria, possibly related to the emergence of sexual dimorphisms and the ability of detecting the gender of conspecifics at distance. PMID:22039487

  8. Localized versus generalist phenotypes in a broadly distributed tropical mammal: how is intraspecific variation distributed across disparate environments?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions is a key component of species adaptation and persistence. Understanding the structuring of phenotypic diversity in response to local environmental pressures can provide important insights into species evolutionary dynamics and responses to environmental change. This work examines the influence of steep environmental gradients on intraspecific phenotypic variation and tests two hypotheses about how the tropical soft grass mouse, Akodon mollis (Cricetidae, Rodentia), contends with the disparate environmental conditions encompassed by its broad distribution. Specifically, we test if the species expresses a geographically unstructured, or generalist, phenotype throughout its range or if it shows geographically localized morphological differentiation across disparate environments. Results Using geometric morphometric and ecomorphological analyses of skull shape variation we found that despite distinct environmental conditions, geographically structured morphological variation is limited, with the notable exception of a distinct morphological disjunction at the high-elevation forest-grassland transition in the southern portion of A. mollis distribution. Based on genetic analyses, geographic isolation alone does not explain this localized phenotype, given that similar levels of genetic differentiation were also observed among individuals inhabiting other ecosystems that are nonetheless not distinct morphologically. Conclusions Instead of phenotypic specialization across environments in these tropical mountains, there was limited differentiation of skull shape and size across the broad range of A. mollis, with the exception of individuals from the puna, the highest-elevation ecosystem. The high morphological variance among individuals, together with a weak association with local environmental conditions, not only highlights the flexibility of A. mollis’ skull, but also highlights the need for further study to understand what maintains the observed morphological patterns. The work also indicates that mechanisms other than processes linked to local ecological specialization as a driver of diversification may contribute to the high diversity of this tropical region. PMID:23899319

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing for Rodent Barcoding: Species Identification from Fresh, Degraded and Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Galan, Maxime; Pagès, Marie; Cosson, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Rodentia is the most diverse order among mammals, with more than 2,000 species currently described. Most of the time, species assignation is so difficult based on morphological data solely that identifying rodents at the specific level corresponds to a real challenge. In this study, we compared the applicability of 100 bp mini-barcodes from cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes to enable rodent species identification. Based on GenBank sequence datasets of 115 rodent species, a 136 bp fragment of cytochrome b was selected as the most discriminatory mini-barcode, and rodent universal primers surrounding this fragment were designed. The efficacy of this new molecular tool was assessed on 946 samples including rodent tissues, feces, museum samples and feces/pellets from predators known to ingest rodents. Utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies able to sequence mixes of DNA, 1,140 amplicons were tagged, multiplexed and sequenced together in one single 454 GS-FLX run. Our method was initially validated on a reference sample set including 265 clearly identified rodent tissues, corresponding to 103 different species. Following validation, 85.6% of 555 rodent samples from Europe, Asia and Africa whose species identity was unknown were able to be identified using the BLASTN program and GenBank reference sequences. In addition, our method proved effective even on degraded rodent DNA samples: 91.8% and 75.9% of samples from feces and museum specimens respectively were correctly identified. Finally, we succeeded in determining the diet of 66.7% of the investigated carnivores from their feces and 81.8% of owls from their pellets. Non-rodent species were also identified, suggesting that our method is sensitive enough to investigate complete predator diets. This study demonstrates how this molecular identification method combined with high-throughput sequencing can open new realms of possibilities in achieving fast, accurate and inexpensive species identification. PMID:23144869

  10. Long-term dynamics of fecal corticosterone in male great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus Licht.): effects of environment and social demography.

    PubMed

    Rogovin, Konstantin A; Randall, Jan A; Kolosova, Irina E; Moshkin, Mikhail P

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship among seasonal characteristics of climate, food, and population demography (social structure) and fecal corticosterone (CORT) concentrations over 6 yr in adult males of an arid-adapted species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Licht., Gerbillidae, Rodentia), as a measure of chronic stress in high, low, and recovering population densities. Results showed yearly differences in the seasonal means of CORT, with the highest concentrations in the year of the highest population density. Analysis of year-specific relationships revealed a positive correlation between mean CORT and total precipitation in January and February and a negative correlation with precipitation in March. In the beginning of spring, when gerbils were in maximum reproductive effort, CORT correlated positively with the saturation of burrow systems and with the number of adult females with an adult male. A linear stepwise regression of CORT in individual males in spring seasons of all 6 yr combined after removal of year effects revealed that CORT depended positively on the number of females associated with a single male but negatively on the abundance of annual herbs. Disappearance of adult males was not related to CORT in most cases. We found no correlation between overall mortality from season to season and mean CORT in either spring (March-May) or fall. In fact, we found a highly negative correlation between mean CORT and the proportion of disappeared males at the beginning of spring. Only at the high population density when cases of probable catastrophic mortality of all adults in the group were excluded was CORT of individual males related positively to their disappearance during the summer drought. Our results suggest that desert rodents with irregular population fluctuations are more sensitive to suppression by external factors than by density-dependent mortality mediated by stress. The favorable feeding and climatic conditions may have compensated for density-dependent increases of CORT and the negative effects it might have had on survival. PMID:18781838

  11. Evidence for rodent-common and species-typical limb and digit use in eating, derived from a comparative analysis of ten rodent species.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Sarna, J R; Pellis, S M

    1998-11-01

    Order Rodentia comprises a vast portion of mammalian species (1814 species), which occupy extremely diverse habitats requiring very distinct motor specializations (e.g. burrowing, hopping, climbing, flying and swimming). Although early classification of paw use ability suggests rodents are impoverished relative to primates and make little use of their paws, there have been no systematic investigations of paw use in rodents. The present study was undertaken to describe limb/paw movements in a variety of common rodents. The movements used for handling sunflower seeds and other foods were videorecorded and analyzed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), laboratory mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonni), prairie dog (Cynomus parvidens), and Canadian beaver (Castor americanus). The results suggested five order-common movements of food handling: (1) locating food by sniffing, (2) grasping food by mouth, (3) sitting back on the haunches to eat, (4) grasping the food using an elbow-in movement, and (5) manipulate the food with the digits. Different species displayed species-typical specializations including (1) bilateral grasping with the paws (gerbil), (2) unilateral grasping with a paw (beaver), (3) unilateral holding (ground squirrels), (4) various grip and digit postures (all species), (5) unilateral object removal from the mouth (gerbil), (6) bilateral thumb holding (squirrels), and (7) simultaneous holding/manipulation of two objects (squirrels). Only the guinea pig did not handle food with its paws, suggesting its behavior is regressive. The existence of a core pattern of paw and digit use in rodents suggests that skilled limb and paw movements originate at least with the common ancestors of the rodent, and likely the common ancestor to rodent and primate lineages, while species-typical movements suggest specialization/regression of limb use has occurred in a number of mammalian orders. PMID:9821545

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) and revision of rodent phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian flying squirrel Pteromys volans (Rodentia, Sciuromorpha, Sciuridae) was sequenced and characterized in detail. The entire mitochondrial genome of P. volans consisted of 16,513 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Its gene arrangement pattern was consistent with the mammalian ground pattern. The overall base composition and AT contents were similar to those of other rodent mitochondrial genomes. The light-strand origin generally identified between tRNA ( Asn ) and tRNA ( Cys ) consisted of a secondary structure with an 11-bp stem and an 11-bp loop. The large control region was constructed of three characteristic domains, ETAS, CD, and CSB without any repeat sequences. Each domain contained ETAS1, subsequences A, B, and C, and CSB1, respectively. In order to examine phylogenetic contentious issues of the monophyly of rodents and phylogenetic relationships among five rodent suborders, here, phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequence data of the 35 rodent and 3 lagomorph mitochondrial genomes were performed using the Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood method. The result strongly supported the rodent monophyly with high node confidence values (BP 100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI) and also monophylies of four rodent suborders (BP 85-100 % in ML and BPP 1.00 in BI), except for Anomalumorpha in which only one species was examined here. Also, phylogenetic relationships among the five rodent suborders were suggested and discussed in detail. PMID:23114915

  13. Quest for Orthologs Entails Quest for Tree of Life: In Search of the Gene Stream

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Brigitte; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Rees, Jonathan A.; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Muffato, Matthieu; Yilmaz, Pelin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Bork, Peer; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Quest for Orthologs (QfO) is a community effort with the goal to improve and benchmark orthology predictions. As quality assessment assumes prior knowledge on species phylogenies, we investigated the congruency between existing species trees by comparing the relationships of 147 QfO reference organisms from six Tree of Life (ToL)/species tree projects: The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy, Opentree of Life, the sequenced species/species ToL, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) database, and trees published by Ciccarelli et al. (Ciccarelli FD, et al. 2006. Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life. Science 311:1283–1287) and by Huerta-Cepas et al. (Huerta-Cepas J, Marcet-Houben M, Gabaldon T. 2014. A nested phylogenetic reconstruction approach provides scalable resolution in the eukaryotic Tree Of Life. PeerJ PrePrints 2:223) Our study reveals that each species tree suggests a different phylogeny: 87 of the 146 (60%) possible splits of a dichotomous and rooted tree are congruent, while all other splits are incongruent in at least one of the species trees. Topological differences are observed not only at deep speciation events, but also within younger clades, such as Hominidae, Rodentia, Laurasiatheria, or rosids. The evolutionary relationships of 27 archaea and bacteria are highly inconsistent. By assessing 458,108 gene trees from 65 genomes, we show that consistent species topologies are more often supported by gene phylogenies than contradicting ones. The largest concordant species tree includes 77 of the QfO reference organisms at the most. Results are summarized in the form of a consensus ToL (http://swisstree.vital-it.ch/species_tree) that can serve different benchmarking purposes. PMID:26133389

  14. New Insights into the Phylogeny and Gene Context Analysis of Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs)

    PubMed Central

    Arruga, Diana; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Sánchez-Ferrer, Álvaro; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) proteins support the survival of spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, resulting in higher fertilizing ability. Among SP proteins, BSP (binder of sperm) proteins are the most studied, since they may be useful for the improvement of semen diluents, storage and subsequent fertilization results. However, an updated and detailed phylogenetic analysis of the BSP protein superfamily has not been carried out with all the sequences described in the main databases. The update view shows for the first time an equally distributed number of sequences between the three families: BSP, and their homologs 1 (BSPH1) and 2 (BSPH2). The BSP family is divided in four subfamilies, BSP1 subfamily being the predominant, followed by subfamilies BSP3, BSP5 and BSP2. BSPH proteins were found among placental mammals (Eutheria) belonging to the orders Proboscidea, Primates, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla. However, BSPH2 proteins were also found in the Scandentia order and Metatheria clade. This phylogenetic analysis, when combined with a gene context analysis, showed a completely new evolutionary scenario for the BSP superfamily of proteins with three defined different gene patterns, one for BSPs, one for BSPH1/BSPH2/ELSPBP1 and another one for BSPH1/BSPH2 without ELSPBP1. In addition, the study has permitted to define concise conserved blocks for each family (BSP, BSPH1 and BSPH2), which could be used for a more reliable assignment for the incoming sequences, for data curation of current databases, and for cloning new BSPs, as the one described in this paper, ram seminal vesicle 20 kDa protein (RSVP20, Ovis aries BSP5b). PMID:26333091

  15. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (?-gustducin, phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (?-gustducin, PLC?2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago. PMID:26044348

  16. Development of Rapidly Evolving Intron Markers to Estimate Multilocus Species Trees of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Prieto, Ana; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related species, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and species tree approaches. Rodent species represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent species belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of species and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister species the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different species of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability. PMID:24804779

  17. The Late Pleistocene Duoi U'Oi cave in northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology, taphonomy and palaeoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie; Demeter, F.; Duringer, P.; Helm, C.; Bano, M.; Vu, The Long; Kim Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Antoine, P.-O.; Thi Mai, Bui; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Dodo, Y.; Chabaux, F.; Rihs, S.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes new fossil materials recovered at the Duoi U'Oi site, in December 2003, by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Duoi U'Oi cave is located in Man Duc village, 25 km of Hoà Binh city in northern Vietnam. It belongs to a karstic network developed in a dark grey micritic marine limestone dated from the Lower to the Middle Triassic. The sedimentary fill produced a rich mammalian fauna, essentially composed of isolated teeth of middle- to large-sized mammals (Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Rodentia, Primates), and characteristic of Late Pleistocene. The results of the Duoi U'Oi fieldwork are of great interest for the following reasons: (1) the biochronological age of the fauna is consistent with 230Th/ 234U/ 238U dating from the calcitic floors (66±3 ka). The Duoi U'Oi fauna is thus the oldest well-dated modern fauna known for the Southeast Asian mainland; (2) in terms of sedimentology, the analysis of the formation of the fossiliferous breccia and that of the processes of deposits shows a close relation between the karstic deposits inside the cave and the deposits in the alluvial terraces. The observation of three levels of alluvial terraces associated with three caves situated at 62, 10 and 3 m above the present alluvial plain suggests that exokarstic and endokarstic sediments evolved together; (3) in terms of palaeobiogeography, Duoi U'Oi is the continental fauna showing the strongest resemblance with the Late Pleistocene faunas from Indonesian islands (Punung, Gunung Dawung, Lida Ajer, Sibrambang and Djambu caves); this implies that, at the time of Duoi U'Oi, ca 70 ka, the Sundaland was mainly characterised by faunas of modern aspect; (4) the analysis of major taphonomic factors that led to the mammal assemblage reveals a combination of selective agents (selective role of predators and porcupines, selective destruction of age classes for some species, selective preservation of fossils due to the deposition processes in the karstic network), which contribute to the poor representation of the diversity of the fauna; no arguments show that humans, present at Duoi U'Oi, might have a possible role in the taphonomic process; (5) the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on the composition of the faunal assemblage suggests a forested area and some open habitats, under warm and humid conditions.

  18. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  19. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    PubMed

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear to vary markedly between the different members, in other orders (e.g. Primates, Rodentia and Marsupialia) it fluctuated widely between the different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the subcellular distribution of AGT1 has changed radically on numerous occasions during the evolution of mammals. The new observations presented in this paper are compatible with our previous demonstration of a relationship between AGT1 subcellular distribution and either present or putative ancestral dietary habit, and our previous suggestion that the molecular evolution of the AGT gene has been markedly influenced by dietary selection pressure. PMID:7813517

  20. Evolution of Spatially Coexpressed Families of Type-2 Vomeronasal Receptors in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Simona; Silvotti, Lucia; Ghirardi, Filippo; Catzeflis, François; Percudani, Riccardo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure for the detection of pheromones. VNO neurons express three groups of unrelated G-protein-coupled receptors. Type-2 vomeronasal receptors (V2Rs) are specifically localized in the basal neurons of the VNO and are believed to sense protein pheromones eliciting specific reproductive behaviors. In murine species, V2Rs are organized into four families. Family-ABD V2Rs are expressed monogenically and coexpress with family-C V2Rs of either subfamily C1 (V2RC1) or subfamily C2 (V2RC2), according to a coordinate temporal diagram. Neurons expressing the phylogenetically ancient V2RC1 coexpress family-BD V2Rs or a specific group of subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA8-10), whereas a second neuronal subset (V2RC2-positive) coexpresses a recently expanded group of five subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA1-5) along with vomeronasal-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (H2-Mv). Through database mining and Sanger sequencing, we have analyzed the onset, diversification, and expansion of the V2R-families throughout the phylogeny of Rodentia. Our results suggest that the separation of V2RC1 and V2RC2 occurred in a Cricetidae ancestor in coincidence with the evolution of the H2-Mv genes; this phylogenetic event did not correspond with the origin of the coexpressing V2RA1-5 genes, which dates back to an ancestral myomorphan lineage. Interestingly, the evolution of receptors within the V2RA1-5 group may be implicated in the origin and diversification of some of the V2R putative cognate ligands, the exocrine secreting peptides. The establishment of V2RC2, which probably reflects the complex expansion and diversification of family-A V2Rs, generated receptors that have probably acquired a more subtle functional specificity. PMID:25539725

  1. Highly Diverse Morbillivirus-Related Paramyxoviruses in Wild Fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands: Evidence of Exchange between Introduced and Endemic Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Mélade, Julien; Dietrich, Muriel; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Lagadec, Erwan; le Minter, Gildas; Tortosa, Pablo; Heraud, Jean-Michel; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Goodman, Steven M.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. In recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. Bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. Here, we have studied paramyxovirus circulation within populations of endemic and introduced wild small mammals of the southwestern Indian Ocean region and belonging to four taxonomic orders: Rodentia, Afrosoricida, Soricomorpha, and Chiroptera. We report elevated infection levels as well as widespread paramyxovirus dispersal and frequent host exchange of a newly emerging genus of the Paramyxoviridae, currently referred to as the unclassified morbillivirus-related viruses (UMRVs). In contrast to other genera of the Paramyxoviridae, where bats have been shown to be a key host species, we show that rodents (and, in particular, Rattus rattus) are significant spreaders of UMRVs. We predict that the ecological particularities of the southwestern Indian Ocean, where small mammal species often live in densely packed, multispecies communities, in combination with the increasing invasion of R. rattus and perturbations of endemic animal communities by active anthropological development, will have a major influence on the dynamics of UMRV infection. IMPORTANCE Identification of the infectious agents that circulate within wild animal reservoirs is essential for several reasons: (i) infectious disease outbreaks often originate from wild fauna; (ii) anthropological expansion increases the risk of contact between human and animal populations and, as a result, the risk of disease emergence; (iii) evaluation of pathogen reservoirs helps in elaborating preventive measures to limit the risk of disease emergence. Many paramyxoviruses for which bats and rodents serve as major reservoirs have demonstrated their potential to cause disease in humans and animals. In the context of the biodiversity hot spot of southwestern Indian Ocean islands and their rich endemic fauna, we show that highly diverse UMRVs exchange between various endemic animal species, and their dissemination likely is facilitated by the introduced Rattus rattus. Hence, many members of the Paramyxoviridae appear well adapted for the study of the viral phylodynamics that may be associated with disease emergence. PMID:24829336

  2. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  3. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  4. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  5. Landscape ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    López-Cancino, Sury Antonio; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; De la Cruz-Felix, Himmler Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos Napoleón; Izeta-Alberdi, Amaia; Pech-May, Angélica; Mazariegos-Hidalgo, Carlos Jesús; Valdez-Tah, Alba; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    Landscape interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) with Triatoma dimidiata (Td) depend on the presence and relative abundance of mammal hosts. This study analyzed a landscape adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, composed of conserved areas, crop and farming areas, and the human community of Zoh Laguna with reported Chagas disease cases. Sylvatic mammals of the Chiroptera, Rodentia, and Marsupialia orders were captured, and livestock and pets were sampled along with T. dimidiata in all habitats. Infection by T. cruzi was analyzed using mtDNA markers, while lineage and DTU was analyzed using the mini-exon. 303 sylvatic specimens were collected, corresponding to 19 species during the rainy season and 114 specimens of 18 species during dry season. Five bats Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Sturnira ludovici, Dermanura phaeotis (Dp) and one rodent Heteromys gaumeri were collected in the three habitats. All but Dp, and including Carollia brevicauda and Myotis keaysi, were infected with predominately TcI in the sylvatic habitat and TcII in the ecotone. Sigmodon hispidus was the rodent with the highest prevalence of infection by T. cruzi I and II in ecotone and domestic habitats. Didelphis viginiana was infected only with TcI in both domestic and sylvatic habitats; the only two genotyped human cases were TcII. Two main clades of T. cruzi, lineages I (DTU Ia) and II (DTU VI), were found to be sympatric (all habitats and seasons) in the Zoh-Laguna landscape, suggesting that no species-specific interactions occur between the parasite and any mammal host, in any habitat. We have also found mixed infections of the two principal T. cruzi clades in individuals across modified habitats, particularly in livestock and pets, and in both haplogroups of T. dimidiata. Results are contradictory to the dilution hypothesis, although we did find that most resilient species had an important role as T. cruzi hosts. Our study detected some complex trends in parasite transmission related to lineage sorting within the matrix. Intriguingly, TcIa is dominant in terrestrial small wildlife in the sylvatic habitat and is the only parasite DTU found in D. virginiana in the domestic habitat, although its frequency remained constant in sylvatic and ecotone vectors. Bats have a key role in TcVI dispersal from the sylvatic habitat, while dogs, sheep, and humans are drivers of TcVI between domestic and ecotone habitats. Overall, our results allow us to conclude that T. cruzi transmission is dependent on host availability within a highly permeable landscape in Zoh Laguna. PMID:26219998

  6. Temperature preferences of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Begall, Sabine; Berendes, Meike; Schielke, Charlotte K M; Henning, Yoshiyuki; Laghanke, Marzena; Scharff, Andreas; van Daele, Paul; Burda, Hynek

    2015-10-01

    Many animals are able to detect small temperature differences and show strong temperature preferences during periods of rest and activity. Mammals inhabiting the subterranean ecotope can adapt their digging and foraging activity in shallow tunnels temporarily to periods with favourable ambient air and soil temperatures. Moreover, subterranean mammals have the unique opportunity to select for their nests in soil depths with certain, daily and seasonally constant temperatures. Our knowledge on nest temperatures in several species of subterranean mammals is based on measurements of temperatures in empty nests. We can expect, however, that the temperature in an occupied nest is higher (due to the "igloo effect"). We performed two experiments regarding the temperature preference in five species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia: Fukomys anselli, F. mechowii, F. micklemi, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, and Heterocephalus glaber). In a first experiment, the animals were tested pairwise (except for the solitary silvery mole-rats, H. argenteocinereus, that were tested singly) in an apparatus consisting of seven chambers with a temperature gradient ranging between 16 and 37°C (air temperature). While the smaller species (<110g; F. anselli, F. micklemi, H. glaber) chose chambers with average air temperatures around 29°C, the larger mole-rats rested preferably at lower temperatures of approximately 25.6°C (F. mechowii) and 27.7°C (H. argenteocinereus). A strong negative correlation between body mass and preferred air temperature was detected across species. Thus, the results comply with the surface-volume-rule. Contrary to expectations, temperature preference of naked mole-rats (H. glaber) did not deviate from those of furred small mole-rats, but followed the general trend with smaller species preferring higher temperatures. In a second experiment, Ansell's mole-rats (F. anselli) were tested in groups of four, six and nine animals and the preferred temperatures were compared to the values obtained for pairs. The preferred mean air temperatures did not differ among the groups of different sizes. We discuss our findings in the light of ecophysiological adaptations to cope with the ambient conditions proposed by the "thermal stress hypothesis". Furthermore, we suggest that while soil temperature is decisive during digging as the mole-rats warm up or cool due to tight contact between body and soil (conduction), resting animals prevent heat loss through conduction by building a nest. PMID:26590451

  7. Evaluating placental inter-ordinal phylogenies with novel sequences including RAG1, gamma-fibrinogen, ND6, and mt-tRNA, plus MCMC-driven nucleotide, amino acid, and codon models.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Peter J; Shelley, Shawn

    2003-08-01

    It is essential to test a priori scientific hypotheses with independent data, not least to partly negate factors such as gene-specific base composition biases misleading our models. Seven new gene segments and sequences plus Bayesian likelihood phylogenetic methods were used to compare and test five recent placental phylogenies. These five phylogenies are similar to each other, yet quite different from Fthose of previously proposed trees, and span Waddell et al. [Syst. Biol. 48 (1999) 1] to Murphy et al. [Science 294 (2001b) 2348]. Trees for RAG1, gamma-fibrinogen, ND6, mt-tRNA, mt-RNA, c-MYC, epsilon -globin, and GHR are significantly congruent with the four main groups of mammals common to the five phylogenies, i.e., Afrotheria, Laurasiatheria, Euarchontoglires, Xenarthra plus Boreoeutheria (Laurasiatheria plus Euarchontoglires). Where these five a priori phylogenies differ, remain areas generally hard to resolve with the new sequences. The root remains ambiguous and does not reject a basal Afrotheria (the Exafroplacentalia hypothesis), Afrotheria plus Xenarthra together with basal (Atlantogenata), or Epitheria (Xenarthra basal) convincingly. Good evidence is found that Eulipotyphla is monophyletic and is located at the base of Laurasiatheria. The shrew mole, Uropsilus, is found to cluster consistently with other moles, while Solenodon may be the sister taxa to all other eulipotyphlans. Support is found for a probable sister pairing of just hedgehogs/gymnures and shrews. Relationships within Afrotheria, except the Paenungulata clade, remain hard to resolve, although there is congruent support for Afroinsectiphillia (aardvark, elephant shrews, golden moles, and tenrecs). A first-time use is made of MCMC enacted general time-reversible (GTR) amino acid and codon-based models for general tree selection. Even with ND6, a GTR amino acid model provided resolution of fine features, such as the sister group relationship of walrus to Otatriidae, and with BRCA a more reasonable rooting. An extensive analysis of GHR sequences reveals strong congruence with prior phylogenies, including strong support for Eulipotyphla, and good resolution within Rodentia. A codon model gives a worse likelihood than a nucleotide model and sometimes switches support, e.g., with RAG1+gamma-fibrinogen from a hyrax-sirenian association to support for Tethytheria. An analysis of the concatenated data is in accordance with well-resolved features of the gene trees. Taken all together, this work suggests that we are on the right path finding strong confirmation of prior phylogenies. However, with the use of robust criteria for assessing trees (i.e., not Bayesian posteriors), it is apparent parts of the tree remain hard to resolve. Since our current models are far from fitting the sequence data, we should continue with our exploratory analyses to arrive at a refined set of hypotheses for future testing using more model independent characters (e.g., rare indels, gene rearrangement, and SINE data). PMID:12878459