These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Chorioallantoic placentation in Galea spixii (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Placentas of guinea pig-related rodents are appropriate animal models for human placentation because of their striking similarities to those of humans. To optimize the pool of potential models in this context, it is essential to identify the occurrence of characters in close relatives. Methods In this study we first analyzed chorioallantoic placentation in the prea, Galea spixii, as one of the guinea pig's closest relatives. Material was collected from a breeding group at the University of Mossoró, Brazil, including 18 individuals covering an ontogenetic sequence from initial pregnancy to term. Placentas were investigated by means of histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (vimentin, ?-smooth muscle actin, cytokeration) and proliferation activity (PCNA). Results Placentation in Galea is primarily characterized by an apparent regionalization into labyrinth, trophospongium and subplacenta. It also has associated growing processes with clusters of proliferating trophoblast cells at the placental margin, internally directed projections and a second centre of proliferation in the labyrinth. Finally, the subplacenta, which is temporarily supplied in parallel by the maternal and fetal blood systems, served as the center of origin for trophoblast invasion. Conclusion Placentation in Galea reveals major parallels to the guinea pig and other caviomorphs with respect to the regionalization of the placenta, the associated growing processes, as well as trophoblast invasion. A principal difference compared to the guinea pig occurred in the blood supply of the subplacenta. Characteristics of the invasion and expanding processes indicate that Galea may serve as an additional animal model that is much smaller than the guinea pig and where the subplacenta partly has access to both maternal and fetal blood systems. PMID:18771596

Oliveira, Moacir F; Mess, Andrea; Ambrosio, Carlos E; Dantas, Carlos AG; Favaron, Phelipe O; Miglino, Maria A

2008-01-01

2

Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.  

PubMed

Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou. Steiromys duplicatus would have been a semiarboreal dweller, resembling Erethizon dorsatum. PMID:18157864

Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

2008-05-01

3

Feeding and digesting fiber and tannins by an herbivorous rodent, Octodon degus (Rodentia: Caviomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in feeding rates and digestive efficiency of alternative experimental diets differing in cellulose or fiber and a secondary metabolite (the hydrolyzable tannin, tannic acid [TA]) were assessed with the herbivorous burrowing caviomorph rodent Octodon degus (degu). Degus live in open scrub subjected to summer droughts. The in vitro activity of the digestive enzyme sucrase was not significantly different between

Francisco Bozinovic; F. Fernando Novoa; Pablo Sabat

1997-01-01

4

Food preferences by Octodon degus (Rodentia caviomorpha): Their role in the chilean matorral composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food preferences of Octodon degus are examined in laboratory test. Results indicate that degus prefer new rather than mature leaves of Chilean matorral shrubs, and that degus do not discriminate between new leaves (equivalents of shrub seedlings) of different shrub species. The significance of degus preferences in relation to matorral composition is discussed.

Javier A. Simonetti; Gloria Montenegro

1981-01-01

5

Molecular analysis of populations of Ctenomys (Caviomorpha, Rodentia) with high karyotypic variability.  

PubMed

The tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) are South American subterranean rodents that are some of the most chromosomally variable of all mammals. In this study we focus on Ctenomys of the "Corrientes species group" from that Argentine province and consisting of C. dorbignyi, C. perrensi, C. roigi and unnamed populations (Ctenomys sp.). A diploid range of 41-70 has been demonstrated for these taxa with multiple Robertsonian changes, pericentric inversions, heterochromatic modifications and other chromosomal rearrangements. To analyse the molecular variation in the Corrientes group, a 402 base pair fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b was sequenced in 75 individuals from 26 populations. This generated 15 different haplotypes which were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The different species within the Corrientes group failed to form monophyletic groups in the phylogenetic trees we generated and the divergences between haplotypes were low. Therefore, these molecular data demonstrate the recent subdivision of the Corrientes group with a substantial accumulation of chromosomal differences. Through our new chromosomal data and cytochrome b studies, we are able to subdivide the Ctenomys sp. populations into two groups and hypothesize on their relationships with the described Corrientes group species. Further studies are needed to establish the basis of the phenomenal chromosomal variation in this group. PMID:12438789

Giménez, M D; Mirol, P M; Bidau, C J; Searle, J B

2002-01-01

6

Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia.  

PubMed

Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution. PMID:22086076

Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

2012-01-01

7

Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia  

PubMed Central

Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution. PMID:22086076

Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

2012-01-01

8

Synaptic behaviour and morphological modifications of the X and Y chromosomes during pachytene in three species of Ctenomys (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

Synaptic behaviour and the progression of morphological differentiation of the XY chromosome pair during pachytene was studied for the first time in three species of the South American subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys (tuco-tucos). In general, synapsis progression in the sex pair could be subdivided into four substages: (i) initial partial synapsis of the X and Y chromosome axes and beginning of the differentiation of the unsynapsed regions; (ii) complete or almost complete synapsis of the Y axis accompanied with morphological differentiation of the unsynapsed region of the X chromosome; (iii) a novel stage exclusive to Ctenomys perrensi consisting in a retraction of the free X axis, associated with the formation of a homogeneous and dense structure along the synaptic region, which leads to the achievement of full synapsis between sex chromosomes; or (iv) an increase in morphological complexity involving extreme splitting of the XY pair. The implications of the peculiar synaptic behaviour displayed by sex chromosomes in C. perrensi, a species complex highly polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations, are discussed in relation to both the triggering of the pachytene checkpoint and the avoidance of non-homologous associations between sex chromosomes and the asynaptic pericentromeric regions of trivalents in translocation heterozygotes. PMID:12502256

Lanzone, C; Bidau, C J; Giménez, M D; Santos, J L

2002-12-01

9

Multiple nuclear pseudogenes of mitochondrial cytochrome b in Ctenomys (Caviomorpha, rodentia) with either great similarity to or high divergence from the true mitochondrial sequence.  

PubMed

A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was studied in 13 species of the South American fossorial rodent Ctenomys using PCR with 'universal' primers and DNA sequencing after cloning. Five different groups of sequences were found, one of which corresponds to the functional mitochondrial gene (mt). The other four groups (A, B, C and D) were believed to be nuclear pseudogenes. Sequences A-C were highly divergent from the mt sequences and included substitutions, deletions and insertions such that they could not possibly have coded a functional protein. They all shared a common insertion between positions 15055 and 15056 suggestive of a common origin, although the A, B and C sequences otherwise differed greatly from each other. The D sequences also could not have been functional on the basis of nucleotide sequence, but the differences with the mt sequences were far more subtle and in a more limited study the D sequences could easily have been classified as a true mtDNA sequence. It is suggested that there were two transfers of the cytochrome b gene from the mitochondrion to the nucleus; the first leading to sequences A-C and the second to the D sequence. Subsequent to transfer, a sequence of duplications within the nucleus appears to have generated the full range of pseudogenes that are observed. This study adds to other recent observations suggesting the frequent transfer of mtDNA sequences to the nucleus and reinforces the necessity of great care in interpreting PCR-generated sequences, particularly those produced with universal primers. There are now data from several species of mammals and birds relating to PCR-generated nuclear copies of cytochrome b, which we review. PMID:10849078

Mirol, P M; Mascheretti, S; Searle, J B

2000-05-01

10

Population Dynamics and Diet of the Madamango Sea Catfish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in a Tropical Bight in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Siluriformes: Ariidae), is often among the most abundant fishes on the South American Atlantic coast. In the present study, conducted in shallow, non-estuarine coastal areas of Caraguatatuba Bight in southeastern Brazil, collections of this species, the most abundant member of the ichthyofauna, included primarily medium-sized individuals, indicating that the area may play a specific role in their development. Although studies of the local ichthyofauna have been much neglected, the area is economically important and its ecological significance is undervalued. This study primarily treats habitat use by C. spixii, assessing certain population parameters and the dietary composition. Monthly samples were taken from August 2003 through October 2004, with three trawls in two areas, corresponding to depths of about 1 to 4 m. The catfish showed two main peaks of abundance in the area, in April/May and July 2004. A mode around 9 cm SL persisted through time, and the entrance of younger recruits peaked from January to April. The low estimate for body-growth parameters (K?=?0.16) corroborates some K-strategist characteristics of the species. The asymptotic length was 27.3 cm SL and total mortality (Z) was 1.01 yr?1. Cathorops spixii showed an omnivorous feeding habit, preying mainly upon polychaetes, copepods and bivalves, with considerable seasonality in its diet. PMID:24282575

Denadai, Marcia; Pombo, Maira; Santos, Flavia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adriana; Turra, Alexander

2013-01-01

11

Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe  

E-print Network

Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe Ivan Hora´cek1, Nadachowski A (2013) Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe. PLo

Horacek, Ivan

12

Encephalitozoon infections in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan.  

PubMed

Encephalitozoon is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. In this study, we used nested PCR to investigate the presence of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan. We attempted to amplify and sequence Encephalitozoon-specific DNA from brain and viscera samples of 180 animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Forty-three samples (23.9%) from the orders Rodentia and Soricomorpha were positive for Encephalitozoon. This study is the first report of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan, and our findings suggest that these hosts may play a role in the spread of microsporidian spores in the environment. PMID:24060383

Tsukada, Ryusuke; Tsuchiyama, Atsuko; Sasaki, Mizuki; Park, Chun-Ho; Fujii, Yoshito; Takesue, Masataka; Hatai, Hitoshi; Kudo, Noboru; Ikadai, Hiromi

2013-11-15

13

Enzyme polymorphism in a population of Calomys musculinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NAD-linked lactate, malate, glycerophosphate, alcohol and nonspecific dehydrogenases, aspartate aminotransferases, and soluble esterases from extracts of tissues of individuals from a wild population of Calomys musculinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae) have been analyzed by means of starch gel electrophoresis and specific staining. Allelic frequencies and heterozygosity have been determined. Mendelian inheritance of some of the variants detected was confirmed by breeding experiments.

Cristina N. Gardenal; Marta S. Sabattini; Antonio Blanco

1980-01-01

14

44(896):5963 Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae)  

E-print Network

brunneo-niger Gray, 1867:429. Type locality ``Brazil (Castelnau).'' Sciurus castus Thomas, 1903:488. Type44(896):59�63 Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) R. NATHAN GWINN, JOHN L. KOPROWSKI, ROSA R@email.arizona.edu (RRJ); mmerrick@email.arizona.edu (MJM) Abstract: Sciurus spadiceus Olfers, 1818, is a sciurid commonly

Hayssen, Virginia

15

Population dynamics and spatial behaviour of Microtus tatricus (Arvicolinae, Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of the Tatra vole Microtus tatricus (Kratochvíl, 1952) (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) was monitored as part of a long-term study (1996–2008) of demography of small\\u000a mammals conducted in Western Tatra Mountains—Rohá?e, Slovakia. We observed low abundance and population densities and a balanced\\u000a sex ratio but slightly more frequent captures of females. Reproductively active Tatra voles were significantly larger and

Miroslava Rudá; L’udovít Kocian; Natália Martínková; Dávid Žiak

2010-01-01

16

Chromosomal characterizations in a restricted population of Geomys bursarius (Rodentia: Geomyidae)  

E-print Network

CHROMOSOMAL CHARACTERIZATIONS IN A RESTRICTED POPULATION OF GEOMYS BUFSARIUS (RODENTIA; GEOWiIDAE) A Thesis by Raymond Louis Sta11ings Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEcM University in partial fulf'llment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER CF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Genetics CHROMOSOMAL CHARACTERTZATIONS IN A RESTRICTED POPULATION OF GEOIlYS BURSARIUS (RODENTIA: GEOMYIDAE) A Thesis by Raymond Louis Stallings Approved as to content and style by: Chairman...

Stallings, Raymond L

2012-06-07

17

Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Marmota himalayana (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and phylogenetic analysis within Rodentia.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana, class Marmota). We determined the M. himalayana mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence by using long-PCR methods and a primer-walking sequencing strategy with genus-specific primers. The complete mt genome of M. himalayana was 16,443 bp in length and comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a typical control region (CR). Gene order and orientation were identical to those in mt genomes of most vertebrates. The heavy strand showed an overall A+T content of 63.49%. AT and GC skews for the mt genome of the M. himalayana were 0.012 and -0.300, respectively, indicating a nucleotide bias against T and G. The control region was 997 bp in size and displayed some unusual features, including absence of repeated motifs and two conserved sequence blocks (CSB2 and CSB3), which is consistent with observations from two other rodent species, Sciurus vulgaris and Myoxus glis. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mt DNA sequences without the control region including 30 taxa of Rodentia was performed with Maximum-Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods and provided strong support for Sciurognathi polyphyly and Hystricognathi monophyly. This analysis also provided evidence that M. himalayana mt DNA was closely related to that from Sciurus vulgaris (Sciuridae) and was similar to mt DNA from Myoxus glis. PMID:24782088

Chao, Q J; Li, Y D; Geng, X X; Zhang, L; Dai, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Zhang, H J

2014-01-01

18

Gaudeamus lavocati sp. nov. (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from the early Oligocene of Zallah, Libya: first African caviomorph?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new African species of hystricognathous rodent, Gaudeamus lavocati sp. nov., is described herein from the early Oligocene deposits of Zallah locality (Sirt basin, Central Libya). The dental morphology of this species is very close to that of some earliest South American caviomorphs. It allows a reinterpretation of molar crest homologies among earliest caviomorphs, pentalophodonty being confirmed as the plesiomorphic molar condition in Caviomorpha. This morphological resemblance argues for close affinities between Gaudeamus and earliest South American hystricognaths. Cladistic analysis supports Gaudeamus lavocati sp. nov. as the first known African representative of Caviomorpha, implying that its ancestors were part of the African phiomyid group that crossed the South Atlantic by a direct immigration route. Alternatively, the series of derived dental features of Gaudeamus could also be interpreted as evolutionary synchronous convergences of an African hystricognath lineage towards the specialized pattern of some caviomorphs. However, the high level of similarities concerning teeth morphology and enamel microstructure and the similar age of fossiliferous strata on both continents make this interpretation less probable. The phylogenetic position of this taxon is of considerable importance because it represents an enigmatic component of the phiomorph-caviomorph radiation in Africa and appears as a new clue toward the understanding of caviomorph origins.

Coster, Pauline; Benammi, Mouloud; Lazzari, Vincent; Billet, Guillaume; Martin, Thomas; Salem, Mustafa; Bilal, Awad Abolhassan; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Schuster, Mathieu; Valentin, Xavier; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

2010-08-01

19

Calomys laucha (Rodentia, Cricetidae): growth and breeding in laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The husbandry and breeding of Calomys laucha (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in captivity are described. Growth curves based on body weight and length showed statistical differences between sexes after 45 days, males being heavier than females. The overall reproductive efficiency was 53.4% but birth rate was depressed during winter. Gestation length was 21 +/- 1 days and females exhibited postpartum oestrus with a 3-7 day implantation delay (51%). Litter size was 5.3 +/- 1.1 (n = 34). Pup survival at weaning was 84.9%. Mean life span in laboratory conditions was 13.5 months and a cumulative mortality of 90% was reached at 27-28 months of age. PMID:2681995

Hodara, V L; Espinosa, M B; Merani, M S; Quintans, C

1989-10-01

20

Description de la radiation des Rodentia (Mammalia) du Paléocène supérieur au Miocène; incidences phylogénétiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reviewing the ancestor-descendant relationships of first genera representatives of 52 fossil and extant families of rodents allow the building of a phylogenetic tree of Rodentia. The shaping of this tree suggests the distribution of these families in six suborders and six infraorders.

Hartenberger, Jean-Louis

1998-03-01

21

The south-eastern house mouse Mus musculus castaneus (Rodentia: Muridae) is a polytypic subspecies  

E-print Network

The south-eastern house mouse Mus musculus castaneus (Rodentia: Muridae) is a polytypic subspecies processes and achieve sound evolutionary comparisons. A case in point is the house mouse Mus musculus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus constitute genetically well- characterized homogeneous

Nachman, Michael

22

Marmota caligata (Rodentia: Sciuridae) JANET K. BRAUN, T. SCOTT EATON, JR., AND MICHAEL A. MARES  

E-print Network

Marmota caligata (Rodentia: Sciuridae) JANET K. BRAUN, T. SCOTT EATON, JR., AND MICHAEL A. MARES 73072, USA; mamares@ou.edu (MAM) Abstract: Marmota caligata (Eschscholtz, 1829), a large ground squirrel.1644/884.1 w w w . m a m m a l o g y . o r g Marmota caligata (Eschscholtz, 1829) Hoary Marmot Arctomys

Hayssen, Virginia

23

Topografia do cone medular no ratão-do-banhado ( Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 - Rodentia: Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topography of the medullar cone in nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782 - Rodentia: Mammalia). Aiming to investigate the topography of the medullar cone, ten adult nutria (Myocastor coypus), eight male and two female, were previously fixed in 10% aqueous formalin solution, maintained in similar solution and dissected. After the dissection the following data were noted: a) the medullar cone apex

Gilberto Valente Machado; Josy Alvarenga Cal; Arlei José Birck

24

Aethomys ineptus (Rodentia: Muridae) CHRISTIAN T. CHIMIMBA AND ALICIA V. LINZEY  

E-print Network

Farm, Soutpansberg, northern Trans- vaal [5 Limpopo Province], South Africa.'' Aethomys chrysophilus. CONTEXT AND CONTENT. Order Rodentia, suborder Myo- morpha, superfamily Muroidea, family Muridae, subfamily untenable, these data need to be reexamined because they may have included specimens of its sibling species

Hayssen, Virginia

25

A new species of fossil Mus (Rodentia, Muridae) from the Indian Himalaya: Evolutionary and phylogenetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of fossil Mus (Rodentia, Mammalia) is reported from the Late Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Kumaun sector of Indian Himalaya. The fossiliferous horizon, medium-coarse grained sand lenses embedded in the massive carbonaceous mud, is exposed at locality Dulam and is Late Pleistocene (ca. 30ka) in age. A new species, Mus dulamensis n. sp., is proposed. Characterized by

Bahadur Singh Kotlia

2008-01-01

26

Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia  

PubMed Central

We have characterized satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and have shown that the HS-? and HS-? satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs2SO4-Ag+ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomysbottae, contains Th-? (1.713 g/ml) and Th-? (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Caviaporcellus) contains Ca-?, Ca-? and Ca-? at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilusharrisi) contains Am-?, 1.708 g/ml, Am-?, 1.717 g/ml, and Am-?, 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago. PMID:561953

Mazrimas, J. A.; Hatch, F.T.

1977-01-01

27

Airoldi, J.-P. & Flury, B. (1988). An application of common principal component analysis to cranial morphometry of Microtus californicus and M. ochrogaster (Mammalia, Rodentia). J.  

E-print Network

morphometry of Microtus californicus and M. ochrogaster (Mammalia, Rodentia). J. Zool., Lond. 216 (1) : 21 males and females of Microtus californicus and M. ochrogaster is presented, comparing PCA, CPC

Airoldi, Jean-Pierre

28

Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1  

E-print Network

Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c squirrels (Pteromyinae) to subfamily status. Instead, flying squirrels are derived from one of the tree squirrel lineages. C-myc indels corroborate the sequence-based topologies. The common ancestor of extant

Steppan, Scott

29

Social cues and hormone levels in male Octodon degus (Rodentia): a field test of the Challenge Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social interactions are important factors determining and regulating individual behaviors. Testosterone has been related to agonistic interactions, while glucocorticoids have been related to social stress, especially during interactions of dominance. We compared testosterone and cortisol concentrations in male degus (Octodon degus, Rodentia) under laboratory conditions without male social interactions, with data from wild males in nature. Under natural conditions, males

Mauricio Soto-Gamboa; Manuel Villalón; Francisco Bozinovic

2005-01-01

30

Taxonomic status of the genus Spermophilus (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey and Iran with description of a new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new species of Spermophilus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), here designated as S. torosensis sp. nov., distributed in the Taurus Mountains in southern Anatolia, Turkey. A total of 161 specimens of the genus Spermophilus from Turkey and Iran were analyzed for their morphological, morphometric, and karyological characteristics. Uni- and multi-variate statistical analyses of morphologic data for 95 adult specimens yielded

AKIR ÖNDER ÖZKURT; MUSTAFA SÖZEN; IRFAN KANDEMIR; REYHAN ÇOLAK; MOHAMMED MORADI GHARKHELOO; ERCÜMENT ÇOLAK

31

A new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting Onychomys species (Rodentia: Muridae) in New Mexico and Arizona.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 3 species of Onychomys (Rodentia: Muridae) captured in New Mexico and Arizona were examined for coccidia. Six of the 59 (10%) were infected with a new species of Eimeria. Sporulated oocysts (n = 105) of this new species are subspheroidal, 17.4 x 16.1 (14-21 x 13-19) microm, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.4 x 5.7 (9-12 x 5-8) microm. This species occurred in 3 of 24 (13%) Onychomys arenicola, 2 of 31 (6%) Onychomys leucogaster from New Mexico, and 1 of 4 (25%) Onychomys torridus from Arizona. Isolates recovered from O. leucogaster and O. torridus were inoculated into O. leucogaster (n = 5) and produced infections with a prepatent period of 7 days and a patent period of 7-23 days. PMID:9920315

Hnida, J A; Wilson, W D; Duszynski, D W

1998-12-01

32

Comparative cytogenetics of hamsters of the genus Allocricetulus argyropulo 1932 (Cricetidae, Rodentia).  

PubMed

Chromosome painting and G-banding analyses were used to delimit homologous chromosomal segments among 4 taxa of the hamsters genus Allocricetulus Argyropulo 1932 (Cricetidae, Mur?idea, Rodentia)--A. curtatus (2n = 20), A. eversmanni eversmanni, A. eversmanni pseudocurtatus, and the hybrid A. eversmanni beljaevi × A. eversmanni pseudocurtatus (all 2n = 26). Comparative maps between the 4 karyotypes were established based on chromosome painting of chromosome-specific probes from the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, 2n = 44). A putative ancestral karyotype for the genus Allocricetulus (AAK) was proposed and contains 12-13 ancestral autosomal elements. Integrated maps demonstrate extended conservation of syntenies within this rodent genus and show the predominant role of Robertsonian rearrangements in the karyotype evolution of the genus Allocricetulus. At the cytogenetic level, we clearly demonstrate karyological differences between karyotypes of species (A. curtatus vs. A. eversmanni) and subspecies A. e. eversmanni and A. e. beljaevi versus A. e. pseudocurtatus, but the karyotypes of A. e. eversmanni and A. e. beljaevi are identical at this level of resolution. PMID:23328385

Romanenko, S A; Lebedev, V S; Serdukova, N A; Feoktistova, N Y; Surov, A V; Graphodatsky, A S

2013-01-01

33

Nitric oxide production by Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia) infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana  

PubMed Central

Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Nitric oxide (NO) generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L.) mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 102 and 2.5 x 106 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ? 0.0001) in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L.) mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection. PMID:23579796

Loria-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika Ivett; Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana Estefania; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole Raymonde; Canto-Lara, Silvia Beatriz; Batun-Cutz, Jose Luis; Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando Jose

2013-01-01

34

Changes in foraging behavior of two species of field mice, Apodemus speciosus Temminck and A. argenteus Temminck (Rodentia: Muridae), in the response to artificial illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation hazard is one of the most important factors that affect foraging behavior. Light intensity is an indirect measure\\u000a of a predation hazard for nocturnal rodents. In 1988 and 1989, I conducted laboratory experiments to reveal the effects of\\u000a the predation hazard on foraging behavior of two species of field mice,Apodemus speciosus Temminck andA. argenteus Temminck (Rodentia: Muridae), which co-exist

Koichi Sone

2002-01-01

35

The tubular compartment and the spermatogenic dynamics of the wild rodent Oxymycterus nasutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).  

PubMed

Despite the order Rodentia present worldwide distribution and large number of species in the Brazilian fauna, detailed studies on testicular morphophysiology are still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the dynamics of the spermatogenic process of Oxymycterus nasutus using morphometrical and stereological tools. Testicles from ten sexually mature males were used, showing a gonadosomatic index of 0.89%. The testicular parenchyma showed one of the highest tubulesomatic indexes reported among wild rodents - 0.82% - from which 65.12% was allocated into seminiferous epithelium. The average tubular diameter was 249.89?m, whereas the epithelium height was 62.47?m and the total length was 18.62m per gram of testis. Eight different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were described. Stage 1 was used for counting the germ cell population as well as the Sertoli cells. On average, 3.47 type-A spermatogonia, 24.39 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 24.13 primary spermatocytes in pachytene, 68.38 round spermatids and 7.33 Sertoli cells were found per tubular cross section. There were 91.02×10(6) Sertoli cells per gram of testis and each cell was able to support 9.33 spermatids and 16.43 germ cells. The coefficient of spermatogonial mitosis was 7.02, while 2.83 spermatids were produced for each primary spermatocyte in pachytene. The overall efficiency of spermatogenesis was 19.70 cells, whereas the sperm reserve per gram of testis totalized 849.63×10(6) spermatids. Therefore, the presented data showed that O. nasutus shows a high energetic investment in reproduction, corroborating the findings for other species of the Cricetidae family. PMID:25037444

Morais, Ana Carolina Torre; Balarini, Maytê Koch; Lopes, Elizabeth Oliveira; Menezes, Tatiana Prata; Quintela, Fernando Marques; Morais, Danielle Barbosa; Gomes, Marcos de Lucca M; Matta, Sérgio Luis P da

2014-10-01

36

Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on morphology development is discussed. PMID:24643820

Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

2014-08-01

37

Dental microwear in relation to changes in the direction of mastication during the evolution of Myodonta (Rodentia, Mammalia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of dental microwear are used to analyse the correlation between changes in molar tooth crown morphology and the direction of masticatory movement during the evolution of Myodonta (Rodentia, Mammalia). The studied sample includes 36 specimens representing both superfamilies of Myodonta (Muroidea and Dipodoidea) spanning 16 dipodoid and 9 muroid species. Microscopic scratches on occlusal surfaces resulting from contact between opposite teeth during mastication are analysed. Using these features, we determine the direction of masticatory movements. Microwear patterns display diverse orientations among Dipodoidea: oblique in Sicistinae, Euchoreutinae and Zapodinae, propalinal in Dipodinae and intermediary in Allactaginae. Similarly, Muroidea exhibit the following orientations: oblique in Cricetinae and propalinal in Arvicolinae, Cricetomyinae, Gerbillinae and Murinae. These various chewing types illustrate different evolutionary grades within the superfamilies. Acquisition of the antero-posterior masticatory movement in Dipodoidea is related to flattening of the molar occlusal surface. However, in some muroid subfamilies, this direction of mastication is associated with low-crowned and cuspidate molars (Cricetomyinae, Murinae).

Charles, Cyril; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

2007-01-01

38

Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).  

PubMed

Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus. PMID:15856885

Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

2005-02-01

39

Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: trypomastigotes described from experimentally infected laboratory mice  

PubMed Central

We report the detection, isolation and description of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) lainsoni n. sp. from a caviomorph rodent, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), obtained in the Rio Negro region of the state of Amazonas, in northern Brazil. Laboratory-bred white mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus rattus) were inoculated with large numbers of culture forms by intraperitoneal route, and trypomastigotes appeared in their blood 3–8 days post-inoculation. One single epimastigote was also found in Mus musculus. Similar attempts to infect Rattus norvegicus, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine bugs were unsuccessful, following six months of observations and microscopic examinations of blood films and blood cultures. As we have found no previous record of a Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) species naturally infecting a member of the family Echimyidae, or any other caviomorph rodent, we conclude that this is the first time such an infection has been reported. The new species is unusual in the subgenus for its infectivity to laboratory mice. PMID:24309069

2013-01-01

40

Meggittina numida n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Catenotaeniidae), a parasite of the Shaw's jird Meriones shawi (Duvernoy) (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Meggittina numida n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Catenotaeniidae: Skrjabinotaeniinae) is described from the small intestine of the Shaw's jird Meriones shawi (Duvernoy) (Rodentia, Muridae, Gerbillinae) trapped in central Tunisia. The new species can be distinguished from the four other members of Meggittina Lynsdale, 1953 by the high number of proglottids (8-25 vs max. 6) and by the elongated strobila (8.2-60 mm in length vs max. 5.6 mm). M numida n. sp. further differs from M. cricetomydis (Hockley, 1961) in the direction of gravid proglottids; from M. baeri Lynsdale, 1953 in having narrower and much longer strobila; from M. aegyptiaca (Wolfgang, 1956) in the greater number of testes and the larger cirrus-sac; and from M. gerbilli in the position of the genital pore. The diagnosis of Meggittina is amended in order to include the most specific features of M. numida n. sp. as follows: strobila consisting of a small scolex, wide neck and one to twenty-five proglottids. This is the first species of Meggittina described from Tunisia. The taxonomic relationships of Meggittina spp. are discussed in the light of the description of the new species. PMID:24832187

Jrijer, Jamel; Neifar, Lassad

2014-06-01

41

Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).  

PubMed

In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility. PMID:7283003

Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

1981-09-01

42

Tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest Alabama and implications for disease transmission.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest Alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with Dermacentor variabilis, the eastern United States vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each in the disease transmission cycle. These epidemiologic surveys were conducted in response to reported fatal cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in two counties of the study area. From 202 eastern cottontail rabbits, 3,956 ticks were collected. Of this total, 79.87% were Haemphysalis leporispalustris, 9.15% Amblyomma americanum, 8.22% Ixodes dentatus, and 2.76% D. variabilis. Only immature stages of D. variabilis were collected from cottontail rabbits. Ticks were collected on rabbits in all months except November, and only one specimen was taken in January. Based on the average number of ticks per host collected in each month, April was the peak month for D. variabilis and I. dentatus. High values for H. leporispalustris also occurred at this time, but even higher values occurred in October and December. The heaviest infestation of A. americanum occurred during the month ofAugust and coincides with the activity period for the larvae of this species. Two hundred sixty-nine of the smaller Rodentia, comprising 13 species, yielded 264 ticks, all D. variabilis, and all but two were immature stages. Five rodent species, Microtus ochragaster Orozomys palustris, Peromyscus gossypinus, Peromyscus leucopus, and Sigmodon hispidus accounted for 95.83% of the ticks collected, and appeared to be preferred hosts for D. variabilis; all five had higher infestation levels per host than did the eastern cottontail rabbit. Data on host relationships in association with seasonal activity are presented. PMID:16599149

Cooney, Joseph C; Burgdorfer, Willy; Painter, Martin K; Russell, Cynthia L

2005-12-01

43

Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 843 specimens bearing names of 820 species group taxa of Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) as of July 2011. This catalog presents a list of these holdings, which comprise 798 holotypes, 14 lectotypes, seven syntypes (30 specimens), and one neotype. In addition, we include three holotypes and 10 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found and three syntypes that were originally in this collection but are now known to be in other collections. One specimen that no longer has name-bearing status is included for the record. Forty-one of the names are new since the last type catalog. One new lectotype is designated. Suborders and families are listed as in Wilson and Reeder. Within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically. Within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, type locality, date of collection and name of collector, collector’s original number, and comments or additional information as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen serve as a condition report and will be linked to each electronic specimen record.

Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

2012-01-01

44

The role of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) in the life cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in urban environments.  

PubMed

This work is the first report of subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) as intermediate host of Taenia taeniaeformis in urban areas of Mar de Cobo (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and to experimentally reproduce in domestic dogs the adult stage of this parasite. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae in the liver and peritoneal cavity of C. talarum were 64%, 15.3 and 9.8, respectively. Ten adults of T. taeniaeformis were obtained from experimentally infected dogs. Information about the role of subterranean rodents in the life cycle of this parasite is also given. The above mentioned data indicate that T. taeniaeformis is a frequent parasite of this species of rodents, at least within the study area. Also explanations for the high prevalence of larval forms of this parasite in C. talarum populations are given. PMID:15158554

Rossin, Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I; Denegri, Guillermo M

2004-06-10

45

Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 945 specimens bearing names of 931 species-group taxa of Rodentia (Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha) as of August 2013. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 905 holotypes, 16 lectotypes, 8 syntypes (48 specimens), and 2 neotypes. In addition, we include 44 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and ten of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these suborders A lectotype for Mus peruvianus Peale, 1848, is newly designated herein. Nine specimens previously reported were subsequently sent to the vertebrate paleontology collection and are not included here. Suborders and families are ordered as in Carleton and Musser; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

2014-01-01

46

Body Shape and Life Style of the Extinct Balearic Dormouse Hypnomys (Rodentia, Gliridae): New Evidence from the Study of Associated Skeletons  

PubMed Central

Hypnomys is a genus of Gliridae (Rodentia) that occurred in the Balearic Islands until Late Holocene. Recent finding of a complete skeleton of the chronospecies H. morpheus (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) and two articulated skeletons of H. cf. onicensis (Late Pliocene) allowed the inference of body size and the calculation of several postcranial indexes. We also performed a Factorial Discriminant Analysis (FDA) in order to evaluate locomotory behaviour and body shape of the taxa. Using allometric models based on skull and tooth measurements, we calculated a body weight between 173 and 284 g for H. morpheus, and direct measurements of articulated skeletons yielded a Head and Body Length (HBL) of 179 mm and a Total Body Length of 295 mm for this species. In addition to the generally higher robustness of postcranial bones already recorded by previous authors, H. morpheus, similar to Canariomys tamarani, another extinct island species, displayed elongated zygopodium bones of the limbs and a wider distal humerus and femur than in an extant related taxon, Eliomys quercinus. Indexes indicated that Hypnomys was more terrestrial and had greater fossorial abilities than E. quercinus. This was also corroborated by a Discriminant Analysis, although no clear additional inference of locomotory abilities could be calculated. PMID:21209820

Bover, Pere; Alcover, Josep A.; Michaux, Jacques J.; Hautier, Lionel; Hutterer, Rainer

2010-01-01

47

Cloning and sequence analysis of Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia) Th1 (IL-12p35, IFN-? and TNF) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-?) cytokines.  

PubMed

The Yucatan deer mouse, Peromyscus yucatanicus (order Rodentia), is the principal reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Experimental infection results in clinical and histopathological features similar to those observed in humans with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as well as peritoneal macrophage production of nitric oxide. These results support the possible use of P. yucatanicus as a novel experimental model to study CL caused by L. (L.) mexicana. However, immunological studies in these rodents have been limited by the lack of specific reagents. To address this issue, we cloned and analyzed cytokine sequences of P. yucatanicus as part of an effort to develop this species as a CL model. We cloned P. yucatanicus interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-12p35, gamma interferon, transforming growth factor beta and tumor necrosis factor partial cDNAs. Most of the P. yucatanicus sequences were highly conserved with orthologs of other mammalian species and the identity of all sequences were confirmed by the presence of conserved amino acids with possible biological functions in each putative polypeptide. The availability of these sequences is a first step which will allow us to carry out studies characterizing the immune response during pathogenic and nonpathogenic L. (L.) mexicana infections in P. yucatanicus. PMID:24120849

Loria-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika Ivett; Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana Estefania; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole Raymonde; Schountz, Tony; Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando Jose

2014-01-01

48

Rodentia and lagomorpha  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This comprehensive review examines the extensive literature on wild rodents and lagomorphs as biomonitors of environmental contamination. This chapter covers studies dealing with exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on rodent and lagomorph species, including pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, herbicides, plant growth regulators, fungicides, and rodenticides), other organic chemicals, metals, radionuclides, and other miscellaneous contaminants. Many research needs become evident when reviewing ecotoxicological data for rodents and lagomorphs, the most striking being the paucity of information on rodent families other than Muridae (mice and rats). While our ability to qualitatively extrapolate effects observed in laboratory studies to field situations is good for a variety of contaminants, quantitative predictions of dose-response relationships are poor because inter-specific variation and differences in exposure patterns between laboratory and wild species to toxicants are for the most part unknown. More sophisticated comparative toxicity studies need to be undertaken that build on previous work in order to develop a database of information, to account for and model differences in exposure pathways, to document interactions among multiple stressors, to generate data establishing thresholds, critical concentrations, and diagnostic guidelines, and even to develop physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. Such efforts may enhance our ability to predict effects on wild populations, including threatened and endangered species.

Sheffield, S.R.; Sawicka-Kapusta, K.; Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.

2001-01-01

49

The largest fossil rodent  

PubMed Central

The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000?kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2?Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

Rinderknecht, Andres; Blanco, R. Ernesto

2008-01-01

50

Glis glis (Rodentia: Gliridae) BORIS KRYSTUFEK  

E-print Network

.krystufek@zrs.upr.si Abstract: Glis glis (Linnaeus, 1766) is a glirid commonly called the fat or edible dormouse:113. Type species Sciurus glis Linnaeus, 1766:87, by designation under the plenary powers species Sciurus glis Linnaeus, 1766, by original designation. Myorus Reichenbach, 1835:7. Incorrect

Hayssen, Virginia

51

A glimpse on the pattern of rodent diversification: a phylogenetic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Development of phylogenetic methods that do not rely on fossils for the study of evolutionary processes through time have revolutionized the field of evolutionary biology and resulted in an unprecedented expansion of our knowledge about the tree of life. These methods have helped to shed light on the macroevolution of many taxonomic groups such as the placentals (Mammalia). However, despite the increase of studies addressing the diversification patterns of organisms, no synthesis has addressed the case of the most diversified mammalian clade: the Rodentia. Results Here we present a rodent maximum likelihood phylogeny inferred from a molecular supermatrix. It is based on 11 mitochondrial and nuclear genes that covers 1,265 species, i.e., respectively 56% and 81% of the known specific and generic rodent diversity. The inferred topology recovered all Rodentia clades proposed by recent molecular works. A relaxed molecular clock dating approach provided a time framework for speciation events. We found that the Myomorpha clade shows a greater degree of variation in diversification rates than Sciuroidea, Caviomorpha, Castorimorpha and Anomaluromorpha. We identified a number of shifts in diversification rates within the major clades: two in Castorimorpha, three in Ctenohystrica, 6 within the squirrel-related clade and 24 in the Myomorpha clade. The majority of these shifts occurred within the most recent familial rodent radiations: the Cricetidae and Muridae clades. Using the topological imbalances and the time line we discuss the potential role of different diversification factors that might have shaped the rodents radiation. Conclusions The present glimpse on the diversification pattern of rodents can be used for further comparative meta-analyses. Muroid lineages have a greater degree of variation in their diversification rates than any other rodent group. Different topological signatures suggest distinct diversification processes among rodent lineages. In particular, Muroidea and Sciuroidea display widespread distribution and have undergone evolutionary and adaptive radiation on most of the continents. Our results show that rodents experienced shifts in diversification rate regularly through the Tertiary, but at different periods for each clade. A comparison between the rodent fossil record and our results suggest that extinction led to the loss of diversification signal for most of the Paleogene nodes. PMID:22697210

2012-01-01

52

Population Genetics of Kangaroo Mice, Microdipodops (Rodentia: Heteromyidae)  

E-print Network

................................................................................ 6 Figure 2 Geographic distributions of M. megacephalus and M. pallidus with labels corresponding to mitochondrial clades. ..................................................... 7 x LIST OF TABLES...% confidence intervals ........................... 25 Table 6 Estimates of current migration rate with 95% confidence intervals ......... 26 Table 7 Results of MSVAR...

Andersen, John

2012-07-16

53

[Structural characteristics of certain Rodents spines (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha)].  

PubMed

The architectonics of spines and hair was studied in Neacomys spinosus, Arvicanthis somalicus, Leopoldamys sabanus, L. edwardsi, Maxomys moi, M. surifer, Niviventer fulvescens, N. confucianus, N. cremoriventer, Acomys cahirinus, A. somalica, Hystrix indica, H. cristata, Atherurus macrourus, Erethizon dorsatum, Proechimys steerei, and Lonchotrix emiliae. The presence of a dorsal longitudinal furrow covered by a modified cuticle is a common structural feature of spines in all studied species except E. dorsatum, H. indica, and the frontal surface of the mosaic (scales located side by side) and terrace cuticle (steps between scales) varies in different species from smooth to rib-folded. A terminology has been proposed to describe the main structures of spine and hair. The adaptive significance of the spine architectonics in rodents is discussed. PMID:11525125

Chernova, O F; Kuznetsov, G V

2001-01-01

54

Structural Features of Spines in Some Rodents (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architectonics of spines and hair was studied in Neacomys spinosus, Tokudaia osimensis, Arvicanthis somalicus, Leopoldamys sabanus, L. edwardsi, Maxomys moi, M. surifer, Niviventer fulvescens, N. confucianus, N. cremoriventer, Acomys cahirinus, A. somalica, Hystrix indica, H. cristata, Atherurus macrourus, Erethizon dorsatum, Proechimys steerei, and Lonchotrix emiliae. The presence of a dorsal longitudinal furrow covered by a modified cuticle is a

O. F. Chernova; G. V. Kuznetsov

2001-01-01

55

Zur Morphologie des Zentralnervensystems von Erethizon dorsatum , Linnaeus (Rodentia, Hystricomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Das Gehirn von Erethizon dorsatum (E. dorsatum dorsatum, Linnaeus 1758) wird beschrieben. Es ergibt sich bei der Analyse von 6 Gehirnen aus der gleichen Subspecies eine starke Variabilität in der Form der Hemisphären. Der Quotient Hypothalamuslänge: Großhirnlänge schwankt zwischen 0,21 und 0,29 mit einem Durchschnittswert von 0,25 Für Hystrix cristata, hodgsoni und javanicus wurde ein Wert von 0,26 errechnet. Der

G. Pilleri

1960-01-01

56

Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

Bogi?evi?, Katarina; Nenadi?, Draženko; Mihailovi?, Dušan

2012-02-01

57

Mesoamerican tree squirrels evolution (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a molecular phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

The tribe Sciurini comprehends the genera Sciurus, Syntheosiurus, Microsciurus, Tamiasciurus and Rheinthrosciurus. The phylogenetic relationships within Sciurus have been only partially done, and the relationship between Mesoamerican species remains unsolved. The phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican tree squirrels were examined using molecular data. Sequence data publicly available (12S, 16S, CYTB mitochondrial genes and IRBP nuclear gene) and cytochrome B gene sequences of four previously not sampled Mesoamerican Sciurus species were analyzed under a Bayesian multispecies coalescence model. Phylogenetic analysis of the multilocus data set showed the neotropical tree squirrels as a monophyletic clade. The genus Sciurus was paraphyletic due to the inclusion of Microsciurus species (M. alfari and M. flaviventer). The South American species S. aestuans and S. stramineus showed a sister taxa relationship. Single locus analysis based on the most compact and complete data set (i.e. CYTB gene sequences), supported the monophyly of the South American species and recovered a Mesoamerican clade including S. aureogaster, S. granatensis and S. variegatoides. These results corroborated previous findings based on cladistic analysis of cranial and post-cranial characters. Our data support a close relationship between Mesoamerican Sciurus species and a sister relationship with South American species, and corroborates previous findings in relation to the polyphyly of Microsciurus and Syntheosciurus paraphyly. PMID:25102647

Villalobos, Federico; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo

2014-06-01

58

Molecular phylogenies of the genus Marmota (Rodentia Sciuridae): comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic reconstructions of the genus Marmota were compared using data based on mitochondrial genes cit b (Kruckenhauser et al. 1999, Steppan et al. 1999, Herron et al. 2004), NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 4 (Kruckenhauser et al. 1999) and D-loop sequences and inter-SINEs nuclear DNA pattern (our data) as molecular markers. These studies present the evidence of a recent origin and North American

O. V. Brandler; E. A. Lyapunova

2009-01-01

59

SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PSEUDOSCORPIONS (ARACHNIDA) AND PACKRATS (RODENTIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two species of pseudoscorpions have been found co-existing with nine packrat (or woodrat) species of the genus Neotoma, and this association has been referred to as phoresy. Phoresy is a term for passive dispersal when an animal literally hitches a ride on another to reach a new habitat. The pseudoscorpions reported above live in or on the nests of the

Oscar F. Francke; Gabriel A. Villegas-Guzmán

2006-01-01

60

Phylogeographic Study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae) in Southwest China  

PubMed Central

Background The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp) were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. Conclusions Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:22347481

Kilpatrick, C. William; Liu, Shao-Ying; Yu, Fa-Hong; Jiang, Xue-Long

2012-01-01

61

FIRST PLEISTOCENE JUMPING MOUSE (ZAPUS, ZAPODINAE, RODENTIA) FROM UTAH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the Little Dell Dam fossil localities produced the 1st Pleistocene records of the jumping mouse Zapus from Utah. We describe these teeth in detail and compare their morphology with both extinct and extant jumping mouse taxa. Although it is not possible to confidently assign these specimens to a particular species, the Little Dell Dam fossils are clearly distinct

Dennis R. Ruez; Christopher J. Bell

62

Consumption and mortality of the white-footed mouse (Rodentia: Muridae) and Ord's kangaroo rat (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) when fed carbaryl-bran grasshopper (Orthoptera) bait.  

PubMed

Two species of wild rodents (Ord's kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ordii Woodhouse, and the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) were fed 0, 2, and 20% (AI) by weight concentrations of carbaryl-bran grasshopper bait in the laboratory to determine whether the bait would be consumed, the total quantity of bait consumed within a specified period, whether mortality would occur, and whether bait would be consumed if other foods were readily available. Consumption tests showed that bait ingestion was inversely proportional to concentration. No mortalities occurred at the 0% level, whereas the 2 and 20% concentration treatments resulted in 18.8 and 97.0% mortality, respectively. The apparent repellency of 20% bait indicated that starvation may have caused the deaths. Food preference tests disclosed that D. ordii and P. leucopus preferred natural forage rather than treated and untreated wheat bran in the laboratory. PMID:2126269

Krupovage, J R; Huddleston, E W; Valdez, R

1990-12-01

63

[Variability in size of the nuclear genome in pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis (Rodentia, Muridae)].  

PubMed

Earlier, in an integral genetic study, the Asian and European races were distinguished within the species Sylvaemus uralensis (pygmy wood mouse) and the European race was divided into the East European and South European forms. Each of these groups differed from the others, in particular, in the quantity of the centromeric heterochromatin in karyotypes of the animals. To establish the pattern of its changes in S. uralensis, in the present study the DNA content in splenocyte nuclei in all races and forms of pygmy wood mice was assessed using DNA flow cytometry. The heterochromatin amount in karyotypes and genome size were shown to be correlated. The East European chromosomal race of S. uralensis (Central Chernozem and Non-Chernozem regions of Russia, Crimea Peninsula, Middle Volga region, and Southern Ural) and the Asian race of this species (East Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and East Turkmenistan), which have respectively the highest and the lowest amounts of centromeric heterochromatin in the karyotype, exhibit the greatest difference in the DNA content in the genome. On average, the difference is approximately 8% in males and 6.7% in females; in both cases, the ranges of variability were distinctly different. Against the general background of the trait variation, the Asian race, whose members have the smallest DNA amount in their cells, looks homogeneous. The genome of the South European chromosomal form of S. uralensis (Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Carpathians, and Balkan Peninsula), which exhibits an intermediate content of the centromeric heterochromatin in the karyotype, is smaller that the genome of the East European race (by 3.2% in the group of males and by 1.9%, in the group of females), but larger than that of the Asian race (by 5% in either sex). Thus, the variability of size of centromeric C-blocks in pygmy wood mouse is likely to be associated with elimination (or, conversely, an increase in the amount) of the genetically inert chromatin. It is suggested that a significant contribution to the variability of genome size in S. uralensis is made by heterochromosomes, or, more precisely, their variable regions, which seem to be largely heterochromatic. PMID:16316009

Bogdanov, A S; Rozanov, Iu M

2005-10-01

64

Postnatal ontogeny of the mandible and ventral cranium in Marmota species (Rodentia, Sciuridae): allometry and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-natal ontogenetic variation of the marmot mandible and ventral cranium is investigated in two species of the subgenus\\u000a Petromarmota (M. caligata, M. flaviventris) and four species of the subgenus Marmota (M. caudata, M. himalayana, M. marmota, M. monax). Relationships between size and shape are analysed using geometric morphometric techniques. Sexual dimorphism is negligible,\\u000a allometry explains the main changes in shape

Andrea Cardini; Paul O’Higgins

2005-01-01

65

Chromosomes and systematics of some north American species of the genus Marmota (Rodentia: Sciuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Zahl der diploiden Chromosomen vonMarmota caligata undM. flaviventris ist 42 in Bevölkerungen der nördlichen und südlichen Verbreitungsgebiete beider Spezies. Ein Vergleich zwischen den bisher veröffentlichten Informationen überMarmota-Chromosomen mit Angaben über ihre Morphologie, Ekologie, Zoogeographie legt nahe, dass die ursprüngliche Chromosomenzahl 2n 38–40 war.

R. S. Hoffmann; C. F. Nadler

1968-01-01

66

Evolution of marmots (Rodentia, Sciuridae): combining information on labial and lingual sides of the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the lingual side of the mandible was analysed in the genusMarmota. Adults from 12 of 14 living species were compared using geometric morphometric techniques. The information on the lingual\\u000a side was then combined with that of the labial side from a previous analysis. The combined dataset is the most complete description\\u000a of a marmot mandible ever used

Andrea Cardini

2004-01-01

67

Revision of the chewing louse genus Eutrichophilus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from the New World porcupines (Rodentia: Erethizontidae)  

E-print Network

.Remarks—Eutrichophilussetosusisdistinctfrom allotherknownspeciesofthegenusbyhav-ingbothsexeswiththelongerdorsalheadsetae,thefemalewithgonapophysesandventralter-minaliachaetotaxy asinFigure5,andthemalewiththemesomeresfusedtoformacircle(fig.3).Eutrichophilussetosusisrestrictedindistribu- tiontoasinglehostspecies,theNorthAmericanporcupineErethizondorsatum.ItistheonlylousespeciesknownfromE.dorsatum...

Timm, Robert M.; Price, Roger D.

1994-03-01

68

Sphiggurus vestitus pruinosus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Erethizontidae): The Karyotype and its Phylogenetic Implications, Descriptive Notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphiggurus vestitus pruinosus, a porcupine from western Venezuela, has a karyotype with a diploid number (2n) of 42, and a fundamental number (FN) of 76. The autosomes consist of 34 metacentric and submetacentric, 2 subacrocentric, and 4 acrocentric chromosomes. The X?chromosome is submetacentric, and the Y?chromosome is acrocentric. This karyotype is identical in gross morphology to that of the North

J. L. Concepcion; J. Molinari

1991-01-01

69

Occurrence of Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) around a porcupine (Rodentia: Erthethizontidae) carcass at Camp Ripley, Minnesota.  

PubMed

In May 2000, a dead porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum Culiver) was found on an infrequently traveled dirt road at Camp Ripley, MN. The presence of late instar Calliphoridae suggested that the porcupine died within the past 4 to 7 d. Adult carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles were observed under the carcass. In June, a large number of adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), were observed questing on the porcupine and the surrounding grass. Six zones were established around the carcass, and each zone was sampled for ticks once a month from June through September. Ticks were captured in June and July, and 93% were captured within 2 m of the carcass. Gases released as part of the decomposition process were believed to attract the ticks to the carcass. PMID:12597663

McNemee, Richard B; Sames, William J; Maloney, Francis A

2003-01-01

70

A new species of spiny pocket mouse (Rodentia: Heteromyidae: Heteromys) from northwestern Costa Rica  

E-print Network

series of isolated Quaternary volcanoes, most of which reach 1500–2000 m. Low passes between most of the volcanoes of the Cordillera de Guanacaste connect the Caribbean and Pacific lowlands at elevations of 500–700 m. To the north of this range lie...

Anderson, Robert P.; Timm, Robert M.

2006-03-01

71

Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

PubMed Central

The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

Faulkes, Chris G.

2014-01-01

72

Microtus miurus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) F. RUSSELL COLE AND DON E. WILSON  

E-print Network

are less than those of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers by about a factor of 10, yet the total organic carbon to continental scale. This approach has been used to study the interconnectivity of water bodies on the Mackenzie River delta (Mouchot et al., 1991), the fate of water and sediment on the Mississippi (Gomez et al

Hayssen, Virginia

73

Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4–4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6–0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European – C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

Horacek, Ivan; Knitlova, Marketa; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, Laszlo; Nadachowski, Adam

2013-01-01

74

DNA Profiling of B Chromosomes from the Yellow-necked Mouse Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia, Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Using AP-PCR-based DNA profiling we examined some structural features of B chromosomes from yellow-necked mice Apodemus flavicollis. Mice harboring one, two, or three or lacking B chromosomes were examined. Chromosomal structure was scanned for variant bands by using a series of arbitrary primers and from these, informative bands were selected. The selection criteria used were the ability to differentiate between individuals of the species, to detect markers common for both A and B chromosomes, and, importantly, to differentiate between A- and B-chromosome sets. In addition to primers, profiling conditions were found to be critical for meeting the selection criteria. Primers and analysis conditions that demonstrated structural characteristics unique to the B-chromosome set are described. These characteristics included variant bands as qualitative parameters and altered electrophoretic band intensities as quantitative distinctions estimated by integration of densitometric profiles of electrophoretograms. B chromosome-specific molecular markers are easy to detect by AP-PCR-based DNA profiling in the presence of a full set of A chromosomes. Models for the origin of yellow-necked mouse B chromosomes are discussed in the context of presented data. PMID:10645950

Tani?, Nikola; Dedovi?, Nasta; Vujos?evi?, Mladen; Dimitrijevi?, Bogomir

2000-01-01

75

Species groups in Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae) as indicated by karyology and bullar morphology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genus Proechimys is divisible into four groups of species on the basis of bullar septal patterns. Each of the four groups can be further characterized by distinctive distributions and karyotypes. The subgenus Trinomys and the guatrae species group each are comprised of phylogenetically closely-related species. The semispinosus- and brevicauda-groups, although generally distinctive on the basis of bullar septa, are not phylogenetically equivalent to the first two groups. The brevicauda-group, for example, consists of at least three separate species complexes. The taxonomy used in this report reflects several nomenclatural changes from that used in the recent literature. In addition, previously unreported karyotypes are described for P. quadruplicatus, P. gularis, P. decumanus, P. oris, P. oconnelli, and P. mincae.

Gardner, A.L.; Emmons, L.H.

1984-01-01

76

Review and analysis of the radiation of the south American Hystricognathi (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fossil record of the first genera of each family of South American Hystricognathi rodents is reviewed. On this basis the main events for the radiation of the infraorder on this continent are recognized. Two main events can be identified: the first occurs probably during the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, and the second at the Middle-Late Miocene boundary.

Guiomar Vucetich, Marìa; Verzi, Diego H.; Hartenberger, Jean-Louis

1999-11-01

77

Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

2009-06-01

78

Dental microwear patterns of extant and extinct Muridae (Rodentia, Mammalia): ecological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extant species of Muridae occupy a wide array of habitats and have diverse dietary habits. Consequently, their dental microwear patterns represent a potential clue to better understand the paleoecology of their extinct relatives, which are abundant in many Old World Neogene localities. In this study, dental microwear is investigated for specimens of 17 extant species of murine and deomyine rodents in order to test the reliability of this method and infer dietary preferences on the fossil species Saïdomys afarensis. This extinct form comes from a mid-Pliocene site (AL 327) located at the Hadar Formation (Ethiopia) known to have delivered many hominid specimens of Australopithecus afarensis. A significant correlation between microwear patterns and diet is detected. Thus, grass, fruit, and insect eaters display, respectively, high amounts of fine scratches, wide scratches, and large pits. Moreover, some aspects of the paleoecology of S. afarensis, including feeding habits, could be assessed in regard to its dental microwear pattern. Indeed, it probably had feeding habits similar to that of living grass eaters. These results concur with the presence of open to woodland areas covered by an herbaceous vegetal layer, including monocotyledons, in the vicinity of this mid-Pliocene locality.

Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Merceron, Gildas; Viriot, Laurent

2009-04-01

79

Effect of tunnel inclination on digging energetics in the tuco-tuco, Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burrows play an important role for many species, providing them with shelter and access to food resources. For subterranean rodents, living underground imposes constraints on morphology and physiology. The convergence in burrow architecture among subterranean rodents has been related to the energy demands imposed by the cost of constructing an entire system. The low frequency of tunnels with downward angles steeper than 40° appears to be a common feature in burrow design. In the subterranean habitat, movements through the soil are expensive and gravity can exert important restrictions on digging energetics when individuals push out the soil removed in steeper digging angles. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of digging angle on digging energetics in Ctenomys talarum. The mass of the removed soil and burrowing speed were similar while digging metabolic rate and net cost of transport were higher in individuals digging in tunnels with angles >40° than in those digging tunnels with angles <40°. The cost of constructing a burrow in the horizontal plane differed by 20% from others in which the natural representation of tunnels >40° was considered. Even given that tunnels >40° represented only 6% of the total burrow length, burrow architecture appears to be constrained by the high energetic cost of constructing in steeper angles.

Luna, Facundo; Antinuchi, C. Daniel

2007-02-01

80

First Castorid (Mammalia, Rodentia) from the Middle Miocene of Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today and in the Tertiary, the geographical distribution of castorids is limited throughout all of the northern continents. Fossils of the Castoridae genus Steneofiber are abundant in many localities of Eurasia from the late Oligocene to Pliocene period. Recently, Steneofiber fossils were discovered in two localities of northern Thailand, Mae Moh and Chiang Muan coal mines, in layers of late middle Miocene age. These discoveries represent the first records of castorids from Southeast Asia and correspond to their southernmost known range. The focus of this study is to describe this new Thai species of Steneofiber and to define its wear stages from the molar occlusal surfaces by using micro-CT scan analysis. The CT scan technique permits the analysis of the virtual occlusal surface changes from wear, allowing easier comparison to related species of Steneofiber cheek teeth without destroying the teeth. The new species, Steneofiber siamensis n. sp., can be distinguished from the other species of Steneofiber by several distinct characters, longer mesostriid on p4, presence of premesostria and metastria on P4, which are smaller than most of the other known species. The occurrence of this new castorid also supports a subtropical to tropical paleoclimate for these two localities of northern Thailand.

Suraprasit, Kantapon; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Martin, Thomas; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

2011-04-01

81

Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from central Amazon.  

PubMed

The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis. PMID:22481879

E Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Feldberg, Eliana

2012-01-01

82

The geometry of the marmot (rodentia: sciuridae) mandible: phylogeny and patterns of morphological evolution.  

PubMed

Marmots have a prominent role in the study of mammalian social evolution, but only recently has their systematics received the attention it deserves if sociobiological studies are to be placed in a phylogenetic context. Sciurid morphology can be used as model to test the congruence between morphological change and phylogeny because sciurid skeletal characters are considered to be inclined to convergence. However, no morphological study involving all marmot species has ever been undertaken. Geometric morphometric techniques were applied in a comparative study of the marmot mandible. The adults of all 14 living marmot species were compared, and mean mandible shape were used to investigate morphological evolution in the genus Marmota. Three major trends were observed. First, the phylogenetic signal in the variation of landmark geometry, which describes mandible morphology, seems to account for the shape differences at intermediate taxonomic levels. The subgenera Marmota and Petromarmota, recently proposed on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence, receive support from mandible morphology. When other sciurid genera were included in the analysis, the monophyly of the genus Marmota and that of the tribe Marmotini (i.e., marmots, prairie dogs, and ground squirrels) was strengthened by the morphological data. Second, the marmotine mandible may have evolved as a mosaic of characters and does not show convergence determined by size similarities. Third, allopatric speciation in peripheral isolates may have acted as a powerful force for modeling shape. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the peculiar mandible of M. vancouverensis and, to a lesser degree, by that of M. olympus, both thought to have originated as isolated populations in Pleistocene ice-free refugia. PMID:12746146

Cardini, Andrea

2003-04-01

83

Home range and social behavior of three species of European Pitymys (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habits, home range, and social behavior of three species of voles of the genus Pitymys, P. multiplex, P. subterraneus, and P. savii, were studied in Tessin (Switzerland) by radioactive tagging. P. multiplex and P. savii are fossorial and often use the burrow systems of moles (Talpa); P. subterraneus moves around on the surface under dense vegetation. Males and females of

Marco Salvioni

1988-01-01

84

Middle ear structure and bone conduction in Spalax, Eospalax, and Tachyoryctes mole-rats (Rodentia: Spalacidae).  

PubMed

There is evidence that spalacine, tachyoryctine, and myospalacine mole-rats all communicate with conspecifics through a form of seismic signaling, but the route for the detection of these signals is disputed. It has been proposed that two unusual anatomical adaptations in Spalax allow jaw vibrations to pass to the inner ear via the incus and stapes: a pseudoglenoid (=postglenoid) fossa which accomodates the condylar process of the mandible, and a bony cup, supported by a periotic lamina, through which the incus articulates with the skull. In this study, a combination of dissection and computed tomography was used to examine the ear region in more detail in both Spalax and its subterranean relatives Tachyoryctes and Eospalax, about which much less is known. Tachyoryctes was found to lack a pseudoglenoid fossa, while Eospalax lacks a periotic lamina and bony cup. This shows that these structures need not simultaneously be present for the detection of ground vibrations in mole-rats. Based on the observed anatomy, three hypothetical modes of bone conduction are argued to represent more likely mechanisms through which mole-rats can detect ground vibrations: ossicular inertial bone conduction, a pathway involving sound radiation into the external auditory meatus, and a newly-described fluid pathway between pseudoglenoid fossa and cranial cavity. The caudolateral extension of the tympanic cavity and the presence of a bony cup might represent synapomorphies uniting Spalax and Tachyoryctes, while the loss of the tensor tympani muscle in Spalax and Eospalax may be convergently derived. PMID:19941379

Mason, Matthew J; Lai, Flora W S; Li, Jin-Gang; Nevo, Eviatar

2010-04-01

85

Chromosomes and some issues of the evolution of the ground squirrel genus Citellus (Rodentia: Sciuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?????? Citellus (s. str.) relictus, C. dauricus C. pygmaeus ???????? ??????????? ??????????? (2?=36, NF=72). ?????? ?. (Colobotis) erythrogenys ? ?. fulvus ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?-?????????. ???????? ?. (Urocitellus) undulatus (2n=32, NF=64) ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?. columbianus. ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? Citellus, ????????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????,

E. A. Liapunova; N. N. Vorontsov

1970-01-01

86

Southwestern Association of Naturalists Elevational Range Extension for the Hispid Cotton Rat, Sigmodon hispidus, (Rodentia  

E-print Network

of the hispid cotton rat, Mohlhenrich did describe subtle differences between the plant associationsSouthwestern Association of Naturalists Elevational Range Extension for the Hispid Cotton Rat. http://www.jstor.org #12;December 2002 ELEVATIONAL RANGE EXTENSION FOR THE HISPID COTTON RAT

87

[Feeding habits of the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Food items consumed by the squirrel Sciurus variegatoides atrirufus were determined in an agricultural setting in the Nicoya Peninsula (9 degrees 47' N, 84 degrees 56' W), Costa Rica, where two life zones (Premontane Moist Forest Basal Belt Transition, and Tropical Dry Forest) predominate. By analyzing the gut contents of 120 squirrels, from February 1987 through January 1988, it was determined that coconut (Cocos nucifera), indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and flamboyant (Delonix regia) were the most common dietary items. There were differences in food consumption according to age: adults preferred coconut, whereas young individuals preferred almond. This finding can be explained in terms of fruit characteristics, as well as tree architecture and accessibility for squirrels; almendro trees provide higher protection and a more accessible food resource, so that it was better used by young individuals. PMID:18494334

Monge, Javier; Hilje, Luko

2006-06-01

88

Innervation of Propatagial Musculature in a Flying Squirrel, Glaucomys volans (Rodentia, Sciuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propatagium of gliding and flying mammals is of both functional and phylogenetic interest. The innervation of the propatagial muscle, platysma II, was studied with the axonal tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) in a flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Injections of WGA-HRP into the proximal third of platysma II labeled motoneurons in the lateral part of the medial subdivision

J. Gray Chickering; Alan J. Sokoloff

1996-01-01

89

Geometric morphometric study of the skull shape diversification in Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia).  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that the high phenotypic diversity of mammals is a combined result of developmental constraint and ecological adaptation, although the influence of these endogenous and exogenous factors varies in different mammal groups. The rodent family Sciuridae represents an ideal candidate for examining phenotypic diversity in relation to phylogeny and ecological adaptations. In the present study, we investigate the effects of phylogeny and lifestyle on the skull shape in different species of Sciuridae by applying geometric morphometric methods. In addition, we investigate the importance of allometry on sciurid skull shape, because results from geometric morphometrics sometimes dispute those of traditional morphometry. Here, we identify significant associations between patristic distances obtained from molecular phylogeny and shape distances in all 3 views of the cranium and the lateral view of the mandible. Multivariate regression demonstrates that shape differences among lifestyle categories are substantial, especially in the dorsal and ventral structures after the influence of phylogeny is taken into account. Allometry plays an important role in the shape variation, although its importance on different skull structures varies. Our results indicate that complex structures of this highly diverse mammal group, which occupies different niches, are affected by ecological factors and developmental constraint. PMID:24952964

Lu, Xuefei; Ge, Deyan; Xia, Lin; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

2014-06-01

90

Evolutionary Story of a Satellite DNA from Phodopus sungorus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)  

PubMed Central

With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in P. sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric region of five autosomal pairs and Y-chromosome. The presence of orthologous PSUcentSat sequences in the genomes of other Cricetidae and Muridae rodents was also verified, presenting however, an interspersed chromosomal distribution. This distribution pattern suggests a PSUcentSat-scattered location in an ancestor of Muridae/Cricetidae families, that assumed afterwards, in the descendant genome of P. sungorus a restricted localization to few chromosomes in the (peri)centromeric region. We believe that after the divergence of the studied species, PSUcentSat was most probably highly amplified in the (peri)centromeric region of some chromosome pairs of this hamster by recombinational mechanisms. The bouquet chromosome configuration (prophase I) possibly displays an important role in this selective amplification, providing physical proximity of centromeric regions between chromosomes with similar size and/or morphology. This seems particularly evident for the acrocentric chromosomes of P. sungorus (including the Y-chromosome), all presenting large PSUcentSat arrays at the (peri)centromeric region. The conservation of this sequence in the studied genomes and its (peri)centromeric amplification in P. sungorus strongly suggests functional significance, possibly displaying this satellite family different functions in the different genomes. The verification of PSUcentSat transcriptional activity in normal proliferative cells suggests that its transcription is not stage-limited, as described for some other satellites. PMID:25336681

Paco, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Mestrovic, Nevenka; Plohl, Miroslav; Chaves, Raquel

2014-01-01

91

The evolution of fossoriality and the adaptive role of horns in the Mylagaulidae (Mammalia: Rodentia)  

PubMed Central

Ceratogaulus, a member of the extinct fossorial rodent clade Mylagaulidae, is the only known rodent with horns and the smallest known horned mammal. The function of the large, dorsally projecting nasal horns on this burrowing animal has been the subject of wide speculation among palaeontologists; suggested uses range from sexual combat to burrowing. Mammals have evolved adaptations for digging repeatedly; horns and other cranial appendages have also evolved numerous times. These two adaptations co-occur in mammals extremely rarely: only two fossil genera (Ceratogaulus and the xenarthran Peltephilus) and no extant mammals are both horned and fossorial. Tracing the evolution of fossoriality in aplodontoid rodents (the larger clade to which Ceratogaulus belongs) reveals that Ceratogaulus descended from ancestors who dug by head-lifting. Whereas this suggests an obvious explanation for the horns of this rodent, evidence from functional morphology, anatomy, phylogeny and geologic context indicates that the horns in Ceratogaulus were used for defence, rather than digging, and evolved to offset increased predation costs associated with spending more time foraging above ground as body size increased. PMID:16087426

Hopkins, Samantha S.B

2005-01-01

92

Mus spretus (Rodentia: Muridae) L. JAVIER PALOMO, ENRIQUE R. JUSTO, AND J. MARIO VARGAS  

E-print Network

:230) determined that this is a synonym of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758. Mus spicilegus lynesi Cabrera, 1923, 1923:431. Type locality ``alrededores de Melilla, Rif oriental,'' Morocco. Mus musculus spretus: Mus musculus. They recognized 15 subspecies, including M. m. spretus, and proposed the evolutionary

Hayssen, Virginia

93

[First report on Neotoma micropus (Rodentia) as a reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico].  

PubMed

Using xenodiagnosis, two (8.0%) of 25 woodrats Neotoma micropus were found infected with tripanosome parasite in Vaquerias, a village in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. The triatomine species developing infective metacyclic trypanosomes at week 12th were Triatoma pallidipennis, T. infestans and T. gerstaeckeri. Experimental infections using infected dejections were successfully conducted on laboratory mice (CD1 strain) confirming the vertebrate cycle of Trypanosome cruzi. The biological characterization of T. cruzi strains was demonstrated based on: 1) Triatomine developmental cycle. 2) A vertebrate host parasitic period up to 25-33 post-infection days, and. 3) Typical morphology of bloodstream trypomastigotes and amastigotes from myocardial nest. This is the first report of T. cruzi biologically characterized in Nuevo Leon, as well as a new report of N. micropus, increasing the list of reservoir hosts in Mexico. PMID:1306997

Galavíz-Silva, L; Arredondo Cantú, J M

1992-01-01

94

Relationship of circadian activity and social behaviors to reentrainment rates in diurnal Octodon degus (Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments with female Octodon degus showed that entrained males (donors) inhibited and entrained females accelerated female phase-shifters' reentrainment rates of temperature and activity rhythms following 6-h advances. In this experiment, entrained males were housed with other entrained males or with phase-shifting females (experiencing a phase advance of the light dark (LD) cycle) and entrained females were housed with other

Namni Goel; Theresa M. Lee

1996-01-01

95

Temporal dynamics of milk composition of the precocial caviomorph Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During lactation, both the nutritional and energetic requirements of suckling change gradually. These changes normally are accompanied by modifications in chemical composition of the milk. We investigated the temporal course of milk composition during lactation in a precocial caviomorph rodent, the \\

CLAUDIO VELOSO; G. J. KENAGY

2005-01-01

96

Cadmium and lead concentrations in Gallegoides arfaai (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on parasites of vertebrates living in terrestrial ecosystems as sentinels for heavy metal environmental pollution is scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the concentration of cadmium and lead using the model Apodemus sylvaticus\\/ Gallegoides arfaai in order to test the potential suitability of G. arfaai as a sentinel organism for lead and cadmium under natural

J. Torres; J. de Lapuente; C. Eira; J. Nadal

2004-01-01

97

Macro-anatomical and karyological features of two blind mole rat subspecies (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Turkey.  

PubMed

The morphometric and karyological analyses of 52 specimens belonging to the two subspecies of Nannospalax leucodon were examined from 14 localities in Turkey. Five karyotypic forms were recorded (2n = 60, the total numbers of chromosomal arms (NF) = 74, the numbers of autosomal arms (NFa) = 70; 2n = 60, NF = 76, NFa = 72; 2n = 60, NF = 82, NFa = 78; 2n = 56, NF = 72, NFa = 68; 2n = 38, NF = 74, NFa = 70). The morphological features of two subspecies were studied using both numerical taxonomy and traditional methods. Thirty skull measurements and four baculum measurements were subjected to discriminant function analysis to find morphometric criteria allowing subspecies identification. Two subspecies were clearly separated from each other by macroanatomical characterictics and numeric characteristics. The first upper molar has four alveoli cubicles in young specimens of Nannospalax leucodon anatolicus, while M(1) has 1 cubicle in Nannospalax leucodon cilicicus. In the western subspecies (N. l. anatolicus, 2n = 38), urethra openness is surrounded by three lobes. However, in the eastern subspecies (N. l. cilicicus, 2n = 60), there are two lateral lobes. PMID:19183350

Kankiliç, T; Colak, E; Kankiliç, T

2009-04-01

98

A study on Morphology and Karyology of Prometheomys schaposchnikowi Satunin, 1901 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyological, morphological, bacular and phallic aspects of Prometheomys schaposchnikowi were examined based on 22 specimens collected in Ardanuç and Ardahan. The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n=56, the number of autosomal arms is NFa=100, and the fundamental number is NF=104, the X chromosome is a large submetacentric, and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric. In adults, sagittal crest begins

Ercüment ÇOLAK

99

The Morphological Analysis of Mus domesticus and Mus macedonicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 529 specimens of Mus domesticus and Mus macedonicus from Turkey, in terms of their morphological, bacular, and phallic aspects. The zygomatic index (ZI) varied from 0.32 to 0.47 in M. domesticus, and 0.60 to 0.85 in M. macedonicus. The head plus body length\\/tail length (H+B\\/T) index varied from 0.87 to 1.05 in M. domesticus, and 1.08 to 1.78

Ercüment ÇOLAK; Mustafa SÖZEN; Reyhan ÇOLAK; Tolga KANKILIÇ

100

[Reproductive cycle of the pocket gophers Orthogeomys cherriei (Rodentia: Geomyidae) in Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Pocket gophers (Orthogemys cherriei) is a pest in agriculture in Limón, Costa Rica; 232 animals were trapped in several farms. They reproduce continuously throughout the year. Adults of both sexes are found in reproductive condition at any time. The females produce at least 2 litters per year (1-4 newborns each). There is no correlation between position of testes and production of sperm. The position of the testes is not a reliable factor to establish the reproductive condition in males. There is a correlation between length of os penis (baculum) and length of the testes, irrespectively of its reproductive condition. These pocket gophers disperse above-ground. PMID:1297167

Delgado, R

1992-04-01

101

Evolutionary Story of a Satellite DNA from Phodopus sungorus (Rodentia, Cricetidae).  

PubMed

With the goal to contribute for the understanding of satellite DNA evolution and its genomic involvement, in this work it was isolated and characterized the first satellite DNA (PSUcentSat) from Phodopus sungorus (Cricetidae). Physical mapping of this sequence in P. sungorus showed large PSUcentSat arrays located at the heterochromatic (peri)centromeric region of five autosomal pairs and Y-chromosome. The presence of orthologous PSUcentSat sequences in the genomes of other Cricetidae and Muridae rodents was also verified, presenting however, an interspersed chromosomal distribution. This distribution pattern suggests a PSUcentSat-scattered location in an ancestor of Muridae/Cricetidae families, that assumed afterwards, in the descendant genome of P. sungorus a restricted localization to few chromosomes in the (peri)centromeric region. We believe that after the divergence of the studied species, PSUcentSat was most probably highly amplified in the (peri)centromeric region of some chromosome pairs of this hamster by recombinational mechanisms. The bouquet chromosome configuration (prophase I) possibly displays an important role in this selective amplification, providing physical proximity of centromeric regions between chromosomes with similar size and/or morphology. This seems particularly evident for the acrocentric chromosomes of P. sungorus (including the Y-chromosome), all presenting large PSUcentSat arrays at the (peri)centromeric region. The conservation of this sequence in the studied genomes and its (peri)centromeric amplification in P. sungorus strongly suggests functional significance, possibly displaying this satellite family different functions in the different genomes. The verification of PSUcentSat transcriptional activity in normal proliferative cells suggests that its transcription is not stage-limited, as described for some other satellites. PMID:25336681

Paço, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Meštrovi?, Nevenka; Plohl, Miroslav; Chaves, Raquel

2014-01-01

102

G-banding chromosome analysis of Praomys natalensis (Smith) (Rodentia muridae) from Rhodesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic examination of the Rhodesian population of Praomys natalensis revealed two chromosomally distinct species, one having 32 chromosomes and the other 36 chromosomes. The G-banding patterns and suggested karyotype of the 36 chromosome species is presented here.

N F Lyons; C R Green; D H Gordon; C R Walters

1977-01-01

103

Studies on Rift Valley fever in some African murids (Rodentia: Muridae).  

PubMed

Brains, spleens and livers of 2214 murids, 27 shrews and 7 dormice, trapped at 7 sites in Rhodesia, were tested in 277 pools for the presence of Rift Valley Fever virus. There were no isolations of Rift Valley Fever, but 69 isolations of an unidentified virus were obtained. Sixteen out of 867 sera had low-titre haemagglutination-inhibition activity against Rift Valley Fever antigen, but only one out of 1260 sera had neutralizing antibody. The evidence suggests that murids fail to encounter infection in nature and are unlikely to play a role in circulation and dissemination of Rift Valley Fever virus. Four out of seven widely distributed species of muried, Rhabdomys pumilio, Saccostomys campestris, Aethomys chrysophilus and Lemniscomys griselda, were shown to be capable of circulating amounts of virus likely to be infective for mosquitoes. PMID:632561

Swanepoel, R; Blackburn, N K; Efstratiou, S; Condy, J B

1978-04-01

104

Relationship of circadian activity and social behaviors to reentrainment rates in diurnal Octodon degus (Rodentia).  

PubMed

Previous experiments with female Octodon degus showed that entrained males (donors) inhibited and entrained females accelerated female phase-shifters' teentrainment rates of temperature and activity rhythms following 6-h advances. In this experiment, entrained males were housed with other entrained males or with phase-shifting females (experiencing a phase advance of the light-dark (LD) cycle) and entrained females were housed with other entrained females or with phase-shifting females. Pairs separated by a barrier were videotaped for 66 h to identify the behavioral interactions that underlie the opposite effects of donor social cues on reentrainment rates in females. As reported previously, female phase-shifters housed with entrained females reentrained faster than those "housed with entrained males following 6-h advances. Despite accelerated reentrainment, the timing or total durations of general activity, sleep, cage investigation, barrier investigation, and scent marking did not differ between female phase-shifters housed with male or female donors, although all phase-shifters increased investigatory behaviors compared to entrained animals. In contrast, male and female donors housed with female phase-shifters increased the frequency of scent marking and the duration of cage and barrier investigation compared with those housed with entrained same-sex conspecifics. Changes in scent marking and sniffing investigation suggest olfactory cues, not alterations in sleep or other daily rhythms, supply the critical social influence necessary to alter reentrainment rates in females. Daily and/or specific phase increases in motor activity did not correlate with accelerated reentrainment. We suggest that the salience of social cues perceived by female phase-shifters, female phase-shifters' sensitivity to cues and/or the strength of emitted donor cues may contribute to differential responses of the circadian system in females housed with male vs. female donors. PMID:8778872

Goel, N; Lee, T M

1996-01-01

105

First castorid (mammalia, rodentia) from the middle miocene of southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Today and in the Tertiary, the geographical distribution of castorids is limited throughout all of the northern continents. Fossils of the Castoridae genus Steneofiber are abundant in many localities of Eurasia from the late Oligocene to Pliocene period. Recently, Steneofiber fossils were discovered in two localities of northern Thailand, Mae Moh and Chiang Muan coal mines, in layers of late middle Miocene age. These discoveries represent the first records of castorids from Southeast Asia and correspond to their southernmost known range. The focus of this study is to describe this new Thai species of Steneofiber and to define its wear stages from the molar occlusal surfaces by using micro-CT scan analysis. The CT scan technique permits the analysis of the virtual occlusal surface changes from wear, allowing easier comparison to related species of Steneofiber cheek teeth without destroying the teeth. The new species, Steneofiber siamensis n. sp., can be distinguished from the other species of Steneofiber by several distinct characters, longer mesostriid on p4, presence of premesostria and metastria on P4, which are smaller than most of the other known species. The occurrence of this new castorid also supports a subtropical to tropical paleoclimate for these two localities of northern Thailand. PMID:21360164

Suraprasit, Kantapon; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Martin, Thomas; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

2011-04-01

106

Multilocus systematics and non-punctuated evolution of Holarctic Myodini (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).  

PubMed

The tribe Myodini consists of five genera of forest and alpine voles (Alticola, Caryomys, Eothenomys, Hyperacrius and Myodes) distributed throughout the Holarctic. Because mitochondrial evidence has revealed paraphyly and polyphyly among genera, we apply the first multilocus tests to clarify taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships. Our analyses of 28 of 36 species within Myodini, including three not previously sequenced (A. montosa, A. albicaudus, and H. fertilis), identify four distinct clades and provide the first molecular evidence that Hyperacrius may not belong in Myodini. Myodes is paraphyletic, while polyphyly of Alticola reflects apparent ancient mitochondrial introgression. Diversification in this tribe was hypothesized to be tightly linked to Late Cenozoic climatic events, however, lineage through time analysis indicates diversification over the last 4 My was gradual and not strongly punctuated. PMID:24594062

Kohli, Brooks A; Speer, Kelly A; Kilpatrick, C William; Batsaikhan, Nyamsuren; Damdinbaza, Darmaa; Cook, Joseph A

2014-07-01

107

Late cenozoic history of the genus Micromys (mammalia, rodentia) in Central Europe.  

PubMed

Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4-4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6-0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European-C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

Horá?ek, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

2013-01-01

108

Re-Evaluation of Sinocastor (Rodentia: Castoridae) with Implications on the Origin of Modern Beavers  

PubMed Central

The extant beaver, Castor, has played an important role shaping landscapes and ecosystems in Eurasia and North America, yet the origins and early evolution of this lineage remain poorly understood. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach to help re-evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of a fossil skull from the Late Miocene of China. This specimen was originally considered Sinocastor, and later transferred to Castor. The aim of this study was to determine whether this form is an early member of Castor, or if it represents a lineage outside of Castor. The specimen was compared to 38 specimens of modern Castor (both C. canadensis and C. fiber) as well as fossil specimens of C. fiber (Pleistocene), C. californicus (Pliocene) and the early castorids Steneofiber eseri (early Miocene). The results show that the specimen falls outside the Castor morphospace and that compared to Castor, Sinocastor possesses a: 1) narrower post-orbital constriction, 2) anteroposteriorly shortened basioccipital depression, 3) shortened incisive foramen, 4) more posteriorly located palatine foramen, 5) longer rostrum, and 6) longer braincase. Also the specimen shows a much shallower basiocciptal depression than what is seen in living Castor, as well as prominently rooted molars. We conclude that Sinocastor is a valid genus. Given the prevalence of apparently primitive traits, Sinocastor might be a near relative of the lineage that gave rise to Castor, implying a possible Asiatic origin for Castor. PMID:21085579

Rybczynski, Natalia; Ross, Elizabeth M.; Samuels, Joshua X.; Korth, William W.

2010-01-01

109

Molecular phylogeny of the marmots (Rodentia: Sciuridae): tests of evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses.  

PubMed

There are 14 species of marmots distributed across the Holarctic, and despite extensive systematic study, their phylogenetic relationships remain largely unresolved. In particular, comprehensive studies have been lacking. A well-supported phylogeny is needed to place the numerous ecological and behavioral studies on marmots in an evolutionary context. To address this situation, we obtained complete cytochrome (cyt) b sequences for 13 of the species and a partial sequence for the 14th. We applied a statistical approach to both phylogeny estimation and hypothesis testing, using parsimony and maximum likelihood-based methods. We conducted statistical tests on a suite of previously proposed hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic histories. The cyt b data strongly support the monophyly of Marmota and a western montane clade in the Nearctic. Although some other scenarios cannot be rejected, the results are consistent with an initial diversification in North America, followed by an invasion and subsequent rapid diversification in the Palearctic. These analyses reject the two major competing hypotheses of M. broweri's phylogenetic relationships--namely, that it is the sister species to M. camtschatica of eastern Siberia, and that it is related closely to M. caligata of the Nearctic. The Alaskan distribution of M. broweri is best explained as a reinvasion from the Palearctic, but a Nearctic origin can not be rejected. Several other conventionally recognized species groups can also be rejected. Social evolution has been homoplastic, with large colonial systems evolving in two groups convergently. The cyt b data do not provide unambiguous resolution of several basal nodes in the Palearctic radiation, leaving some aspects of pelage and karyotypic evolution equivocal. PMID:12066297

Steppan, S J; Akhverdyan, M R; Lyapunova, E A; Fraser, D G; Vorontsov, N N; Hoffmann, R S; Braun, M J

1999-12-01

110

Molecular Phylogeny of the Marmots (Rodentia: Sciuridae): Tests of Evolutionary and Biogeographic Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 14 species of marmots distributed across the Holarctic, and despite extensive systematic study, their phylogenetic relationships remain largely unresolved. In particular, compre- hensive studies have been lacking. A well-supported phylogeny is needed to place the numerous ecological and behavioral studies on marmots in an evolutionary context. To address this situation, we obtained complete cytochrome (cyt) b sequences for

SCOTT J. STEPPAN; MIKHAIL R. AKHVERDYAN; ELENA A. LYAPUNOVA; DARRILYN G. FRASER; NIKOLAI N. VORONTSOV; ROBERT S. HOFFMANN; MICHAEL J. BRAUN

111

Distributional Survey of Rare Small Mammals (Orders Insectivora, Chiroptera, and Rodentia)  

E-print Network

thysanodes)............................................25 Yuma myotis (Myotis yumanensis included: Neotoma albigula brevicauda, Myotis californicus, M. thysanodes, M. yumanensis, and Antrozous California myotis (Myotis californicus) ......................................25 Fringed myotis (Myotis

112

Heterochromatin and the DNA content in Geomys attwateri and G. breviceps (Rodentia: Geomyidae)  

E-print Network

that fluoresced brightly with chromomycin A3 (CMA3) was also C-band positive, but not all the heterochromatin fluoresced. Horeover 9 in T. b. bottae only the euchrcmatic regions fluoresced brightly with CHA3 and the DAPI (4-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole... that fluoresced brightly with chromomycin A3 (CMA3) was also C-band positive, but not all the heterochromatin fluoresced. Horeover 9 in T. b. bottae only the euchrcmatic regions fluoresced brightly with CHA3 and the DAPI (4-6- diamidino-2-phenylindole...

Burton, David Winston

2012-06-07

113

Nucleolus organizer regions and B-chromosomes of wood mice (mammalia, rodentia, Apodemus)  

SciTech Connect

Distribution of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in karyotypes was studied in 10 species of wood mice, including Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis (=A. microps), A. fulvipectus (=A. falzfeini), A. ponticus, A. hyrcanicus, A. mystacinus, A. agrarius, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus. Peculiarities of NOR location in karyotypes can be used in interspecific diagnostics of wood mice. Intraspecific polymorphism of A. sylvaticus, A. agrarius, and A. peninsulae in terms of the number of NORs and their localization in chromosomes can serve as evidence for karyological differentiation in certain populations of these species. The minimum number of active NORs in mice of the genus Apodemus is two to four. Two A. flavicollis wood mice with karyotypes containing one small acrocentric B-chromosome (2n = 49) were identified among animals captured in Estonia. In A. peninsulae, B-chromosomes were found among animals captured in the following regions: the vicinity of Kyzyl (one mouse with 17 microchromosomes, 2n = 65); the vicinity of Birakan (two mice with one metacentric chromosome each, 2n = 49); and in the Ussuri Nature Reserve (one mouse with five B-chromosomes, including three metacentric and two dotlike chromosomes; 2n = 53). In the latter animal, the presence of NORs on two metacentric B-chromosomes was revealed; this is the first case of identification of active NORs on extra chromosomes of mammals. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Boeskorov, G.G. [Yakutia Institute of Biology, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Kartavtseva, I.V. [Biological Soil Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zagorodnyuk, I.V. [Shmal`gausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine); Belyanin, A.N. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-02-01

114

A remarkable autosomal heteromorphism in Pseudoryzomys simplex 2n = 56; FN = 54-55 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)  

PubMed Central

Pseudoryzomys simplex, the false rice rat, is a monotypic genus of the Oryzomyini tribe (Sigmodontinae) distributed in part of Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. Its diploid number has been described as 56 acrocentric chromosomes decreasing in size and no karyotype figure has been depicted. Herein, we present karyotypic data on P. simplex, including chromosome banding and molecular fluorescent in situ hybridization using telomeric sequences and the whole X-chromosome of its sister clade Holochilus brasiliensis (HBR) as probes. A case of remarkable autosomal heteromorphism due to the presence of a whole heterochromatic arm leading to the variability of FN is reported, as well as the occurrence of regions of homology between the X and Y chromosomes (pseudoautosomal regions) after chromosome painting with the HBR X probe on P. simplex metaphases. PMID:23885202

Moreira, Camila Nascimento; Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; de Jesus Silva, Maria Jose; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Ventura, Karen

2013-01-01

115

Landscape correlates of the distribution of coypu Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Argentinean Pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coypu is a rodent indigenous to aquatic habitats in southern South America, which is considered a pest where it has been introduced and a valuable furbearer resource within its native range. The objective of this study was to identify the main landscape correlates of coypu distribution in the Pampas. Previous studies provided two non-exclusive hypotheses: (1) if hunting pressure

L. R. Leggieri; M. L. Guichón; M. H. Cassini

2011-01-01

116

C-banded karyotype of Myocastor coypus (Molina, 1782) from Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia).  

PubMed

The present study reports the C-band patterns of chromosomes of Myocastor coypus from Turkey. The karyotype of M. coypus is comprised of (2n) 42 chromosomes, the number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 83 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 80. The X chromosome was a medium-sized metacentric and the Y chromosome was acrocentric and the smallest in the set. Two metacentric chromosomes have secondary constrictions. Most autosomes in this species were centromeric C-positive and some autosomes had telomeric C-bands. The X chromosome has centromeric heterochromatin, while the Y chromosome appeared to be entirely heterochromatic. PMID:19459458

Iliker, Ay?egül; Arslan, Atilla; Pamuko?lu, Nahit; Albayrak, Irfan

2009-01-01

117

Observations on the fetal morphology in Myocastor coypus bonariensis (coypu) (Rodentia, Myocastoridae).  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to characterize the morphology of fetuses of Myocastor coypus bonariensis (coypu) after 60, 90, 120 and 135 days post-coitus (d.p.c.). At all the ages, gestational sacs showed an elliptical shape. Placentas were discoidal, with a unilobular external appearance in fetuses of 60 d.p.c. and with lobulations separated by a groove in fetuses of other ages. The umbilical cord, wrapped around the fetal body, showed a proximal dilatation in 60-d.p.c. fetuses, being its course uniform and a little spiral in the other ages. The 60-d.p.c. fetuses showed differentiation of corporal regions, prominent encephalic vesicles and little developed earlobes located in the laterals of the skull, in the limit with the cervical area and in straight line with the optical vesicles. The primitive forelimbs showed differentiation of arm, forearm and hand. In the hindlimbs, the inter-digital membrane was observed joining the fingers along all their length. Fetuses of 90 d.p.c. showed developed eyelids and closed palpebral cleft, developed auricular pavilions (earlobes), hairy follicles in the facial region (vibrissae) and in the skull and bent limbs. Fetuses of 120 and 135 d.p.c. showed a bodily cover constituted by a dense pilous covering, spread palpebral clefts, open mouth, bent limbs and inter-digital membranes in the hindlimbs. PMID:19032632

Felipe, A E; Masson, P G

2008-12-01

118

Field evaluation of some bait additives against Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Rodentia: Hystricidae).  

PubMed

This research study evaluated the effect of different additives on the bait consumption by Indian crested porcupine, a serious forest and agricultural pest, under field conditions. Different additives (saccharin, common salt, bone meal, fish meal, peanut butter, egg yolk, egg shell powder, yeast powder, mineral oil and coconut oil) at 2 and 5% each were tested for their relative preference, using groundnut-maize (1:1) as basic bait. All the additives were tested under a no-choice test pattern. For control tests, no additive was mixed with the basic bait. Saccharin at 5% concentration significantly enhanced the consumption of bait over the basic bait, while 2% saccharin supplemented bait resulted in a non-significant bait consumption. All other additives did not enhance the consumption of the bait material; rather, these worked as repellents. However, the repellency was lowest with the common salt, followed by egg yolk, egg shell powder, bone meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, fish meal and yeast powder, while coconut remained the most repellent compound. The present study suggested that groundnut-maize (1:1) supplemented with 5% saccharin was the preferred bait combination, and can be used with different rodenticides for the management of Indian crested porcupine. PMID:24020467

Mushtaq, Muhammad; Hussain, Iftikhar; Mian, Afsar; Munir, Shahid; Ahmed, Irfan; Khan, Abdul Aziz

2013-09-01

119

Reservoir competence of the meadow vole (Rodentia: Cricetidae) for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

The reservoir competence of the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord, for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner was established on Patience Island, RI. Meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout Rhode Island. At 4 of the field sites, M. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. However, on Patience Island, M. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). Of the larval Ixodes scapularis Say obtained from the meadow voles on Patience Island, 62% (n = 78) was infected with B. burgdorferi. Meadow voles from all 5 locations were successfully infected with B. burgdorferi in the laboratory and were capable of passing the infection to xenodiagnostic I. scapularis larvae for 9 wk. We concluded that M. pennsylvanicus was physiologically capable of maintaining B. burgdorferi infection. However, in locations where Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque) is abundant, the role of M. pennsylvanicus as a primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi was reduced. PMID:9775612

Markowski, D; Ginsberg, H S; Hyland, K E; Hu, R

1998-09-01

120

Chromosomal localization of six repeated DNA sequences among species of Microtus (Rodentia).  

PubMed

C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) document the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and six highly repeated DNA families (MSAT2570, MSAT21, MSAT160, MS2, MS4 and STR47) in the chromosomes of nine species of Microtus (M. chrotorrhinus, M. rossiaemeridionalis, M. arvalis, M. ilaeus, M. transcaspicus, M. cabrerae, M. pennsylvanicus, M. miurus and M. ochrogaster). Autosomal heterochromatin is largely centromeric and contains different repeated families in different species. Similarly, large C-band positive blocks on the sex chromosomes of four species contain different repeated DNAs. This interspecific variation in the chromosomal distribution and copy number of the repeats suggests that a common ancestor to modern species contained most of the repetitive families, and that descendant species selectively amplified or deleted different repeats on different chromosomes. PMID:14606632

Modi, William S; Serdyukova, Natalya A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

2003-01-01

121

Microtus californicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) NICHOLE L. CUDWORTH AND JOHN L. KOPROWSKI  

E-print Network

are recognized (Hall 1981): M. c. aequivocatus Osgood, 1928:56: Type locality ``San Quintin, [Baja] California locality ``Bay of San Francisco, in California;'' restricted to San Fran- cisquito Creek, near Palo Alto of San Francisco by Bailey (1900:37). Arvicola trowbridgii Baird, 1857:529. Type locality ``Mon- terey

Hayssen, Virginia

122

Re-evaluation of Sinocastor (Rodentia: Castoridae) with implications on the origin of modern beavers.  

PubMed

The extant beaver, Castor, has played an important role shaping landscapes and ecosystems in Eurasia and North America, yet the origins and early evolution of this lineage remain poorly understood. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach to help re-evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of a fossil skull from the Late Miocene of China. This specimen was originally considered Sinocastor, and later transferred to Castor. The aim of this study was to determine whether this form is an early member of Castor, or if it represents a lineage outside of Castor. The specimen was compared to 38 specimens of modern Castor (both C. canadensis and C. fiber) as well as fossil specimens of C. fiber (Pleistocene), C. californicus (Pliocene) and the early castorids Steneofiber eseri (early Miocene). The results show that the specimen falls outside the Castor morphospace and that compared to Castor, Sinocastor possesses a: 1) narrower post-orbital constriction, 2) anteroposteriorly shortened basioccipital depression, 3) shortened incisive foramen, 4) more posteriorly located palatine foramen, 5) longer rostrum, and 6) longer braincase. Also the specimen shows a much shallower basiocciptal depression than what is seen in living Castor, as well as prominently rooted molars. We conclude that Sinocastor is a valid genus. Given the prevalence of apparently primitive traits, Sinocastor might be a near relative of the lineage that gave rise to Castor, implying a possible Asiatic origin for Castor. PMID:21085579

Rybczynski, Natalia; Ross, Elizabeth M; Samuels, Joshua X; Korth, William W

2010-01-01

123

Genetic variation in house mice (Mus, Muridae, Rodentia) from the Czech and Slovak Republics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among populations of commensal house mice was studied across the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics and in some adjacent areas of Germany. We used six diagnostic allozyme loci (Es-2, Gpd-1, Idh-1, Mpi, Np, Sod-1) and the following molecular markers: B1 insertion in the Btk gene (X chromosome), Zfy2 18-bp deletion (Y chromosome), BamH I restriction site

Pavel MUNCLINGER; Eva BOÎÍKOVÁ; Jaroslav PIÁLEK

2002-01-01

124

WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TREE SQUIRRELS (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE) IN CALIFORNIA, 2004-2005  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) transmission generally involves a mosquito vector and an avian reservoir host, with mammals as incidental hosts. Although most mammalian WNV infections cause low or no morbidity or mortality, tree squirrels are susceptible to WNV-associated neurologic disease with infection prevalence comparable to that in dead birds. Positive species included fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), western gray squirrel (S. griseus), and eastern gray squirrel (S. carolinensis). Kidney tissue (dissected and swabbed), and oropharyngeal (oral) swab samples from tree squirrels submitted by California vector control and rehabilitation agencies were tested by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; cycle threshold values were similar for all three samples, ranging from 21.9 to 26.5. Kidney tissue was more sensitive than oral swabs for detecting WNV in squirrels. Three of 36 live neurologic tree squirrels had viremia approximately 5 log10 plaque-forming units/mL or greater, similar to WNV-infected birds. Tree squirrels are useful in WNV surveillance and provide localized evidence of WNV transmission to mammals. PMID:17488896

PADGETT, KERRY A.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.; KAHL-PURCELL, NICOLE; FANG, YING; CAHOON-YOUNG, BARBARA; CARNEY, RYAN; ANDERSON, NANCY; ZUCCA, LYNDA; WOODS, LESLIE; HUSTED, STAN; KRAMER, VICKI L.

2007-01-01

125

An anatomical study of the brains of Dipodomys (Mammalia: Rodentia: Heteromyidae).  

PubMed

Whole brains and Nissl-stained serial sections of 3 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis, D. ordii, D. merriami) were compared for interspecific differences. Neuroanatomical variations were conservative in nature. Examination of the cerebellum revealed possible differences in locomotion and ecology. Dipodomys ordii exhibited more neurological evidence for increased specialization of the hindlimbs, while D. merriami had the least differentiated cerebellar surface, thereby suggesting more stereotyped movements of the hindlimbs. Dipodomys spectabilis had abilities that lie somewhere between those of D. ordii and D. merriami. Stereological analysis demonstrated little difference in the percent of total brain volume comprising the telencephalon, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brain stem; and it revealed the relative position of the cranial nerve nuclei. PMID:507367

Dressler, J B

1979-01-01

126

Tactile discriminatory ability and foraging strategies in Kangaroo rats and pocket mice (Rodentia: Heteromyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of seasonal food hoarding activity and tactile discriminatory ability in four species of heteromyid rodents (Dipodomys panamintinus, D. merriami, Perognathus longimembris, and P. formosus) was conducted in laboratory test arenas. Animals were tested individually to determine their treatment of seed (white millet) and seed mimics (glass beads and gravel) offered as food. In general, all animals showed

Debra K. Lawhon; Mark S. Hafner

1981-01-01

127

Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from central Amazon  

PubMed Central

The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis. PMID:22481879

e Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F.; Feldberg, Eliana

2012-01-01

128

A new species of Heteromyoxyuris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), parasite of Perognathus flavus (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) from Mexico.  

PubMed

Heteromyoxyuris otomii n. sp., which inhabits the intestinal caecum of Perognathus flavus (Heteromyidae), in Zaragoza, Hidalgo, Mexico, is described. This new species differs from the 2 other congeneric species in the morphology and length of lateral alae in males. Heteromyoxyuris deserti has simple lateral alae located at both sides of the body, whereas in the new species, these structures are double at both sides; in contrast, lateral alae of Heteromyoxyuris longejector begin at the posterior half of the body, whereas they arise in the first third in the new species. Heteromyoxyuris longejector was found in 2 new host species, i.e., Perognathus amplus and Chaetodipus hispidus. This record represents the first record for the species in Mexico, increasing its geographic distribution. PMID:18576798

García-Prieto, Luis; Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Lira-Guerrero, Georgina; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit

2008-08-01

129

Karyotypes of sixteen populations of the Thomomys talpoides complex of pocket Gophers ( Rodentia-Geomyidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome material of mitotic bone marrow cells from 59 individuals representing 16 populations of Thomomys talpoides was studied. These populations were found in southern Wyoming, Colorado, northern New Mexico and northern Arizona. A limited amount of intrapopulation variation in form but not number of chromosomes was found. Bight distinct karyotypes were observed. These can be characterized by the following diploid

Charles S. Thaeler

1968-01-01

130

Two new species of Litomosoides (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from pocket gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae) in Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two new species of nematodes representing the genusLitomosoides were obtained from pocket gophers collected in the early 1960s and during 1982 in Colorado. Individuals ofLitomosoides thomomydis n. sp. were recovered from the abdominal cavities of two species of pocket gopher,Thomomys talpoides (Richardson) andT. bottae (Eydoux & Gervais). Nematodes representingL. westi n. sp. were recovered from the abdominal and pleural cavities

Scott Lyell Gardner; Gerald D. Schmidt

1986-01-01

131

Multilocus Phylogenetics of a Rapid Radiation in the Genus Thomomys (Rodentia: Geomyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species complexes undergoing rapid radiation present a challenge in molecular systematics because of the possibility that ancestral polymorphism is retained in component gene trees. Coalescent theory has demonstrated that gene trees often fail to match lineage trees when taxon divergence times are less than the ancestral effective population sizes. Suggestions to increase the number of loci and the number of

NATALIA M. BELFIORE; Liang Liu; Craig Moritz

2008-01-01

132

Chromosomal speciation in a Rassenkreis of Venezuelan spiny rats (genus Proechimys, Rodentia, Echimyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of populations of spiny rats (Proechimys) of NW and N Central Venezuela were found to belong to a circle of species and subspecies which surrounds the Andes of M6rida-CordiUera de la Costa mountain axis. This 'Rassenkreis' consists of 6 successive karyomorphs which exhibit a stepped-dine distribution (2n = 42, 44, 46, 48, 50 and 62). Each of the

Osvaldo A. Reig; Marisol Aguilera; María Alicia Barros; Myriam Useche

1984-01-01

133

Heterochromatin variation among the populations of Mus terricolor Blyth, 1851 (Rodentia, Muridae) chromosome type I  

PubMed Central

Abstract Twenty five to thirty specimens each from ten populations of Mus terricolor of the Terai and the Dooars regions of the Darjeeling foothills of West Bengal were cytogenetically analyzed using C-banding. Results showed intra- and inter- population variation of C-band positive heterochromatin ranging from very large blocks to minute amounts or even complete absence of heterochromatin. Large blocks of centromeric C-bands were found in Bidhan Nagar, Garidhura, Malbazar, Nagrakata and Maynaguri populations in most of the autosomes, while the rest of the populations had large blocks of C-bands on a few autosomes only. Such intra- and inter- population variation may be due to accumulation of C-positive heterochromatin, which has not got fixed homogeneously in all autosome pairs. X-chromosomes invariably possess a C-banded short arm a telomeric C-band at the distal end of the long arm in all populations. The entire Y-chromosome was C-band positive with slight population differences in staining intensity. The results suggest quantitative as well as qualitative variation of C-positive heterochromatin. PMID:24260696

Rudra, Mahua; Bahadur, Min

2013-01-01

134

Phylogeography of a post-glacial colonizer: Microtus longicaudus (Rodentia: Muridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular phylogeography of Microtus longicaudus was investigated with DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We used phylogenetic and pairwise distance methods to reconstruct the history of the species with particular emphasis on the Pacific Northwest. Genetic variation across the species was consistent with vicariant events during the Pleistocene and subsequent northern postglacial expansion following the reced- ing

C. J. Conroy; J. A. Cook

2000-01-01

135

Phylogeny, evolution, and systematics of the Galea musteloides complex (Rodentia: Caviidae)  

E-print Network

) from the central Bolivian Andes, G. m. auceps (Thomas, 1911) from the Altiplano region around Lake Titicaca, and G. m. demissa (Thomas, 1921) from the Bolivian lowlands adjacent to the Andean foothills

136

Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea), from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected). The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia. PMID:21395203

Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Ribas, A.

2011-01-01

137

Ondatra zibethicus (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) Dental Microwear Patterns as a Potential Tool for Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subfossil muskrat remains are numerous in the lower strata at the Lubbock Lake Landmark, Southern High Plains of Texas, dating from c.11,100bp to 8500bp. This period witnessed a significant change in palaeoclimate and habitat at Lubbock Lake and the Southern High Plains. These changes caused the disappearance of many plant and animal species, and the emergence of many others. The

Patrick J. Lewis; Maria Gutierrez; Eileen Johnson

2000-01-01

138

Morphological Chronoclines among Late Pleistocene Muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus: Muridae, Rodentia) from Northern Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus) is presumed to have undergone a rapid phyletic size decrease near the end of the Pleistocene. Evolutionary changes in the size of middle to late Wisconsinan (ca. 32,000-12,300 14C yr B.P.) muskrats from the Aucilla River, Jefferson County, Florida, were reconstructed by examining length and width of the lower first molar (m1). Body mass, estimated from m1 length, was relatively stable from 32,000 to 16,000 14C yr B.P. and decreased only slightly by 12,300 14C yr B.P. If the size trend found in the Aucilla River material is characteristic of the southeastern United States, a body size decrease after 12,300 14C yr B.P. is needed to explain the smaller size of modern populations. It was previously thought that the length/width (l/w) ratio of the muskrat m1 was a paleoenvironmental indicator based on its presumed correlation with latitude in modern populations. We examined the length and width of modern muskrats from several geographic regions and found only a very weak trend in the size of the m1 between northern and southern populations; however, highly significant differences were found between regions of similar latitude. Our data indicate that chronoclines in the m1 of the Aucilla muskrat material and other such documented trends among fossil muskrats have paleoenvironmental significance, but it is not yet clear which environmental variables can best be predicted from them.

Mihlbachler, Matthew C.; Hemmings, C. Andrew; Webb, S. David

2002-11-01

139

Morphological Chronoclines among Late Pleistocene Muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus: Muridae, Rodentia) from Northern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is presumed to have undergone a rapid phyletic size decrease near the end of the Pleistocene. Evolutionary changes in the size of middle to late Wisconsinan (ca. 32,000–12,300 14C yr B.P.) muskrats from the Aucilla River, Jefferson County, Florida, were reconstructed by examining length and width of the lower first molar (m1). Body mass, estimated from

Matthew C. Mihlbachler; C. Andrew Hemmings; S. David Webb

2002-01-01

140

Another one bites the dust: bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).  

PubMed

Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger. PMID:24482421

Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

2014-04-01

141

Karyotypic and molecular polymorphisms in Ctenomys torquatus (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae): taxonomic considerations.  

PubMed

The rodent genus Ctenomys (tuco-tucos) comprises more than 60 described species, and shows extraordinary inter- and intraspecific karyotypic variation. The most widely distributed species of Ctenomys in Brazil is C. torquatus. Although several cytogenetic studies have been done, the karyotypic variability of this species is still poorly known. In this paper we report two new diploid numbers for C. torquatus: 2n = 40 and 2n = 42, both showing AN = 72. The new distribution limits of C. torquatus here reported include localities in the southern, central and western parts of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State in southern Brazil. The phylogenetic relationship between C. torquatus from Alegrete, RS, and Ctenomys sp. from Corrientes, Argentina, is described by means of mtDNA cytochrome b analysis. Although both entities share similar karyotypes and sperm morphology, these two species are not phylogenetically close. PMID:19118406

Fernandes, Fabiano A; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Ximenes, Simone S F; de Freitas, Thales R O

2009-07-01

142

Genetic and demographic structure in a population of Ctenomys lami (Rodentia-Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

The variability at eight microsatellite loci was analyzed in 88 individuals of Ctenomys lami, a species of tuco-tucos. Initially considered as three subpopulations, the estimated Fst values ranged from 0.0007 to 0.0589. Additionally, a Bayesian approach presented probabilities of 0.9933 for the existence of only one population. A Fis value of 0.19 could indicate an incipient structure. Sexual dimorphism was observed. The reproductive period was short and a seasonal pattern was observed with sex ratio of 1:1 during all seasons. Presence of recent bottleneck is described suggesting further research in this population to assess more complete and detailed data. PMID:15032943

El Jundi, Tarik A R J; De Freitas, Thales R O

2004-01-01

143

Sequence evolution of the major satellite DNA of the genus Ctenomys (Octodontidae, Rodentia).  

PubMed

Sequence variability of RPCS (repetitive PuvII Ctenomys sequence), the major satellite DNA of octodontid Ctenomys rodents, was analysed in species belonging to three groups of species representing the two patterns of karyotypic evolution in the genus: stable and dynamic karyotypes among closely related species. The studied species represent the overall range of RPCS copy number (2000--6.6x10(6) copies per haploid genome) in the genus. RPCS sequence was characterised by PCR amplification of the genomic consensus sequence and cloned monomers. Our results suggest that RPCS genomic consensus sequence variability correlates with RPCS copy number stability and karyotypic stastis, but not with high or low RPCS copy number values. In contrast, the RPCS gcs shows a mutational profile that is similar across all analysed species. Our data suggest that an RPCS ancestral library of variants was maintained through the cladogenesis of the genus. There is also evidence pointing to the simultaneous contribution of processes of concerted evolution that resulted in a reduced representation of some ancestral variants and their partial replacement for new ones. In addition, analysis of distribution of the variability along the monomer suggests that subsequences of the RPCS are subject to some degree of constraint, probably driven by the recent replicative activity of RPCS in species with high copy number. PMID:17331676

Ellingsen, Amund; Slamovits, Claudio H; Rossi, María Susana

2007-05-01

144

Retinal photoreceptors of two subterranean tuco-tuco species (Rodentia, Ctenomys): morphology, topography, and spectral sensitivity.  

PubMed

Traditionally, vision was thought to be useless for animals living in dark underground habitats, but recent studies in a range of subterranean rodent species have shown a large diversity of eye features, from small subcutaneous eyes to normal-sized functional eyes. We analyzed the retinal photoreceptors in the subterranean hystricomorph rodents Ctenomys talarum and Ctenomys magellanicus to elucidate whether adaptation was to their near-lightless burrows or rather to their occasional diurnal surface activity. Both species had normally developed eyes. Overall photoreceptor densities were comparatively low (95,000-150,000/mm(2) in C. magellanicus, 110,000-200,000/mm(2) in C. talarum), and cone proportions were rather high (10-31% and 14-31%, respectively). The majority of cones expressed the middle-to-longwave-sensitive (L) opsin, and a 6-16% minority expressed the shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin. In both species the densities of L and S cones were higher in ventral than in dorsal retina. In both species the tuning-relevant amino acids of the S opsin indicate sensitivity in the near UV rather than the blue/violet range. Photopic spectral electroretinograms were recorded. Unexpectedly, their sensitivity profiles were best fitted by the linear summation of three visual pigment templates with lambda(max) at 370 nm (S pigment, UV), at 510 nm (L pigment), and at 450 nm (an as-yet unexplained mechanism). Avoiding predators and selecting food during the brief aboveground excursions may have exerted pressure to retain robust cone-based vision in Ctenomys. UV tuning of the S cone pigment is shared with a number of other hystricomorphs. PMID:20737597

Schleich, Cristian E; Vielma, Alex; Glösmann, Martin; Palacios, Adrian G; Peichl, Leo

2010-10-01

145

The conservation status of the tuco-tucos, genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae), in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The goal of conservation biology should be related to the preservation of species and also to the evolutionary and ecological processes that were responsible to form them and that are still acting. We review the conservation status of the species of tuco-tuco (Ctenomys torquatus, C. lami, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni) from southern Brazil, and relate these data to the geological history of a particular area in that region, the Coastal Plain of the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The implications of the data on these species from the Southeastern Brazil are also discussed in relation to the evolution and risk of extinction of these subterranean rodents. PMID:18278350

Fernandes, F A; Fernández-Stolz, G P; Lopes, C M; Freitas, T R O

2007-12-01

146

New Pudicinae (Trichostrongylina, Heligmosomoidea), Pudica ctenomydis n. sp. parasite of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae) from Argentina.  

PubMed

A total of 138 nematodes were found in the small intestine of Ctenomys talarum (Octodontidae) from Mar de Cobo, Argentina. A new nematode species, Pudica ctenomydis n. sp., is described. The new species more closely resembles P. pujoli Durette-Desset, 1990, parasite of Microcavia niata Thomas, from Bolivia. It can be distinguished from P. pujoli by the number of ridges and characteristics of the synlophe, the spicular morphology, differences in length between rays 9 and 10, and by the presence of a symmetrical caudal bursa and a cuticular expansion surrounding the body between vulva and anus in females. PMID:16378752

Rossin, M A; Timi, J T; Malizia, A I

2006-03-01

147

Seasonal changes in body composition of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae): an herbivore subterranean rodent.  

PubMed

Ctenomys talarum is a subterranean herbivorous rodent whose burrow systems exhibit particular characteristics, distinct from other subterranean environments. We studied seasonal variation in body composition of C. talarum in relation to energetic requirements. Body lipid content seasonally changed in C. talarum, related to reproductive cycle and thermorregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in protein body content was found only in spring. Ash content of females was lowest when most of them are in post partum estro. Observed variations in water body content could be associated with plant water content and/or metabolic regulation. Our results show the occurrence of seasonal variations in body composition in C. talarum, which could be related to the high cost of reproduction and the subterranean life style of this species. PMID:16793300

del Valle, Juana C; López Mañanes, Alejandra A; Busch, Cristina

2006-09-01

148

Chromosome plasticity in Ctenomys (Rodentia Octodontidae): chromosome 1 evolution and heterochromatin variation.  

PubMed

A chromosome 1 (Cr1) pericentric inversion is described in six of seven species in the genus Ctenomys (tuco-tucos) from Uruguay. The inversion was inferred from G-band analyses of subtelocentric Cr1 hypothesised to be derived from the ancestral metacentric condition. Cr1 varies across species in heterochromatin amount and localisation including a metacentric chromosome without positive C-bands in C. torquatus, a subtelocentric chromosome with heterochromatic short arms in C. rionegrensis, and a subtelocentric chromosome negative after C-banding in five of the species analysed here. Pachytene chromosomes from C. rionegrensis, a species with the highest heterochromatin content, and C. torquatus, one of the species with the lowest heterochromatin content, were analysed in order to assess possible mechanisms of heterochromatin evolution. This analysis revealed the presence of three heterochromatic chromocenters in C. rionegrensis where bivalents converge, while in C. torquatus only one chromocenter was observed. In both species, highly repetitive DNA was observed, localised in chromocenters after "in situ" hybridisation. Heterochromatin associated protein M31 was localised in chromocenters of both species after immuno-detection. The spread of heterochromatin in Ctenomys chromosomes could be produced by chromatin exchanges at the chromocenter level. We propose the exchange of this DNA associated proteins between non-homologous chromosomes in pachytene to be the responsible for the spread of heterochromatin through the karyotypes of species like C. rionegrensis. PMID:16850234

Novello, Alvaro; Villar, Silvia

2006-05-01

149

A new karyotype for the spiny rat Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909) (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus. PMID:24260659

Bezerra, Alexandra M. R.; Pagnozzi, Juliana M.; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flavio H. G.

2012-01-01

150

Effect of tunnel inclination on digging energetics in the tuco-tuco, Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

Burrows play an important role for many species, providing them with shelter and access to food resources. For subterranean rodents, living underground imposes constraints on morphology and physiology. The convergence in burrow architecture among subterranean rodents has been related to the energy demands imposed by the cost of constructing an entire system. The low frequency of tunnels with downward angles steeper than 40 degrees appears to be a common feature in burrow design. In the subterranean habitat, movements through the soil are expensive and gravity can exert important restrictions on digging energetics when individuals push out the soil removed in steeper digging angles. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of digging angle on digging energetics in Ctenomys talarum. The mass of the removed soil and burrowing speed were similar while digging metabolic rate and net cost of transport were higher in individuals digging in tunnels with angles >40 degrees than in those digging tunnels with angles <40 degrees . The cost of constructing a burrow in the horizontal plane differed by 20% from others in which the natural representation of tunnels >40 degrees was considered. Even given that tunnels >40 degrees represented only 6% of the total burrow length, burrow architecture appears to be constrained by the high energetic cost of constructing in steeper angles. PMID:17021913

Luna, Facundo; Antinuchi, C Daniel

2007-02-01

151

Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).  

PubMed

Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group. PMID:24132712

Thomas, H G; Scantlebury, M; Swanepoel, D; Bateman, P W; Bennett, N C

2013-11-01

152

Glaciation Effects on the Phylogeographic Structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) in the Southern Andes  

PubMed Central

The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae), the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, Bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000–13,000 years ago). Neutrality tests and the “g” parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia). From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats. PMID:22396751

Palma, R. Eduardo; Boric-Bargetto, Dusan; Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández, Cristián E.; Yates, Terry L.

2012-01-01

153

The taxonomy of Geomydoecus (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from the Geomys bursarius complex (Rodentia: Geomyidae)  

E-print Network

, the “southern” group, is composed of G. ewingi, G. heaneyi, and G. subgeomydis. In no case did a single population of pocket gophers have more than 1 species of Geomydoecus parasitizing it. Two species of Geomydoecus were obtained on Long-tailed Weasels, Mustela...

Timm, Robert M.; Price, Roger D.

1980-03-01

154

Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae)  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in comparative genomics have considerably improved our knowledge of the evolution of mammalian karyotype architecture. One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres). In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. The target model was the genus Mus which exhibits a high rate of karyotypic change, a large fraction of which involves centromeres. Results The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our results highlighted the following features of rDNA cluster dynamics in the genus Mus: i) rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii) a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii) 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv) a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion) also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus, suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome repatterning observed in this group. However, the elevated rate of rDNA change observed in the chromosomally invariant clade indicates that the presence of these sequences is insufficient to lead to genome instability. In agreement with recent studies, these results suggest that additional factors such as modifications of the epigenetic state of DNA may be required to trigger evolutionary plasticity. PMID:21569527

2011-01-01

155

A new species of Calomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Central Brazil identified by its karyotype.  

PubMed

Ten species of small rodents of genus Calomys are found in South America. Three of these ten species are known to occur in Brazil: C. tener, C. laucha and C. expulsus (= C. callosus expulsus). Almost all Calomys karyotypes are made up of acrocentric pairs. In this paper we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 46 (FN = 66), including 11 meta/submetacentric and 11 acrocentric autosomal pairs. This is not related to any described Calomys karyotype. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a small acrocentric. This new karyotype is briefly compared to karyotype of the sympatric species C. tener (2n = 66, FN = 66). The reduced diploid number and small amount of pericentromeric heterochromatin observed in the biarmed chromosomes that contrasts to large blocks seen in acrocentrics seem to indicate that centric fusion and loss of constitutive heterochromatin have led to the new karyotype. Cytogenetic evidence suggests strongly that a new species with 2n = 46 from Central Brazil should be described in the genus Calomys. PMID:11433963

Fagundes, V; Sato, Y; Silva, M J; Rodrigues, F; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

2000-01-01

156

Nesting and digging behavior in three species of Calomys (Rodentia; Cricetidae).  

PubMed

Two sets of behaviors relevant for the construction of shelters, nest building and digging, were studied in three con-generic species of South American cricetid rodents. Significant differences were observed among the three species in both sets of behaviors, but not between sexes within the same species. Calomys musculinus built the largest nests, C. laucha showed the highest number of digging bouts and the shortest digging latency, and C. venustus scored low in both nesting and digging behaviors. In general, these observations are consistent with the few, anecdotal records of the shelters used by these species in the field. The low nesting and digging scores of C. venustus are correlated with that species' low thermal conductance, but the marked differences in the nesting and digging scores of C. musculinus and C. laucha cannot be accounted for by differences in their basal metabolic rates or thermal conductances. PMID:2062924

Yunes, R M; Cutrera, R A; Castro-Vázquez, A

1991-03-01

157

Heterozygosity and gene flow in populations of Calomys laucha (Rodentia, Cricetidae).  

PubMed

Enzyme polymorphism was studied by means of starch gel electrophoresis on five population samples of Calomys laucha collected in different sites and seasons. C. laucha, a cricetid rodent inhabiting preferentially cultivated fields in the central-eastern plains of Argentina, is a reservoir-host of Junin virus, agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Results show high levels of genic variability in all the samples (P from 62.50 to 77.27; H from 0.118 to 0.163) and low genetic distance among populations (D from 0.0024 to 0.0167). Estimations of gene flow (mean Nm = 10.78) indicate a high migration capability of the species and the possibility of further dispersal of Junin virus. PMID:2194995

Garcia, B A; Gardenal, C N; Blanco, A

1990-01-01

158

Successful capacitation and homologous fertilization in vitro in Calomys musculinus and Calomys laucha (Rodentia - sigmodontinae).  

PubMed

Small South American rodents of the genus Calomys have been used extensively for virology and ecological research. Previous studies have demonstrated that Calomys musculinus and Calomys laucha have a relatively short oestrous cycle and that superovulation and parthenogenetic activation can be induced. The purpose of this study was to determine the requirements for in vitro manipulation of the male gamete and in vitro fertilization. Two culture media and different concentrations of spermatozoa were tested for their ability to support sperm motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction. The ability of capacitated Calomys spermatozoa to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs was also evaluated. In vitro fertilization was assessed by examining attachment and binding to the zona pellucida, second polar body extrusion, pronucleus formation and the fertilizing sperm tail. The results of the study showed that: (i) Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) medium was more effective than T6 medium for maintaining sperm motility in vitro; (ii) hyperactivation was achieved with TALP but not with T6; (iii) the acrosome reaction was easily distinguished by light microscopy and depends on time and sperm concentration; (iv) capacitated spermatozoa are able to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs; and (v) superovulated oocytes can be fertilized in vitro. This is the first report of capacitation and in vitro fertilization for Calomys sp. These results provide opportunities to use C. musculinus and C. laucha as new laboratory animals for research into reproductive biology. PMID:11006144

Lasserre, A; Cebral, E; Vitullo, A D

2000-09-01

159

Cross fertilization in vivo and in vitro between three species of vesper mice, Calomys (Rodentia, Cricetidae).  

PubMed

Cross fertilization was tested between oocytes of Calomys callidus and spermatozoa from C. callidus, C. musculinus and C. laucha by both in vivo and in vitro insemination. After in vivo and in vitro insemination, respectively, percentages of oocytes fertilized were 68.8 and 46.6 (C. callidus X C. callidus), 20.3 and 12.7 (C. callidus X C. musculinus), 26.7 and 4.3 (C. callidus X C. laucha). Thus, the percentages obtained after in vitro insemination were always lower than those obtained with in vivo insemination. It was found that 23.9% and 44.4% of two-cell hybrid embryos were present in oviducts 30 hr after in vivo insemination of C. callidus females with C. musculinus or C. laucha spermatozoa, respectively. At a later stage (56 hr postinsemination), development did not progress further, and abnormal embryos were found both at 30 and 56 hr postinsemination, suggesting some kind of cleavage arrest or degeneration of the embryos. We suggest that fertilization is not strictly species-specific, at least among the species we studied, but that there are some factors that reduce the efficiency of interspecific fertilization. PMID:3882881

Roldan, E R; Vitullo, A D; Merani, M S; Von Lawzewitsch, I

1985-03-01

160

Microgeographic distribution of allele frequencies in populations of Calomys laucha (Rodentia, Cricetidae).  

PubMed

The microgeographic differentiation of allelic frequencies was analysed in two population samples of Calomys laucha, collected in a grid set in cultivated fields at Laguna Larga (Córdoba province, Argentina). One of the samples (n = 79) was obtained in May (Autumn), when the population density is at a maximum, and the other (n = 85) in November (spring), at the onset of reproductive activity. FST values for the November sample show significant differences between the six groups over which the sample was divided. FIT values show an excess of homozygotes for some loci in both samples. FIS reveals an excess of homozygotes within each of the groups. These results indicate the existence of subdivision in the population. Because C. laucha is a reservoir host of the Junin virus, an agent of endemic disease, this social organization may have epidemiological implications. Stratification of C. laucha populations into small breeding units could be one of the factors responsible for the high genic variability detected in this species. PMID:1880049

Garcia, B A; Gardenal, C N; Blanco, A

1991-06-01

161

Comparative cytogenetics of spiny rats of the genus Proechimys (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from the Amazon region.  

PubMed

We made a comparative analysis of the cytogenetics of spiny rat species of the genus Proechimys collected from several sites of the Madeira River basin (Amazonas State, Brazil) and Jari River valley (Pará State, Brazil). Individuals were assigned to three groups based on diploid and fundamental numbers: 2n = 28, FN = 46 (P. cuvieri and P. gr. longicaudatus); 2n = 38, FN = 52 (Proechimys gr. guyannensis), and 2n = 40, FN = 54 (P. gardneri). The nucleolar organizer region (NOR) was interstitial on the long arm of one submetacentric pair, as seen in all species of Proechimys analyzed thus far. However, its position in the karyotype was variable. A duplication of the NOR in one of the homologues was detected in P. gr. longicaudatus from the Aripuanã basin along the mid Madeira. The C-band pattern varied between species and, together with the NOR, allowed the identification of two evolutionary units in P. gr. longicaudatus in the region of the mid Madeira River (cytotypes A and B). The morphology and banding of the sex chromosomes were species specific. A range extension is suggested for the geographic distribution of P. gardneri and P. gr. longicaudatus. Moreover, we suggest that species of Proechimys with 2n = 38 chromosomes are restricted to east of the Negro River and north of the Amazon River. We also revised the published chromosome data available for Proechimys. PMID:22576911

Eler, E S; da Silva, M N F; Silva, C E F; Feldberg, E

2012-01-01

162

Cryptic Speciation and Chromosomal Repatterning in the South African Climbing Mice Dendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae)  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the intra- and interspecific diversity in the four South African rodent species of the genus Dendromus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis on twenty-three individuals have been conducted on a combined dataset of nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Moreover, the extent and processes underlying chromosomal variation, have been investigated on three species by mean of G-, C-bands, NORs and Zoo-FISH analysis. The molecular analysis shows the presence of six monophyletic lineages corresponding to D. mesomelas, D. mystacalis and four lineages within D. cfr. melanotis with high divergence values (ranges: 10.6% – 18.3%) that raises the question of the possible presence of cryptic species. The first description of the karyotype for D. mesomelas and D. mystacalis and C- and G- banding for one lineage of D. cfr. melanotis are reported highlighting an extended karyotype reorganization in the genus. Furthermore, the G-banding and Zoo-FISH evidenced an autosome-sex chromosome translocation characterizing all the species and our timing estimates this mutation date back 7.4 mya (Late Miocene). Finally, the molecular clock suggests that cladogenesis took place since the end of Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene, probably due to ecological factors, isolation in refugia followed by differential adaptation to the mesic or dry habitat. PMID:24551165

Solano, Emanuela; Taylor, Peter J.; Rautenbach, Anita; Ropiquet, Anne; Castiglia, Riccardo

2014-01-01

163

[Supraspecies relationships in the subfamily (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Arvicolinae): unexpexted result of nuclear genes analysis].  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of supraspecies relationships in one of the most young and species rich group of myomorph rodents - subfamily Arvicolinae was carried out on the base of two nuclear genes. Results have shown that mole-voles - Ellobiusini, steppe voles - (Lagurini) and grey voles (Arvicolini) are sister groups. This divergence is the most late, third wave of radiation within the family. The sister clade to this group is the tribe of red-back voles - Myodini (=Clethrionomini) - "second radiation". The order of divergence for earliest radiation remains still unresolved (Ondatrini, Prometheomyini, Dicrostonychini, Lemmini). New data on the close relationships of mole voles, grey voles and steppe voles are unexpected one and contradict to the conventional views. The latter ideas on the significant ancientry and separation of Ellobiusini from all other voles is based on extreme simplicity of their rooted molars and very peculiar structure of the skull and postcranial skeleton. However, many of these characters most likely indicate on significant degree of adaptation to the subterranean life and have no phylogenetic signal. PMID:19899636

Abramson, N I; Lebedev, V S; Tesakov, A S; Bannikova, A A

2009-01-01

164

Reservoir competence of Microtus pennsylvanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reservoir competence of the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord, for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner was established on Patience Island, RI. Meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout Rhode Island. At 4 of the field sites, M. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. However, on Patience Island, M. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). Of the larval Ixodes scapularis Say obtained from the meadow voles on Patience Island, 62% (n = 78) was infected with B. burgdorferi. Meadow voles from all 5 locations were successfully infected with B. burgdorferi in the laboratory and were capable of passing the infection to xenodiagnostic I. scapularis larvae for 9 wk. We concluded that M. pennsylvanicus was physiologically capable of maintaining B. burgdorferi infection. However, in locations where Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque) is abundant, the role of M. pennsylvanicus as a primary reservoir for B. burgdorferi was reduced.

Markowski, D.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

1998-01-01

165

Phylogeny of the order rodentia inferred from structural analysis of short retroposon B1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale study of short retroposon (SINE) B1 has been conducted in the genome of rodents from most of the known families\\u000a of this mammalian order. The B1 nucleotide sequences of rodents from different families exhibited a number of characteristic\\u000a features including substitutions, deletions, and tandem duplications. Comparing the distribution of these features among the\\u000a rodent families, the currently discussed

N. A. Veniaminova; N. S. Vassetzky; L. A. Lavrenchenko; S. V. Popov; D. A. Kramerov

2007-01-01

166

Two new species of Hymenolepis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Two previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens obtained from murid rodent species Bullimus luzonicus , Apomys microdon , and Rattus everetti collected on Luzon Island, Philippines. Hymenolepis bicauda n. sp. differs from all known Hymenolepis spp. in relative position of the poral dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals, gravid uterus occupying less than half the length of proglottid, relatively few eggs, and the highly characteristic longitudinal split of proglottids at the end of the gravid strobila. Hymenolepis haukisalmii n. sp. differs from all known Hymenolepis spp. in the relative position of both poral and aporal dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals and uterus lacking dorsal and ventral diverticula. The shift in the relative position of the dorsal and ventral osmoregulatory canals was not known in Hymenolepis from rodents in other regions of the world and is reminiscent of the situation observed in Hymenolepis erinacei, parasitic in hedgehogs, and members of the genus Talpolepis, parasitic in moles. The cosmopolitan species Hymenolepis diminuta was the only member of the genus previously reported from the Philippines. PMID:23679835

Makarikov, Arseny A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bush, Sarah E

2013-10-01

167

TWO NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOLEPIS (CESTODA: HYMENOLEPIDIDAE) FROM MURID RODENTS (RODENTIA: MURIDAE) IN THE PHILIPPINES  

E-print Network

, Apomys microdon, and Rattus everetti collected on Luzon Island, Philippines. Hymenolepis bicauda n. sp at several sites in Aurora Province, Luzon Island, Philippines, as a part of a biodiversity survey. Animals) IN THE PHILIPPINES Arseny A. Makarikov, Vasyl V. Tkach*, and Sarah E. Bush Institute of Systematics and Ecology

Clayton, Dale H.

168

West Nile virus infection in tree squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in California, 2004-2005.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) transmission generally involves a mosquito vector and an avian reservoir host, with mammals as incidental hosts. Although most mammalian WNV infections cause low or no morbidity or mortality, tree squirrels are susceptible to WNV-associated neurologic disease with infection prevalence comparable to that in dead birds. Positive species included fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), western gray squirrel (S. griseus), and eastern gray squirrel (S. carolinensis). Kidney tissue (dissected and swabbed), and oropharyngeal (oral) swab samples from tree squirrels submitted by California vector control and rehabilitation agencies were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; cycle threshold values were similar for all three samples, ranging from 21.9 to 26.5. Kidney tissue was more sensitive than oral swabs for detecting WNV in squirrels. Three of 36 live neurologic tree squirrels had viremia approximately 5 log(10) plaque-forming units/mL or greater, similar to WNV-infected birds. Tree squirrels are useful in WNV surveillance and provide localized evidence of WNV transmission to mammals. PMID:17488896

Padgett, Kerry A; Reisen, William K; Kahl-Purcell, Nicole; Fang, Ying; Cahoon-Young, Barbara; Carney, Ryan; Anderson, Nancy; Zucca, Lynda; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki L

2007-05-01

169

Evaluation of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) as ecologically significant hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California.  

PubMed

Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a potentially fatal, emerging rickettsial disease of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sciurids from multiple areas of northern California were infested with ticks or exposed to or infected with A. phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect-fluorescent antibody (IFA) serology. Sciurids of nine different tree- and ground-dwelling species were assessed: arboreal squirrels (western and eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus griseus and S. carolinensis, and Douglas squirrels, Tamiasciurus douglasii) but not northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) had greater evidence of exposure and current infection than did semiarboreal or ground dwelling sciurids (California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi, and chipmunks, Tamias spp.). Western gray squirrels had the most extensive exposure (70.7% seroprevalence and 12.1% PCR prevalence). Positive squirrels were identified in all regions where squirrels were collected. A logistic regression identified being a western gray squirrel (OR = 20.5, P = 2.95 X 10(-8)) and from the north coastal region of California (OR = 9.052, P = 1.41 X 10(-6)) as having the highest risk of exposure to A. phagocytophilum. Five of nine sciurid species had evidence of infestation with Ixodes pacificus or I. spinipalpis that could vector A. phagocytophilum. Extensive exposure from multiple areas suggests sciurids may be important in the maintenance of GA in California and indicates that studies of reservoir competence of these species are warranted. PMID:18714881

Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet E

2008-07-01

170

Fetal growth and development of the coypu ( Myocastor coypus): Prenatal growth, tooth eruption, and cranial ossification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the fetal growth and development of the coypu (Myocastor coypus), a member of the Caviomorpha that produces extremely precocial young. Analyses of 69 fetuses derived from the latter half of the prenatal period (60–125 days of gestation) focused on external feature growth and development, tooth eruption, and cranial ossification. There were four developmental stages based on morphological characteristics;

Keiko Sone; Kazuhiro Koyasu; Shuji Kobayashi; Sen-ichi Oda

2008-01-01

171

Uso da combinação dos anestésicos tiletamina e zolazepam na imobilização de Ctenomys lami (Rodentia-Ctenomyidae) no sul do Brasil Use of the anesthetic combination of tiletamine and zolazepam for immobilization of Ctenomys lami (Rodentia-Ctenomyidae) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies about chemical contention are extremely important for wildlife animal's manipulation, to guaranty safety of it and the people who are manipulating them. Zoletil ® was used for contention of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys lami) captured in Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil) between May and June of 2008. The dosage utilized was 8mg\\/kg by intramuscular injection. The induction time was 2,5±1,05min.

Gisele Guiomara Stein; José Francisco Bonini Stolz; Ingrid Vera Stein; Marina Estrázulas; Vanessa Lipp; Thales Renato; Ochotorena Freitas; André Silva Caríssimi

2009-01-01

172

[Chromosome arrangements and cytogenetic differentiation of two species of African mice of the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae)].  

PubMed

Karyotypes of two African mouse species, Mus mahomet, 2n = 36, NFa = 34 (34A + XA + YA) and Mus sp. A, 2n = 34, NFa = 32 (32A + XA + YA), from five localities of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia, were analyzed. In both species all autosomes contained C-positive pericentromeric blocks. In M. mahomet, heterochromatin blocks of different chromosomes varied in size. In addition, the X chromosomes of both species contained a pericentromeric block and showed more intensive staining throughout the chromosome. The Y chromosome was two times larger in Mus sp. A than in M. mahomet and C-positive in both species. Comparative analysis of G-banding patterns revealed a similarity with respect to nine autosomes and the X chromosome. Autosome 1 of Mus sp. A was demonstrated to result from centromere-telomere fusion of two M. mahomet acrocentrics. The other five autosomes represent different linkage groups determining a specificity of the karyotypes. The karyotypes of M. mahomet and Mus sp. A were also compared with that of M. musculus. The evolution of M. mahomet and Mus sp. A karyotypes was shown to have involved structural rearrangements in 10 and 12 autosomes, respectively. The high karyological divergence confirmed molecular phylogenetic data. The cytogenetic differences T of M. musculus C from M. mahomet and Mus sp. A are high enough to different genera. PMID:9532454

Aniskin, V M; Lavrenchenko, L A; Varshavski?, A A; Milishnikov, A N

1998-01-01

173

[Comparative FISH analysis of C-positive blocks of centromeric chromosomal regions of pygmy wood mice Sylvaemus uralensis (Rodentia, Muridae)].  

PubMed

The composition and homology of centromeric heterochromatin DNA has been compared in representatives of the Asian race and two chromosomal forms (Eastern European and Southern European) of the European race of the pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis by means of in situ hybridization with metaphase chromosomes of microdissection DNA probes obtained from centromeric C-blocks of mice of the Southern European chromosomal form and the Asian race. Joint hybridization of both DNA probes yielded all possible variants of centromeric regions in terms of the presence of repetitive sequences homologous to those of some or another dissection region, which indicates a diversity of centromeric regions differing in DNA composition. However, most variations of the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns are apparently related to quantitative differences of repetitive elements of the genome. Experiments with the DNA probe obtained from the genome of the Southern European form of the pygmy wood mouse have shown that the number of intense FISH signals roughly corresponds to the number of large C-segments in representatives of the European race, which is characterized by a large amount of the centromeric C-heterochromatin in the karyotype. However, intense signals have been also detected in experiments on hybridization of this probe with chromosomes of representatives of the Asian race, which has no large C-blocks in the karyotype; thus, DNA sequences homologous to heterochromatic ones are also present in nonheterochromatic regions adjacent to C-segments. Despite the variations of the numbers of both intense and weak FISH signals, all chromosomal forms/races of S. uralensis significantly differ from one another in these characters. The number of intense FISH signals in DNA from the samples of pygmy wood mice from eastern Turkmenistan (the Kugitang ridge) and southern Omsk oblast (the vicinity of the Talapker railway station) was intermediate between those in the European and Asian races, which is apparently related to a hybrid origin of these populations (the hybridization having occurred long ago in the former case and recently in the latter case). PMID:20734773

Karamysheva, T V; Bogdanov, A S; Kartavtseva, I V; Likhoshva?, T V; Bochkarev, M N; Kolcheva, N E; Marochkina, V V; Rubtsov, N B

2010-06-01

174

Mus lepidoides (Muridae, Rodentia) of central Burma is a distinct species of potentially great evolutionary and biogeographic significance.  

PubMed

Mus lepidoides of central Burma (Myanmar) was described 75 years ago but has since been dismissed as a regional variant of the Indian field mouse, M. booduga. DNA sequences of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes from recently collected specimens, combined with a fresh morphological reassessment, reaffirm the distinctiveness of M. lepidoides from M. booduga and from all other species of Mus. Mus lepidoides is so distinct in fact that it warrants placement in its own Species Group within subgenus Mus. Molecular and morphological assessments of phylogenetic affinities converge on the exciting possibility that M. lepidoides represents the previously elusive sibling taxon to the Mus musculus Species Group. If confirmed, this relationship would provide the previously missing connection between the main radiation of subgenus Mus in Southeast and South Asia, and the radiation of the M. musculus Species Group in western Asia and Europe. We speculate that a common ancestor of M. lepidoides and the M. musculus Species Group occupied a continuous but episodic tract of xeric habitat that linked central Burma with northern India at various times during the late Pliocene and Quaternary. Further molecular and cytogenetic studies on the phylogenetic position of M. lepidoides clearly represent a high priority in mouse research. PMID:20443693

Shimada, Tomofumi; Aplin, Ken P; Suzuki, Hitoshi

2010-05-01

175

Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to “Rensch’s rule”, which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in the structural body size of ground squirrels, an otherwise ecologically relatively homogenous group of terrestrial rodents. Results We found the general trend of male-biased SSD in ground squirrels, however, male size increases nearly perfectly isometrically with female size among species and sociality does not explain departures from this relationship. Species with different sociality grades significantly differ in body size, with the most social species tending to be the largest. Conclusions We suggest that lack of conformity with Rensch´s rule in ground squirrels may be attributed to their low variation in SSD, and briefly discuss three potential causes of small magnitude of SSD in the structural size in rodents: low selection on SSD in structural dimensions, ontogenetic and genetic constraints and the existence of ecological/selection factors preventing the evolution of extensive SSD. PMID:23672689

2013-01-01

176

Comparison of climate space and phylogeny of Marmota (Mammalia: Rodentia) indicates a connection between evolutionary history and climate preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeobiologists have investigated the evolutionary responses of extinct organisms to climate change, and have also used extinct organisms to reconstruct palaeoclimates. There is evidence of a disconnection between climate change and evolution that suggests that organisms may not be accurate palaeoclimate indicators. Here, marmots (Marmota sp.) are used as a case study to examine whether similarity of climate preferences is

Edward Byrd Davis

2005-01-01

177

Comparison of climate space and phylogeny of Marmota (Mammalia: Rodentia) indicates a connection between evolutionary history and climate preference  

PubMed Central

Palaeobiologists have investigated the evolutionary responses of extinct organisms to climate change, and have also used extinct organisms to reconstruct palaeoclimates. There is evidence of a disconnection between climate change and evolution that suggests that organisms may not be accurate palaeoclimate indicators. Here, marmots (Marmota sp.) are used as a case study to examine whether similarity of climate preferences is correlated with evolutionary relatedness of species. This study tests for a relationship between phylogenetic distance and `climate distance' of species within a clade. There should be a significant congruence between maximum likelihood distance and standardized Euclidian distance between climates if daughter species tend to stay in environments similar to parent species. Marmots make a good test case because there are many extant species, their phylogenies are well established and individual survival is linked to climatic factors. A Mantel test indicates a significant correlation between climate and phylogenetic distance matrices, but this relationship explains only a small fraction of the variance (regression R2=0.114). These results suggest that (i) closely related species of marmots tend to stay in similar environments; (ii) marmots may be more susceptible than many mammals to global climate change; and (iii) because of the considerable noise in this system, the correlation cannot be used for detailed palaeoclimate reconstruction. PMID:15799948

Davis, Edward Byrd

2005-01-01

178

Yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris ) 'in the shape space' (Rodentia, Sciuridae): sexual dimorphism, growth and allometry of the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric morphometrics was applied in a quantitative analysis of the morphology of the yellow-bellied marmot mandible. Five age classes were recognised by premolar toothwear, and the size and shape of the lower jaw were compared between sexes and among ages. Although the social role of adult males and females is markedly distinct, with the former mainly engaged to defend a

Andrea Cardini; Paolo Tongiorgi

2003-01-01

179

A new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Cordillera striped shrew-rat, Chrotomys whiteheadi (Rodentia: Muridae), from the Philippines.  

PubMed

During July 2011, a single Cordillera striped shrew-rat (Chrotomys whiteheadi) was collected from the Philippines and its faeces examined for coccidian parasites. It harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria macarthuri sp. n. were spheroidal to subspheroidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 18.2 × 17.0 ?m, with an L/W ratio of 1.1. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 9.0 × 6.4 ?m, with an L/W ratio of 1.3. A nipple-like Stieda body was present as well as a substieda body. A granular sporocyst residuum was present. To our knowledge, E. macarthuri represents the only coccidian ever described from a rodent of the Philippines. PMID:25236280

McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Duszynski, Donald W; Bush, Sarah E

2014-10-01

180

Geographic variation in the white-throated woodrat, Neotoma albigula (Rodentia: Muridae) from New Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico  

E-print Network

37 LIST OF FIGURES Dorsal and ventral views of skull of Neotoma ~fbi 1 PTCIJC 1755) ah I ~ 5 pof ~ t d t delineate cranial measurements . Page Fifty-three grouped localities (GLOC) of Neotoe ~fbi 1 d f ly I f geographic variation. Three... pop lstions f ~sbi 1 th gho t the 1 d of it g . N. is p ted fro pop 1 ti s f ~fbi ~ 1 i 1 s to th outh by the Colorado River and the Llano Estacado. Gene flow is presumably reduced across these barriers as evidenced by the amount of change...

Rogers, Duke Sanford

2012-06-07

181

Chronology and causes of the extinction of the Lava Mouse, Malpaisomys insularis (Rodentia: Muridae) from the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding late Holocene extinctions on islands requires accurate chronologies for all relevant events, including multiple colonisations by humans and the introduction of alien species. The most widely held hypothesis on the causes of Holocene island vertebrate extinctions incorporates human impacts, although climatic-related hypotheses cannot be excluded. Both hypotheses have been suggested to account for the extinction of the endemic Lava

Juan Carlos Rando; Josep Antoni Alcover; Juan Francisco Navarro; Francisco García-Talavera; Rainer Hutterer; Jacques Michaux

2008-01-01

182

The Eastern Beringian vole Microtus deceitensis (Rodentia, Muridae, Arvicolinae) in Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene faunas of Alaska and Yukon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fossil vole Microtus deceitensis occurs in Early Pleistocene deposits at Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory, and Late Pliocene beds at the type locality, Cape Deceit, Alaska. Analyses of simple vs complex morphotypes in the cheek teeth, and of differentiation of tooth enamel, show that the Cape Deceit sample of M. deceitensis is less derived, and thus appears to be older, than the Fort Selkirk sample. The fossiliferous deposits at Fort Selkirk are well constrained by fission-track and radiometric dates and are 1.5 to 1.7 myr. Sediments at Cape Deceit bear a normal magnetic polarity, are correlated with the Olduvai subchron, and probably are latest Pliocene.

Storer, John E.

2003-07-01

183

Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ? 0.0 or ? 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ? 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning through the first year was comparable to adult annual rates. The fertility rate was 3.75 young • female-1 • yr-1. The energy supply and demand analyses indicate that the growth of Thomomys talpoides populations in the early seral stages is seldom directly limited by the amount of food present. From our demographic, environmental, and autecological studies we conclude that stochastic events associated with weather affect energy acquisition (burrowing) rates, and thus survivorship. In montane environments, such events may prevent populations from attaining sizes at which territorial behavior would hypothetically limit further increases. The energy flow through the meadow population at moderate to high )1976-1977) densities (at least 1100 MJ • ha-1 • yr-1) indicates that pocket gophers are proficient energy movers relative to non-fossorial small mammals. Subalpine T. talpoides populations appear commonly to attain such densities. More than 30% of the annual primary productivity allocated to belowground parts of meadow forbs may be consumed by gophers.

Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

1981-01-01

184

Première découverte de Cricetidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) oligocènes dans le synclinal sud de Gandoï (Bugti Hills, Balouchistan, Pakistan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary analysis of a new continental vertebrate locality from the basal part of the Bugti Member (Baluchistan) focuses on the Cricetidae. From dental remains, two new species are described here, and related to genera Pseudocricetodon and Atavocricetodon, well known in the Early Oligocène from Europe. Compared to the European and Chinese Late Eocene specimen, their evolutionary stage suggests the Bugti locality to be Early Oligocène in age. These species are the first but also the oldest Paleogene record of the family on the Indian subcontinent and represent the originating ancestor group of the European cricetids.

Marivaux, Laurent; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

1999-12-01

185

Estimation de la taille et du poids corporel chez les rongeurs (Rodentia, Mammalia) à partir de la taille des incisives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incisors with continuous growth are characteristic of rodents, and microfossil layers contain many of these incisors. For several extant families of rodents, the allometric relationships between the size of the upper incisor and the skull-length, the body-size and the body-mass were quantified, in order to estimate the body-size of fossil rodents. Therefore, the fossil incisors can be helpful for studying the composition and the structure of the communities of fossil rodents. This method was applied to a fossil rodent community from Algeria.

Parra, Virginie; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

1998-01-01

186

Evolutionary acceleration in the most endangered mammal of Canada: speciation and divergence in the Vancouver Island marmot (Rodentia, Sciuridae).  

PubMed

The Vancouver Island marmot is the most endangered mammal of Canada. Factors which have brought this population to the verge of extinction have not yet been fully elucidated, but the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on survival rates, as well as those of variation in rainfall, temperature, snowpack depth and snowmelt strongly suggest that marmots on the island are struggling to keep pace with environmental changes. Genetic analyses, however, seem to indicate that the Vancouver Island marmot may merely represent a melanistic population of its parental species on the mainland. Were it not for its black pelage colour, it is unlikely that it would have attracted much attention as a conservation priority. Our study uses three-dimensional coordinates of cranial landmarks to further assess phenotypic differentiation of the Vancouver Island marmot. A pattern of strong interspecific divergence and low intraspecific variation was found which is consistent with aspects of drift-driven models of speciation. However, the magnitude of shape differences relative to the putatively neutral substitutions in synonymous sites of cytochrome b is too large for being compatible with a simple neutral model. A combination of bottlenecks and selective pressures due to natural and human-induced changes in the environment may offer a parsimonious explanation for the large phenotypic differentiation observed in the species. Our study exemplifies the usefulness of a multidisciplinary approach to the study of biological diversity for a better understanding of evolutionary models and to discover aspects of diversity that may be undetected by using only a few genetic markers to characterize population divergence and uniqueness. PMID:17714301

Cardini, A; Thorington, R W; Polly, P D

2007-09-01

187

[Infection induced in wild rodents Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), with larval eggs of Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae)].  

PubMed

Specimens of Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758) were raised out their natural environment. At three to four months of age they were orally inoculated with Lagochilascaris minor (Leiper, 1909) eggs obtained from a native patient. The eggs were incubated for more than 80 days so that it was possible to obtain, by mechanical compression, larvae that could be maintained alive in liquid medium for 48 hours or more. The animals were sacrificed 14-46 days after infection and tangled larva in inflammatory nodules were found in skeletal muscle without foreign body reaction, abscess formation or calcification. The development of the nodules did not seem to affect the hosts. The larvae obtained were similar to those described by SPRENT as the third stage of these helminths. When white mice were inoculated with similar material it was not possible to recuperate larva from their tissues nor were nodules found. Based on these results it is postulated that the helminth does not present a pulmonary cycle and that its development requires an intermediary host. PMID:2135484

Volcán, G S; Medrano, C E

1990-01-01

188

Convergent evolution of aquatic foraging in a new genus and species (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi Island, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The island of Sulawesi, in Indonesia, lies at the crossroads of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and has remained isolated from the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves for at least the last 10 million years. Of the 50 native species of rodents on Sulawesi, all are endemic and represent the evolution of a variety of ecological and morphological forms within the Muridae and Sciuridae. Carnivorous rodents have evolved, perhaps independently, in Muridae from the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul, but semi-aquatic murids are only known from Sahul. Here we describe a new genus and species of insectivorous water rat from Sulawesi. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that it is related to the shrew rats of Sulawesi and represents an origin of aquatic carnivory that is independent from the evolution of water rats on Sahul. Many areas of Sulawesi have not been surveyed systematically and current lists of mammal species are likely to dramatically underestimate actual diversity. PMID:24943633

Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

2014-01-01

189

A new species of Spirura Blanchard, 1849 (Nematoda: Spiruridae) parasite of Heliosciurus gambianus and Xerus erythropus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Senegal.  

PubMed

A new species of Spirura is described from the stomach of Heliosciurus gambianus and Xerus erythropus (Sciuridae). Considering the number of preanal papillae of males, Babero (1973 ) and Giannetto and Canestri Trotti (1995) proposed the subdivision of the genus into 2 groups; those with 4 pairs of preanal papillae (25 species) and with more than 4 pairs of preanal papillae (4 species). Spirura mounporti n. sp. belongs to the second, with 5 pairs of preanal papillae, and differs from Spirura infundibuliformis (McLeod, 1933) Anderson et al., 1993 , Spirura zapi ( Erickson, 1938 ) Chabaud et al., 1965 , Spirura leiperi Gupta and Trivedi, 1985, and Spirura michiganensis Sandground, 1935 in the number of pairs of pre-cloacal papillae. The new species further differs from other species of the genus in having 21 caudal papillae, in the ratio of spicules:body length, and in its morpho-anatomical characters. PMID:23795669

Diouf, Malick; Seck, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

2013-12-01

190

Morphology and morphometry of the lungs of two East African mole rats, Tachyoryctes splendens and Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The lungs of two fossorial rodents, the mole ratTachyoryctes splendens and the naked mole ratHeterocephalus glaber were investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and a comparative morphometric analysis of the lungs carried out in an attempt to find out whether there are any possible structural adaptational features which may be associated with fossoriality. The data from these two

J. N. Maina; G. M. O. Maloiy; A. N. Makanya

1992-01-01

191

In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)  

PubMed Central

The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) was greatly influenced by the completion of the Isthmus of Panama and impacted the composition of modern faunal assemblages in the Americas. However, the contribution of preceding events has been comparatively less explored, even though early immigrants in the fossil records are evidence for waif dispersals. The cricetid rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae are a classic example of a species-rich South American radiation resulting from an early episode of North American invasion. Here, we provide a temporal and spatial framework to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics. Relaxed-clock time estimates indicate that divergence of the Sigmodontinae began in the middle–late Miocene (ca. 12–9 Ma). Dispersal-vicariance analyses point to the arrival of a single lineage of northern invaders with a widespread ancestral distribution and imply that the initial differentiation between Central and South America gave rise to the most basal groups within the subfamily. These two major clades diversified in the late Miocene followed by the radiation of main tribes until the early Pliocene. Within the Oryzomyalia, tribes diverged initially in eastern South America whereas multiple dispersals into the Andes promoted further diversification of the majority of modern genera. A comparatively uniform background tempo of diversification explains the species richness of sigmodontines across most nodes, except for two akodontine genera with recent increases in diversification rates. The bridging of the Central American seaway and episodes of low sea levels likely facilitated the invasion of South America long before the onset of the post-Isthmian phase of the GABI. PMID:24963664

Leite, Rafael N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Almeida, Francisca C.; Werneck, Fernanda P.; Rogers, Duke S.; Weksler, Marcelo

2014-01-01

192

A new form of the mole vole Ellobius tancrei Blasius, 1884 (Mammalia, Rodentia) with the lowest chromosome number  

PubMed Central

Abstract The subterranean mole vole, Ellobius tancrei, with aspecific variability in autosomes (2n = 31–54) and unusual sex chromosomes (XX in males and females), represents an amazing model for studying the role of chromosome changes in speciation. New materials from the upper reaches of the Surkhob River in the Pamiro-Alay mountains resulted in the discovery of a new form with 2n = 30. The application of Zoo-FISH and G-banding methods allowed the detection of 13 pairs of autosomes as Robertsonian metacentrics originated after fusions of acrocentrics of an assumed ancestral karyotype of Ellobius tancrei with 2n = 54. The sex chromosomes (XX, in both sexes) and one pair of acrocentric autosomes are the only acrocentrics in this karyotype, and the set with 2n = 30 possesses the lowest possible chromosome number among populations of Ellobius tancrei. PMID:24260698

Bakloushinskaya, Irina; Romanenko, Svetlana A.; Serdukova, Natalia A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Lyapunova, Elena A.

2013-01-01

193

A newly recognized clade of trans-Andean Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Cricetidae), with description of a new genus.  

E-print Network

(A«G): 0.370/ 0.278/0.205, r(A«T): 0.043/0.087/0.044, r(C«G): 0.039/0.016/ 0.009, r(C«T): 0.421/0.555/0.692, r(G«T): 0.041/0.028/0.038; freq: pi(A): 0.227/0.370/0.414, pi(C): 0.268/0.206/0.309, pi(G): 0.275/0.147/0.069, pi(T): 0.231/0.276/0.208; alpha: 0....597/7.27/12.8, r(C«G): 0.475/0.745/1.1, r(C«T): 5.91/46.0/ 93.8, r(G«T): 1/1/1; freq: pi(A): 0.218/0.350/0.308, pi(C): 0.278/0.201/0.277, pi(G): 0.288/0.184/0.122, pi(T): 0.216/ 0.265/0.292; alpha: 0.402/0.188/0.287. The tree likelihood is 854 JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY...

Pine, Ronald H.; Timm, Robert M.; Weksler, Marcelo

2012-06-01

194

Chronology and causes of the extinction of the Lava Mouse, Malpaisomys insularis (Rodentia: Muridae) from the Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding late Holocene extinctions on islands requires accurate chronologies for all relevant events, including multiple colonisations by humans and the introduction of alien species. The most widely held hypothesis on the causes of Holocene island vertebrate extinctions incorporates human impacts, although climatic-related hypotheses cannot be excluded. Both hypotheses have been suggested to account for the extinction of the endemic Lava Mouse, Malpaisomys insularis from the Canary Islands. Here we present the first accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C ages from collagen of M. insularis bones from ancient owl pellets collected at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic Ocean). These new dates contribute to an understanding of the extinction of this species. We are able to exclude climatic causes, predation by invasive species, and competition with the house mouse, Mus musculus. The arrival of Europeans in the Canary Islands correlates with the extinction of Malpaisomys. The introduction of rats, Rattus spp., together with their parasites and diseases, emerges as the most reasonable hypothesis explaining the extinction of M. insularis.

Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Navarro, Juan Francisco; García-Talavera, Francisco; Hutterer, Rainer; Michaux, Jacques

2008-09-01

195

Penial morphology in three species of Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

The present study analyses the glans penis and baculum morphology of three Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830, Ctenomys minutus Nehring, 1887 and Ctenomys flamarioni Travi, 1981, in order to identify possible variations and understand some more about this taxonomically complex group. We used fixed penis from 15 previously listed adult specimens. For a more detailed baculum analysis, the penis underwent dissection and diaphanisation, whereas to analyse the glans penis surface we used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed striking differences in baculum morphology among the three species. While C. minutus have a particular V-shaped proximal baculum tip, C. flamarioni baculum is thin throughout the shaft with rounded proximal and distal tips. Ctenomys torquatus have a shorter and larger baculum, similar to what has previously been described for the species. Glans penis surface microstructure analyses also revealed inter-specific differences, with penial spines varying in shape, size and, especially density. Although C. torquatus has a relatively small penis, it has the largest penial spine density, which suggests a more complex penial ornamentation in this species. PMID:23644803

Rocha-Barbosa, O; Bernardo, J S L; Loguercio, M F C; Freitas, T R O; Santos-Mallet, J R; Bidau, C J

2013-02-01

196

A New Subspecies of Meriones tristrami Thomas, 1892 (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) From Kilis (Southeastern Turkey): Meriones tristrami kilisensis subsp. N  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, seventeen specimens of Meriones tristrami from Kilis were compared with the specimens of Meriones tristrami bodenheimeri along with topotypes of Meriones tristrami lycaon close to those from Kilis. It was determined that the specimens from Kilis were distinguishable from M.t. lycaon by characters such as dorsal coloration, Tx100 \\/ HB (ratio of tail length to head and

Ercüment ÇOLAK

197

Evolutionary acceleration in the most endangered mammal of Canada: speciation and divergence in the Vancouver Island marmot (Rodentia, Sciuridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vancouver Island marmot is the most endangered mammal of Canada. Factors which have brought this population to the verge of extinction have not yet been fully elucidated, but the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on survival rates, as well as those of variation in rainfall, temperature, snowpack depth and snowmelt strongly suggest that marmots on the island are

A. CARDINI; R. W. THORINGTON; P. D. POLLYJ

2007-01-01

198

Molecular genetic typing of three forms of wood and field mice belonging to a transpalearctic genus (Apodemus, Muridae, Rodentia)  

SciTech Connect

The genomes of three species of wood mouse (Apodemus fulvipectus and A. ponticus from the Caucasus and A. argenteus from Japan) were compared by means of restriction analysis of nuclear DNA. The species are differentiated from each other and from previously studied species. Each species has its species-specific features. Within the genus Apodemus, A. ponticus is most closely related to the European species A. sylvaticus and A. flavicollis. A. fulvipectus has a peculiar type of restriction with EcoR I (specific for dispersed repeats) and Hind III (specific for satDNA). The genome of this species contains three families of EcoR I repeats previously found in various species (European and Asian) of wood mouse and Hind III components characteristic of both wood and field mice. A. argenteus differs from all other forms of Apodemus, the genome of which contains the 375-bp Hind III satellite, by the presence of an EcoR I satDNA fraction consisting of 240-bp repeating units. 22 refs., 2 figs.

Chelomina, G.N. [Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Lyapunova, E.A.; Vorontsov, N.N. [Kol`tsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-06-01

199

Olfactory cues accelerate reentrainment following phase shifts and entrain free-running rhythms in female Octodon degus (Rodentia).  

PubMed

Social interactions between conspecifics is a type of nonphotic zeitgeber common to several species. In the diurnal rodent Octodon degus, social interactions enhance reentrainment after phase shifts and can act as a weak zeitgeber. Olfactory stimuli appear necessary for these effects since bulbectomy eliminates socially enhanced reentrainment. In Experiment 1, the authors examined whether stimulation of the main olfactory system was sufficient to enhance reentrainment after 6-h phase advances and delays in the adult female O. degus. When test animals received conspecific odor cues during reentrainment, they entrained 39% faster after phase advances (p < 0.05) and 33% faster after phase delays (p < 0.001) than when they did not receive odor cues. Thus, olfactory cues from distant female donors were sufficient to enhance rates of entrainment in female O. degus and provided results equivalent to earlier studies with donors and shifters housed in the cages together. In Experiment 2, the authors examined whether discrete 3-h and 1-h daily pulses of airborne odors from a group of 5 entrained female degus would be sufficient to produce entrainment of wheel-running activity in adult female conspecifics. During the period of exposure to 3-h pulses, 50% (4/8) of the subjects temporarily entrained to a 24-h cycle, while 12.5% (1/8) of the subjects fully entrained. Exposure to 1-h pulses allowed 37.5% (3/8) of the subjects to temporarily entrain and 12.5% (1/8) of the subjects to fully entrain. Duration of entrained episodes was positively correlated with psi, daily onset of activity with respect to the timing of odor exposure (Pearson r = 0.731; p < 0.05), such that animals with the entraining odor pulse beginning during subjective day (psi = 7.8 h, CT 7.8 +/- 1.4) had longer periods of entrainment (22.2 +/- 5.6 days) than animals with the entraining pulse occurring during subjective night (psi = -4.6 h; CT 19.4 +/- 0.9; 5.6 +/- 0.9 days; p < 0.001). In addition, for each animal, the combined duration of all episodes of 24-h entrainment correlated with increased period length (tau) of free-running rhythms (Pearson r = 0.733; p < 0.05). Thus, daily discrete pulses of odors with durations of either 1 or 3 h from female conspecifics were sufficient to produce both temporary and full entrainment to a 24-h cycle in the majority of female O. degus, and the likelihood of long periods of entrainment correlated with long taus and coordination of the odor pulse with mid subjective day. PMID:11669422

Governale, M M; Lee, T M

2001-10-01

200

Cuenca-Bescos, G., Laplana, C., and Canudo, I. J. (1999). Biochronological implications of the Arvicolidae (Rodentia,  

E-print Network

of the continental mammal-bearing Quaternary formations of South America. Palaeovertebrata, Me´moire Extraordinaire 1­76. Martin, R. A. (1998). Time's arrow and the evolutionary position of Orthriomys and Herpetomys. Paludicola. Palombo, M. R., and Ferretti, M. P. (2004). Elephant fossil record from Italy: knowledge, problems

201

Paranoplocephala maseri n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae), a parasite of sagebrush voles Lemmiscus curtatus (Rodentia) in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paranoplocephala maseri n. sp. is described from Lemmiscus curtatus (Cope) in the USA. The new species is related to Paranoplocephala omphalodes (Hermann, 1783), P. caucasica (Kirschenblat, 1938), P. kirbyi Voge 1948, P. microti (Hansen, 1947) and P. macrocephala (Douthitt, 1915) sensu Genov et al. (1996). P. maseri n. sp. differs from P. omphalodes in the position of the genital pores,

František Tenora; András Gubányi; Éva Murai

1999-01-01

202

Paranoplocephala maseri n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae), a parasite of sagebrush voles Lemmiscus curtatus (Rodentia) in the USA.  

PubMed

Paranoplocephala maseri n. sp. is described from Lemmiscus curtatus (Cope) in the USA. The new species is related to Paranoplocephala omphalodes (Hermann, 1783), P. caucasica (Kirschenblat, 1938), P. kirbyi Voge 1948, P. microti (Hansen, 1947) and P. macrocephala (Douthitt, 1915) sensu Genov et al. (1996). P. maseri n. sp. differs from P. omphalodes in the position of the genital pores, testes and cirrus-sac; from P. caucasica, in which there is an unarmed cirrus, in both the distribution and larger number of testes; from P. kirbyi in the distribution of the testes, the position of the genital pores and egg dimensions; from P. microti in the distribution and smaller number of testes, the smaller egg dimensions and the position of the genital pores; and from P. macrocephala in the position of genital pores and cirrus-sac. PMID:10612439

Tenora, F; Gubányi, A; Murai, E

1999-02-01

203

Thrichomys laurentius (Rodentia; Echimyidae) as a Putative Reservoir of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis: Patterns of Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

The importance of the genus Thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of Leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of Thrichomys spp. Moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in Brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. Our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of Thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and amplification of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. Male and female T. laurentius (n?=?24) born in captivity were evaluated for the retention of infection with these Leishmania species and followed up by parasitological, serological, hematological, biochemical, histological, and molecular assays for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months post infection (mpi). T. laurentius showed its competence as maintenance host for the two inoculated Leishmania species. Four aspects should be highlighted: (i) re-isolation of parasites 12 mpi; (ii) the low parasitic burden displayed by T. laurentius tissues; (iii) the early onset and maintenance of humoral response, and (iv) the similar pattern of infection by the two Leishmania species. Both Leishmania species demonstrated the ability to invade and maintain itself in viscera and skin of T. laurentius, and no rodent displayed any lesion, histological changes, or clinical evidence of infection. We also wish to point out the irrelevance of the adjective dermotropic or viscerotropic to qualify L. braziliensis and L. infantum, respectively, when these species are hosted by nonhuman hosts. Our data suggest that T. laurentius may act at least as a maintenance host of both tested Leishmania species since it maintained long-lasting infections. Moreover, it cannot be discarded that Leishmania spp. infection in free-ranging T. laurentius could result in higher parasite burden due the more stressing conditions in the wild. Therefore the tissular parasitism of the skin, infectiveness to the vector, and amplification of the transmission cycle of both Leishmania species could be expected. PMID:20126407

Roque, Andre Luiz Rodrigues; Cupolillo, Elisa; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Jansen, Ana Maria

2010-01-01

204

Genetic Pool Information Reflects Highly Suitable Areas: The Case of Two Parapatric Endangered Species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae)  

PubMed Central

Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

2014-01-01

205

Padrão de divisão e distribuição das artérias mesentéricas no ratão-do-banhado (Myocastor coypus - Rodentia: Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

celíaca (70%), ou em tronco comum com esta (30%); b) os ramos diretos da artéria mesentérica cranial são as artérias pancreaticoduodenal caudal (100%), cólica média (100%), duodenojejunal (90%), pancre- ática (10%), hepática (10%), cólica direita (100%), jejunais (100%), ileocólica (100%) e ileal (100%). A artéria mesentérica caudal surge da face ventral da aorta abdominal, imediatamente cranial à emergência das artérias

Gilberto Valente Machado; Pedro Renato Gonçalves; Adelvino Parizzi

206

Modelling the distribution of an introduced species: The coypu Myocastor coypus (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Piedmont region, NW Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model?based analyses of species–habitat relationships can help to clarify which factors influence the establishment and spread of species. The coypu (Myocastor coypus) is a semi?aquatic rodent native to South America, which has been introduced worldwide, including Italy. We used logistic regression to analyse the species distribution according to habitat attributes of agro?ecosystems in Piedmont Region. The resulting model correctly predicted

S. Bertolino; B. Ingegno

2009-01-01

207

Invertebrate dispersal by aquatic mammals: a case study with nutria Myocastor coypus (Rodentia, Mammalia) in Southern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater invertebrates rely on vectors for their passive dispersal. A wide array of vectors has already been investigated,\\u000a but dispersal mediated by aquatic mammals remains largely unknown. Since nutria (Myocastor coypus Molina, 1782) live in a variety of aquatic habitats and frequently move around between these water bodies, they have the\\u000a opportunity to transport hitch-hiking aquatic invertebrates along with

Aline Waterkeyn; Olivier Pineau; Patrick Grillas; Luc Brendonck

2010-01-01

208

Historical biogeography at the crossroads of the northern continents: molecular phylogenetics of red-backed voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).  

PubMed

Evolutionary relationships of red-backed voles and their relatives were examined and used to test biogeographic hypotheses. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were obtained for 25 individuals representing Alticola macrotis, Clethrionomys californicus, C. gapperi, C. glareolus, C. rutilus, and C. rufocanus. These were combined with 21 partial sequences from GenBank for C. regulus, C. rex, C. rufocanus, C. rutilus, Eothenomys imaizumii, E. melanogaster, Phaulomys andersoni, and P. smithii. Complete sequences of three species of Microtus (M. montanus, M. oeconomus, and M. pennsylvanicus), representative species of other arvicoline genera (Myopus, Synaptomys, Arvicola, Ellobius, Ondatra, Lemmus, Dicrostonyx, and Phenacomys), and a sigmodontine representative (Peromyscus) were included as outgroups. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, distance, and Bayesian based methods and conducted statistical tests on proposed hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic histories. A close relationship of species representing the genera Alticola, Clethrionomys, and Eothenomys was supported (Clethrionomyini); however, the genus Clethrionomys was paraphyletic with respect to both Alticola and Eothenomys. Three major clades were identified as Asian (Eothenomys andersoni, E. smithii, C. rex, C. regulus, and C. rufocanus), Trans-beringian (Alticola macrotis, C. californicus, C. gapperi, C. glarelolus, and C. rutilus), and Taiwanese (E. melanogaster). These results are consistent with the fossil record which indicates an initial diversification in Asia followed by colonization of the Nearctic on at least two occasions. The holarctic species, C. rutilus, appears to have either reinvaded Asia from North America or colonized North America more recently (late Pleistocene) than the two species of Clethrionomys (C. gapperi and C. californicus) that are endemic to North America (early to mid-Pleistocene). Finally, C. gapperi, appears to be comprised of an eastern and a western species, the former with affinities to the Asian C. glareolus and the latter more closely related to C. californicus. PMID:15012954

Cook, Joseph A; Runck, Amy M; Conroy, Chris J

2004-03-01

209

Tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest Alabama and implications for disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest Alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with Dermacentor variabilis, the eastern United States vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each

Joseph C. Cooney; Willy Burgdorfer; Martin K. Painter; Cynthia L. Russell

210

Assessment of Three Mitochondrial Genes (16S, Cytb, CO1) for Identifying Species in the Praomyini Tribe (Rodentia: Muridae)  

PubMed Central

The Praomyini tribe is one of the most diverse and abundant groups of Old World rodents. Several species are known to be involved in crop damage and in the epidemiology of several human and cattle diseases. Due to the existence of sibling species their identification is often problematic. Thus an easy, fast and accurate species identification tool is needed for non-systematicians to correctly identify Praomyini species. In this study we compare the usefulness of three genes (16S, Cytb, CO1) for identifying species of this tribe. A total of 426 specimens representing 40 species (sampled across their geographical range) were sequenced for the three genes. Nearly all of the species included in our study are monophyletic in the neighbour joining trees. The degree of intra-specific variability tends to be lower than the divergence between species, but no barcoding gap is detected. The success rate of the statistical methods of species identification is excellent (up to 99% or 100% for statistical supervised classification methods as the k-Nearest Neighbour or Random Forest). The 16S gene is 2.5 less variable than the Cytb and CO1 genes. As a result its discriminatory power is smaller. To sum up, our results suggest that using DNA markers for identifying species in the Praomyini tribe is a largely valid approach, and that the CO1 and Cytb genes are better DNA markers than the 16S gene. Our results confirm the usefulness of statistical methods such as the Random Forest and the 1-NN methods to assign a sequence to a species, even when the number of species is relatively large. Based on our NJ trees and the distribution of all intraspecific and interspecific pairwise nucleotide distances, we highlight the presence of several potentially new species within the Praomyini tribe that should be subject to corroboration assessments. PMID:22574186

Nicolas, Violaine; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Missoup, Alain Didier; Kennis, Jan; Colyn, Marc; Denys, Christiane; Tatard, Caroline; Cruaud, Corinne; Laredo, Catherine

2012-01-01

211

Otonyctomys hatti (Rodentia: Cricetidae) M. CRISTINA MACSWINEY G., SILVIA HERNA NDEZ-BETANCOURT, AND RAFAEL AVILA-FLORES  

E-print Network

identical in external characters to the closely related Central American vesper mouse (Nyctomys sumichrasti al. 2005). Cheek teeth and maxillary toothrow are noticeably smaller in O. hatti (Anthony 1932; Hall

Hayssen, Virginia

212

Trans-species polymorphism and evidence of selection on class II MHC loci in tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balancing selection acting over the evolutionary history of a lineage can result in the retention of alleles among species\\u000a for longer than expected under neutral evolution. The associated pattern of trans-species polymorphism, in which similar or\\u000a even identical alleles are shared among species, is often used to infer that balancing selection has occurred. The genes of\\u000a the major histocompatibility complex

Ana Paula Cutrera; Eileen A. Lacey

2007-01-01

213

A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.  

PubMed

Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

Robles, María Del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

2014-11-01

214

Two new subgenera of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from pocket gophers (Rodentia: Geomyidae), with a key to all included taxa.  

PubMed

The new subgenera Thaelerius and Jamespattonius are described, respectively, for the eight species of Geomydoecus in the thomomyus complex of lice and the four species of Thomomydoecus in the wardi complex. Except for T. byersi Hellenthal & Price from Thomomys bottae (Eydoux & Gervais), these lice are restricted to the Thomomys talpoides (Richardson) complex of pocket gophers and are the only lice found on these hosts. A key is given for the identification of the currently recognized 122 taxa of pocket gopher lice. PMID:8057321

Hellenthal, R A; Price, R D

1994-05-01

215

Pyriproxyfen bait for control of plague vector fleas (Siphonaptera:Ceratophyllidae) on rock squirrels (Rodentia:Sciuridae)  

E-print Network

as they bloomed and came into Iruit. Squirrel diets included berries from wild sumac (Rhus trilobata), blossoms and fruit of Apache plume (Fallugia pradoxa), prickly pear cactus (Oopuntia englemanii), leaves of mountain mahogany (Cerocarpus montanus), various... as they bloomed and came into Iruit. Squirrel diets included berries from wild sumac (Rhus trilobata), blossoms and fruit of Apache plume (Fallugia pradoxa), prickly pear cactus (Oopuntia englemanii), leaves of mountain mahogany (Cerocarpus montanus), various...

Dietrich, Erin Bess Gabrielle

2012-06-07

216

A Remarkable Case of Micro-Endemism in Laonastes aenigmamus (Diatomyidae, Rodentia) Revealed by Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

L. aenigmamus is endemic to the limestone formations of the Khammuan Province (Lao PDR), and is strongly specialized ecologically. From the survey of 137 individuals collected from 38 localities, we studied the phylogeography of this species using one mitochondrial (Cyt b) and two nuclear genes (BFIBR and GHR). Cyt b analyses reveal a strong mtDNA phylogeographical structure: 8 major geographical clades differing by 5–14% sequence divergence were identified, most of them corresponding to distinct karst areas. Nuclear markers display congruent results but with a less genetic structuring. Together, the data strongly suggest an inland insular model for Laonastes population structure. With 8 to 16 evolutionary significant units in a small area (about 200×50 km) this represents an exceptional example of micro-endemism. Our results suggest that L. aenigmamus may represent a complex of species and/or sub-species. The common ancestor of all Laonastes may have been widely distributed within the limestone formations of the Khammuan Province at the end of Miocene/beginning of the Pliocene. Parallel events of karst fragmentation and population isolation would have occurred during the Pleistocene or/and the end of the Pliocene. The limited gene flow detected between populations from different karst blocks restrains the likelihood of survival of Laonastes. This work increases the necessity for a strict protection of this rare animal and its habitat and provides exclusive information, essential to the organization of its protection. PMID:23155377

Nicolas, Violaine; Herbreteau, Vincent; Couloux, Arnaud; Keovichit, Kham; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

217

Trans-species polymorphism and evidence of selection on class II MHC loci in tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

Balancing selection acting over the evolutionary history of a lineage can result in the retention of alleles among species for longer than expected under neutral evolution. The associated pattern of trans-species polymorphism, in which similar or even identical alleles are shared among species, is often used to infer that balancing selection has occurred. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are thought to be subject to balancing selection that maintains alleles associated with response to specific pathogens. To explore the role of balancing selection in shaping MHC diversity in ctenomyid rodents, we examined allelic variability at the class II DRB and DQA loci in 18 species in the genus Ctenomys. Previous studies of four of these species had revealed significant within-population evidence of positive selection on MHC loci. The current study expands upon these analyses to (1) evaluate among-species evidence of positive selection and (2) explore the potential for balancing selection on MHC genes. Interspecific nucleotide sequence variation revealed significant evidence of positive selection on the DRB and DQA loci. At the same time, comparisons of phylogenetic trees for these MHC loci with a putative species tree based on mitochondrial sequence data revealed multiple examples of trans-specific polymorphism, including sharing of identical DRB and DQA alleles among distantly related species of Ctenomys. These findings suggest that MHC genes in these animals have historically been subject to balancing selection and yield new insights into the complex suite of forces shaping MHC diversity in free-living vertebrates. PMID:18049818

Cutrera, Ana Paula; Lacey, Eileen A

2007-12-01

218

Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described. PMID:19747015

Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

2010-02-01

219

Masticatory muscle architecture in the Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus (Mammalia, Rodentia): new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy  

PubMed Central

We present the first descriptive comparison of the skull, mandible and jaw muscles of the recently recovered Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus. The gross anatomy of five specimens captured in Laos and internal architecture of the jaw musculature were studied using dissections. The following muscles are described: temporal, masseter, pterygoids, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid and transverse mandibular. The description of the masticatory apparatus of L. aenigmamus offers a rare opportunity to assess the order of establishment of the morphological characters during the evolution of Ctenohystrica. Striking convergences have occurred during the evolution of Diatomyidae and L. aenigmamus presents a unique combination of myological features that corresponds to a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characters. If L. aenigmamus is a sciurognathous rodent, we have to assume that it independently acquired a pars reflexa of the superficial masseter. We show for the first time that the development of this pars reflexa has occurred several times during the evolution of Ctenohystrica and can no longer be considered a synapomorphic feature of ‘Hystricognathi’. These results bring new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy and have profound implications for the interpretation of the fossil record of early hystricognath rodents. PMID:19694873

Hautier, Lionel; Saksiri, Soonchan

2009-01-01

220

Chromosome synapsis and recombination in simple and complex chromosomal heterozygotes of tuco-tuco (Ctenomys talarum: Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

The chromosomal speciation hypothesis suggests that irregularities in synapsis, recombination, and segregation in heterozygotes for chromosome rearrangements may restrict gene flow between karyotypically distinct populations and promote speciation. Ctenomys talarum is a South American subterranean rodent inhabiting the coastal regions of Argentina, whose populations polymorphic for Robertsonian and tandem translocations seem to have a very restricted gene flow. To test if chromosomal differences are involved in isolation among its populations, we examined chromosome pairing, recombination, and meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin in male meiosis of simple and complex translocation heterozygotes using immunolocalization of the MLH1 marking mature recombination nodules and phosphorylated histone ?H2A.X marking unrepaired double-strand breaks. We observed small asynaptic areas labeled by ?H2A.X in pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes involved in the trivalents and quadrivalents. We also observed a decrease of recombination frequency and a distalization of the crossover distribution in the heterozygotes and metacentric homozygotes compared to acrocentric homozygotes. We suggest that the asynapsis of the pericentromeric regions are unlikely to induce germ cell death and decrease fertility of the heterozygotes; however, suppressed recombination in pericentromeric areas of the multivalents may reduce gene flow between chromosomally different populations of the Talas tuco-tuco. PMID:24924853

Basheva, Ekaterina A; Torgasheva, Anna A; Gomez Fernandez, Maria Jimena; Boston, Emma; Mirol, Patricia; Borodin, Pavel M

2014-09-01

221

Genetic pool information reflects highly suitable areas: the case of two parapatric endangered species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae).  

PubMed

Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; Freitas, Thales R O de

2014-01-01

222

Graphidioides subterraneus n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).  

PubMed

A new nematode species, Graphidioides subterraneus n. sp., found in the stomach of C. talarum from Argentina is described. The new species more closely resembles G. mazzai Lent & Freitas, 1935, parasite of Galea leucoblephara from Argentina, and G. kravetzi Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1995, parasite of Holochilus brasiliensis from Uruguay. It can be distinguished by shorter spicules, by the shape of the gubernaculum, by shorter uterine branches, and by a different number of ridges of the synlophe all along the body. PMID:15991827

Rossin, M A; Timi, J T; Malizia, A I

2005-06-01

223

Diversity of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys, Rodentia) in the Northeastern wetlands from Argentina: mitochondrial phylogeny and chromosomal evolution.  

PubMed

Tuco-tucos (small subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys) that inhabit sandy soils of the area under the influence of the second largest wetland of South America, in Northeastern Argentina (Corrientes province), are a complex of species and forms whose taxonomic status were not defined, nor are the evolutionary relationships among them. The tuco-tuco populations of this area exhibit one of the most ample grades of chromosomal variability within the genus. In order to analyze evolutionary relationships within the Corrientes group and its chromosomal variability, we completed the missing karyotypic information and performed a phylogenetic analysis. We obtained partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers: D-loop, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I. The Corrientes group was monophyletic and split into three main clades that grouped related karyomorphs. The phylogeny suggested an ancestral condition of the karyomorph with diploid number (2n) 70 and fundamental number (FN) 84 that has evolved mainly via reductions of the FN although amplifications occurred in certain lineages. We discuss the relationship between patterns of chromosomal variability and species and groups boundaries. From the three main clades the one named iberá exhibited a remarkable karyotypic homogeneity, and could be considered as an independent and cohesive evolutionary lineage. On the contrary, the former recognized species C. dorbignyi is a polyphyletic lineage and hence its systematic classification should be reviewed. PMID:22810419

Caraballo, Diego A; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Rossi, María Susana

2012-06-01

224

Inter and intra-specific hybridization in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) from Brazilian coastal plains (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).  

PubMed

The present work describes chromosomal polymorphisms in zones of contact between divergent populations of Ctenomys minutus parapatrically distributed in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, and inter-specific hybridization with C. lami a closely related species. A sample of 171 specimens from 32 sample sites distributed along 161 km of the coastal plain was cytogenetically analyzed. Nine polymorphic populations were found: four with specimens with 2n = 46-48 (autosomal arm number (AN) = 76); three only have specimens with 2n = 47 and 48; one population sampled presented specimens with 2n = 43-46 (AN = 74-76) and one population with 2n = 50-52 (AN = 76-80). The remainder populations were fixed for 2n = 42, 46 or 48. The variation is the result of Robertsonian mechanisms of chromosomal evolution and a fusion in tandem rearrangement. The polymorphisms have been considered the result of secondary contact of populations after divergence in allopatry. The geomorphological evolution of the coastal plain provides clues to the possible existence of past geographic barriers acting over populations of Ctenomys, during the Holocene. PMID:12903742

Gava, Adriana; Freitas, Thales R O

2003-09-01

225

A new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Calomys laucha (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in an agroecosystem of central Argentina.  

PubMed

A new oxyurid nematode Syphacia hodarae n. sp. is described from the cecum and rectum of the cricetid rodent Calomys laucha Fischer, 1814 (Sigmodontinae, Phyllotini), captured in an agroecosystem of central Argentina. The new species is distinguished from other members of the genus mainly by the shape of the cephalic plate, presence of cervical alae in females, absence of lateral alae, and absence of deirids. Some characters are shared with Syphacia carlitosi, a parasite of Akodon azarae from the wetlands in Argentina. However, S. hodarae can be differentiated from this species by the absence of ornamentation on the accessory hook of the gubernaculum, length of spicule and gubernaculum, size of the eggs, and distance to the vulva from the anterior end. This is the first record of a Syphacia species from the tribe Phyllotini in Argentina, and the first time a Syphacia species is reported from C. laucha . PMID:21506826

Herrera, Elba Juliana Rojas; Miño, Mariela Haydée; Notarnicola, Juliana; Robles, María del Rosario

2011-08-01

226

The kinetics of oocyte activation and dynamics of polar body formation in Calomys musculinus and Calomys laucha (Rodentia-Sigmodontinae).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether Calomys laucha and Calomys musculinus superovulated oocytes undergo parthenogenetic activation following activation stimuli. Cumulus-intact or denuded oocytes were treated with medium containing ethanol (7%), medium containing strontium chloride, or medium alone. They were then incubated for 6-8 h to allow for activation. A group of oocytes was fixed immediately after maturation to serve as a control. The nuclear status of the oocytes was examined after staining with Hoechst 33342, to determine the timing of pronuclear progression from metaphase II to anaphase II or telophase II or to the pronuclear stage. The proportion of oocytes that underwent activation was higher for oocytes treated with ethanol or strontium chloride than in those incubated in medium alone, for the two species studied (p < 0.001). There was little evidence of spontaneous activation occurring in oocytes during the treatments. Most of the activated oocytes contained a single haploid pronucleus, but it was possible to find immediate cleavage and two pronuclei. The different classes of activated oocytes were cultured for 5 days. The type of activating treatment had a marked effect on the ability of the resulting C. musculinus and C. laucha parthenogenetic embryos to develop to the preimplantation stages. Incubation with ethanol produced only 8-cell embryos while the embryos induced with strontium chloride reached the blastocyst stage. This is the first report of parthenogenesis in C. musculinus and C. laucha. The ability of strontium ions to induce matured secondary oocytes to initiate parthenogenesis and obtain further development of Calomys provides opportunities to use Calomys oocytes in vitro and, therefore, to study the genetics, cell biology and virology of development. PMID:10717953

Lasserre, A; Cebral, E; Vitullo, A D

1999-11-01

227

Superovulation in vesper mice, Calomys laucha--an important biomedical model for hantavirus and arenavirus (Rodentia-Sigmodontinae).  

PubMed

Sigmodontine rodents are poorly studied and have not received much attention as a reproductive model. Renewed interest in the South American rodents has been stimulated by their link to endemic diseases that are transmitted to man. Calomys laucha acts as a reservoir of two dangerous viruses: an arenavirus named 'Junin virus', the aetiological agent of Argentinian haemorrhagic fever, and the hantavirus, both of which constitute serious sanitary problems. The aim of this study was to establish suitable conditions to superovulate the vesper mouse, Calomys laucha. We examined the hormonal doses, the time interval between hormones, the time-course of ovulation, and the effect of female age on the response to exogenous hormone administration. Female mice were injected with 5-5, 8-8 or 12-15 IU of PMSG/hCG, 48 h apart, at different age intervals (from 30 to > 120 days old). The best superovulation rate was obtained with 8-8 IU PMSG/hCG. Ovulation started about 10 h post-hCG and was completed during the next 4-5 h, and was achieved irrespectively from the oestrus cycle stage. The number of oocytes was influenced by the age of the females. The youngest females had only a superovulatory response. Females older than 61 days showed both ovulatory and superovulatory responses, although 91-120-day-old females had a high ovulatory response. Most of the oocytes (96.5%) recovered were morphologically normal. The genus Calomys constitutes a reproductive model completely different from conventional laboratory rodents. PMID:10778786

Lasserre, A; Cebral, E; Vitullo, A D

1999-10-01

228

Evolutionary and Biological Implications of Dental Mesial Drift in Rodents: The Case of the Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia, Mammalia)  

PubMed Central

Dental characters are importantly used for reconstructing the evolutionary history of mammals, because teeth represent the most abundant material available for the fossil species. However, the characteristics of dental renewal are presently poorly used, probably because dental formulae are frequently not properly established, whereas they could be of high interest for evolutionary and developmental issues. One of the oldest rodent families, the Ctenodactylidae, is intriguing in having longstanding disputed dental formulae. Here, we investigated 70 skulls among all extant ctenodactylid genera (Ctenodactylus, Felovia, Massoutiera and Pectinator) by using X-ray conventional and synchrotron microtomography in order to solve and discuss these dental issues. Our study clearly indicates that Massoutiera, Felovia and Ctenodactylus differ from Pectinator not only by a more derived dentition, but also by a more derived eruptive sequence. In addition to molars, their dentition only includes the fourth deciduous premolars, and no longer bears permanent premolars, conversely to Pectinator. Moreover, we found that these premolars are lost during adulthood, because of mesial drift of molars. Mesial drift is a striking mechanism involving migration of teeth allowed by both bone remodeling and dental resorption. This dental innovation is to date poorly known in rodents, since it is only the second report described. Interestingly, we noted that dental drift in rodents is always associated with high-crowned teeth favoring molar size enlargement. It can thus represent another adaptation to withstand high wear, inasmuch as these rodents inhabit desert environments where dust is abundant. A more accurate study of mesial drift in rodents would be very promising from evolutionary, biological and orthodontic points of view. PMID:23185576

Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Sole, Floreal; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Viriot, Laurent

2012-01-01

229

Phylogeny and zoogeography of six squirrel species of the genus sciurus (mammalia, rodentia), inferred from cytochrome B gene sequences.  

PubMed

To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the New World Sciurus and the Old World Sciurus and their biogeographic history, the partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (1,040 base pairs) were analyzed on six Sciurus species: S. aberti, S. carolinensis, S. lis, S. niger, S. stramineus, and S. vulgaris. Phylogenetic trees (maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods) commonly showed two groups with high bootstrap values (73-100%): one consisting of the New World Sciurus and the other consisting of the Old World Sciurus. Genetic distances among the New World Sciurus species were remarkably larger than that between two Sciurus species of the Old World, suggesting the earlier radiation of the New World Sciurus than the Old World Sciurus. PMID:18494597

Oshida, T; Masuda, R

2000-04-01

230

Eimeria lancasterensis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger (Rodentia: Sciuridae), in north-central Texas.  

PubMed

Eimeria lancasterensis Joseph, 1969, is reported for the first time from the feces of 10 of 11 (91%) eastern fox squirrels, Sciurus niger ludovicianus, in Dallas and Johnson counties, Texas. Oocyst measurements were similar to those reported previously from the eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis carolinensis, in Massachusetts. Except for our observation of a substieda body, oocyst morphology was identical to the original description of E. lancasterensis. PMID:2760777

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J

1989-08-01

231

Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: An unexpected fisheries impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the

Fernanda E. Possatto; Mário Barletta; Monica F. Costa; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; David V. Dantas

2011-01-01

232

The last wild Spix's Macaw and an Illiger's Macaw produced a hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one remaining wild male Spix's macaw(Cyanopsitta spixii) chose a femaleIlliger's macaw (Propyrrhura maracana) asa mate. Eggs were found in the nest used by thecouple and one of them contained an embryo.Sequence variation in CHD1-Z and CHD1-W genesshowed that it was a natural hybrid.

Cristina Y. Miyaki; Patricia J. Faria; Richard Griffiths; João C. C. Araujo; Yara M. Barros

2001-01-01

233

A new species of Aplodontopus (Acari: Astigmata: Chortoglyphidae) from the yellow-bellied marmot, Marmota flaviventris (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Eastern Washington, USA, with observations on its pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deutonymph of a new species of the chortoglyphid genus Aplodontopus is described from a population of Marmota flaviventris occupying a city park in eastern Washington state, USA. Many of the mite-infested individuals displayed hair loss ranging from 20–100%, along with a variety of tissue and histological abnormalities. A key to the deutonymphs of described species of Aplodontopus is presented.

Gerald W. Krantz; Barry M. OConnor; William J. Foreyt; Alex Fain

2003-01-01

234

Molecular Systematics of Sciurognathi (Rodentia): The Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and 12S rRNA Genes Support the Anomaluroidea (Pedetidae and Anomaluridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships among sciurognath rodents. Our sample taxa included representatives of 11 sciurognath and 3 hystricognath families with two marsupial species, Didelphis virginiana and Macropus robustus, as outgroups. The dataset was analyzed using both maximum-parsimony (weighted and unweighted) and likelihood methods. Three suprafamilial groupings

Claudine Montgelard; Sophie Bentz; Claire Tirard; Olivier Verneau; François M. Catzeflis

2002-01-01

235

Variation in the helminth community structure of Thrichomys pachyurus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in two sub-regions of the Brazilian Pantanal: the effects of land use and seasonality.  

PubMed

The Pantanal is a large ecosystem located in South America. This preserved area is seasonally flooded due to abundant rainfall during the summer and the subsequent overflow of the Paraguai River. In this paper, we examine the helminth community structure in the wild rodent Thrichomys pachyurus during the wet and dry seasons in two locations of the preserved and cattle ranching areas in the Southern Pantanal. We identified 12 species of helminth, and, although we did not find any differences in species richness between locations within the Pantanal, we found that richness was higher during the wet season. Helminth species were largely aggregated in both farm locations and during seasons. The most common helminth species were more abundant during the dry season than during the wet season, which may have been due to the increased habitat availability and rodent population increase. The intensity of the infection also followed the same pattern for most helminths. The trichostrongylids (Heligmostrongylus crucifer, H. almeidai and Pudica cercomysi) were dominant at both farm locations. The land use of each area was not correlated with helminth diversity. However, species composition of the helminth community of T. pachyurus differed between locations and may be correlated with environmental differences between the habitats. The seasonality of the Pantanal was highly correlated with helminth parasitism in T. pachyurus. PMID:19849884

Simões, R; Gentile, R; Rademaker, V; D'Andrea, P; Herrera, H; Freitas, T; Lanfredi, R; Maldonado, A

2010-09-01

236

Extensive mtDNA variation within the yellow-pine chipmunk, Tamias amoenus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), and phylogeographic inferences for northwest North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yellow-pine chipmunk, Tamias amoenus, is common in xerophytic forests throughout much of northwest North America. We analyzed cytochrome b sequence variation from 155 individuals representing 57 localities across the distribution of T. amoenus including 10 additional species of Tamias. Maximum likelihood and parsimony tree estimation methods were used in conjunction with nested clade analysis to infer both deep and

John R. Demboski; Jack Sullivan

2003-01-01

237

A new Demodecidae species (Acari) from the yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae)-description with data on parasitism.  

PubMed

This paper describes morphological characteristics and the occurrence of Demodex corniculatus n. sp., which was found on Apodemus flavicollis in Poland. The yellow-necked murid mouse is a common European rodent; until now, it was parasitized by a single demodectic mite species, Demodex rosus, which occurs in the oral cavity and esophagus. The new species was found in hair follicles, particularly within hairy regions of the head and genital-anal area. Demodex corniculatus occurred in 33% of the yellow-necked mice examined. The new species is small (adult stages 140 ?m in length); characteristic features of these mites are massive supracoxal spines (ca. 5-6 ?m long) on the dorsal side of the gnathosoma and palps with thick-set, bifurcated terminal spines. This paper also contains a checklist of demodecids in European and cosmopolitan murids. PMID:22694339

Izdebska, Joanna N

2012-12-01

238

Demodex microti n. sp. (Acari: Demodecidae) in Microtus arvalis (Pallas) (Rodentia, Cricetidae) with a checklist of the demodecid mites of cricetids.  

PubMed

Demodex microti n. sp. (Acari, Demodecidae) is described from the skin of the genital area of the common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas) in Poland based on the morphology of the adult and immature stages. The new species appears most similar to D. cricetuli Hurley & Desch, 1994 from the gray dwarf hamster, Cricetulus migratorius (Pallas), but differs in the following features: the supracoxal spines are conical and located at the edge of the gnathosoma, the spines of the terminal segment of palp are three, single-tined, the opisthosomal organ is narrow and elongated in males and bubble-shaped in females, the vulva is located below the incision of the fourth pair of epimeral plates, eggs are oval. The differences also relate to body size and proportions, D. microti n. sp. being smaller and slender. The new species occurred in all of the rodents examined. A checklist of demodecid mites in cricetids world-wide is also provided. PMID:24048750

Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

2013-10-01

239

The occurrence of Demodex spp. (Acari, Demodecidae) in the bank vole Myodes glareolus (Rodentia, Cricetidae) with data on its topographical preferences.  

PubMed

An examination of 16 bank voles from Poland (Pomerania) revealed the presence of two species of the family Demodecidae (Acari, Prostigmata), specific to the host. Demodex buccalis Bukva, Vitovec et Vlcek, 1985 was noted only in one bank vole, where 18 specimens were found: the prevalence of infestation being 6.3%. D. glareoli Hirst, 1919 was observed in 75% of the examined bank voles, in which were on average 5.1 specimens. Additionally, mites of the both species exhibited topical specificity--representatives of D. buccalis were found in the tissues of the tongue and oral cavity of the host, while D. glareoli, being a species associated with hair follicles, was noted in skin specimens from different body areas, particularly the head area. Infestations with demodecids were not accompanied by disease symptoms. D. buccalis and D. glareoli are a new species for the fauna of Poland. PMID:24881283

Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Gólcz, Aleksandra

2013-01-01

240

Effects of pyriproxyfen spray, powder, and oral bait treatments on the relative abundance of fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) in black-tailed prairie dog (Rodentia: Sciuridae) towns.  

PubMed

Separate black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus (Ord), towns on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were treated with technical pyriproxyfen (Nylar) using spray, powder, and oral bait carriers. Direct combing methods (1997 and 1998) and burrow flagging (1998) were used to estimate relative abundance of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta (Baker). Pyriproxyfen spray (0.05%) and powder (0.05%) did not significantly reduce (P > 0.05) O. hirsuta abundance. Pyriproxyfen bait, when applied every 4 wk at a concentration of 286 mg/50 g bait, significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) O. hirsuta infesting prairie dogs, 4 mo after initial treatment. However, flea populations had recovered to pretreatment levels by the following summer (July 1999). PMID:11126542

Karhu, R; Anderson, S

2000-11-01

241

Effects of pyriproxyfen spray, powder, and oral bait treatments on the relative abundance of nontarget arthropods of black-tailed prairie dog (Rodentia: Sciuridae) towns.  

PubMed

Separate black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus (Ord), towns on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were treated with technical pyriproxyfen (Nylar) spray, powder, and oral bait. The treatments were applied to reduce relative abundance of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta (Baker). Because pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone analog, we were also concerned with the effects of the treatments on nontarget arthropods, which is the focus of this study. Pitfall traps and sweep net sampling were used to measure relative abundance of arthropod populations pre- and posttreatment. Nontarget arthropod sampling produced a large number of statistical comparisons that indicated significant declines (P < 0.05) in relative arthropod abundance. Many of the significant declines were probably because of natural fluctuations in arthropod populations rather than treatment effects. Because arthropod populations appeared to fluctuate randomly, we only made inferences about highly significant (P < 0.001) declines. In doing so, we hoped to abate some of the confusion created by the natural fluctuation in arthropod abundance and increase our chance of correctly attributing a population reduction to a treatment effect. Only Homoptera at the pyriproxyfen powder site exhibited highly significant reductions that appeared to be attributed to the treatments. Pyriproxyfen spray treatments did not significantly reduce relative arthropod abundance. PMID:10916304

Karhu, R R; Anderson, S H

2000-07-01

242

Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rodentia, Mammalia), nouveau Muridae d'affinité incertaine du Pliocène inférieur d'Afrique du Sud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov., a Muridae of uncertain affinity in the Early Pliocene of South Africa. Boltimys broomi gen. nov., sp. nov. is reported from the Early Pliocene fauna of Waypoint 160, a fossiliferous locality in the area of Bolt's Farm (Province of Gauteng) near Krugersdorp in South Africa. The occlusal surface of the jugal teeth is characterized by a basin-shaped aspect due to the coalescence of the cusps which make the lobes of the molars. An accessory inner cusp is present on the first and second upper molars. A faint longitudinal crest is present only in the first lower molar. The new rodent is tentatively referred to the subfamily Myocricetodontinae.

Sénégas, Frank; Michaux, Jacques

2000-04-01

243

The Cricetidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Ulantatal area (Inner Mongolia, China): New data concerning the evolution of Asian cricetids during the Oligocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oligocene fossil deposits of Ulantatal in Inner Mongolia show an amazing faunal richness, comparable to the highly diversified contemporaneous faunas from the Valley of Lakes in Central Mongolia. To date, only a few taxa have been described. The present study consists of the description of 13 species of cricetid rodents from seven localities ranging in age from the late Early Oligocene to the Late Oligocene epoch. Most of them are new and belong to Eucricetodontinae, the dominating cricetid group at Ulantatal. These taxa give new information regarding the evolution of the Cricetidae in Central and Eastern Asia during the Oligocene. Four new species, Eucricetodon jilantaiensis nov. sp., Eucricetodon bagus nov. sp., Bagacricetodon tongi nov. gen., nov. sp. and Plesiodipus wangae nov. sp., show noticeable evolutionary trends. These species display more derived dental characters than their European contemporaries, in which they are much more comparable to Miocene forms. This observation reinforces the assumed early diversification of cricetids in this part of Asia. A striking case of sympatric evolution is indicated by the similarity of size and dental morphology of two sibling species, Eucricetodon asiaticus and Eucricetodon jilantaiensis nov. sp. Other taxa such as Witenia yolua nov. sp., Pseudocricetops matthewi nov. gen., nov. sp. and a primitive Tachyoryctoidinae, are scarcely represented and present unusual morphologies. The Cricetidae from Ulantatal also provide evidence suggesting faunal exchanges between Asia and Europe through the Paratethyan pathway during the second half of the Paleogene.

Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Marivaux, Laurent; Vianey-Liaud, Monique

2012-08-01

244

Stratigraphic context and paleoenvironmental significance of minor taxa (Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Rodentia) from the late Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological site of Buia (Eritrea).  

PubMed

The Buia Homo site, also known as Wadi Aalad, is an East African paleoanthropological site near the village of Buia that, due to its very rich yield from the late Early Pleistocene, has been intensively investigated since 1994. In this paper, which reports on the finds of the 2010-2011 excavations, we include new fossil evidence on previously identified taxa (i.e., reptiles), as well as the very first description of the small mammal, fish and bird remains discovered. In particular, this study documents the discovery of the first African fossil of the genus Burhinus (Aves, Charadriiformes) and of the first rodent from the site. This latter is identified as a thryonomyid rodent (cane rat), a relatively common taxon in African paleoanthropological faunal assemblages. On the whole, the new occurrences documented within the Buia vertebrate assemblage confirm the occurrence of taxa characterized by strong water dependence. The paleoenvironmental characteristics of the fauna are confirmed as fully compatible with the evidence obtained through sedimentology and facies analysis, documenting the sedimentary evolution of fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine systems. PMID:23159190

Rook, L; Ghinassi, M; Carnevale, G; Delfino, M; Pavia, M; Bondioli, L; Candilio, F; Coppa, A; Martínez-Navarro, B; Medin, T; Papini, M; Zanolli, C; Libsekal, Y

2013-01-01

245

Biochronological implications of the Arvicolidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Lower Pleistocene hominid-bearing level of Trinchera Dolina 6 (TD6, Atapuerca, Spain).  

PubMed

Level TD6 of the Trinchera Dolina Section in the railway cutting of the Sierre de Atapuerca (Trinchera del Ferrocarril) has yielded a rich small mammal assemblage (26 species) in association with fossil human remains of Homo antecessor. The arvicolids of TD6 are identified as: Mimomys savini, Microtus seseae, Stenocranius gregaloides, Terricola arvalidens, Iberomys huescarensis, Allophaiomys chalinei, and Pliomys episcopalis. The rodent association also includes large rodents (i.e., Castor fiber, Marmota sp., and Hystrix refossa) and the small Allocricetus sp., Eliomys helleri, Micromys minutus, and Apodemus aff. flavicollis. The small vertebrate remains also include Insectivora (Beremendia fissidens, Sorex sp, Neomys sp., Crocidura sp., Galemys sp., Talpa sp., Erinaceus sp.), Chiroptera (Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis sp., Rhinolophus sp.), and Lagomorpha (Oryctolagus sp., Lepus sp.), as well as lizards, birds and amphibians. The H. antecessor remains are derived from a 15 cm thick layer at the top of TD6 (TD6-T36-43), where A. chalinei, H. refossa and Marmota sp. do not occur. The paleomagnetic Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is found in the overlying level TD7 of the Gran Dolina Section. On the basis of the arvicolids, TD6 can be referred to the Biharian biochron. The Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is fixed in the late Biharian (Microtus-Mimomys rodent Superzone). The species M. savini (without M. pusillus), as well as the evolutionary stage of Microtus s.l., are characteristic of the Late Biharian. The evolutionary level of the species M. savini, T. arvalidens, S. gregaloides indicates that TD6 is older than West Runton (type Cromerian). In the Trinchera Dolina Section we are able to calibrate, for the first time, the evolutionary level of important biochronological markers with magnetostratigraphy. We propose that a radiation of Microtus s.l., along with the first appearance of primitive S. gregaloides, T. arvalidens and Iberomys, took place just before the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary. These species can be considered as characteristic elements of early Pleistocene faunas. PMID:10496992

Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana, C; Canudo, J I

1999-01-01

246

A new species of Demodex (Acari: Demodecidae) with data on topical specificity and topography of demodectic mites in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Rodentia: Muridae).  

PubMed

This article describes morphological characteristics and the occurrence of Demodex gracilentus sp. nov., which was found in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771) in the skin of vibrissae area. D. gracilentus occurred in 36.7% of the rodents examined. D. gracilentus is a relatively large representative of the genus (adult stages on average 292 microm in length), a slender, elongated body; characteristic feature of these mites are conical supracoxal spines on dorsal side of gnathosoma, palps with asymmetric, forked triple spines on palptarsus, and the presence of rhomboidal opisthosomal organ. So far, the occurrence of three specific representatives of the family Demodecidae has been demonstrated in A. agrarius: Demodex apodemi (Hirst, 1918) (= Demodex arvicolae apodemi Hirst, 1918), Demodex agrarii Bukva, 1994, and Demodex huttereri Mertens, Lukoschus et Nutting, 1983. The first one is related to common hair follicles, especially in the skin of the head, while the next one inhabits the external auditory meatus, and the last one occurs in the meibomian glands of the eyelids. PMID:24843923

Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

2013-11-01

247

Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and analysis of the ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S rDNA.  

PubMed

During the winter of 2004, 48 fecal samples were collected from live-trapped fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) from central Wyoming (Natrona County) and examined for species of Eimeria. Two species, Eimeria lancasterensis (prevalence, 65%) and Eimeria ontarioensis (prevalence, 27%), were identified. Genomic DNA sequences ITS1 and ITS2 were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Additional sequences from E. lancasterensis isolated from a Delmarva fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus) collected on Chincoteague Island, Virginia, were also identified. Comparison of pairwise distances suggests that E. lancasterensis from Wyoming and Virginia are conspecific. Maximum Parsimony tree construction identified 2 lineages, one E. ontarioensis and one E. lancasterensis; and both lineages had a strong bootstrap support (100%). The Maximum Parsimony analysis was unable to resolve the Wyoming and Virginia strains. PMID:19245280

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Oliver, Clinton E; Hofmann, Danielle L; Smith, Arik W

2009-02-01

248

The evolution of nuclear microsatellite DNA markers and their flanking regions using reciprocal comparisons within the African mole-rats (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)  

E-print Network

with a strong foundation in phylogenetics and whose chuckles always brightened my day; and special thanks to Clare Gill, who picked up the slack in the Davis lab and gave me a place to do molecular evolution in an Animal Science lab. Her support... in the levels of polymorphism observed, is that most studies examine the behavior of proven markers (previously designed for a focal taxon) in other related taxa without reciprocal tests. Since most previous studies compared only two taxa (focal versus non...

Ingram, Colleen Marie

2006-10-30

249

Observations and larval descriptions of fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Ishnopsyllidae) of the southern flying squirrel, little brown bat, and Brazilian free-tailed bat (Mammalia: Rodentia, Chiroptera).  

PubMed

Larvae of the four fleas infesting nests of the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans colans (L.) [Conorhinopsylla stanfordi Stewart, Epitedia faceta (Rothschild), Opisodasys pseudarctomys (Baker), and Orchopeas howardi (Baker)], and of the bat fleas Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild) and Sternopsylla distincta texana (C. Fox), associated with the bats Myotis lcifuigus (Le Conte) and Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geof. St. Hilaire), respectively, are described. C. stanfordi has the second posterior-row seta on abdominal segments 1-5 at most one fourth the length of the first and third setae, but it is unique among the Leptopsyllini with five short setae in abdominal segment 9 anterior row. E. faceta has the straight line of anterior-row setae 2-5 on abdominal segment 1, which is diagnostic for Phalacropsyllini. O. howardi and O. pseudarctomys have three anterior-row setae on the anal comb, three ventrolateral setae on the anal segment (abdominal segment 10), and a narrow mandible with five or more teeth as other Ceratopyllinae, but O. pseudarctomys is distinguishable from O. howardi because the first setae on the posterior row of the head is long (greater than one half the length of the third posterior-row setae), the ventral setae on abdominal segment 7 are different sizes, and the third anterior-row setae on abdominal segment 8 does not extend past the spiracle posterior to it. Bat flea larvae have six posterior-row setae on abdominal segments 1-9 with the anal comb anterior row with two or more setae; M. insignis has eight mandible teeth and S. distincta texana three to four. PMID:18047188

Elbel, Robert E; Bossard, Robert L

2007-11-01

250

MtDNA CytB Structure of Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbellidae), the Main Reservoir of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Borderline of Iran-Turkmenistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Great gerbils, Rhombomys opimus, are the main reservoir host of zoonootic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran and neighboring countries. Based on morphological traits two subspecies R. opimus sodalis and R. opimus sargadensis have reported in the country. However, variation in infection rate and signs to Leishmania parasites, phenotype, size, and sexual polymorphisms demand more details to elucidate clearly the role of great gerbils in ZCL epidemiology. Methods: PCR-RFLP and PCR-direct sequencing were used to analyze mitochondrial DNA cytochrome B (mtDNA-cytB) gene structure of R. opimus collected from Golestan and Khorasan-e-Razavi Provinces in 2011 that are neighbor to Turkmenistan Country where ZCL is endemic in both sides of the borderline. Results: All of the specimens (n= 61) were morphologically or genetically similar to the typical R. opimus sodalis. However, there were 9 (1.5%) DNA substitutions throughout the 583 bp of the Cyt b gene of the samples sequenced comprising six DNA haplotypes. Maximum likelihood or neighbor joining phylogenetic trees inferred from the sequences could resolve the populations according to their subspecies as well as geographical origins. Discussion: The DNA polymorphisms in the great gerbils may correspond to the signs and infection rate in the animal. However, further studies are needed to match these six haplotypes with different signs and parasite sustaining following infection with L. major in the great gerbils. PMID:24409443

Bakhshi, Hasan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hajaran, Homa; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Mirzajani, Hossein; Maleki-Ravasan, Naseh

2013-01-01

251

Heterogeneities of size and sexual dimorphism between the subdomains of the lateral-innervated accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of Octodon degus (Rodentia: Hystricognathi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vomeronasal system (VNS) of rodents participates in the regulation of a variety of social and sexual behaviours related to semiochemical communication. All rodents studied so far possess two parallel pathways from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). These segregated afferences express either Gi2 or Go protein ?-subunits and innervate the rostral or caudal half of

Rodrigo Suárez; Jorge Mpodozis

2009-01-01

252

Heterogeneities of size and sexual dimorphism between the subdomains of the lateral-innervated accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of Octodon degus (Rodentia: Hystricognathi).  

PubMed

The vomeronasal system (VNS) of rodents participates in the regulation of a variety of social and sexual behaviours related to semiochemical communication. All rodents studied so far possess two parallel pathways from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). These segregated afferences express either Gi2 or Go protein alpha-subunits and innervate the rostral or caudal half of the AOB, respectively. In muroid rodents, such as rats and mice, both subdivisions of the AOB are of similar proportions; as there is no anatomical feature indicative of the segregation, histochemical detection has been required to portray its boundary. We studied the AOB of Octodon degus, a diurnal caviomorph rodent endemic to central Chile, and found several distinctive traits not reported in a rodent before: (i) the vomeronasal nerve innervates the AOB from its lateral aspect, in opposition to the medial innervation described in rabbits and muroids, (ii) an indentation that spans all layers delimits the boundary between the rostral and caudal AOB subdivisions (rAOB and cAOB, respectively), (iii) the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB and features more and larger glomeruli, and (iv) the rAOB, but not the cAOB, shows male-biased sexual dimorphisms in size and number of glomeruli, while the cAOB, but not the rAOB, shows a male-biased dimorphism in mitral cell density. The heterogeneities we describe here within AOB subdomains suggest that these segregated regions may engage in distinct operationalities. We discuss our results in relation to conspecific semiochemical communication in O. degus, and present it as a new animal model for the study of VNS neurobiology and evolution. PMID:19046995

Suárez, Rodrigo; Mpodozis, Jorge

2009-03-17

253

Isolation of 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the North American red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Sciuridae, Rodentia), and their cross-utility in other species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci to be used for pedigree analysis in a wild population of North American red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus . Allelic diversity and observed heterozygosity ranged from six to 13 and 0.39 to 0.89, respectively, in a sample of 93 individuals. Up to 13 sets of primers also amplify in other rodent species.

MELISSA R. GUNN; DEBORAH A. DAWSON; ANDREW LEVISTON; KATIE HARTNUP; COREY S. DAVIS; CURTIS STROBECK; JON SLATE; DAVID W. COLTMAN

2005-01-01

254

Laelapid mites (Parasitiformes: Gamasida), parasites of Akodon philipmyersi (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in the Northern Campos Grasslands, Argentina, with the description of a new species.  

PubMed

Androlaelaps ulysespardinasi, a new species of laelapid mite, is described based on specimens collected from the pelage of the akodontine rodent Akodon philipmyersi Pardiñas, D'Elía, Cirignoli and Suarez, 2005, which is endemic to the Northern Campos Grasslands in Misiones Province, Argentina. The formal taxonomic description, illustrations, and scanning electron micrographs of the new species are derived from female specimens; males and nymphs are unknown. Androlaelaps ulysespardinasi resembles Androlaelaps rotundus Fonseca, 1936 in general appearance, but it differs in having a more sclerotized, V-shaped and elevated ridge among j4 and j6 setae in the dorsal shield; the idiosoma is smaller (586-634 µm in length) and has a bilobed posterior margin. The sternal plate is 1.3 times broader than longer, the epigynial shield is 1.2 longer than broader, and an anal shield is almost as long as it is broad. Both species are close to Androlaelaps misionalis Lareschi, 2010 and Androlaelaps maurii Lareschi and Gettinger, 2009, but they differ in their larger size (586-650 µm), in having the distance between j6 setae similar to the distance between j5 setae (72-83 µm), 11 pairs of setae in opisthogaster, and lacking a pair of setae close to epigynal shield. In addition, An. ulysespardinasi n. sp. is unusual in having chelicerae with both digits with 2 teeth. An An. rotundus species group, which includes the new species, is proposed, and a key to identify the different species is provided. Host specificity of the different species with rodents from the Akodon division of the akodontines was observed, suggesting that cophylogeny between these mites and akodontines may have occurred. PMID:21495818

Lareschi, Marcela

2011-10-01

255

Extensive mtDNA variation within the yellow-pine chipmunk, Tamias amoenus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), and phylogeographic inferences for northwest North America.  

PubMed

The yellow-pine chipmunk, Tamias amoenus, is common in xerophytic forests throughout much of northwest North America. We analyzed cytochrome b sequence variation from 155 individuals representing 57 localities across the distribution of T. amoenus including 10 additional species of Tamias. Maximum likelihood and parsimony tree estimation methods were used in conjunction with nested clade analysis to infer both deep and population-level processes. Our results indicate that two currently recognized subspecies of T. amoenus (T. a. canicaudus and T. a. cratericus) are not nested within other samples of T. amoenus. Maximum uncorrected levels of intraspecific sequence divergence within remaining samples of T. amoenus are >7%. Substantial geographic variation is characterized by 12 well-supported clades that correspond to distinct mountain ranges, but do not necessarily follow existing subspecific taxonomy. Significant association between geography and genealogy was detected within many of these clades and can be attributed to different population-level processes including past fragmentation, recent range expansion, and isolation by distance. PMID:12644399

Demboski, John R; Sullivan, Jack

2003-03-01

256

First Report on Isolation and Characterization of Leishmania major from Meriones hurrianae (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) of A Rural Cutaneous leishmaniasis Focus in South-Eastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic health problem in many rural areas of Iran, with doubled number of incidences over the last decade. Different species of rodents serve as natural reservoir host for ZCL. The disease is considered as a major health problem in rural areas of Mirjaveh, Chabahar, and Konarak Counties of Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Objectives This study describes the identity of Leishmania species, isolated from Meriones hurrianae from Chabahar County using RAPD-PCR methodology. Materials and Methods Rodents were entrapped by live traps baited with roasted walnut, tomato, and cucumber during spring and summer. All rodents were identified based on external features including fur color, ears characteristics, tail length, hind feet, body measurements, and internal features of teeth and cranium. Giemsa-stained impressions from rodents’ ears were examined for amastigotes microscopically. The samples from infected rodents were cultured in NNN+LIT medium and then the harvested parasites at the stationary phase were subjected to DNA extraction followed by amplification with RAPD-PCR. Results All the 28 entrapped animals were identified as M. hurrianae. Five animals showed to harbor Leishmania parasite by microscopy. Leishmania DNA isolated from five M. hurrianae produced distinctive bands of L. major with four primers. However, the products that were amplified with primers AB1-07, 327, and 329 were stable and reproducible. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of L. major from M. hurrianae from Iran. Conclusions Regarding infection rate of 17.8%, M. hurrianae seems to play the major role in the maintenance and transmission of disease to humans in this area. PMID:24616787

Kassiri, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

257

Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Microtus spp. (Rodentia: Arvicolidae) from the United States, Mexico, and Japan, with descriptions of five new species.  

PubMed

Beginning in July 1980, 149 voles (Microtus spp.) representing 9 species and 14 subspecies collected in Japan, Mexico and the United States were examined for coccidia; 67 (45%) had oocysts in their feces. These included 1 of 3 (33%) M. californicus sactidiegi; 0 of 1 M. longicaudus longicaudus; 0 of 1 M. l. macrurus; 48 of 111 (43%) M. mexicanus including 11 of 26 (42%) M. m. fulviventer, 1 of 2 (50%) M. m. fundatus, 13 of 31 (42%) M. m. mexicanus, 1 of 4 (25%) M. m. mogollonensis and 22 of 48 (46%) M. m. subsimus; 5 of 8 (63%) M. montanus arizonensis; 6 of 6 M. montebelli montebelli; 2 of 4 (50%) M. oregoni oregoni; 5 of 13 (38%) M. pennsylvanicus pennsylvanicus; 0 of 1 M. quasiater and 0 of 1 M. townsendii townsendii. The following coccidians were identified from infected voles: Eimeria saxei n. sp. (syn. E. wenrichi "B") from M. c. sactidiegi; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, E. wenrichi (syn. E. wenrichi "A"), and Eimeria sp. from M. m. fulviventer, Eimeria sp. from M. m. fundatus; E. ochrogasteri, E. saxei, Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp., E. wenrichi, and Eimeria sp. from M. m. mexicanus; E. wenrichi from M. m. mogollonensis; Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp., E. saxei, Eimeria subsimi n. sp., E. wenrichi, Eimeria sp., and Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. from M. m. subsimus; E. tamiasciuri and E. wenrichi from M. m. arizonensis; Eimeria spp. from M. m. montebelli; E. saxei and E. wenrichi from M. o. oregoni; and E. ochrogasteri and E. wenrichi from M. p. pennsylvanicus. Sporulated oocytsts of Eimeria coahuiliensis n. sp. were ellipsoid, 29.6 X 19.6 (27-34 X 18-22) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.4 X 8.9 (13-18 X 8-10) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria saxei n. sp. were subspheroid, 13.0 X 11.0 (11-14 X 10-12) micron with ovoid sporocysts 7.5 X 4.0 (6-9 X 4-5) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria subsimi n. sp. were ovoid/subspheroid, 25.1 X 18.7 (22-28 X 17-21) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 13.9 X 7.4 (13-15 X 6-8) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tolucadensis n. sp. were subspheroid, 25.4 X 20.3 (23-26 X 19-23) micron with ellipsoid sporocysts 11.3 X 7.8 (10-13 X 7-9) micron. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora mexicanasubsimi n. sp. were subspheroid, 23.7 X 23.1 (21-26 X 21-26) micron with ovoid sporocysts 14.9 X 10.8 (12-16 X 10-12) micron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3891951

Vance, T L; Duszynski, D W

1985-06-01

258

Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber.  

PubMed

We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. PMID:21564690

Pelz-Serrano, Karla; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Neubaum, Melissa; Munclinger, Pavel; Pártl, Adam; VAN Riper Iii, Charles; Culver, Melanie

2009-03-01

259

The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus)  

PubMed Central

Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype–polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations. PMID:23759727

Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

2013-01-01

260

Vexillata liomyos n. sp. (Nemata: Ornithostrongylidae) from Liomys pictus (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) from Mexico, with comments on the synlophe of Vexillata armandae.  

PubMed

Individuals of a new species of Vexillata were collected from the small intestines of Liomys pictus from the Estaci6n de Biología Chamela, in Jalisco State, Mexico. The new species shows an array of characters that allow us to recognize it as a member of Vexillata; however, it can be distinguished from other species of the genus in that males possess an asymmetrical caudal bursa, females possess a characteristic cuticular inflation at the level of the ovijector, and both sexes possess a synlophe with 9 ridges at the midbody. Additional detail of the synlophe of Vexillata armandae Gardner et al., 1994 from Chaetodipus hispidus in New Mexico shows that both sexes have 12 cuticular ridges just posterior to the cephalic inflation, and in the posterior region of the body, females have 9 ridges of equal size while males possess 11 equal-sized ridges. In both sexes, the carene disappears at the posterior end of the body. PMID:11426731

Falcón-Ordaz, J; Gardner, S L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

2001-06-01

261

Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Pelz-Serrano, K.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Piaggio, A.J.; Neubaum, M.; Munclinger, P.; PArtl, A.; van Riper, Charles, III; Culver, M.

2009-01-01

262

Changes in aquatic plant communitieson the island of Valaam due to invasion by the muskrat Ondatra zibethicus L.(Rodentia, Mammalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskrat invaded Valaam Island (Northern part of European Russia) in the 1970s. Aquatic plant communities of 1962 and 1993 were compared on the same plots. Quantitative changes were tested with the help of jack-knifing estimates of most known inventory (a-) diversity indicators. Qualitative transformations were assessed using ß-diversity values. The results demonstrated substantially more discriminant ability of diversity measures than

Vladimir V. Smirnov; Kirill Tretyakov

1998-01-01

263

New karyotypes and some considerations about the chromosomal diversification of Ctenomys minutus (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) on the coastal plain of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.  

PubMed

The dominant mammals occupying the subterranean niche in South America are rodents of the genus Ctenomys, which form a large group of 56 species with chromosome numbers ranging from 2n = 10 to 70. In southern Brazil, Ctenomys minutus is the species with the widest geographic distribution, inhabiting sandy fields and dunes extending from Jaguaruna beach in the state of Santa Catarina to the town of São José do Norte in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Eleven karyotypes (2n = 42; 2n = 46a; 2n = 46b; 2n = 47a; 2n = 47b; 2n = 48a; 2n = 48b; 2n = 49a; 2n = 49b; 2n = 50a and 2n = 50b) were described for this species and zones of hybridization are also known. A sample of 51 C. minutus specimens was collected from five sampling sites about 20km apart along the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul between the municipalities of Tavares (31 degrees 23'S 51 degrees 09'W) and São José do Norte (31 degrees 52'S 51 degrees 54'W). We were able to extend the known geographic distribution of C. minutus by 90 km, from Tavares southwards to São José do Norte. During our study we found five karyotypes (2n = 46b, 47b, 48b, 49b and 50b), four of which (2n = 47b, 48b, 49b and 50b) have not previously been described for this species. PMID:15330112

Freygang, Cristina Claumann; Marinho, Jorge Reppold; de Freitas, Thales R O

2004-06-01

264

Phylogeographical structure in the subterranean tuco-tuco Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae): contrasting the demographic consequences of regional and habitat-specific histories.  

PubMed

In this work we examined the phylogeography of the South American subterranean herbivorous rodent Ctenomys talarum (Talas tuco-tuco) using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (D-loop) sequences, and we assessed the geographical genetic structure of this species in comparison with that of subterranean Ctenomys australis, which we have shown previously to be parapatric to C. talarum and to also live in a coastal sand dune habitat. A significant apportionment of the genetic variance among regional groups indicated that putative geographical barriers, such as rivers, substantially affected the pattern of genetic structure in C. talarum. Furthermore, genetic differentiation is consistent with a simple model of isolation by distance, possibly evidencing equilibrium between gene flow and local genetic drift. In contrast, C. australis showed limited hierarchical partitioning of genetic variation and departed from an isolation-by-distance pattern. Mismatch distributions and tests of neutrality suggest contrasting histories of these two species: C. talarum appears to be characterized by demographic stability and no significant departures from neutrality, whereas C. australis has undergone a recent demographic expansion and/or departures from strict neutrality in its mtDNA. PMID:17688545

Mora, Matías S; Lessa, Enrique P; Cutrera, Ana P; Kittlein, Marcelo J; Vassallo, Aldo I

2007-08-01

265

Recurrent amplifications and deletions of satellite DNA accompanied chromosomal diversification in South American tuco-tucos (genus Ctenomys, Rodentia: Octodontidae): a phylogenetic approach.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between satellite copy number and chromosomal evolution in tuco-tucos (genus Ctenomys), a karyotypically diverse clade of rodents. To explore phylogenetic relationships among 23 species and 5 undescribed forms, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b genes of 27 specimens and incorporated 27 previously published sequences. We then used quantitative dot-blot techniques to assess changes in the copy number of the major Ctenomys satellite DNA (satDNA), named RPCS. Our analysis of the relationship between variation in copy number of RPCS and chromosomal changes employed a maximum-likelihood approach to infer the copy number of the satellite RPCS in the ancestors of each clade. We found that amplifications and deletions of RPCS were associated with extensive chromosomal rearrangements even among closely related species. In contrast, RPCS copy number stability was observed within clades characterized by chromosomal stability. This example reinforces the suspected role of amplification, deletion, and intragenomic movement of satDNA in promoting extensive chromosomal evolution. PMID:11504851

Slamovits, C H; Cook, J A; Lessa, E P; Rossi, M S

2001-09-01

266

The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus).  

PubMed

Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype-polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations. PMID:23759727

Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

2013-10-01

267

Two new species of Eimeria Schneider 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the broad-toothed field mouse, Apodemus mystacinus Danford and Alston 1877 (Rodentia: Muridae) from Jordan.  

PubMed

Coprological examination of 40 Apodemus mystacinus Danford and Alston 1877 from Jordan revealed oocysts of three species of genus Eimeria. Two species are described as new. Eimeria zuhairamri sp. n. has broadly ellipsoidal oocysts 29.6 (27.0-34.0) x 23.3 (22.0-25.0) mum with distinctly granulated wall and oocyst residuum. Endogenous development occurs in jejunum and ileum. Eimeria alorani sp. n. has oocysts 26.9 (23.0-29.0) x 19.3 (18.0-22.0) mum with smooth wall and absent residuum. Endogenous development is confined to the caecum. The third species, developing in jejunum, has oocysts morphologically indistinguishable from Eimeria uptoni. The identity of E. uptoni and the taxonomy of Eimeria of Apodemus are discussed. PMID:15952044

H?rková, Lada; Baker, Mohammad Abu; Jirk?, Miloslav; Modrý, David

2005-08-01

268

A Study on Taxonomic Status of Microtus subterraneus (de Selys Longchamps, 1836) and Microtus majori Thomas, 1906 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens collected from Veliköprüsü in Thrace (European Turkey), Akçaalan (Abant, Bolu), Akkufl, (Ordu), and Meryemana (Trabzon), which is the type locality of M. majori, were examined according to morphological, external, cranial, bacular, phallic and karyological characters. Specimens from Thrace were included in Microtus subterraneus. Populations of M. subterraneus in Thrace karyologically differ from those in Anatolia, the former having 2n

Ercüment ÇOLAK; Mustafa SÖZEN

269

Lineage-Specific Responses of Tooth Shape in Murine Rodents (Murinae, Rodentia) to Late Miocene Dietary Change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define functional adaptations of teeth to resources. PMID:24155885

Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

2013-01-01

270

Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?  

PubMed

Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs. PMID:25236269

Debenedetti, Angela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

2014-10-01

271

Plio-Pleistocene history of West African Sudanian savanna and the phylogeography of the Praomys daltoni complex (Rodentia): the environment/geography/genetic interplay.  

PubMed

Rodents of the Praomys daltoni complex are typical inhabitants of the Sudanian savanna ecosystem in western Africa and represent a suitable model for testing the effects of Quaternary climatic oscillations on extant genetic variation patterns. Phylogeographical analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b) across the distribution range of the complex revealed several well-defined clades that do not support the division of the clade into the two species currently recognized on the basis of morphology, i.e. P. daltoni (Thomas, 1892) and Praomys derooi (Van der Straeten & Verheyen 1978). The observed genetic structure fits the refuge hypothesis, suggesting that only a small number of populations repeatedly survived in distinct forest-savanna mosaic blocks during the arid phases of the Pleistocene, and then expanded again during moister periods. West African rivers may also have contributed to genetic differentiation, especially by forming barriers after secondary contact of expanding populations. The combination of three types of genetic markers (mtDNA sequences, microsatellite loci, cytogenetic data) provides evidence for the presence of up to three lineages, which most probably represent distinct biological species. Furthermore, incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA markers in some individuals unambiguously points towards a past introgression event. Our results highlight the importance of combining different molecular markers for an accurate interpretation of genetic data. PMID:20958815

Bryja, J; Granjon, L; Dobigny, G; Patzenhauerová, H; Kone?ný, A; Duplantier, J M; Gauthier, P; Colyn, M; Durnez, L; Lalis, A; Nicolas, V

2010-11-01

272

Phylogeny and chronology of the major lineages of New World hystricognath rodents: insights on the biogeography of the Eocene/Oligocene arrival of mammals in South America  

PubMed Central

Background The hystricognath rodents of the New World, the Caviomorpha, are a diverse lineage with a long evolutionary history, and their representation in South American fossil record begins with their occurrence in Eocene deposits from Peru. Debates regarding the origin and diversification of this group represent longstanding issues in mammalian evolution because early hystricognaths, as well as Platyrrhini primates, appeared when South American was an isolated landmass, which raised the possibility of a synchronous arrival of these mammalian groups. Thus, an immediate biogeographic problem is posed by the study of caviomorph origins. This problem has motivated the analysis of hystricognath evolution with molecular dating techniques that relied essentially on nuclear data. However, questions remain about the phylogeny and chronology of the major caviomorph lineages. To enhance the understanding of the evolution of the Hystricognathi in the New World, we sequenced new mitochondrial genomes of caviomorphs and performed a combined analysis with nuclear genes. Results Our analysis supports the existence of two major caviomorph lineages: the (Chinchilloidea?+?Octodontoidea) and the (Cavioidea?+?Erethizontoidea), which diverged in the late Eocene. The Caviomorpha/phiomorph divergence also occurred at approximately 43 Ma. We inferred that all family-level divergences of New World hystricognaths occurred in the early Miocene. Conclusion The molecular estimates presented in this study, inferred from the combined analysis of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear data, are in complete agreement with the recently proposed paleontological scenario of Caviomorpha evolution. A comparison with recent studies on New World primate diversification indicate that although the hypothesis that both lineages arrived synchronously in the Neotropics cannot be discarded, the times elapsed since the most recent common ancestor of the extant representatives of both groups are different. PMID:23607317

2013-01-01

273

Two new species of Gliricola (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus, in Peru.  

E-print Network

Two new species of Gliricola, G. woodmani and G. halli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), are described and illustrated for specimens from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Peru. Resumen--Se ...

Price, Roger D.; Timm, Robert M.

1993-06-01

274

Reproductive strategies and natural history of the arboreal Neotropical vesper mouse, Nyctomys sumichrasti  

E-print Network

The vesper mouse, Nyctomys sumichrasti (Rodentia: Cricetidae), a poorly known, arboreal, nocturnal, rodent found in Central America, has been considered rare, and limited information is available about its biology, especially ...

Romero, Andrea; Timm, Robert M.

2013-10-01

275

Postpartum endocrinology and sexual behavior relative to lactation in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu)  

E-print Network

Inhibition (Days) (Days) (Days) 152-181 Reference Vandenbergh and Vessey, 1968; Drickamer, 1974; Weiss et al. , 1976 Stewart, 1988 Altmann et al. , 1978 RODENTIA Microtus montanus B? Montane vole M t ~tt B. Prairie vole ~P* ~1o B. White... Inhibition (Days) (Days) (Days) 152-181 Reference Vandenbergh and Vessey, 1968; Drickamer, 1974; Weiss et al. , 1976 Stewart, 1988 Altmann et al. , 1978 RODENTIA Microtus montanus B? Montane vole M t ~tt B. Prairie vole ~P* ~1o B. White...

Franchek, Kathleen Mary

2012-06-07

276

The laboratory rat strains most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia  

E-print Network

examples of the inbred rat include Fischer 344 ( have a high incidence of testicular tumors, large granular incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis). Mutant strains of rats also exist and include the Zucker Diabetic rat developed and has a rumen-like function for microbial digestion of cellulose. Behind the eye lies a large

Shihadeh, Alan

277

Mazzanema n. gen. and Mazzanema fortuita n. comb. for Longistriata fortuita Freitas, Lent, and Almeida, 1937 (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae), a parasite of the marsh rat Holochilus chacarius (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from northern Argentina.  

PubMed

The species described as Longistriata fortuita Freitas, Lent, and Almeida, 1937 is here redescribed from new material collected from the type host, Holochilus chacarius balnearum Thomas, and the type locality, San Martín del Tabacal, Salta, Argentina. Neotypes are designed for the species since the type material deposited by the authors is lost. The original description did not include the synlophe or the female and both are here described. Several characters of the synlophe as the number of ridges (14-19), the ridges continuous and all around body, and the presence of a gradient of size of the ridges allow us to place the species within the Heligmonellidae, Nippostrongylinae. The species possesses a unique combination of characters as the synlophe having a carene together with characters of the caudal bursa as the pattern 1-3-1 and the strong development of the dorsal lobe and ray, which precludes its inclusion in any known genus of Nippostrongylinae. A new genus Mazzanema n. gen. is proposed for it, resulting in the new combination Mazzzanema fortuita n. comb. PMID:23574047

Digiani, María Celina; Notarnicola, Juliana; Paulos, María Soledad

2013-10-01

278

Karyotype evolution in South American subterranean rodents Ctenomys magellanicus (Rodentia: Octodontidae): chromosome rearrangements and (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequence localization in 2n=34 and 2n=36 chromosomal forms.  

PubMed

Ctenomys is the most numerous genus of South American subterranean rodents and one of the most karyotypically diverse clades of mammals known. Ctenomys magellanicus is the southernmost species of the group and the only one living in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). This species presents two chromosomal forms, i.e. 2n=34, and 2n=36 (FN=68). Recent studies suggest that genetic divergence between both karyotypic forms resulted from a chromosomal speciation process. In order to identify the chromosomal rearrangement involved in the process of karyotype evolution in this species, we used chromosome banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization with a telomeric probe to metaphase chromosomes of the two chromosomal forms of Ctenomys magellanicus. Chromosome analysis of Giemsa-stained and G-banding preparations showed that Cm34 and Cm36 karyotypes differ in one rearrangement involving chromosomes A9 from Cm34 and B12 and B17 from Cm36. In addition FISH analysis showed that all of the chromosomes from both chromosomal forms exhibit a telomeric-only distribution pattern of the (TTAGGG)n sequence, indicating that none of the chromosomal forms of Ctenomys magellanicus has true telocentric chromosomes. Our results suggest that a chromosome fission event would have occurred during the process of karyotype evolution in this species. PMID:14641468

Lizarralde, Marta; Bolzan, Alejandro; Bianchi, Martha

2003-01-01

279

Mus musculus is the common house mouse. It belongs to the order Rodentia, family Muridae. There are 30 known species of mice. With almost 500 inbred strains of mice worldwide. Balb/c,  

E-print Network

weight Male 20-40 g Female 25-40 g Life span 1.5-3y Body temperature 36.5-38 Heart rate 325-780 bpm Respiratory rate 60-220 Food consumption 12-18g/100g/d Water consumption 15ml/100g/d Breeding onset Male 50d be achieved by two mating systems: monogamous (one male, one female) polygamous (one male, multiple females

Shihadeh, Alan

280

Vilnius City Theriofauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammal diversity investigations in Vilnius were carried out in 1992, 1998–2004. The following 51 mammal species were registered in the city: five species of insectivores (Insectivora), 11 of bats (Chiroptera), 18 of rodents (Rodentia), two of hares (Lagomorpha), 11 of carnivores (Carnivora) and four of ungulates (Artiodactyla). Fourteen mammal species are included into the Red Data Book of Lithuania, namely

Kazimieras Baranauskas; Linas Bal?iauskas; Reda Mažeikyt?

2005-01-01

281

Un exemple de corrélation marin continental dans le Priabonien de Roumanie. Remarques sur la Grande CoupureAn example of marine continental correlation in the Priabonian of Romania. Comments on the 'Grande Coupure' event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the Calata and Turea marine series, some Priabonian continental intercalations with charophytes and mammals were found. The presence of Cricetids (Rodentia, Muroidea), one of the migrants representative of the Grande Coupure event, lead to the conclusion that in this region, like in Southern Germany, the migration of the Asian elements is earlier than in western Europe.

Baciu, Calin; Hartenberger, Jean-Louis

2001-10-01

282

Sound Localization in a Predatory Rodent, the Northern Grasshopper Mouse (Onychomys leucogaster )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the ability of mammals to localize sound revealed that among the animals examined to date, none of the rodents have been able to localize as accurately as the carnivores. Because all of these rodents are prey animals, the question arises as to whether their poor localization acuity is a phyletic trait of Rodentia or whether it is

Rickye S. Heffner; Henry E. Heffner

1988-01-01

283

Multiple Paternity in Belding's Ground Squirrel Litters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually receptive female Spermophilus beldingi (Rodentia: Sciuridae) usually mate with several different males. The paternity of 27 litters born in 1977 and 1978 was ascertained by combining field observations of mating with laboratory paternity exclusion analyses. Most of the litters (78 percent) were multiply sired, usually by two or three males. This may be the highest frequency of multiple paternity

James Hanken; Paul W. Sherman

1981-01-01

284

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / October 2001Governale and Lee / ODORS ENTRAIN FEMALE DEGUS Olfactory Cues Accelerate Reentrainment  

E-print Network

Octodon degus (Rodentia) Marcia M. Governale* and Theresa M. Lee*,,1 University of Michigan, Department Octodon degus, social interactions enhance reentrainment after phase shifts and can act as a weakJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS / October 2001Governale and Lee / ODORS ENTRAIN FEMALE DEGUS

Lee, Theresa

285

ELSEVIER SSDI 0031-9384(95)02141-8 Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 59, Nos. 4/5, pp. 817-826, 1996  

E-print Network

Relationship of Circadian Activity and Social Behaviors to Reentrainment Rates in Diurnal Octodon degus of circadian activity and social behaviors to reentrainment rates in diurnal Octodon degus (Rodentia). PHYSIOL BEHAV 59(4/5) 817-826, 1996.--Previous experiments with female Octodon degus showed that entrained males

Lee, Theresa

286

Evidence for rodent-common and species-typical limb and digit use in eating, derived from a comparative analysis of ten rodent species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Order Rodentia comprises a vast portion of mammalian species (1814 species), which occupy extremely diverse habitats requiring very distinct motor specializations (e.g. burrowing, hopping, climbing, flying and swimming). Although early classification of paw use ability suggests rodents are impoverished relative to primates and make little use of their paws, there have been no systematic investigations of paw use in rodents.

I. Q. Whishaw; J. R. Sarna; S. M. Pellis

1998-01-01

287

Genomics, biogeography, and the diversification of placental mammals.  

PubMed

Previous molecular analyses of mammalian evolutionary relationships involving a wide range of placental mammalian taxa have been restricted in size from one to two dozen gene loci and have not decisively resolved the basal branching order within Placentalia. Here, on extracting from thousands of gene loci both their coding nucleotide sequences and translated amino acid sequences, we attempt to resolve key uncertainties about the ancient branching pattern of crown placental mammals. Focusing on approximately 1,700 conserved gene loci, those that have the more slowly evolving coding sequences, and using maximum-likelihood, Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree reconstruction methods, we find from almost all results that a clade (the southern Atlantogenata) composed of Afrotheria and Xenarthra is the sister group of all other (the northern Boreoeutheria) crown placental mammals, among boreoeutherians Rodentia groups with Lagomorpha, and the resultant Glires is close to Primates. Only the NJ tree for nucleotide sequences separates Rodentia (murids) first and then Lagomorpha (rabbit) from the other placental mammals. However, this nucleotide NJ tree still depicts Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria but minus Rodentia and Lagomorpha. Moreover, the NJ tree for amino acid sequences does depict the basal separation to be between Atlantogenata and a Boreoeutheria that includes Rodentia and Lagomorpha. Crown placental mammalian diversification appears to be largely the result of ancient plate tectonic events that allowed time for convergent phenotypes to evolve in the descendant clades. PMID:17728403

Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Opazo, Juan C; Liu, Guozhen; Lefort, Vincent; Guindon, Stephane; Gascuel, Olivier; Grossman, Lawrence I; Romero, Roberto; Goodman, Morris

2007-09-01

288

Sex ratios in high-density populations of the montane vole, Microtus montanus , and the behavior of territorial males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montane voles (Microtus montanus nanus, Rodentia: Muridae) were studied in unconfined populations and in an exclosure in open fields in Wyoming, USA. Field work involved capture-mark-recapture grids, tagging select individuals with irradiated wires, subcutaneous implantation of dye pellets, and behavioral observations.

Frederick J. Jannett

1981-01-01

289

Individual recognition and incest avoidance in eusocial common mole-rats rather than reproductive suppression by parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-reproductive females in families of eusocial common mole-rats (Cryptomys sp., Rodentia) are not suppressed by their mother, (either behaviourally or pheromonally) as is generally assumed. They do not mate with their father and brothers simply because they are not sexually attractive for them (and vice versa). The incest avoidance is based on the capability to recognize (and keep in memory

H. Burda

1995-01-01

290

Differences in food hoarding behaviour in two species of ground squirrels Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and S. spilosoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing food items is considered an alternative to fat storage in many species of ground squirrels. In a comparative study in the laboratory, we hypothesized that two closely-related ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and S. spilosoma (subgenus Ictidomys, Rodentia Sciuridae), could hoard food and that the highest proportion of individuals displaying hoarding should be observed in the species with the greatest

B. Livoreil; C. Baudoin

1996-01-01

291

Perturbation analysis of competition and overlap in habitat utilization between Dipodomys ordii and Dipodomys merriami  

Microsoft Academic Search

The populations of two coexisting species of Dipodomys (Heteromyidae, Rodentia) were manipulated on 10, large, unenclosed, trapping grids. These manipulations revealed that, although many kangaroo rats are established residents in an area, a large number are transient individuals who quickly occupy vacated habitats. On plots from which residents had been removed, transients settled at rates of up to 5% of

Gene D. Schroder; Michael L. Rosenzweig

1975-01-01

292

Evolution, 3 2 ( 2 ) , 1978, pp. 334-341 CHROMOSOMAL HOMOLOGY AND DIVERGENCE BETWEEN SIBLING  

E-print Network

, specia- tion in the Peromyscus maniculatus com- plex has been accompanied by consider- able change SPECIES OF DEER MICE: PEROMYSCUS MANICULA TUS AND P. MELANOTIS (RODENTIA, CRICETIDAE) IRAF. GREENBAUD. melanotis and P. maniculatus, as determined by G- and C- band comparisons. This study was under- taken

Baker, Robert J.

293

Phylogenetic analyses of complete mitochondrial genome sequences suggest a basal divergence of the enigmatic rodent Anomalurus  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic relationships between Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates and their allies (Euarchontoglires) have long been debated. While it is now generally agreed that Rodentia constitutes a monophyletic sister-group of Lagomorpha and that this clade (Glires) is sister to Primates and Dermoptera, higher-level relationships within Rodentia remain contentious. Results We have sequenced and performed extensive evolutionary analyses on the mitochondrial genome of the scaly-tailed flying squirrel Anomalurus sp., an enigmatic rodent whose phylogenetic affinities have been obscure and extensively debated. Our phylogenetic analyses of the coding regions of available complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Euarchontoglires suggest that Anomalurus is a sister taxon to the Hystricognathi, and that this clade represents the most basal divergence among sampled Rodentia. Bayesian dating methods incorporating a relaxed molecular clock provide divergence-time estimates which are consistently in agreement with the fossil record and which indicate a rapid radiation within Glires around 60 million years ago. Conclusion Taken together, the data presented provide a working hypothesis as to the phylogenetic placement of Anomalurus, underline the utility of mitochondrial sequences in the resolution of even relatively deep divergences and go some way to explaining the difficulty of conclusively resolving higher-level relationships within Glires with available data and methodologies. PMID:17288612

Horner, David S; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Aurelio; Gissi, Carmela; Saccone, Cecilia; Pesole, Graziano

2007-01-01

294

Extinction of the autochthonous small mammals of Mallorca (Gymnesic Islands,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Extinction of the autochthonous small mammals of Mallorca (Gymnesic Islands-mail: vieapba@uib.es Abstract Aim To investigate the chronology, causes and consequences of the extinction of two extinct endemic small mammals from Mallorca: the Balearic dormouse, Eliomys morpheus (Rodentia

Binford, Michael W.

295

SOME NEW MAMMAL RECORDS FROM THE RAINFORESTS OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report new data on the occurrence and range of seven mammal species in the rainforest region of south-eastern Nigeria. The species in question are: Potamogale velox (Insec- tivora), Cercopithecus sclateri, Procolobus badiiis epieni (Primates), Manis fetradactyla (Pholidota), Furiisciurus pyrropus talboti (Rodentia), Trichechus seizegalensis (Sirenia) and Tragelaphus spekii gra- tus (Artiodactyla). In terms of conservation (according to

FRANCESCO M. ANGELIC; BOMIEGHA EGBIDE

296

Spatial distribution of meadow jumping mice ( Zapus hudsonius) in logged boreal forest of northwestern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of small mammal responses to habitat alterations focus on dominant species, with a resulting lack of information for rare species. Jumping mice (Order Rodentia: Dipodidae) tend to be rare in small mammal trapping studies; thus, little is known of their response to habitat alterations, such as clear-cut logging. We examined the spatial distribution of meadow jumping mice (Zapus

Thomas S. Jung; Todd Powell

2011-01-01

297

BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.  

E-print Network

mountains and mountain ranges on Luzon Island, Philippines, since 2000 have led to the discovery of seven of Forest Mice (Rodentia: Muridae: Apomys) from Luzon Island Author(s): Lawrence R. Heaney, Danilo S. Balete) from Luzon Island Lawrence R. Heaney1 , Danilo S. Balete1 , Eric A. Rickart1,2 , Phillip A. Alviola1

Steppan, Scott

298

Energetics of hibernating yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-bellied marmots (Rodentia: Sciuridae) typically hibernate for eight months. This study explored energetic costs of hibernation in young and adults at 10 and 6 °C. Age significantly affected the percent time torpid, total and mass-specific Vo2, use of energy during torpor, and daily mass loss at 6 °C. Thus young had a higher mass-specific Vo2 during a torpor bout, which

Kenneth B. Armitage; Daniel T. Blumstein; Brett C. Woods

2003-01-01

299

Communal burrowing in the hystricognath rodent, Octodon degus : a benefit of sociality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the hypothesis that a main benefit of group-living in the semifossorial rodent, Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae), is to decrease individual cost of burrow construction. We contrasted the digging behavior of groups\\u000a of three same-sex, adult-sized individuals with that of solitary degus. The behavior of singles and trios was recorded inside\\u000a a large terrarium partially filled with natural soil

Luis A. Ebensperger; Francisco Bozinovic

2000-01-01

300

The density-dependent formation of extended maternal families of the montane vole, Microtus montanus nanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Montane voles (Microtus montanus; Rodentia: Muridae) were studied in unconfined populations and in an enclosure in open fields in Wyoming. The field work involved capture-mark-recapture grids, tagging of select individuals with irradiated wires, and behavioral observations.2.When not nesting in proximity to another parous female in the field, the M. montanus dam abandoned her brood nest and young at about 15

Frederick J. Jannett

1978-01-01

301

Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.  

PubMed

The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

2014-11-01

302

Pro-inflammatory activities in elapid snake venoms.  

PubMed Central

1. Snake venoms from the genera Micrurus (M. ibiboboca and M. spixii) and Naja (N. naja, N. melanoleuca and N. nigricollis) were analysed, using biological and immunochemical methods, to detect pro-inflammatory activities, cobra venom factor (COF), proteolytic enzymes, thrombin-like substances, haemorrhagic and oedema-producing substances. 2. The venoms of the five snake species activate the complement system (C) in normal human serum (NHS) in a dose-related fashion, at concentrations ranging from 5 micrograms to 200 micrograms ml-1 serum. Electrophoretic conversion of C3 was observed with all venoms in NHS containing normal concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+, but only by venoms from N. naja and N. melanoleuca when Ca2+ was chelated by adding Mg(2+)-EGTA. 3. Purified human C3 was electrophoretically converted, in the absence of other C components, by the venoms from N. naja, N. nigricollis and M. ibiboboca. However, only the venoms from N. naja and N. melanoleuca contained a 144 kDa protein revealed in Western blot with sera against COF or human C3. 4. All venoms, at minimum concentrations of 30 ng ml-1, were capable of lysing sheep red blood cells, also in a dose-related fashion, when incubated with these cells in presence of egg yolk as a source of lecithin. Although the venoms from M. spixii and N. nigricollis showed detectable thrombin-like activity, these and the other venoms were free of proteolytic activity when fibrin, gelatin and casein, were used as substrates. 5. When tested on mice skin, all five venoms were capable of inducing an increase in vascular permeability and oedema, but were devoid of haemorrhagic producing substances (haemorrhagins).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7921595

Tambourgi, D. V.; dos Santos, M. C.; Furtado, M. de F.; de Freitas, M. C.; da Silva, W. D.; Kipnis, T. L.

1994-01-01

303

Number and nuclear localisation of nucleoli in mammalian spermatocytes.  

PubMed

In seven mammalian species, including man, the position and number of nucleoli in pachytene spermatocyte nuclei were studied from electron microscope (EM) nuclear sections or bivalent microspreads. The number and position of the nucleolar organiser regions (NORs) in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were also analysed, using silver staining techniques and in situ hybridisation protocols. The general organisation of pachytene spermatocyte nucleoli was almost the same, with only minor morphological differences between species. The terminal NORs of Thylamys elegans (Didelphoidea, Marsupialia), Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheridae, Marsupialia), Phyllotys osgoodi (Rodentia, Muridae) and man, always gave rise to peripheral nucleoli in the spermatocyte nucleus. In turn, the intercalated NORs from Octodon degus, Ctenomys opimus (Rodentia, Octodontidae) and Chinchilla lanigera (Rodentia, Cavidae), gave rise to central nucleoli. In species with a single nucleolar bivalent, just one nucleolus is formed, while in those with multiple nucleolar bivalents a variable number of nucleoli are formed by association of different nucleolar bivalents or NORs that occupy the same nuclear peripheral space (Phyllotis and man). It can be concluded that the position of each nucleolus within the spermatocyte nucleus is mainly dependent upon: (1) the position of the NOR in the nucleolar bivalent synaptonemal complex (SC), (2) the nuclear pathway of the nucleolar bivalent SC, being both telomeric ends attached to the nuclear envelope, and (3) the association between nucleolar bivalents by means of their NOR-nucleolar domains that occupy the same nuclear space. Thus, the distribution of nucleoli within the nuclear space of spermatocytes is non-random and it is consistent with the existence of a species-specific meiotic nuclear architecture. PMID:15521420

Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Pincheira, Juana; Page, Jesús; Manterola, Marcia; Cerda, M Cristina

2004-07-01

304

Why Can't Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study  

PubMed Central

The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

2013-01-01

305

Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.  

PubMed

The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

2013-01-01

306

Institute of Applied Ecology: African Mammals Databank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This impressive GIS-based databank focuses on the conservation and distribution of African mammals; and was developed collaboratively by the Geographic Information Systems Laboratory of the Animal and Human Biology Department at the University of Rome La Sapienza and the Institute of Applied Ecology. The databank covers the entire African continent, except Madagascar, âÂÂand includes a total of 281 species, belonging to 12 orders and 28 families.â Covered orders include Insectivora, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Sirenia, Rodentia, Macroscelidae, and more. In addition to viewing information online, site visitors can download data, and information about project methodology.

307

An Examination of the Generation-Time Effect on Molecular Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using DNA sequences of 17 mammalian genes, the generation-time effect is estimated separately for synonymous substitutions and nonsynonymous substitutions. Star phylogenies composed of rodentia, artiodactyla, and primates are examined. The generation-time effect is found to be more conspicuous for synonymous substitutions than for non-synonymous substitutions, by using the methods of (i) Nei and Gojobori, (ii) Li, and (iii) Ina. The proportion of accepted amino acid substitutions in evolution is estimated to be about twice as large in the primate lineage as in the rodent lineage. This result is in accord with the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution.

Ohta, Tomoko

1993-11-01

308

Flying lemurs - the "flying tree shrews"? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade  

E-print Network

, Rodentia, Carnivora). Proc Biol Soc Wash 2003, 116:699-709. 64. Nie W, Wang J, O'Brien PCM, Fu B, Tian Y, Ferguson-Smith MA, Yang F: The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G... , Ferguson-Smith MA: A complete compara- tive chromosome map for the dog, red fox and human and its integration with canine genetic maps. Genomics 1999, 62:189-202. 39. Robinson TJ, Fu B, Ferguson-Smith MA, Yang F: Cross-species chromosome painting...

Nie, Wenhui; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Volobouev, Vitaly; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

2008-05-01

309

Sexual selection in a polygynous rodent (Ctenomys talarum): an analysis of fighting capacity.  

PubMed

The South American subterranean rodent genus Ctenomys (Caviomorpha: Octodontoidea), which uses both claws and teeth to dig, shows striking morphological adaptations to its specialized mode of life. Among other traits, the genus has evolved a powerful jaw musculature and procumbent incisors that are used for dento-excavation. Behavioral observations indicate that these traits are also used during male aggressive encounters, which characterize the polygynous mating system of one of the species of the genus, Ctenomys talarum. A question emerges about sexual selection: could it have induced further changes in traits primarily evolved as adaptations for digging? To address this issue, we studied functional and morphological attributes of the jaw and incisors in specimens of C. talarum. Incisor bite forces were measured on wild females and males from a local population (Mar de Cobo; Buenos Aires Province) by means of a strain gauge load cell force transducer. Museum specimens coming from the same population were studied to assess anatomical attributes of both sexes. Since this species exhibits dimorphism in body size, the possible effect of body mass on the studied traits was analyzed. Males and females showed significant differences in biting performance and mandibular width, but when size was taken into account these differences disappeared. However, other dimorphic traits can vary with a certain independence with respect to size, particularly the 2nd moment of area of the incisors and, to a lesser extent, incisor procumbency. The former geometrical parameter, which is proportional to the bending strength, was highly dimorphic. This fact suggests that, during aggressive encounters between males, biting would place large bending loads on the incisors. PMID:23040177

Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra I; Marcos, Alejandra; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo I

2012-12-01

310

Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae), Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae) and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae) in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha). However the smaller fragment (20 ha), had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia) was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia) and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla) recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators. PMID:19928478

Chinchilla, Federico A

2009-09-01

311

Epidemiological prediction of the distribution of insects of medical significance: comparative distributions of fleas and sucking lice on the rat host Rattus norvegicus in Yunnan Province, China.  

PubMed

Determining the distribution patterns of ectoparasites is important for predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases. A simple epidemiological model was used to compare the distributions of two different taxa of ectoparasitic insects, sucking lice (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and fleas (Insecta: Anoplura), on the same rodent host, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae), in Yunnan Province, China. Correlations between mean abundance and prevalence were determined. Both fleas and sucking lice were aggregated on their hosts, and sucking lice showed a higher degree of aggregation than fleas. The prevalence of both fleas and sucking lice increased with log-transformed mean abundance and a highly linear correlation and modelling efficiency of predicted prevalence against observed prevalence were obtained. The results demonstrate that prevalence can be explained simply by mean abundance. PMID:21453420

Zuo, X H; Guo, X G

2011-12-01

312

Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers  

PubMed Central

After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

2008-01-01

313

Assemblage Data and Bone and Teeth Modifications as an Aid to Paleoenvironmental Interpretations of the Open-Air Pleistocene Site of Tighenif (Algeria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the proportions of the various groups of Rodentia collected from eight stratigraphic levels at Tighenif had previously been interpreted as representing environmental (climatic) changes. However, the processes involved in the formation of assemblages are still not well understood. Examination of fragmentation, crystallinity, and chemical composition of fossil bones and teeth, compared to recent samples, shows that a possible explanation for the variations in frequencies is the differential preservation of skeletal remains. Thus, the evaluation of postmortem effects is essential in determining the accuracy of the fossil record. The abundance and composition of remains are governed by the complex interaction of many factors. As indicated by actualistic studies, direct deductions from fauna lists must be avoided as much as possible.

Dauphin, Yannicke; Kowalski, Casimir; Denys, Christiane

1994-11-01

314

Unexpected primitive rodents in the Quaternary of Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the first fossils recorded in the Hernandarias Formation (Pleistocene) in Entre Ríos province (eastern Argentina). They are represented by three teeth assigned to the caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) Aenigmys diamantensis gen. et sp. nov. and Eumysops. To establish the phylogenetic affinities of the two most enigmatic teeth, their enamel microstructure was studied. Aenigmys diamantensis is considered the most primitive taxon of a clade formed by Dinomyidae-Neoepiblemidae-Heptaxodontidae. Evidence of the close relationships among these families also is presented herein. The new fossils reinforce previous hypotheses about the survival of primitive Brazilian taxa after their extinction in the Pampas and Patagonia of southern South America. They also show that the diversity of caviomorph rodents during the Quaternary was greater than supposed and that an important Quaternary extinction, not previously detected, affected several lineages. With the available evidence, it is not possible to determine if these rodents indicate a warm pulse or a particular biogeographic situation in Entre Ríos.

Vucetich, María G.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Verzi, Diego H.; Noriega, Jorge I.; Tonni, Eduardo P.

2005-10-01

315

Haemaphysalis (allophysalis) danieli, sp. n. (ixodoidea: ixodidae), female and tentatively associated immature stages from high mountains of northern Pakistan and Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Haemaphysalis (Allophysalis) danieli sp. n. is described from a female taken from alpine vegetation in Swat, Pakistan. Fifty-one nymphal and larval ticks tentatively associated with this taxon are from hamsters, field mice, voles, and marmots (Rodentia), Cricetulus migratorius, Apodemus flavicollis, alticola roylei, and Marmota caudata, and from pikas (Lagomorpha), Ochotona roylei, in Gilgit and Hazara districts of Pakistan and in Badakhashan Province of Afghanistan. Collecting localities are in the western Himalayan mountain complex between 2,310 and 4,000 m altitude and between 35degrees08' and 36degrees23' N and 71degrees51' and 74degrees02' E. This species is most closely related to the mountain-inhabiting H. (A9Y pospelovashtromae Hoogstraal of southern USSR and Mongolia and H. (A.) garhwalensis Dhanda and Bhat of northern India and Nepal. PMID:864574

Cerný, V; Hoogstraal, H

1977-06-01

316

A novel hantavirus detected in Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) in China.  

PubMed

Rodents are the major natural reservoir of hantaviruses, which cause two main human zoonoses, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas. Surveillance of hantaviruses in rodents plays an important role in the prevention and control of HFRS and HPS. In this study, small mammals were captured in an HFRS-endemic region, Luxi County within the Yunnan Province of China, from the autumn of 2009 to the spring of 2010, and assessed for the presence of hantaviruses. A high ratio of hantavirus infection was detected in the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus). Full-length sequences of the small, middle and large segments were determined from one positive sample (designated Luxi hantavirus). Analyses of the coding sequences indicated that this virus represents a distinct hantavirus species within the hantavirus group identified from the Rodentia subfamily Arvicolinae. PMID:21402592

Zhang, Yunzhi; Yuan, Junfa; Yang, Xinglou; Zhou, Jihua; Yang, Weihong; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Shi, Zhengli

2011-06-01

317

Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. A total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 Artiodactyla, 33 Rodentia, 3 Perissodactyla, and 2 Paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the Czech Republic was examined. Only in a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was Cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. The partial small subunit rRNA sequence obtained from the isolate was identical to sequences of Cryptosporidium muris in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Neonatal BALB/c mice inoculated with 1 x 10(3) fresh oocysts of the C. muris giraffe isolate did not produce a detectable infection. PMID:19685941

Kodádková, A; Kvác, M; Ditrich, O; Sak, B; Xiao, L

2010-02-01

318

Enhanced selection for MHC diversity in social tuco-tucos.  

PubMed

To explore the effects of behavior and demography on balancing selection at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci, we examined allelic diversity at exon 2 of the MHC class II DQbeta locus in a social and a solitary species of tuco-tuco (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys), both of which occur in the same valley in southwestern Argentina. By comparing patterns of diversity at this MHC gene to the diversity evident at fifteen microsatellite loci, we demonstrate that balancing selection at the DQbeta locus is enhanced in the social species compared to its solitary congener. These findings have intriguing implications for the role of behavioral and demographic parameters in maintaining diversity at MHC loci. PMID:12038542

Hambuch, Tina M; Lacey, Eileen A

2002-04-01

319

Hepatitis B virus lineages in mammalian hosts: Potential for bidirectional cross-species transmission  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a cosmopolitan infectious agent currently affecting over 350 million people worldwide, presently accounting for more than two billion infections. In addition to man, other hepatitis virus strains infect species of several mammalian families of the Primates, Rodentia and Chiroptera orders, in addition to birds. The mounting evidence of HBV infection in African, Asian and neotropical primates draws attention to the potential cross-species, zoonotic transmission of these viruses to man. Moreover, recent evidence also suggests the humans may also function as a source of viral infection to other mammals, particularly to domestic animals like poultry and swine. In this review, we list all evidence of HBV and HBV-like infection of nonhuman mammals and discuss their potential roles as donors or recipients of these viruses to humans and to other closely-related species. PMID:24976704

Bonvicino, Cibele R; Moreira, Miguel A; Soares, Marcelo A

2014-01-01

320

Can forest fragmentation disrupt a conditional mutualism? A case from central Amazon.  

PubMed

This is the first study to investigate whether scatter-hoarding behavior, a conditional mutualism, can be disrupted by forest fragmentation. We examined whether acouchies (Myoprocta acouchy, Rodentia) and agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina, Rodentia) changed scatter-hoarding behavior toward seeds of Astrocaryum aculeatum (Arecaceae) as a consequence of a decrease in forest-patch area. Our study was conducted at the 30-year-old Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, in central Amazon, Brazil. We tested whether forest size affected the number of Astrocaryum seeds removed and scatter-hoarded (and likely dispersed) by acouchies and agoutis, as well as the distance that the seeds were hoarded. The study extended over three seasons: the peak of the rainy season (March-April), the transition between the rainy and the dry season (May-June), and the peak of the dry season (August-September). Our results revealed that the number of seeds removed was larger in smaller fragments, but that the percentage of seeds hoarded was much lower, and seeds eaten much higher, in 1-ha fragments. Moreover, fewer seeds were taken longer distances in fragments than in the continuous forest. Site affected the number of seeds removed and season affected the percentage of seeds hoarded: more seeds were removed from stations in one site than in two others, and hoarding was more important in April and September than in June. Our study reveals that scatter-hoarding behavior is affected by forest fragmentation, with the most important disruption in very small fragments. Fragmentation converts a largely mutualistic relationship between the rodents and this palm in large forest patches into seed predation in small fragments. PMID:19633870

Jorge, Maria Luisa S P; Howe, Henry F

2009-10-01

321

The use of semen evaluation and assisted reproduction in Spix's macaws in terms of species conservation.  

PubMed

The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is the rarest parrot on earth. The remaining captive population consists of 79 individuals. Captive propagation is ongoing to increase the number of individuals for future reintroduction back into the wild. Unfortunately, from 2004 to 2012, only 33 chicks hatched from 331 eggs. Semen evaluation and assisted reproduction might help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a recently developed electro-stimulated semen collection technique was used in Spix's macaws. Semen collection was successful in 39 of 78 attempts in 10 out of 17 males. Examination of the semen included evaluation of volume, color, consistency, contaminations and pH, as well as determination of motility, viability, morphology, concentration, and total count of spermatozoa. The median volume of semen samples was 5.6 µl. On average, 34.7 ± 21.9% (median 30%) of the sperm were motile and 23.1 ± 22.1% (median 16.5%) were progressively motile. In addition to spermatozoa, round cells were detected in the samples. Median sperm concentration was 15,500/µl (range 500-97,500/µl) and median viability was 50% (range 5-87%). Morphological examination revealed in 26.5% normal spermatozoa, high numbers of malformations of the head (50.2%) and tail region (20.5%), with 29% of all sperm showing multiple abnormalities. Artificial insemination was performed in three females; two eggs laid after artificial insemination had spermatozoa present on the perivitelline layer, suggesting the possible success of the insemination technique. Although no fertilization could be demonstrated, these preliminary results are promising, as they indicate that assisted reproduction might be a tool for species conservation in the Spix's macaw. PMID:24752991

Fischer, Dominik; Neumann, Daniel; Purchase, Cromwell; Bouts, Tim; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Wehrend, Axel; Lierz, Michael

2014-01-01

322

A Newly Emerged Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Northern Israel and Two New Reservoir Hosts of Leishmania major  

PubMed Central

In 2006/7, 18 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported for the first time from Sde Eliyahu (pop. 650), a village in the Beit She'an valley of Israel. Between 2007–2011, a further 88 CL cases were diagnosed bringing the total to 106 (16.3% of the population of Sde Eliyahu). The majority of cases resided in the south-western part of the village along the perimeter fence. The causative parasite was identified as Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), 1786 (Diptera: Psychodidae) was found to be the most abundant phlebotomine species comprising 97% of the sand flies trapped inside the village, and an average of 7.9% of the females were positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA. Parasite isolates from CL cases and a sand fly were characterized using several methods and shown to be L. major. During a comprehensive survey of rodents 164 Levant voles Microtus guentheri Danford & Alston, 1880 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) were captured in alfalfa fields bordering the village. Of these 27 (16.5%) tested positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA and shown to be L. major by reverse line blotting. A very high percentage (58.3% - 21/36) of Tristram's jirds Meriones tristrami Thomas, 1892 (Rodentia: Muridae), found further away from the village also tested positive for ITS1 by PCR. Isolates of L. major were successfully cultured from the ear of a wild jird found positive by ITS1 PCR. Although none of the wild PCR-positive voles exhibited external pathology, laboratory-reared voles that were infected by intradermal L. major inoculation, developed patent lesions and sand flies became infected by feeding on the ears of these laboratory-infected voles. This is the first report implicating M. guentheri and M. tristrami as reservoirs of Leishmania. The widespread co-distribution of M. guentheri and P. papatasi, suggests a significant threat from the spread of CL caused by L. major in the Middle East, central Asia and southern Europe. PMID:23437408

Faiman, Roy; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Jaffe, Charles; Motro, Yoav; Nasereddin, Abdelmagid; Schnur, Lionel F.; Torem, Moshe; Pratlong, Francine; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Warburg, Alon

2013-01-01

323

Refugia in glacial ages led to the current discontinuous distribution patterns of the dark red-backed vole Myodes rex on Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

The terrestrial mammalian fauna of the North Japanese island, Hokkaido, is more similar to that of Southern Siberia than to the main island of Japan, Honshu. Three species of the genus Myodes (Muridae, Rodentia) are found on Hokkaido, but not on Honshu. While Myodes rufocanus and M. rutilus are widely distributed across Hokkaido as well as the Eurasian continent, M. rex, which is endemic to Hokkaido and its adjacent islands, shows a discontinuous distribution pattern. We analyzed the phylogeographic history of M. rex using the mitochondrial DNA control region in order to interpret their discontinuous distribution pattern. Phylogenetic relationships among 54 distinct haplotypes showed that M. rex can be divided into four clades that occur on the northern, central, and southern regions of the Hokkaido mainland and on Rishiri Island, respectively. The phylogroups in the northern and central regions were largely separated in space, although several areas of sympatry were found. The phylogroup in the southern region, which was clearly separated from other phylogroups, showed markedly low genetic variability. All analyzed individuals from the population on Rishiri belonged to a separate lineage. Across a range of divergence rate estimates, we dated the basal divergence of all phylogroups to the mid to late Pleistocene, with subsequent signals of population expansion within lineages. We conclude that current phylogeographic structure in M. rex likely reflects Pleistocene survival in several separate refugia in situ. Past glacial ages have thus played an important role in shaping the current distribution patterns of mammalian species on Hokkaido. PMID:23915157

Kawai, Kuniko; Hailer, Frank; de Guia, Anna Pauline; Ichikawa, Hideo; Saitoh, Takashi

2013-08-01

324

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Eimeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from sciurid rodents.  

PubMed

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild-caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris , and Cynomys ludovicianus . The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values > 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciurus niger and Sciurus niger cinereus and to Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single, well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in neighbor joining and maximum parsimony analyses. However, within the clade, there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E

2011-04-01

325

Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA in Emeria callospermophili (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Sciurid Rodents  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of the coccidia has historically been morphologically based. The purpose of this study was to establish if conspecificity of isolates of Eimeria callospermophili from 4 ground-dwelling squirrel hosts (Rodentia: Sciuridae) is supported by comparison of rDNA sequence data and to examine how this species relates to eimerian species from other sciurid hosts. Eimeria callospermophili was isolated from 4 wild caught hosts, i.e., Urocitellus elegans, Cynomys leucurus, Marmota flaviventris, and Cynomys ludovicianus. The ITS1 and ITS2 genomic rDNA sequences were PCR generated, sequenced, and analyzed. The highest intraspecific pairwise distance values of 6.0% in ITS1 and 7.1% in ITS2 were observed in C. leucurus. Interspecific pairwise distance values greater than 5% do not support E. callospermophili conspecificity. Generated E. callospermophili sequences were compared to Eimeria lancasterensis from Sciuris niger and Sciurus niger cinereus, and Eimeria ontarioensis from S. niger. A single well-supported clade was formed by E. callospermophili amplicons in Neighbor Joining and Maximum Parsimony analyses. However, within the clade there was little evidence of host or geographic structuring of the species. PMID:21506777

Motriuk-Smith, Dagmara; Seville, R Scott; Quealy, Leah; Oliver, Clinton E.

2011-01-01

326

Energetics of hibernating yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).  

PubMed

Yellow-bellied marmots (Rodentia: Sciuridae) typically hibernate for eight months. This study explored energetic costs of hibernation in young and adults at 10 and 6 degrees C. Age significantly affected the percent time torpid, total and mass-specific VO(2), use of energy during torpor, and daily mass loss at 6 degrees C. Thus young had a higher mass-specific VO(2) during a torpor bout, which was attributed to higher metabolism during deep torpor. Total VO(2) during a bout was higher in young and there were significant temperature/age interactions; young had a higher VO(2) during torpor and deep torpor at 6 degrees C than at 10 degrees C. VO(2) increased at T(E)s below 6 degrees C. Young had a higher daily mass loss than adults at 6 degrees C. Euthermy increased energetic costs 19.3 times over those of torpor and 23.5 times over those of deep torpor. Energy costs are minimized by spending 88.6% of the hibernation period in torpor, by the rapid decline of VO(2) from euthermy to torpor and by allowing T(B) to decline at low T(E). Torpidity results in average energy savings during winter of 83.3% of the costs of maintaining euthermy. Energy savings are greater than those reported for Marmota marmota and M. monax. PMID:12507613

Armitage, Kenneth B; Blumstein, Daniel T; Woods, Brett C

2003-01-01

327

More novel hantaviruses and diversifying reservoir hosts--time for development of reservoir-derived cell culture models?  

PubMed

Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses. PMID:24576845

Eckerle, Isabella; Lenk, Matthias; Ulrich, Rainer G

2014-01-01

328

Shared Ancestry between a Newfound Mole-Borne Hantavirus and Hantaviruses Harbored by Cricetid Rodents ?†  

PubMed Central

Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

2011-01-01

329

Morphological Change in Quaternary Mammals of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book examines case studies of North American Quaternary mammalian evolution within the larger domain of modern evolutionary theory. It presents previously unpublished studies of a variety of taxa (xenarthrans, rodents, carnivores, ungulates) examined over several temporal scales, from a few thousand years during the Holocene to millions of years of late Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Different organizational levels are represented, from mosaic population variation, to a synopsis of Quaternary evolution of an entire order (Rodentia). In addition to specific case histories, the book includes purely theoretical and methodological contributions, for example, on the statistical recognition of stasis in the fossil record, new ways to calculate evolutionary rates, and the use of digital image analysis in the study of dental ontogeny. Perhaps the most important aspect of the studies reported in this book is that they span the time between the "ecological moment" and "deep time". Modern taxa can be traced back into the fossil record, and variation among extant taxa can be used as a control against which variation in the extinct ones can be understood.

Martin, Robert A.; Barnosky, Anthony D.

1993-09-01

330

The power of social structure: how we became an intelligent lineage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New findings pertinent to the human lineage origin (Ardipithecus ramidus) prompt a new analysis of the extrapolation of the social behavior of our closest relatives, the great apes, into human ‘natural social behavior’. With the new findings it becomes clear that human ancestors had very divergent social arrangements from the ones we observe today in our closest genetic relatives. The social structure of chimpanzees and gorillas is characterized by male competition. Aggression and the instigation of fear are common place. The morphology of A. ramidus points in the direction of a social system characterized by female-choice instead of male-male competition. This system tends to be characterized by reduced aggression levels, leading to more stable arrangements. It is postulated here that the social stability with accompanying group cohesion propitiated by this setting is favorable to the investment in more complex behaviors, the development of innovative approaches to solve familiar problems, an increase in exploratory behavior, and eventually higher intelligence and the use of sophisticated tools and technology. The concentration of research efforts into the study of social animals with similar social systems (e.g., New World social monkeys (Callitrichidae), social canids (Canidae) and social rodents (Rodentia)) are likely to provide new insights into the understanding of what factors determined our evolution into an intelligent species capable of advanced technology.

de Sousa António, Marina Resendes; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

2011-01-01

331

Sound localization in a predatory rodent, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster).  

PubMed

A comparison of the ability of mammals to localize sound revealed that among the animals examined to date, none of the rodents have been able to localize as accurately as the carnivores. Because all of these rodents are prey animals, the question arises as to whether their poor localization acuity is a phyletic trait of Rodentia or whether it is a trait common to prey species that may be under less selective pressure than predators to localize sound accurately. To answer this question, sound localization acuity was determined in a species that is both predatory and a rodent, the northern grasshopper mouse. Localization thresholds for a single 100-ms noise burst were determined for three grasshopper mice using a conditioned avoidance procedure. Their 50% discrimination threshold of 19 degrees is larger than that of any of the previously tested carnivores and well within the range of other rodents. However, calculations of the binaural sound localization cues available to rodents (based on their head size) suggest that the grasshopper mouse may make more efficient use of the available locus cues than other rodents. Thus, although the grasshopper mouse cannot localize as accurately as carnivores, it appears to be more accurate than predicted for a nonpredatory rodent of its size. PMID:3365945

Heffner, R S; Heffner, H E

1988-03-01

332

HIF-1? regulation in mammalian hibernators: role of non-coding RNA in HIF-1? control during torpor in ground squirrels and bats.  

PubMed

A potential role for non-coding RNAs, miR-106b and antisense hypoxia inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1?), in HIF-1? regulation during mammalian hibernation was investigated in two species, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). Both species showed differential regulation of HIF-1? during hibernation. HIF-1? protein levels increased significantly in skeletal muscle of both species when animals entered torpor, as well as in bat liver. HIF-1? mRNA levels correlated with the protein increase in bat skeletal muscle and liver but not in squirrel skeletal muscle. Antisense HIF-1? transcripts were identified in skeletal muscle of both hibernators. The expression of antisense HIF-1? was reduced in skeletal muscle of torpid bats compared with euthermic controls, suggesting that release of inhibition by the antisense RNA contributes to regulating HIF-1? translation in this tissue during torpor. The expression of miR-106b, a microRNA associated with HIF-1? regulation, also decreased during torpor in both skeletal muscle and liver of bats and in ground squirrel skeletal muscle. These data present the first evidence that non-coding RNA provides novel post-transcriptional mechanisms of HIF-1? regulation when hibernators descend into deep cold torpor, and also demonstrate that these mechanisms are conserved in two divergent mammalian orders (Rodentia and Chiroptera). PMID:22526261

Maistrovski, Yulia; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

2012-08-01

333

Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)  

PubMed Central

The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

2010-01-01

334

Gene conversion between mammalian CCR2 and CCR5 chemokine receptor genes: a potential mechanism for receptor dimerization.  

PubMed

The chemokine receptor genes of the CCR cluster on human chromosome 3p21 play important roles in humoral and cellular immune responses. Several of these receptors have been shown to influence human immunodeficiency virus infection and progression to AIDS, and their homologues may play a role in feline immunodeficiency virus infection. We report the isolation and sequencing of a 150-kb domestic cat BAC clone containing the feline CCR genes CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR5 to further analyze these four receptor genes within the family Felidae. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses reveal evidence for historic gene conversion between the adjacent CCR2 and CCR5 genes in the Felidae and in three independent mammalian orders (Primates, Cetartiodactyla, and Rodentia), resulting in higher than expected levels of sequence similarity between the two paralogous genes within each order. The gene conversion was restricted to the structural (transmembrane) domains of the CCR2 and CCR5 genes. We also discovered a recent gene conversion event between the third extracellular loop of CCR2 and CCR5 genes that was fixed in Asian lions and found at low frequency in African lions (Panthera leo), suggesting that this domain may have an important functional role. Our results suggest that ongoing parallel gene conversion between CCR2 and CCR5 promotes receptor heterodimerization in independent evolutionary lineages and offers an effective adaptive strategy for gene editing and coevolution among interactive immune response genes in mammals. PMID:17544254

Vàzquez-Salat, Núria; Yuhki, Naoya; Beck, Thomas; O'Brien, Stephen J; Murphy, William J

2007-08-01

335

Systematics, distribution, and host specificity of Edrabius Fauvel (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)  

E-print Network

(host: Ctenomys maulinus maulinus); and Edrabius chilensiformis (host: Octodon degus). New distribution and host records are given for E. alticolus Seevers, E. argentinus Seevers, E. chilensis Scheerpeltz, E. peruanus Seevers, E. philippianus Fauvel...RESUMEN—Se presenta una revisión de la sistemática, la distribución y las relaciones de los hospederos de los amblyopininos del género Edrabius (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Se reconocen 11 especies de Edrabius, todas parásitos obligados de roedores caviomorfos sudamericanos de las familias Caviidae, Ctenomyidae y Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Se describen tres nuevas especies: Edrabius grandis, hospedador: Ctenomys haigi); Edrabius australis, hospedador: Ctenomys maulinus maulinus); y Edrabius chilensiformis, hospedador: Ocrodon degus). Se entregan nuevos registros distribucionales y de hospederos para E. alticolus Seevers, E. argentinus Seevers, E. chilensis Scheerpeltz, E. peruanus Seevers, E. philippianus Fauvel y E. weiseri Seevers. Por primera vez se reporta la presencia de Edrabius en roedores octodóntidos (E. chilensis en Aconaemys y E. chilensiformis en Octodon). EI género Edrabius anterionnente se conocía solamente asociado a diferentes especies de Ctenomys, con la excepción de una especie, E. kuscheli, asociada a Galea musteloides (Caviidae)....

Ashe, James S.; Timm, Robert M.; Gallardo, Milton H.

1996-12-01

336

Prevalence and molecular typing of Giardia spp. in captive mammals at the zoo of Zagreb, Croatia.  

PubMed

A total of 131 faecal samples from 57 mammalian species housed at the zoo of Zagreb, Croatia, were tested for the presence of Giardia spp. cysts using epifluorescence microscopy. The overall prevalence (29%) was high, yet all animals were asymptomatic at the time of sampling. Positive samples were characterized by PCR and sequence analysis of both conserved and variable loci, for the identification of Giardia species and G. duodenalis assemblages and genotypes. Assemblages A and C were identified in Artiodactyla, assemblage B in Primates, Rodentia and Hyracoidea, and assemblages A, B, C and D, as well as Giardia microti, in Carnivora. Genotyping at the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, at the triose phosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and beta-giardin genes revealed extensive polymorphisms, particularly among assemblage B isolates. A phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences showed that isolates from captive mammals housed at the zoo are genetically different from isolates of human and domestic animal origin. This is the first survey in a zoological garden to include a molecular characterization of the parasite, and provides novel sequence data of G. duodenalis from many previously uncharacterized hosts. PMID:20970259

Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Bata, Ingeborg; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

2011-01-10

337

Intestinal parasitism in the animals of the zoological garden "Peña Escrita" (Almuñecar, Spain).  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal parasites cause serious diarrhoea in captive animals. Therefore, we have undertaken this study to establish programmes to prevent, control, and treat intestinal parasitism in the animals of the zoological garden "Peña Escrita" of Almuñecar (Granada). An annual survey was conduced to estimate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites and the seasonality of this parasitism. Between June 2006 and May 2007, 432 samples were collected from primates, carnivores, perissoodactyla, artiodactyla, rodentia, diprotodontia, galliformes, anseriformes and struthioniformes. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 72.5% of the animals. The most frequent pathogenic endoparasites were Eimeria spp. (17.3%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Strongyloides spp. (4.5%), Cyclospora spp. (4.5%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3.2%) and Isospora spp. (2.6%). Iodamoeba butschlii, Parascaris equorum and Trichuris spp. did not vary with season and Cryptosporidium spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Metastrongylus spp. and Cylicospirura spp. appeared exclusively in Artiodactyla. Multiple parasitic infections were common, 70% of animals presented with at least two parasites (maximum=6). The most frequent cases of multiple parasitism were Eimeria spp. plus Blastocystis spp. and Eimeria spp. plus Nematodirus spp., in the last case the animals presented explosive diarrhoea. In accord with our results, after each sampling, some of the affected animals were treated and the corresponding programmes of prevention and control were designed. PMID:18639383

Pérez Cordón, G; Hitos Prados, A; Romero, D; Sánchez Moreno, M; Pontes, A; Osuna, A; Rosales, M J

2008-10-01

338

Ectoparasites of the Pallas squirrel, Callosciurus erythraeus, introduced to Japan.  

PubMed

The squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) was intentionally introduced to Japan in 1935 and has become established throughout much of the country. Although they live mainly in forests, Pallas squirrels come into gardens and are frequently fed by people or kept as pets, so their ectoparasites could be of potential medical as well as veterinary importance. During 2001-2003 we conducted the first ectoparasite survey of Pallas squirrels in Japan. From 105 C. erythraeus captured in Kamakura District of Kanagawa Prefecture on Honshu Island, three types of ectoparasite were found: 52 specimens of the sucking louse Neohaematopinus callosciuri Johnson (Anoplura: Haematopinidae), 26 fleas Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) anisus Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) and four nymphs of the tick Haemaphysalis flava Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) on 22, 13 and one squirrels, respectively. Evidently in Japan C. erythraeus carries relatively few ectoparasite species; this may be a contributory factor to their invasive success. Further investigations are needed to assess risks of zoonotic transmission of plague or murine typhus by C. anisus, of louse-borne typhus by N. callosciuri and of tularaemia and especially Japanese spotted fever (Rickettsia japonica) by H. flava. PMID:15009447

Shinozaki, Y; Shiibashi, T; Yoshizawa, K; Murata, K; Kimura, J; Maruyama, S; Hayama, Y; Yoshida, H; Nogami, S

2004-03-01

339

Frequent expansions of the bitter taste receptor gene repertoire during evolution of mammals in the Euarchontoglires clade.  

PubMed

Genome studies of mammals in the superorder Euarchontoglires (a clade that comprises the orders Primates, Dermoptera, Scandentia, Rodentia, and Lagomorpha) are important for understanding the biological features of humans, particularly studies of medical model animals such as macaques and mice. Furthermore, the dynamic ecoevolutionary signatures of Euarchontoglires genomes may be discovered because many species in this clade are characterized by their successful adaptive radiation to various ecological niches. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary trajectory of bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) in 28 Euarchontoglires species based on homology searches of 39 whole-genome assemblies. The Euarchontoglires species possessed variable numbers of intact TAS2Rs, which ranged from 16 to 40, and their last common ancestor had at least 26 intact TAS2Rs. The gene tree showed that there have been at least seven lineage-specific events involving massive gene duplications. Gene duplications were particularly evident in the ancestral branches of anthropoids (the anthropoid cluster), which may have promoted the adaptive evolution of anthropoid characteristics, such as a trade-off between olfaction and other senses and the development of herbivorous characteristics. Subsequent whole-gene deletions of anthropoid cluster TAS2Rs in hominoid species suggest ongoing ectopic homologous recombination in the anthropoid cluster. These findings provide insights into the roles of adaptive sensory evolution in various ecological niches and important clues related to the molecular mechanisms that underlie taste diversity in Euarchontoglires mammalian species, including humans. PMID:24758778

Hayakawa, Takashi; Suzuki-Hashido, Nami; Matsui, Atsushi; Go, Yasuhiro

2014-08-01

340

Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas  

PubMed Central

The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild.

Roque, André Luiz R.; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

341

New Species of Rotundomys (Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene of Spain and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Cricetulodon and Rotundomys  

PubMed Central

The material of Rotundomys (Rodentia, Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene fossiliferous complex of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid, Spain) is described and compared with all species currently placed in the genera Rotundomys and Cricetulodon. Both the morphology and size variation encompassed in the collection of specimens from Batallones suggest they belong to a single taxon different from the other known species of these genera. A new species Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is, therefore, named for it. A cladistic analysis, which is the first ever published concernig these taxa, has been conducted to clear up the phylogenetic position of the new species. Our results suggest that Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. inserts between R. mundi and R. sabatieri as a relatively primitive taxon inside the clade Rotundomys. The new taxon is more derived than R. mundi in having a transversal connection between the metalophulid and the anterolophulid on some m1 but more primitive than R. sabatieri and the most evolved species of Rotundomys (R. montisrotuni +R.bressanus) in its less developed lophodonty showing distinct cusps, shallower valleys, and the presence of a subdivided anteroloph on the M1. The species of Cricetulodon do not form a monophyletic group. As a member of Rotundomys, Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is more derived than all of these taxa in its greater lophodonty and the complete loss of the anterior protolophule, mesolophs, and mesolophids. PMID:25389967

López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Álvarez-Sierra, Ángeles

2014-01-01

342

Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

2013-12-01

343

A comparative survey of the mast cells of the mammalian brain.  

PubMed Central

A search for mast cells has been made in the brains of 18 mammalian species in 13 families in the orders Insectivora, Primates, Rodentia and Carnivora. In the larger animals, only the diencephalon and olfactory bulbs were examined. Mast cells were identified by virtue of their heparin-containing granules, which are stained by Alcian blue 8GX and, metachromatically, by toluidine blue 0. Within the cerebral parenchyma, mast cells were confined to the dorsal diencephalon of Erinaceus europaeus (hedgehog), Tupaia glis (tree-shrew) and Nycticebus coucang (slow loris). Some cells were next to capillaries; others were not. Mast cells were sometimes found, though rarely, in the intracerebral perivascular connective tissue leptomeninges and choroid plexuses of some of the other species examined. It is concluded that pericapillary cells (pericytes), which have been called mast cells by some investigators, are not in fact mast cells since there is no evidence for the presence of heparin. The functions of mast cells in the brain are unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:819404

Kiernan, J A

1976-01-01

344

[Spontaneous infection of marmoset-monkeys (Sanguinus oedipus) with a Trypanosoma cruzi-like-strain, Springer 1975. Isolation and identification (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A Trypanosoma cruzi-like strain was isolated from marmoset monkeys originating from Columbia. The frequency of affected monkeys was up to 32.7%. The parasite density was 10-40 trypomastigote forms per mililiter. Monkeys, rats, mice and other small Rodentia were found to be susceptible. Clinical symptoms or histopathological findings could not be acertained with these trypanosomes even after a 2 1/2 year observation period. The strain behaved as an apathogen in experimental animals. The parasitaemia in animals was sparse (1-10 trypanosomes/ml) and without any conspicuous periodic fluctuations. Trypanosomes could be detected microscopically up to 2 1/2 years after infection in the blood of infected animals. With a positive blood finding, the blood passage could be carried out in animals with regularity. The serum from infected reacted positively in Chagas Latex test as well as in Chagas CFT. The trypomastigote forms injected into cultures of human embryonal thyroid gland and in cells of other origin, showed higher or lower multiplication with a marked cytopathogenic effect between the 9th and 11th day post infection, depending on the type of tissue culture. There was a cyclical development in Rhodnius prolixus or Triatoma infestans. The so-called metacyclic or trypomastigote forms from the faeces of Reduviidae or from tissue culture could again infect animals. PMID:416623

Werner, H; Springer, D; Köhler, H

1977-12-01

345

Characterization of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) papillomavirus genome.  

PubMed

The papillomaviruses comprise a large group of viruses that cause proliferations of the stratified squamous epithelium of skin and mucosa in a variety of animals. An earlier report identified a novel papillomavirus of the North American beaver, Castor canadensis (CcanPV1) that was associated with cutaneous exophytic lesions. In the current study, we determined the sequence of the complete 7435 basepair genome of CcanPV1. The genome contains an Upstream Regulatory Region located between the end of L1 and the start of E6, and seven canonical papillomavirus open reading frames encoding five early (E6, E7, E1, E2, and E4) and two late (L2 and L1) proteins. No E5 open reading frame was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the CcanPV1 genome places the virus between the genera Kappapapillomavirus and Mupapillomavirus. Analyses of the papillomavirus genomes detected in different species of the order Rodentia indicate these viruses do not form a monophyletic clade. PMID:24309404

Rogovskyy, Artem S; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert D; Bankhead, Troy

2014-01-10

346

A comparative survey of the mast cells of the mammalian brain.  

PubMed

A search for mast cells has been made in the brains of 18 mammalian species in 13 families in the orders Insectivora, Primates, Rodentia and Carnivora. In the larger animals, only the diencephalon and olfactory bulbs were examined. Mast cells were identified by virtue of their heparin-containing granules, which are stained by Alcian blue 8GX and, metachromatically, by toluidine blue 0. Within the cerebral parenchyma, mast cells were confined to the dorsal diencephalon of Erinaceus europaeus (hedgehog), Tupaia glis (tree-shrew) and Nycticebus coucang (slow loris). Some cells were next to capillaries; others were not. Mast cells were sometimes found, though rarely, in the intracerebral perivascular connective tissue leptomeninges and choroid plexuses of some of the other species examined. It is concluded that pericapillary cells (pericytes), which have been called mast cells by some investigators, are not in fact mast cells since there is no evidence for the presence of heparin. The functions of mast cells in the brain are unknown. PMID:819404

Kiernan, J A

1976-04-01

347

DNA-based and geometric morphometric analysis to validate species designation: a case study of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys bicolor.  

PubMed

The genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) shows several taxonomic inconsistencies. In this study, we used an integrative approach including DNA sequences, karyotypes, and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the taxonomic validity of a nominal species, Ctenomys bicolor, which was described based on only one specimen in 1912 by Miranda Ribeiro, and since then neglected. We sampled near the type locality assigned to this species and collected 10 specimens. A total of 820 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene were sequenced and analyzed together with nine other species and four morphotypes obtained from GenBank. Bayesian analyses showed that C. bicolor is monophyletic and related to the Bolivian-Matogrossense group, a clade that originated about 3 mya. We compared the cranial shape through morphometric geometrics of C. bicolor, including the specimen originally sampled in 1912, with other species representative of the same phylogenetic group (C. boliviensis and C. steinbachi). C. bicolor shows unique skull traits that distinguish it from all other currently known taxa. Our findings confirm that the specimen collected by Miranda Ribeiro is a valid species, and improve the knowledge about Ctenomys in the Amazon region. PMID:24301764

Stolz, J F B; Gonçalves, G L; Leipnitz, L; Freitas, T R O

2013-01-01

348

Evolutionary Insights from a Genetically Divergent Hantavirus Harbored by the European Common Mole (Talpa europaea)  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) from widely separated geographic regions challenges the hypothesis that rodents (Order Rodentia, Family Muridae and Cricetidae) are the primordial reservoir hosts of hantaviruses and also predicts that other soricomorphs harbor hantaviruses. Recently, novel hantavirus genomes have been detected in moles of the Family Talpidae, including the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides) and American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii). We present new insights into the evolutionary history of hantaviruses gained from a highly divergent hantavirus, designated Nova virus (NVAV), identified in the European common mole (Talpa europaea) captured in Hungary. Methodology/Principal Findings Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the full-length S- and L-genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity of 54–65% and 46–63% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, between NVAV and representative rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. Despite the high degree of sequence divergence, the predicted secondary structure of the NVAV nucleocapsid protein exhibited the characteristic coiled-coil domains at the amino-terminal end, and the L-segment motifs, typically found in hantaviruses, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV formed a distinct clade that was evolutionarily distant from all other hantaviruses. Conclusions Newly identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles support long-standing virus-host relationships and suggest that ancestral soricomorphs, rather than rodents, may have been the early or original mammalian hosts. PMID:19582155

Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Hope, Andrew G.; Mocz, Gabor; Song, Jin-Won; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

2009-01-01

349

Fur mites of the family Listrophoridae (Acariformes: Sarcoptoidea) associated with South American sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae).  

PubMed

Six species of 3 genera belonging to the fur mite family Listrophoridae were recorded on skins of South American rodents of the cricetid subfamily Sigmodontinae housed in the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology (Munich, Germany). Among them, Amlistrophorus geoxus sp. nov. from Geoxus valdivianus from Chile is described as a new for science, and males of Prolistrophorus amazonicus amazonicus Fain, 1971 are recorded for the first time. The full generic status for the subgenus Amlistrophorus of the genus Prolistrophorus proposed by Fain et al. (1996) is not supported, and Prolistrophorus musculinus Fain, 1973 stat. nov. (formerly a subspecies of P. amazonicus) from Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Suriname is raised to species status. New hosts are recorded for the following species: Prolistrophorus argentinus (Hirst, 1921) from Holochilus brasiliensis and H. chacarius from Argentina, P. amazonicus from Calomys callosus from Argentina and Bolivia, C. laucha and C. musculinus from Argentina, P. akodon Fain and Lukoschus, 1982 from Akodon montensis from Argentina, P. nectomys Fain, 1971 from Nectomys palmipes from Peru and Melanomys caliginosus from Panama, and Sclerolistrophorus oxymycteris Fain, 1976 from Oryzomys laticeps from Brazil. PMID:23129199

Sikora, Bo?ena; Bochkov, Andre V

2012-12-01

350

Reproductive delays in mammals: an unexplored avenue for post-copulatory sexual selection.  

PubMed

Numerous mammalian taxa exhibit reproductive delays, pauses in reproduction that occur between mating and fertilization, between fertilization and implantation of the embryo, or after an embryo has implanted. Of the 27 mammalian orders, 9 are known to exhibit reproductive delays, including Diptrotodontia, Dasyuromorphia, Eulipotyphyta, Cingulata, Carnivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha and Cetartiodactyla. Most researchers interested in delays have focused on their evolutionary origins. However, the consequences of these delays have not been considered fully. Given the lengthening of the period over which reproduction occurs, it is possible that this unique aspect of reproduction facilitates post-copulatory sexual selection. When considered in the context of sexual selection, delays may allow sperm competition and female manipulation of fertilization (cryptic female choice) as well as other post-copulatory processes. We investigate the potential for reproductive delays to facilitate post-copulatory sexual selection and suggest avenues for research that may further our knowledge of sexual selection. We also provide a general review of reproductive delays in mammals. PMID:24517909

Orr, Teri J; Zuk, Marlene

2014-11-01

351

Evolution of genome organizations of squirrels (Sciuridae) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.  

PubMed

With complete sets of chromosome-specific painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human and grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), the whole genome homologies between human and representatives of tree squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, Callosciurus erythraeus), flying squirrels (Petaurista albiventer) and chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) have been defined by cross-species chromosome painting. The results show that, unlike the highly rearranged karyotypes of mouse and rat, the karyotypes of squirrels are highly conserved. Two methods have been used to reconstruct the genome phylogeny of squirrels with the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as the out-group: (1) phylogenetic analysis by parsimony using chromosomal characters identified by comparative cytogenetic approaches; (2) mapping the genome rearrangements onto recently published sequence-based molecular trees. Our chromosome painting results, in combination with molecular data, show that flying squirrels are phylogenetically close to New World tree squirrels. Chromosome painting and G-banding comparisons place chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus ), with a derived karyotype, outside the clade comprising tree and flying squirrels. The superorder Glires (orde Rodentia + order Lagomorpha) is firmly supported by two conserved syntenic associations between human chromosomes 1 and 10p homologues, and between 9 and 11 homologues. PMID:15241012

Li, Tangliang; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Biltueva, Larisa; Fu, Beiyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Nie, Wenhui; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

2004-01-01

352

The "five-sites" rule and the evolution of red and green color vision in mammals.  

PubMed

Amino acid changes S180A (S-->A at site 180), H197Y, Y277F, T285A, and A308S are known to shift the maximum wavelength of absorption (lambda max) of red and green visual pigments toward blue, essentially in an additive fashion. To test the generality of this "five-sites" rule, we have determined the partial amino acid sequences of red and green pigments from five mammalian orders (Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Rodentia). The result suggests that cat (Felis catus), dog (Canis familiaris), and goat (Capra hircus) pigments all with AHYTA at the five critical sites have lambda max values of approximately 530 nm, whereas rat (Rattus norvegicus) pigment with AYYTS has a lambda max value of approximately 510 nm, which is accurately predicted by the five-sites rule. However, the observed lambda max values of the orthologous pigments of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and guinea pig (Cavia procellus) are consistently more than 10 nm higher than the predicted values, suggesting the existence of additional molecular mechanisms for red and green color vision. The inferred amino acid sequences of ancestral organisms suggest that the extant mammalian red and green pigments appear to have evolved from a single ancestral green-red hybrid pigment by directed amino acid substitutions. PMID:9580985

Yokoyama, S; Radlwimmer, F B

1998-05-01

353

Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area. PMID:24838257

Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

2014-09-01

354

Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate  

PubMed Central

Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

2011-01-01

355

Inferring host specificity and network formation through agent-based models: tick-mammal interactions in Borneo.  

PubMed

Patterns of host-parasite association are poorly understood in tropical forests. While we typically observe only snapshots of the diverse assemblages and interactions under variable conditions, there is a desire to make inferences about prevalence and host-specificity patterns. We studied the interaction of ticks with non-volant small mammals in forests of Borneo. We inferred the probability of species interactions from individual-level data in a multi-level Bayesian model that incorporated environmental covariates and advanced estimates for rarely observed species through model averaging. We estimated the likelihood of observing particular interaction frequencies under field conditions and a scenario of exhaustive sampling and examined the consequences for inferring host specificity. We recorded a total of 13 different tick species belonging to the five genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus from a total of 37 different host species (Rodentia, Scandentia, Carnivora, Soricidae) on 237 out of 1,444 host individuals. Infestation probabilities revealed most variation across host species but less variation across tick species with three common rat and two tree shrew species being most heavily infested. Host species identity explained ca. 75 % of the variation in infestation probability and another 8-10 % was explained by local host abundance. Host traits and site-specific attributes had little explanatory power. Host specificity was estimated to be similarly low for all tick species, which were all likely to infest 34-37 host species if exhaustively sampled. By taking into consideration the hierarchical organization of individual interactions that may take place under variable conditions and that shape host-parasite networks, we can discern uncertainty and sampling bias from true interaction frequencies, whereas network attributes derived from observed values may lead to highly misleading results. Multi-level approaches may help to move this field towards inferential approaches for understanding mechanisms that shape the strength and dynamics in ecological networks. PMID:23108423

Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Pfeiffer, Martin; Lakim, Maklarin B; Petney, Trevor N; Durden, Lance A

2013-06-01

356

Evolution of C, D and S-Type Cystatins in Mammals: An Extensive Gene Duplication in Primates  

PubMed Central

Cystatins are a family of inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that comprises the salivary cystatins (D and S-type cystatins) and cystatin C. These cystatins are encoded by a multigene family (CST3, CST5, CST4, CST1 and CST2) organized in tandem in the human genome. Their presence and functional importance in human saliva has been reported, however the distribution of these proteins in other mammals is still unclear. Here, we performed a proteomic analysis of the saliva of several mammals and studied the evolution of this multigene family. The proteomic analysis detected S-type cystatins (S, SA, and SN) in human saliva and cystatin D in rat saliva. The evolutionary analysis showed that the cystatin C encoding gene is present in species of the most representative mammalian groups, i.e. Artiodactyla, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Primates. On the other hand, D and S-type cystatins are mainly retrieved from Primates, and especially the evolution of S-type cystatins seems to be a dynamic process as seen in Pongo abelii genome where several copies of CST1-like gene (cystatin SN) were found. In Rodents, a group of cystatins previously identified as D and S has also evolved. Despite the high divergence of the amino acid sequence, their position in the phylogenetic tree and their genome organization suggests a common origin with those of the Primates. These results suggest that the D and S type cystatins have emerged before the mammalian radiation and were retained only in Primates and Rodents. Although the mechanisms driving the evolution of cystatins are unknown, it seems to be a dynamic process with several gene duplications evolving according to the birth-and-death model of evolution. The factors that led to the appearance of a group of saliva-specific cystatins in Primates and its rapid evolution remain undetermined, but may be associated with an adaptive advantage. PMID:25329717

de Sousa-Pereira, Patricia; Abrantes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ana; Colaco, Bruno; Vitorino, Rui; Esteves, Pedro J.

2014-01-01

357

Threat Diversity Will Erode Mammalian Phylogenetic Diversity in the Near Future  

PubMed Central

To reduce the accelerating rate of phylogenetic diversity loss, many studies have searched for mechanisms that could explain why certain species are at risk, whereas others are not. In particular, it has been demonstrated that species might be affected by both extrinsic threat factors as well as intrinsic biological traits that could render a species more sensitive to extinction; here, we focus on extrinsic factors. Recently, the International Union for Conservation of Nature developed a new classification of threat types, including climate change, urbanization, pollution, agriculture and aquaculture, and harvesting/hunting. We have used this new classification to analyze two main factors that could explain the expected future loss of mammalian phylogenetic diversity: 1. differences in the type of threats that affect mammals and 2. differences in the number of major threats that accumulate for a single species. Our results showed that Cetartiodactyla, Diprotodontia, Monotremata, Perissodactyla, Primates, and Proboscidea could lose a high proportion of their current phylogenetic diversity in the coming decades. In contrast, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, and Rodentia could lose less phylogenetic diversity than expected if extinctions were random. Some mammalian clades, including Marsupiala, Chiroptera, and a subclade of Primates, are affected by particular threat types, most likely due solely to their geographic locations and associations with particular habitats. However, regardless of the geography, habitat, and taxon considered, it is not the threat type, but the threat diversity that determines the extinction risk for species and clades. Thus, some mammals might be randomly located in areas subjected to a large diversity of threats; they might also accumulate detrimental traits that render them sensitive to different threats, which is a characteristic that could be associated with large body size. Any action reducing threat diversity is expected to have a significant impact on future mammalian phylogeny. PMID:23029443

Jono, Clementine M. A.; Pavoine, Sandrine

2012-01-01

358

Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.  

PubMed

The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals) peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas) reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha), high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha), or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia). Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern. PMID:24492316

Rolland, Jonathan; Condamine, Fabien L; Jiguet, Frederic; Morlon, Hélène

2014-01-01

359

A survey of hemoparasite infections in free-ranging mammals and reptiles in French Guiana.  

PubMed

Blood smears of 1,353 free-ranging mammals (35 species) and 112 reptiles (31 species) from French Guiana were examined for hemoparasites. Parasites from 3 major groups were recorded: Apicomplexa (including hemogregarines, piroplasms, and Plasmodium spp.), Trypanosomatidae, and Filaroidea. Fifty percent of the individuals (86% of the species) were infected by parasites from at least 1 group. Hemogregarines, identified as Hepatozoon sp., infected numerous snakes with high prevalences (30-100%); infection is reported for the first time in 5 host genera of snakes: Clelia, Oxybelis, Pseustes, Rhinobotryum, and Bothriopsis. Infections were also observed in 4 marsupial species and 1 rodent. Hepatozoon spp. recorded in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia) and Coendou prehensilis (Rodentia) may be new species. Plasmodium sp. were observed in 2 snake species, Dipsas indica (Colubridae) and Bothrops atrox (Viperidae). Plasmodium brasilianum was recorded in all 5 primate species examined. Piroplasms were observed in all mammal orders except primates. Large terrestrial rodents were the main hosts of members of the Babesidae; 42% of Myoprocta acouchy, 36% of Dasyprocta agouti, and 44% of Agouti paca were infected. Trypanosomes were common in mammals and were recorded in 70% of the examined genera. Trypanosoma cruzi-like infections were reported in 21 mammal species, including sloths, rodents, carnivores, and primates. Microfilariae were also widespread, with higher prevalences in sloths, anteaters, and porcupines (>40% of the individuals infected) and in tamarins (95% infected). This survey highlights some potential anthropozoonotic risks due to the recent further evidence of Plasmodium brasilianum and P. malariae as a single species and to the increased diversity of hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi. PMID:11128476

de Thoisy, B; Michel, J C; Vogel, I; Vié, J C

2000-10-01

360

Genotoxicity biomonitoring in regions exposed to vehicle emissions using the comet assay and the micronucleus test in native rodent Ctenomys minutus.  

PubMed

Exposure to motor vehicle emissions represents an important concern for possible long-term health effects. The present report describes: 1) the application and verification of the alkaline comet assay in Ctenomys minutus to detect the possible genotoxicity of automobile emissions; 2) a comparison of the comet assay results with peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay results performed in the same animals; and 3) the identification of agents involved in the responses and in the seasonal variation of the effects. Ctenomys minutus (Octodontidae-Rodentia) were captured in two different fields from both sides of RS/030, a highway on the coastal plain of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Reference animals were obtained from a nearby field that was about 3 km distant from any road. By the end of this study, 123 rodents (73 females and 50 males) were live-trapped. Our results indicate that there was an increase in cells with DNA damage for C. minutus environmentally exposed to automobile emissions, as demonstrated by the alkaline comet assay, but there was no increase in micronucleated cells. The alkaline comet assay showed age and gender differences in the response. The comet assay results suggest that adult females are the principal population affected by air pollutants from vehicle emissions. Chemical data were also collected from areas exposed to automobile exhaust and these indicated that elevated levels of hydrocarbons, metals, and NO(2) were associated with the elevated levels of damaged cells observed in the wild rodent C. minutus. Our results agree with previous data on engine and fuel components, where weak increases in damage for native rodents exposed to emissions have been observed. Other larger, controlled studies are needed to better understand how the metabolism of C. minutus affects its response to emission exposure. PMID:12489112

Heuser, Vanina D; da Silva, Juliana; Moriske, Heinz-Jörn; Dias, Johnny F; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia; de Freitas, Thales R O

2002-01-01

361

Evidence for rodent-common and species-typical limb and digit use in eating, derived from a comparative analysis of ten rodent species.  

PubMed

Order Rodentia comprises a vast portion of mammalian species (1814 species), which occupy extremely diverse habitats requiring very distinct motor specializations (e.g. burrowing, hopping, climbing, flying and swimming). Although early classification of paw use ability suggests rodents are impoverished relative to primates and make little use of their paws, there have been no systematic investigations of paw use in rodents. The present study was undertaken to describe limb/paw movements in a variety of common rodents. The movements used for handling sunflower seeds and other foods were videorecorded and analyzed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), laboratory mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonni), prairie dog (Cynomus parvidens), and Canadian beaver (Castor americanus). The results suggested five order-common movements of food handling: (1) locating food by sniffing, (2) grasping food by mouth, (3) sitting back on the haunches to eat, (4) grasping the food using an elbow-in movement, and (5) manipulate the food with the digits. Different species displayed species-typical specializations including (1) bilateral grasping with the paws (gerbil), (2) unilateral grasping with a paw (beaver), (3) unilateral holding (ground squirrels), (4) various grip and digit postures (all species), (5) unilateral object removal from the mouth (gerbil), (6) bilateral thumb holding (squirrels), and (7) simultaneous holding/manipulation of two objects (squirrels). Only the guinea pig did not handle food with its paws, suggesting its behavior is regressive. The existence of a core pattern of paw and digit use in rodents suggests that skilled limb and paw movements originate at least with the common ancestors of the rodent, and likely the common ancestor to rodent and primate lineages, while species-typical movements suggest specialization/regression of limb use has occurred in a number of mammalian orders. PMID:9821545

Whishaw, I Q; Sarna, J R; Pellis, S M

1998-11-01

362

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.  

PubMed

The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

2013-12-01

363

Development of Rapidly Evolving Intron Markers to Estimate Multilocus Species Trees of Rodents  

PubMed Central

One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related species, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and species tree approaches. Rodent species represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent species belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of species and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister species the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different species of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability. PMID:24804779

Rodriguez-Prieto, Ana; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose

2014-01-01

364

Adaptive evolution of the matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein in mammals  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) belongs to a family of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) that play a key role in skeleton development, particularly in mineralization, phosphate regulation and osteogenesis. MEPE associated disorders cause various physiological effects, such as loss of bone mass, tumors and disruption of renal function (hypophosphatemia). The study of this developmental gene from an evolutionary perspective could provide valuable insights on the adaptive diversification of morphological phenotypes in vertebrates. Results Here we studied the adaptive evolution of the MEPE gene in 26 Eutherian mammals and three birds. The comparative genomic analyses revealed a high degree of evolutionary conservation of some coding and non-coding regions of the MEPE gene across mammals indicating a possible regulatory or functional role likely related with mineralization and/or phosphate regulation. However, the majority of the coding region had a fast evolutionary rate, particularly within the largest exon (1467 bp). Rodentia and Scandentia had distinct substitution rates with an increased accumulation of both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations compared with other mammalian lineages. Characteristics of the gene (e.g. biochemical, evolutionary rate, and intronic conservation) differed greatly among lineages of the eight mammalian orders. We identified 20 sites with significant positive selection signatures (codon and protein level) outside the main regulatory motifs (dentonin and ASARM) suggestive of an adaptive role. Conversely, we find three sites under selection in the signal peptide and one in the ASARM motif that were supported by at least one selection model. The MEPE protein tends to accumulate amino acids promoting disorder and potential phosphorylation targets. Conclusion MEPE shows a high number of selection signatures, revealing the crucial role of positive selection in the evolution of this SIBLING member. The selection signatures were found mainly outside the functional motifs, reinforcing the idea that other regions outside the dentonin and the ASARM might be crucial for the function of the protein and future studies should be undertaken to understand its importance. PMID:22103247

2011-01-01

365

Coalescent-Based Genome Analyses Resolve the Early Branches of the Euarchontoglires  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous large-scale phylogenomic studies, certain parts of the mammalian tree are extraordinarily difficult to resolve. We used the coding regions from 19 completely sequenced genomes to study the relationships within the super-clade Euarchontoglires (Primates, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Dermoptera and Scandentia) because the placement of Scandentia within this clade is controversial. The difficulty in resolving this issue is due to the short time spans between the early divergences of Euarchontoglires, which may cause incongruent gene trees. The conflict in the data can be depicted by network analyses and the contentious relationships are best reconstructed by coalescent-based analyses. This method is expected to be superior to analyses of concatenated data in reconstructing a species tree from numerous gene trees. The total concatenated dataset used to study the relationships in this group comprises 5,875 protein-coding genes (9,799,170 nucleotides) from all orders except Dermoptera (flying lemurs). Reconstruction of the species tree from 1,006 gene trees using coalescent models placed Scandentia as sister group to the primates, which is in agreement with maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequence data. Additionally, both analytical approaches favoured the Tarsier to be sister taxon to Anthropoidea, thus belonging to the Haplorrhine clade. When divergence times are short such as in radiations over periods of a few million years, even genome scale analyses struggle to resolve phylogenetic relationships. On these short branches processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization occur and make it preferable to base phylogenomic analyses on coalescent methods. PMID:23560065

Kumar, Vikas; Hallström, Björn M.; Janke, Axel

2013-01-01

366

Small mammal survival and trapability in mark-recapture monitoring programs for hantavirus.  

PubMed

Following the 1993 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) epidemic in the south-western United States, mammalogists and epidemiologists instituted long-term studies to monitor population density and prevalence of infection in rodents which constitute the reservoir for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In this study, field techniques used in sampling small mammals for SNV infection were evaluated to determine if trapping and handling protocols were having significant effects on future trapability or mortality of animals. We compared rodent mark-recapture control plots, on which all rodents were simply measured, marked, and released on site, with experimental plots on which all animals were anesthetized with methoxyflurane, sampled for blood and saliva, measured, marked, and released. Blood samples were obtained from anesthetized animals on the experimental plots via a retro-orbital sinus puncture using a heparinized capillary tube. Dacron tipped oral swabs were used to collect buccal cells and saliva from the rodent's oral cavity. Field data were collected monthly from August 1994 to August 1996 at two sites in New Mexico (USA). Analyses were based on 3,661 captures of 1,513 individuals representing 21 species from three rodent families (Rodentia: Muridae, Heteromyidae, Sciuridae) and two species of rabbits (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). Overall, for most murid rodents (including five Peromyscus spp., Neotoma albigula, and Onychomys leucogaster) and one rabbit species (Sylvilagus floridanus), the handling/bleeding procedures had no significant effects on recapture rates or mortality. In contrast, several species of heteromyids (Dipodomys ordii and Perognathus flavus), one murid (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and one leporid (S. auduboni) suffered higher mortality rates, and heteromyid kangaroo rats (D. ordii and D. merriami) exhibited lower trapability as a result of the anesthesia and sampling procedures. In view of the overall non-significant influence of the sampling procedures on murid rodents, the anesthesia and blood/saliva sampling protocols described herein appear to be appropriate for hantavirus research, and may serve as a model for environmental monitoring of other zoonotic agents and their reservoirs. PMID:9476220

Parmenter, C A; Yates, T L; Parmenter, R R; Mills, J N; Childs, J E; Campbell, M L; Dunnum, J L; Milner, J

1998-01-01

367

Light Perception in Two Strictly Subterranean Rodents: Life in the Dark or Blue?  

PubMed Central

Background The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) are strictly subterranean, congenitally microphthalmic rodents that are hardly ever exposed to environmental light. Because of the lack of an overt behavioural reaction to light, they have long been considered to be blind. However, recent anatomical studies have suggested retention of basic visual capabilities. In this study, we employed behavioural tests to find out if two mole-rat species are able to discriminate between light and dark, if they are able to discriminate colours and, finally, if the presence of light in burrows provokes plugging behaviour, which is assumed to have a primarily anti-predatory function. Methodology/Principal Finding We used a binary choice test to show that the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii exhibit a clear photoavoidance response to full-spectrum (“white”), blue and green-yellow light, but no significant reaction to ultraviolet or red light during nest building. The mole-rats thus retain dark/light discrimination capabilities and a capacity to perceive short to medium-wavelength light in the photopic range of intensities. These findings further suggest that the mole-rat S opsin has its absorption maximum in the violet/blue part of the spectrum. The assay did not yield conclusive evidence regarding colour discrimination. To test the putative role of vision in bathyergid anti-predatory behaviour, we examined the reaction of mole-rats to the incidence of light in an artificial burrow system. The presence of light in the burrow effectively induced plugging of the illuminated tunnel. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that the photopic vision is conserved and that low acuity residual vision plays an important role in predator avoidance and tunnel maintenance in the African mole-rats. PMID:20676369

Kott, Ondrej; Sumbera, Radim; Nemec, Pavel

2010-01-01

368

Thermal biology of the fossorial rodent Ctenomys fulvus from the Atacama desert, northern Chile.  

PubMed

The Andean tuco-tuco, Ctenomys fulvus (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) inhabits one of the most arid regions of the world, the Salar de Atacama, Northeast of Antofagasta, Chile (23 degrees 17'06"S, 68 degrees 05'43"W; 2.240 m.a.s.l). We found that a stable microclimate in burrows, a low evaporative water loss (EWL), and a diet of roots (59% water content) are the main factors that permit the survival of this fossorial species in harsh desert conditions. Large circadian variation in T(a) was observed above ground. Daily DeltaT(a) (T(a) max - T(a) min) = 37.9+/-0.2 degrees C in summer and in winter. In contrast, circadian variation of T(a) inside the burrows was only 5.8+/-0.5 degrees C in the same seasons. Relative humidity (RH) was 1.9-3.1% during the day, increasing to maximum values of 27% at night and early morning. Inside the burrows RH was higher and quite stable, ranging between 53.1 and 65%, independent of the time of day and season. EWL, measured between 10 and 25 degrees C, was low (1.26 mg/g h), and a moderate increase of 13-20% was observed at higher temperatures. The low EWL may prevent dehydration. However, because of the low heat loss capability, animals became hyperthermic (0.8-1.6 degrees C) in dry air at T(a)=30-35 degrees C. As T(a) during afternoon normally exceeded 35 degrees C, the microclimate of burrows provided the only way to avoid the lethal effects of hyperthermia. PMID:10880865

Cortés; Miranda; Rosenmann; Rau

2000-12-01

369

Spatial and Temporal Activity Patterns of the Free-Living Giant Mole-Rat (Fukomys mechowii), the Largest Social Bathyergid  

PubMed Central

Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia), knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest) 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels). Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males) contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions. PMID:23383166

Lovy, Matej; Skliba, Jan; Sumbera, Radim

2013-01-01

370

Bot fly parasitism (Rogenhofera bonaerensis) (Diptera, Cuterebridae) in the pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae), in Argentina.  

PubMed

Seasonality and impact of parasitism by the larvae of Rogenhofera bonaerensis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) in pampean grassland mouse (Akodon azarae, Rodentia, Cricetidae) populations were studied in grasslands and cropfield borders near Diego Gaynor (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina), from November 1985 to December 1986. Trapped mice infections ranged from one larva (77%) to four (4%) per host; larvae occurred on tails (75.7%), backs (17.1%), thighs (5.7%), and abdomen (1.4%). Prevalence of larvae occurred in late spring (November and December) (35%), and in fall (March to June) (20%), with a peak of 25% during April and May. In spring these larvae affected 46% of resident and 19% of transient individuals; however, no differences were found between residents and transients in spring or fall. There was no significant relationship between mouse population density and prevalence of parasitism (r = -0.56). The annual percentage of infected rodents changed with age (body size classes): adults (37%) greater than subadults (25%) greater than juveniles (16%); with no differences between the sexes. Similar results were recorded in the spring, but there were no differences in the fall. Significant differences were not detected between stable (22% infected) and disturbed habitats (14% infected). During winter uninfected mice survived better than those infected during the previous fall. In contrast, the summer survival among spring infected mice and noninfected mice was similar. Parasitism showed no effects on reproductive activity and on home range size. Larvae showed strong host specificity for A. azarae (99%). Only one case was recorded in the long-tailed mouse (Oligoryzomys flavescens), and none in the white paunch mouse (Calomys laucha), both species sympatric with A. azarae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2406466

Zuleta, G A; Vignau, M L

1990-01-01

371

Sporadic amplification of ID elements in rodents.  

PubMed

ID sequences are members of a short interspersed element (SINE) repetitive DNA family within the rodent genome. The copy number of individual ID elements varies by up to three orders of magnitude between species. This amplification has been highly sporadic in the order Rodentia and does not follow any phylogenetic trend. Using library screening and dot-blot analysis, we estimate there are 25,000 copies of ID elements in the deer mouse, 1,500 copies in the gerbil (both cricetid rodents), and 60,000 copies of either ID or ID-like elements in a sciurid rodent (squirrel). By dot-blot analysis, we estimate there are 150,000, 4,000, 1,000, and 200 copies of ID elements in the rat, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig, respectively (which is consistent with previous reports) and 200 copies in the hystricognath rodent, nutria. Therefore, a rapid amplification took place not only after the divergence of rat and mouse but also following the deer mouse (Peromyscus) and hamster split, with no evidence of increased amplifications in hystricognath rodents. No notable variations of sequences from the BC1 genes of several myomorphic rodents were observed that would possibly explain the varied levels of ID amplification. We did observe subgenera and species-group-specific variation in the ID core sequence of the BC1 gene within the genus Peromyscus. Sequence analysis of cloned ID elements in Peromyscus show most ID elements in this genus arose prior to Peromyscus subgenus divergence. Correspondence of the consensus sequence of individual ID elements in gerbil and deer mouse further confirms BC1 as a master gene in ID amplification. Several possible mechanisms responsible for the quantitative variations are explored. PMID:8576967

Kass, D H; Kim, J; Deininger, P L

1996-01-01

372

Next-Generation Sequencing for Rodent Barcoding: Species Identification from Fresh, Degraded and Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Rodentia is the most diverse order among mammals, with more than 2,000 species currently described. Most of the time, species assignation is so difficult based on morphological data solely that identifying rodents at the specific level corresponds to a real challenge. In this study, we compared the applicability of 100 bp mini-barcodes from cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes to enable rodent species identification. Based on GenBank sequence datasets of 115 rodent species, a 136 bp fragment of cytochrome b was selected as the most discriminatory mini-barcode, and rodent universal primers surrounding this fragment were designed. The efficacy of this new molecular tool was assessed on 946 samples including rodent tissues, feces, museum samples and feces/pellets from predators known to ingest rodents. Utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies able to sequence mixes of DNA, 1,140 amplicons were tagged, multiplexed and sequenced together in one single 454 GS-FLX run. Our method was initially validated on a reference sample set including 265 clearly identified rodent tissues, corresponding to 103 different species. Following validation, 85.6% of 555 rodent samples from Europe, Asia and Africa whose species identity was unknown were able to be identified using the BLASTN program and GenBank reference sequences. In addition, our method proved effective even on degraded rodent DNA samples: 91.8% and 75.9% of samples from feces and museum specimens respectively were correctly identified. Finally, we succeeded in determining the diet of 66.7% of the investigated carnivores from their feces and 81.8% of owls from their pellets. Non-rodent species were also identified, suggesting that our method is sensitive enough to investigate complete predator diets. This study demonstrates how this molecular identification method combined with high-throughput sequencing can open new realms of possibilities in achieving fast, accurate and inexpensive species identification. PMID:23144869

Galan, Maxime; Pages, Marie; Cosson, Jean-Francois

2012-01-01

373

The Late Pleistocene Duoi U'Oi cave in northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology, taphonomy and palaeoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes new fossil materials recovered at the Duoi U'Oi site, in December 2003, by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Duoi U'Oi cave is located in Man Duc village, 25 km of Hoà Binh city in northern Vietnam. It belongs to a karstic network developed in a dark grey micritic marine limestone dated from the Lower to the Middle Triassic. The sedimentary fill produced a rich mammalian fauna, essentially composed of isolated teeth of middle- to large-sized mammals (Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Rodentia, Primates), and characteristic of Late Pleistocene. The results of the Duoi U'Oi fieldwork are of great interest for the following reasons: (1) the biochronological age of the fauna is consistent with 230Th/ 234U/ 238U dating from the calcitic floors (66±3 ka). The Duoi U'Oi fauna is thus the oldest well-dated modern fauna known for the Southeast Asian mainland; (2) in terms of sedimentology, the analysis of the formation of the fossiliferous breccia and that of the processes of deposits shows a close relation between the karstic deposits inside the cave and the deposits in the alluvial terraces. The observation of three levels of alluvial terraces associated with three caves situated at 62, 10 and 3 m above the present alluvial plain suggests that exokarstic and endokarstic sediments evolved together; (3) in terms of palaeobiogeography, Duoi U'Oi is the continental fauna showing the strongest resemblance with the Late Pleistocene faunas from Indonesian islands (Punung, Gunung Dawung, Lida Ajer, Sibrambang and Djambu caves); this implies that, at the time of Duoi U'Oi, ca 70 ka, the Sundaland was mainly characterised by faunas of modern aspect; (4) the analysis of major taphonomic factors that led to the mammal assemblage reveals a combination of selective agents (selective role of predators and porcupines, selective destruction of age classes for some species, selective preservation of fossils due to the deposition processes in the karstic network), which contribute to the poor representation of the diversity of the fauna; no arguments show that humans, present at Duoi U'Oi, might have a possible role in the taphonomic process; (5) the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on the composition of the faunal assemblage suggests a forested area and some open habitats, under warm and humid conditions.

Bacon, Anne-Marie; Demeter, F.; Duringer, P.; Helm, C.; Bano, M.; Vu, The Long; Kim Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Antoine, P.-O.; Thi Mai, Bui; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Dodo, Y.; Chabaux, F.; Rihs, S.

2008-08-01

374

The diversity of class II transposable elements in mammalian genomes has arisen from ancestral phylogenetic splits during ancient waves of proliferation through the genome.  

PubMed

DNA transposons make up 3% of the human genome, approximately the same percentage as genes. However, because of their inactivity, they are often ignored in favor of the more abundant, active, retroelements. Despite this relative ignominy, there are a number of interesting questions to be asked of these transposon families. One particular question relates to the timing of proliferation and inactivation of elements in a family. Does an ongoing process of turnover occur, or is the process more akin to a life cycle for the family, with elements proliferating rapidly before deactivation at a later date? We answer this question by tracing back to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of each modern transposon family, using two different methods. The first method identifies the MRCA of the species in which a family of transposon fossils can still be found, which we assume will have existed soon after the true origin date of the transposon family. The second method uses molecular dating techniques to predict the age of the MRCA element from which all elements found in a modern genome are descended. Independent data from five pairs of species are used in the molecular dating analysis: human-chimpanzee, human-orangutan, dog-panda, dog-cat, and cow-pig. Orthologous pairs of elements from host species pairs are included, and the divergence dates of these species are used to constrain the analysis. We discover that, in general, the times to element common ancestry for a given family are the same for the different species pairs, suggesting that there has been no order-specific process of turnover. Furthermore, for most families, the ages of the common ancestor of the host species and of that of the elements are similar, suggesting a life cycle model for the proliferation of transposons. Where these two ages differ, in families found only in Primates and Rodentia, for example, we find that the host species date is later than that of the common ancestor of the elements, implying that there may be large deletions of elements from host species, examples of which were found in their ancestors. PMID:22923465

Hellen, Elizabeth H B; Brookfield, John F Y

2013-01-01

375

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed Central

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, Jose Rodrigues

2013-01-01

376

Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.  

PubMed

As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear to vary markedly between the different members, in other orders (e.g. Primates, Rodentia and Marsupialia) it fluctuated widely between the different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the subcellular distribution of AGT1 has changed radically on numerous occasions during the evolution of mammals. The new observations presented in this paper are compatible with our previous demonstration of a relationship between AGT1 subcellular distribution and either present or putative ancestral dietary habit, and our previous suggestion that the molecular evolution of the AGT gene has been markedly influenced by dietary selection pressure. PMID:7813517

Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

1994-08-01

377

The evolutionary radiation of Arvicolinae rodents (voles and lemmings): relative contribution of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial and nuclear genes have generally been employed for different purposes in molecular systematics, the former to resolve relationships within recently evolved groups and the latter to investigate phylogenies at a deeper level. In the case of rapid and recent evolutionary radiations, mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (CYB) are often inefficient for resolving phylogenetic relationships. One of the best examples is illustrated by Arvicolinae rodents (Rodentia; Muridae), the most impressive mammalian radiation of the Northern Hemisphere which produced voles, lemmings and muskrats. Here, we compare the relative contribution of a nuclear marker – the exon 10 of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene – to the one of the mitochondrial CYB for inferring phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of arvicoline rodents. Results The analysis of GHR sequences improves the overall resolution of the Arvicolinae phylogeny. Our results show that the Caucasian long-clawed vole (Prometheomys schaposnikowi) is one of the basalmost arvicolines, and confirm that true lemmings (Lemmus) and collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx) are not closely related as suggested by morphology. Red-backed voles (Myodini) are found as the sister-group of a clade encompassing water vole (Arvicola), snow vole (Chionomys), and meadow voles (Microtus and allies). Within the latter, no support is recovered for the generic recognition of Blanfordimys, Lasiopodomys, Neodon, and Phaiomys as suggested by morphology. Comparisons of parameter estimates for branch lengths, base composition, among sites rate heterogeneity, and GTR relative substitution rates indicate that CYB sequences consistently exhibit more heterogeneity among codon positions than GHR. By analyzing the contribution of each codon position to node resolution, we show that the apparent higher efficiency of GHR is due to their third positions. Although we focus on speciation events spanning the last 10 million years (Myr), CYB sequences display highly saturated codon positions contrary to the nuclear exon. Lastly, variable length bootstrap predicts a significant increase in resolution of arvicoline phylogeny through the sequencing of nuclear data in an order of magnitude three to five times greater than the size of GHR exon 10. Conclusion Our survey provides a first resolved gene tree for Arvicolinae. The comparison of CYB and GHR phylogenetic efficiency supports recent assertions that nuclear genes are useful for resolving relationships of recently evolved animals. The superiority of nuclear exons may reside both in (i) less heterogeneity among sites, and (ii) the presence of highly informative sites in third codon positions, that evolve rapidly enough to accumulate synapomorphies, but slow enough to avoid substitutional saturation. PMID:17029633

Galewski, Thomas; Tilak, Marie-ka; Sanchez, Sophie; Chevret, Pascale; Paradis, Emmanuel; Douzery, Emmanuel JP

2006-01-01

378

The discovery of central monoamine neurons gave volume transmission to the wired brain.  

PubMed

The dawn of chemical neuroanatomy in the CNS came with the discovery and mapping of the central dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons by means of transmitter histochemistry using the Falck-Hillarp formaldehyde fluorescence technique in the early 1960s. Our mapping of the central monoamine neurons was continued and further established with tyrosine hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in collaboration with Menek Goldstein and Tomas Hökfelt. During recent years an evolutionary constraint in the nuclear parcellation of the DA, NA and 5-HT neurons was demonstrated in the order Rodentia and other mammals. The abundant existence of global monoamine varicose nerve terminal networks synthesizing, storing and releasing monoamines in various parts of the CNS, including the release of DA by tubero-infundibular DA neurons as a prolactin inhibitory factor from the external layer of the median eminence into the portal vessels and the appearance of extraneuronal DA fluorescence after, e.g., treatment with amphetamine in nialamide pretreated rats (Falck-Hillarp technique) were also remarkable observations. These observations and others like the discovery of transmitter-receptor mismatches opened up the possibility that monoamines were modulating the wired brain, built up mainly by glutamate and GABA neurons, through diffusion and flow in the extracellular fluid of the extracellular space and in the CSF. This transmission also involved long-distance channels along myelinated fibers and blood vessels and was called volume transmission (VT). The extracellular space (ECS), filled with a 3D matrix, plays a fundamental role in this communication. Energy gradients for signal migration in the ECS are produced via concentration, temperature and pressure gradients, the latter two allowing a flow of the ECF and CSF carrying the VT signals. The differential properties of the wiring transmission (WT) and VT circuits and communication channels will be discussed as well as the role of neurosteroids and oxytocin receptors in volume transmission leading to a new understanding of the integrative actions of neuronal-glial networks. The role of tunneling nanotubes with mitochondrial transfer in CNS inter alia as part of neuron-glia interactions will also be introduced representing a novel type of wiring transmission. The impact of the technicolour approach to the connectome for the future characterization of the wired networks of the brain is emphasized. PMID:19853007

Fuxe, Kjell; Dahlström, Annica B; Jonsson, Gösta; Marcellino, Daniel; Guescini, Michele; Dam, Mauro; Manger, Paul; Agnati, Luigi

2010-02-01

379

The Diversity of Class II Transposable Elements in Mammalian Genomes Has Arisen from Ancestral Phylogenetic Splits during Ancient Waves of Proliferation through the Genome  

PubMed Central

DNA transposons make up 3% of the human genome, approximately the same percentage as genes. However, because of their inactivity, they are often ignored in favor of the more abundant, active, retroelements. Despite this relative ignominy, there are a number of interesting questions to be asked of these transposon families. One particular question relates to the timing of proliferation and inactivation of elements in a family. Does an ongoing process of turnover occur, or is the process more akin to a life cycle for the family, with elements proliferating rapidly before deactivation at a later date? We answer this question by tracing back to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of each modern transposon family, using two different methods. The first method identifies the MRCA of the species in which a family of transposon fossils can still be found, which we assume will have existed soon after the true origin date of the transposon family. The second method uses molecular dating techniques to predict the age of the MRCA element from which all elements found in a modern genome are descended. Independent data from five pairs of species are used in the molecular dating analysis: human–chimpanzee, human–orangutan, dog–panda, dog–cat, and cow–pig. Orthologous pairs of elements from host species pairs are included, and the divergence dates of these species are used to constrain the analysis. We discover that, in general, the times to element common ancestry for a given family are the same for the different species pairs, suggesting that there has been no order-specific process of turnover. Furthermore, for most families, the ages of the common ancestor of the host species and of that of the elements are similar, suggesting a life cycle model for the proliferation of transposons. Where these two ages differ, in families found only in Primates and Rodentia, for example, we find that the host species date is later than that of the common ancestor of the elements, implying that there may be large deletions of elements from host species, examples of which were found in their ancestors. PMID:22923465

Hellen, Elizabeth H.B.; Brookfield, John F.Y.

2013-01-01